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Sample records for green tea extracts

  1. Spectroscopic Study of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaves Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Suryanti, V.; Virgynia, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports the analysis of UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectra of different concentrations of green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf extract in two different solvent systems (chloroform and ethyl acetate). In those solvents, two different peaks characterizing green tea are observed at different wavelengths, namely 296 nm and 329 nm (extracted in chloroform) and 391 nm and 534 nm (extracted in ethyl acetate). We then investigated the absorption spectra change as function of green tea concentration in both solvents. We found that light absorption increases linearly with the increase of green tea concentration. Different wavelengths, however, respond this change differently. However, the way it changes is wavelength dependence.

  2. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

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    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  4. Microwave-assisted water extraction of green tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhili, Ezzohra; Tomao, Valerie; El Hajji, Hakima; El Boustani, Es-Seddik; Chemat, Farid; Dangles, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Green tea, a popular drink with beneficial health properties, is a rich source of specific flavanols (polyphenols). There is a special interest in the water extraction of green tea polyphenols since the composition of the corresponding extracts is expected to reflect the one of green tea infusions consumed worldwide. To develop a microwave-assisted water extraction (MWE) of green tea polyphenols. MWE of green tea polyphenols has been investigated as an alternative to water extraction under conventional heating (CWE). The experimental conditions were selected after consideration of both temperature and extraction time. The efficiency and selectivity of the process were determined in terms of extraction time, total phenolic content, chemical composition (HPLC-MS analysis) and antioxidant activity of the extracts. By MWE (80 degrees C, 30 min), the flavanol content of the extract reached 97.46 (+/- 0.08) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract, vs. only 83.06 (+/- 0.08) by CWE (80 degrees C, 45 min). In particular, the concentration of the most bioactive flavanol EGCG was 77.14 (+/- 0.26) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract obtained by MWE, vs 64.18 (+/- 0.26) mg/g by CWE. MWE appears more efficient than CWE at both 80 and 100 degrees C, particularly for the extraction of flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Although MWE at 100 degrees C typically affords higher yields in total phenols, MWE at 80 degrees C appears more convenient for the extraction of the green tea-specific and chemically sensitive flavanols.

  5. Effect of extraction methods on the chemical components and taste quality of green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Ji, Wei-Bin; Yu, Peigen; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2018-05-15

    The physicochemical properties of tea extracts are significantly affected by the extraction method. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic extractions on the concentrations of chemical components and taste quality of green tea extracts. Our results show that extraction of chemical components using static extraction follows a pseudo-second-order reaction, while that of dynamic extraction follows a first-order reaction. The concentrations of the solids, polyphenols, and free amino acids in green tea extract prepared by dynamic extraction were much higher, although the overall yields were not significantly different between the two extraction methods. Green tea extracts obtained via dynamic extraction were of lower bitterness and astringency, as well and higher intensities of umami and overall acceptability. These results suggest that dynamic extraction is more suitable for the processing of green tea concentrate because of the higher concentration of green tea extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes. TI Mbata, LU Debiao, A Saikia. Abstract. The antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis on Listeria monocytogenes were investigated using agar-gel diffusion, paper disk ...

  7. Antioxidative and Antimelanoma Effects of Various Tea Extracts via a Green Extraction Method

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    Yihui Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis contains high level of antioxidant elements and is a well-known beverage consumed worldwide. The purpose of this study is to compare different concentrations of green tea, black tea, oolong tea 861, oolong tea 732, and jasmine green tea. These five types of tea extracts were known to have antioxidative properties, reducing power, and metal ion chelating activity. The current study compared these five extracts in terms of their inhibiting effects on human malignant melanoma: A2058 and A375. To determine the cell viability between normal cell and malignant melanoma cells, an MTT assay was applied to evaluate the cytotoxic potential on human melanoma cells, with all tea extracts showing decreased cell viability with increasing tea extract concentrations. Cytotoxicity on HaCat (normal skin cells showed no effect on the cell viabilities at lower concentrations of the tea extracts. These results suggest the antioxidative effect of five tea extracts that protect against oxidation and melanoma production, with green tea and jasmine green tea showing the lowest cell viability when tested against malignant melanoma cells.

  8. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-28

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature's nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts.

  9. Review and perspective on the composition and safety of green tea extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growing body of evidence regarding the putative health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis), including reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, has led to an increase in the consumption of brewed green tea and the formulation of green tea extracts (GTE) into a variety of food and ...

  10. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokti, James A; Sham Baharin, Badlishah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Abas, Faridah

    2016-07-26

    Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and chitosan (CTS) and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%-88.04%, 19.32-24.90 (g GAE/100 g), and 29.52%-38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%-5.11%, 0.28-0.36, 3.22%-4.71%, 0.22-0.28 g/cm³ and 40.43-225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was determined as 142.00%-188.63% and 207.55%-231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05) under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35-60, 34-65 and 231-288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  11. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Zokti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD, gum arabic (GA and chitosan (CTS and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%–88.04%, 19.32–24.90 (g GAE/100 g, and 29.52%–38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%–5.11%, 0.28–0.36, 3.22%–4.71%, 0.22–0.28 g/cm3 and 40.43–225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF was determined as 142.00%–188.63% and 207.55%–231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05 under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35–60, 34–65 and 231–288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  12. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300?mL water contains about 50?mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been ...

  13. Interaction mechanism between green tea extract and human α-amylase for reducing starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Huan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xingfeng

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of the green tea extract on human pancreatic α-amylase activity and its molecular mechanism. The green tea extract was composed of epicatechin (59.2%), epigallocatechin gallate (14.6%) and epicatechin gallate (26.2%) as determined by HPLC analysis. Enzyme activity measurement showed that % inhibition and IC50 of the green tea extract (10%, based on starch) were 63.5% and 2.07 mg/ml, respectively. The Michaelis-Menten constant remained unchanged but the maximal velocity decreased from 0.43 (control) to 0.07 mg/(ml × min) (4 mg/ml of the green tea extract), indicating that the green tea extract was an effective inhibitor against α-amylase with a non-competitive mode. The fluorescence data revealed that the green tea extract bound with α-amylase to form a new complex with static quenching mechanism. Docking study showed the epicatechin gallate in the green tea extract presented stronger affinity than epigallocatechin gallate, with more number of amino acid residues involved in amylase binding with hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces. Thus, the green tea extract could be used to manipulate starch digestion for potential health benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  15. Interaction between green tea extract and 99mTc-pertechnetate on in vivo distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burak Sabuncu; Fazilet Zumrut Biber Muftuler; Ayfer Yurt Kilcar; Betul Cekic; Eser Ucar; Perihan Unak

    2014-01-01

    People drink various types of tea without knowing the side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions. In current study, it is aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea extract in different extraction solvents on the radiolabeling of the blood constituents with 99m Tc and on the biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) in male Wistar Albino rats. The extraction of green tea was performed in different solvents. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with green tea extract in different extraction solvents or saline (0.9 % NaCl) as a control group for 7 days. The radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with SnCl 2 and 99m Tc. According to experimental results, radiolabeling blood components with 99m Tc were not modified in the usage of the different extraction solvents for green tea extraction, but a significant alteration (P 99m TcO 4 was observed after treatment with green tea extract in distilled water. Although there is no considerable effect on radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially with green tea extract in distilled water. The identified change monitored in this study may cause to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or avoid the repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine. (author)

  16. A non-targeted approach to chemical discrimination between green tea extract-based dietary supplements and green tea leaves by LC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green tea extract-based dietary supplements (GTDS) have gained in popularity in the U.S. market in recent years. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition of several GTDS in comparison to the composition of green tea leaves using a LC-MS fingerprinting technique coupled with chemometric an...

  17. Mast cell stabilizing and anti-anaphylactic activity of aqueous extract of green tea (Camellia sinensis

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    G. Balaji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (Camellia sinensis is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages in the world. In the current study, aqueous extract of green tea (C. sinensis was evaluated for mast cell stabilizing and anti-anaphylactic activities. Green tea extract (11, 13, 15 mg/ml significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited compound 48/80-induced rat mesentric mast cell degranulation in a dose dependent manner. Anti-anaphylactic activity of green tea extract was performed in female mice. At a dose of 400, 500, 600 mg/kg BW, green tea extract showed significant reduction in the mortality of mice subjected to anaphylactic shock by compound C48/80. Ketotifen was used for comparison. In addition, IR and UV–Visible spectroscopy analysis of green tea extract revealed the presence of functional groups of bioactive compounds. These results suggest that green tea could be useful in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis.

  18. Identification of Key Odorants in Withering-Flavored Green Tea by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in withering-flavored green tea. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of green tea and withering-flavored green tea revealed 25 and 35 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of≥4, respectively. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione were key odorants in green tea with the flavor dilution factor of≥16. As well as these 5 odorants, 1-octen-3-one, β-damascenone, geraniol, β-ionone, (Z)-methyljasmonate, indole and coumarine contributed to the withering flavor of green tea.

  19. Greener synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles using green tea extract and their magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karade, V. C.; Waifalkar, P. P.; Dongle, T. D.; Sahoo, Subasa C.; Kollu, P.; Patil, P. S.; Patil, P. B.

    2017-09-01

    The facile green synthesis method has been employed for the synthesis of biocompatible Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using green tea extract. The effective reduction of ferric ions (Fe3+) were done using an aqueous green tea extract where it acts as reducing as well as capping agent. The effect of iron precursor to green tea extract ratio and reaction temperature was studied. The MNPs were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometer. It was observed that the reaction temperature strongly affects the magnetic and structural properties of MNPs. The magnetic measurements study showed that Fe3O4 MNPs are superparamagnetic at 300 K, while at 60 K have ferromagnetic as well as superparamagnetic contributions.

  20. The Effect of Mercury Vapor and the Role of Green Tea Extract on Brain Cells

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    Dhona Afriza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a wellknown toxic metal that is capable to induce free radical-induced oxidative stress. It can cause human disease including brain disorders. Objective: To identify the effect of mercury vapor inhalation on brain cells and the role of green tea extract (Camellia sinensis as antioxidant on the brain cells exposed to mercury. Methods: Fourty-eight male Mus musculus were divided into 8 groups, which were given treatment for 3 and 6 weeks. Group A did not receive any treatment and served as a negative control. Group B was a positive control exposed to Mercury. Group C was exposed to Mercury and treated with 26μg/g green tea extract. Group D was exposed to mercury and treated with 52μg/g green tea extract. All animals in the Group B, C, D were exposed to mercury through inhalation for 4 hours daily. The effect of mercury on the brain cells were examined histopathologically. Results: The numbers of necrotic cells counted in the green tea-treated mice group were significantly lower than those untreated group (p<0,05. Conclusion: Mercury vapor inhalation may cause necrosis on brain cells. Administration of green tea extract as an antioxidant reduced the amount of mercury-induced necrotic brain cells in mice.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.151

  1. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Lee, H.J.; Byun, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract

  2. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, Jun Ho; Lee, Hyun Ja; Byun, Myung Woo

    2003-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract.

  3. Comparative assessment of antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extract of commercially available black, green, and lemon tea: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, S. Dodamani; Minal, M. Kshirsagar; Karibasappa, G. N.; Prashanth, V. K.; Girija, A. Dodamani; Harish, C. Jadhav

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine and compare antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extracts of black, green, and lemon tea of a commercially available brand. Materials and Methods: The well-diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of commercially available black tea, green tea, and lemon tea at three different concentrations (1.5 g, 5 g, and 7.5 g) against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. After incubation in appropriate culture med...

  4. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of phenolic antioxidants from green tea using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lan-Sook; Lee, Namhyouck; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Chang-Ho; Hong, Sang Pil; Jeon, Yeo-Won; Kim, Young-Eon

    2013-10-31

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 ° C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio of (EGCg + ECg)/EGC was identified a major factor contributing to the antioxidant activity of green tea extracts. In this study, ultrasonic extraction showed that the ethanol concentration and extraction time used for antioxidant extraction could be remarkably reduced without a decrease in antioxidant activity compared to the conventional extraction conditions.

  5. In Vitro Chemopreventive Properties of Green Tea, Rooibos and Honeybush Extracts in Skin Cells

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    Tandeka U. Magcwebeba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive properties of the herbal teas rooibos (Aspalathus linearis and honeybush (Cyclopia spp. have been demonstrated on mouse skin in vivo but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The aim of the current study was to determine the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of methanol and aqueous extracts of rooibos and two Cyclopia species in different skin cells, using green tea (Camellia sinensis as a benchmark. Extracts were also characterised for their major individual polyphenols by high performance liquid chromatography and spectroscopically for the total polyphenol (TP groups. The methanol extract of rooibos, containing higher levels of polyphenols than its aqueous extract, displayed similar activity to green tea as it selectively targeted premalignant cells by inhibiting cell proliferation at lower concentrations whilst inducing apoptosis via membrane depolarisation at higher concentrations. Specific roles of the major rooibos dihydrochalcones and flavanol/proanthocyanidin-type (FLAVA compounds are likely to be involved. The aqueous extracts of the Cyclopia species were more active against cell proliferation and at inducing apoptosis which was associated with a higher FLAVA content and a reduced TP/FLAVA ratio. In contrast, their methanol extracts exhibited a cytoprotective effect against apoptosis which was related to their monomeric xanthone and flavanone content. The underlying chemopreventive properties of green tea and the herbal teas appear to be associated with diverse and complex monomeric/polymeric polyphenolic cell interactions.

  6. Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles by various tea extracts: Comparative study of the reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanlan; Weng, Xiulan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-09-01

    Iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) are often synthesized using sodium borohydride with aggregation, which is a high cost process and environmentally toxic. To address these issues, Fe NPs were synthesized using green methods based on tea extracts, including green, oolong and black teas. The best method for degrading malachite green (MG) was Fe NPs synthesized by green tea extracts because it contains a high concentration of caffeine/polyphenols which act as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of Fe NPs. These characteristics were confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and specific surface area (BET). To understand the formation of Fe NPs using various tea extracts, the synthesized Fe NPs were characterized by SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). What emerged were different sizes and concentrations of Fe NPs being synthesized by tea extracts, leading to various degradations of MG. Furthermore, kinetics for the degradation of MG using these Fe NPs fitted well to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics model with more than 20 kJ/mol activation energy, suggesting a chemically diffusion-controlled reaction. The degradation mechanism using these Fe NPs included adsorption of MG to Fe NPs, oxidation of iron, and cleaving the bond that was connected to the benzene ring.

  7. Green tea extract-induced lethal toxicity in fasted but not in nonfasted dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuei-Meng; Yao, Jiaqin; Boring, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Recent chronic toxicity studies performed on green tea extracts in fasted dogs have revealed some unique dose-limiting lethal liver, gastrointestinal, and renal toxicities. Key findings included necrosis of hepatic cells, gastrointestinal epithelia and renal tubules, atrophy of reproductive organs, atrophy and necrosis of hematopoietic tissues, and associated hematological changes. The polyphenol cachetins (a mixture of primarily epigallocatechin gallate [≥55%]; plus up to 10% each of epigallocatechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate) appeared to be the causative agents for the observed toxicities because they are the active ingredients of green tea extract studied. Conduct of the study in nonfasted dogs under the same testing conditions and dose levels showed unremarkable results. Assuming both studies were valid, at the identified no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) of each study, systemic exposures (based on area under the curve [AUC]) were actually lower in fasted than nonfasted dogs, suggesting that fasting may have rendered the target organ systems potentially more vulnerable to the effects of green tea extract. The toxicity mechanisms that produced lethality are not known, but the results are scientifically intriguing. Because tea drinking has become more popular in the United States and abroad, the mode of action and site of action of green tea extract-induced lethal toxicities during fasting and the role of other phytochemical components of Folia Camellia sinensis (including nonpolyphenol fractions, which are often consumed when whole-leaf products are presented) warrant further investigation.

  8. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme- iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samman, S.; Sandstrøm, B.; Toft, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    the effect of phenolic-rich extracts obtained from green tea or rosemary on nonheme-iron absorption. Design: Young women aged 19-39 y consumed test meals on 4 separate occasions. The meals were identical except for the absence (meal A) or presence (meal B) of a phenolic-rich extract from green tea (study 1......-body retention of 59Fe and the ratio of Fe-55 to 59Fe activity in blood samples. Results: The presence of the phenolic-rich extracts resulted in decreased nonheme-iron absorption. Mean (+/-SD) iron absorption decreased from 12.1 +/- 4.5% to 8.9 +/- 5.2% (P tea extract and from 7...

  9. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

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    Zahra Zahedifar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, control animals were located under natural condition, sham -exposed animals were prepared by experimental condition without cell phone waves radiation. Experimental 1 group that irradiated at cell phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and experimental 2 groups were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days and experimental 3 group that irradiated at active mobile phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days. After treatment period micronucleus test was evaluated in polychromatic erythrocytes on bone marrow. The quantitative data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test with using of SPSS-13 software at the level of p<0.05.Results: Based on this study, treatment with extracts of green tea decreased micronucleus frequency in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of Balb/C mouse that irradiated at cell phone microwave (0.92±0.129, (p<0.001.Conclusion: Cell phone microwaves (940 MHz increased micronucleus on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of male Balb/C mouse, but green tea had inhibitory effect and it decreased the average number of micronucleus.

  10. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Green Tea Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Lan-Sook; Lee, Namhyouck; Kim, Young; Lee, Chang-Ho; Hong, Sang; Jeon, Yeo-Won; Kim, Young-Eon

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 °C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio ...

  11. New Approaches for Effective Microwave Assisted Extraction of Caffeine and Catechins from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül SERDAR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop an effective microwave assisted extraction (MAE method for extraction of caffeine and catechins from green tea samples. A series of solvents (water, ethanol:water mixture or citric acid:water mixture were used for extraction of green tea samples (fresh, frozen or dried collected in three collection periods (first, second and third collection periods. Tea samples were extracted using water in a close microwave system under the certain extraction conditions. Extraction was carried out under a controlled 600 W microwave power at 80 oC temperature for 4 min irradiation time. Alternative to water, an ethanol-water mixture (1:1 or a citric acid-water (1:1 mixture was used as extracting solvent under the same conditions. After MAE crude aqueous extract was partitioned first with chloroform to separate caffeine then ethyl acetate for catechins.  Both caffeine and catechin extraction was quite successful with microwave assisted system employing only 4 minutes treatment. The highest caffeine yield was obtained in the second collection period using frozen green tea samples and ethanol-water as extracting solvent. The yield of catechin extracts was between 0.84-3.96% depending on the solvent system used for extraction. Ethanol-water mixture seems to be appropriate for effective extraction in the basis of extract yields. However, HPLC results showed that individual catechin content of each extraction is more important criteria for the evaluation of most effective extraction medium rather than the mass of the extract.  Using citric acid as extracting solvent in MAE seem to be more fruitful providing 100% catechin mixture with the highest EGCG content. 

  12. Quantification of catechins and caffeine from green tea (Camellia sinensis infusions, extract, and ready-to-drink beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Macedo Mendes De Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the levels of catechins and caffeine in various forms of presentation of green tea: infusion tea bags, extract, and ready-to-drink beverage and, based on their content, identify the most suitable for consumption. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analytical method was used for the quantification of catechins and caffeine. The tea bags had the highest concentration of total catechins with 5 to 9.5% followed by the extract with 3.64 to 4.88%, and ready-to-drink green tea beverage showed low levels of catechins, from 0.14 to 0.26%. As for caffeine content, green tea extract had higher concentration (1.96 to 3.54% compared to the tea bags (1.39 to 1.57%. Tea bags were found the most suitable for consumption because it contains higher amounts of catechins and smaller amounts of caffeine.

  13. Effect of Green Tea Extract on the Treatment of Dentin Erosion: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mirkarimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of green tea on dentin erosion.Materials and Methods: Twelve extracted sound human premolars were immersed in Coca Cola with a pH of 2.8 for 5 minutes. The surface microhardness was measured with a Knoop diamond under a load of 50gr/10s. The teeth were immersed in green tea (Camellia sinensis solution for one minute. The microhardness values were measured again and compared with pretreatment values by the Wilcoxon test. Three eroded teeth, which were treated with green tea, were evaluated under scanning electron microscope.Results: The mean ± SD of microhardness values before and after immersion in green tea were 46.5±2.79 and 54.5±4.4, respectively with statistically significant differences between the two measurements (P<0.01. In SEM evaluation there was an improvement in eroded dentin appearance and there were deposits on the dentin surface.Conclusion: Green tea (Camellia sinensis increased the microhardness of eroded dentin and improved the eroded texture.

  14. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER AND PALLADIUM NANOPARTICLES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE USING COFFEE AND TEA EXTRACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extremely simple green approach that generates bulk quantities of nanocrystals of noble metals such as silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) using coffee and tea extract at room temperature is described. The single-pot method uses no surfactant, capping agent, and/or template. The ob...

  15. Comparison of Some Extraction Methods for Isolation of Catechins and Caffeine from Turkish Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi DEMİR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective extraction of anticancer and antioxidant principles from Turkish green tea were main purpose of this work. The pre-optimized experimental condition for liquid extraction was employed for comparative appraisal.  Not only extraction methods also nature of the green tea samples (fresh, dried or frozen and quantitative yields related to collection periods were investigated.  After extraction of the green tea with various techniques the extract was partitioned with chloroform to remove caffeine, after that the extract was partitioned with ethyl acetate to obtain catechin mixture. Quantification of individual catechins was carried out by HPLC and analysis results proved that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG was main catechin specie present in all extracts. The results indicate that hot water extraction (at 80 0C provides higher catechin yield when compared to other methods. The highest extract yields were obtained with dried leaves collected in second collection period. The crude catechin mixture contains high amount of EGCG and might be used as raw material for production of plant remedies at industrial scale.

  16. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed

  17. Artificial neural network modeling and optimization of ultrahigh pressure extraction of green tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jun; Xue, Yujing; Xu, Yinxiang; Shen, Yuhong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the ultrahigh pressure extraction of green tea polyphenols was modeled and optimized by a three-layer artificial neural network. A feed-forward neural network trained with an error back-propagation algorithm was used to evaluate the effects of pressure, liquid/solid ratio and ethanol concentration on the total phenolic content of green tea extracts. The neural network coupled with genetic algorithms was also used to optimize the conditions needed to obtain the highest yield of tea polyphenols. The obtained optimal architecture of artificial neural network model involved a feed-forward neural network with three input neurons, one hidden layer with eight neurons and one output layer including single neuron. The trained network gave the minimum value in the MSE of 0.03 and the maximum value in the R(2) of 0.9571, which implied a good agreement between the predicted value and the actual value, and confirmed a good generalization of the network. Based on the combination of neural network and genetic algorithms, the optimum extraction conditions for the highest yield of green tea polyphenols were determined as follows: 498.8 MPa for pressure, 20.8 mL/g for liquid/solid ratio and 53.6% for ethanol concentration. The total phenolic content of the actual measurement under the optimum predicated extraction conditions was 582.4 ± 0.63 mg/g DW, which was well matched with the predicted value (597.2mg/g DW). This suggests that the artificial neural network model described in this work is an efficient quantitative tool to predict the extraction efficiency of green tea polyphenols. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Green tea extract as an anti-browning agent for cloudy apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimczak, Inga; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables and their products is an important factor worsening their quality. The influence of five green tea extracts at the concentrations of 1 g L -1 , 2 g L -1 and 3 g L -1 on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in fresh cloudy apple juice was investigated. Moreover, PPO inhibition by tea extract and colour stability of juice during short-time refrigerated storage was studied. The changes of juice colour during storage was expressed as the total colour differences (ΔE*), browning index (BI), yellowness index (YI), and the absorbance at 420 nm (A 420 ). All extracts inhibited PPO activity in fresh apple juice in concentration-dependent manner. PPO activity in pure apple juice decreased by 7% after 48 h, whereas PPO activity in samples with 1 g L -1 , 2 g L -1 and 3 g L -1 tea extract decreased by 53%, 74%, and 96%, respectively. Browning of apple juice during storage decreased with increased concentration of green tea extract. After 48 h, extract at 1 g L -1 , 2 g L -1 and 3 g L -1 inhibited browning of juice expressed as BI by 48%, 60%, and 86%, respectively, comparing to pure apple juice. Green tea extract may be an effective anti-browning agent for short-time stored cloudy apple juices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on April 16, 2015. [Database subscription]. Hartley L, Flowers N, Holmes J, et al. Green and black ... health care provider. The mention of any product, service, or therapy is not an endorsement by NCCIH. ...

  20. The Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effect of Grape Seed and Green Tea Extracts on Durability of Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Golvardzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study tried to investigate the antioxidant and anti-bacterial effects of green tea and grape seed extract (with a volume of 2% on durability of Tilapia packed inpolyethylene bags, which were kept in cool temperature of 4 ± 1 °C. Methods: Prepared fish were divided into 3 batches: 2 batches were treated by dipping for 30 min in ethanolic of green tea extract (2% v/v and grape seed (2% v/v, respectively, while the third batch was dipped in distilled water as a control sample. The control and treated fish samples were analyzed for microbiological such as total volatile count and psychrotrophic count, and chemical such as thiobarbituric acid (TBA, and free fatty acid (FFA values. The sensory characteristic was over a period of 20 days. Results: The results indicated that the two extracts' treatments delayed significantly (P < 0.05. Lipid oxidation and process of spoilage in comparison with the psychrotrophic bacteria and total viable count control also remained lower than the proposed acceptable limit (7 log CFU/g. According to sensory, chemical, and microbiological analyses results, the treatment of grape seed extract had high quality and enhanced the beneficial effects on sensory characteristics in comparison with other treatments. Conclusions: the present study showed that the grape seed extract and green tea were very effective in extending the shelf life of Tilapia during refrigerated storage.

  1. Effect of green tea extract and mouthwash without alcohol on Candida albicans biofilm on acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Débora P; Salvia, Ana Carolina R D; de Araújo, Rodrigo M; Di Nicoló, Rebeca; Koga Ito, Cristiane Y; de Araujo, Maria A M

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of green tea and the oral antiseptic without alcohol, on Candida albicans biofilm formation to heat-curing acrylic resin plates. Candida is associated with oral candidiasis in poorly cleaned dentures. Standardised specimens of heat-cured (Conv; n = 30) or microwave-cured acrylic resin (Mw; n = 30) were obtained and divided into six groups (n = 10): G1 = Conv resin and green tea aqueous extract, G2 = Conv resin and mouthwash, G3 = control of Conv resin, G4 = Mw resin and green tea aqueous extract, G5 = Mw resin and mouthwash and G6 = control of Mw-cured resin. The specimens were contaminated with 10 ml of Sabouraud dextrose broth inoculated with 0.1 ml of standard suspension containing 1 × 10(6) cells/ml of C. albicans and incubated for 24 h at 37°C. After this period, they were immersed in the aqueous extract or in mouthwash for 15 min. The control groups were treated with sterile distilled water. Aliquots of 0.1 ml were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The numbers of colony-forming units per test specimen (CFU/TS) were calculated, and the results statistically analysed by two-way anova and Tukey's tests (5%). Statistically significant difference was observed for the aqueous extract groups (G1; 33.65%) and mouthwash (G2; 17.06%), when compared to control (G3; 100%), for Conv resin. For the Mw resin, there was significant difference between mouthwash (G5; 43.16%) and control (G6; 100%). The aqueous extract of green tea and mouthwash led to a reduction in the number of viable fungal cells in biofilm formed on acrylic resin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. ESR detection of free radicals in polyphenolic extracts from wine grapes, olives and green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R.; Romani, A.; Mulinacci, N.; Vincieri, F.F.; Hunter, C.R.; Hewitt, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Polyphenols are widespread in vegetables and fruits and they play an important role in human diet and health: these compounds act mainly as antioxidants and radical scavengers. In this work we have detected free radicals in the following natural polyphenols: Endotelon, an anthocyanic grapeskin extract; malvidin 3,5-O-diglucosides (malvin); oleuropein, an olive polyphenol; a commercial green tea extract, and pure epigallocatechingallate EGCG. The investigation was performed using a Varian E-12 ESR Spectrometer (∼9.1 GHz) at room temperature. All except the green tea extract gave single unstructured lines of ∼ 10 gauss linewidth. The tea extract signal showed 3 lines, one ∼ 20 gauss wide, one ∼ 10 gauss wide, and one ∼ 2-3 gauss wide. Saturation behaviour of these lines at room and liquid N 2 temperature showed them to be from different radicals About 50% of the extract is represented by epigallocatechingallate (EGCG). Using the pure sample EGCG it was possible to assign the appropriate radical, which corresponded with the broadest and strongest 'single' signal (∼20g wide). The presence of the free radicals in the solid extracts shows that the appropriate molecules can act as radical scavengers by forming stable radicals

  3. Ameliorated Effects of Green Tea Extract on Lead Induced Kidney Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ait Hamadouche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the protective effect of an aqueous extract of green tea (GTE against renal oxidative damage induced by lead was undertaken. Adult males rats were divided into 4 groups: Control group receives distilled water as sole drinking source. GTE group received green tea extract (6.6% w/v.Pb group received Pb at dose of 0.4 % w/v in distilled water. Pb + GTE group received mixture of Pb and GTE as sole drinking source. Renal oxidative damage was observed in Pb-treated rats as evidenced via augmentation in kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO as well as depletion in kidney antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Histopathological analysis revealed degeneration in the endothelium of glomerular tuft and the epithelium of lining tubules. In conclusion, GTE appeared to be beneficial to rats, to a great extent by attenuating and restoring the damage sustained by lead exposure.

  4. The contents of fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their aqueous extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.N.; Kazi, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The content of fifteen elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined in Green Tea samples imported from different countries such as India, China, Kenya and Bangladesh in packets and without packets were purchased from authorized tea dealers in Peshawar. Wet ashing procedures were employed for decomposing the organic matter in the tea samples. Aqueous extract of each green tea sample was also prepared by heating with de-ionized water at 80 /sup o/C on electric heating plates. (author)

  5. In-vitro study investigating influence of toothpaste containing green tea extract on the microhardness of demineralized human enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrian, K.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, DJ

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of toothpaste containing green tea extract on the microhardness of demineralized enamel. Human tooth, which was demineralised in citric acid solution, had a toothpaste containing green tea extract of concentration of 5, 10 or 15% application. Microhardness measurement was carried out on each enamel surface of the teeth for initial, after the demineralization and after application of the tooth pastes. It showed that there was significant decrease between enamel microhardness of the teeth at the initial condition and after demineralization. After application of the toothpaste containing green tea extract of each concentration the microhardnss increased significantly. However, there the microhardness was insignificant between the applications of each green tea concentration.

  6. Topical application of green and white tea extracts provides protection from solar-simulated ultraviolet light in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camouse, Melissa M; Domingo, Diana Santo; Swain, Freddie R; Conrad, Edward P; Matsui, Mary S; Maes, Daniel; Declercq, Lieve; Cooper, Kevin D; Stevens, Seth R; Baron, Elma D

    2009-06-01

    Tea polyphenols have been found to exert beneficial effects on the skin via their antioxidant properties. We sought to determine whether topical application of green tea or white tea extracts would prevent simulated solar radiation-induced oxidative damages to DNA and Langerhans cells that may lead to immune suppression and carcinogenesis. Skin samples were analysed from volunteers or skin explants treated with white tea or green tea after UV irradiation. In another group of patients, the in vivo immune protective effects of green and white tea were evaluated using contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene. Topical application of green and white tea offered protection against detrimental effects of UV on cutaneous immunity. Such protection is not because of direct UV absorption or sunscreen effects as both products showed a sun protection factor of 1. There was no significant difference in the levels of protection afforded by the two agents. Hence, both green tea and white tea are potential photoprotective agents that may be used in conjunction with established methods of sun protection.

  7. DNA degradation by water extract of green tea in the presence of copper ions: implications for anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arshi; Azam, Sonish; Hadi, Naghma; Hadi, S M

    2003-04-01

    In recent years a number of reports have documented the chemopreventive effect of green tea consumption on various types of cancers such as those of bladder, prostate, esophagus and stomach. This property is attributed to the presence in green tea of polyphenols known as catechins. These include epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin. In addition to their antioxidant properties plant derived polyphenolics are also capable of oxidative DNA damage particularly in the presence of transition metal ions. We have recently proposed a mechanism for cytotoxic action of plant-derived polyphenols against cancer cells that involves mobilization of endogenous copper and consequent prooxidant action. In partial support of the idea, in the present paper we show that water extract of green tea is considerably more efficient than black tea extract in DNA cleavage in the presence of copper ions. Green tea extract also shows a higher rate of Cu(II) reduction and consequent hydroxyl radical formation. Cu(II) reduction is presumably accompanied by the formation of 'oxidized species' of tea polyphenols, which in turn also appear to catalyze the reduction of Cu(II) leading to redox cycling of copper ions. The results are discussed in relation to the structural differences between polyphenols of green and black tea. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis L. Effects on Uric Acid Levels on Hyperuricemia Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putranty Widha Nugraheni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid is the end product of purine degradation. When uric acid levels exceed normal limits, it will build up and cause hyperuricemia. Allopurinol is one of the most effective and common medicine for hyperuricemia, but it brings serious side effects, therefore it is needed alternative therapy for hyperuricemia. One plant that may be expected to low uric acid levels is green tea (Camellia sinensis L., that contains many antioxidants polyphenols, especially flavonoids. Flavonoid has strong antioxidant properties, act as free radical and metal scavengers, and also xanthine oxidase (XOD inhibitors. This study investigates the potential of green tea using various doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of body weight in 24 white male rats (Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain that has been received high purine diet in 60 consecutive days. This study used DHBSA methods to measure uric acid levels in blood serum and urine that excreted 8 hours before surgery. Green tea extract that contains polyphenol can inhibit XOD activities, therefore, it leads to decrease uric acid level in blood and increase the excretion through urine by modulating urate gene transporter. A therapy with 600 mg/kg body weight of GTE is the most effective dose to decrease uric acid levels in serum and to increase excretion of exceeding uric acid significantly (p < 0.01, from One Way ANOVA and Tukey analysis.

  9. Influence of the green tea leaf extract on neurotoxicity of aluminium chloride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenković, Ankica; Jovanović, Marina D; Stevanović, Ivana; Petronijević, Nataša; Bokonjić, Dubravko; Zivković, Jelena; Igić, Rajko

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium may have an important role in the aetiology/pathogenesis/precipitation of Alzheimer's disease. Because green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) reportedly has health-promoting effects in the central nervous system, we evaluated the effects of green tea leaf extract (GTLE) on aluminium chloride (AlCl3 ) neurotoxicity in rats. All solutions were injected into the cornu ammonis region 1 hippocampal region. We measured the performance of active avoidance (AA) tasks, various enzyme activities and total glutathione content (TGC) in the forebrain cortex (FbC), striatum, basal forebrain (BFb), hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum. AlCl3 markedly reduced AA performance and activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in all regions. It decreased TGC in the FbC, striatum, BFb, hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum, and increased superoxide dismutase activity in the FbC, cerebellum and BFb. GTLE pretreatment completely reversed the damaging effects of AlCl3 on AA and superoxide dismutase activity, markedly corrected COX and AChE activities, and moderately improved TGC. GTLE alone increased COX and AChE activities in almost all regions. GTLE reduces AlCl3 neurotoxicity probably via antioxidative effects and improves mitochondrial and cholinergic synaptic functions through the actions of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin, compounds most abundantly found in GTLE. Our results suggest that green tea might be beneficial in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The Powdering Process with a Set of Ceramic Mills for Green Tea Promoted Catechin Extraction and the ROS Inhibition Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For serving green tea, there are two prominent methods: steeping the leaf or the powdered leaf (matcha style in hot water. The purpose of the present study was to reveal chemical and functional differences before and after the powdering process of green tea leaf, since powdered green tea may contribute to expanding the functionality because of the different ingesting style. In this study, we revealed that the powdering process with a ceramic mill and stirring in hot water increased the average extracted concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG by more than three times compared with that in leaf tea using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography–tandem mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses. Moreover, powdered green tea has a higher inhibition effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS production in vitro compared with the same amount of leaf tea. Our data suggest that powdered green tea might have a different function from leaf tea due to the higher catechin contents and particles.

  11. The Effect of Green Tea Extract on Reproductive Improvement in Estradiol Valerate-Induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafurniyan, Habibeh; Azarnia, Mahnaz; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Karimzadeh, Latifeh

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive and metabolic disorder in which the level of oxidative elements in blood rises. Green tea is a potent antioxidant since it contains catechins. In this study, the effect of hydro-alcoholic green tea extract on PCOS rats was examined. For PCOS induction, 96 mature Wistar rats were given estradiol valerate. After 60 days, the rats were divided into four groups including PCOS group and three experimental groups, which were given 50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg BW green tea extract 10 days, intraperitoneally. The serum concentration level of FSH, LH, testosterone and insulin were measured using ELISA method, while the serum concentration level of glucose was measured using glucose oxidase methods. Insulin resistance was calculated using HOMA-IR formulation. The data were analyzed using the one-Way ANOVA method considering P<0/05 level of significance. There were a significant reduction in LH serum level, body and ovarian weight between the green tea extract treated-groups compare to PCOS. Moreover, a significant reduction in insulin resistance index was seen in the treatment groups related to PCOS. Histomorphometric studies also showed the significant changes in the number of follicles and theca layer thickness. These changes demonstrated a marked improvement in the symptoms of PCOS which may be due to green tea effects on oxidative stress pathways. Green tea can be considered as a potentially effective drug for treatment of PCOS, Insulin resistance and Type II diabetes.

  12. Effect of Green Tea Extract on T cell Mediated Hypersensitivity Reaction in BALB/c Mice Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A.M.; Ismail Al-kadey, M.M.I.; Shabon, M.H.; Hussien, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma radiation is widely used in the treatment of malignant neoplasms. However, it deprives the host immune function which may retard tumor rejection by the immune response. The main purpose of the present study is to test the ability of green tea dry extract to restore the T cell hypersensitivity reaction in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It aims also to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of ionizing radiation and green tea dry extract in the immune function. Four groups of BALB/c mice, each of ten, have been used in each experiment. The first group served as a control, the second group received green tea dry extract and the third group was exposed to 2 Gy gamma irradiation, while the fourth group received green tea dry extract before and after gamma irradiation. The following parameters were determined, the contact sensitivity reaction by the mouse ear swelling response, local dendritic cell migration, local lymph node weight, lymphocyte proliferation, spleen and thymus weight with their lymphocyte count. The effect of gamma irradiation and green tea dry extract on the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity was also determined. Data from the present study showed that gamma irradiation caused a significant decrease of the mouse ear swelling response and retarded dendritic cell migration. They also showed a significant decline in the lymphocytes proliferation in lymph node draining the contact sensitizer application. Total body exposure to 2 Gy gamma irradiation induced marked decline of thymus weight and thymocyte count, while it reduced spleen weight and spleenocyte count to a lesser extent. Exposure to gamma irradiation enhanced the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity. Administration of green tea dry extract partially preserved the contact sensitivity response to oxazolone in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It markedly minimized the enhancement of the elicitation phase of ear swelling. In conclusion, the present study heralds a beneficial role of

  13. Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthin Audomkasok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 106 infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment.

  14. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme- iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samman, S.; Sandstrøm, B.; Toft, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Phenolic compounds act as food antioxidants. One of the postulated mechanisms of action is chelation of prooxidant metals, such as iron. Although the antioxidative effect is desirable, this mechanism may impair the utilization of dietary iron. Objective: We sought to determine the eff.......5 +/- 4.0% to 6.4 +/- 4.7% (P extract. Conclusion: Phenolic-rich extracts used as antioxidants in foods reduce the utilization of dietary iron.......Background: Phenolic compounds act as food antioxidants. One of the postulated mechanisms of action is chelation of prooxidant metals, such as iron. Although the antioxidative effect is desirable, this mechanism may impair the utilization of dietary iron. Objective: We sought to determine...... the effect of phenolic-rich extracts obtained from green tea or rosemary on nonheme-iron absorption. Design: Young women aged 19-39 y consumed test meals on 4 separate occasions. The meals were identical except for the absence (meal A) or presence (meal B) of a phenolic-rich extract from green tea (study 1...

  15. Performance and methane emissions in dairy cows fed oregano and green tea extracts as feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, G J; Stivanin, S C B; Gabbi, A M; Machado, F S; Ferreira, A L; Campos, M M; Tomich, T R; Cunha, C S; Dill, S W; Pereira, L G R; Fischer, V

    2018-02-21

    Plant extracts have been proposed as substitutes for chemical feed additives due to their potential as rumen fermentation modifiers and because of their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, possibly reducing methane emissions. This study aimed to evaluate the use of oregano (OR), green tea extracts (GT), and their association as feed additives on the performance and methane emissions from dairy between 28 and 87 d of lactation. Thirty-two lactating dairy cows, blocked into 2 genetic groups: 16 Holstein cows and 16 crossbred Holstein-Gir, with 522.6 ± 58.3 kg of body weight, 57.2 ± 20.9 d in lactation, producing 27.5 ± 5.0 kg/cow of milk and with 3.1 ± 1.8 lactations were evaluated (means ± standard error of the means). Cows were allocated into 4 treatments: control (CON), without plant extracts in the diet; oregano extract (OR), with the addition of 0.056% of oregano extract in the dry matter (DM) of the diet; green tea (GT), with the addition of 0.028% of green tea extract in the DM of the diet; and mixture, with the addition of 0.056% oregano extract and 0.028% green tea extract in the DM of the diet. The forage-to-concentrate ratio was 60:40. Forage was composed of corn silage (94%) and Tifton hay (6%); concentrate was based on ground corn and soybean meal. Plant extracts were supplied as powder, which was previously added and homogenized into 1 kg of concentrate in natural matter, top-dressed onto the total mixed diet. No treatment by day interaction was observed for any of the evaluated variables, but some block by treatment interactions were significant. In Holstein cows, the mixture treatment decreased gross energy and tended to decrease the total-tract apparent digestibility coefficient for crude protein and total digestible nutrients when compared with OR. During the gas measurement period, GT and OR increased the digestible fraction of the ingested DM and decreased CH 4 expressed in grams per kilogram of digestible DMI compared with CON. The use

  16. Green tea extract induces protective autophagy in A549 non-small lung cancer cell line

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    Magdalena Izdebska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: For many decades, polyphenols, including green tea extract catechins, have been reported to exert multiple anti-tumor activities. However, to date the mechanisms of their action have not been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of green tea extract on non-small lung cancer A549 cells. Material and methods: A549 cells following treatment with GTE were analyzed using the inverted light and fluorescence microscope. In order to evaluate cell sensitivity and cell death, the MTT assay and Tali image-based cytometer were used, respectively. Ultrastructural alterations were assessed using a transmission electron microscope.Results: The obtained data suggested that GTE, even at the highest dose employed (150 μM, was not toxic to A549 cells. Likewise, the treatment with GTE resulted in only a very small dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE was seen at the light and electron microscopic level. Furthermore, an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and LC3-II puncta formation was observed under the fluorescence microscope, following GTE treatment. The analysis of the functional status of autophagy revealed that GTE-induced autophagy may provide self-protection against its own cytotoxicity, since we observed that the blockage of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased the viability of A549 cells and potentiated necrotic cell death induction in response to GTE treatment.Conclusion: Collectively, our results revealed that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of the green tea extract, probably due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These data suggest that a potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than in monotherapy.

  17. The Effect of LAB as Probiotic Starter Culture and Green Tea Extract Addition on Dry Fermented Pork Loins Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Neffe-Skocińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory quality of dry fermented pork loin produced with the addition of Lb. rhamnosus LOCK900 probiotic strain, 0.2% glucose, and 1.5% green tea extract. Three loins were prepared: control sample (P0: no additives, sample supplemented with glucose and probiotic strain (P1, and sample with glucose, green tea extract, and probiotic (P2. The samples were analyzed after 21 days of ripening and 180 days of storage. The results indicated that the highest count of LAB was observed both in the samples: with probiotic and with probiotic and green tea extract (7.00 log cfu/g after ripening; 6.00 log cfu/g after storage. The oxidation-reduction potential values were lower in the probiotic loin samples. Probiotic and green tea extract have not caused color changes of study loins during storage. The study demonstrated that an addition of probiotic and green tea extract to dry fermented loins is possible and had no impact on sensory quality after product storage.

  18. Extractability of radiocesium from processed green tea leaves with hot water. The first emergent tea leaves harvested after the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Ishii, N.

    2012-01-01

    In some tea tree planting areas within 300 km from the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), it was found that newly emerged tea plant leaves for green tea contained two radiocesium species (cesium-134 and cesium-137). In this study, using processed green tea leaves for drinking, extraction ratios of radiocesium under several brew conditions were observed. When 90 deg C water was used, 50-70% of radiocesium was extracted into the water, while 54-60% of radiocesium was extracted with 60 deg C water. A part of radiocesium would be removed from leaves if the leaves were washed with 20 and 60 deg C water before brewing, and the efficiencies were 11 and 32%, respectively. Newly emerged camellia leaves were used to simulate the radiocesium removal ratio from raw tea leaves by washing and boiling; radioactivity concentration was decreased to 60% of the original concentration with washing and 10 min boiling. From these results, it was found that almost half of the radiocesium would not be removed from raw or processed tea leaves. The values obtained in the present study could be used for internal radiation dose estimation from tea leaves. (author)

  19. Green tea, red wine and lemon extracts reduce experimental tumor growth and cancer drug toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletok, S P; Gulua, L; Wicker, L; Shlyakhovenko, V A; Gogol, S; Orlovsky, O; Karnaushenko, O V; Verbinenko, A; Milinevska, V; Samoylenko, O; Todor, I; Turmanidze, T

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate antitumor effect of plant polyphenol extracts from green tea, red wine lees and/or lemon peel alone and in combination with antitumor drugs on the growth of different transplanted tumors in experimental animals. Green tea extract (GTE) was prepared from green tea infusion. GTE-based composites of red wine (GTRW), lemon peel (GTRWL) and/or NanoGTE as well as corresponding nanocomposites were prepared. The total polyphenolics of the different GTE-based extracts ranged from 18.0% to 21.3%. The effects of GTE-based extracts were studied in sarcoma 180, Ehrlich carcinoma, B16 melanoma, Ca755 mammary carcinoma, P388 leukemia, L1210 leukemia, and Guerin carcinoma (original, cisplatin-resistant and doxorubicin-resistant variants). The extracts were administered as 0.1% solution in drinking water (0.6-1.0 mg by total polyphenolics per mouse per day and 4.0-6.3 mg per rat per day). Tumor growth inhibition (TGI) in mice treated with NanoGTE, cisplatin or cisplatin + NanoGTE was 27%, 55% and 78%, respectively, in Sarcoma 180%, 21%, 45% and 59%, respectively, in Ehrlich carcinoma; and 8%, 13% and 38%, respectively in B16 melanoma. Composites of NanoGTE, red wine, and lemon peel (NanoGTRWL) enhanced the antitumor effects of cyclophosphamide in mice with Ca755 mammary carcinoma. The treatment with combination of NanoGTE and inhibitors of polyamines (PA) synthesis (DFMO + MGBG) resulted in significant TGI of P388 leukemia (up to 71%) and L1210 leukemia. In rats transplanted with Guerin carcinoma (parental strain), treatment with GTRW or GTE alone resulted in 25-28% TGI vs. 55-68% TGI in cisplatin-treated animals. The inhibition observed in the case of combination of GTE or GTRW with cisplatin was additive giving 81-88% TGI. Similar effects were observed when combinations of the cytostatics with GTE (or NanoGTE) were tested against cisplatin- or doxorubicin-resistant Guerin carcinoma. Moreover, the plant extracts lowered side toxicity of the drugs. Treatment with GTE

  20. Functional Characterization of Epitheaflagallin 3-O-Gallate Generated in Laccase-Treated Green Tea Extracts in the Presence of Gallic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Nobuya; Kurokawa, Junji; Isogai, Yasuhiro; Ogasawara, Masaru; Matsunaga, Takayuki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Katsube, Yuji

    2017-12-06

    Epitheaflagallin (ETFG) and epitheaflagallin 3-O-gallate (ETFGg) are minor polyphenols in black tea extract that are enzymatically synthesized from epigallocatechin (EGC) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), respectively, in green tea extract via laccase oxidation in the presence of gallic acid. The constituents of laccase-treated green tea extract in the presence of gallic acid are thus quite different from those of nonlaccase-treated green tea extract: EGC and EGCg are present in lower concentrations, and ETFG and ETFGg are present in higher concentrations. Additionally, laccase-treated green tea extract contains further polymerized catechin derivatives, comparable with naturally fermented teas such as oolong tea and black tea. We found that ETFGg and laccase-treated green tea extracts exhibit versatile physiological functions in vivo and in vitro, including antioxidative activity, pancreatic lipase inhibition, Streptococcus sorbinus glycosyltransferase inhibition, and an inhibiting effect on the activity of matrix metalloprotease-1 and -3 and their synthesis by human gingival fibroblasts. We confirmed that these inhibitory effects of ETFGg in vitro match well with the results obtained by docking simulations of the compounds with their target enzymes or noncatalytic protein. Thus, ETFGg and laccase-treated green tea extracts containing ETFGg are promising functional food materials with potential antiobesity and antiperiodontal disease activities.

  1. The Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio Reveals the Prooxidant Effect of Green Tea Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tea increased plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity, the European Food Safety Administration (EFSA denied claims related to tea and its protection from oxidative damage. Furthermore, the Supplement Information Expert Committee (DSI EC expressed some doubts on the safety of green tea extract (GTE. We performed a pilot study in order to evaluate the effect of a single dose of two capsules of a GTE supplement (200 mg × 2 on the peroxidation of leukocytes index ratio (PLIR in relation to uric acid (UA and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP, as well as the sample size to reach statistical significance. GTE induced a prooxidant effect on leukocytes, whereas FRAP did not change, in agreement with the EFSA and the DSI EC conclusions. Besides, our results confirm the primary role of UA in the antioxidant defences. The ratio based calculation of the PLIR reduced the sample size to reach statistical significance, compared to the resistance to an exogenous oxidative stress and to the functional capacity of oxidative burst. Therefore, PLIR could be a sensitive marker of redox status.

  2. Impact of green tea extract addition on oxidative changes in the lipid fraction of pastry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żbikowska, Anna; Kowalska, Małgorzata; Rutkowska, Jarosława; Kozłowska, Mariola; Onacik-Gür, Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    Alongside flour, fat is the key ingredient of sponge cakes, including those with long shelf lives. It is an unstable food component, whose quality and nutritional safety depend on the composition and pres- ence of oxidation products. Consumption of fat oxidation products adversely affects the human body and contributes to the incidence of a number of medical conditions. Qualitative changes in fats extracted from thermostat sponge cakes with and without antioxidant additions were determined in this study. In the study, two types of antioxidant were used: natural - green tea extract in three doses (0.02%; 0.2% and 1.0%) and synthetic BHA (0.02%) and 100%, solid bakery shortening. Sponge-cakes were thermostatted at temperatures 63°C after twenty-eight days. In this study, the quality of the lipid fraction was analyzed. The amount of primary (PV) and secondary (AnV) oxidation products was determined, and   a Rancimat test was performed. Adding antioxidants to fats varied in the degree to which oxidation processes of lipids fractions were inhibited. The peroxide value after twenty-eight days of thermostatting ranged from 3.57 meq O/kg (BHA) and 11.14 O meq/kg (extract content - 1%) to 62.85 meq O/kg (control sample). In turn, the value of AnV after the storage period ranged from 4.84 (BHA) and 6.71 (extract content - 1%) to 16.83 (control sample). The best protective effects in the process of oxidation was achieved by BHA. The longest in- duction time and the lowest peroxide value and anisidine value were obtained for this antioxidant. It was achieved after twenty-eight days of fat thermostatting. Nonetheless, the results demonstrated it is possible to use the commercially available green tea extract to slow the adverse process of fat oxidation in sponge cake products.

  3. ANALYSIS OF IFN- CONCENTRATION IN WISTAR RAT BLOOD AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF STANDARDIZED GREEN TEA WATER EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Agus Purwanto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and its polyphenols have been studied extensively as cancer chemopreventive agents in recent years. However, the mechanisms of action are still not clearly understood. Some researchers suggest that immune system plays important role to destroy cancer cells. Because of that reason, the present study was designed to analyse the effects of oral administration standardized green tea water extract on increasing of IFN-g blood concentration and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in the inhibitory action of the cancer development. Two groups (male and female of 5 rats have given p.o. administration 1.25% of standardized green tea water extract and got 300 mg of (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG/kg body weight, while two groups others (male and female were used as control. We found that IFN-g blood concentration on male and female Wistar rat are significantly increase with 13.11% and 17.59%, respectively (p

  4. Changing oxidation in whey fat concentrate upon addition of green tea extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Marianne; Nielsen, J; Sørensen, J

    2011-01-01

    was measured using a number of different antioxidants: Trolox (TRX), propyl gallate (PG), Grindox 1021 (GRX), green tea extract (GTE) and rosemary extract (RE). The development of the secondary lipid oxidation product hexanal was inhibited by all the tested antioxidants, and GTE was found to be the most....... The purpose of the present study was to find an antioxidant which effectively inhibits oxidation in whey fat concentrate (WFC) during accelerated storage (60 C) and to investigate the effect of the antioxidant on primary and secondary oxidation. The development of secondary lipid oxidation products...... efficient of the tested antioxidants. The effect of GTE concentrations (0, 50 and 500 lg/g whey solid) on oxidation was investigated further by measuring hydroperoxide and hexanal accumulation during accelerated storage (60 C). Hydroperoxides were accumulated after a lag phase which was prolonged...

  5. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1 protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS. Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-treated with GTE dietary supplement, and the control, respectively. Our findings by immunocytochemistry showed that abundant HMGB1 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the lung tissues of rats that were exposed to CS, whereas HMGB1 was localized to the nuclei of CSG and C group. For in vitro studies, cotinine stimulated the secretion of HMGB1 in a dose and time dependent manner and the HMGB1 level was suppressed by GTE in murine macrophage cell lines. Our results could suggest that GTE supplementation which could suppress HMGB1 may offer a beneficial effect against diseases.

  6. Green tea phytocompounds as anticancer: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is universally considered significant and its benefits have been experimentally explored by researchers and scientists. Anticancer potential of green tea has been completely recognized now. Green tea contains anti-cancerous constituents and nutrients that have powerful remedial effects. By using electronic data base (1998–2015, different compounds in green tea possessing anticancer activity including epigallocatechin-3-gallate, paclitaxel and docetaxel combinations, ascorbic acid, catechins, lysine, synergistic arginine, green tea extract, proline, and green tea polyphenols has been reported. Green tea extracts exhibited remedial potential against cancer of lung, colon, liver, stomach, leukemic cells, prostate, breast, human cervical cells, head, and neck. For centuries, green tea has been utilized as medicine for therapeutic purposes. It originated in China and extensively used in Asian countries for blood pressure depression and as anticancer medicine. Green tea has therapeutic potential against many diseases such as lowering of blood pressure, Parkinson’s disease, weight loss, esophageal disease, skin-care, cholesterol, Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes.

  7. Properties and antioxidant action of actives cassava starch films incorporated with green tea and palm oil extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Kátya Karine Nery Carneiro Lins; Conceição, Anderson Carlos de Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Juliana Caribé Pires; Assis, Denilson de Jesus; Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Druzian, Janice Izabel

    2014-01-01

    There is an interest in the development of an antioxidant packaging fully biodegradable to increase the shelf life of food products. An active film from cassava starch bio-based, incorporated with aqueous green tea extract and oil palm colorant was developed packaging. The effects of additives on the film properties were determined by measuring mechanical, barrier and thermal properties using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack butter (maintained for 45 days) under accelerated oxidation conditions. The antioxidant action of the active films was evaluated by analyzing the peroxide index, total carotenoids, and total polyphenol. The same analysis also evaluated unpacked butter, packed in films without additives and butter packed in LDPE films, as controls. The results suggested that incorporation of the antioxidants extracts tensile strength and water vapor barrier properties (15 times lower) compared to control without additives. A lower peroxide index (231.57%), which was significantly different from that of the control (pfilm formulations containing average concentration of green tea extracts and high concentration of colorant. However, it was found that the high content of polyphenols in green tea extract can be acted as a pro-oxidant agent, which suggests that the use of high concentration should be avoided as additives for films. These results support the applicability of a green tea extract and oil palm carotenoics colorant in starch films totally biodegradable and the use of these materials in active packaging of the fatty products.

  8. Treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids with green tea extract: a pilot randomized controlled clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshdy, Eman; Rajaratnam, Veera; Maitra, Sarbani; Sabry, Mohamed; Allah, Abdou S Ait; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Background Uterine fibroids (UFs, also known as leiomyoma) affect 70% of reproductive-age women. Imposing a major burden on health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) of premenopausal women, UF is a public health concern. There are no effective medicinal treatment options currently available for women with symptomatic UF. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of green tea extract (epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG]) on UF burden and quality of life in women with symptomatic UF, in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Methods A total of 39 reproductive-age women (age 18–50 years, day 3 serum follicle-stimulating hormone <10 \\U/mL) with symptomatic UF were recruited for this study. All subjects had at least one fibroid lesion 2 cm3 or larger, as confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography. The subjects were randomized to oral daily treatment with either 800 mg of green tea extract (45% EGCG) or placebo (800 mg of brown rice) for 4 months, and UF volumes were measured at the end, also by transvaginal ultrasonography. The fibroid-specific symptom severity and HRQL of these UF patients were scored at each monthly visit, using the symptom severity and quality-of-life questionnaires. Student’s t-test was used to evaluate statistical significance of treatment effect between the two groups. Results Of the final 39 women recruited for the study, 33 were compliant and completed all five visits of the study. In the placebo group (n = 11), fibroid volume increased (24.3%) over the study period; however, patients randomized to green tea extract (n = 22, 800 mg/day) treatment showed significant reduction (32.6%, P = 0.0001) in total UF volume. In addition, EGCG treatment significantly reduced fibroid-specific symptom severity (32.4%, P = 0.0001) and induced significant improvement in HRQL (18.53%, P = 0.01) compared to the placebo group. Anemia also significantly improved by 0.7 g/dL (P = 0.02) in the EGCG treatment group, while average blood loss

  9. Curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract synergically inhibit inflammatory and catabolic mediator's synthesis by normal bovine and osteoarthritic human chondrocytes in monolayer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Comblain

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract in normal bovine chondrocytes and osteoarthritic human chondrocytes cultured in monolayer. This study also investigated the synergic or additive effects of these compounds. Enzymatically isolated primary bovine or human chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer until confluence and then incubated for 24 hours or 48 hours in the absence or in the presence of interleukin-1β and with or without curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen or green tea extract, added alone or in combination, at different concentrations. Cell viability was neither affected by these compounds, nor by interleukin 1β. In the absence of interleukin-1β, compounds did not significantly affect bovine chondrocytes metabolism. In human chondrocytes and in the absence of interleukin 1β, curcuminoids extract alone or in combination with hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract significantly inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-3 production. In interleukin-1β-stimulated bovine chondrocytes, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase2, matrix metalloproteinase 3, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motifs 4 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motifs 5 expressions were decreased by curcuminoids extract alone or in combination with hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract. The combination of the three compounds was significantly more efficient to inhibit interleukin-1β stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression than curcuminoids extract alone. In interleukin-1β-stimulated human chondrocytes, nitric oxide, interleukin-6 and matrix metalloproteinase 3 productions were significantly reduced by curcuminoids extract alone or in combination with hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract. These findings indicate that a mixture of curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen

  10. Green tea extract only affects markers of oxidative status postprandially: lasting antioxidant effect of flavonoid-free diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J.F.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Haraldsdottir, J.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) used as a food antioxidant on markers of oxidative status after dietary depletion...... in flavonoids. GTE intervention increased plasma antioxidant capacity from 1.35 to 1.56 (P...

  11. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  12. Fluorescence, spectroscopic and NLO properties of green tea extract in deoxyribonucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Ana-Maria; Rau, Ileana; Kajzar, Francois; Meghea, Aurelia

    2013-11-01

    Natural, purely biological deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-green tea extract (GTE) complexes at different concentrations were prepared and characterized for their spectroscopic, fluorescent, linear and nonlinear optical properties. The complexes can be processed into good optical quality thin films by solution casting. They fluoresce when excited in UV absorption band, with a significantly larger quantum yield for the DNA-GTE complex than for a pure GTE solution. The thin film refractive indices were determined by Fabry-Perot (FP) interference patterns. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of thin films were determined by the optical third-harmonic generation technique at 1064.2 nm fundamental wavelength. The phase of THG susceptibility was determined from the concentration variation of THG susceptibility. It reveals presence of a two-photon resonance with a band lying in the optical gap.

  13. Extraction of green tea and drying with a high pressure spray process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meterc Darja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a beverage widely consumed throughout the world and is produced from non-fermented leaves of Camellia Sinensis. Traditionally, green tea leaves are extracted with water. To form solid products, these aqueous products have to be dried. The main focus of the investigation is how to avoid antioxidant degradation during solvent removal. The work was separated in two major sections, firstly investigation of the extraction process secondly, optimizing of the drying process. In the first experiments extractions with different solvents (H2O, EtOH and MeOH, at different temperatures (20, 40, 60 and 80 °C and extraction times (15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min were preformed to obtain optimum conditions for further processing. For further work extracts obtained with water extraction at 80°C for 15 min were used. In the PGSS (Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions drying process, extracts with up to 98 wt % water are mixed with preheated carbon dioxide in a static mixer in order to obtain a homogenous mixture. The mixture is led via a single path nozzle into a spray tower. Driven by the expansion of the gas, fine droplets are formed and the heated gas evaporates the solvent, which is exhausted together with CO^ by a blower. Fine powder is formed and collected in the spray tower. The amount of solvent which is to be removed and the residual humidity obtained in the product depend strongly on flow rate and temperature of the gas. From obtained results it can be seen, that high pre-expansion temperatures Tp (145 °C cause degradation of polyphenols (1.05 wt %. Maintaining Tp at approximately 130 °C and lower gave satisfying results; total amount of polyphenols in the obtained powders was between 4.97 and 8.77 wt %. Temperature in spray tower ranging from 33 to 65 °C has no significant effect on the amount of total polyphenols, but higher temperature results in lower water residue in the sample.

  14. Treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids with green tea extract: a pilot randomized controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshdy E

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Eman Roshdy,1,* Veera Rajaratnam,2,* Sarbani Maitra,2 Mohamed Sabry,3,4 Abdou S Ait Allah,3,4 Ayman Al-Hendy2 1Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, USA; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt; 4Ibn Sina IVF Center, Ibn Sina Hospital, Sohag, Egypt*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Uterine fibroids (UFs, also known as leiomyoma affect 70% of reproductive-age women. Imposing a major burden on health-related quality-of-life (HRQL of premenopausal women, UF is a public health concern. There are no effective medicinal treatment options currently available for women with symptomatic UF.Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of green tea extract (epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG] on UF burden and quality of life in women with symptomatic UF, in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.Methods: A total of 39 reproductive-age women (age 18–50 years, day 3 serum follicle-stimulating hormone < 10 mIU/mL with symptomatic UF were recruited for this study. All subjects had at least one fibroid lesion 2 cm3 or larger, as confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography. The subjects were randomized to oral daily treatment with either 800 mg of green tea extract (45% EGCG or placebo (800 mg of brown rice for 4 months, and UF volumes were measured at the end, also by transvaginal ultrasonography. The fibroid-specific symptom severity and HRQL of these UF patients were scored at each monthly visit, using the symptom severity and quality-of-life questionnaires. Student's t-test was used to evaluate statistical significance of treatment effect between the two groups.Results: Of the final 39 women recruited for the study, 33 were compliant and completed all five visits of the study. In the placebo group (n = 11, fibroid volume increased (24.3% over the study

  15. A comparative study of the antioxidant scavenging activity of green tea, black tea and coffee extracts: a kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anissi, Jaouad; El Hassouni, Mohammed; Ouardaoui, Abdelkrim; Sendide, Khalid

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant activities of three beverages, coffee, black tea and green tea, along with their major components, were investigated in terms of their reaction with the stable radical 2,2'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). We used a kinetic approach in parallel with quantification methods based on a fixed end-point to determine the scavenging efficiency of compounds abundant in these beverages during their reaction with DPPH using a stopped-flow spectrophotometer-based method. Ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, tannic acid, and caffeic acid were selected as model antioxidants to study in coffee, black tea and green tea. We applied a second-order model to demonstrate similarities in the kinetics behavior of beverages and related compounds. Our findings showed the slopes k2(')((mol/L)(-1)s(-1)) and k2max(')((mol/L)(1)s(-1)) exhibited similar and correlated values; we suggest the variation in k2(') as a function of time is more informative about antioxidant properties than reaction with DPPH alone. We also used IC100 to test the reliability of the relative stoichiometry using a new comparative parameter "n", which was calculated as: n=c0DPPHIC100 (mol/L(mol/L)(-1), (mol/L)mlmg(-1) or molg(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical composition, plant secondary metabolites, and minerals of green and black teas and the effect of different tea-to-water ratios during their extraction on the composition of their spent leaves as potential additives for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Seal, Chris J

    2013-05-22

    This study characterized the chemical composition of green and black teas as well as their spent tea leaves (STL) following boiling in water with different tea-to-water ratios. The green and black tea leaves had statistically similar (g/kg dry matter (DM), unless stated otherwise) DM (937 vs 942 g/kg sample), crude protein (240 vs 242), and ash (61.8 vs 61.4), but green tea had significantly higher (g/kg DM) total phenols (231 vs 151), total tannins (204 vs 133), condensed tannins (176 vs 101), and total saponins (276 vs 86.1) and lower neutral detergent fiber (254 vs 323) and acid detergent fiber (211 vs 309) than the black tea leaves. There was no significant difference between the green and black tea leaves for most mineral components except Mn, which was significantly higher in green tea leaves, and Na and Cu, which were significantly higher in black tea leaves. A higher tea-to-water ratio during extraction significantly reduced the loss of soluble compounds into water and hence yielded more nutrient-rich STL. On the basis of these analyses it appears that the green and black tea leaves alongside their STL have the potential for use as sources of protein, fiber, secondary metabolites, and minerals in ruminant diets. The presence of high levels of plant secondary metabolites in either tea leaves or their STL suggests that they may have potential for use as natural additives in ruminant diets.

  17. The analysis of aroma/flavor compounds in green tea using ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluhayb, Abdullah H; Logue, Brian A

    2017-10-06

    Worldwide, green tea is one of the most popular beverages. It promotes blood circulation, liver function, and lowers the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This drink is characterized by the distinctive odors and flavors produced by its constituent compounds, with its value predicated on the amount and type of constituents extracted from the tea leaves during brewing. Ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer (ICECLES) is a novel sample preparation technique, especially applicable for the extraction of relatively polar compounds while retaining excellent extraction efficiencies for non-polar compounds. In this study, ICECLES was used to prepare green tea for analysis of aroma/flavor compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ICECLES performed very well, revealing 301 constituents as compared to 245 for SBSE (i.e., 56 more constituents were detected via ICECLES). Moreover, ICECLES produced stronger signal to noise ratios for all except 4 of 301 constituents, with a maximum signal enhancement of 19. Of the constituents which were only detectable using ICECLES, some very important aroma/flavor and/or medicinal compounds were easily identified, including furfural, furfural alcohol, maltol, eugenol, 2-methylpyrazine, phenethyl alcohol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and α-terpineol. Overall, we confirmed that ICECLES sample preparation followed by GC-MS consistently allowed more complete green tea aroma/flavor analysis, especially for relatively polar compounds, some of which are critical for flavor quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of green tea extract on the removal of sulfur-containing oral malodor volatiles in vitro and its potential application in chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q C; Wu, A Z; Pika, J

    2010-09-01

    Increasing pH solution from 7.5 to 8.0 was found to significantly improve the effectiveness of green tea extract for methanethiol removal in vitro. Green tea extract was also found to remove hydrogen sulfide and its effectiveness was greatly improved under alkaline conditions. It was found that with green tea extract, maximum H₂S removal was achieved when the pH was between 8.1 and 8.4 at 37 °C for 5 min. Further increases in pH resulted in decrease of the extract effectiveness. Vegetable acetone powders which contain polyphenol oxidases or peroxidases were found to further enhance the effectiveness for the removal of thiols when used in combination with green tea extracts at body temperature under alkaline conditions. Adding 5% baking soda to green tea extract-containing chewing gum was found to buffer saliva pHs to 8.0 during 10 min of chewing. However, severe discoloration was observed and undesirable bitterness was perceived, most likely due to the polymerization of unencapsulated green tea polyphenols. Therefore, encapsulation of green tea extract is recommended for applications at elevated pHs.

  19. A Presurgical Study of Lecithin Formulation of Green Tea Extract in Women with Early Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeroni, Matteo; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Gandini, Sara; Johansson, Harriet; Serrano, Davide; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Aristarco, Valentina; Macis, Debora; Mora, Serena; Caldarella, Pietro; Pagani, Gianmatteo; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Riva, Antonella; Petrangolini, Giovanna; Morazzoni, Paolo; DeCensi, Andrea; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiologic data support an inverse association between green tea intake and breast cancer risk. Greenselect Phytosome (GSP) is a lecithin formulation of a caffeine-free green tea catechin extract. The purpose of the study was to determine the tissue distribution of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and its effect on cell proliferation and circulating biomarkers in breast cancer patients. Twelve early breast cancer patients received GSP 300 mg, equivalent to 44.9 mg of EGCG, daily for 4 weeks prior to surgery. The EGCG levels were measured before (free) and after (total) enzymatic hydrolysis by HPLC-MS/MS in plasma, urine, breast cancer tissue, and surrounding normal breast tissue. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline, before the last administration, and 2 hours later. Repeated administration of GSP achieved levels of total EGCG ranging from 17 to 121 ng/mL in plasma. Despite a high between-subject variability, total EGCG was detectable in all tumor tissue samples collected up to 8 ng/g. Median total EGCG concentration was higher in the tumor as compared with the adjacent normal tissue (3.18 ng/g vs. 0 ng/g, P = 0.02). Free EGCG concentrations ranged from 8 to 65.8 ng/mL in plasma ( P between last administration and 2 hours after breast tumor tissue and is associated with antiproliferative effects on breast cancer tissue. Cancer Prev Res; 10(6); 363-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Systemic Absorption of Catechins after Intraruminal or Intraduodenal Application of a Green Tea Extract in Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Silvia; Beyer, Birgit; Gohlke, Annika; Blank, Ralf; Metges, Cornelia C.; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins have various potential health benefits in humans including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and hepato-protective effects. If present in the circulation, they might have similar effects in ruminants, which are exposed to oxidative stress and fatty liver disease such as dairy cows during the periparturient phase. However, the bioavailability of a substance is a prerequisite for any post absorptive effect in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the appearance of catechins from a green tea extract (GTE) in cattle plasma after intraruminal and intraduodenal administration because absorption is of major importance regarding the bioavailability of catechins. The studies were performed in 5 rumen-fistulated non-lactating heifers and 6 duodenally fistulated lactating dairy cows, respectively, equipped with indwelling catheters placed in a jugular vein. The GTE was applied intraruminally (10 and 50 mg/kg BW, heifers) or duodenally (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg BW, dairy cows) in a cross‐over design with a 2 d washout period between different dosages. Blood samples were drawn following the GTE administration at various pre-defined time intervals. The concentration of the major GTE catechins (gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-gallate, epicatechin-gallate) in plasma samples were analysed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Irrespective of the dose, almost none of the catechins originally contained in the GTE were detected in plasma samples after intraruminal application. In contrast, intraduodenal administration of GTE resulted in increased plasma concentrations of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate in a dose‐dependent manner. Thus, we can conclude that intraruminally or orally administered catechins are intensively metabolized by ruminal microorganisms. PMID:27427946

  1. Study on tea leaves extract as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, A. B.; Suryanto; Haider, F. I.

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitor from extraction of plant has been considered as the most preferable and most chosen technique to prevent corrosion of metal in acidic medium because of the environmental friendly factor. In this study, black tea leaves extraction was tested as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 0.1M of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor. The efficiency and effectiveness of black tea as corrosion inhibitor was tested by using corrosion weight loss measurement experiment was carried out with varies parameters which with different concentration of black tea extract solution. The extraction of black tea solution was done by using aqueous solvent method. The FT-IR result shows that black tea extract containing compounds such as catechin, caffeine and tannins that act as anti-corrosive reagents and responsible to enhance the effectiveness of black tea extract as corrosion inhibitor by forming the hydrophobic thin film through absorption process. As a result of weight loss measurement, it shows that loss in weight of mild steel reduces as the concentration of inhibitor increases. The surface analysis was done on the mild steel samples by using SEM.

  2. Biotransformation of catechin and extraction of active polysaccharide from green tea leaves via simultaneous treatment with tannase and pectinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Joo Hyun; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Park, Yooheon; Yu, Kwang-Won; Suh, Hyung Joo; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2015-08-30

    Green tea is a dietary source of bioactive compounds for human health. Enzymatic treatments induce the bioconversion of bioactive components, which can improve biological activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of simultaneous treatment with tannase and Rapidase on biotransformation of catechins and extraction of polysaccharide from green tea extract (GTE). Tannase and pectinase treatments induced the biotransformation of catechins and altered tea polysaccharide () content. The addition of GTE to the enzyme reaction resulted in a significant increase in degallated catechins, including gallic acid, a product of the tannase reaction (314.5-4076.0 µg mL(-1)) and a reduction in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Biotransformation of catechins improved the radical scavenging activity of GTE. Pectinase treatment led to change of TPS composition in GTE by hydrolyzing polysaccharides. In addition, pectinase-driven hydrolysis in polysaccharides significantly increased TPS-induced Interleukin 6 (IL-6) production in macrophages. In particular, treatment of Rapidase (TPS-Ra) led to the highest IL-6 production among TPS samples, similar to treatment of highly purified pectinase (TPS-GTE), a positive control. Simultaneous processing with tannase and Rapidase can be an efficient method for the extraction of bioactive polysaccharides and biotransformation of catechins with enhanced radical scavenging activity from green tea. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of extraction time on antioxidants and bioactive volatile components of green tea (Camellia sinensis, using GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two green tea types, leaf grade and sanding, were extracted at different time intervals: 20, 40, and 120 min at a constant temperature of 50°C. The extracts were analyzed by GC/MS technique. The major compounds identified were myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, 1H-purine-2,6-dione, caffeine, linoleic acid, diethyl ester, and 1H-purine-6-amine. Stearic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and myristic acid were more abundantly present in the leaf-grade variety than sanding. However, some levels of acetic acid, cyclobutanol, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, and caffeine were also found in both the tea types. Most of the volatile compounds were detected between 20–40-min time of extraction. The 40-min time of extraction also showed the maximum content of polyphenols and antioxidants in both the tea types. Thus, 40 min was suggested as the most suitable time for maximum extraction of bioactive volatiles, antioxidants, and polyphenols from green tea.

  4. Protocol for MInimizing the Risk of Metachronous Adenomas of the CoLorectum with Green Tea Extract (MIRACLE: a randomised controlled trial of green tea extract versus placebo for nutriprevention of metachronous colon adenomas in the elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockmöller Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of colorectal cancer is a major health care issue. People who have undergone colonoscopy screening and had colorectal polyps removed have a higher risk of being diagnosed with polyps again compared to the normal population. Therefore, it would be ideal to find appropriate means that effectively help to prevent the reoccurrence of polyps after polypectomy. So far, pharmaceutical chemoprevention with NSAIDs including aspirin has been shown to be effective but not gained general acceptance due to side effects. Nutraceuticals such as polyphenols from tea plants have demonstrated remarkable therapeutic and preventive effects in molecular, epidemiological and clinical trials. However, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating the efficacy of nutraceuticals for the (secondary prevention of colorectal polyps as precursors for colorectal cancer are missing. Methods/Design We present the design of a randomized, placebo controlled, multicentre trial to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with green tea extract containing 300 mg epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the major polyphenol in green tea, on the recurrence of colon adenomas. Patients who have undergone polypectomy for colonic polyps will be randomized to receive either green tea extract containing 150 mg EGCG two times daily or a placebo over the course of three years. After a one month run-in period in which all patients will receive the active intervention, 2534 patients will be randomized, and 2028 patients are expected to complete the whole study course. Incidence, number and histology of adenoma at endpoint colonoscopy at three years will be compared in both groups. Discussion The beneficial safety profile of decaffeinated green tea extract, the quantifiable and known active content EGCG, and the accumulating evidence of its cancer preventive potential require, in our view, a validation of this compound for the nutriprevention of colorectal adenoma. Good

  5. Protocol for minimizing the risk of metachronous adenomas of the colorectum with green tea extract (MIRACLE): a randomised controlled trial of green tea extract versus placebo for nutriprevention of metachronous colon adenomas in the elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Julia C; Ettrich, Thomas; Muche, Rainer; Wiedom, Martina; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Seeringer, Angela; Seufferlein, Thomas

    2011-08-18

    Prevention of colorectal cancer is a major health care issue. People who have undergone colonoscopy screening and had colorectal polyps removed have a higher risk of being diagnosed with polyps again compared to the normal population. Therefore, it would be ideal to find appropriate means that effectively help to prevent the reoccurrence of polyps after polypectomy. So far, pharmaceutical chemoprevention with NSAIDs including aspirin has been shown to be effective but not gained general acceptance due to side effects. Nutraceuticals such as polyphenols from tea plants have demonstrated remarkable therapeutic and preventive effects in molecular, epidemiological and clinical trials. However, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating the efficacy of nutraceuticals for the (secondary) prevention of colorectal polyps as precursors for colorectal cancer are missing. We present the design of a randomized, placebo controlled, multicentre trial to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with green tea extract containing 300 mg epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, on the recurrence of colon adenomas. Patients who have undergone polypectomy for colonic polyps will be randomized to receive either green tea extract containing 150 mg EGCG two times daily or a placebo over the course of three years. After a one month run-in period in which all patients will receive the active intervention, 2534 patients will be randomized, and 2028 patients are expected to complete the whole study course. Incidence, number and histology of adenoma at endpoint colonoscopy at three years will be compared in both groups. The beneficial safety profile of decaffeinated green tea extract, the quantifiable and known active content EGCG, and the accumulating evidence of its cancer preventive potential require, in our view, a validation of this compound for the nutriprevention of colorectal adenoma. Good accessibility and low costs might render this neutraceutical a top

  6. The Antioxidant Capacity of Rosemary and Green Tea Extracts to Replace the Carcinogenic Antioxidant (BHA in Chicken Burgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela A. Pires

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of natural extracts (rosemary and green tea extracts in frozen storage of chicken burgers. Chicken burger treatments were prepared as follows: control (CON, 20 mg BHA/kg (BHA20, 10 mg green tea extract/kg (GT10, 38 mg green tea extract/kg (GT38, 18.6 mg rosemary extract/kg (RO18, and 480 mg rosemary extract/kg (RO480. Analysis of physicochemical parameters, color, TBAR index, and sensory acceptance were performed at 0, 30, 60, and 120 days of storage at −18°C in burgers packaged in LDPE plastic bags. The addition of natural antioxidants did not affect (p>0.05 the color and physicochemical parameters of the chicken burgers. After 120 days at −18°C, the RO480 sample showed a TBAR index similar (p>0.05 to BHA20 (0.423 and 0.369 mg, resp.. Sensory acceptance did not differ (p>0.05 among the treatments throughout the storage period (p>0.05.

  7. Green tea and bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...

  8. Effects of green tea or green tea extract on insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control in populations at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Tian, J; Jiang, J; Li, L; Ying, X; Tian, H; Nie, M

    2014-10-01

    Although the regular consumption of green tea or green tea extract has been considered to improve insulin sensitivity, the reported results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of green tea or green tea extract on insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control in populations at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Electronic databases, including PUBMED, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and Chinese Scientific Journals Fulltext Database, were systematically searched to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) up to December 2011, supplemented by the Clinicaltrials.gov websites and the reference lists of identified studies. Two reviewers independently selected trials, extracted data, and evaluated the methodological qualities and evidence levels. Seven RCTs involving 510 participants were identified. There was no statistically significant difference between green tea or green tea extract group and placebo group with regard to fasting plasma glucose [standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.15 to 0.24], fasting serum insulin (SMD -0.09; 95% CI -0.30 to 0.11), 2-h plasma glucose in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-2 h) (SMD -0.14; 95% CI -0.63 to 0.34), haemoglobin A₁c (SMD 0.10; 95% CI -0.13 to 0.33) and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) index (SMD -0.06; 95% CI -0.35 to 0.23) in participants at risk of T2DM. The consumption of green tea did not decrease the levels of fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, OGTT-2 h glucose, haemoglobin A₁c and HOMA(IR) in populations at risk of T2DM. Larger, longer-term and high-quality RCTs are needed to further definitely determine the effect of green tea or green tea extract on insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control in populations at risk of T2DM. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. The Effectiveness of Green Tea or Green Tea Extract on Insulin Resistance and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyue Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea or green tea extract (GT/GTE has been demonstrated to reduce insulin resistance and improve glycemic control. However, evidence for this health beneficial effect is inconsistent. This systematic review evaluated the effect of GT/GTE on insulin resistance and glycemic control in people with pre-diabetes/type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to April 2017 for randomised controlled trials of participants with pre-diabetes or T2DM, where the intervention was GT/GTE. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the standardised mean difference (SMD in biomarkers of insulin resistance and glycemic control between GT/GTE and placebo groups. Six studies (n=382 were pooled into random-effects meta-analysis. Overall, no differences were found between GT/GTE and the placebo for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c: SMD, −0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.86 to 0.23, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR: SMD, 0.10; 95% CI, −0.17 to 0.38, fasting insulin (SMD, −0.25; 95% CI, −0.64 to 0.15, and fasting glucose (SMD, −0.10; 95% CI, −0.50 to 0.30. No evidence support the consumption of GT/GTE could reduce the levels of HbA1c, HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, or fasting glucose in people with pre-diabetes/T2DM. However, the studies included were small and of varying quality.

  10. Development of new antioxidant active packaging films based on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) and green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Dicastillo, Carol; Nerin, Cristina; Alfaro, Pilar; Catala, Ramon; Gavara, Rafael; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2011-07-27

    Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) films containing green tea extract were successfully produced by extrusion. The films were brown and translucent, and the addition of the extract increased the water and oxygen barrier at low relative humidity but increased the water sensitivity, the glass transition temperature, and the crystallinity of the films and improved their thermal resistance. An analysis by HPLC revealed that the antioxidant components of the extract suffered partial degradation during extrusion, reducing the content of catechin gallates and increasing the concentration of free gallic acid. Exposure of the films to various food simulants showed that the liquid simulants increased their capacity to reduce DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) radicals. The release of green tea extract components into the simulant monitored by HPLC showed that all compounds present in the green tea extract were partially released, although the extent and kinetics of release were dependent on the type of food. In aqueous food simulants, gallic acid was the main antioxidant component released with partition coefficient values ca. 200. In 95% ethanol (fatty food simulant) the K value for gallic acid decreased to 8 and there was a substantial contribution of catechins (K in the 1000 range) to a greatly increased antioxidant efficiency. Kinetically, gallic acid was released more quickly than catechins, owing to its faster diffusivity in the polymer matrix as a consequence of its smaller molecular size, although the most relevant effect is the plasticization of the matrix by alcohol, increasing the diffusion coefficient >10-fold. Therefore, the materials here developed with the combination of antioxidant substances that constitute the green tea extract could be used in the design of antioxidant active packaging for all type of foods, from aqueous to fatty products, the compounds responsible for the protection being those with the higher compatibility with the packaged product.

  11. The green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the ethanol extract pf black tea and its tannin free fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banoee, M.; Mokhtari, N.; Akhavan Sepahi, A.; Jafari Fesharaki, P.; Monsef-Esfahani, H. R.; Ehsanfar, Z.; Khoshayand, M. R.; Shahverdi, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    In this research the ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free fraction used for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles. All the extracts were used separately for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles through the reduction of aqueous AuCl 4 - . Transmission electron microscopy and visible absorption spectroscopy confirmed the reduction of gold ions to gold nanoparticles. The ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free ethanol extract produced gold nanoparticles in the size ranges of 2.5-27.5 nm and 1.25-17.5 nm with an average size of 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively. The prepared colloid gold nanoparticles, using the ethanol extract of black tea, did not show the appropriate stability during storage time (24 hours) at 4 d eg C . In contrast, gold colloids, which were synthesized by a tannin free fraction showed no particle aggregation during short and long storage times at the same conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles using ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free fraction.

  12. Properties and antioxidant action of actives cassava starch films incorporated with green tea and palm oil extracts.

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    Kátya Karine Nery Carneiro Lins Perazzo

    Full Text Available There is an interest in the development of an antioxidant packaging fully biodegradable to increase the shelf life of food products. An active film from cassava starch bio-based, incorporated with aqueous green tea extract and oil palm colorant was developed packaging. The effects of additives on the film properties were determined by measuring mechanical, barrier and thermal properties using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack butter (maintained for 45 days under accelerated oxidation conditions. The antioxidant action of the active films was evaluated by analyzing the peroxide index, total carotenoids, and total polyphenol. The same analysis also evaluated unpacked butter, packed in films without additives and butter packed in LDPE films, as controls. The results suggested that incorporation of the antioxidants extracts tensile strength and water vapor barrier properties (15 times lower compared to control without additives. A lower peroxide index (231.57%, which was significantly different from that of the control (p<0.05, was detected in products packed in film formulations containing average concentration of green tea extracts and high concentration of colorant. However, it was found that the high content of polyphenols in green tea extract can be acted as a pro-oxidant agent, which suggests that the use of high concentration should be avoided as additives for films. These results support the applicability of a green tea extract and oil palm carotenoics colorant in starch films totally biodegradable and the use of these materials in active packaging of the fatty products.

  13. Green tea and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyung Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and coffee consumption have been widely popular worldwide. These beverages contain caffeine to activate the central nervous system by adenosine receptor blockade, and due to the caffeine, addiction or tolerance may occur. In addition to this caffeine effect, green tea and coffee consumption have always been at the center of discussions about human health, disease, and longevity. In particular, green tea catechins are involved in many biological activities such as antioxidation and modulation of various cellular lipid and proteins. Thus, they are beneficial against degenerative diseases, including obesity, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and various inflammatory diseases. Some reports also suggest that daily consumption of tea catechins may help in controlling type 2 diabetes. However, other studies have reported that chronic consumption of green tea may result in hepatic failure, neuronal damage, and exacerbation of diabetes, suggesting that interindividual variations in the green tea effect are large. This review will focus on the effect of green tea catechins extracted from the Camellia sinensis plant on type 2 diabetes and obesity, and the possible mechanistic explanation for the experimental results mainly from our laboratory. It is hoped that green tea can be consumed in a suitable manner as a supplement to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  14. Antioxidant efficacy of crude methanol extract of ashitaba green tea against radiation induced oxidative stress in E.coli K12 bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darshan Raj, C.G.; Sindhu Priya, E.S.; Sarojini, B.K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity of methanol crude extract of ashitaba green tea (G). The DPPH scavenging assay was evaluated for green tea extract to determine its radical scavenging capacity. The bacteria was pretreated with ashitaba green tea extract, quercetin (Q) and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate (E) at below MIC level. Oxidative stress was induced at 0.4 Gy using gamma radiation. The antioxidant efficacy of ashitaba green tea was evaluated through enzyme antioxidant studies like SOD (Superoxidedismutase) and CAT (Catalase). The oxidative stress marker Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) was also evaluated. Further the protective efficacy of the(G) was confirmed by colony forming units (CFU) study. Among the tested compounds the crude extract of ashitaba (G) exhibited excellent antioxidant activity in comparison with quercetin and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate. (abstract)

  15. Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of taurine and green tea extract against oxidative stress induced by pilocarpine during status epilepticus

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    Neveen A. Noor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE has functional and structural consequences resulting in brain damage. The present study aims to investigate the role of taurine and green tea extract in the neuroprotection against oxidative stress and changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE and Na+,K+-ATPase activities during SE induced by pilocarpine in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Animals received an oral administration of either taurine (100 mg/kg or green tea extract containing 100 mg/kg epigallocatechin gallate for 3 days before the induction of SE with pilocarpine (380 mg/kg, i.p. and were sacrificed 1 h after pilocarpine injection. Data indicated that a state of oxidative stress has evolved during SE as evident from the significant increase in lipid peroxidation level and significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH level. Significant decreases in AChE and Na+,K+-ATPase activities were also recorded. Pretreatment of rats with taurine exaggerated the increase in lipid peroxidation and failed to prevent the decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity resulting from pilocarpine. However, taurine pretreatment prevented the reduced activity of hippocampal AChE induced by pilocarpine during SE. Pretreatment of rats with green tea extract prevented the increase in lipid peroxidation occurring during SE. However, it failed to inhibit the decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity. In conclusion, taurine pretreatment failed to reduce the oxidative stress induced during SE. In contrast, pretreatment of rats with green tea extract ameliorated the oxidative stress induced by pilocarpine and this may assist in reducing the insults of hyperexcitability and excitotoxicity that occur during SE and thereby reduce neuronal damage.

  16. Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Malassezia sympodialis by Green Tea Extracts Bath Therapy: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Kyu; Chang, Hui Kyoung; Baek, Seok Yun; Chung, Jin Oh; Rha, Chan Su; Kim, So Young; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2012-01-01

    Multiple treatment modalities, including topical and systemic corticosteroid and phototherapy, have been used in treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis. However, long-term corticosteroid therapy may have various adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of bath therapy using green tea extracts for treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis. A total of four patients with atopic dermatitis were enrolled in this study. A Malassezia ...

  17. Synthesis of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-Green Tea Extract Composite Nanostructures using Electrohydrodynamic Spraying Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin; Edikresnha, D.; Sriyanti, I.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal

    2017-05-01

    Green Tea Extract (GTE) as an active substance has successfully loaded to PVP nanostructures using electrohydrodynamic spraying technique. The precursor solution was the mixture of ethanolic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with a molecular weight of 1,300 kg/mol and ethanolic GTE solutions at a weight concentration of 4 wt.% and 2 wt.%, respectively, and it was estimated that the entanglement number was 2. The electrospraying was conducted at the voltage of 15 kV, the flow rate of 10 µL/min., and the distance between the collector and the tip of the nozzle of 10 cm. The SEM images showed that the PVP/GTE nanostructures had a combination of agglomerated beads (less spherical particles) and nanofibers. This occurred because if the PVP concentration is low, the PVP/GTE composite has weak core structures that cause the shell to be easily agglomerated each other. The intermolecular interaction between PVP and GTE in the PVP/GTE nanostructures occurred as confirmed by the peak at 3396 cm-1, which is the carboxyl group, proving that the PVP/GTE nanostructures contained water, alcohols, and phenols. The peak at 1040 cm-1, which is the stretching of C-O group in amino acid, gave another proof to the intermolecular interaction.

  18. Effects of Green Tea Extracts on the Pharmacokinetics of Quetiapine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Ezzeldin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic, used clinically in the treatment of schizophrenia, acute mania in bipolar disorders, and bipolar depression in adults. In this study, the effect of green tea extracts (GTE on the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine (substrate of CYP3A4 was investigated in rats. Male Wistar albino rats received GTE (175 mg/kg or saline (control by oral gavage for 7 days before a single intragastric administration of 25 mg/kg quetiapine. Plasma concentrations of quetiapine were measured up to 12 h after its administration by a validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Pretreatment with GTE produced significant reductions in the maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve of quetiapine by 45% and 35%, respectively, compared to quetiapine alone. However, GTE did not produce significant change in elimination half-life and oral clearance of quetiapine. This study concluded that GTE may decrease the bioavailability of quetiapine when coadministered.

  19. Effect of green tea extract supplementation on glycogen replenishment in exercised human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsen-Wei; Chang, Chia-Chen; Liao, Su-Fen; Liao, Yi-Hung; Hou, Chien-Wen; Tsao, Jung-Piao; Cheng, I-Shiung

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on promoting postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis and systemic energy substrate utilisation in young college students. A total of eight healthy male participants (age: 22·0 (se 1·0) years, BMI: 24·2 (se 0·7) kg/m2, VO2max: 43·2 (se 2·4) ml/kg per min) participated in this study. GTE (500 mg/d for 8 weeks) was compared with placebo in participants in a double-blind/placebo-controlled and crossover study design with an 8-week washout period. Thereafter, all participants performed a 60-min cycling exercise (75 % VO2max) and consumed a carbohydrate-enriched meal immediately after exercise. Vastus lateralis muscle samples were collected immediately (0 h) and 3 h after exercise, and blood and gaseous samples were collected during the 3-h postexercise recovery period. An 8-week oral GTE supplementation had no effects on further promoting muscle glycogen resynthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle, but the exercise-induced muscle GLUT type 4 (GLUT4) protein content was greater in the GTE supplementation trial (Pglycogen resynthesis during the postexercise period.

  20. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects of green tea extracts in oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Keun; Kim, Gyo-Nam; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2007-03-01

    Green tea extracts (GTEs) [water (GTE-W) and 75% ethanol (GTE-E)] were investigated to characterize their propensities to act as antioxidants or as pro-oxidants by analyzing oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and scavenging capacity for hydroxyl radical. When 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride was used for the generation of peroxyl radicals, both GTE-W and GTE-E exhibited strong concentration-dependent scavenging activity through donating protons, which could be explained by their reducing property. When hydroxyl radicals were generated through the addition of Cu(2+) and H(2)O(2), GTE-W and GTE-E exhibited antioxidant activity or pro-oxidant activity, depending on their concentrations, which might be attributed to the metal chelating activity, the scavenging activity on hydroxyl radical, and/or the pro-oxidant activity to generate some reactive oxygen species. When Cu(2+) without H(2)O(2) was used as an oxidant in the assay, the copper-initiated pro-oxidant activities of GTE-W and GTE-W was consistent with the availability of (-)-epigallocatechin and (-)-epicatechin to generate hydrogen peroxide and/or hydroxyl radical. The pro-oxidant activity of GTE-W and GTE-E was demonstrated by the deoxyribose assay. These results indicate that both GTE-W and GTE-E can have pro-oxidant activity at lower concentrations and antioxidant activity at higher concentrations in the ORAC and deoxyribose assays using generated hydroxyl radicals.

  1. Ameliorative Influence of Green Tea Extract on Copper Nanoparticle-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A; Khalaf, A A; Galal, Mona K; Ogaly, Hanan A; H M Hassan, Azza

    2015-12-01

    The potential toxicity of copper nanoparticles (CNPs) to the human health and environment remains a critical issue. In the present study, we investigated the protective influence of an aqueous extract of green tea leaves (GTE) against CNPs-induced (20-30 nm) hepatotoxicity. Four different groups of rats were used: group I was the control, group II received CNPs (40 mg/kg BW), group III received CNPs plus GTE, and group IV received GTE alone. We highlighted the hepatoprotective effect of GTE against CNPs toxicity through monitoring the alteration of liver enzyme activity, antioxidant defense mechanism, histopathological alterations, and DNA damage evaluation. The rats that were given CNPs only had a highly significant elevation in liver enzymes, alteration in oxidant-antioxidant balance, and severe pathological changes. In addition, we detected a significant elevation of DNA fragmentation percentage, marked DNA laddering, and significance over expression of both caspase-3 and Bax proteins. The findings for group III clarify the efficacy of GTE as a hepatoprotectant on CNPs through improving the liver enzyme activity, antioxidant status, as well as suppressing DNA fragmentation and the expression of the caspase-3 and Bax proteins. In conclusion, GTE was proved to be a potential hepatoprotective additive as it significantly ameliorates the hepatotoxicity and apoptosis induced by CNPs.

  2. Antioxidant activity of Green tea extract against Isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis continues to be a common health problem worldwide. Isoniazid, an antibiotic used routinely for tuberculosis chemotherapy is documented to be a potent hepatotoxicant. The aim of the present study was to assess the antioxidant activity of Green tea extract (GTE against Isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in the rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 animals each including 1- normal healthy control rats, 2- healthy rats receiving (GTE 3- toxicant control, and 4- toxicant drug+ GTE treatment group. In groups 2 and 4 GTE (1.5%, w/v was given as only source of drinking for 8 weeks. In the midst stage of experiment (4th and 5th weeks, Isonizid (50 mg/kg b.w./day, i.p. was administrated for groups 3 and 4 for a period of 2 weeks. At the end of experiment, product of lipid peroxidation (MDA, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and glutathione reductase (GR were assayed in liver homogenates to evaluate antioxidant activity. Significant differences among the groups were determined by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p

  3. Effects of physiological levels of the green tea extract Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physiological concentrations of the green tea extract EGCG caused growth inhibition in oestrogen receptor α (ERα-positive MCF7 cells, that was associated with down-regulation of the ERα and reduced insulin-like growth factor (IGF binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2 abundance and increased protein abundance of the tumour suppressor genes p53/p21. In contrast to MCF7 cells that have wt p53, EGCG alone did not change cell proliferation or death significantly in another ERα-positive cell line T47D that possesses mutant p53. EGCG increased ERα protein levels and as a consequence, the cells responded significantly better to an ERα antagonist Tamoxifen (TAM in the presence of EGCG. EGCG significantly increased cell death in an ERα-negative cell line, MDA-MB-231 that also possesses mutant p53. EGCG significantly increased the ERα and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR levels and thereby enhanced the sensitivities of the cells to Tamoxifen and a blocking antibody targeting the IGF-1R (αIR3. In contrast to MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that exhibited significant changes in key molecules involved in breast growth and survival upon treatment with physiological levels of EGCG, the growth, survival and levels of these proteins in non-malignant breast epithelial cells, MCF10A cells, were not affected.

  4. Green tea extract selectively targets nanomechanics of live metastatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sarah E.; Jin, Yu-Sheng; Lu, Qing-Yi; Rao, JianYu; Gimzewski, James K.

    2011-05-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) is known to be a potential anticancer agent (Yang et al 2009 Nat. Rev. Cancer 9 429-39) with various biological activities (Lu et al 2005 Clin. Cancer Res. 11 1675-83 Yang et al 1998 Carcinogenesis 19 611-6) yet the precise mechanism of action is still unclear. The biomechanical response of GTE treated cells taken directly from patient's body samples was measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Binnig et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930). We found significant increase in stiffness of GTE treated metastatic tumor cells, with a resulting value similar to untreated normal mesothelial cells, whereas mesothelial cell stiffness after GTE treatment is unchanged. Immunofluorescence analysis showed an increase in cytoskeletal-F-actin in GTE treated tumor cells, suggesting GTE treated tumor cells display mechanical, structural and morphological features similar to normal cells, which appears to be mediated by annexin-I expression, as determined by siRNA analysis of an in vitro cell line model. Our data indicates that GTE selectively targets human metastatic cancer cells but not normal mesothelial cells, a finding that is significantly advantageous compared to conventional chemotherapy agents.

  5. Ameliorative Influence of Green Tea Extract on Copper Nanoparticle-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A.; Khalaf, A. A.; Galal, Mona K.; Ogaly, Hanan A.; H. M. Hassan, Azza

    2015-09-01

    The potential toxicity of copper nanoparticles (CNPs) to the human health and environment remains a critical issue. In the present study, we investigated the protective influence of an aqueous extract of green tea leaves (GTE) against CNPs-induced (20-30 nm) hepatotoxicity. Four different groups of rats were used: group I was the control, group II received CNPs (40 mg/kg BW), group III received CNPs plus GTE, and group IV received GTE alone. We highlighted the hepatoprotective effect of GTE against CNPs toxicity through monitoring the alteration of liver enzyme activity, antioxidant defense mechanism, histopathological alterations, and DNA damage evaluation. The rats that were given CNPs only had a highly significant elevation in liver enzymes, alteration in oxidant-antioxidant balance, and severe pathological changes. In addition, we detected a significant elevation of DNA fragmentation percentage, marked DNA laddering, and significance over expression of both caspase-3 and Bax proteins. The findings for group III clarify the efficacy of GTE as a hepatoprotectant on CNPs through improving the liver enzyme activity, antioxidant status, as well as suppressing DNA fragmentation and the expression of the caspase-3 and Bax proteins. In conclusion, GTE was proved to be a potential hepatoprotective additive as it significantly ameliorates the hepatotoxicity and apoptosis induced by CNPs.

  6. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral–digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made. PMID:24172305

  7. Structural annotation and elucidation of conjugated phenolic compounds in black, green, and white tea extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Akermi, M.; Yelda Ünlü, F.; Mihaleva, V.; Gomez Roldan, V.; Bino, R.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced analytical approaches consisting of both LC-LTQ-Orbitrap Fourier transformed (FT)-MS and LC-time-of-flight-(TOF)-MS coupled to solid-phase extraction (SPE) NMR were used to obtain more insight into the complex phenolic composition of tea. On the basis of the combined structural information

  8. Effect of oral administration of green tea extract in various dosage schemes on oxidative stress status of mice in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bártíková Hana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a favorite beverage and its extracts are popular components of dietary supplements. The aim of the present in vivo study was to obtain detailed information about the effect of a standard green tea extract (Polyphenon, P, at different doses, on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in murine blood, liver, small and large intestine. In all doses, P improved the oxidative stress status via an increased content of plasmatic SH-groups (by 21-67 %. Regarding antioxidant enzymes in tissues, the low dose of P had the best positive effect as it elevated the activity of NADPH quinone reductase in liver and small intestine, thioredoxin reductase in small intestine and hepatic superoxide dismutase. Based on these facts, consumption of green tea seems to be safe and beneficial, while consumption of dietary supplements containing high doses of catechins may disturb oxidative balance by lowering the activity of thioredoxin reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase

  9. The Minnesota Green Tea Trial (MGTT), a randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of green tea extract on biomarkers of breast cancer risk: study rationale, design, methods, and participant characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samavat, Hamed; Dostal, Allison M; Wang, Renwei; Bedell, Sarah; Emory, Tim H; Ursin, Giske; Torkelson, Carolyn J; Gross, Myron D; Le, Chap T; Yu, Mimi C; Yang, Chung S; Yee, Douglas; Wu, Anna H; Yuan, Jian-Min; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2015-10-01

    The Minnesota Green Tea Trial (MGTT) was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial investigating the effect of daily green tea extract consumption for 12 months on biomarkers of breast cancer risk. Participants were healthy postmenopausal women at high risk of breast cancer due to dense breast tissue with differing catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotypes. The intervention was a green tea catechin extract containing 843.0 ± 44.0 mg/day epigallocatechin gallate or placebo capsules for 1 year. Annual digital screening mammograms were obtained at baseline and month 12, and fasting blood and 24-h urine samples were provided at baseline and at months 6 and 12. Primary endpoints included changes in percent mammographic density, circulating endogenous sex hormones, and insulin-like growth factor axis proteins; secondary endpoints were changes in urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites and circulating F2-isoprostanes, a biomarker of oxidative stress. The MGTT screened more than 100,000 mammograms and randomized 1,075 participants based on treatment (green tea extract vs. placebo), stratified by COMT genotype activity (high COMT vs. low/intermediate COMT genotype activity). A total of 937 women successfully completed the study and 138 dropped out (overall dropout rate = 12.8 %). In this paper we report the rationale, design, recruitment, participant characteristics, and methods for biomarker and statistical analyses.

  10. Effect of green tea extract on enteric viruses and its application as natural sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, W; Falcó, I; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the effect of green tea extract (GTE) was assessed against murine norovirus (MNV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at different temperatures, exposure times and pH conditions. Initially, GTE at 0.5 and 5 mg/ml were individually mixed with each virus at 5 log TCID 50 /ml and incubated 2 h at 37 °C at different pHs (from 5.5 to 8.5). GTE affected both viruses depending on pH with higher reductions observed in alkaline conditions. Secondly, different concentrations of GTE (0.5 and 5 mg/ml) were mixed with viral suspensions and incubated for 2 or 16 h at 4, 25 and 37 °C at pH 7.2. A concentration-, temperature- and exposure time-dependent response was showed by GTE in suspension tests, where complete inactivation was achieved after overnight exposure at 37 °C for both viruses and also at 25 °C for HAV. In addition, antiviral effect of GTE proved efficient in the surface disinfection tests since 1.5 log reduction and complete inactivation were recorded for MNV and HAV on stainless steel and glass surfaces treated with 10 mg/ml GTE for 30 min, analyzed in accordance with ISO 13697:2001. GTE was also evaluated as a natural disinfectant of produce, showing 10 mg/ml GTE reduced MNV and HAV titers in lettuce and spinach by more than 1.5 log after 30 min treatment. The results show a potential of GTE as natural disinfectant able to limit enteric viral (cross-)contaminations conveyed by food and food-contact surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Green synthesis palladium nanoparticles mediated by white tea (Camellia sinensis) extract with antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities toward the human leukemia (MOLT-4) cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Susan; Mahdavi Shahri, Mahnaz; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

    2017-01-01

    Among nanoparticles used for medical applications, palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) are among the least investigated. This study was undertaken to develop PdNPs by green synthesis using white tea (W.tea; Camellia sinensis) extract to produce the Pd@W.tea NPs. The Pd@W.tea NPs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, and evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Pd@W.tea NPs were spherical (size 6–18 nm) and contained phenols and flavonoids acquired from the W.tea extract. Pd@W.tea NPs has good 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), OH, and NO-scavenging properties as well as antibacterial effects toward Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. MTT assay showed that Pd@W.tea NPs (IC50 =0.006 μM) were more antiproliferative toward the human leukemia (MOLT-4) cells than the W.tea extract (IC50 =0.894 μM), doxorubicin (IC50 =2.133 μM), or cisplatin (IC50 =0.013 μM), whereas they were relatively innocuous for normal human fibroblast (HDF-a) cells. The anticancer cell effects of Pd@W.tea NPs are mediated through the induction of apoptosis and G2/M cell-cycle arrest. PMID:29276385

  12. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  13. Effect of Catechins, Green tea Extract and Methylxanthines in Combination with Gentamicin Against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Combination therapy against resistant bacteria -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Sedigheh Fazly Bazzaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bacterial resistant infections have become a global health challenge and threaten the society’s health. Thus, an urgent need exists to find ways to combat resistant pathogens. One promising approach to overcoming bacterial resistance is the use of herbal products. Green tea catechins, the major green tea polyphenols, show antimicrobial activity against resistant pathogens. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of catechins, green tea extract, and methylxanthines in combination with gentamicin against standard and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and the standard strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of different agents against bacterial strains were determined. The interactions of green tea extract, epigallate catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, two types of methylxanthine, caffeine, and theophylline with gentamicin were studied in vitro by using a checkerboard method and calculating the fraction inhibitory concentration index (FICI. Results: The MICs of gentamicin against bacterial strains were in the range of 0.312 - 320 μg/mL. The MIC values of both types of catechins were 62.5 - 250 μg/ mL. Green tea extract showed insufficient antibacterial activity when used alone. Methylxanthines had no intrinsic inhibitory activity against any of the bacterial strains tested. When green tea extract and catechins were combined with gentamicin, the MIC values of gentamicin against the standard strains and a clinical isolate were reduced, and synergistic activities were observed (FICI < 1. A combination of caffeine with gentamicin did not alter the MIC values of gentamicin. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that green tea extract and catechins potentiated the antimicrobial action of gentamicin against some clinical isolates of S. aureus and standard P. aeruginosa strains

  14. In vitro comparison of the effect of Ledermix® paste and green tea extract on the concentration of inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vatanpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of Ledermix® paste and green tea extract on the concentration of inflammatory mediators. Materials and methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, first, the noncytotoxic concentrations of Ledermix® medicament and green tea extract were determined by MTT assay. Afterwards, the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α inflammatory mediators were assessed by ELISA test in the four experimental groups and also in the control group at different time intervals of 2, 24, and 48 hours and after 7 days. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the obtained raw data followed by Tukey's post-hoc test for pair comparisons. Results: the noncytotoxic concentration of green tea extract and Ledermix® paste equaled 12 µg/ml and 0.25 µg/ml, respectively. Time interval had no significant effect on the concentration of the mediators. Generally, both substances significantly decreased the concentration of IL-1β and IL-6 inflammatory mediators in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: Green tea extract is less cytotoxic and more biocompatible than Ledermix® paste. Both Ledermix® paste and green tea extract expressed anti-inflammatory effects.

  15. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huvaere, Kevin André Jurgen; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were...... of 50 ppm EDTA to samples with 6% fat was ineffective, but 750 ppm GTE (alone or in combination with EDTA) strongly reduced levels of hexanal and heptanal. Accumulation of primary lipid hydroperoxides was not affected by GTE, hence antioxidative activity was ascribed to scavenging of hexanal...

  16. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  17. Diet supplementation with green tea extract epigallocatechin gallate prevents progression to glucose intolerance in db/db mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortsäter Henrik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green tea was suggested as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes more than 70 years ago, but the mechanisms behind its antidiabetic effect remains elusive. In this work, we address this issue by feeding a green tea extract (TEAVIGO™ with a high content of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG or the thiazolidinedione PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone, as positive control, to db/db mice, an animal model for diabetes. Methods Young (7 week-old db/db mice were randomized and assigned to receive diets supplemented with or without EGCG or rosiglitazone for 10 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake was measured along the treatment. Glucose and insulin levels were determined during an oral glucose tolerance test after 10 weeks of treatment. Pancreata were sampled at the end of the study for blinded histomorphometric analysis. Islets were isolated and their mRNA expression analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results The results show that, in db/db mice, EGCG improves glucose tolerance and increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. EGCG supplementation reduces the number of pathologically changed islets of Langerhans, increases the number and the size of islets, and heightens pancreatic endocrine area. These effects occurred in parallel with a reduction in islet endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, possibly linked to the antioxidative capacity of EGCG. Conclusions This study shows that the green tea extract EGCG markedly preserves islet structure and enhances glucose tolerance in genetically diabetic mice. Dietary supplementation with EGCG could potentially contribute to nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  19. Effects of green tea extracts on non-shivering thermogenesis during mild cold exposure in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Chantal; Haman, François

    2013-07-28

    The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and caffeine on non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) during cold exposure is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the effects of co-ingesting EGCG and caffeine on the thermogenic responses of a 3 h cold exposure. A total of eight healthy males were exposed to mild cold, using a liquid-conditioned suit perfused with 158C water, on two occasions and consumed a placebo or an extract of 1600 mg of EGCG and 600 mg of caffeine (Green tea). Thermic, metabolic and electromyographic measurements were monitored at baseline and during the cold exposure. Results showed that the AUC of shivering intensity over the cold exposure period was reduced by approximately 20% in the Green tea (266 (SEM 6)% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) x min) compared with the Placebo (332 (SEM 69)%MVC x min) (P=0·01) treatments. In contrast, the total AUC for energy expenditure (EE) was approximately 10% higher in the Green tea (23·5 (SEM 1·4) kJ/kg x 180 min) compared with the Placebo (327 (SEM 74) kJ/kg 180 min) (P=0·007) treatments. The decrease in shivering activity combined with an increase in EE, following the ingestion of EGCG and caffeine during the cold exposure, indicates that NST pathways can be significantly stimulated in adult human subjects. The present study provides an experimental approach for human investigations into the potential role of diet and bioactive food ingredients in modulating NST during cold exposure. Stimulating NST pathways in such a manner may also provide important targets in the search of targets for the management of obesity and diabetes.

  20. Concentrated green tea extract induces severe acute hepatitis in a 63-year-old woman--a case report with pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillukat, Mike H; Bester, Carolin; Hensel, Andreas; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Petereit, Frank; Beckebaum, Susanne; Müller, Klaus-Michael; Schmidt, Hartmut H J

    2014-08-08

    ETNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The popularity of concentrated green tea extracts as dietary supplements for a wide range of applications is increasing due to their health-promoting effects attributed to the high amounts of catechins they contain. The most important of the green tea catechins is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG). While their beneficiary effects have been studied extensively, a small number of adverse events have been reported in the medical literature. Here we present a typical reversible course of severe hepatitis after green tea consumption. The case study describes in a 63-year old woman during treatment with green tea-capsules upon recommendation of a cancer support group. The histological finding was consistent with drug induced hepatitis, and other possible causes of hepatitis were excluded. According to the CIOMS/RUCAM score the causality was assessed as "probable". After discontinuation of medication, followed by extracorporal albumin dialysis, rapid and sustained recovery occurred. Pharmaceutically analysis (HPLC) of the green tea capsules did not give evidence for contaminants but revealed the two typical compounds of green tea, namely (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG, 93.2%) and epicatechin (EC, 6.8%) at a very high dose level. The present case highlights the fact that such concentrated herbal extracts from green tea may not be free of adverse effects under certain circumstances. There is still a lack of a uniform European Union-wide surveillance system for adverse drug reactions of herbal products. Therefore this case underlines the importance of public awareness in the potential risks in use of herbal products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biophysical Approach to Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Green Tea Catechins

    OpenAIRE

    Masami Suganuma; Atsushi Takahashi; Tatsuro Watanabe; Keisuke Iida; Takahisa Matsuzaki; Hiroshi Y. Yoshikawa; Hirota Fujiki

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AF...

  2. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results.

  3. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Xiao, Ting T.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results. PMID:26200774

  4. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Examining the Effects of Green Tea Extract on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamekhi, Z; Amani, R; Habibagahi, Z; Namjoyan, F; Ghadiri, Ata; Saki Malehi, A

    2017-07-01

    Antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory benefit of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in autoimmune disease has been proven in recent studies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of green tea on disease activity and quality of life in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. A randomized controlled trial on subjects with lupus was conducted, and 68 patients in the age range of 39.1 ± 10.3 years and body mass index of 25.7 ± 5.21 kg/m 2 completed the 12-week study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (1000 mg green tea extract, two capsules/day) and control (1000 mg of starch, two capsules/day). Main outcome measure, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity, was assessed by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index at the first and after 3 months of intervention. In addition, patient's quality of life was evaluated by short form of quality-of-life questionnaire at baseline and after 3 months. Green tea extract supplementation significantly reduced disease activity in lupus patients (p tea extracts for 12 weeks improves the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity as well as some aspects of quality of life. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2012-01-01

    Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enhance the detoxification pathway of environmental toxicants and carcinogens. Although epidemiological studies have provided inconclusive results on the effect of green tea consumption against the development of esophageal and lung cancers in humans overall, the inverse association between green tea intake and risk of esophageal cancer risk is more consistently observed in studies with adequate control for potential confounders. Epidemiological studies also have demonstrated an inverse, albeit moderate, association between green tea consumption and lung cancer, especially in non-smokers. This article reviews data on the cancer-preventive activities of green tea extract and green tea polyphenols and possible mechanisms against the esophageal and lung carcinogenesis in experimental animals, and summarizes the current knowledge from epidemiological studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and esophageal and lung cancer risk in humans. PMID:21538848

  6. The effects of green tea extract additive feeds on the growth performance and survival rate of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimpimol, T.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of green tea extract (GTE additive feeds on the growth performance in the giant freshwater prawn. Two separate trials were determined by using two different stages of prawn for initial stocking, one was the small post larva (PL10, the other was 5.6 g prawn. A Completely Randomized Design was applied in this study. The small post larva (PL10 were raised in cement tanks(1x1.5 m2. Three treatments with three replications each were performed applied as following: treatment 1 (control was the commercial pellet feed; treatment 2 and 3 were feeds with 1% and 2% green tea extract, respectively. This assay was run for 8 weeks. The prawns were randomly selected for weight determination every week. The result showed there was no significant difference in the specific growth rate and survival (P > 0.05 but the feed conversion ratio was reduced in prawn fed with green tea extracts (P 0.05. Therefore, green tea extract has potential as growth enhancer in giant freshwater prawn culture.

  7. Heterocyclic aromatic amine content in chicken burgers and chicken nuggets sold in fast food restaurants and effects of green tea extract and microwave thawing on their formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in chicken burgers (CBs) and chicken nuggets (CNs) purchased from fast food restaurants and the effects of green tea extract addition (GTE) to the covering material as wel...

  8. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

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    Shinichi Meguro

    Full Text Available Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  9. High-throughput screening of vitamins and natural antioxidants in nutraceuticals from green tea extracts by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Chang, James; Zhang, Feng

    2015-08-07

    A new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 52 vitamins and natural antioxidants in nutraceutical products obtained from green tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts. The automated extraction procedure was achieved in a simple disposable pipet extraction. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The method was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in European SANCO/12571/2013 Guideline 2013 and Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The extraction recoveries were in a range of 84.9-112.7%, with coefficient of variation 0.99. This validated method has been successfully applied on screening of vitamins and natural antioxidants in 136 different commercial nutraceutical products from green tea extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Green Tea Extract/Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid Complex in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Mice

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    Ki-Cheor Bae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is associated with the rapid spread of obesity. Obesity induces insulin resistance, resulting in β-cell dysfunction and thus T2DM. Green tea extract (GTE has been known to prevent obesity and T2DM, but this effect is still being debated. Our previous results suggested that circulating green tea gallated catechins (GCs hinders postprandial blood glucose lowering, regardless of reducing glucose and cholesterol absorption when GCs are present in the intestinal lumen. This study aimed to compare the effect of GTE with that of GTE coadministered with poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA, which is likely to inhibit the intestinal absorption of GCs.MethodsThe db/db mice and age-matched nondiabetic mice were provided with normal chow diet containing GTE (1%, γ-PGA (0.1%, or GTE+γ-PGA (1%:0.1% for 4 weeks.ResultsIn nondiabetic mice, none of the drugs showed any effects after 4 weeks. In db/db mice, however, weight gain and body fat gain were significantly reduced in the GTE+γ-PGA group compared to nondrug-treated db/db control mice without the corresponding changes in food intake and appetite. Glucose intolerance was also ameliorated in the GTE+γ-PGA group. Histopathological analyses showed that GTE+γ-PGA-treated db/db mice had a significantly reduced incidence of fatty liver and decreased pancreatic islet size. Neither GTE nor γ-PGA treatment showed any significant results.ConclusionThese results suggest that GTE+γ-PGA treatment than GTE or γ-PGA alone may be a useful tool for preventing both obesity and obesity-induced T2DM.

  11. Green tea in dermatology--myths and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Alexander; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Green tea consumption has a long tradition in Asian countries--especially China. The epidemiologically and experimentally observed anticarcinogenic and antiinflammatory effects of green tea have led to the implementation of green tea extracts in multiple therapeutic applications - both in dermatological and cosmeceutical preparations. The most abundant evidence exists for the anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive effect of green tea or its major constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Almost equally evident is the effect in infectious diseases such as cutaneous viral infections. For external genital warts, a topical ointment with green tea extracts was licensed in the USA in 2010, and recently also in Europe. Experimental evidence pinpointing the block of central signal transduction factors in inflammatory mechanisms has led to the evaluation of catechins in inflammatory disorders such as atopic dermatitis. The belief of green tea as a "wonder weapon" against diseases dates back thousands of years. According to a Chinese legend, ancient Emperor Shen Nung noted a delightful aroma after some leaves of a nearby tree had fallen into boiling water. He immediately proclaimed the new "drink" as "heaven-sent", starting the belief - persisting until today - of green tea as a medication from nature against many different diseases. This review summarizes biological effects and clinical implications of green tea. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Analytical strategy coupled with response surface methodology to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from ternary mixtures of green, yellow, and red teas (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Daniel; Grevink, Raymond; Zielinski, Acácio A F; Nunes, Domingos S; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2014-10-22

    This work aimed at using a simplex-centroid design to model the effects of green, yellow, and red tea mixtures (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) on metal chelation activity, phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and instrumental taste profile. The regression models that described the extraction of flavan-3-ols, o-diphenols, total phenolic compounds (TPC), free radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), cupric ion reducing antioxidant activity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were significant, and data were fit satisfactorily (R(2) > 80%). A mixture of green and red teas had a synergism in CUPRAC and TPC, whereas a mixture of yellow and red teas had a positive effect on CUPRAC and DPPH. An optimization was performed to maximize the antioxidant activity and flavan-3-ol content and to render a tea with mild bitterness, and results showed that a mixture of 14.81% green, 56.86% yellow, and 28.33% red teas would be the most suitable combination of factors.

  13. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS. A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins. The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+-catechin equivalents.

  14. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María de la Luz; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents. PMID:25383680

  15. Pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts: antioxidant activity and comprehensive characterization of bioactive compounds by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, María; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-11-06

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents.

  16. Elucidation of the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 1.0 M HCl by Catechin Monomers from Commercial Green Tea Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofrizal, S.; Rahim, Afidah A.; Saad, Bahruddin; Bothi Raja, P.; Shah, Affaizza M.; Yahya, S.

    2012-04-01

    The inhibitive action of commercial green tea extracts on mild steel (MS) in a 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed conclusively that of the eight catechin monomers and caffeine found in the original extracts, only four components were responsible for the inhibition of MS. The decreasing adsorption capacity of monomers on MS is related to the stereochemistry of molecules and the number of phenolic groups, and it is as follows: epigallocatechin gallate > epicatechin gallate > epigallocatechin > epicatechin. Adsorption of green tea extract constituent was found to follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the calculated Gibb's free energy values indicated the physisorption of inhibitor over MS surface. Physisorption was supported well by the potential zero charge (PZC) and molecular surface energy-level calculations.

  17. Properties and Antioxidant Action of Actives Cassava Starch Films Incorporated with Green Tea and Palm Oil Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Kátya Karine Nery Carneiro Lins; Conceição, Anderson Carlos de Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Juliana Caribé Pires; Assis, Denilson de Jesus; Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Druzian, Janice Izabel

    2014-01-01

    There is an interest in the development of an antioxidant packaging fully biodegradable to increase the shelf life of food products. An active film from cassava starch bio-based, incorporated with aqueous green tea extract and oil palm colorant was developed packaging. The effects of additives on the film properties were determined by measuring mechanical, barrier and thermal properties using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack butter (maintained for 45 days) under accelerated oxidation conditions. The antioxidant action of the active films was evaluated by analyzing the peroxide index, total carotenoids, and total polyphenol. The same analysis also evaluated unpacked butter, packed in films without additives and butter packed in LDPE films, as controls. The results suggested that incorporation of the antioxidants extracts tensile strength and water vapor barrier properties (15 times lower) compared to control without additives. A lower peroxide index (231.57%), which was significantly different from that of the control (pstarch films totally biodegradable and the use of these materials in active packaging of the fatty products. PMID:25251437

  18. Protective effects of Mengshan green tea and hawk tea against UV-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Ren Zhenglong; Zhang Huaiyu; Tang Zongxiang; Luo Peigao

    2005-01-01

    A group of cultured normal human skin-derived fibroblasts was used as the cell model to investigate protective and repair effects of aqueous extracts of Mengshan green tea and Hawk tea against 320-400 nm UV-ray irradiation, with the methods of MTT colorimetry and LDH release. It was found that the aqueous extracts had strong protective effect on fibroblasts against the UV-rays with dose dependence. There were no significant differences between the two kinds of tea aqueous extracts in a higher concentration of 5 mg/mL, whereas at lower concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 mg/mL the, green tea aqueous extract was less effective than the hawk-tea aqueous extract in protecting fibroblasts from the UV-ray damage. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the green tea and hawk-tea aqueous extract could repair damages induced by the UV irradiation with dose dependence. But there were no statistically significant differences between the two kinds of aqueous extract. The effects may be related to antioxidant effect of tea polyphenol. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of green tea polyphenols and different tea types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Kong, Fanbin

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether green tea, black tea and oolong tea have inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase which may be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Green tea polyphenols (TPs) strongly inhibited α-glucosidase activity by non-competitive inhibition with an IC50 value of 2.33 µg mL(-1) and the inhibitory effect was dependent on TP concentration and incubation order. Green tea, black tea and oolong tea also had dose-dependent inhibitory potential with IC50 values of 2.82, 2.25 and 1.38 µg mL(-1) (µg polyphenol mL(-1)), respectively. The study also showed that the content of unprecipitated TPs changed during enzymatic hydrolysis, leading to the change of the antioxidant activity. The change of the antioxidant activity of tea extracts revealed a similar trend to that of green TPs during enzymatic hydrolysis. Green TPs, green tea, black tea and oolong tea are excellent α-glucosidase inhibitors and their inhibitory potency is mainly attributed to TPs. These findings suggest that green tea, black tea and oolong tea can potentially be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea in reducing the formation of acrylamide during the bread baking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengjie; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Zhou, Weibiao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yutao; Lu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    This is the first study to investigate the extent of reduction in acrylamide formation during baking with the addition of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea, and to determine whether EGCG influences the texture and colour attributes of bread, or interacts with other ingredients. EGCG powders were added to white bread formulations at the concentrations of 3.3, 6.6 and 9.9g·kg -1 . The amount of acrylamide in the bread was analysed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. EGCG addition significantly reduced the acrylamide formation by 37% compared to the control and decreased the moisture content of the bread by 6%. It did not affect its texture attribute, but increased the lightness and the yellowness and decreased the redness of bread crust (with contrasting results in crumb). It also decreased granule size and porosity. In conclusion, EGCG fortification is a feasible method to decrease acrylamide formation in baked bread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamics of unloaded and green tea extract loaded lecithin based liposomal dispersions investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance T2relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtil, Emrah; Dag, Damla; Guner, Selen; Unal, Kubra; Oztop, Mecit H

    2017-09-01

    Liposomes are lipid bilayer vesicles that can be used as encapsulation systems for bioactive agents to provide increased protection against environmental stresses (such as pH or temperature extremes). Time Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR) that is based on differentiation of specimen contents with respect to magnetic relaxation rates provides detailed information on amount, state and distribution of water and oil and provide reproducible results on the samples. These make TD-NMR particularly suitable for time-dependent monitoring of emulsion system dynamics. In this study, spin-spin (T 2 ) relaxation times and relaxation spectra were used for characterizing green tea extract loaded and unloaded liposomes prepared with soy (S75) and egg lecithins (E80) by different preparation methods (such as homogenization type, pressure and solvent type). Mean particle sizes of liposomes were found to be the most influential factor in shaping mono-exponential T 2 relaxation times. The differences in particle sizes of E80 and S75 samples along with samples with different homogenization pressures could be monitored with T 2 relaxation times. Additionally, T 2 relaxation times were found to be correlated with particle shape irregularity, and chemical instability of samples due to lipid oxidation. With relaxation spectrum analysis, particular components in the sample could be distinguished (internal/external water and lipid bilayers), which gave more elaborate results on mechanisms of instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term green tea extract supplementation does not affect fat absorption, resting energy expenditure, and body composition in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2015-05-01

    Green tea (GT) extract may play a role in body weight regulation. Suggested mechanisms are decreased fat absorption and increased energy expenditure. We examined whether GT supplementation for 12 wk has beneficial effects on weight control via a reduction in dietary lipid absorption as well as an increase in resting energy expenditure (REE). Sixty Caucasian men and women [BMI (in kg/m²): 18-25 or >25; age: 18-50 y] were included in a randomized placebo-controlled study in which fecal energy content (FEC), fecal fat content (FFC), resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient (RQ), body composition, and physical activity were measured twice (baseline vs. week 12). For 12 wk, subjects consumed either GT (>0.56 g/d epigallocatechin gallate + 0.28-0.45 g/d caffeine) or placebo capsules. Before the measurements, subjects recorded energy intake for 4 consecutive days and collected feces for 3 consecutive days. No significant differences between groups and no significant changes over time were observed for the measured variables. Overall means ± SDs were 7.2 ± 3.8 g/d, 6.1 ± 1.2 MJ/d, 67.3 ± 14.3 kg, and 29.8 ± 8.6% for FFC, REE, body weight, and body fat percentage, respectively. GT supplementation for 12 wk in 60 men and women did not have a significant effect on FEC, FFC, REE, RQ, and body composition. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Effect of Gelatin-Based Edible Coatings Incorporated with Aloe vera and Black and Green Tea Extracts on the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Radi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gelatin coating incorporated with Aloe vera gel (50,100% and green and black tea extracts (5,10% on physicochemical, microbial, and sensorial properties of fresh-cut oranges at 4°C for 17 days. Significant differences in terms of quality parameters were observed between the control and coated fresh-cut oranges. The highest variation of quality parameters was observed in control, while the least variations were observed in coated slices with 100% Aloe vera and 10% green tea extract. The weight loss was increased with time, but the coating treatment especially with 100% Aloe vera had significant effect on the prevention of weight loss. Also, Aloe vera coated samples obtained the highest score in sensory evaluation. Coating with gelatin incorporated with Aloe vera and green tea extracts successfully retarded the microbial growth and therefore extended the shelf life of fresh-cut oranges during cold storage.

  4. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  5. Effect of steeping temperature on antioxidant and inhibitory activities of green tea extracts against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and intestinal glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyuan; Ai, Zeyi; Qu, Fengfeng; Chen, Yuqiong; Ni, Dejiang

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of steeping temperature on the biological activities of green tea, including the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities, and glucose uptake inhibitory activity in Caco-2 cells. Results showed that, with increasing extraction temperature, the polyphenol content increased, which contributed to enhance antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Green tea steeped at 100°C showed the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities with EC 50 or IC 50 values of 6.15μg/mL, 0.09mg/mL, and 6.31mg/mL, respectively. However, the inhibitory potential on glucose uptake did not show an upward trend with increasing extraction temperature. Green tea steeped at 60°C had significantly stronger glucose uptake inhibitory activity (ptea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective effects of rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis ), green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the modulation of oxidative stress by an indigenous herbal tea, rooibos, Chinese green tea and commercial rooibos and green tea supplements in rat testicular tissue. Male Wistar rats (n = 60) were fed with either fermented rooibos, “green” rooibos, Chinese green tea, commercial rooibos or green tea ...

  7. Metabolomics-driven nutraceutical evaluation of diverse green tea cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Fujimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6 and Sunrouge (SR strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive

  8. Metabolomics-Driven Nutraceutical Evaluation of Diverse Green Tea Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Megumi; Kosaka, Reia; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nesumi, Atsushi; Saito, Takeshi; Kanda, Tomomasa; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Background Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity) of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6) and Sunrouge (SR) strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive extract

  9. Green tea reduces body fat via upregulation of neprilysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzner, M; Tappenbeck, N; Gembardt, F; Rülke, R; Furkert, J; Melzig, M F; Siems, W-E; Brockmann, G A; Walther, T

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of green tea has become increasingly popular, particularly because of claimed reduction in body weight. We recently reported that animals with pharmacological inhibition (by candoxatril) or genetic absence of the endopeptidase neprilysin (NEP) develop an obese phenotype. We now investigated the effect of green tea extract (in drinking water) on body weight and body composition and the mediating role of NEP. To elucidate the role of NEP in mediating the beneficial effects of green tea extract, 'Berlin fat mice' or NEP-deficient mice and their age- and gender-matched wild-type controls received the extract in two different doses (300 or 600 mg kg -1 body weight per day) in the drinking water. In 'Berlin fat mice', 51 days of green tea treatment did not only prevent fat accumulation (control: day 0: 30.5% fat, day 51: 33.1%; NS) but also reduced significant body fat (green tea: day 0: 27.8%, day 51: 20.9%, PGreen tea reduced food intake. This was paralleled by a selective increase in peripheral (in kidney 17%, in intestine 92%), but not central NEP expression and activity, leading to downregulation of orexigens (like galanin and neuropeptide Y (NPY)) known to be physiological substrates of NEP. Consequently, in NEP-knockout mice, green tea extract failed to reduce body fat/weight. Our data generate experimental proof for the assumed effects of green tea on body weight and the key role for NEP in such process, and thus open a new avenue for the treatment of obesity.

  10. Pharmacodynamic interaction of green tea extract with hydrochlorothiazide against ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced myocardial infarction

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    Manodeep Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the rate of development of myocardial diseases and hypertension is very common, which is responsible for incremental morbidity and mortality statistics. Treatment of ischemic hypertensive patients with diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ can precipitate myocardial infarction due to hypokalemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction of green tea extract (GTE with HCTZ against ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial toxicity. Wistar albino rats of either sex were taken and pretreated with high (500 mg/kg, p.o. and low (100 mg/kg, p.o. dose of GTE for 30 days. Standard, high and low dose of interactive groups received HCTZ (10 mg/kg, p.o. for last 7 days. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by modified Lagendorff apparatus, and the effect of different treatments was evaluated by percentage recovery in terms of heart rate and developed tension, serum biomarkers, and heart tissue antioxidant levels. Prophylactic treatment groups, such as high and low dose of GTE and their interactive groups with HCTZ, exhibited significant percentage recovery in terms of heart rate and developed tension. Apart from that, significant increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase, decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive species in heart tissue, as well as significant decrease in serum lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine phosphokinase-MB and N-acetylcysteine levels have also been documented. The present findings clearly suggest that GTE dose-dependently reduces myocardial toxicity due to ischemia, and combination with HCTZ can reduce the associated side-effects and exhibits myocardial protection.

  11. Green tea extract suppresses adiposity and affects the expression of lipid metabolism genes in diet-induced obese zebrafish

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    Hasumura Takahiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral fat accumulation is one of the most important predictors of mortality in obese populations. Administration of green tea extract (GTE can reduce body fat and reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases in mammals. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of GTE on adiposity in diet-induced obese (DIO zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish at 3.5 to 4.5 months post-fertilization were allocated to four groups: non-DIO, DIO, DIO + 0.0025%GTE, and DIO + 0.0050%GTE. The non-DIO group was fed freshly hatched Artemia once daily (5 mg cysts/fish daily for 40 days. Zebrafish in the three DIO groups were fed freshly hatched Artemia three times daily (60 mg cysts/fish daily. Zebrafish in the DIO + 0.0025%GTE and DIO + 0.0050%GTE groups were exposed to GTE after the start of feeding three times daily for 40 days. Results Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography analysis showed that GTE exposure significantly decreased the volume of visceral but not subcutaneous fat tissue in DIO zebrafish. GTE exposure increased hepatic expression of the lipid catabolism genes ACOX1 (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl, ACADM (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, c-4 to c-12 straight chain, and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. GTE exposure also significantly decreased the visceral fat expression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3b which inhibits leptin signaling. Conclusions The present results are consistent with those seen in mammals treated with GTE, supporting the validity of studying the effects of GTE in DIO zebrafish. Our results suggest that GTE exerts beneficial effects on adiposity, possibly by altering the expression of lipid catabolism genes and SOCS3.

  12. Evaluation of γ-radiation on green tea odor volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, G.B.; Duarte, R.C.; Araujo, M.M.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on green tea odor volatiles in green tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The green tea had a large influence on radiation effects, increasing the identified volatiles in relation to control samples. The dose of 10 kGy was responsible to form the majority of new odor compounds following by 5 and 20 kGy. However, the dose of 5 kGy was the dose that degraded the majority of volatiles in non-irradiated samples, following by 20 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy showed has no effect on odor volatiles. The gamma radiation, at dose up to 20 kGy, showed statistically no difference between irradiated and non irradiated green tea on odors compounds.

  13. Evaluation of {gamma}-radiation on green tea odor volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, G.B., E-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN)-Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Duarte, R.C., E-mail: renatocduarte@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN)-Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Araujo, M.M., E-mail: mmozeika@yahoo.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN)-Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Purgatto, E., E-mail: epurgatt@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo-Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, FCF/USP, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bloco 14, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Villavicencio, A.L.C.H., E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN)-Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on green tea odor volatiles in green tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The green tea had a large influence on radiation effects, increasing the identified volatiles in relation to control samples. The dose of 10 kGy was responsible to form the majority of new odor compounds following by 5 and 20 kGy. However, the dose of 5 kGy was the dose that degraded the majority of volatiles in non-irradiated samples, following by 20 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy showed has no effect on odor volatiles. The gamma radiation, at dose up to 20 kGy, showed statistically no difference between irradiated and non irradiated green tea on odors compounds.

  14. Fabrication, physicochemical characterization and preliminary efficacy evaluation of a W/O/W multiple emulsion loaded with 5% green tea extract

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    Tariq Mahmood

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex multiple emulsions have an excellent ability to fill large volumes of functional cosmetic agents. This study was aimed to encapsulate large volume of green tea in classical multiple emulsion and to compare its stability with a multiple emulsion without green tea extract. Multiple emulsions were developed using Cetyl dimethicone copolyol as lipophilic emulsifier and classic polysorbate-80 as hydrophilic emulsifier. Multiple emulsions were evaluated for various physicochemical aspects like conductivity, pH, microscopic analysis, rheology and these characteristics were followed for a period of 30 days in different storage conditions. In vitro and in vivo skin protection tests were also performed for both kinds of multiple emulsions i.e. with active (MeA and without active (MeB. Both formulations showed comparable characteristics regarding various physicochemical characteristics in different storage conditions. Rheological analysis showed that formulations showed pseudo plastic behavior upon continuous shear stress. Results of in vitro and in vivo skin protection data have revealed that the active formulation has comparable skin protection effects to that of control formulation. It was presumed that stable multiple emulsions could be a promising choice for topical application of green tea but multiple emulsions presented in this study need improvement in the formula, concluded on the basis of pH, conductivity and apparent viscosity data.

  15. Green tea extract attenuates muscle loss and improves muscle function during disuse, but fails to improve muscle recovery following unloading in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brian T.; Wilson, Joseph C.; Sperringer, Justin; Mohamed, Junaith S.; Edens, Neile K.; Pereira, Suzette L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that green tea extract (GTE) would improve muscle recovery after reloading following disuse. Aged (32 mo) Fischer 344 Brown Norway rats were randomly assigned to receive either 14 days of hindlimb suspension (HLS) or 14 days of HLS followed by normal ambulatory function for 14 days (recovery). Additional animals served as cage controls. The rats were given GTE (50 mg/kg body wt) or water (vehicle) by gavage 7 days before and throughout the experimental periods. Compared with vehicle treatment, GTE significantly attenuated the loss of hindlimb plantaris muscle mass (−24.8% vs. −10.7%, P muscle function or mass compared with vehicle treatment, animals given green tea via gavage maintained the lower losses of muscle mass that were found during HLS (−25.2% vs. −16.0%, P muscle fiber cross-sectional area loss in both plantaris (−39.9% vs. −23.9%, P muscles after HLS. This green tea-induced difference was not transient but was maintained over the reloading period for plantaris (−45.6% vs. −21.5%, P muscle fiber cross-sectional area (−38.7% vs. −10.9%, P muscles during recovery from HLS compared with vehicle-treated muscles and decreased oxidative stress and abundance of the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), yet this did not further improve muscle recovery in reloaded muscles. These data suggest that muscle recovery following disuse in aging is complex. Although satellite cell proliferation and differentiation are critical for muscle repair to occur, green tea-induced changes in satellite cell number is by itself insufficient to improve muscle recovery following a period of atrophy in old rats. PMID:25414242

  16. Anti-inflammatory Action of Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Tomokazu; Goto, Shingo; Monira, Pervin; Isemura, Mamoru; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Green tea has been shown to have beneficial effects against a variety of diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Through cellular, animal, and human experiments, green tea and its major component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. Our previous findings have indicated that green tea and EGCG suppress the gene and/or protein expression of inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related enzymes. Using bibliographic databases, particularly PubMed (provided by the http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, United States), we examined the potential usefulness of green tea/EGCG for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases in human clinical and epidemiological studies. We also reviewed results from cellular and animal experiments and proposed action mechanisms. Most of the results from the human studies indicated the beneficial effects of green tea and tea catechins against inflammatory diseases. The cellular and animal studies also provided evidence for the favorable effects of green tea/EGCG. These results are compatible with our previous findings and can be largely explained by a mechanism wherein green tea/EGCG acts as an antioxidant to scavenge reactive oxygen species, leading to attenuation of nuclear factor-κB activity. Since green tea and EGCG have multiple targets and act in a pleiotropic manner, we may consider their usage to improve the quality of life in patients with inflammatory disease. Green tea and EGCG have beneficial health effects and no severe adverse effects; however, care should be taken to avoid overdosage, which may induce deleterious effects including hepatic injury. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Preparation of catechin extracts and nanoemulsions from green tea leaf waste and their inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3

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    Tsai YJ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yin-Jieh Tsai, Bing-Huei ChenDepartment of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Green tea is one of the most commonly consumed natural health beverages in Taiwan’s market, with the major functional component catechin being shown to possess several biological activities such as antioxidation, anticancer, and prevention of cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method to determine the variety and content of catechins in green tea leaf waste, a by-product obtained during processing of tea beverage. In addition, catechin nanoemulsion was prepared to study its inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results showed that a total of eight catechin standards were separated within 25 minutes by using a Gemini C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid (A and acetonitrile (B with flow rate at 1 mL/min, column temperature at 30°C, and detection wavelength at 280 nm. Among various extraction solvents, 50% ethanol generated the highest yield of total catechins from tea leaf waste, of which five catechins were identified and quantified. The catechin nanoemulsion was composed of catechin extract, lecithin, Tween 80, and deionized water in an appropriate proportion, with the mean particle size being 11.45 nm, encapsulation efficiency 88.1%, and zeta potential -66.3 mV. A high stability of catechin nanoemulsion was shown over a storage period of 120 days at 4°C. Both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could inhibit growth of PC-3 tumor cells, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration being 15.4 µg/mL and 8.5 µg/mL, respectively. The PC-3 cell cycle was arrested at S phase through elevation of P27 expression and decline of cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 expression. In addition, both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could induce

  18. Effect of green tea extract on bonding durability of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to caries-affected dentin

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    Carolina CARVALHO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Green tea extract has been advocated as a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP inhibitor; however, its effect on bond durability to caries-affected dentin has never been reported. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two MMP inhibitors (2% chlorhexidine and 2% green tea extract, applied after acid etching, on bond durability of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to caries-affected dentin. Material and Methods Occlusal enamel was removed from third molars to expose the dentin surface, and the molars were submitted to a caries induction protocol for 15 days. After removal of infected dentin, specimens were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid (15 seconds and randomly divided into three groups, according to the type of dentin pretreatment (n=10: NT: no treatment; GT: 2% green tea extract; CLX: 2% chlorhexidine. The etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions, and composite resin restorations were built on the dentin. After 24 hours, at 37°C, the resin-tooth blocks were sectioned perpendicularly to the adhesive interface in the form of sticks (0.8 mm2 of adhesive area and randomly subdivided into two groups according to when they were to be submitted to microtensile bond strength (μTBS testing: immediately or 6 months after storage in distilled water. Data were reported in MPa and submitted to two-way ANOVA for completely randomized blocks, followed by Tukey’s test (α=0.05. Results After 24 hours, there was no significant difference in the μTBS of the groups. After 6 months, the GT group had significantly higher μTBS values. Conclusion It was concluded that the application of 2% green tea extract was able to increase bond durability of the etch-and-rinse system to dentin. Neither the application of chlorhexidine nor non-treatment (NT - control had any effect on bond strength after water storage.

  19. Dietary Intervention of Artemisia and Green Tea Extracts to Rejuvenate Helicobacter pylori-Associated Chronic Atrophic Gastritis and to Prevent Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Migyeong; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Kangwan, Napapan; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Kim, Bok-Nam; Kim, Won-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2016-02-01

    As nonmicrobial dietary approach is capable of controlling Helicobacter pylori infection, we evaluated the efficacy of long-term dietary administration of Artemisia and/or green tea extracts on H. pylori-initiated, high-salt-promoted chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric tumorigenesis mouse model. Helicobacter pylori-infected and high-salt-diet-administered C57BL/6 mice were administered with Artemisia extracts (MP group) and/or green tea extracts (GT group) for 36 weeks in addition to the control group (ES group, gastroprotective drug, ecabet sodium 30 mg/kg, diet pellet). Gross and pathological gastric lesions were evaluated after 24 and 36 weeks, respectively, and their underlying molecular changes were measured in gastric homogenates. Detailed mechanisms were further evaluated in in vitro cell models. The erythematous and nodular changes and mucosal ulcerative and erosive lesions were noted in the control group at 24 weeks. MP, GT, MPGT, and ES groups all showed significantly ameliorated pathologic lesion compared to the control group (p pylori infection were significantly decreased with MPGT administration (p pylori infection (p pylori-induced serum TNF-α and NF-κB activations were significantly decreased with MPGT administration (p pylori atrophic gastritis or to suppress tumorigenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. THE EFFECT OF GREEN TEA LEAF EXTRACT ON SPATIAL MEMORY FUNCTION AND SUPEROXYDE DISMUTASE ENZYME ACTIVITY IN MICE WITH D-GALACTOSE INDUCED DIMENTIA

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    Ainun Rahmasari Gumay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in pathogenesis of brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer. Green tea has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotective activity. Objectives: to determine the effect of green tea extract on spatial memory function and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity in mice with D-galactose induced dementia Methods: An experimental study using "post test only control group design". Twenty male BALB/c Mice aged 6-8 weeks were divided into 4 groups. Negative control group (NG was induced by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (150 mg/kg BW once daily for 6 weeks. GT-90, GT-270, GT-540 were induced by D-galactose and orally administered with 90, 270, and 540 mg/kg BW of green tea extract once daily for 6 weeks. The spatial memory functions were assessed using Morris water maze and SOD enzyme activities were evaluated using ELISA. One-way Anova and Kruskal-Wallis were used for statistical analysis.  Results: mean percentage of latency time in the GT-90 (35.29 (SD= 2.69%, GT-270 (35.28 (SD= 2.62%, and GT-540 (35.62 (SD=5.05% were significantly higher compared to that of NG (20.38 (SD = 3.21%, p <0.05. SOD enzyme activity in the GT-270 (0.78 (SD = 0.07 U/ml was significantly higher compared to that of NG (0.51 (SD = 0.01 U ml, p= 0.004. Conclusion: Green tea extract may improve spatial memory function and the activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme in mice with D-galactose induced dementia.

  1. Polyphenol content of plasma and litter after the oral administration of green tea and tea polyphenols in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Bin; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Shang, Yan-Yan; Hu, Jing-Wei; Shao, Lei; Chen, Wei; Li, Da-Xiang

    2012-02-22

    Metabolic profiles of broiler chickens were examined after the ingestion of green tea, tea polyphenols, and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Solid-phase extraction of serum and litters yielded free catechins and their metabolites, which were then identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In plasma samples, (-)-gallocatechin, (+)-catechin, and EGCG were detected in the green tea group; pyrogallol acid, (epi)catechin-O-sulfate, 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-glucuronide, and (epi)catechin-3'-O-glucuronide were detected in the tea polyphenols group; and EGCG, (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), and 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-glucuronides were detected in the EGCG group. In litters, gallic acid, EGCG, GCG, and ECG were detected in the green tea and tea polyphenols groups; EGCG and ECG were detected in the EGCG group. The conjugated metabolites, 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-glucuronide, (epi)catechin-3'-glucuronide, and 4'-O-methyl-(epi)catechin-O-sulfate, were identified in the green tea group; 4'-O-methyl-(epi)catechin-O-sulfate and 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-sulfate were identified in the tea polyphenols group; only 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-sulfate was detected in the EGCG group. The excretion of tea catechins was 95.8, 87.7, and 97.7% for the green tea, tea polyphenols, and EGCG groups, respectively.

  2. Characterization of Black and Green Tea from Local Market

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    Sonia Ancuta Socaci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves from Camellia sinensis are used from ancient times for preparation of tea but also as raw material for different extracts which are used in food industry as well as in pharmaceutical or cosmetic products. Due to the increasing interest in tea health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize several brands of green and black tea found on local market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed through the evaluation of free radical scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The results obtained for the green and black tea samples varied widely, depending on the tea variety. The antioxidant capacity of the analyzed teas ranged between 12.10 and 40.03%RSA, while the total phenolic content was within 2090 and 6080 mg GA/ 100g. The concentrantion in flavonoids was between 9.04 and 15.34 g/100g of tea.

  3. Identification of Targets of a New Nutritional Mixture for Osteoarthritis Management Composed by Curcuminoids Extract, Hydrolyzed Collagen and Green Tea Extract.

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    Fanny Comblain

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that a mixture of curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract (COT inhibited inflammatory and catabolic mediator's synthesis by osteoarthritic human chondrocytes. The objective of this study was to identify new targets of COT using genomic and proteomic approaches.Cartilage specimens were obtained from 12 patients with knee osteoarthritis. Primary human chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer until confluence and then incubated for 24 or 48 hours in the absence or in the presence of human interleukin(IL-1β (10-11M and with or without COT, each compound at the concentration of 4 μg/ml. Microarray gene expression profiling between control, COT, IL-1β and COT IL-1β conditions was performed. Immunoassays were used to confirm the effect of COT at the protein level.More than 4000 genes were differentially expressed between conditions. The key regulated pathways were related to inflammation, cartilage metabolism and angiogenesis. The IL-1β stimulated chemokine ligand 6, matrix metalloproteinase-13, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and stanniocalcin1 gene expressions and protein productions were down-regulated by COT. COT significantly decreased stanniocalcin1 production in basal condition. Serpin E1 gene expression and protein production were down-regulated by IL-1β. COT reversed the inhibitory effect of IL-1β. Serpin E1 gene expression was up-regulated by COT in control condition.The COT mixture has beneficial effect on osteoarthritis physiopathology by regulating the synthesis of key catabolic, inflammatory and angiogenesis factors. These findings give a scientific rationale for the use of these natural ingredients in the management of osteoarthritis.

  4. Comparing the effect of aqueous extract of green tea and catechin on gonadotropins, β-estradiol, Progesterone, testosterone and ovarian follicle in polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model

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    Sayed Damoon Sadoughi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Compared with green tea, catechin has a more favorable effect on improving hormonal parameters, especially FSH hormone and increasing the number of ovarian follicles in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  5. Biophysical Approach to Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Green Tea Catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Masami; Takahashi, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Iida, Keisuke; Matsuzaki, Takahisa; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y; Fujiki, Hirota

    2016-11-18

    Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and microfluidic optical stretcher. Specifically, determination of biophysical properties of cancer cells, low cell stiffness, and high deformability in relation to migration, along with biophysical effects, were studied by treatment with green tea catechins. The study with AFM revealed that low average values of Young's moduli, indicating low cell stiffness, are closely associated with strong potential of cell migration and metastasis for various cancer cells. It is important to note that treatments with EGCG and green tea extract elevated the average values of Young's moduli resulting in increased stiffness (large elasticity) of melanomas and various cancer cells. We discuss here the biophysical basis of multifunctions of green tea catechins and green tea extract leading to beneficial effects for cancer prevention and treatment.

  6. Biophysical Approach to Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Green Tea Catechins

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    Masami Suganuma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AFM and microfluidic optical stretcher. Specifically, determination of biophysical properties of cancer cells, low cell stiffness, and high deformability in relation to migration, along with biophysical effects, were studied by treatment with green tea catechins. The study with AFM revealed that low average values of Young’s moduli, indicating low cell stiffness, are closely associated with strong potential of cell migration and metastasis for various cancer cells. It is important to note that treatments with EGCG and green tea extract elevated the average values of Young’s moduli resulting in increased stiffness (large elasticity of melanomas and various cancer cells. We discuss here the biophysical basis of multifunctions of green tea catechins and green tea extract leading to beneficial effects for cancer prevention and treatment.

  7. Simultaneous Separation and Purification of Tea Bioactives from summer Green Tea by Column Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Lei, S.C.; Sun, B.H.; ZENG, X.X.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, feasibility of producing high quality of tea polyphenols, the anine and caffeine from the extract of summer green tea by column chromatography was investigated. Crude extract of summer green tea obtained by hot water extraction was passed through columns of polyamide and NKA-II macroporous resin respectively, resulting in tea polyphenols-enriched fraction (96.27 +- 1.78%), the anine-enriched fraction (99.02 +- 0.43%) and caffeine-enriched fraction (99.25 +- 0.36%). The recovery rates for tea polyphenols, the anine and caffeine were 72.42 +- 1.41%, 66.12 +- 1.66% and 62.07 +- 2.17%, respectively. The separation procedure allowed the production of such products by decreasing impurities and avoiding the use of poisonous organic solvent. The results suggested that it was possible to produce high-quality products of rich-in tea polyphenols, the anine and caffeine by a simple way. From industrial point of view, this novel method has many merits such as high efficiency of separation, low consumption of energy and environment-friendly procedure. (author)

  8. Effect of Green Tea Extract-Enriched Diets on Insulin and Leptin Levels, Oxidative Stress Parameters and Antioxidant Enzymes Activities in Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bártíková Hana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and green tea extracts (GTE are often incorporated into diet intended to weight reduction, although the information about their efficacy in obese individuals is insufficient. The present study was designed to follow up the effect of defined and standardized GTE in mice with obesity induced by monosodium L-glutamate. Obese mice were fed with GTE-supplemented diet in three dosage regimens: 28-day and 3-day intake of 1 g GTE in 1 kg of diet and 28-day intake of 0.1 g GTE in 1 kg of diet. The information on body weight, food intake, oxidation stress parameters in blood and antioxidant enzymes activity in liver and small intestine was obtained. High doses of GTE decreased the specific activities of glutathione reductase and catalase and increased concentrations of malondialdehyde in blood. Specific activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and small intestine were not altered after GTE treatment except the decrease of NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase activity. Our results showed that GTE did not affect average body weight and did not markedly improve antioxidant status in glutamate-induced obese mice. Moreover, intake of high doses of GTE made antioxidant defense in obese animals even worse.

  9. Green Tea Antioxidative Potential in Irradiated Pregnant Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafy, Y.A.; Roushdy, H.ML.; Ashry, O.M.; Salama, S.F.; Abdel-Haliem, M.; Mossad, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Green tea (Gt) derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis contains polyphenolic compounds, also known as epicatechins, which are antioxidants in nature. This study aims to evaluate the possible anti oxidative potential of 2 concentrations of green tea extract in pregnant rats exposed to fractionated 3 Gy gamma irradiation of 1Gy installments at the 7 th, 11 th and 15 th days of gestation. Total and absolute white blood cells count, red blood cells count, hematocrit value, hemoglobin content and blood indices as well as glutathione were significantly decreased by irradiation at the end of the gestation period. Lipid peroxidation, serum lipid profile (total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol cone.) were elevated. Serum Na+ decreased and K+ ions elevated. Results revealed significant protection by both green tea cone, to counts of RBCs, WBCs, Hg, Ht, as well as lymphocytes and monocytes. Glutathione decreased with both green tea cone, and dropped further with both treatments. Lipid peroxidation and lipid profile were depressed. Moreover, Na+ and K+ levels were significantly ameliorated by both green tea cone., which suggests its applicability as an effective radioprotector. The steadily increasing use of nuclear and radiation technology extended to different fields, which has been paralleled by increasing potential risk for radiation exposure (Kajioka et al, 2000). The low-level radioactivity by environmental, medical and occupational settings has been found to cause several kinds of health damage including premature births, congenital defects, infant mortality, mental retardation, heart ailments, allergies/asthma, cancer, genetic damage and chronic fatigue syndrome (Sternglass, 1986)

  10. Effect of Green Tea Extract as Antioxidant on Shear Bond Strength of Resin Composite to in-Office and Home-Bleached Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharafeddin F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Shear bond strength (SBS of home and office bleached enamel will be compromised by immediate application of composite restoration. Antioxidant agent may overcome this problem. Objectives: This in vitro study assessed the effect of green tea extract on shear bond strength of resin composite to in-office and home-bleached enamel. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 extracted intact human incisors were embedded in cylindrical acrylic resin blocks (2.5 ×1.5 cm, with the coronal portion above the cemento enamel junction out of the block. Then, after bleaching labial enamel surfaces of 20 teeth with 15% carbamide peroxide 6 hours a day for 5 days, they were randomly divided into two groups: A1 and A2 (n = 10, depending upon whether or not they are treated with antioxidant. Labial enamel surfaces of the remaining 20 teeth were bleached with 38% hydrogen peroxide before being randomly divided into groups B1 and B2 (n = 10, again depending on whether or not the antioxidant was used in their treatment . The experimental groups (A2,B2 were treated with 5% solution of green tea extract before resin composite restoration was done by a cylindrical Teflon mould (5×2 mm. Shear bond strength of the specimens was tested under a universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020. The SBS data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (p < 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between shear bond strength of the control group (A1 and treated group (A2 but there were statistically significant differences between the groups B1 and B2 (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Application of antioxidant did not increase the shear bond strength of home-bleached enamel to resin composite but its application increased the shear bond strength of in-office bleached enamel to resin composite.

  11. Effect of green tea phytochemicals on mood and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Background: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea

  12. Fermented green tea extract exhibits hypolipidaemic effects through the inhibition of pancreatic lipase and promotion of energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dae-Bang; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Kim, Yeon-Ji; Kim, Sukyung; Kim, Jeongkee; Lee, Ji Hae; Joo, Kyungmi; Choi, Jin Kyu; Shin, Song Seok; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Hyperlipidaemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and related CVD and can be prevented with natural substances. Previously, we reported that a novel Bacillus-fermented green tea (FGT) exerts anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic effects. This study further investigated the hypotriglyceridaemic and anti-obesogenic effects of FGT and its underlying mechanisms. FGT effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro (IC50, 0·48 mg/ml) and ameliorated postprandial lipaemia in rats (26 % reduction with 500 mg/kg FGT). In hypertriglyceridaemic hamsters, FGT administration significantly reduced plasma TAG levels. In mice, FGT administration (500 mg/kg) for 2 weeks augmented energy expenditure by 22 % through the induction of plasma serotonin, a neurotransmitter that modulates energy expenditure and mRNA expressions of lipid metabolism genes in peripheral tissues. Analysis of the gut microbiota showed that FGT reduced the proportion of the phylum Firmicutes in hamsters, which could further contribute to its anti-obesity effects. Collectively, these data demonstrate that FGT decreases plasma TAG levels via multiple mechanisms including inhibition of pancreatic lipase, augmentation of energy expenditure, induction of serotonin secretion and alteration of gut microbiota. These results suggest that FGT may be a useful natural agent for preventing hypertriglyceridaemia and obesity.

  13. Source density analysis of the human EEG after ingestion of a drink containing decaffeinated extract of green tea enriched with L-theanine and theogallin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimpfel, W; Kler, A; Kriesl, E; Lehnfeld, R; Keplinger-Dimpfel, I K

    2007-01-01

    Source density analysis of EEG recordings from 12 healthy human volunteers was used in a randomized, placebo controlled cross over study to investigate the change in physiological parameters after ingestion of a soft drink containing green tea extract enriched with L-theanine and theogallin. EEG was recorded 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after ingestion during different recording conditions. Visually evoked P300 potentials were recorded every hour in addition to the EEG recordings. Analysis of the data revealed a general attenuation of electrical delta power under the condition of eyes open during the first hour (statistically significant at p caffeine presumably due to its high content in L-theanine and theogallin as found in preclinical experiments.

  14. Quality components and antidepressant-like effects of GABA green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jie; Zhou, Wen; Zeng, Zhen; Zhao, Wenfang; Huang, Yahui; Zhang, Xu

    2017-09-20

    Gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) green tea, with high GABA content, is a kind of special green tea. The goals of this study are to analyze the changes in quality components of green tea during anaerobic treatment, and to investigate whether or not the extract of GABA present in green tea can prevent depression or improve the depressive state of animals. Results showed that GABA content in green tea had increased significantly after anaerobic treatment. The contents of tea polysaccharides, total free amino acids, and water extracts were also increased whereas tea polyphenols were reduced. More importantly, the extract of GABA green tea could alleviate mouse depression and stress from desperate environments through the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), mRNA and protein expression levels of GABA A receptors. Therefore, these results indicate that GABA green tea may have a health effect on prevention and alleviation of depression, and it works on the GABAergic neurotransmission of mouse cerebral cortex via up-regulating expression of the GABA A receptor α1 subunit, thus ameliorating depression.

  15. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj P Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb.

  16. Antimicrobial activities of tapioca starch/decolorized hsian-tsao leaf gum coatings containing green tea extracts in fruit-based salads, romaine hearts and pork slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po-En; Lai, Lih-Shiuh

    2010-04-30

    The antimicrobial activities of edible coatings based on a tapioca starch/decolorized hsian-tsao leaf gum (dHG) matrix with various green tea extracts (GTEs) were evaluated. Its effect on the shelf-life extension of fruit-based salads, romaine hearts, and pork slices were investigated as well. Three types of GTEs from hot water (80 degrees C) (W), 40% (E4) and 80% (E8) ethanol were prepared. It was found that all GTEs showed pronounced inhibition on Gram positive bacteria in agar media, including Staphylococcus aureus BCRC 10781, Bacillus cereus BCRC 11778 and Listeria monocytogenes BCRC 14848, but not on Gram negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli DH10beta and Salmonella enteria BCRC 10747. The antimicrobial activities increased with increasing GTEs concentration (1, 2 and 5%), but did not differentiate significantly in terms of the effect of extraction solvents. When various GTEs (1%) were added to an edible coating formulation based on 1.35% tapioca starch +0.15% dHG +0.225% glycerol, pronounced antimicrobial activity on Gram positive bacteria was also observed as evaluated by using cylinder diffusion and antimicrobial migration tests. It was believed that the active compounds in green tea extracts could leave the coating matrix and migrate to increase the non-growth area. When being sprayed on various real food models, all tapioca starch/dHG coatings containing GTEs could successfully reduce the aerobic counting and growth of yeasts/molds by 1 to 2 log cycles in fruit-based salads, as compared to the control sample. Furthermore, during refrigerated storage of romaine hearts and pork slices for 48h, tapioca starch/dHG coatings with E4 extracts demonstrated pronounced antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (4-6 log cycles reduction), followed by W extracts and E8 extracts in a decreasing order. Such results implied the high efficacy of antimicrobial migration of tapioca starch/dHG coatings containing GTEs and their application potentials on

  17. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  18. Ameliorative effect of green tea against contrast-induced renal tubular cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Hamid; Hajian, Shabnam; Ahmadi, Ali; Baradaran, Azar; Kohi, Golnoosh; Nasri, Parto; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species are a mediator of kidney damage by contrast media, and green tea is a potent-free radical scavenger. This study was designed to examine whether green tea could protect against the nephrotoxicity induced by contrast media. Forty rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1 was control; group 2 received contrast medium (intravenous iodixanol, 10 mL/kg, as a single dose); group 3 received contrast medium and then green tea extract for 3 days (10 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal); and group 4 first received green tea and then contrast medium. Histological changes (degeneration, vacuolization of tubular renal cells, dilatation of tubular lumen, and presence of debris in the lumens) were assessed and recorded as scores from zero to 4. The sum of scores were used as the overal renal injury level. Groups 3 and 4 with green tea treatment had significantly higher overall scores than the control group, but significantly lower scores than group 2 with contrast medium only. A similar trend was seen for dilatation and degeneration levels. Vacuolization level was not significantly lower in the green tea groups as compared to the contrast medium group. Debris level was not significantly lower in group 3 than group 2. The differences were not significant between groups 3 and 4.   Conclusions. We observed beneficial effect of green tea against nephrotoxicity of contrast media. Green tea extract may offer an inexpensive and nontoxic intervention strategy in patients with a risk for nephrotoxicity with contrast media.

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on antioxidant capacity of green tea, yerba mate, and chamomile tea as evaluated by different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerolis, Luanai Grazieli Luquini; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Krambrock, Klaus; Neves, Maria Jose.

    2017-01-01

    Tea is a traditional plant extract with important cultural ties. It is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea consumption has some health benefits including antioxidant stimulus. Gamma radiation is currently used to control of postharvest pathogens on tea herb. However, free radicals can be generated, which consumes antioxidant molecules. A positive relation was found between radiation doses used and free radicals generation in green tea (Camellia sinensis), yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of aqueous and methanol extracts of these herbs was determined by various methods to compare the effect of irradiation of herb on antioxidant capacity of the extracts. TAC was evaluated by measuring: total phenols (decreased with irradiation in mate and green teas), total flavonoids (stable in aqueous extracts and decreased with irradiation in methanol extract of mate and chamomile), Trolox equivalent or ABTS (unchanged under irradiation), DPPH* scavenging capacity (stable on aqueous extract but diminished in methanol extract after irradiation), β carotene/acid linoleic ability (stable with the exception of chamomile tea that increased after irradiation) and, capacity to chelate ferrous ions (unchanged with irradiation). In conclusion, gamma irradiation reduced the capacity of some antioxidants but preserved the capacity of others. This study showed that one isolated test does not suffice to perform this evaluation reliably, which is a reflection of the diversity and complexity of the effects of irradiation on antioxidant molecules present in different samples.

  20. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an

  1. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an

  2. Interaction of green tea polyphenols with dairy matrices in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Azimy, Naheed; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of polyphenols in green tea has been associated with beneficial health effects. Although polyphenols are unstable in the intestinal environment, they may be protected by interactions with dairy proteins during digestion. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of a green tea extract on the digestibility of different dairy matrices and to monitor the antioxidant activity of these matrices with or without the green tea extract during digestion in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. Milk, yogurt and cheese with similar fat-to-protein ratios were subjected to simulated digestion. Matrix degradation, protein and fat hydrolysis, polyphenol concentration and radical scavenging activity were analyzed during gastric and intestinal digestion phases. Cheese was the matrix most resistant to protein and fat digestion. The addition of the green tea extract significantly decreased proteolysis in the gastric phase but had no effect in the intestinal phase. The kinetics of fatty acid release was reduced by the presence of the green tea extract. Transition from the gastric phase to the intestinal phase induced a 50% decrease in the antioxidant activity of the control (tea extract dispersed in water) due to the degradation of polyphenols. The presence of dairy matrices significantly improved polyphenol stability in the intestinal phase and increased the antioxidant activity by 29% (cheese) to 42% (milk) compared to the control. These results suggest that simultaneous consumption of green tea and dairy products helps to maintain the integrity and antioxidant activity of polyphenols during digestion.

  3. Antioxidant effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, E J J; Sathiyaraj, P; Deena, T; Kumar, D S

    2015-01-01

    Extract from Green Tea (GTE) acts as an antioxidant in acrylamide based polymer gel dosimeter. In this work, PAGAT gel was used for investigation of antioxidant effect of GTE.PAGAT was called PAGTEG (Polyacrylamide green tea extract gel dosimeter) after adding GTE. Free radicals in water cause pre polymerization of polymer gel before irradiation. Polyphenols from GTE are highly effective to absorb the free radicals in water. THPC is used as an antioxidant in polymer gel dosimeter but here we were replaced it by GTE and investigated its effect by spectrophotometer. GTE added PAGAT samples response was lower compared to THPC added sample. To increase the sensitivity of the PAGTEG, sugar was added. This study confirmed that THPC was a good antioxidant for polymer gel dosimeter. However, GTE also can be used as an antioxidant in polymer gel if use less quantity (GTE) and add sugar as sensitivity enhancer

  4. Antioxidant effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, E. J. J.; Sathiyaraj, P.; Deena, T.; Kumar, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Extract from Green Tea (GTE) acts as an antioxidant in acrylamide based polymer gel dosimeter. In this work, PAGAT gel was used for investigation of antioxidant effect of GTE.PAGAT was called PAGTEG (Polyacrylamide green tea extract gel dosimeter) after adding GTE. Free radicals in water cause pre polymerization of polymer gel before irradiation. Polyphenols from GTE are highly effective to absorb the free radicals in water. THPC is used as an antioxidant in polymer gel dosimeter but here we were replaced it by GTE and investigated its effect by spectrophotometer. GTE added PAGAT samples response was lower compared to THPC added sample. To increase the sensitivity of the PAGTEG, sugar was added. This study confirmed that THPC was a good antioxidant for polymer gel dosimeter. However, GTE also can be used as an antioxidant in polymer gel if use less quantity (GTE) and add sugar as sensitivity enhancer.

  5. Antiviral effects of green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) against pathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tea is the second most addictive worldwide after formulations containing caffeine in carbonated beverage. Green tea is made from leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. In the repertoire of traditional Chinese medicine, green tea beverages have played a fundamental role associated with their culture.

  6. Analytical Strategy Coupled with Response Surface Methodology To Maximize the Extraction of Antioxidants from Ternary Mixtures of Green, Yellow, and Red Teas (Camillia sinensis var. Sinensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, D.; Grevink, R.; Zielinski, R.; Nunes, D.S.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed at using a simplex-centroid design to model the effects of green, yellow, and red tea mixtures (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) on metal chelation activity, phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and instrumental taste profile. The regression models that described the

  7. Both phenolic and non-phenolic green tea fractionsinhibit migration of cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ean-Jeong Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-phenolic constituents also reveal chemopreventive and anti-metastatic effects.In this study, we investigated the effects of a fraction of green tea rich in phenolic compounds (PF, a non-phenolic fraction (NPF, which contains glyceroglycolipids (GGL, and a pure glyceroglycolipid compound isolated from the non-phenolic fraction in human cancer.Dried green tea leaves were extracted and applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. The resazurin reduction assay was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of green tea samples towards human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma and normal AML12 hepatocytes cells. Gene expression profiling was performed by mRNA microarray hybridization and the microarray results were validated by RT-PCR. The scratch migration assay was used to investigate the effects of green tea samples on cell migration in vitro. The changes of microtubule dynamics were observed using fluorescence microscopy.PF and NPF were prepared from methanol extract of green tea. A GGL was isolated from NPF. All three green tea samples did not show significant cytotoxic activity up to 10 µg/mL in both HepG2 and AML12 cells, whereas cytotoxicity of the control drug doxorubicin was observed with both cell lines (IC50 on AML12: 0.024 µg/mL, IC50 on HepG2: 2.103 µg/mL. We identified three sets of genes differentially expressed upon treatment with the green tea samples. The genes were associated with cytoskeleton formation, cellular movement and morphology. The correlation coefficients between mRNA expression values determined by microarray and RT-PCR were R = 0.94. HepG2 and U2OS cells treated with green tea extracts showed the delayed closures. Besides, the number of

  8. Both Phenolic and Non-phenolic Green Tea Fractions Inhibit Migration of Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ean-Jeong; Wu, Ching-Fen; Ali, Zulfiqar; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Shabana I; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Ikhlas A; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-phenolic constituents also reveal chemopreventive and anti-metastatic effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of a fraction of green tea rich in phenolic compounds (PF), a non-phenolic fraction (NPF), which contains glyceroglycolipids (GGL), and a pure glyceroglycolipid compound isolated from the non-phenolic fraction in human cancer. Dried green tea leaves were extracted and applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. The resazurin reduction assay was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of green tea samples toward human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma and normal AML12 hepatocytes cells. Gene expression profiling was performed by mRNA microarray hybridization and the microarray results were validated by RT-PCR. The scratch migration assay was used to investigate the effects of green tea samples on cell migration in vitro . The changes of microtubule dynamics were observed using fluorescence microscopy. PF and NPF were prepared from methanol extract of green tea. A GGL was isolated from NPF. All three green tea samples did not show significant cytotoxic activity up to 10 μg/mL in both HepG2 and AML12 cells, whereas cytotoxicity of the control drug doxorubicin was observed with both cell lines (IC 50 on AML12: 0.024 μg/mL, IC 50 on HepG2: 2.103 μg/mL). We identified three sets of genes differentially expressed upon treatment with the green tea samples. The genes were associated with cytoskeleton formation, cellular movement, and morphology. The correlation coefficients between mRNA expression values determined by microarray and RT-PCR were R = 0.94. HepG2 and U2OS cells treated with green tea extracts showed the delayed closures. Besides, the number of distinct

  9. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  10. Interfacial film stabilized W/O/W nano multiple emulsions loaded with green tea and lotus extracts: systematic characterization of physicochemical properties and shelf-storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tariq; Akhtar, Naveed; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2014-05-12

    Multiple emulsions have excellent encapsulating potential and this investigation has been aimed to encapsulate two different plant extracts as functional cosmetic agents in the W/O/W multiple emulsions and the resultant system's long term stability has been determined in the presence of a thickener, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Multiple W/O/W emulsions have been generated using cetyl dimethicone copolyol as lipophilic emulsifier and a blend of polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl ether and cetomacrogol 1000® as hydrophilic emulsifiers. The generated multiple emulsions have been characterized with conductivity, pH, microscopic analysis, phase separation and rheology for a period of 30 days. Moreover, long term shelf-storage stability has been tested to understand the shelf-life by keeping the generated multiple emulsion formulations at 25 ± 10°C and at 40 ± 10% relative humidity for a period of 12 months. It has been observed that the hydrophilic emulsifiers and HPMC have considerably improved the stability of multiple emulsions for the followed period of 12 months at different storage conditions. These multiple emulsions have shown improved entrapment efficiencies concluded on the release rate of conductometric tracer entrapped in the inner aqueous phase of the multiple emulsions. Multiple emulsions have been found to be stable for a longer period of time with promising characteristics. Hence, stable multiple emulsions loaded with green tea and lotus extracts could be explored for their cosmetic benefits.

  11. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbae Oh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE and tea pomace extracts (TPE by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD

  12. Green tea extract induces genes related to browning of white adipose tissue and limits weight-gain in high energy diet-fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Han; Chien, Yi-Wen; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Chan, Ching-Hung; Fan, Meng-Han; Huang, Hui-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background: A wealth of research has reported on the anti-obesity effects of green tea extract (GTE). Although browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been reported to attenuate obesity, no study has disclosed the effects of GTE on browning in Sprague Dawley rats. Objectives: The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of GTE on anti-obesity and browning, and their underlying mechanisms. Methods: Four groups of rats (n=10/group) were used including a normal diet with vehicle treatment, and a high-energy diet (HED) with vehicle or GTE by oral gavage at 77.5 or 155 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Body weight, fat accumulation, and serum biochemical parameters were used to evaluate obesity. The gene expressions were analyzed using RT-qPCR and western blotting. Results: GTE modulated HED-induced body weight, fat accumulation, and serum levels of triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, free fatty acids, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Moreover, GTE enhanced the serum high-density lipoprotein. Most importantly, the biomarkers of beige adipose tissue were up-regulated in WAT in GTE-given groups. GTE induced genes involved in different pathways of browning, and reduced transducin-like enhancer protein-3 in WAT. Conclusion: Our results suggest that GTE may improve obesity through inducing browning in HED-fed rats. Abbreviations : ALT: Alanine transaminase; AST: Aspartate transaminase; BAT: Brown adipose tissue; BMP-7: Bone morphogenetic protein-7; BW: Body weight; CIDEA: Cell death activator; CPT-1: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1; EFP: Epididymal fat pad; FFA: Free fatty acid; FGF-21: Fibroblast growth factor-21; GTE: Green tea extract; HDL: High-density lipoprotein; HED: high-energy diet; LDL: Low-density lipoprotein; MFP: Mesenteric fat pad; PGC-1α: Activates PPAR-γ coactivator-1; PPAR-γ: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ; PRDM-16: PR domain containing 16; RFP: Renal fat pad; SD: Sprague Dawley; TC: Total

  13. Protein Oxidation and Sensory Quality of Brine-Injected Pork Loins Added Ascorbate or Extracts of Green Tea or Maté during Chill-Storage in High-Oxygen Modified Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongberg, Sisse; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Skibsted, Leif H

    2018-01-15

    Background: Ascorbate is often applied to enhance stability and robustness of brine-injected pork chops sold for retail, but may affect protein oxidation, while plant extracts are potential substitutes. Methods: Brine-injected pork chops (weight-gain ~12%, NaCl ~0.9%) prepared with ascorbate (225 ppm), green tea extract (25 ppm gallic acid equivalents (GAE)), or maté extract (25 ppm GAE) stored (5 °C, seven days) in high-oxygen atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O₂ and 20% CO₂) were analyzed for color changes, sensory quality, and protein oxidation compared to a control without antioxidant. Results: No significant differences were observed for green tea and maté extracts as compared to ascorbate when evaluated based on lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, except for stale flavor, which maté significantly reduced. All treatments increased the level of the protein oxidation product, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde as compared to the control, and ascorbate was further found to increase thiol loss and protein cross-linking, with a concomitant decrease in the sensory perceived tenderness. Conclusions: Green tea and maté were found to equally protect against lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, and maté showed less prooxidative activity towards proteins as compared to ascorbate, resulting in more tender meat. Maté is a valuable substitute for ascorbate in brine-injected pork chops.

  14. Protein Oxidation and Sensory Quality of Brine-Injected Pork Loins Added Ascorbate or Extracts of Green Tea or Maté during Chill-Storage in High-Oxygen Modified Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tørngren, Mari Ann

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ascorbate is often applied to enhance stability and robustness of brine-injected pork chops sold for retail, but may affect protein oxidation, while plant extracts are potential substitutes. Methods: Brine-injected pork chops (weight-gain ~12%, NaCl ~0.9%) prepared with ascorbate (225 ppm), green tea extract (25 ppm gallic acid equivalents (GAE)), or maté extract (25 ppm GAE) stored (5 °C, seven days) in high-oxygen atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O2 and 20% CO2) were analyzed for color changes, sensory quality, and protein oxidation compared to a control without antioxidant. Results: No significant differences were observed for green tea and maté extracts as compared to ascorbate when evaluated based on lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, except for stale flavor, which maté significantly reduced. All treatments increased the level of the protein oxidation product, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde as compared to the control, and ascorbate was further found to increase thiol loss and protein cross-linking, with a concomitant decrease in the sensory perceived tenderness. Conclusions: Green tea and maté were found to equally protect against lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, and maté showed less prooxidative activity towards proteins as compared to ascorbate, resulting in more tender meat. Maté is a valuable substitute for ascorbate in brine-injected pork chops. PMID:29342928

  15. Teor de fluoretos em infusões de chá verde (Camellia sinensis Fluoride content in green tea infusions (Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Reto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of green tea consumption on fluoride ingestion. The extraction conditions of fluorides from green tea infusions were defined and nine brands of green tea available in Portugal were analyzed. The quantification of fluorides in the green tea was preceded by the implementation and validation of the potentiometric method (commercial fluoride selective electrode. The concentration of fluorides in the samples ranged from 0. 8 to 2. 0 mg L-1.

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body...... between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and a reduction in body weight. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  17. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by waste tea extract and degradation of organic dye in the absence and presence of H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Weixia; Chen, Kui; Wang, Yong; Liu, Xiuhua; Lu, Minghua

    2017-11-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) had been successfully synthesized by using an aqueous extract of waste tea as a stabilizing and reducing agent. The green synthesized AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and zeta potential. The work focused on the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and ethyl violet (EV) in aqueous solution with AgNPs as catalyst in the absence and presence of H2O2. The AgNPs exhibit fast, efficient and stable catalytic activity in the degradation of cationic organic dyes, but it is no catalytic degradation of anionic organic dyes at room temperature. The kinetics of dyes degradation with AgNPs follows the pseudo-second-order model. Meanwhile, the AgNPs also show better antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. The formed highly catalytic active AgNPs can be used as catalyst in industries and water purification.

  18. Green Tea Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Deficits in Ischemic Rats via Its Active Component Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate by Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Jen Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke results in brain damage and behavioral deficits including memory impairment. Protective effects of green tea extract (GTex and its major functional polyphenol (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on memory were examined in cerebral ischemic rats. GTex and EGCG were administered 1 hr before middle cerebral artery ligation in rats. GTex, EGCG, and pentoxifylline (PTX significantly improved ishemic-induced memory impairment in a Morris water maze test. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were increased by long-term treatment with GTex and EGCG. Both compounds were also associated with reduced cerebral infraction breakdown of MDA and GSH in the hippocampus. In in vitro experiments, EGCG had anti-inflammatory effects in BV-2 microglia cells. EGCG inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced nitric oxide production and reduced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV-2 cells. GTex and its active polyphenol EGCG improved learning and memory deficits in a cerebral ischemia animal model and such protection may be due to the reduction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.

  19. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  20. Inhibition of attachment of oral bacteria to immortalized human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) by tea extracts and tea components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chung, Felicia F L; Lee, Sui M; Dykes, Gary A

    2013-04-11

    Tea has been suggested to promote oral health by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the oral cavity. Most studies have focused on prevention of bacterial attachment to hard surfaces such as enamel. This study investigated the effect of five commercial tea (green, oolong, black, pu-erh and chrysanthemum) extracts and tea components (epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid) on the attachment of five oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 51655) to the HGF-1 gingival cell line. Extracts of two of the teas (pu-erh and chrysanthemum) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced attachment of all the Streptococcus strains by up to 4 log CFU/well but effects of other teas and components were small. Pu-erh and chrysanthemum tea may have the potential to reduce attachment of oral pathogens to gingival tissue and improve the health of oral soft tissues.

  1. The Effect of Dietary Supplements Containing Green Tea, Capsaicin and Ginger Extracts on Weight Loss and Metabolic Profiles in Overweight Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Farzin, Narjes; Taheri, Sara; Mahlouji, Mahnaz; Akbari, Hossein; Karamali, Fatemeh; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplements containing green tea, capsaicin and ginger extracts on weight loss and metabolic profiles among overweight women. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was implemented among 50 overweight women. Participants were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A received dietary supplements containing 125 mg green tea, 25 mg capsaicin and 50 mg ginger extracts (n = 25) group B received placebos (n = 25) twice with lunch and twice with dinner daily for 8 weeks. Compared with placebo, taking dietary supplements containing green tea, capsaicin and ginger resulted in a significant decrease in weight (-1.8 ± 1.5 vs. +0.4 ± 1.2 kg, respectively, p body mass index (BMI; -0.7 ± 0.5 vs. +0.1 ± 0.5 kg/m2, respectively, p supplements had significantly decreased serum insulin concentrations (-2.6 ± 3.9 vs. -0.6 ± 2.0 µIU/mL, p = 0.02), homeostatic model of assessment for insulin resistance (-0.5 ± 0.8 vs. -0.05 ± 0.6, p = 0.01), and increased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.01 ± 0.01 vs. +0.001 ± 0.01, p = 0.008) and plasma glutathione (GSH) levels (+73.8 ± 120.6 vs. -28.3 ± 193.4 µmol/L, p = 0.03) compared with the placebo. Our study indicated that taking green tea, capsaicin and ginger co-supplements for 8 weeks among overweight women had beneficial effects on weight, BMI, markers of insulin metabolism and plasma GSH levels. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Biological Effects of Green Tea Capsule Supplementation in Pre-Surgery Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Steven S.; Spicer, Darcy V.; Hawes, Debra; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Yang, Chung S.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Wu, Anna H.

    2013-01-01

    Regular green tea intake has been associated with an inverse risk of breast cancer. There are compelling experimental evidence that green tea, particularly, epigallocatechin gallate, the most potent green tea catechin, possesses a range of anti-cancer properties. We conducted a pre-surgical study of green tea capsules vs. no-green tea in women with primary breast cancer to determine the effects of green tea supplementation on markers of biological response. Postmenopausal women with ductal ca...

  3. Biological Effects of Green Tea Capsule Supplementation in Pre-surgery Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Steven S Yu; Darcy V Spicer; Darcy V Spicer; Debra eHawes; Chiu-Chen eTseng; Chung S Yang; Malcolm C Pike; Anna H Wu

    2013-01-01

    Regular green tea intake has been associated with an inverse risk of breast cancer. There is compelling experimental evidence that green tea, particularly, epigallocatechin gallate, the most potent green tea catechin, possesses a range of anti-cancer properties. We conducted a pre-surgical study of green tea capsules versus no green tea in women with primary breast cancer to determine the effects of green tea supplementation on markers of biological response. Postmenopausal women with duct...

  4. Metabolic and physiological effects of ingesting extracts of bitter orange, green tea and guarana at rest and during treadmill walking in overweight males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, C; Harris, R C; Delves, S; Corbett, J

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the acute effects of ingesting a widely used commercial formula containing extracts of bitter orange, green tea and guarana (Gx) on the metabolic rate and substrate utilisation in overweight, adult males at rest (study 1) and during treadmill walking (study 2). Two different groups of 10 sedentary males with more than 20% body fat participated in studies 1 and 2. In each study, subjects participated in two experimental trials during which they were given two 500 mg capsules containing either Gx or a placebo (P) in a counterbalanced double-blind manner. Doses of the main active ingredients were 6 mg of synephrine, 150 mg caffeine and 150 mg catechin polyphenols. In study 1, subjects completed 7 h supine rest with baseline measures taken during the first hour, with expired gases, blood pressure, heart rate and venous blood being collected every 30 min for the remaining 6 h following ingestion of Gx or P. In study 2, subjects exercised for 60 min at 60% heart rate reserve following ingestion of Gx or P 1 h previously. Venous blood samples were collected twice at rest and at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min, with expired gas measurements taken at 4, 9, 14, 19, 29, 39, 49 and 59 min. In both studies, venous blood was analysed for NEFA, glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations, while expired gases were used to calculate ATP production from carbohydrate and NEFA, as well as the total substrate utilised. The results did not show any significant effect of Gx ingestion on total ATP utilisation during 6 h rest or during 60 min treadmill walking. Changes were observed in the relative contributions of CHO and NEFA oxidation to ATP production in both studies, such that there was an increase in ATP production from CHO and a decrease from NEFA. The increase in CHO oxidation was shown to be as high as 30% at rest.

  5. Effects of rye bread enriched with green tea extract on weight maintenance and the characteristics of metabolic syndrome following weight loss: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerska, Joanna; Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether the incorporation of green tea extract enriched rye bread (GTRB) into the diet can improve weight loss (WL) maintenance and control of abnormalities linked to metabolic syndrome (MS). A total of 55 obese men and women (mean age: 53.0±7.0 years, body mass index: 35.0±5.5 kg m(-2)) were recruited. The study had a single-blind randomized study design and consisted of an 8-week WL phase with low-energy calorie diet, followed by a 12-week weight maintenance (WM) phase. During the WM phase, the subjects were randomized into two groups, receiving either the control rye bread (control group) or the GTRB (intervention group). The ingestion of 280 and 360 g GTRB provided daily totals of 123.2 and 158.4 mg caffeine, and 188.3 and 242.1 mg of epigallocatechin gallate, for women and men, respectively. After the WL phase, subjects lost 7.3±3.1 kg of their baseline body weight. GTRB intake did not significantly influence the maintenance of WL, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose concentrations. Although, it resulted in significant differences (mean difference [95% confidence interval]) between the treatment groups in the maintenance of waist circumference (-1.22 cm [-2.4, -0.02; P=.04]), the results were not clinically meaningful. Nevertheless, the ingestion of GTRB led to the maintenance of lower blood pressure (BP), also the proportion of subjects fulfilling the criteria of MS after the WM phase was lower in the intervention group than in the control group. Although GTRB consumption did not improve significantly the WL maintenance, it resulted in a better control of BP.

  6. Effect of Green Tea Extract Encapsulated Into Chitosan Nanoparticles on Hepatic Fibrosis Collagen Fibers Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy in Rat Hepatic Fibrosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, Abdel-Majeed A; Hanafy, Nomany A; Bharali, Dhruba J; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker A

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of Green Tea Extract (GTE) encapsulated into Chitosan Nanoparticles (CS-NPs) on hepatic fibrosis in rat model as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The bioactive compounds in GTE encapsulated into CS-NPs were determined using LC-MS/MS method. Additionally, the uptake of GTE-CS NPs in HepG2 cells showed enhanced uptake. In experimental fibrosis model, AFM was used as a high resolution microscopic tool to investigate collagen fibers as an indicator of hepatic fibrosis induced by treatment with CCl4. Paraffin sections of fibrotic liver tissues caused by CC4 treatment of rats and the effect of GTE-CS NPs treatment with or without CCl4 on hepatic fibrosis were examined. Liver tissues from the different groups of animals were de-waxed and processed as for normal H/E staining and Masson's trichrome staining to locate the proper area of ECM collagen in the CCl4 group versus collagen in liver tissues treated with the GTE-CS NPs with or without CCl4. Selected areas of paraffin sections were trimmed off and fixed flat on top of mica and inserted in the AFM stage. H/E staining, Masson's trichrome stained slides, and AFM images revealed that collagen fibers of 250 to 300 nm widths were abundant in the fibrotic liver samples while those of GTE-CS NPs were clear as in the control group. Data confirmed the hypothesis that GTE-CS NPs are effective in removing all the extracellular collagen caused by CCl4 in the hepatic fibrosis rat liver.

  7. Metabolomics-Driven Nutraceutical Evaluation of Diverse Green Tea Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Kurihara, Kana; Ida, Megumi; Kosaka, Reia; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nesumi, Atsushi; Saito, Takeshi; Kanda, Tomomasa; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity) of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. MET...

  8. Monitoring Chlorfenapyr in Green Tea during the Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Kenta

    In order to clarify the change in the leaves of agricultural chemicals during the green tea manufacturing process, we analyzed chlorfenapyr in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage by using an immunoassay. Chlorfenapyr is a novel broad-spectrum insecticide-miticide registered in many countries for the control of various insects and mite pests. Chlorfenapyr is stable and persistent in the environment. Furthermore, it is widely applied for tea cultivation in Japan. Therefore, we selected chlorfenapyr for analysis in this study. In the unrefined tea (Aracha) manufacturing process, the highest level of chlorfenapyr was 16.5 ppm, which was obtained in tea powder separated from leaves at the secondary drying stage. However, the level at the other processing stages in tea leaves was approximately 9 ppm, and no significant difference in the chlorfenapyr level was detected between the processing stages. After Aracha processing, tea leaves are classified on the basis of their size, shape and color; this is the refined tea (Shiagecha) manufacturing process. After this process, although a high level of chlorfenapyr was detected in bud tea (8.1 ppm) and honcha (on-grade tea; 6.2 ppm), the level in the other classified teas was approximately 4.0 ppm. Thus, this paper shows the difference in the chlorfenapyr level in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage. This indicated that there are significant differences in the agricultural chemical levels between the green tea processing stages.

  9. Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic inorganic polymer nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles using white tea extract and assessment of their in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparasti, Zeinab; Mahdavi Shahri, Mahnaz

    2018-06-01

    The use of nontoxic biological compounds in the synthesis of nanomaterials is an ecofriendly and cost-effective approach in nanotechnology. The present work was carried out to develop silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by a green method using white tea (Wt) extract as reducing agent for reduction of silver nitrate as silver precursor into the lamellar space of inorganic polymer montmorillonite (Mt) as an effective protective reagent and support as well. The bioformed Wt/Ag@Mt nanocomposite (NCs) was compared with pure biosynthesized Wt/Ag-NPs under free stabilizer condition and effect of Mt stabilizer on antioxidant, cytotoxicity and structural properties were also investigated. The prepared Wt/Ag-NPs and Wt/Ag@Mt-NCs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, SEM and EDX. The interlamellar space limits were without many changes, therefore Ag-NPs formed on the exterior surface of Mt. The XRD study showed that the particles are crystalline structure in nature, with a facecentered cubic (fcc) structure. The TEM result shows the bioformed Ag-NPs are spherical in shapes with mean particle size of 19.77 ± 3.82 for Wt/Ag-NPs and 15.87 ± 2.38 nm for Wt/Ag@Mt-NCs. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on MOLT-4 cells, a dose dependent toxicity with non-toxic effect of concentration below 40 μg/mL was shown. The outcome shows that IC 50 of our green synthesized Wt/Ag@Mt-NCs was 0.0039 in comparison to 2.13329 for Doxorubicin and 0.013 μM for Cisplatin which is much better than IC 50 of these anticancer drugs and more active than them for MOLT-4 cell line. Antioxidant activity indicated that they can be applied as potential radical scavenger and also showed that DPPH activity increased in a dose dependent manner. The bio-synthesized nanoparticles can potentially useful in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Saric

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies and tea, type not specified (two studies. Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  11. Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mechanisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food. In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food

  12. Green tea effects on cognition, mood and human brain function: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Edele; Beglinger, Christoph; Drewe, Jürgen; Zanchi, Davide; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2017-10-15

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a beverage consumed for thousands of years. Numerous claims about the benefits of its consumption were stated and investigated. As green tea is experiencing a surge in popularity in Western culture and as millions of people all over the world drink it every day, it is relevant to understand its effects on the human brain. To assess the current state of knowledge in the literature regarding the effects of green tea or green tea extracts, l-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate both components of green tea-on general neuropsychology, on the sub-category cognition and on brain functions in humans. We systematically searched on PubMed database and selected studies by predefined eligibility criteria. We then assessed their quality and extracted data. We structured our effort according to the PRISMA statement. We reviewed and assessed 21 studies, 4 of which were randomised controlled trials, 12 cross-over studies (both assessed with an adapted version of the DELPHI-list), 4 were cross-sectional studies and one was a cohort study (both assessed with an adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa assessment scale). The average study quality as appraised by means of the DELPHI-list was good (8.06/9); the studies evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa-scale were also good (6.7/9). The reviewed studies presented evidence that green tea influences psychopathological symptoms (e.g. reduction of anxiety), cognition (e.g. benefits in memory and attention) and brain function (e.g. activation of working memory seen in functional MRI). The effects of green tea cannot be attributed to a single constituent of the beverage. This is exemplified in the finding that beneficial green tea effects on cognition are observed under the combined influence of both caffeine and l-theanine, whereas separate administration of either substance was found to have a lesser impact. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Investigation of antiradical potential of different kinds of teas and extracts from these teas using antiradical activity units (TAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Wojciechowski

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Green, black and pu-erh teas are known to have strong antiradical properties in comparison to other plant raw materials.In this study fifteen different teas belonging to three types, green, black, and pu-erh tea (five of each kind, were investigated for their antiradical properties. Antiradical activity of extracts and raw materials was measured using DPPH and ABTS• radicals.Material/Methods:The antiradical potential of teas was measured using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS• (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt. The TAU515 and TAU734 (antiradical activity units were defined with the tests of DPPH and ABTS• , respectively, and the number of units was calculated per mg of extracts (TAU515/mg and TAU734/mg and g of raw materials (TAU515/g and TAU734/g.Results/Discussion:When the extracts were investigated, the highest number of antiradical units (TAU515/mg; TAU734/mg was found per mg of ethyl acetate extract obtained from green tea leaves assayed with DPPH and ABTS• : 57.7±0.8; 106±2.0, units respectively. When the number of antiradical units TAU515/g was calculated per g of raw material, the highest antiradical potential (7601±92 was observed for green tea leaves. The greatest TAU734/g value (14 303±354 was also calculated for green tea leaves. The lowest value of antiradical activity units TAU515/g (684±30 and TAU734/g (1870±180 was calculated for pu-erh tea leaves.A high positive correlation was found between the antiradical activity of the raw materials and the content of phenolic compounds in these raw materials.

  14. An Appraisal of Drug-Drug Interactions with Green Tea (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albassam, Ahmed A; Markowitz, John S

    2017-04-01

    This review summarizes published in vitro , animal, and clinical studies investigating the effects of green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) extract and associated catechins on drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters. In vitro studies suggest that green tea extract and its main catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, to varying degrees, inhibit the activity of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. UGT1A1 and UGT1A4 isoforms were also inhibited by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Animal studies suggest green tea extract and/or (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate significantly increase the bioavailability of diltazem, verapamil, tamoxifen simvastatin, 5-fluorouracil, and nicardipine. Conversely, green tea extract and/or (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduce the bioavailability of quetiapine, sunitinib, clozapine, and nadolol. Of the few clinical studies available for review, it appears neither green tea extract nor (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibit any major cytochrome P450 enzyme. Regarding drug transporters, in vitro studies indicate P-glycoprotein, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A1, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1, organic cation transporter 1, organic cation transporter 2, multidrug and toxin extrusion 1, and multidrug and toxin extrusion 2-K are potentially inhibited by green tea extract. A clinical study indicates the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A1 transporter is inhibited by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate while P-glycoprotein is unaffected. In conclusion, the ingestion of green tea extract or its associated catechins is not expected to result in clinically significant influences on major cytochrome P450 or uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme substrates or drugs serving as substrates of P-glycoprotein. However, some caution is advised in the consumption of significant amounts of green tea beverages or

  15. The Effect of Green Tea and Sour Tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Muscle Damage in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Amir; Pourmasoumi, Makan; Kafeshani, Marzieh; Karimian, Jahangir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2017-05-04

    Additional oxygen consumption during intense exercises may lead to oxidative stress and contribute to muscular fatigue. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), which contain various flavonoids and polyphenols, have many healthful properties such as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and heart protecting effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer athletes. This randomized, double-blind control trial was conducted on 54 male soccer players. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups to receive: 450 mg/d green tea extract (GTE) in the first group (n = 18), 450 mg/d sour tea extract (STE) in the second group (n = 18) and 450 mg/d maltodextrin in the control group (n = 18). Fasting whole blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and the end of the study to quantify the serum levels of muscle damage indices, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). After six weeks intervention, athletes who received GTE and STE supplements compared with the placebo had a significantly decreased MDA level (P = 0.008). Furthermore, STE supplementation resulted in a significant increase in TAC level compared with GTE and placebo groups (P = 0.01). However, supplementation with GTE and STE had no significant effects on muscle damage indices. GTE and STE supplementation have beneficial effects on oxidative stress status in male athletes. However, both kinds of tea extract did not affect muscle damage status.

  16. Green tea and anticancer perspectives: updates from last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Sultan, M Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir M Nasir; Naz, Ambreen

    2015-01-01

    Green tea is the most widely consumed beverage besides water and has attained significant attention owing to health benefits against array of maladies, e.g., obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer insurgence. The major bioactive molecules are epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, etc. The anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities of green tea were highlighted some years ago. Several cohort studies and controlled randomized trials suggested the inverse association of green tea consumption and cancer prevalence. Cell culture and animal studies depicted the mechanisms of green tea to control cancer insurgence, i.e., induction of apoptosis to control cell growth arrest, altered expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins, activation of killer caspases, and suppression of nuclear factor kappa-B activation. It acts as carcinoma blocker by modulating the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, transformation, inflammation, and metastasis. However, results generated from some research interventions conducted in different groups like smokers and nonsmokers, etc. contradicted with aforementioned anticancer perspectives. In this review paper, anticancer perspectives of green tea and its components have been described. Recent findings and literature have been surfed and arguments are presented to clarify the ambiguities regarding anticancer perspectives of green tea and its component especially against colon, skin, lung, prostate, and breast cancer. The heading of discussion and future trends is limelight of the manuscript. The compiled manuscript provides new avenues for researchers to be explored in relation to green tea and its bioactive components.

  17. Application of radiation technology to develop green tea leaf as a natural resource for the cosmetic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju Woon; Jo, Sung Kee; Kim, Kwan Soo

    2004-01-01

    The irradiation of natural resources such as green tea leaf, persimmon leaf, licorice root and stolon or Lonicera japonica improved the color of the extract, resulting in a higher applicability without any adverse change to the beneficial functions such as the inhibitory effects of oxidation, melanin hyperpigmentation on the skin, and others. To investigate the application of irradiated natural resources for a real cosmetic composition, the physiological activities of irradiated green tea leaf extract powder dissolved in butylene glycol and ethanol were compared to a commercial green tea extract product. Furthermore, a cream lotion was manufactured using the powder and the physiological activities were compared. Results showed that the irradiation of the green tea leaf extract and the freeze-dried powder from the extract had the same physiological activities as the commercial product in a cosmetic composition

  18. Application of radiation technology to develop green tea leaf as a natural resource for the cosmetic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju Woon; Jo, Sung Kee; Kim, Kwan Soo

    2004-10-01

    The irradiation of natural resources such as green tea leaf, persimmon leaf, licorice root and stolon or Lonicera japonica improved the color of the extract, resulting in a higher applicability without any adverse change to the beneficial functions such as the inhibitory effects of oxidation, melanin hyperpigmentation on the skin, and others. To investigate the application of irradiated natural resources for a real cosmetic composition, the physiological activities of irradiated green tea leaf extract powder dissolved in butylene glycol and ethanol were compared to a commercial green tea extract product. Furthermore, a cream lotion was manufactured using the powder and the physiological activities were compared. Results showed that the irradiation of the green tea leaf extract and the freeze-dried powder from the extract had the same physiological activities as the commercial product in a cosmetic composition.

  19. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  20. Green tea and the risk of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming; Zhi, Fan; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Keke; Xiang, Han; Mao, Qi; Wang, Xinghuan; Zhang, Xinhua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer (PCa) now remains the 2nd most frequently diagnosed cancer. In recent years, chemoprevention for PCa becomes a possible concept. Especially, many phytochemicals rich foods are suggested to lower the risk of cancer. Among these foods, green tea is considered as effective prevention for various cancers. However, clinical trials and previous meta-analyses on the relationship between green tea consumption and the risk of PCa have produced inconsistent outcomes. This study aims to determine the dose–response association of green tea intake with PCa risk and the preventive effect of green tea catechins on PCa risk. Seven observational studies and 3 randomized controlled trials were retrieved from Cochrane Library, PubMed, Sciencedirect Online, and hand searching. The STATA (version 12.0) was applied to analyze the data. The relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals were pooled by fixed or random effect modeling. Dose–response relations were evaluated with categories of green tea intake. Although there was no statistical significance in the comparison of the highest versus lowest category, there was a trend of reduced incidence of PCa with each 1 cup/day increase of green tea (P = 0.08). Our dose–response meta-analysis further demonstrated that higher green tea consumption was linearly associated with a reduced risk of PCa with more than 7 cups/day. In addition, green tea catechins were effective for preventing PCa with an RR of 0.38 (P = 0.02). In conclusion, our dose–response meta-analysis evaluated the association of green tea intake with PCa risk systematically and quantitatively. And this is the first meta-analysis of green tea catechins consumption and PCa incidence. Our novel data demonstrated that higher green tea consumption was linearly reduced PCa risk with more than 7 cups/day and green tea catechins were effective for preventing PCa. However, further studies are required to substantiate these conclusions

  1. Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe₃O₄/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline) from Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guizhen; Wang, Xiaoqin; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-06-25

    Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES) based on choline chloride (ChCl) and ionic liquids (ILs) based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs), and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline) from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE). The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine) from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80%) as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc) (8:2) as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g-1 and 5.07 mg•g-1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples.

  2. Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe3O4/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizhen Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES based on choline chloride (ChCl and ionic liquids (ILs based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs, and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE. The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM. Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80% as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc (8:2 as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g−1 and 5.07 mg•g−1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples.

  3. Fluoride in black and green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) infusions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fluoride contents in the infusions of 21 commercially available Ethiopian and imported black and green tea brands; in leaf and bag forms was determined by a fluoride ion-selective electrode method. Of the samples analyzed twelve were products from Ethiopia and the remaining nine were imported tea brands.

  4. Green Tea attenuates some biochemical disorders induced by γ- irradiation in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.S.; Amin, N.E.; Aziz, M.M.; Ain-Shoka, A.; Abdel-Latif, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    While radiation hazards, due to free radical generation, present an enormous challenge for biological and medical safety, green tea extract is a potent scavenger of a variety of free radicals. This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of green tea against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage in the liver and kidney in male rats using vitamin E as a reference drug. Green tea aqueous extract (300 mg/Kg body weighty) or vitamin E (40 mg/ Kg body weighty) were administered to male albino rats via gavages during 21 successive days before whole body exposure to gamma rays (6.5 Gy), from cesium-137 source, and during 7 days after irradiation. The animals were sacrificed the 7th day post-irradiation. The levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), urea, and creatinine, as well as activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased in sera of the irradiated rats. Moreover, radiation induced disturbances in liver and kidney content of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn). Treatment with green tea extract and or vitamin E before and post irradiation were significantly ameliorated the levels of cholesterol, TG, creatinine, and urea, as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP in serum. Also, green tea extract and or vitamin E achieved significant amelioration liver and kidney contents of Ca, Mg and Mn. In conclusion, green tea extract and or vitamin E show a radioprotective impact against ionizing-radiation-induced liver and kidney injury

  5. Effect on Green Tea Polyphenols on Breast Cancer Signaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cobrinik, David

    1999-01-01

    .... Using the EGF dependent growth of MCF1OA epithelial cells as a model, we found that the major polyphenol in green tea, EGCG, inhibited progression through the late Gi cell cycle restriction point...

  6. A minireview of effects of green tea on energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türközü, Duygu; Tek, Nilüfer Acar

    2017-01-22

    In recent years, individuals have begun to tend more frequently to some natural and herbal products to be used alone or as a combination with diet and exercise for ensuring the weight loss. Green tea is the leading one of these products. In some studies, it is reported that the green tea causes an increase in thermogenesis and substrate with fat oxidation by affecting on the sympathetic nervous system. It is reported that green tea has two main components that are associated with energy expenditure. One of them is caffeine and the other is catechin content. Each of these two components has an impact on energy mechanism separately. In this minireview article, mechanisms of action and effects of caffeine and catechin, which are found in green tea composition, on energy expenditure are assessed.

  7. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: Epidemiological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, I-Chun; Amarnani, Saral; Chong, Mok T; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Numerous efforts are being made to find chemoprotective agents able to reduce its risk. Amongst these, green tea has been reported to have a protective effect against stomach cancer. This article aims to critically evaluate all epidemiological studies reporting an association between green tea consumption and GC risk. MEDLINE, EBSCOHOST and Google Scholar were used to search for clinical trials of green tea and its correlation to stomach cancer. Studies include cohort and case-control studies. Outcome of interests are inverse association, no association, and positive association. Seventeen epidemiologic studies were reviewed. Eleven studies were conducted in Japan, five in China, and one with Japanese descendent in Hawaii. Ten case-control studies and seven cohort studies were included. The relative risks or odds ratio of GC for the highest level of green tea consumption was compared. Seven studies suggested no association, eight an inverse association, and one a positive association. One study had shown a significantly lowered GC risk when tea was served warm to cold. Another study also showed a significantly risk with lukewarm tea. All studies that analyzed men and women separately have suggested a reduced risk in women than in men, albeit no significant difference. This review demonstrates that there is insufficient information to support green tea consumption reduces the risk of GC. More studies on the subject matter are warranted. PMID:23840110

  8. Green tea catechins reduced the glycaemic potential of bread: an in vitro digestibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Royston; Gao, Jing; Ananingsih, Victoria K; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-08-01

    Green tea catechins are potent inhibitors of enzymes for carbohydrate digestion. However, the potential of developing low glycaemic index bakery food using green tea extract has not been investigated. Results of this study showed that addition of green tea extract (GTE) at 0.45%, 1%, and 2% concentration levels significantly reduced the glycaemic potential of baked and steamed bread. The average retention levels of catechins in the baked and steamed bread were 75.3-89.5% and 81.4-99.3%, respectively. Bread fortified with 2% GTE showed a significantly lower level of glucose release during the first 90 min of pancreatic digestion as well as a lower content of rapidly digested starch (RDS) content. A significantly negative correlation was found between the catechin retention level and the RDS content of bread. The potential of transforming bread into a low GI food using GTE fortification was proven to be promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of delta-tocotrienols and green tea polyphenols on high-fat-diet-induced bone deterioration in male C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our previous studies demonstrated an osteo-protective roles for tocotrienols (TT, extracted from annatto consisting of 90% delta-TT and 10% gamma TT) and green tea polyphenols (GTP, extracted from green tea) in obese animals. This study further examined the combined effects of TT with GTP on high-fa...

  10. An Update on the Health Benefits of Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda C. Reygaert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea, which is produced from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Over the past 30 years or more, scientists have studied this plant in respect to potential health benefits. Research has shown that the main components of green tea that are associated with health benefits are the catechins. The four main catechins found in green tea are: (−-epicatechin (EC, (−-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (−-epigallocatechin (EGC, and (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Of these four, EGCG is present in the largest quantity, and so has been used in much of the research. Among the health benefits of green tea are: anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, and benefits in cardiovascular disease and oral health. Research has been carried out using various animal models and cells lines, and is now more and more being carried out in humans. This type of research will help us to better understand the direct benefits of green tea. This review will focus primarily on research conducted using human subjects to investigate the health benefits of green tea.

  11. Effect of Honey and Green Tea Solutions on Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmegid, F; Al-Agamy, M; Alwohaibi, A; Ka'abi, H; Salama, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional in vivo study was to assess the effect of green tea and honey solutions on the level of salivary Streptococcus mutans. A convenient sample of 30 Saudi boys aged 7-10 years were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 15 each. Saliva sample was collected for analysis of level of S. mutans before rinsing. Commercial honey and green tea were prepared for use and each child was asked to rinse for two minutes using 10 mL of the prepared honey or green tea solutions according to their group. Saliva samples were collected again after rinsing. The collected saliva samples were prepared and colony forming unit (CFU) of S. mutans per mL of saliva was calculated. The mean number of S. mutans before and after rinsing with honey and green tea solutions were 2.28* 10(8)(2.622*10(8)), 5.64 *10(7)(1.03*10(8)), 1.17*10(9)(2.012*10(9)) and 2.59*10(8) (3.668*10(8)) respectively. A statistically significant reduction in the average number of S. mutans at baseline and post intervention in the children who were assigned to the honey (P=0.001) and green tea (P=0.001) groups was found. A single time mouth rinsing with honey and green tea solutions for two minutes effectively reduced the number of salivary S. mutans of 7-10 years old boys.

  12. Antidepressive-like effects and antioxidant activity of green tea and GABA green tea in a mouse model of post-stroke depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni; Moghaddam, Akbar Hajizadeh; Khanjani, Sedigheh; Arcidiaco, Patrizia; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Daglia, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role in the development of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and some psychiatric disorders. Tea consumption exerts beneficial effects against damage induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in ischemic stroke and depressive symptoms in depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vivo, the protective activity of green tea (GT) and GABA green tea (GGT) against post-stroke depression (PSD), a common consequence of stroke. The antidepressive-like effects of GT and GGT were determined by behavioral tests in a mouse model of post-stroke depression. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by GSH, SOD, and TBARS measurements on mouse brain. The chemical composition of tea extracts was characterized through chromatographic methods. GGT and GT resulted active in the modulation of depressive symptoms and the reduction of oxidative stress, restoring normal behavior, and at least in part, antioxidant endogenous defenses. The higher polyphenol, theanine, glutamine, and caffeine content may justify the higher activity found in GGT. This work represents the first attempt to demonstrate the positive effect of tea, and especially GGT, on post-stroke depression and to correlate this effect with the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of tea. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Antigenotoxic and Apoptotic Activity of Green Tea Polyphenol Extracts on Hexavalent Chromium-Induced DNA Damage in Peripheral Blood of CD-1 Mice: Analysis with Differential Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen García-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the modulating effects of green tea polyphenols on genotoxic damage and apoptotic activity induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI] in CD-1 mice. Animals were divided into the following groups: (i injected with vehicle; (ii treated with green tea polyphenols (30 mg/kg via gavage; (iii injected with CrO3 (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally; (iv treated with green tea polyphenols in addition to CrO3. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCEs obtained from peripheral blood at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed by differential acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining. Treatment of green tea polyphenols led to no significant changes in the MN-PCEs. However, CrO3 treatment significantly increased MN-PCEs at 24 and 48 h after injection. Green tea polyphenols treatment prior to CrO3 injection led to a decrease in MN-PCEs compared to the group treated with CrO3 only. The average of apoptotic cells was increased at 48 h after treatment compared to control mice, suggesting that apoptosis could contribute to eliminate the DNA damaged cells induced by Cr (VI. Our findings support the proposed protective effects of green tea polyphenols against the genotoxic damage induced by Cr (VI.

  14. Effect of marinating chicken meat with lemon, green tea, and turmeric against foodborne bacterial pathogenss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne diseases affect millions of people each year. To reduce the incidence of bacterial foodborne pathogens more effective treatment methods are needed. In this study we evaluated the effect of marinating chicken breast fillets with extracts of lemon, green tea, and turmeric against Campylob...

  15. Effect of green tea on kidney tubules of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, Waleed M; Abdeen, Suad; Alkhalaf, Mousa; Asfar, Sami

    2008-09-01

    It has been documented that green tea (GT) and its catechin components improve renal failure and inhibit the growth of mesangial cells. In the present study we examined the long-term effect of GT extract on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy and on the glycogen accumulation in the kidney tubules. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to normal control groups (2, 6, 8 and 12 weeks) and five diabetic groups (n 10) of comparable age. A GT diabetic group received 16 % concentration of GT for 12 weeks post-diabetes induction as their sole source of drinking water. GT treatment significantly (P kidney tubules. These results indicate that in STZ diabetes, kidney function appears to be improved with GT consumption which also prevents glycogen accumulation in the renal tubules, probably by lowering blood levels of glucose. Therefore, GT could be beneficial additional therapy in the management of diabetic nephropathy.

  16. Residue pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during green tea manufacturing and their transfer rates during tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guanwei; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Pingxiang; Hao, Zhenxia; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Chen; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-06-01

    Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in green tea and tea infusion were determined using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their dissipation pattern during green tea processing and infusion. Concentration and evaporation of PAHs during tea processing were the key factors affecting PAH residue content in product intermediates and in green tea. PAH residues in tea leaves increased by 2.4-3.1 times during the manufacture of green tea using the electric heating model. After correction to dry weight, PAH residue concentrations decreased by 33.5-48.4% during green tea processing because of PAH evaporation. Moreover, spreading and drying reduced PAH concentrations. The transfer rates of PAH residues from green tea to infusion varied from 4.6% to 7.2%, and PAH leaching was higher in the first infusion than in the second infusion. These results are useful for assessing exposure to PAHs from green tea and in formulating controls for the maximum residue level of PAHs in green tea.

  17. Mechanism of hydrolysis of native and cooked starches from different botanical sources in the presence of tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzar, Igor; Ragaee, Sanaa; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to highlight the mechanism of inhibition of hydrolysis and differences in hydrolysis among starches from different sources in the presence of green or black tea extract. The first experiment showed that black tea extract was more effective at reducing final viscosity for all starches. The second experiment showed that black tea was more effective at inhibiting starch hydrolysis compared to green tea when starch, tea extract, and pancreatin were added at the beginning of pasting. The third experiment, when starches were pretreated with tea extracts, showed that both treatments reduced starch hydrolysis. Analysis of supernatant free phenolic content and of soluble dextrins showed that amyloglucosidase activity was affected, with exceptions for potato starch. These observations suggest that starch hydrolysis is affected by interactions and also by the impact on specific enzymes based on starch structure. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Possibility of irradiation degradation of Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin in green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yifang; Wan Xiaochun; Hou Ruyan; Zhang Haiwei; Zhao Xiuxia; Wang Xiaohui

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ irradiation and green tea manufacturing processing on degradation of Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin in green tea during its manufacturing processing were studied. The two pesticides were sprayed onto the tea bushes and fresh tea leaves were picked at the same day, respectively. Half of the fresh leaves were processed into green tea. The fresh tea leaves and green tea were irradiated at 5 kGy and the Fenpropathrin in fresh tea degraded 7.3% after irradiation, while Deltamethrin degraded 14.7%. In green tea, Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin degraded 2.2% and 12.1% respectively after irradiation. Green tea manufacturing processes could reduce 16.4% of Fenpropathrin, and 4.4% of Deltamethrin. (authors)

  19. The effect of iron and fat in a diet containing green tea extract (Camellia sinensis) on the antioxidant capacity of some organs and the mRNA expression of specific genes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Kizis, Dimosthenis; Argyri, Konstantina; Kyriakou, Alkistis; Komaitis, Michael; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2014-11-01

    The hypothesis that iron and fat in the diet may affect green tea extract (GTE) bioactivity, in particular antioxidant capacity and gene expression, was proposed and tested in mice. Thirty mice were randomly assigned to have for 37 days free access to standard or high-fat diets with or without GTE and ferrous lactate. Mice were euthanized and specific organs were removed. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on liver and heart mRNA extracts. The FRAP assay showed that GTE from the standard diet did not affect plasma TAC but increased TAC of heart, aorta, and duodenum. GTE from diets enriched with iron resulted to lower TAC of liver and heart than diets with GTE alone. GTE from the fatty diet did not have any effect on TAC compared with fatty control diet, but increased TAC in heart and aorta compared with standard control diet. An effect on expression of the mapk-1 and NF-kB genes in heart was observed in the presence of GTE. These results suggest that GTE may exhibit bioactivity in some organs affected by dietary fat and iron. The findings of this study contribute to the elucidation of the role of dietary components on tea bioactivity.

  20. Comparative analysis of volatiles difference of Yunnan sun-dried Pu-erh green tea from different tea mountains: Jingmai and Wuliang mountain by chemical fingerprint similarity combined with principal component analysis and cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanshuang; Lv, Shidong; Wang, Chen; Gao, Xuemei; Li, Jiangbing; Meng, Qingxiong

    2016-01-01

    Modern instrumental analysis technology can provide various chemical data and information on tea samples. Unfortunately, it remains difficult to extract the useful information. We describe the use of chemical fingerprint similarities, combined with principal component and cluster analyses, to distinguish and recognize Pu-erh green teas, which from two tea mountains, Wuliang and Jingmai, in the Pu-erh district of Yunnan province. The volatile components of all 20 Pu-erh green teas (10 Wuliang and 10 Jingmai teas) were extracted and identified by headspace solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty-three volatiles (including alcohols, hydrocarbons, ketones, and aldehydes) were identified in the 20 Pu-erh green teas, and differences in compound compositions between them were also observed. Through fingerprint similarity, combined with principal component and cluster analyses, the 20 Pu-erh green teas were differentiated successfully based on their volatile characteristics. This study demonstrates that the GC-MS combined with chemical fingerprint and unsupervised pattern recognition method is suitable for the investigation of the volatile profiling and evaluating the quality and authenticity of teas related to the different origins.Graphical abstractDifferentiate Pu-erh green teas from different tea mountains by using chemical fingerprint similarity and multivariate statistical methods.

  1. Green tea, black tea consumption and risk of endometrial cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Li, Hui; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Yuan; Wu, Tao; Ma, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have assessed the association between green and black tea consumption and the risk of endometrial cancer (EC) and have yielded inconsistent results. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to systematically analyze the effect of green tea and black tea on EC risk. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and China Biological Medicine Database were searched through February 2, 2015 to identify studies that met pre-stated inclusion criteria. Overall relative risk (RR) was estimated based on the highest and lowest levels of green/black tea consumption. Dose-response relationships were evaluated with the data from categories of green/black tea intake in each study. For green tea, the summary RR indicated that the highest green tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of EC (RR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.66-0.92). Furthermore, an increase in green tea consumption of one cup per day was associated with an 11 % decreased risk of developing EC. (RR 0.89, 95 % CI 0.84-0.94). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observed in the meta-analysis (highest versus non/lowest, RR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.79-1.23; increment of one cup/day, RR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.94-1.03). The power of the estimate of green tea and black tea with risk of EC was 84.33 and 5.07 %, respectively. The quality of evidence for the association between green and black tea with EC risk was moderate and very low, respectively. The results from this meta-analysis indicate that green tea, but not black tea, may be related to a reduction of EC risk. Large population-based randomized controlled trials and large prospective cohort studies are required to obtain a definitive conclusion and determine the mechanisms underlying this association.

  2. Chlorophyll as an indicator of green tea quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ošťádalová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the changes in chlorophyll contents in green teas stored under different conditions and to suggest the most suitable way and length of green tea storage. A secondary aim was to evaluate the possibility of using the chlorophyll content as an indicator of tea freshness. Samples for analysis were obtained from a range of tea-growing regions. Chlorophyll contents were measured using UV-vis spectrophotometry. Chlorophyll absorbance was measured at 642.5 and 660 nm. Prior to storage, chlorophyll concentration in teas ranged from 1.12 to 1.89 mg per 1 g of tea, which corresponded to data given by other authors. Storage was found to lead to a decline in chlorophyll concentration. From the 6th month of storage onwards, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 was observed in all samples, irrespective of storage conditions. Based on the findings of this study, original and metal packaging can be considered the most chlorophyll-friendly. On the other hand, glass and paper packaging stored in direct daylight were found to have the strongest impact on chlorophyll concentration. Overall, it can be concluded that the storage time can have a strong influence on oolong green tea colour as an important qualitative variable. Thus, the shelf-life of tea should be shorter than the 12 months claimed by most manufacturers. Once the relationship between changes in chlorophyll concentration and length of the storage period had been established, the chlorophyll content was suggested as an indicator of the storage time (freshness of a tea substance.

  3. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant, there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity (Obese group or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% white tea extract (Obese + WTE for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress were studied. White tea supplementation was not able to reduce food intake, body weight, or visceral adiposity. Similarly, there were no changes in cholesterol rich lipoprotein profile between the groups. A reduction in blood triacylglycerols associated with increased cecal lipids was observed in the group fed the diet supplemented with white tea. White tea supplementation also reduced oxidative stress in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, white tea extract supplementation (0.5% does not influence body weight or adiposity in obese mice. Its benefits are restricted to the reduction in oxidative stress associated with obesity and improvement of hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  4. Green tea catechins potentiate the effect of antibiotics and modulate adherence and gene expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Larente, Jade; Morin, Marie-Pierre; Grenier, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    A number of studies have brought evidence that green tea catechins may contribute to periodontal health. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of a green tea extract and its principal constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to potentiate the antibacterial effects of antibiotics (metronidazole, tetracycline) against Porphyromonas gingivalis, and to modulate the adherence to oral epithelial cells and expression of genes coding for virulence factors and the high temperature requirement A (HtrA) stress protein in P. gingivalis. A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the green tea extract and EGCG. The synergistic effects of either compounds in association with metronidazole or tetracycline were evaluated using the checkerboard technique. A fluorescent assay was used to determine bacterial adherence to oral epithelial cells. The modulation of gene expression in P. gingivalis was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. The Vibrio harveyi bioassay was used for monitoring quorum sensing inhibitory activity. The MIC values of the green tea extract on P. gingivalis ranged from 250 to 1000 μg/ml, while those of EGCG ranged from 125 to 500 μg/ml. A marked synergistic effect on P. gingivalis growth was observed for the green tea extract or EGCG in combination with metronidazole. Both the green tea extract and EGCG caused a dose-dependent inhibition of P. gingivalis adherence to oral epithelial cells. On the one hand, green tea extract and EGCG dose-dependently inhibited the expression of several P. gingivalis genes involved in host colonization (fimA, hagA, hagB), tissue destruction (rgpA, kgp), and heme acquisition (hem). On the other hand, both compounds increased the expression of the stress protein htrA gene. The ability of the green tea extract and EGCG to inhibit quorum sensing may contribute to the modulation of gene expression. This study explored the preventive and therapeutic potential of green tea

  5. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers based on silica modified by deep eutectic solvents for the rapid simultaneous magnetic-based solid-phase extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge, Glycine max (Linn.) Merr and green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guizhen; Wang, Xiaoqin; Row, Kyung Ho

    2018-01-19

    Novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) with multiple-template based on silica were modified by four types of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) for the rapid simultaneous magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of tanshinone Ⅰ, tanshinone ⅡA, and cryptotanshinone from Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge; glycitein, genistein, and daidzein from Glycine max (Linn.) Merr; and epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, and epicatechin gallate from green tea, respectively. The synthesized materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Single factor experiments were to explore the relationship between the extraction efficiency and four factors (the sample solution pH, amount of DESs for modification, amount of adsorbent, and extraction time). It was showed that the DES4-MMIPs have better extraction ability than the MMIPs without DESs and the other three DESs-modified MMIPs. The best extraction recoveries with DES4-MMIP were tanshinone Ⅰ (85.57%), tanshinone ⅡA (80.58%), cryptotanshinone (92.12%), glycitein (81.65%), genistein (87.72%), daidzein (92.24%), epicatechin (86.43%), epigallocatechin gallate (80.92%), and epicatechin gallate (93.64%), respectively. The novel multiple-template MMIPs materials modified by DES for the rapid simultaneous MSPE of active compounds were proved to reduce the experimental steps than single-template technique, and increase the extraction efficiency. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Nondestructive detection of lead chrome green in tea by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Li; Sun, Chan-Jun; Luo, Liu-Bin; He, Yong

    2015-10-28

    Raman spectroscopy was first adopted for rapid detecting a hazardous substance of lead chrome green in tea, which was illegally added to tea to disguise as high-quality. 160 samples of tea infusion with different concentrations of lead chrome green were prepared for Raman spectra acquirement in the range of 2804 cm(-1)-230 cm(-1) and the spectral intensities were calibrated with relative intensity standards. Then wavelet transformation (WT) was adopted to extract information in different time and frequency domains from Raman spectra, and the low-frequency approximation signal (ca4) was proved as the most important information for establishment of lead chrome green measurement model, and the corresponding partial least squares (PLS) regression model obtained good performance in prediction with Rp and RMSEP of 0.936 and 0.803, respectively. To further explore the important wavenumbers closely related to lead chrome green, successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed. Finally, 8 characteristic wavenumbers closely related to lead chrome green were obtained and a more convenient and fast model was also developed. These results proved the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for nondestructive detection of lead chrome green in tea quality control.

  7. Exploring optimal supplement strategy of medicinal herbs and tea extracts for bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Liao, Jia-Hui; Hsu, An-Wei; Tsai, Po-Wei; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan

    2018-05-01

    This first-attempt study used extracts of appropriate antioxidant abundant Camellia and non-Camellia tea and medicinal herbs as model ESs to stably intensify bioelectricity generation performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). As electron shuttles (ESs) could stimulate electron transport phenomena by significant reduction of electron transfer resistance, the efficiency of power generation for energy extraction in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could be appreciably augmented. Using environmentally friendly natural bioresource as green bioresource of ESs is the most promising to sustainable practicability. As comparison of power-density profiles indicated, supplement of Camellia tea extracts would be the most appropriate, then followed non-Camellia Chrysanthemum tea and medicinal herbs. Antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents and power stimulating activities were all electrochemically associated. In particular, the extract of unfermented Camellia tea (i.e., green tea) was the most promising ESs to augment bioenergy extraction compared to other refreshing medicinal herb extracts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential Effects of Tea Extracts on Growth and Cytokine Production by Normal and Leukemic Human Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bayer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is one of the world’s most highly consumed beverages, second only to water. It is affordable and abundant and thus has great potential for improving health of those in both developed and developing areas. Green, oolong, and black teas differ in the extent of fermentation and types of bioactive polyphenols produced. Green tea and its major polyphenol decrease growth of some cancer cells and effect production of immune system cytokines. This study compares the effects of different types of tea extracts on viability and cytokine production by normal and leukemic human T lymphocytes. Generation of the toxic reactive oxygen species H2O2 by extracts was also examined.Methods: The Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and mitogen-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used in this study. Cell viability was determined by (3-4,5-dimethylthiamizol-2-yl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and production of interleukin-2 by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Levels of H2O2 generated by tea extracts were determined using the xylenol-orange method.Results: We found that green, oolong, and black tea extracts differentially effect the growth and viability of T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, substantially decreasing both growth and viability of leukemic T lymphocytes and having much lesser effects on their normal counterparts. Tea extracts also had differential effects on the production of the T lymphocyte growth factor interleukin-2, significantly decreasing production by leukemic cells while having only minor effects on normal cells. All three extracts induced H2O2 generation, with green and oolong tea extracts having the greatest effect. Leukemic cells were much more susceptible to growth inhibition and killing by H2O2 than normal lymphocytes.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:72-85 Conclusions: The three tea extracts studied altered leukemic T lymphocyte

  9. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Josic, Julija; Olsson, Anna Thol?n; Wickeberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. Methods The study was conducted on 14 hea...

  10. Effect of Green Tea Phytochemicals on Mood and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on tea constituents caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on mood and cognitive performance. These effects were observed when these phytochemicals were consumed separately and in combination. A review was conducted on 49 human intervention studies to summarize the research on acute psychoactive effects of caffeine, L-theanine, and EGCG on different dimensions of mood and cognitive performance. Caffeine was found to mainly improve performance on demanding long-duration cognitive tasks and self-reported alertness, arousal, and vigor. Significant effects already occurred at low doses of 40 mg. L-theanine alone improved self-reported relaxation, tension, and calmness starting at 200 mg. L-theanine and caffeine combined were found to particularly improve performance in attention-switching tasks and alertness, but to a lesser extent than caffeine alone. No conclusive evidence relating to effects induced by EGCG could be given since the amount of intervention studies was limited. These studies provided reliable evidence showing that L-theanine and caffeine have clear beneficial effects on sustained attention, memory, and suppression of distraction. Moreover, L-theanine was found to lead to relaxation by reducing caffeine induced arousal. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS and black tea by-product silage (BTS were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin’s activity in the rumen.

  12. Study the influence factors to the adsorption process for separation of polyphenols from green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Lan Huong; Tran, Trung Kien; Van Quyet, Chu; Phi, Nguyen Thien

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this work is applying adsorption process for separation of polyphenols from extract solution of green tea by-product. The older leaves and stem of green tea tree are collected from Hiep Khanh Tea Company (Hoabinh province, Vietnam). In this study, two kinds of adsorbent (silicagel, active carbon) were applied for the adsorption process in batch stirring vessel. The factors that affected to the process productivity were investigated: temperature, solid/liquid ratio, duration time, stirring speed. The process has been empirically described with statistical models obtained by Design of Experiments. The results indicated that active carbon was verified to offer good adsorption productivity (more than 95%), much more effective than silicagel (with only about 20%). From the model, the most affected factor to the process could be seen as solid/liquid ratio.

  13. Green tea and its anti-angiogenesis effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Bahman; Malekzadeh, Mehrnoush; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Masoudifar, Aria; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis. Indeed, they are the targets for anti-angiogenic drugs currently approved. Green tea (from the Camellia sinensis plant) is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is able to inhibit angiogenesis by different mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Green tea and its polyphenolic substances (like catechins) show chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic features in various types of cancer and experimental models for human cancers. The tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have multiple effects on the cellular proteome and signalome. Note that the polyphenolic compounds from green tea are able to change the miRNA expression profile associated with angiogenesis in various cancer types. This review focuses on the ability of the green tea constituents to suppress angiogenesis signaling and it summarizes the mechanisms by which EGCG might inhibit the VEGF family. We also highlighted the miRNAs affected by green tea which are involved in anti-angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation and emission of linalool in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves infested by tea green leafhopper (Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Lanting; Fu, Xiumin; Li, Jianlong; Tang, Jinchi; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-12-15

    Famous oolong tea (Oriental Beauty), which is manufactured by tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) infected with tea green leafhoppers, contains characteristic volatile monoterpenes derived from linalool. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of linalool in tea exposed to tea green leafhopper attack. The tea green leafhopper responsible for inducing the production of characteristic volatiles was identified as Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. E. (M.) onukii attack significantly induced the emission of linalool from tea leaves (ptea leaves exposed to E. (M.) onukii attack. This information should prove helpful for the future use of stress responses of plant secondary metabolism to improve quality components of agricultural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of irradiation decontamination on the qualities of green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Liu Chunquan; Yu Gang; Zhao Yongfu; Ji Ping; Jin Jie; Gu Guiqiang

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of irradiation on the main chemical components, such as heavy metal elements, pesticide residues as well as sensory qualities of green tea. The results indicated that irradiation had no significant impact on proteins, tea polyphenols, theine and heavy metal elements, slight differences in the contents of soluble sugar and amino acids. The content of cypermethrin reduced with the increase of irradiation dose. The color, liquor color, flavor and aroma of the tea decoction changed slightly when irradiated at the dose lower than 5 kGy. It was concluded that the optimal doses for the purpose of green team decontamination was at the range of 3-5 kGy according to the analysis of various quality factors. (authors)

  16. Anti-polymerization activity of tea and fruits extracts during rapeseed oil heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiecik, Dominik; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Korczak, Józef

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of natural antioxidants on polymerization of partially hydrogenated rapeseed oil heated in 170°C for 40h. In the research ethanolic extracts of green tea leaves (China Lung Ching), yellow tea leaves (China Kakecha), cranberry, blackberry, and lime were used. The yellow and green tea extracts were characterized by the highest content of total polyphenol and antioxidant activity. Polymers of triacylglycerols were found only in the polar fraction of heated oil. During heating, the increase of dimers, trimers, and oligomers was observed. However, it was dependent on the used additives and not directly related to the content of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. The final content of polymers in oil samples increased in the fallowing order: green teaoil without additives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective effect of green tea on dentin erosion and abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Thiemi Kato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in situ study evaluated the protective effect of green tea on dentin erosion (ERO and erosion-abrasion (ABR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten volunteers wore intraoral palatal appliances with bovine dentin specimens subjected to ERO or ERO + toothbrushing abrasion performed immediately (ERO+I-ABR or 30 min after erosion (ERO+30-min-ABR. During 2 experimental 5-day crossover phases, the volunteers rinsed with green tea or water (control, 1 min between each erosive (5 min, cola drink and abrasive challenge (30 s, toothbrushing, 4x/day. Dentin wear was measured by profilometry. RESULTS: The green tea reduced the dentin wear significantly for all conditions compared to control. ERO+I-ABR led to significantly higher wear than ERO, but it was not significantly different from ERO+30-min-ABR. ERO+30-min-ABR provoked significant higher wear than ERO, only for the placebo treatment. CONCLUSIONS: From the results of the present study, it may be concluded that green tea reduces the dentin wear under erosive/abrasive conditions.

  18. Improvement effect of green tea on hepatic dysfunction, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... effects against cancers. The present study was designed to assess the pro- tective effect of green tea infusion by evaluating the free radicals scavenging capacity using the DPPH and NBT / riboflavin in vitro. In vivo, the liver dysfunction paramet- ers rate, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes acti-.

  19. Improvement effect of green tea on hepatic dysfunction, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have evaluated the antioxidant effect of green tea on cadmium-induced hepatic dysfunction and stress oxidant in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were administered cadmium by injection with 20 μmoles/Kg bw/3 days for six months. Results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) liver dysfunction, lipid peroxidation and a decline in ...

  20. Protective role of green tea polyphenols against paraquat induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective role of green tea polyphenols against paraquat induced oxidative stress in rat liver. Sabah G El-Banna. Abstract. No Abstract. The Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Vol. 24(1) 2006: 1-12. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Sustained Release Oral Nanoformulated Green Tea for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    cancer (PCa). BODY: Synthesis of chitosan-based nanoparticles encapsulating EGCG: Chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized in mild acidic conditions...with green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Cancer Res 2009; 69:1712-6. PMID: 19223530 3. Perez C, Sanchez A, Putnam D, Ting D, Langer R

  2. Green tea polyphenol induces significant cell death in human lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of EGCG on lung cancer cells, including H1155 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. The induction of reactive oxygen species, oxidative DNA damage, and apoptosis were evident following EGCG treatment. Keywords: Green tea, Lung cancer, Catechins, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Oxidative stress, Oxidative DNA damage ...

  3. Green Barriers for China Tea : A Case Study of Anhui Tea Imports and Exports Co., Ltd Faces Green Barriers in Exporting

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Yanjing

    2014-01-01

    Tea industry is one of the traditional industries in China, and it is an indispensable livelihood industry with obvious competitive advantages in China. As we know, the economy of China has grown quickly after sweeping economic reform. Nowadays, the green barriers have become the most popular topic in the tea exporting area. No country escapes the impact of green barriers. Similarly, green barriers will bring opportunities and challenges. Anhui Tea Imports and Exports Co., Ltd is an i...

  4. Green tea polyphenols extend the lifespan of male drosophila melanogaster while impairing reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Terry; Schriner, Samuel E; Okoro, Michael; Lu, David; Chiang, Beatrice T; Huey, Jocelyn; Jafari, Mahtab

    2014-12-01

    Green tea is a popular beverage believed to have many health benefits, including a reduction in the risks of heart disease and cancer. Rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, green tea and its components have been shown to increase the lifespan of various animal models, including Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the gender-specific effects of green tea on the lifespan of fruit flies and observed that green tea extended the lifespan of male flies only. This effect was found to be independent of typical aging interventions, such as dietary restriction, modulation of oxidative energy metabolism, and improved tolerance to environmental stresses. The one exception was that green tea did protect male flies against iron toxicity. Since there is an inverse correlation between lifespan and reproduction, the impact of green tea on male reproductive fitness was also investigated. We found that green tea negatively impacted male fertility as shown by a reduced number of offspring produced and increased mating latency. We further identified that the lifespan extension properties of green tea was only observed in the presence of females which alludes to a reproductive (or mating) dependent mechanism. Our findings suggest that green tea extends the lifespan of male flies by inhibiting reproductive potential, possibly by limiting iron uptake. To our knowledge, our study is the first to report the negative impact of green tea on Drosophila male reproduction. Our results also support previous studies that suggest that green tea might have a negative effect on reproductive fitness in humans.

  5. Study of nutritional value of dried tea leaves and infusions of black, green and white teas from Chinese plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernicka, Maria; Zaguła, Grzegorz; Bajcar, Marcin; Saletnik, Bogdan; Puchalski, Czesław

    The processing of tea leaves determines the contents of bioactive ingredients, hence it should be expected that each variety of tea, black, red or green, will represent a different package of compounds of physiological importance. Taste and aroma, as well as price and brand are the main factors impacting consumers’ preferences with regard to tea of their choice; on the other hand consumers less frequently pay attention to the chemical composition and nutritional value of tea. The purpose of the study was assessment of the nutritional value of black, green and white high-quality tea leaf from Chinese plantations based on the chemical composition of the dried leaves as well as minerals and caffeine content in tea infusions. The research material included 18 high-quality loose-leaf teas produced at Chinese plantations, imported to Poland, and purchased in an online store. The analyses included examination of the dried tea leaves for their chemical composition (contents of water, protein, volatile substances and ash) and assessment of selected minerals and caffeine contents in the tea infusions. High-quality Chinese green teas were found with the most valuable composition of minerals, i.e. the highest contents of Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Ca and Al and the highest contents of protein in comparison to the other products. Chinese black teas had the highest contents of total ash and caffeine and white teas were characterized with high content of volatile substances, similar to the black teas, and the highest content of water and the lowest content of total ash. The three types of tea brews examined in the present study, in particular green tea beverages, significantly enhance the organism’s mineral balance by providing valuable elements

  6. Analysis of cream formation in green tea concentrates with different solid concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Chen, Su-Qin; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Tang, Ping; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The formation of tea cream in the green tea concentrates of different solid concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°Brix) was investigated. The results showed a good positive correlation (γ = 0.98, p ≤ 0.05) between the amount of tea cream and the solid concentrations from 5 to 40°Brix, while the amount of tea cream in the tea concentrates of 50 and 60°Brix decreased acutely. Total sugar, caffeine and catechins were found to be the main chemical components of tea cream in the green tea c...

  7. Healthy properties of green and white teas: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoriza, S; Mesías, M; Cabrera, C; Rufián-Henares, J A

    2017-08-01

    Green tea has been consumed for centuries in Japan, China and Morocco. White tea, which is considered a variety of green tea, is mostly consumed in China and is very appreciated for its flavor. Currently the consumption of both types of tea has been extended to the western countries even as a functional ingredient. A group of polyphenols called catechins stands out among their bioactive components, the most abundant being the (-) epigallocatechin gallate, with high antioxidant power. Teas also contain other phenolic compounds such as gallic, caffeic, chlorogenic or cinnamic acids, quercetin and proanthocyanidols, caffeine, theophylline, l-theanine and minerals such as fluorine, manganese or chromium. Investigations have mainly been focused on their antioxidant potential and their implication in the prevention and treatment of degenerative diseases. Several studies have evaluated their role in cardiovascular diseases, body weight control, bone mass increase, protection against neurodegenerative diseases and improvement of type 2 diabetes, among other pathologies. The main points of controversy are the design and interpretation of epidemiological and human intervention studies and the lack of information on catechins availability, metabolism and biotransformation. This review compiles and analyzes the latest peer-reviewed papers published from 2002 up to February 2017, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

  8. NMR Metabolic profiling of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaves grown at Kemuning, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, D. S. C.; Kristanti, M. W.; Putri, R. K.; Rinanto, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) has been famous as a beverage and natural medicine. It contains a broad range of primary and secondary metabolites i.e. polyphenols. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has been widely used for metabolic profiling in medicinal plants. It provides a very fast and detailed analysis of the biomolecular composition of crude extracts. Moreover, an NMR spectrum is a physical characteristic of a compound and thus highly reproducible. Therefore, this study aims to profile metabolites of three different varieties of green tea C. Sinensis grown in Kemuning, Middle Java. Three varieties of green tea collected on Kemuning (TR1 2025, Gambung 4/5, and Chiaruan 143) were used in this study. 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 230C on a 400 MHz Agilent WB (Widebore). The analysis was performed on dried green tea leaves and analyzed by 1H-NMR, 2D-J-resolved and 1H-1H correlated spectroscopy (COSY). MestRenova version 11.0.0 applied to identify metabolites in samples. A 1H-NMR spectrum of tea showed amino acids and organic acids signal at the area δ 0.8-4.0. These were theanine, alanine, threonine, succinic acid, aspartic acid, lactic acid. Anomeric protons of carbohydrate were shown by the region of β-glucose, α-glucose, fructose and sucrose. The phenolic region was depicted at area δ 5.5-8.5. Epigallocatechin derivates and caffeine were detected in the tea leaves. The detail compound identification was observed and discussed in the text.

  9. NMR Metabolic profiling of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaves grown at Kemuning, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahyuni, D. S. C.; Kristanti, M. W.; Putri, R. K.; Rinanto, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) has been famous as a beverage and natural medicine. It contains a broad range of primary and secondary metabolites i.e. polyphenols. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has been widely used for metabolic profiling in medicinal plants. It provides a very fast and detailed analysis of the biomolecular composition of crude extracts. Moreover, an NMR spectrum is a physical characteristic of a compound and thus highly reproducible. Therefore, this study aims to profile metabolites of three different varieties of green tea C. Sinensis grown in Kemuning, Middle Java. Three varieties of green tea collected on Kemuning (TR1 2025, Gambung 4/5, and Chiaruan 143) were used in this study. 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 230C on a 400 MHz Agilent WB (Widebore). The analysis was performed on dried green tea leaves and analyzed by 1H-NMR, 2D-J-resolved and 1H-1H correlated spectroscopy (COSY). MestRenova version 11.0.0 applied to identify metabolites in samples. A 1 H-NMR spectrum of tea showed amino acids and organic acids signal at the area δ 0.8–4.0. These were theanine, alanine, threonine, succinic acid, aspartic acid, lactic acid. Anomeric protons of carbohydrate were shown by the region of β-glucose, α-glucose, fructose and sucrose. The phenolic region was depicted at area δ 5.5-8.5. Epigallocatechin derivates and caffeine were detected in the tea leaves. The detail compound identification was observed and discussed in the text. (paper)

  10. Improving the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion with tannase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Na; Yin, Jun-Feng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Du, Qi-Zhen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Xu, Yong-Quan

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project. Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008, 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64 among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86 among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06 among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  12. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Yuki, Sohshi; Dohmoto, Chiaki; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Samuraki, Miharu; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yokogawa, Masami; Asai, Kimiko; Komai, Kiyonobu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project). Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008), 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years) was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI) was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64) among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86) among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06) among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  13. Development of green tea scented with organic roses "Vitality" from Nevado Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Beltrán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/11/03 - Accepted: 2014/12/15The aim of this study was to obtain a flavored green tea with organic rose petals "Vitality" from Nevado Ecuador. Green tea, purchased from a private company, it was subjected to analysis to verify compliance with the requirements of standard INEN 2381: 2005. The Characterization of fresh rose petals was to made and for the dehydration was used two temperatures and two geometries. Analysis of total polyphenol content (Folin-Ciocalteu and antioxidant capacity (TEACmethod were performed. The dried petals, with a higher content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, were used in the preparation to flavored tea. Three formulations with different amounts of dried rose petals (10, 17.5 and 25% were tested sensorially by 100 judges to determine the aroma rose in the tea. The final product was analyzed to determine compliance of the requirements of the standard INEN of the tea. Finally acceptability and purchase intention of the product is evaluated. The values of content total polyphenol in the extracts of rose petals were superior to fruits such as blackberries, and strawberries.

  14. Simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in teas and mate using RP-HPLC/UV detection: method development and optimization of extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, In Kyung; Ham, Hyeon Mi; Jeong, Min Hee; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Ho Jin

    2015-04-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic coupled to ultraviolet detection (RP-HPLC/UV) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS (green tea, oolong tea, black tea and mate). Furthermore, the extraction process of total phenolic contents (TPC) from TEAS were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design (CCD) and then applied to extraction of TEAS. The best conditions obtained using the model were as follow: green tea--extraction time of 123 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 75%, oolong tea--extraction time of 98 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 69%, black tea--extraction time of 105 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 63%, and mate--extraction time of 103 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 61%. Among the extraction methods used in this study, heat-reflux extraction was found to result in the highest values of TPC. The chromatographic peaks of the 16 studied compounds were successfully identified by comparing their retention time and UV spectra with the reference standards. Method validation was performed by means of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. The developed method was found to be simple, specific and reliable and is suited for routine analysis of phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Bui, Vuong N; Trinh, Dai Q; Yamaguchi, Emi; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Thampaisarn, Rapeewan; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2016-10-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective antiviral agents is warranted. We screened the antiviral effects of 11 herbal tea extracts (hibiscus, black tea, tencha, rosehip tea, burdock tea, green tea, jasmine tea, ginger tea, lavender tea, rose tea and oak tea) against the H5N1 HPAIV in vitro. Among the tested extracts, only the hibiscus extract and its fractionated extract (frHibis) highly and rapidly reduced the titers of all H5 HPAIVs and low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) used in the pre-treatment tests of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were inoculated with a mixture of the virus and the extract. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that anti-H5 monoclonal antibodies could not bind to the deformed H5 virus particles pretreated with frHibis. In post-treatment tests of MDCK cells cultured in the presence of frHibis after infection with H5N1 HPAIV, the frHibis inhibited viral replication and the expression of viral antigens and genes. Among the plants tested, hibiscus showed the most prominent antiviral effects against both H5 HPAIV and LPAIV.

  16. Both phenolic and non-phenolic green tea fractions inhibit migration of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-p...

  17. In vitro evaluation of the interaction between tea extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The herb-drug interaction between tea (Carmelia sinensis) extract and penicillin G (Pen G) was investigated against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus using pair combinations in an in vitro decimal assay for additivity test. Results showed that the interactions between penicillin G and tea extracts were mainly additive ...

  18. Photoprotective Effect of Tea and its Extracts against Ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is urgently necessary to develop strategies to protect the skin from UV-induced injuries. Tea extracts are gaining increasing attention as a supplement in skin care products. However, the factors contributing to the photoprotective effects of tea extracts have not been systematically defined and conflicting results about the ...

  19. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the upregulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-Isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited five-fold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both mRNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by AhR and Nrf2 proteins were upregulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126 which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

  20. Green tea consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green tea has shown the role of chemoprevention for cancer. Recently, several studies suggested that green tea intake may have effect on esophageal cancer risk, whereas the results were inconsistent. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of all English and Chinese language studies of green tea consumption and esophageal cancer risk indexed in Medline, Embase, the Science Citation Index, the Chinese Biomedical Database and Wanfang Data from 1980 to June 2012. After reviewing each study, extracting data, and evaluating heterogeneity (Chi-square-based Q test and Ι2 and publication bias (Begg and Egger test, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between high/medium/low green tea consumption and non-drinking esophageal cancer risk. Pooled relative risk (RR or odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using the fixed- or random-effect models. Results Ten eligible epidemiologic studies including 33731 participants and 3557 cases for esophageal cancer were included. Eight of which were case–control studies, and two were cohort studies. Overall, there were no association between high/medium/low green tea consumption and non-drinking risk of esophageal cancer (High: highest vs non-drinker: RR/OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.49 to 1.02. Medium: drinker vs non-drinker: RR/OR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.03. Low: lowest vs non-drinker: RR/OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.08. When stratified analyses according to study design (case–control and cohort studies, country (China and Japan, participates source (population-based and hospital-based case–control, and gender (female and male, there were significant association between high/medium/low green tea consumption and non-drinking risk of esophageal cancer among female (High: RR/OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.54. Medium: RR/OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.66. Low: RR/OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.79, but not the others. Conclusions We did not found significant

  1. Green tea supplementation produces better neuroprotective effects than red and black tea in Alzheimer-like rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimidt, Helen L; Garcia, Alexandre; Martins, Alexandre; Mello-Carpes, Pamela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-10-01

    Green tea from Camellia sinensis plays a neuroprotective role in different neurodegenerative conditions, such as memory deficits in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, whether other teas from Camellia sinensis present similar neuroprotective effect still is not clear. Here we investigate effects of green, red and black tea supplementation on memory and hippocampus oxidative status in a rat model of Alzheimer-like disease (AD-like). Wistar male rats were supplemented with green, red or black tea during 8weeks before Aβ intra-hippocampal injection (2μL of Aβ-25-35, CA1 region). AD and sham rats were submitted to memory tests. After euthanasia, oxidative status in the bilateral hippocampus was quantified. Green and red teas avoid memory deficits in AD rats, but only green tea also avoids oxidative stress and damage in the hippocampus. Green tea was more effective for neuroprotection than red and black teas from the Camellia sinensis in the AD rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using tea leaf extract and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and its composite with natural graphite (NG) powder for application in solar cell. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using green tea leaf extract as non-toxic and eco-friendly reducing material under microwave irradiation. The formation of ZnO nanoparticles was ...

  3. Spontaneously Assembled Nano-aggregates in Clear Green Tea Infusions from Camellia ptilophylla and Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaorong; Gao, Xiong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Bin

    2017-05-10

    Tea nano-aggregates spontaneously assembled in clear tea infusions are considered as the precursors of tea cream, although their molecular basis remains obscure. Here, we characterized nano-aggregates in green tea infusions from Camellia ptilophylla, a peculiar tea variety with 6.0% of theobromine, and Camellia sinensis as the control for comparative purpose. Numerous negatively charged spherical colloidal particles of 50-100 nm in diameter were primarily found in both green tea infusions. Catechins, proteins, and carbohydrates were confirmed as the dominant components in green tea nano-aggregates. In addition, iron, copper, nickel, proteins, and gallated catechins exhibited higher aggregating affinity than other components, whereas methylxanthines and calcium contributed to the transformation of nano-aggregates into tea cream. Green tea nano-aggregates were partly destroyed by simulated gastrointestinal digestion, and removing theses peculiar particles dramatically attenuated the bioaccessibility of methylxanthines, theanine, and some catechin monomers in green tea infusions. This study enhanced our knowledge of molecular interactions in the formation of green tea cream and provided insight into physicochemical profiles, phytochemical nature, and functional effects of green tea nano-aggregates.

  4. Reactions of green and black teas with Cu(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, B A; Ferreira Severino, J; Pirker, K F

    2012-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of the products of reactions between Cu(II) and samples of green and black teas showed spectral components from at least six different Cu(II) complexes with both tea types. Several of these complexes were common to both teas in spite of major differences in their polyphenol compositions. The pH range observed for complex formation, and the total signal intensity in the pH range 4-8, were greatly different from those for the reactions of Cu(II) with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid, the main polyphenols responsible for the free radical signals observed during oxidation of these beverages. Components with spectral parameters similar to those of Cu(II) complexes with theanine, the major amino acid in tea, may contribute to two of the spectra recorded under acidic conditions. However, the initial complexes formed at the lowest pH values investigated are still unidentified. EPR spectra with parameters consistent with Cu(II) polyphenol complexes were only observed under alkaline conditions, thus suggesting that components of tea other than polyphenols might be more important in reactions with copper, and possibly other transition metals, in solutions under physiological conditions. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  5. Green Nanotechnology from Tea: Phytochemicals in Tea as Building Blocks for Production of Biocompatible Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nune, Satish K; Chanda, Nripen; Shukla, Ravi; Katti, Kavita; Kulkarni, Rajesh R; Thilakavathi, Subramanian; Mekapothula, Swapna; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh V

    2009-06-01

    Phytochemicals occluded in tea have been extensively used as dietary supplements and as natural pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various diseases including human cancer. Results on the reduction capabilities of phytochemicals present in tea to reduce gold salts to the corresponding gold nanoparticles are presented in this paper. The phytochemicals present in tea serve the dual roles as effective reducing agents to reduce gold and also as stabilizers to provide robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step. The Tea-generated gold nanoparticles (T-AuNPs), have demonstrated remarkable in vitro stability in various buffers including saline, histidine, HSA, and cysteine solutions. T-AuNPs with phytochemical coatings have shown significant affinity toward prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. Results on the cellular internalization of T-AuNPs through endocytosis into the PC-3 and MCF-7 cells are presented. The generation of T-AuNPs follows all principles of green chemistry and have been found to be non toxic as assessed through MTT assays. No 'man made' chemicals, other than gold salts, are used in this true biogenic green nanotechnological process thus paving excellent opportunities for their applications in molecular imaging and therapy.

  6. Descriptive analysis and U.S. consumer acceptability of 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H

    2010-03-01

    In the past, green tea has been one of the least popular nonalcoholic beverages for U.S. consumers. However, green tea has been receiving attention because of its potential health benefits. Knowing which green tea flavor attributes contribute to consumer liking will help the fast growing green tea business including green tea importers, tea shops, and beverage companies to understand which characteristics are most accepted by U.S. consumers. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine differences in acceptability of commonly available loose leaf and bagged green teas available from the major exporters to the U.S. (Japan, Korea, and China) and (2) to determine which green tea flavor characteristics are related to consumers' liking. In the study, consumers from the U.S. evaluated 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea for acceptability. A highly trained panel also evaluated the green tea samples to provide descriptive sensory attributes that might be related to acceptability. We found that U.S. consumers liked green tea samples with lower flavor intensity and lower bitterness intensity. Consumers' acceptability of green tea was negatively correlated with spinach and animalic flavor and bitterness and astringency of green teas evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis, but the correlation was only moderate. To learn what green tea flavor characteristics influence consumers' liking, future studies using more green tea samples with different flavor profiles are needed.

  7. Detection method of irradiated green tea using ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Masaaki; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2006-01-01

    With electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed various radicals in commercially available Japanese green tea before and after γ-irradiation. The representative ESR spectrum of green tea is composed of sextet centered at g=2.0, a singlet at the same g value and a singlet at g=4.0. The first signal is attributable to a signal with hyperfine interaction of the Mn 2+ . The second signal is due to an organic free radical. The third signal may originate from the Fe 3+ . Upon irradiation, a pair of signals was newly appeared at the symmetric positions on both sides of the organic free radical signal. According to the theory of radical production in irradiated solid, a linear relationship is expected between the radiation dose and the radical yield. We determined the unreported irradiation dose by the linear extrapolation. (author)

  8. Green tea as an effective antimicrobial for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda eReygaert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a very most common type of infection worldwide, and result in billions of dollars in medical care costs. Escherichia coli is the infective agent for 80%-90% of all UTIs. Green tea, derived from leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant has been shown to have various potential health benefits (e.g. cardiovascular disease and cancer. The major beneficial components of green tea have been characterized, and are now known to be polyphenolic catechins. The main catechins in green tea are (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, (--epicatechin (EC, and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. EGCG and EGC have been shown to have antimicrobial effects, but only EGC has been shown to be excreted in urine. Isolates of E. coli from urinary tract infections collected between 2007-2008 were characterized for antimicrobial resistance to standard drugs. Then 80 of these isolates, representing a wide spectrum of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, were selected for testing using an extract of green tea.Results: The concentrations of green tea extract tested were 0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 mg/ml. All of the strains tested, except one, had MICs of ≤4.0 mg/ml, with 40% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤2.5 mg/ml, 36% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤3.0 mg/ml, 18% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤3.5 mg/ml, and 5% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤4.0 mg/ml. Two control strains varied in susceptibility, one having an MIC of ≤2.5 mg/ml, another having an MIC of ≤3.5 mg/ml, and the third having an MIC of ≤4.0 mg/ml.Conclusion: Since EGC has been shown to have antimicrobial effects on E. coli, and EGC has been shown to be excreted in the urine in a high enough concentration to potentially be effective as an antimicrobial; these MIC results suggest that ingesting green tea could have potential antimicrobial effects on urinary tract infections caused by E. coli.

  9. In Vitro Color Change of Three Dental Veneering Resins in Tea, Coffee and Tamarind Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muttagi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the in vitro color changes of three dental resin veneering materials when immersed in tea, coffee and tamarind extracts.Materials and Methods: The color changes of heat polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin (Stellondetrey, B, F14, DPI Dental products of India Ltd, Mumbai, auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin (DPI, B, QV5, DPI Dental products of India Ltd, Mumbai andlight polymerized resin composite (Herculite XRV, Enamel A2, part no. 22860, lot no. 910437, Kerr Corporation, West Collins Avenue, Orange, CA, USA when immersed in water extracts of tea (Tata Tea Ltd. Bangalore, India, coffee (Tata Coffee Ltd. Coorg, Indiaand tamarind were evaluated using computer vision systems. The color images were recorded in R (red, G (green and B (blue form and converted into H (hue, S (saturationand V (value.Results: Significant color change occurred for auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin in tamarind extract, for heat polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin in tea extract andfor light polymerized resin composite in coffee extract. Auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin samples showed an overall higher color change. However, for all the material samples coffee extract produced more color change.Conclusion: These results suggest that the color stability of the resins is influenced by the presence of secondary metabolites such as tartaric acid, tannins, caffeine, saponins and phenols in tamarind, tea and coffee extracts.

  10. Neuroprotective Properties of the Standardized Extract from Camellia sinensis (Green Tea and Its Main Bioactive Components, Epicatechin and Epigallocatechin Gallate, in the 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Bitu Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Camellia sinensis (green tea is largely consumed, mainly in Asia. It possesses several biological effects such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objectives were to investigate the neuroprotective actions of the standardized extract (CS, epicatechin (EC and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, on a model of Parkinson’s disease. Male Wistar rats were divided into SO (sham-operated controls, untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned and 6-OHDA-lesioned treated for 2 weeks with CS (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg, EC (10 mg/kg, or EGCG (10 mg/kg groups. One hour after the last administration, animals were submitted to behavioral tests and euthanized and their striata and hippocampi were dissected for neurochemical (DA, DOPAC, and HVA and antioxidant activity determinations, as well as immunohistochemistry evaluations (TH, COX-2, and iNOS. The results showed that CS and catechins reverted behavioral changes, indicating neuroprotection manifested as decreased rotational behavior, increased locomotor activity, antidepressive effects, and improvement of cognitive dysfunction, as compared to the untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned group. Besides, CS, EP, and EGCG reversed the striatal oxidative stress and immunohistochemistry alterations. These results show that the neuroprotective effects of CS and its catechins are probably and in great part due to its powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, pointing out their potential for the prevention and treatment of PD.

  11. Multielement determination and speciation of major-to-ultratrace elements in green tea leaves by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hirotaka; Hokura, Akiko; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the multi-elemental composition of green tea leaves as well as chemical species in tea infusions, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used for elemental analysis and elemental speciation with the aid of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). As a result, the multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in green tea leaves and green tea infusions was carried out by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. About 40 elements in these tea samples could be determined in a wide concentration range of over 8 orders of magnitude. The extraction efficiency of each element was estimated as the ratio of its concentration in tea infusion to that in tea leaves. It was found from the experimental results that the elements in tea leaves could be classified into three characteristic groups, depending on their extraction efficiencies. Furthermore, tea infusions were analyzed by a combined system of SEC, UV absorption detector, and ICP-AES (or ICP-MS) for the speciation of major-to-ultratrace elements. Most of the elements in tea infusions were found to be present as associated complexes with large organic molecules. (author)

  12. Antioxidant Effects of Green-Tea on biochemical and Histopathological Changes of liver in Male Rats Poisoned by Malathion Insecticide

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    Rahim Raoofi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphate pesticide which is widely used in agriculture, veterinary and industries. Oxidative stress has been identified as one of Malathion’s main molecular mechanisms of action in plasma, liver, pancreas, muscles and the brain. Green tea (Camellia sinensis, which is the most common drink across the world after water, has many antioxidant properties. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of Malathion on the liver and the preventive effects of green tea on Malathion-induced poisoning. Seventy-two Wistar male rats were randomly divided into the control, the sham, and the experimental groups (receiving respectively 40 mg/kg of Malathion; 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of green tea; and 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of Malathion and green tea respectively. All injections were performed intraperitoneally for 14 consecutive days. On the 15th day, blood samples were taken from the hearts of the rats to measure serum level of hepatic enzymes, and their liver tissues were removed to be studied. To do the statistical analysis One-way ANOVA test and Duncan’s test at the 5% significance level were used. aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Total Oxidation Capacity(TOC concentrations in the treatment groups with Malathion and green tea extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses showed a significant decline compared to the Malathion group(p<0.05, whileTotal Antioxidant Capacity (TAC level showed a significant increase with various doses of green tea and Malathion compared to the Malathion group (p<0.05. Green tea, probably due to its strong antioxidant properties, could improve the destructive effects of Malathion on the rat liver.

  13. Green Tea Consumption Affects Cognitive Dysfunction in the Elderly: A Pilot Study

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    Kazuki Ide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is known to have various health benefits for humans. However, the effect of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction remains to be clinically verified. We conducted a clinical study to investigate the effects of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction. Twelve elderly nursing home residents with cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination Japanese version (MMSE-J score: <28 participated in the study (2 men, 10 women; mean age, 88 years. The participants consumed green tea powder 2 g/day for 3 months. After three months of green tea consumption, the participants’ MMSE-J scores were significantly improved (before, 15.3 ± 7.7; after, 17.0 ± 8.2; p = 0.03. This result suggests that green tea consumption may be effective in improving cognitive function or reducing the progression of cognitive dysfunction; however, long-term large-scale controlled studies are needed to further clarify the effect.

  14. Inhibition of gastrointestinal lipolysis by green tea, coffee, and gomchui (Ligularia fischeri) tea polyphenols during simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kwang Hyun; Song, Dae-Geun; Kim, Sang Min; Pan, Cheol-Ho

    2012-07-25

    Green tea, coffee, and gomchui (Ligularia fischeri) tea, which are rich in polyphenols, may exhibit antiobesity effects by inhibiting pancreatic lipase. However, the bioavailability of some polyphenols is poor due to either degradation or absorption difficulties in the gastrointestinal tract, thus making their beneficial effects doubtful. This study was conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effect of three beverages on lipolysis and the contribution of their major polyphenols during simulated digestion. During simulated digestion, gomchui tea was the most potent at inhibiting gastrointestinal lipolysis, whereas green tea was the least potent. The strongest lipase inhibitor among purified major polyphenols was a green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, IC(50) = 1.8 ± 0.57 μM), followed by di-O-caffeoylquinic acid isomers (DCQA, IC(50) from 12.7 ± 4.5 to 40.4 ± 2.3 μM), which are gomchui tea polyphenols. However, the stability of DCQA was greater than that of EGCG when subjected to simulated digestion. Taken together, gomchui tea, which has DCQA as the major polyphenol, showed stronger lipolysis inhibitory activity during simulated digestion compared to both green tea and coffee.

  15. Antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea and their major contributed antioxidant compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Shuqin; Wang, Kaidi; Lei, Yukun; Yao, Shuting; Lu, Baiyi; Huang, Weisu

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea were evaluated, and their major antioxidant compounds contributed to the total amount of synergy were determined. The antioxidant compounds in O. fragrans flowers with green tea were identified by LC-MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA. The synergistic antioxidant interactions between O. fragrans flowers with green tea and their antioxidant compounds were tested using the Prieto?s model after the simulated digestion. T...

  16. Green tea intake is associated with urinary estrogen profiles in Japanese-American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhrman Barbara J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scope Intake of green tea may reduce the risk of breast cancer; polyphenols in this drink can influence enzymes that metabolize estrogens, known causal factors in breast cancer etiology. Methods and results We examined the associations of green tea intake ( Conclusions Findings suggest that intake of green tea may modify estrogen metabolism or conjugation and in this way may influence breast cancer risk.

  17. Green tea and the risk of prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming; Zhi, Fan; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Keke; Xiang, Han; Mao, Qi; Wang, Xinghuan; Zhang, Xinhua

    2017-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) now remains the 2nd most frequently diagnosed cancer. In recent years, chemoprevention for PCa becomes a possible concept. Especially, many phytochemicals rich foods are suggested to lower the risk of cancer. Among these foods, green tea is considered as effective prevention for various cancers. However, clinical trials and previous meta-analyses on the relationship between green tea consumption and the risk of PCa have produced inconsistent outcomes. This study aims to determine the dose-response association of green tea intake with PCa risk and the preventive effect of green tea catechins on PCa risk. Seven observational studies and 3 randomized controlled trials were retrieved from Cochrane Library, PubMed, Sciencedirect Online, and hand searching. The STATA (version 12.0) was applied to analyze the data. The relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals were pooled by fixed or random effect modeling. Dose-response relations were evaluated with categories of green tea intake. Although there was no statistical significance in the comparison of the highest versus lowest category, there was a trend of reduced incidence of PCa with each 1 cup/day increase of green tea (P = 0.08). Our dose-response meta-analysis further demonstrated that higher green tea consumption was linearly associated with a reduced risk of PCa with more than 7 cups/day. In addition, green tea catechins were effective for preventing PCa with an RR of 0.38 (P = 0.02). In conclusion, our dose-response meta-analysis evaluated the association of green tea intake with PCa risk systematically and quantitatively. And this is the first meta-analysis of green tea catechins consumption and PCa incidence. Our novel data demonstrated that higher green tea consumption was linearly reduced PCa risk with more than 7 cups/day and green tea catechins were effective for preventing PCa. However, further studies are required to substantiate these conclusions.

  18. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial

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    Lindstedt Sandra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. Methods The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times. Results Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water. Conclusions Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea. Trial registration number NCT01086189

  19. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josic, Julija; Olsson, Anna Tholén; Wickeberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2010-11-30

    Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times. Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water. Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea. NCT01086189.

  20. Ingestion of green tea with lowered caffeine improves sleep quality of the elderly via suppression of stress

    OpenAIRE

    Unno, Keiko; Noda, Shigenori; Kawasaki, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi; Morita, Akio; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated that ingestion of green tea enhances healthy life. However, caffeine in green tea can interfere with sleep. In this report, we examined the effect of green tea with lowered caffeine, low-caffeine green tea, on stress and sleep of the elderly. The participants (n = 10, mean age 89.3 ± 4.2 years) drank five cups/day of standard green tea for 1 week. Subsequently, they drank five cups/day of low-caffeine green tea for 2 weeks. Salivary α-amyla...

  1. Green Tea Catechin-Inactivated Viral Vaccine Platform

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    Yun H. Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, chemical agents such as formalin (FA and β-propiolactone (BPL have long been used for the preparation of inactivated vaccines or toxoids. It has been shown that FA extensively modifies vaccine antigens and thus affects immunogenicity profiles, sometimes compromising the protective efficacy of the vaccines or even exacerbating the disease upon infection. In this study, we show that natural catechins from green tea extracts (GT can be used as an inactivating agent to prepare inactivated viral vaccines. GT treatment resulted in complete and irreversible inactivation of influenza virus as well as dengue virus. In contrast to FA that reacted extensively with multiple amino acids including lysine, a major anchor residue for epitope binding to MHC molecules, GT catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG crosslinked primarily with cysteine residues and thus preserved the major epitopes of the influenza hemagglutinin. In a mouse model, vaccination with GT-inactivated influenza virus (GTi virus elicited higher levels of viral neutralizing antibodies than FA-inactivated virus (FAi virus. The vaccination completely protected the mice from a lethal challenge and restricted the challenge viral replication in the lungs. Of note, the quality of antibody responses of GTi virus was superior to that with FAi virus, in terms of the magnitude of antibody titer, cross-reactivity to hetero-subtypes of influenza viruses, and the avidity to viral antigens. As the first report of using non-toxic natural compounds for the preparation of inactivated viral vaccines, the present results could be translated into a clinically relevant vaccine platform with improved efficacy, safety, productivity, and public acceptance.

  2. In vitro activity of 23 tea extractions and epigallocatechin gallate against Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Zhai, Lin; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the susceptibility of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus fumigatus using the EUCAST microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method (final tea supernatant concentration range 5.......0-0.005 mg/ml) to 23 different teas and tea catechins including epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) isolated from green tea. All teas exhibited potent in vitro antifungal activity against C. glabrata. Six out of nine green teas and three of eight black teas had an MIC of 0.078 mg/ml, one white tea had an MIC...... of 0.156 mg/ml, and finally three of five oolong teas had an MIC of 0.156 mg/ml. Three teas exhibited activity against C. albicans (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), one green tea was active against C. parapsilosis (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), but none were effective against C. krusei, C. tropicalis or A. fumigatus...

  3. Quantification of total polyphenols, catechin, caffeine, L-theanine, determination of antioxidant activity and effect on antileishmanial drugs of ethiopian tea leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Alemu; Hymete, Ariaya; Bekhit, Adnan A; Mohammed, Salahuddin Farooq

    2015-06-01

    In this study four tea samples Gumero black, Wushwush black and Wushwush green from Agri- Ceft Plc and East Africa black tea leaves from East African Agribusiness Plc were investigated for total polyphenols, caffeine, catechin and L-theanine content. The aqueous extracts were investigated for their antioxidant and antileishmanial property and effect on amphotericin B, miltefocine and sodium stibogluconate, the commonly used antileishmanial drugs. Antileishmanial studies were conducted on L. aethiopica. Wushwush green tea had the highest content of polyphenol (19.98 ± 1.15 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g dry leaf weight), catechin (37.06 mg/g) and L-theanine (48.54 mg/g but the lowest caffeine content). It exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant effect of Wushwush green tea may be attributed to the highest polyphenol content. East African black tea had the lowest L-theanine (20.72 mg/g) and antioxidant activity but the highest caffeine (16.60 mg/g) content. Wushwush green tea showed slight inhibitory effect on L. aethiopica while the lack tea extracts (Gumero, East Africa and Wushwush) exhibited no antileishmanial activity. Wushwush green tea did not show any synergistic or antagonistic effect on the antileishmanial drugs used in this study while Gumero, East Africa and Wushwush black tea extracts exhibited dose dependant inhibitory activity to the commonly used antileishmanial drugs included in this study.

  4. Polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating white tea extract for nutraceutical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Lubinu, Giuseppe; Madau, Pierluigi; Pala, Nicolino; Nurra, Salvatore; Mariani, Alberto; Sechi, Mario

    2015-02-25

    With the aim to obtain controlled release and to preserve the antioxidant activity of the polyphenols, nanoencapsulation of white tea extract into polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and alginate was successfully performed. NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and were characterized in terms of morphology and chemical properties. Total polyphenols and catechins contents before and after encapsulation were determined. Moreover, in vitro release profiles of encapsulated polyphenols from NPs were investigated in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The antioxidant activity and stability of encapsulated extract were further evaluated. Interestingly, NPs released 20% of the polyphenols in simulated gastric medium, and 80% after 5 h at pH 7.4, showing a good capacity to control the polyphenols delivery. Furthermore, DPPH(•) assay confirmed that white tea extract retained its antioxidant activity and NPs protected tea polyphenols from degradation, thus opening new perspectives for the exploitation of white tea extract-loaded NPs for nutraceutical applications.

  5. Analysis of cream formation in green tea concentrates with different solid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Chen, Su-Qin; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Tang, Ping; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2012-06-01

    The formation of tea cream in the green tea concentrates of different solid concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°Brix) was investigated. The results showed a good positive correlation (γ = 0.98, p ≤ 0.05) between the amount of tea cream and the solid concentrations from 5 to 40°Brix, while the amount of tea cream in the tea concentrates of 50 and 60°Brix decreased acutely. Total sugar, caffeine and catechins were found to be the main chemical components of tea cream in the green tea concentrate. The large decrease of the amount of tea cream in the tea concentrates of 50 and 60°Brix may be induced by a sharp increase of the viscosity of the tea concentrates, which helped to improve the stability of tea concentrate. It may be indicated that the stability of green tea concentrate enhanced when the concentration higher than 50°Brix, which helped to restrain the formation of tea cream.

  6. Effects of supplementation with green tea catechins on plasma C-reactive protein concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Corina; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Antal, Diana; Ursoniu, Sorin; Banach, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Promising experimental and clinical trials suggest that green tea decreases the inflammatory process in cardiometabolic diseases, but evidence from epidemiologic studies about the effects on plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) seems inconsistent and ambiguous. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of green tea supplementation on plasma CRP concentrations. We searched selected database up to October 26, 2014 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of green tea supplementation on plasma CRP concentrations. Two independent reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Meta-analysis of data from 11 RCTs arms did not indicate a significant effect of supplementation with green tea catechins on plasma CRP concentrations (weighted mean difference [WMD], 0.085 mg/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.225 to 0.395; P = 0.592). This effect size was robust in sensitivity analysis and omission of each individual study did not have a significant effect. The nonsignificant effects of green tea catechins on plasma CRP concentrations were also observed in subgroups of studies with green tea supplementation with a duration of green tea catechins on plasma CRP concentrations. Furthermore, well-designed trials are necessary to validate these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The antiplaque efficacy of white tea extract mouthrinse

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    Dipika Kalyan Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to assess the antiplaque efficacy of a mouthwash containing white tea. It also assessed the antibacterial properties of white tea against Prevotella intermedia (Pi, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa in vitro. Materials and Methods: Forty-five subjects with healthy periodontium were randomly chosen and were divided into three groups and advised to use mouthwashes A, B, and C (Group A, white tea; Group B, distilled water [placebo]; Group C, chlorhexidine for 4 days. They were advised to refrain from any kind of mechanical oral hygiene techniques. Plaque index (PI was checked on day 1 and 5. In vitro testing for against Pi, Pg, and Aa against white tea extract was undertaken. Results: PI significantly increased from day 1 to day 5 (P < 0.01 in Groups A, B, and C. In inter-group comparison, there was a statistical significant difference between white tea mouthrinse group and placebo group, chlorhexidine group and placebo group and also chlorhexidine group and white tea mouthrinse group. However, chlohexidine showed superior antiplaque activity. In vitro test, white tea showed effective inhibition against all three bacterial strains Pi, Pg, and Aa at 1% concentration. Conclusion: White tea mouthrinse potently inhibits plaque formation although not as comparable to chlorhexidine mouthrinse. Hence, for those preferring herbal products, white tea mouthrinse is a good option.

  8. Green tea chemoprotection in rats treated with Diethylnitrosamine
    Ação quimioprotetora do chá verde em ratos tratados com Dietilnitrosamina

    OpenAIRE

    Halha Ostrensky Saridakis; Alexandre Saito; Rubens Cecchini; Dirceu Estevão; Wanderlei Onofre Schmitz

    2011-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and its main components, the catechins present several biological activities such as: antioxidant and chemoprotective action against hepatotoxic agent as diethylnitrosamine(DEN), a known cytotoxic substance. This work has the objective to evaluate and understand the green tea extract (GTE) mechanisms of action as a chemoprotector agent. Therefore, tests in vivo with Wistar rats using GTE 2% (2mg/100mL) was taken orally as the only source of water for 35 days. To ...

  9. A rapid green strategy for the synthesis of Au "meatball"-like nanoparticles using green tea for SERS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shichao; Zhou, Xi; Yang, Xiangrui; Hou, Zhenqing; Shi, Yanfeng; Zhong, Lubin; Jiang, Qian; Zhang, Qiqing

    2014-09-01

    We report a simple and rapid biological approach to synthesize water-soluble and highly roughened "meatball"-like Au nanoparticles using green tea extract under microwave irradiation. The synthesized Au meatball-like nanoparticles possess excellent monodispersity and uniform size (250 nm in diameter). Raman measurements show that these tea-generated meatball-like gold nanostructures with high active surface areas exhibit a high enhancement of surface-enhanced Raman scattering. In addition, the Au meatball-like nanoparticles demonstrate good biocompatibility and remarkable in vitro stability at the biological temperature. Meanwhile, the factors that influence the Au meatball-like nanoparticles morphology are investigated, and the mechanisms behind the nonspherical shape evolution are discussed.

  10. Detecting aroma changes of local flavored green tea (Camellia sinensis) using electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralisnawati, D.; Sukartiko, A. C.; Suryandono, A.; Triyana, K.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is currently the sixth largest tea producer in the world. However, consumption of the product in the country was considered low. Besides tea, the country also has various local flavor ingredients that are potential to be developed. The addition of local flavored ingredients such as ginger, lemon grass, and lime leaves on green tea products is gaining acceptance from consumers and producers. The aroma of local flavored green tea was suspected to changes during storage, while its sensory testing has some limitations. Therefore, the study aimed to detect aroma changes of local flavors added in green tea using electronic nose (e-nose), an instrument developed to mimic the function of the human nose. The test was performed on a four-gram sample. The data was collected with 120 seconds of sensing time and 60 seconds of blowing time. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to find out the aroma changes of local flavored green tea during storage. We observed that electronic nose could detect aroma changes of ginger flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 with variance percentage 99.6%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lemon grass flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.3%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lime leaves flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.4%.

  11. Fungal evaluation on green tea irradiated with different water activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CTR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes; Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the fungal contamination in green tea irradiated with different radiation doses and water activities. Samples were irradiated in {sup 60}Co irradiator at doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0kGy with three different water activities. In the sample with decreased water activity, the count of fungi was lower than others samples followed by original Aw and the samples with the higher water activity, however there is no difference between the increased and decreased water activities samples after the irradiation on fungi contamination at dose of 2.5 kGy. (author)

  12. TIME INTENSITY (TI MEASUREMENTS OF SWEETENERS ON GREEN TEA CARRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vietoris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was characterize sweet intensity profiles of natural and artificial sweeteners during time interval on taste carrier (green tea. For analysis was selected time intensity (TI methodology during 12 second time interval and assessors group was divided to male and female division. Difference between groups and sweeteners was investigated. Preference testing was done by CATA methodology and processed by correspondent analysis. During time intensity evaluation was observed similar profile shape of natural sweeteners. Different was performance of saccharin. During preference experiment was evaluated that all artificial sweeteners are associated with negative attributes of CATA questionnaire. Perception of sweeteners by male and female assessors was statistically significant.

  13. Fungal evaluation on green tea irradiated with different water activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Correa, Benedito

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the fungal contamination in green tea irradiated with different radiation doses and water activities. Samples were irradiated in 60 Co irradiator at doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0kGy with three different water activities. In the sample with decreased water activity, the count of fungi was lower than others samples followed by original Aw and the samples with the higher water activity, however there is no difference between the increased and decreased water activities samples after the irradiation on fungi contamination at dose of 2.5 kGy. (author)

  14. Effects of a plant product consisting of green tea and curcuma extract on milk production and the expression of hepatic genes involved in endoplasmic stress response and inflammation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Anne; Gessner, Denise K; Koch, Christian; Romberg, Franz-Josef; Dusel, Georg; Herzog, Eva; Most, Erika; Eder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    During the periparturient phase, cows are typically in an inflammation-like condition, and it has been proposed that inflammation associated with the induction of stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the liver contributes to the development of fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. In the present study, the hypothesis that supplementation of dairy cows with a plant product consisting of green tea (95%) and curcuma extract (5%) rich in polyphenols attenuates inflammation and ER stress in the liver during early lactation was investigated. Twenty-seven cows were assigned to two groups, either a control group (n=14) or a treatment group (n=13). Both groups of cows received a total mixed ration, and the ration of the treatment group was supplemented with 0.175 g of the plant product per kg dry matter from week 3 prepartum to week 9 postpartum. Dry matter intake and energy balance during week 2 to week 9 postpartum were not different between the two groups. However, cows supplemented with the plant product had a greater amount of energy-corrected milk during week 2 to week 9 postpartum and lower concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesterol in the liver in week 1 and week 3 postpartum than cows of the control group (pCows supplemented with the plant product showed a trend towards a reduced mRNA concentration of haptoglobin (pcows. Relative hepatic mRNA concentration of fibroblast growth factor, a stress hormone induced by various stress conditions, was reduced at week 1 and week 3 postpartum in cows supplemented with the plant product (pmilk yield and prevent fatty liver syndrome in dairy cows.

  15. Green Tea Consumption and the Risk of Liver Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chen-Xu; Gong, Hong; Liu, Ying; Qi, Yang; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Jun-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Green tea is a commonly consumed beverage in Asia and has been suggested to have anticarcinogenic properties. To date, epidemiological evidence of the effect of green tea consumption on liver cancer risk remains ambiguous. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between green tea consumption and the risk of liver cancer. The summary relative risk for the highest consumption (≥5 cups/day) of green tea on liver cancer incidence compared with nondrinkers was 0.62 (95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.79). We also found a trend that the incidence of liver cancer was reduced with the increasing years of green tea intake (significance at >20 yr). A significant dose-response association was found between green tea drinking and liver cancer risk. The downward trend was most obvious when the consumption of green tea increased up to about 4 cups/day. The results showed that the increasing green tea intake may have a preventive effect against liver cancer.

  16. Green tea polyphenols avert chronic inflammation-induced myocardial fibrosis of female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Green tea proposes anti-inflammatory properties which may attenuate chronic inflammation-induced fibrosis of vessels. This study evaluated whether green tea polyphenols (GTP) can avert fibrosis or vascular disruption along with mechanisms in rats with chronic inflammation. Treatments: Fo...

  17. Green tea EGCG suppresses T cell proliferation through impairment of IL-2/IL-2 receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have suggested a benefit of consuming green tea in promoting general health and reducing the risk of certain diseases. However, little is known about the effect of green tea on immune function. In this study we determined the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major active comp...

  18. Modulatory effects of green tea on HEK-293 cell energy metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The energy metabolism of HEK-‐293 cell, pretreated with variable concentrations of green tea, was evaluated under different hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations using the MTT assay. Green tea modulated the energy metabolism in renal cell line under different hydrogen peroxide challenge. In the absence of ...

  19. Determination and estimation of pharmacokinetic profile of caffeine in form of extract of green tea leaves and its analogy with synthetic form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Sangeetha; Manjunatha, N; Vijayan, R; Khatwal, R B; Samanta, M K

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to formulate and investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters for the tablets of herbal extract of caffeine with comparison to synthetic formulation. The tablets of the aqueous herbal extract of leaves of Camellia sinensis and synthetic caffeine were formulated by wet granulation technique. The HPLC and HPTLC were applied as analytical tools for estimation of caffeine. The batches of formulation (B1 to B7) were subjected for various pre and post-formulation studies. The pharmacokinetic of the batch B5 was assessed in rabbits, and the results were compared to synthetic batch B7. With the suitable pre and post-formulation results, the B5 showed in vitro release of 90.54% of caffeine at the end of 60 min. The release followed first order kinetics and the plot of Higuchi and Peppas confirms anomalous diffusion as the basic mechanism behind the release. B5 revealed non-significant mean C(max), t(1/2), and AUC of 1.88 μg/ml, 5.52 h and 9.67 μg.h/ml respectively compared to B7. The study highlights; no significant difference in the pharmacological effect of caffeine when administered in the form of extract. The administration of herbal extract can further provide the other health benefits lacked by synthetic caffeine.

  20. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and l-theanine: Medicinal values and beneficial applications in humans-A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad; Kakar, Mohib Ullah; Manzoor, Robina; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed Ezzat; Alagawany, Mahmoud; Tiwari, Ruchi; Khandia, Rekha; Munjal, Ashok; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Dhama, Kuldeep; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Dadar, Maryam; Sun, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a famous herb, and its extract has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicinal system. In this context, several studies have revealed its health benefits and medicinal potentialities for several ailments. With ever increasing scientific knowledge, search for safer, potential and novel type of health-related supplements quest, scientists are re-directing their research interests to explore natural resources i.e. medicinal herbs/plant derived compounds. Green tea consumption has gained a special attention and popularity in the modern era of changing lifestyle. The present review is aimed to extend the current knowledge by highlighting the importance and beneficial applications of green tea in humans for safeguarding various health issues. Herein, we have extensively reviewed, analyzed, and compiled salient information on green tea from the authentic published literature available in PubMed and other scientific databases. Scientific literature evidenced that owing to the bioactive constituents including caffeine, l-theanine, polyphenols/flavonoids and other potent molecules, green tea has many pharmacological and physiological functions. It possesses multi-beneficial applications in treating various disorders of humans. This review also provides in-depth insights on the medicinal values of green tea which will be useful for researchers, medical professionals, veterinarians, nutritionists, pharmacists and pharmaceutical industry. Future research emphasis and promotional avenues are needed to explore its potential therapeutic applications for designing appropriate pharmaceuticals, complementary medicines, and effective drugs as well as popularize and propagate its multidimensional health benefits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Effects of green tea and physical exercise on memory impairments associated with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Maíra F; Martins, Alexandre; Schimidt, Helen L; Santos, Francielli W; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of physical exercise and green tea supplementation (associated or not) on biochemical and behavioral parameters in the time course of normal aging. Male Wistar rats aged 9 months were divided into groups: control, physical exercise (treadmill running), and supplemented with green tea while either performing physical exercise or not. A young control group was also studied. Physical exercise and green tea supplementation lasted 3 months. Afterwards, behavioral and biochemical tests were performed. Biochemical measurements revealed differences in antioxidant and oxidant responses in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum. Behavioral testing showed age-related memory impairments reversed by physical exercise. The association of green tea supplementation and physical exercise did not provide aged rats with additional improvements in memory or brain oxidative markers. Green tea per se significantly decreased reactive oxygen species levels and improved antioxidant defenses although it did not reverse memory deficits associated with normal aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Text mining factor analysis (TFA) in green tea patent data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Sela; Suprijadi, Jadi; Zulhanif

    2017-03-01

    Factor analysis has become one of the most widely used multivariate statistical procedures in applied research endeavors across a multitude of domains. There are two main types of analyses based on factor analysis: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Both EFA and CFA aim to observed relationships among a group of indicators with a latent variable, but they differ fundamentally, a priori and restrictions made to the factor model. This method will be applied to patent data technology sector green tea to determine the development technology of green tea in the world. Patent analysis is useful in identifying the future technological trends in a specific field of technology. Database patent are obtained from agency European Patent Organization (EPO). In this paper, CFA model will be applied to the nominal data, which obtain from the presence absence matrix. While doing processing, analysis CFA for nominal data analysis was based on Tetrachoric matrix. Meanwhile, EFA model will be applied on a title from sector technology dominant. Title will be pre-processing first using text mining analysis.

  3. Long-Term Green Tea Supplementation Does Not Change the Human Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Penders, John; Hursel, Rick; Budding, Andries E; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins may play a role in body weight regulation through interactions with the gut microbiota. We examined whether green tea supplementation for 12 weeks induces changes in composition of the human gut microbiota. 58 Caucasian men and women were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled design. For 12 weeks, subjects consumed either green tea (>0.56 g/d epigallocatechin-gallate + 0.28 ∼ 0.45 g/d caffeine) or placebo capsules. Fecal samples were collected twice (baseline, vs. week 12) for analyses of total bacterial profiles by means of IS-profiling, a 16S-23S interspacer region-based profiling method. No significant changes between baseline and week 12 in subjects receiving green tea or placebo capsules, and no significant interactions between treatment (green tea or placebo) and time (baseline and week 12) were observed for body composition. Analysis of the fecal samples in subjects receiving green tea and placebo showed similar bacterial diversity and community structures, indicating there were no significant changes in bacterial diversity between baseline and week 12 in subjects receiving green tea capsules or in subjects receiving placebo capsules. No significant interactions were observed between treatment (green tea or placebo) and time (baseline and week 12) for the gut microbial diversity. Although, there were no significant differences between normal weight and overweight subjects in response to green tea, we did observe a reduced bacterial alpha diversity in overweight as compared to normal weight subjects (p = 0.002). Green tea supplementation for 12 weeks did not have a significant effect on composition of the gut microbiota. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01556321.

  4. Characterization of Two Homogalacturonan Pectins with Immunomodulatory Activity from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two natural homogalacturonan (HG pectins (MW ca. 20 kDa were isolated from green tea based on their immunomodulatory activity. The crude tea polysaccharides (TPS1 and TPS2 were obtained from green tea leaves by hot water extraction and followed by 40% and 70% ethanol precipitation, respectively. Two homogenous water soluble polysaccharides (TPS1-2a and TPS1-2b were obtained from TPS1 after purification with gel permeation, which gave a higher phagocytic effect than TPS2. A combination of composition, methylation and configuration analyses, as well as NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that TPS1-2a and TPS1-2b were homogalacturonan (HG pectins consisting of a backbone of 1,4-linked α-d-galacturonic acid (GalA residues with 28.4% and 26.1% of carboxyl groups as methyl ester, respectively. The immunological assay results demonstrated that TPS1-2, which consisted mainly of HG pectins, showed phagocytosis-enhancing activity in HL-60 cells.

  5. Effect of green tea on plasma leptin and ghrelin levels: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Nobakht M Gh, B Fatemeh; Hariri, Mitra

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of green tea on serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Google scholar databases up to December 2016. The searches included RCTs conducted in human adults, and studies on the effect of green tea and green tea extract on serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations as outcome variables. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) and standard errors (SEs) of changes in serum ghrelin and leptin levels were calculated. The random effects model was used to derive the summary mean estimates with their corresponding SEs. Eleven RCTs were eligible to be included in the systematic review and the meta-analysis. Our analysis indicated that green tea did not significantly affect leptin and ghrelin concentrations in comparison to placebo (WMD = 1.28 ng/mL, 95% confidence interval: -0.49 to 3.05; P = 0.156, and WMD = 21.49 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval: -40.86 to 83.84; P = 0.499, respectively). However, green tea was associated with an increase in leptin concentration in studies that lasted for more than 12 wk and an increase in ghrelin in women and non-Asians. Green tea or green tea extract might not be able to change circulatory leptin and ghrelin levels, especially with short-term interventions. More RCTs with longer duration of treatment and higher doses are necessary to assess green tea's effect on fat mass and obesity hormones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential Contribution of Jasmine Floral Volatiles to the Aroma of Scented Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Xia Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea volatiles’ generation and retention over manufacturing processes are crucial for tea quality. In this study, floral volatile adsorption and retention in green tea scented with Jasminum sambac flowers were examined over the scenting process. Out of 34 enhanced volatiles in the scented tea, β-ionone, β-linalool, indole, and methyl anthranilate were the most potent odorants with 5.1–45.2-fold higher odor activity values than the corresponding controls in the nonscented tea. Scenting efficiencies for the floral volatiles retained in the scented tea (the percentage of volatile abundance over its corresponding amount in jasmine flowers ranged from 0.22% for α-farnesene to 75.5% for β-myrcene. Moreover, due to additional rounds of heat treatment for scented green tea manufacturing, some volatiles such as carotenoid-derived geraniol and β-ionone and lipid-derived (Z-jasmone were heat-enhanced and others such as nonanal were heat-desorbed in the scented green tea. Our study revealed that dynamic volatile absorption and desorption collectively determined tea volatile retention and tea aroma. Our findings may have a great potential for practical improvement of tea aroma.

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using green tea leaves: Experimental study on the morphological, rheological and antibacterial behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjavani, Maryam; Nikkhah, V.; Sarafraz, M. M.; Shoja, Saeed; Sarafraz, Marzieh

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, silver nanoparticles are produced via green synthesis method using green tea leaves. The introduced method is cost-effective and available, which provides condition to manipulate and control the average nanoparticle size. The produced particles were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopic images, UV visualization, digital light scattering, zeta potential measurement and thermal conductivity measurement. Results demonstrated that the produced samples of silver nanoparticles are pure in structure (based on the x-ray diffraction test), almost identical in terms of morphology (spherical and to some extent cubic) and show longer stability when dispersed in deionized water. The UV-visualization showed a peak in 450 nm, which is in accordance with the previous studies reported in the literature. Results also showed that small particles have higher thermal and antimicrobial performance. As green tea leaves are used for extracting the silver nanoparticles, the method is eco-friendly. The thermal behaviour of silver nanoparticle was also analysed by dispersing the nanoparticles inside the deionized water. Results showed that thermal conductivity of the silver nano-fluid is higher than that of obtained for the deionized water. Activity of Ag nanoparticles against some bacteria was also examined to find the suitable antibacterial application for the produced particles.

  8. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  9. Sensory quality evaluation for appearance of needle-shaped green tea based on computer vision and nonlinear tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Wang; Zhu, Hong-Kai; Zhao, Jie-Wen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Chen, Quan-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Tea is one of the three greatest beverages in the world. In China, green tea has the largest consumption, and needle-shaped green tea, such as Maofeng tea and Sparrow Tongue tea, accounts for more than 40% of green tea (Zhu et al., 2017). The appearance of green tea is one of the important indexes during the evaluation of green tea quality. Especially in market transactions, the price of tea is usually determined by its appearance (Zhou et al., 2012). Human sensory evaluation is usually conducted by experts, and is also easily affected by various factors such as light, experience, psychological and visual factors. In the meantime, people may distinguish the slight differences between similar colors or textures, but the specific levels of the tea are hard to determine (Chen et al., 2008). As human description of color and texture is qualitative, it is hard to evaluate the sensory quality accurately, in a standard manner, and objectively. Color is an important visual property of a computer image (Xie et al., 2014; Khulal et al., 2016); texture is a visual performance of image grayscale and color changing with spatial positions, which can be used to describe the roughness and directivity of the surface of an object (Sanaeifar et al., 2016). There are already researchers who have used computer visual image technologies to identify the varieties, levels, and origins of tea (Chen et al., 2008; Xie et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2017). Most of their research targets are crush, tear, and curl (CTC) red (green) broken tea, curly green tea (Bilochun tea), and flat-typed green tea (West Lake Dragon-well green tea) as the information sources. However, the target of the above research is to establish a qualitative evaluation method on tea quality (Fu et al., 2013). There is little literature on the sensory evaluation of the appearance quality of needle-shaped green tea, especially research on a quantitative evaluation model (Zhou et al., 2012; Zhu et al., 2017).

  10. Comparison of the effect of green, white and black tea on Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus spp. in yogurt during refrigerated

    OpenAIRE

    Premalatha Muniandy; Amal Bakr Shori; Ahmad Salihin Baba

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of green, white and black tea (Camellia sinensis) on lactic acid production and the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus spp. in yogurt during 3 weeks of refrigerated storage. Three types of tea water extracts were added into a milk-starter culture mixture and incubated at 42 °C until the pH was reduced to 4.5. All yogurts were then refrigerated (4 °C) for up to 21 days and samples were analyzed for pH, titratable acid and viable counts...

  11. Effect of green tea and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on ethanol-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Il; Kim, Hyo Jung; Boo, Yong Chool

    2008-05-01

    Despite the continuing reports supporting the hepatoprotective effects of green tea against ethanol intoxication, there remain controversies regarding the active compound(s) and molecular mechanism. These issues were addressed in the present study using cultured HepG2 cells exposed to a lethal dose of ethanol. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was chosen as a marker of ethanol toxicity because it is widely used in clinics. When the cells were treated with ethanol at various concentrations, there was a dose-dependent increase of GGT activity in the culture media and loss of cell viability. Pretreatment of the cells with green tea extract attenuated the changes significantly. Among the green tea constituents, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) attenuated the ethanol cytotoxicity effectively, whereas L-theanine and caffeine had no effects. The ethanol cytotoxicity was also attenuated by alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methyl pyrazol and GGT inhibitor acivicin as well as by thiol modulators such as S-adenosyl-L-methionine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and glutathione. EGCG failed to prevent the intracellular glutathione loss caused by ethanol, but it appeared to be a strong GGT inhibitor. Therefore the cytoprotective effects of green tea could be attributed to the inhibition of GGT activity by EGCG. This study suggests that GGT inhibitors including EGCG may provide a novel strategy for attenuating ethanol-induced liver damage.

  12. Assessment of Fluoride Levels in Different Brands of Black and Green Tea Consumed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mojarad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed drinks in the world. Tea is recognized as a source of fluoride whose intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis, particularly if other sources of fluoride augment the intake. Since the amount of fluoride in different types of tea consumed in our country is unknown, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride level of 22 commercial brands of tea popular in Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was conducted to assess the fluoride content of black tea (10 brands, bagged black tea (9 brands, and green tea (3 brands. 2 g from three samples of each tea brand taken out randomly were added to 200 ml deionized water and boiled for 10 minutes. After the infusion temperature coming down to the room temperature, the infusion was filtered and its volume made up to 200 ml by adding deionized water. The fluoride levels were measured using ion-selective electrode, and reported as mg/lit. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The Fluoride content was found 1.51 mg/lit in black tea bag, 1.038 mg/lit in green tea and 0.869±0.360 mg/lit in black tea sticks. (P<0.05, However, there was no statistically sig-nificant difference of fluoride concentration between green tea and black tea sticks(P= 0.52. Conclusion: This study showed that fluoride content of some tea brands were so high that drinking a few cups daily may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis. Therefore, their consumption must be limited particularly in children, and in all inhabitants of regions with high fluoride levels in water supply.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:36-42

  13. Chemical characterization of heteropolysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis) and their anti-ulcer effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoparo, Camila T; Souza, Lauro M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Werner, Maria Fernanda P; Borato, Débora G; Baggio, Cristiane H; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    In order to obtain polysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis), commercial leaves were submitted to infusion and then to alkaline extraction. The extracts were fractionated by freeze-thawing process, giving insoluble and soluble fractions. Complex arabinogalactan protein from the soluble fractions of both teas (GTPS and BTPS) were determined by methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy, showing a main chain of (1→3)-β-Galp, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-Galp with side chains of α-Araf and terminal units of α-Araf, α-Fucp and α-Rhap. A highly branched heteroxylan from the insoluble fractions (GTPI and BTPI) showed in methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy the main chain of (1→4)-β-Xylp, substituted in O-3 by α-Araf, β-Galp and α-Glcp units. Evaluating their gastroprotective activity, the fractions containing the soluble heteropolysaccharides from green (GTPS) and black teas (BTPS) reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Furthermore, the fraction of insoluble heteropolysaccharides of green (GTPI) and black (BTPI) teas also protected the gastric mucosa. In addition, the maintenance of gastric mucus and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was involved in the polysaccharides gastroprotection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of Green Tea in a Randomized Human Cohort: Relevance to Diabetes and Its Complications

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    Naushad Ali Toolsee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have argued that green tea could mitigate diabetes and its complications. This study investigated the phytophenolic profile of Mauritian green tea and its antioxidant propensity. The effect of green tea on the risk factors: waist-hip ratio, glucose level, arterial pressure, antioxidant status, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in prediabetics was assessed. The experimental group consumed 3 cups of green tea daily for 14 weeks followed by a 2-week washout period. The control group followed a water regimen. Green tea contained high level of phenolics related to its antioxidant power. Green tea suppressed waist-hip ratio of women from a significant increase and suppressed mean arterial pressure of men and women from a significant decrease after week 14. It reduced ALT level in women by 13.0% (P<0.1 while increasing the antioxidant potential of men and women sera by 2.7% (P<0.1 and 5.1% (P<0.1. The study timescale may have been too short to enable demonstration of effects on fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c outcomes. Green tea regimen could form part of a healthy lifestyle that might ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome and subsequent risks for diabetes and its complications. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01248143.

  15. Polyphenol Bioaccessibility and Sugar Reducing Capacity of Black, Green, and White Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Coe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a widely consumed beverage and recognised for its potential enhancing effect on human health due to its rich polyphenol content. While a number of studies have investigated the quantity and type of polyphenols present in different tea samples, no study has reported the potential effect of digestive enzymes on the availability of tea polyphenols for human absorption or the subsequent impact on glycaemic response. The objectives of the present study were to assess the total polyphenol content of different teas, to assess the bioaccessibility of polyphenols in whole and bagged teas, and to determine the effect of black, white, and green tea infusions on sugar release. All of the teas were a significant source of polyphenols (10–116 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g. There was an overall increase in the release of polyphenols from both the bagged and the whole teas following in vitro digestion. Bagged green tea significantly ( reduced rapidly digestible starch from white bread samples compared to control and black and white bagged teas. The present study confirms that tea is a rich source of polyphenols and highlights the potential benefits it may have on modulating glycaemic response in humans.

  16. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and In vitro Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Makoto; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Kita, Kazumi; Jayanegara, Anuraga; Yokota, Hiro-Omi

    2014-07-01

    Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS) and black tea by-product silage (BTS) were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin's activity in the rumen.

  17. Green tea as a source of food antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Jie

    . The present study focuses on lipid oxidation and the Maillard reaction (known as nonenzymatic browning). Lipid oxidation in foods is mainly related to the unsaturated lipids, and the Maillard reactions is a ubiquitous reaction between reducing sugars and amino groups as found in amino acids, peptides...... and proteins. Lipid oxidation as well as the Maillard reactions can affect the quality of foods. An efficient way to retard or inhibit both types of reactions can be achieved by utilizing natural antioxidants, which are normally presumed to be safe when the source is plant material, “Generally Recognized...... during the Maillard reactions by ESR. A mechanistic study of influencing Maillard reaction products by green tea catechins was mainly explored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results revealed that the quinone form of EC can undergo either a Michael type addition or a “Strecker...

  18. Chemical fingerprint analysis for quality control and identification of Ziyang green tea by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoye; Li, Jianke; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Run; Zhang, Lin; Kong, Xianghong

    2015-03-15

    A simple and reliable HPLC fingerprint method was developed and validated for the quality control and identification of Ziyang green tea. Ten batches of Ziyang green tea collected from different plantations in Shaanxi Ziyang of China were used to establish the fingerprint. The feasibility and advantages of the used HPLC fingerprint were verified for its similarity evaluation by systematically comparing chromatograms with professional analytical software recommended by State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of China. The similarities of the fingerprints of 10 batches of tea samples were all more than 0.981. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of 10 major bioactive ingredients in the tea samples was conducted to interpret the consistency of the quality test. The results indicated that the HPLC fingerprint as a characteristic distinguishing method combining similarity evaluation and quantification analysis can be successfully used to assess the quality and to identify the authenticity of Ziyang green tea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of Protein Extraction and Decoloration Conditions for Tea Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyun CUI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To optimize alkaline method for extracting proteins from tea residue (TR, the effect of extraction conditions on tea protein extraction rate (TPER was investigated. Single factor experiment showed the extraction temperature 80 °C, extraction time 100 min, pH value 13 and liquid–solid ratio 40:1 as the optimal extraction conditions. The orthogonal test revealed that the maximum TPER reached 29.71% under the following optimal combination of conditions: extraction temperature 70 °C, extraction time 60 min, pH 12 and liquid–solid ratio 50:1. For optimizing the purification of tea residue proteins, isoelectric point precipitation (pI, ammonium sulfate precipitation (aS and isoelectric point plus ammonium sulfate precipitation (iPAS were compared. The result showed that the highest protein precipitation rate (PPR was 89.70% which was generated by using iPAS. Furthermore, powdered activated carbon was chosen as the most suitable decolorant for the extracted proteins.

  20. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content

    OpenAIRE

    Unno, Keiko; Noda, Shigenori; Kawasaki, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi; Morita, Akio; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT), on stress and quality of sleep of middle–aged individuals (n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years) in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT) was used as the c...

  2. Green tea for the prevention of cancer: evidence of field epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is derived from the leaf of Camellia sinensis, a natural beverage widely consumed around the world. Geological and botanical evidence suggests that the tea plant originated from China. Varying methods of processing tea leaves lead to green tea, black tea, or Oolong tea, which differ in their concentrations of polyphenols. Green tea polyphenols appear to have anti-tumorigenic properties, and form 30-40% of the dry weight of green tea compared with only 3-10% of black tea. Numerous studies in multiple animal models and different cancer cell lines have demonstrated the anti-tumorigenesis by green tea polyphenols. Despite the consistency of laboratory results, evidence of this effect occuring in humans has been inconclusive to date.Objective: To investigate if green tea consumption was associated with longer survival rates in ovarian cancer patients, and a lower risk of ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancer, in addition toadult leukemiaMethods: We have conducted one prospective cohort study in ovarian cancer patients, and fivecase-control studies in ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancers, and leukemia over the past decade. Tea consumption was measured using a structured questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was assessed in a preliminary study, and then evaluated by a test–retest. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain hazard ratios(HRs, 95% confidence intervals(95% CIs, and were adjusted for age at diagnosis, locality, body mass index(BMI, parity, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics(IFGO stage, histologic grade of differentiation, cytology of ascites, residual tumour, and chemotherapeutic status. Odds ratios(ORs and 95% CIs were obtained using logistic regression analyses, which accounted for demographic, lifestyle, hormonal and family cancer factors, and potential confounders.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2

  3. Anti-stress Effect of Green Tea with Lowered Caffeine on Humans: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Ishida, Hitoshi; Iwao, Yasunori; Morita, Akio; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2017-01-01

    Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effects on animals and humans. However, the effect of theanine was blocked by caffeine and gallate-type catechins, which are the main components in tea. We examined the anti-stress effect of green tea with lowered caffeine, low-caffeine green tea, on humans. The study design was a single-blind group comparison and participants (n=20) were randomly assigned to low-caffeine or placebo tea groups. These teas (≥500 mL/d), which were eluted with room temperature water, were taken from 1 week prior to pharmacy practice and continued for 10 d in the practice period. The participants ingested theanine (ca. 15 mg/d) in low-caffeine green tea. To assess the anxiety of participants, the state-trait anxiety inventory test was used before pharmacy practice. The subjective stress of students was significantly lower in the low-caffeine-group than in the placebo-group during pharmacy practice. The level of salivary α-amylase activity, a stress marker, increased significantly after daily pharmacy practice in the placebo-group but not in the low-caffeine-group. These results suggested that the ingestion of low-caffeine green tea suppressed the excessive stress response of students. This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (ID No. UMIN14942).

  4. The impact of green tea polyphenols on development and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Terry E; Pham, Hoang M; Barbour, Julia; Tran, Phillip; Van Nguyen, Benjamin; Hogan, Sean P; Homo, Richelle L; Coskun, Volkan; Schriner, Samuel E; Jafari, Mahtab

    2016-01-01

    Although, green tea has numerous health benefits, adverse effects with excessive consumption have been reported. Using Drosophila melanogaster , a decrease in male fertility with green tea was evidenced. Here, the extent of green tea toxicity on development and reproduction was investigated. Drosophila melanogaster embryos and larvae were exposed to various doses of green tea polyphenols (GTP). Larvae exposed to 10 mg/mL GTP were slower to develop, emerged smaller, and exhibited a dramatic decline in the number of emerged offspring. GTP protected flies against desiccation but sensitized them to starvation and heat stress. Female offspring exhibited a decline in reproductive output and decreased survival while males were unaffected. GTP had a negative impact on reproductive organs in both males and females (e.g., atrophic testes in males, absence of mature eggs in females). Collectively, the data show that high doses of GTP adversely affect development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster .

  5. Green Tea Polyphenols for the Protection against Renal Damage Caused by Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Yokozawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea, prepared from the leaves of Camellia sinensis L., is a beverage that is popular worldwide. Polyphenols in green tea have been receiving much attention as potential compounds for the maintenance of human health due to their varied biological activity and low toxicity. In particular, the contribution of antioxidant activity to the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress has been focused upon. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of (−-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate and (−-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, which account for a large fraction of the components of green tea polyphenol, on oxidative stress-related renal disease. Our observations suggest that green tea polyphenols have a beneficial effect on pathological states related to oxidative stress of the kidney.

  6. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of white, green, black, and herbal teas: a kinetic study

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    Shannon, E.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Camellia sinensis teas, and tisanes derived from herbs or fruit, are rich in polyphenolic, antioxidant compounds. This study compared the total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, DPPH radical scavenging capacity, and caffeine content of teas (black, green, white, chamomile, and mixed berry/hibiscus over a range of infusion times (0.5–10 mins at 90°C. Green, followed by black tea, respectively, had the greatest TPC (557.58 and 499.19μg GAE/g, TFC (367.84 and 325.18μg QE/g, FRAP (887.38 and 209.38μg TE/g, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity (1233.03 and 866.39μg AAE/g. Caffeine content per cup (200mL in black, green, and white tea was 63, 51, and 49mg respectively. Changes in the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of teas were modelled using zero, first, and fractional-conversion-first-order (FCFO kinetic models. Results fitted a FCFO kinetic model, providing useful data for maximum phytochemical preservation in the optimisation of industrial and domestic processing. As a dietary comparison, green, black, and white tea were found to have a greater phenolic content and antioxidant capacity than fresh orange and apple juice. It can be concluded that green and black teas are significant sources of dietary phenolic antioxidants.

  7. Ingestion of green tea with lowered caffeine improves sleep quality of the elderly via suppression of stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Noda, Shigenori; Kawasaki, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi; Morita, Akio; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated that ingestion of green tea enhances healthy life. However, caffeine in green tea can interfere with sleep. In this report, we examined the effect of green tea with lowered caffeine, low-caffeine green tea, on stress and sleep of the elderly. The participants (n = 10, mean age 89.3 ± 4.2 years) drank five cups/day of standard green tea for 1 week. Subsequently, they drank five cups/day of low-caffeine green tea for 2 weeks. Salivary α-amylase activity (sAA) was measured as a stress marker. Sleep stages were measured using a portable electroencephalography (n = 7, 6 female and 1 male). The level of sAA in the morning (sAAm) was significantly lower when the participants drank low-caffeine green tea than standard green tea. While the levels of sAAm were different among individuals, lower sAAm correlated with a higher quality of sleep. In those participants whose sAAm was lowered by the ingestion of low-caffeine green tea, some sleep parameters improved. Daily ingestion of low-caffeine green tea may be a beneficial tool for improving the quality of sleep of the elderly via the suppression of stress, although further research is required to fortify this hypothesis. PMID:29203963

  8. Ingestion of green tea with lowered caffeine improves sleep quality of the elderly via suppression of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Noda, Shigenori; Kawasaki, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi; Morita, Akio; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated that ingestion of green tea enhances healthy life. However, caffeine in green tea can interfere with sleep. In this report, we examined the effect of green tea with lowered caffeine, low-caffeine green tea, on stress and sleep of the elderly. The participants ( n  = 10, mean age 89.3 ± 4.2 years) drank five cups/day of standard green tea for 1 week. Subsequently, they drank five cups/day of low-caffeine green tea for 2 weeks. Salivary α-amylase activity (sAA) was measured as a stress marker. Sleep stages were measured using a portable electroencephalography ( n  = 7, 6 female and 1 male). The level of sAA in the morning (sAAm) was significantly lower when the participants drank low-caffeine green tea than standard green tea. While the levels of sAAm were different among individuals, lower sAAm correlated with a higher quality of sleep. In those participants whose sAAm was lowered by the ingestion of low-caffeine green tea, some sleep parameters improved. Daily ingestion of low-caffeine green tea may be a beneficial tool for improving the quality of sleep of the elderly via the suppression of stress, although further research is required to fortify this hypothesis.

  9. Influence of green tea consumption on cigarette smoking-induced biochemical changes in plasma and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthadu Shakeela Begum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking causes numerous adverse biochemical changes in plasma and blood leading to ill health effects for which therapeutic approaches are sought. The present study investigates the effect of green tea consumption on confirmed cigarette smokers. Blood samples were collected from 120 selected human male volunteers categorized in to four groups viz., controls, smokers, control volunteers consuming green tea with no habit of smoking and smokers consuming green tea were analysed. Results showed that altered plasma glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total cholesterol, lipoprotein patterns (HDL, LDL, VLDL and lipid peroxidation along with vitamins (vitamin-D, vitamin-B12, vitamin-C and minerals (iron, total iron binding capacity, calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, chloride followed by the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of green tea confirmed the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Antioxidants and free radical scavenging effects of green tea were assessed using 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+ and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH+. Results of this study clearly demonstrated that the adverse changes observed in the above biochemical parameters in smokers were reversed upon green tea supplementation which can be attributed to the phytoconstituents present in green tea. In conclusion, both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that phytocompounds present in green tea are able to scavenge free radicals and by there offers protection against smoking induced biochemical alterations.

  10. Green tea consumption and risk of cardiovascular and ischemic related diseases: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jun; Zhang, Zheng; Zheng, Tong-zhang; Bassig, Bryan A; Mao, Chen; Liu, Xingbin; Zhu, Yong; Shi, Kunchong; Ge, Junbo; Yang, Yue-jin; Dejia-Huang; Bai, Ming; Peng, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of green tea intake on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been well-defined. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between green tea consumption, CVD, and ischemic related diseases. All observational studies and randomized trials that were published through October 2014 and that examined the association between green tea consumption and risk of cardiovascular and ischemic related diseases as the primary outcome were included in this meta-analysis. The quality of the included studies was evaluated according to the Cochrane Handbook 5.0.2 quality evaluation criteria. A total of 9 studies including 259,267 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that those who didn't consume green tea had higher risks of CVD (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.09-1.29), intracerebral hemorrhage (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.03-1.49), and cerebral infarction (OR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.30) compared to green tea per day. Those who drank 1-3 cups of green tea per day had a reduced risk of myocardial infarction (OR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.98) and stroke (OR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.86) compared to those who drank green tea were also shown to have lower LDL compared to the green tea is associated with favorable outcomes with respect to risk of cardiovascular and ischemic related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Green Tea Polyphenols Attenuated Glutamate Excitotoxicity via Antioxidative and Antiapoptotic Pathway in the Primary Cultured Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lin; Cao, Chang; Cheng, Yong; Qin, Xiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols are a natural product which has antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. It has been shown that glutamate excitotoxicity induced oxidative stress is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In this study we explored the neuroprotective effect of green teen polyphenols against glutamate excitotoxicity in the primary cultured cortical neurons. We found that green tea polyphenols protected against glutamate induced neurotoxicity in the cortical neurons as measured by MTT and TUNEL assays. Green tea polyphenols were then showed to inhibit the glutamate induced ROS release and SOD activity reduction in the neurons. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that green tea polyphenols restored the dysfunction of mitochondrial pro- or antiapoptotic proteins Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 caused by glutamate. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols was abrogated when the neurons were incubated with siBcl-2. Taken together, these results demonstrated that green tea polyphenols protected against glutamate excitotoxicity through antioxidative and antiapoptotic pathways.

  12. Prolonged feeding with green tea polyphenols exacerbates cholesterol-induced fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Nina; Konstantinov, Anya; Anavi, Sarit; Aronis, Anna; Hagay, Zion; Madar, Zecharia; Tirosh, Oren

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the potential deleterious impact of dietary supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) on the progression of fatty liver disease, in a mouse model of cholesterol-induced steatohepatitis that represents chronic liver injury. Male C57BL mice (n = 32, 8-wk-old) were fed for 6 wk with one of the following diets: normal control diet (ND, Con), Con + 1% w/w polyphenols from GTE (Con + GTE); high cholesterol diet, Con + 1% cholesterol + 0.5% cholate w/w (HCD); HCD + 1% green tea polyphenols w/w (HCD + GTE). Hepatic steatosis, oxidative, and inflammatory markers and bile acid synthesis pathways were measured. HCD supplementation resulted in hepatic steatosis and liver damage. In animals supplemented with the HCD + GTE an exacerbated hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response were observed compared to HCD supplemented animals. HCD + GTE supplementation elevated blood levels of liver enzymes and serum bile acids compared HCD-treated animals. HCD + GTE supplementation altered bile acid synthesis in the cholesterol clearance pathway, inducing a shift from the classically regulated CYP7A1 pathway to the alternative acidic pathway. Prolonged GTE supplementation dramatically increased hepatic oxidative stress, inflammation and liver injury, and altered the bile acid synthesis pathway in mice fed a HCD. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Synergistic effect of green tea EGCG treatment with gamma radiation in leukemia cell necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hong Soo; Kim, Jae Man

    2006-01-01

    During cancer therapy, gamma-ray irradiation and treatment of anti-cancer chemicals destroy the normal cells as well as cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of epigallocathechin-gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea, which is known to have anti-cancer and anti-oxident activities, in order to find out the feasible method to protect the normal cells and to kill the cancer cells efficiently. We investigated the effect of EGCG on the leukemia cell growth and cell necrosis, especially when treated along with gamma radiation. The EGCG inhibited the leukemia cell, HL-60, growth at the appropriate concentration while it exhibited no influence on the normal cell growth. More significantly, it enhanced leukemia cell necrosis when its treatment was combined with gamma irradiation. Simultaneous treatment of EGCG and gamma radiation increased leukemia cell necrosis up to 35% compared with separate treatments. These results suggest that drinking of green tea or co-treatment of EGCG during gamma irradiation therapy may result in better prognosis through enhancement of the tumor cell necrosis and protection of the normal cells

  14. Formulation of a dry green tea-apple product: study on antioxidant and color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Vera; Vantaggi, Claudia; Corey, Mark; Kerr, William

    2010-03-01

    A dry apple product enriched with green tea (GT) extract was designed as a novel food to deliver relevant amounts of catechins. The target water activity (a(w)) range between 0.11 and 0.32 was chosen for the GT-fortified apple, since it corresponds to low water mobility and, consequently, maximum stability of dehydrated apples. The GT-fortified product and a control dehydrated apple product were stored in air, at 30 degrees C, and evaluated for color, antioxidant contents (monomeric flavan 3-ols, total procyanidins, ascorbic acid, chlorogenic acid and dihydrochalcones), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging capacity. After 1 mo of storage at the lowest a(w) level (0.11), the GT-fortified product retained 80 and 100% of the initial contents of the monomeric flavan 3-ols and total procyanidins, respectively. With increasing a(w) level to 0.32, the stability of antioxidants slowly decreased. The addition of GT to the apple product increased the FRAP value and the DPPH scavenging capacity by 3.6-fold and 4.6-fold respectively, which remained almost unchanged during storage. The GT-fortified product was similar in color to commercially available dehydrated apples. Results highlighted some advantages of using dehydrated apples as a target for green tea fortification, which deserve further trials to investigate potential applications for fortification of other dehydrated fruits.

  15. Extraction of caustic potash from spent tea for biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Sarina; Faiz Che Fisol, Ahmad; Sharikh, Atikah Mohamed; Noraini Jimat, Dzun; Jamal, Parveen

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to non-renewable fossil fuels due to its low gas emission and economical value. This study aims to extract caustic potash (KOH) from spent tea and to optimize the transesterfication process based on parameters such as amount of catalyst, reaction temperature and methanol to oil ratio. The spent tea was first dried at 60°C prior to calcination at 600°C for two hours. Caustic Potash were extracted from the calcined spent tea. The transesterification process was done based on Design of Experiments (DOE) to study the effects of amount of catalyst ranging from 0.5 wt % to 2.5 wt %, reaction temperature from 55°C to 65°C and methanol to oil ratio from 6:1 to 12:1 at a constant agitation rate of 300 rpm for three hours. The calcined spent tea produced was recorded the highest at 54.3 wt % and the extracted catalyst was 2.4 wt %. The optimized biodiesel yield recorded was 56.95% at the optimal conditions of 2.5 wt % amount of catalyst, 65°C reaction temperature and 9:1 methanol to oil ratio.

  16. Improving The Egg Quality Trough Addition Of Green Tea In Diet On Laying Hen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharlien Muharlien

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Research  was conducted to study the effect of green tea  addition in diet to egg weight, egg number, egg yolk colour , fat level and cholesterol level of egg yolk on laying hens. The materials used were 72 laying hens of 28 weeks old. The method of  the research was experiment arranged in Completely Randomized Design. The treatment were green tea  addition levels were 0 %, 1 %, 2 %, and 3 %. The variables observed were  egg weight,  egg number,  egg yolk colour, fat level and cholesterol level of  egg yolk. The result showed that green tea  had no significant effect  (P> 0.05 on egg weight, egg number and  egg yolk colour, but significant effect  (P<0.05 on fat level and cholesterol level of egg yolk. The conclusion was  green tea  addition  3 % in diets,  had not decreased on egg weight, egg number and not effect on egg yolk colour,  but had decreased fat level and cholesterol level of egg yolk on laying hens. The suggested were on management of laying hen, so addition  2 %  green tea on diets for reducing   fat level and cholesterol level  of egg yolk,  with optimal egg production.   Keywords : Laying hen, Green tea, Egg yolk colour, Fat, Cholesterol

  17. Does green tea consumption improve the salivary antioxidant status of smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Somayyeh; Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Daraei, Azam

    2017-06-01

    
Considering the higher rate of oral cancer, and reduction in salivary antioxidants in smokers as indicated in previous studies, antioxidant- containing nutrients such as green tea, seem to be beneficial in counteracting against oxidative stress in this group. This study assessed the salivary total antioxidant alteration in smokers compared to nonsmokers, after short-tem (7days) and long-term (3 weeks), green tea drinking. In this experimental study, 20 volunteer moderate-to-heavy male smokers, and 20 matched healthy non-smokers were selected to participate, according to the inclusion criteria. Participants were instructed to drink two cups of green tea per day, by dissolving 2g of green tea in 150ml of hot water for each cup. After saliva collection, antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured at baseline, after 7days, and after 21days. Statistical evaluation was done by SPSS 21, using paired samplet tests, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. 
 At day zero nonsmokers had a higher antioxidant capacity than smokers (686.6±62.22 vs. 338.8±59.9) mM/50μl, Pantioxidant capacity after one week and three weeks of green tea consumption (Pantioxidant capacity alteration in smokers compared to non-smokers from baseline to day 21. Results support the effectiveness of green tea consumption in salivary antioxidants enhancement in smokers, in both the short- and long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Systematic Analysis of the Multiple Bioactivities of Green Tea through a Network Pharmacology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoude Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, a number of studies have demonstrated multiple beneficial health effects of green tea. Polyphenolics are the most biologically active components of green tea. Many targets can be targeted or affected by polyphenolics. In this study, we excavated all of the targets of green tea polyphenolics (GTPs though literature mining and target calculation and analyzed the multiple pharmacology actions of green tea comprehensively through a network pharmacology approach. In the end, a total of 200 Homo sapiens targets were identified for fifteen GTPs. These targets were classified into six groups according to their related disease, which included cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, cardiovascular disease, muscular disease, and inflammation. Moreover, these targets mapped into 143 KEGG pathways, 26 of which were more enriched, as determined though pathway enrichment analysis and target-pathway network analysis. Among the identified pathways, 20 pathways were selected for analyzing the mechanisms of green tea in these diseases. Overall, this study systematically illustrated the mechanisms of the pleiotropic activity of green tea by analyzing the corresponding “drug-target-pathway-disease” interaction network.

  19. Consumption of coffee, not green tea, is inversely associated with arterial stiffness in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, H; Katsuura-Kamano, S; Yamaguchi, M; Nakamoto, M; Hiyoshi, M; Arisawa, K

    2013-10-01

    Studies on the associations between coffee and green tea consumption and arterial stiffness are rare. This study evaluated the possible relationships between coffee and green tea consumption and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) values in Japanese men. In total, 540 eligible men who enrolled in the baseline survey of a cohort study in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, and who underwent ba-PWV measurement were analyzed. Information about lifestyle characteristics including coffee and green tea intake were obtained from a structural self-administered questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between coffee and green tea consumption and ba-PWV. Subjects with greater coffee consumption were younger and showed higher proportions of current smoking and alcohol consumption. Subjects with greater green tea consumption were older and showed lower proportions of current smoking and alcohol consumption. Greater coffee consumption was significantly inversely associated with ba-PWV after the adjustment for probable covariates, including serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P for trend =0.031). After additional adjustment for serum triglycerides, this inverse association persisted, but was somewhat attenuated (P for trend =0.050). In contrast, green tea consumption was not associated with ba-PWV. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with arterial stiffness independent of known atherosclerotic risk factors, and this association was partly mediated by reduced circulating triglycerides. Further prospective or interventional studies are needed to confirm the causal association.

  20. The Effect of Green Tea Consumption on Prostate Cancer Risk and Progression: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-04-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the clinical benefits of green tea consumption on the progression and prevention of prostate cancer (PCa). A systematic search was performed across the following databases: PubMed, Excerpta Medica dataBASE, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Current Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included studies from database inception to September 2015. Studies must report on the effect of green tea consumption on PCa. The quality of observational studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), while randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were assessed for quality using the Jadad scale. A total of 15 articles were included, with 11 reporting on the effect of green tea consumption on PCa prevention, and four reporting on the effect of green tea on treatment. Mean NOS for observational studies was 7.4 (SD±1.3), with a range from 6 to 9, while all three RCTs scored 5 on the Jadad scale. Findings demonstrate that green tea appears to be an effective chemopreventive agent, particularly in those with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. However, evidence of efficacy in the treatment of PCa is currently lacking. Given the limitations in current studies, more well-designed RCTs should be undertaken to determine if green tea indeed has a role in the prevention and treatment of PCa.

  1. Green tea induced gold nanostar synthesis mediated by Ag(I) ions

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiang; Kaneko, Toshiro; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2014-01-01

    We report a synthesis of tea components conjugated gold nanostars (AuNSs) with strong near infrared absorption by reducing an aqueous solution of chloroauric acid trihydrate via green tea in association with Ag(I) ions. Green tea acts as a reducing agent by providing electrons for the gold (III) reduction as well as a stabilizing agent by conjugating some of its components on the surfaces of AuNSs. Moreover, the Ag(I) ions play an important role in mediating the branched growth of the resulta...

  2. Dissolution behavior of 137Cs absorbed on the green tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Uchimura, Hiromichi; Toda, Kensuke; Okuno, Kenji; Ikka, Takashi; Morita, Akio

    2013-01-01

    The green tea leaves was dipped in the 137 CsCl solution to elucidate the dissolution behavior of 137 Cs contaminated on the green tea leaves. It was found that the amount of 137 Cs dissolved into tea water was controlled by the temperature of water, and the activation energy of 137 Cs dissolution was estimated to be 0.045 eV, indicating that most of 137 Cs would exist as the adsorbed state. In addition, the dissolution behavior was controlled by the concentration of stable Cs dissolved in water, although no large correlation with pH was observed. (author)

  3. Green tea polyphenols stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and improve renal function after chronic cyclosporin a treatment in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibur Rehman

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that an extract from Camellia sinenesis (green tea, which contains several polyphenols, attenuates nephrotoxicity caused by cyclosporine A (CsA. Since polyphenols are stimulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB, this study investigated whether stimulation of MB plays a role in green tea polyphenol protection against CsA renal toxicity. Rats were fed a powdered diet containing green tea polyphenolic extract (0.1% starting 3 days prior to CsA treatment (25 mg/kg, i.g. daily for 3 weeks. CsA alone decreased renal nuclear DNA-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS protein ATP synthase-β (AS-β by 42%, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS protein NADH dehydrogenase-3 (ND3 by 87% and their associated mRNAs. Mitochondrial DNA copy number was also decreased by 78% by CsA. Immunohistochemical analysis showed decreased cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX-IV, an OXPHOS protein, in tubular cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC-1α, the master regulator of MB, and mitochondrial transcription factor-A (Tfam, the transcription factor that regulates mtDNA replication and transcription, were 42% and 90% lower, respectively, in the kidneys of CsA-treated than in untreated rats. These results indicate suppression of MB by chronic CsA treatment. Green tea polyphenols alone and following CsA increased AS-β, ND3, COX-IV, mtDNA copy number, PGC-1α mRNA and protein, decreased acetylated PGC-1α, and increased Tfam mRNA and protein. In association with suppressed MB, CsA increased serum creatinine, caused loss of brush border and dilatation of proximal tubules, tubular atrophy, vacuolization, apoptosis, calcification, and increased neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin expression, leukocyte infiltration, and renal fibrosis. Green tea polyphenols markedly attenuated CsA-induced renal injury and improved renal function. Together, these results demonstrate that green tea polyphenols attenuate Cs

  4. Survival of Salmonella on chamomile, peppermint, and green tea during storage and subsequent survival or growth following tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process.

  5. Optical Determination of Lead Chrome Green in Green Tea by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR Transmission Spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Li

    Full Text Available The potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR transmission spectroscopy for determination of lead chrome green in green tea was investigated based on chemometric methods. Firstly, the qualitative analysis of lead chrome green in tea was performed based on partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and the correct rate of classification was 100%. And then, a hybrid method of interval partial least squares (iPLS regression and successive projections algorithm (SPA was proposed to select characteristic wavenumbers for the quantitative analysis of lead chrome green in green tea, and 19 wavenumbers were obtained finally. Among these wavenumbers, 1384 (C = C, 1456, 1438, 1419(C = N, and 1506 (CNH cm-1 were the characteristic wavenumbers of lead chrome green. Then, these 19 wavenumbers were used to build determination models. The best model was achieved by least squares support vector machine (LS-SVMalgorithm with high coefficient of determination and low root-mean square error of prediction set (R2p = 0.864 and RMSEP = 0.291. All these results indicated the feasibility of IR spectra for detecting lead chrome green in green tea.

  6. Optical Determination of Lead Chrome Green in Green Tea by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Transmission Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Xu, Kaiwen; Zhang, Yuying; Sun, Chanjun; He, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) transmission spectroscopy for determination of lead chrome green in green tea was investigated based on chemometric methods. Firstly, the qualitative analysis of lead chrome green in tea was performed based on partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and the correct rate of classification was 100%. And then, a hybrid method of interval partial least squares (iPLS) regression and successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed to select characteristic wavenumbers for the quantitative analysis of lead chrome green in green tea, and 19 wavenumbers were obtained finally. Among these wavenumbers, 1384 (C = C), 1456, 1438, 1419(C = N), and 1506 (CNH) cm-1 were the characteristic wavenumbers of lead chrome green. Then, these 19 wavenumbers were used to build determination models. The best model was achieved by least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM)algorithm with high coefficient of determination and low root-mean square error of prediction set (R2p = 0.864 and RMSEP = 0.291). All these results indicated the feasibility of IR spectra for detecting lead chrome green in green tea.

  7. Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Bags: Comparison of Black, Green, Red Rooibos, Chamomile and Peppermint over Different Steep Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Cleverdon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, traditional and herbal teas are a prominent dietary source of polyphenols, and represent a class of bioactive molecules that are closely associated with a variety of health benefits. Most consumers prepare tea using tea bags, although there is little information about whether this production step alters the content of the final product. The study purpose was to investigate the effect of steep time and tea type on the polyphenol content and predicted antioxidant capacity of commercially available tea bag products, including Green, Orange Pekoe, Red Roiboos, Peppermint, and Chamomile. Total polyphenol content (TPC, antioxidant capacity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, and total predicted antioxidant capacity were measured in aliquots sampled every minute for 10 min. Polyphenols were extracted into solution in a nonlinear fashion, with ~80–90% of the TPC appearing within 5 min of tea bag immersion. Moreover, a significant range in TPC values was observed between products, with true teas containing at least two-fold greater polyphenol content than the herbal varieties. Our results are consistent with previous work using loose-leaf tea products and demonstrates that tea bag products are an effective source of polyphenols that may offer health benefits relating to their constituent antioxidant activity.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of ``green'' synthesized silver nanoparticles using tea polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Michael C.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; NadagoudaPresent Address: Pegasus Technical Services, 46 E. Hollister Street, Cincinnati, 45219, Ohio, Usa., Mallikarjuna N.; Kunzelman, Samantha; Hussain, Saber M.; Varma, Rajender S.

    2010-05-01

    Since ancient times, people have taken advantage of the antimicrobial effects of colloidal silver particles. Aside from the medical prospects, silver nanoparticles are found in a wide range of commercially available consumer products ranging from cosmetics to household cleansers. Current synthetic methods for creating silver nanoparticles typically call for potentially hazardous chemicals, extreme heat, and produce environmentally dangerous byproducts. Therefore, it is essential that novel ``green'' synthesis of nanoparticles becomes a reality, and it is imperative to fully analyze the potential toxic effects of these nanoparticles. In this study, we have shown that by reducing silver nitrate in solutions of tea extract or epicatechin of varying concentrations, spherical silver nanoparticles were formed that had controllable size distributions depending on the concentration of tea extract or epicatechin in the samples. Our ultra-resolution microscopy demonstrated that the nanoparticles were in fact interacting with the keratinocytes. Furthermore, evaluation of mitochondrial function (MTS) to assess cell viability and membrane integrity (LDH) in human keratinocytes showed that the silver nanoparticles were nontoxic. These results demonstrated that these nanoparicles are potentially biocompatible and warrant further evaluation in other biological systems.

  9. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols from green and toasted mate tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentrão, Patricia de Abreu Marques; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2011-05-01

    The production and distribution of toasted mate tea in Brazil has increased, which has resulted in its greater consumption. Mate tea is obtained by roasting non-fermented erva-mate in order to produce toasted erva-mate or toasted mate tea. However, although the product is much appreciated, studies of its chemical composition and the concentration of polyphenols, particularly flavonols present in toasted mate tea, are few and often controversial. This paper elucidates some misunderstandings involving the nomenclature of erva-mate and toasted mate, and mainly provides an overview of the composition of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of toasted mate tea and its raw material, erva-mate, in comparison with other teas, the compositions of which were found in the literature.

  10. The contents of fifteen essential trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Kazi, G.H.; Jakharani, M.A.; Shar, Q.G.; Shaikh, S.

    2005-01-01

    The content of fifteen elements i.e. Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined for 30 sample from three types of green tea samples using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples were purchased from authentic tea dealer in Peshawar imported from India, China and Kenya. However, some samples were taken which were locally produced in Pakistan with branded packing and without package. The NBS tea leaves. The wet digestion and infusion procedure reference material was also analyzed simultaneously with tea samples. The wet digestion and infusion procedures were employed for determination of total elements and aqueous extracted elements respectively. It was found that, considerable amount of essential and trace elements are present in total in tea infusion. The levels of toxic metals are low but level of aluminum is high in both forms. The results obtained from this analysis have shown good accuracy and reproducibility. The relative error and relative standard deviation were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed. (author)

  11. Study on flavour volatiles of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was shown by the sensory evaluation that the color of the soup and the extracted leaves of GABA tea were similar to that of the oolong tea, and the smell was similar to the aroma of cooked sweet red dates mixed with some of sour. In GABA tea, the contents of 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl phenol, methyl myristate, ...

  12. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Saric, Suzana; Notay, Manisha; Sivamani, Raja K.

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The Pu...

  13. Metabolomic unveiling of a diverse range of green tea (Camellia sinensis) metabolites dependent on geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Bum-Jin; Chung, Jin-Oh; Kim, Hak-Nam; Kim, Eun-Hee; Jung, Sungheuk; Lee, Hyosang; Lee, Sang-Jun; Hong, Young-Shick

    2015-05-01

    Numerous factors such as geographical origin, cultivar, climate, cultural practices, and manufacturing processes influence the chemical compositions of tea, in the same way as growing conditions and grape variety affect wine quality. However, the relationships between these factors and tea chemical compositions are not well understood. In this study, a new approach for non-targeted or global analysis, i.e., metabolomics, which is highly reproducible and statistically effective in analysing a diverse range of compounds, was used to better understand the metabolome of Camellia sinensis and determine the influence of environmental factors, including geography, climate, and cultural practices, on tea-making. We found a strong correlation between environmental factors and the metabolome of green, white, and oolong teas from China, Japan, and South Korea. In particular, multivariate statistical analysis revealed strong inter-country and inter-city relationships in the levels of theanine and catechin derivatives found in green and white teas. This information might be useful for assessing tea quality or producing distinct tea products across different locations, and highlights simultaneous identification of diverse tea metabolites through an NMR-based metabolomics approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Green Tea as an Agricultural Based Health Promoting Food: The Past Five to Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-Yin Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of tea originated in ancient China over 4000 years ago and is currently the second most popular beverage in the world after water. Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. The link between tea intake, most notably green tea, and health has resulted in intense research on the components responsible for preventing the onset of several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity and diabetes. In particular, the high levels of chemically diverse phenols (e.g., phenolic acids, flavonoids present in tea exhibit potent protective properties against many of these diseases. Although health related research on green tea and its predominant phenol (catechins has been on-going for decades, major advances have occurred in the last 5–10 years. Therefore, this review focuses on seminal studies reported primarily within the last five years but not extending past ten years on the link between health and green tea with an emphasis on the catechins.

  15. Evaluation of authenticity and green tea antimicrobial activity of different commercial brands that are sold in San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Campos, Jeyson

    2014-01-01

    Various brands of green tea are compared with the leaves of camellia sinensis to verify the antimicrobial effect, authenticity and quality. The main components with antibacterial effect commercially presented are compared to the components present in green tea leaf to determine the quality and authenticity, by thin layer chromatography. The brands marketed studied green tea in the metropolitan area of San Jose, Costa Rica has been really green tea good quality, this can be ensured by the findings in the analysis and comparison of the different profiles of flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids and amino acids. The antimicrobial activity has been without to confirmed in the bands of catechins analyzed [es

  16. Green tea catechins for well-being and therapy: prospects and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Noriyuki Miyoshi,1 Monira Pervin,1 Takuji Suzuki,2 Keiko Unno,3 Mamoru Isemura,1 Yoriyuki Nakamura1 1School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada, Shizuoka, Japan; 2Faculty of Education, Art and Science, Yamagata University, Yamagata, Japan; 3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada, Shizuoka, Japan Abstract: Tea is derived from the leaves and buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae plant, and is consumed worldwide. Green tea was discovered in the People's Republic of China approximately 3,000 BC. Lu Yu (733–803 published a book that describes the history of tea, the techniques, and utensils used for manufacturing, the method of preparation, and drinking of tea in the People's Republic of China. Green tea contains various components with specific health-promoting effects and is believed to exert protective effects against diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, hepatitis, and neurodegenerative diseases. Of the various tea components, the polyphenol catechins have been the subject of extensive investigation. Among the catechins, (--epigallocatechin gallate has the strongest bioactivity in most cases. Caffeine induces alertness, decreases the sensation of fatigue, and has a diuretic effect. Theanine and -aminobutyric acid can lower the blood pressure and regulate brain function. Vitamin C exhibits antiscorbutic activity, prevents cataracts, and may boost the immune system. Majority of the scientific evidence based on cellular and animal experiments as well as a number of human epidemiological and intervention studies indicate that green tea and (--epigallocatechin gallate have beneficial health effects against various diseases. However, conflicting results have also been reported. Since confounding factors could affect the results, future studies should be designed to eliminate such factors for better understanding of the benefits of green tea on human health. Genetic and environmental factors

  17. A comparative study of the effect of green tea and sour tea on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafeshani, Marzieh; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan; Karimian, Jahangir; Pourmasoumi, Makan; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Amini, Mohammad Reza; Hadi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a set of metabolic disorders affecting heart and blood vessels. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) have attracted significant attention recently due to their high popularity, nutrient profile and therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men. METHODS This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 54 healthy adult men. The participants were randomly assigned to two intervention groups receiving 450 mg green tea or sour tea and one placebo group which consumed 450 mg placebo (maltodextrin) for 6 weeks. Blood pressure, lipid profile, dietary intake and physical activity were measured pre- and post-intervention and compared. RESULTS After 6 weeks of intervention, sour tea supplementation led to a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared with the placebo group. However, we faild to find any significant difference in SBP between green tea and control groups. Also, no significant changes were observed in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and lipid profile between the three groups. In comparison with baseline, there was a significant increase in the mean level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in green tea and sour tea groups. Also, the interventions resulted in significant decrease in the mean levels of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and DBP in the sour tea group compared with the pre-intervention value. CONCLUSION On the basis of our findings, sour tea supplementation led to decreased SBP in healthy men compared with the placebo, but there was no significant difference between their effects on DBP and lipid profile. PMID:29147120

  18. Modeling the effects of temperature, sodium chloride and green tea and their interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactive effects of heating temperature (55 – 65C), sodium chloride (NaCl, 0-2%), and green tea 60% polyphenol extract (GTPE, 0-3%) on heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in ground turkey were determined. Thermal death times were quantified in bags submerged in ...

  19. Improving yield and composition of protein concentrates from green tea residue in an agri-food supply chain: Effect of pre-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Krimpen, Van Marinus M.; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Rather than improving crop-production yield, developing biorefinery technology for unused biomass from the agri-food supply chain may be the crucial factor to reach sustainable global food security. A successful example of food-driven biorefinery is the extraction of protein from green tea residues,

  20. Green Tea Polyphenols Decrease Strecker Aldehydes and Bind to Proteins in Lactose-Hydrolyzed UHT Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Therese; Rauh, Valentin; Danielsen, Bente P; Poojary, Mahesha M; Waehrens, Sandra S; Bredie, Wender L P; Sørensen, John; Petersen, Mikael A; Ray, Colin A; Lund, Marianne N

    2017-12-06

    The effect of epigallocatechin gallate enriched green tea extract (GTE) on flavor, Maillard reactions and protein modifications in lactose-hydrolyzed (LH) ultrahigh temperature (UHT) processed milk was examined during storage at 40 °C for up to 42 days. Addition of GTE inhibited the formation of Strecker aldehydes by up to 95% compared to control milk, and the effect was similar when GTE was added either before or after UHT treatment. Release of free amino acids, caused by proteolysis, during storage was also decreased in GTE-added milk either before or after UHT treatment compared to control milk. Binding of polyphenols to milk proteins was observed in both fresh and stored milk samples. The inhibition of Strecker aldehyde formation by GTE may be explained by two different mechanisms; inhibition of proteolysis during storage by GTE or binding of amino acids and proteins to the GTE polyphenols.

  1. Weight gain and psychiatric treatment: is there as role for green tea and conjugated linoleic acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Madalyn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary supplement use is widespread in developed nations. In particular, patients who utilize mental health services also report frequent consumption of dietary supplements, often in relation to management of adverse events and specifically weight gain. Weight gain induced by psychotropic medications can further compound psychological distress and negatively influence compliance. Here we report on four cases of social anxiety disorder treated with the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine. Self-administration of conjugated linoleic acid and green tea extract may have influenced objective anthropomorphic measurements; each patient had an unexpected decrease in total body fat mass, a decrease in body fat percentage and an increase in lean body mass. Since weight gain is a common and undesirable side-effect with psychiatric medications, our observation strongly suggests the need for controlled clinical trials using these agents.

  2. Health Benefits of Theanine in Green Tea: A Review | Liang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theanine is an amide exclusively present in tea and some fungi, and is an important bioactive component of tea. The bioactive effects of theanine include antitumour, anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, anti-stress activities, and the ability to improve cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It also has protective effect on ...

  3. Productivity and biochemical properties of green tea in response to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The expression of three homologues of the expansin genes, which regulate plant cell growth, and the CsCHS gene encoding a tea chalcone synthase, which critically regulates the biosynthesis of catechols, were induced in germinal leaves of tea plants following treatment with HpaG1–94 or HpaGXooc. Higher levels of ...

  4. Stability of Green Tea Catechins in Commercial Tea Leaves during Storage for 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea products, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea ingredients, we determined by HPLC seven catechins [(–)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (–)-catechin (C), (+)-epicatechin (EC), (–)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), (–)-gallocate...

  5. Additional benefit of higher dose green tea in lowering postprandial blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Lahirin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea contains catechins that have inhibitory effects on amylase, sucrase, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT which result in lowering of postprandial blood glucose (PBG. This beneficial effect has been widely demonstrated using the usual dose (UD of green tea preparation. Our study was aimed to explore futher lowering of PBG using high dose (HD of green tea in healthy adolescents.Methods: 24 subjects received 100 mL infusion of either 0.67 or 3.33 grams of green tea with test meal. Fasting, PBG at 30, 60, 120 minutes were measured. Subjects were cross-overed after wash out. PBG and its incremental area under the curve (IAUC difference between groups were analyzed with paired T-test. Cathecin contents of tea were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.Results: The PBG of HD group was lower compared to UD (at 60 minutes =113.70 ± 13.20 vs 124.16 ± 8.17 mg/dL, p = 0.005; at 120 minutes = 88.95 ± 6.13 vs 105.25 ± 13.85 mg/dL, p < 0.001. The IAUC of HD was also found to be lower compared to UD (2055.0 vs 3411.9 min.mg/dL, p < 0.001.Conclusion: Additional benefit of lowering PBG can be achieved by using higher dose of green tea. This study recommends preparing higher dose of green tea drinks for better control of PBG.

  6. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  7. Analysis of green tea compounds and their stability in dentifrices of different pH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jong-Hwa; Park, Yong-Duk; Ahn, Hyo-Kwang; Kim, Seung-Jin; Lee, Joo-Young; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Chang, Yeon-Soo; Song, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Ha-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, green tea compounds (flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenolic acids) were analyzed in green tea-containing dentifrices, and their stability at different pH levels was evaluated. The compounds were separated under 0.01% phosphoric acid-acetonitrile gradient conditions and detected by photodiode array detector at 210, 280, 300, 335 nm. Column temperature was set at 20°C based on the results of screening various temperatures. Each compound showed good linearity at optimized wavelength as well as showing good precision and accuracy in dentifrices. Using this method, the stability of compounds was investigated in pH 4, 7, 8, and 10 solutions for 96 h, and in pH 7 and pH 10 solutions for 6 months. The green tea compounds were more stable at low pH levels; purine alkaloids were more stable than flavonoids. In particular, gallocatechin (GC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), gallocatechin gallate (GCG), and myricetin almost disappeared in pH 10 solutions after 96 h. In dentifrices, the compounds were gradually decreased until 6 months in both pH types, while gallic acid was increased because of production of galloyl ester of other green tea compounds. Therefore, it is beneficial to adjust to as low a pH as possible when produce green tea-containing dentifrices.

  8. Effect of green tea on the second degree burn wounds in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Fatemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various studies indicate that the green tea has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Moreover, a few studies have been carried out that demonstrate beneficial effects of green tea on burned patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, green tea, Vaseline, and silver sulfadiazine dressings were used as first-aid treatment to deep dermal contact burns in rats, compared with a control of nothing. After creating second-degree burn on the dorsum of rats, the treatments were applied for 15 min in four groups. Wound dressing changes were daily. Macroscopic study was performed on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 by using a digital camera and software processing of photos. Microscopic examination was done by pathologic evaluation of skin specimens on day 14. Results: We observed that green tea usage significantly decreased burn size in comparison to the control group (P = 0.004. Conclusion: Green tea is effective on healing process of second degree burn wounds.

  9. Green tea polyphenols provide photoprotection, increase microcirculation, and modulate skin properties of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulrike; Moore, Carolyn E; De Spirt, Silke; Tronnier, Hagen; Stahl, Wilhelm

    2011-06-01

    Dietary constituents including polyphenols and carotenoids contribute to endogenous photoprotection and modulate skin characteristics related to structure and function of the tissue. Animal and in-vitro studies indicate that green tea polyphenols affect skin properties. In a 12-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 female volunteers were randomized to an intervention or control group. Participants consumed either a beverage with green tea polyphenols providing 1402 mg total catechins/d or a control beverage. Skin photoprotection, structure, and function were measured at baseline (wk 0), wk 6, and wk 12. Following exposure of the skin areas to 1.25 minimal erythemal dose of radiation from a solar simulator, UV-induced erythema decreased significantly in the intervention group by 16 and 25% after 6 and 12 wk, respectively. Skin structural characteristics that were positively affected included elasticity, roughness, scaling, density, and water homeostasis. Intake of the green tea polyphenol beverage for 12 wk increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to the skin. Likewise, in a separate, randomized, double-blind, single-dose (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g) study of green tea polyphenols, blood flow was maximized at 30 min after ingestion. In summary, green tea polyphenols delivered in a beverage were shown to protect skin against harmful UV radiation and helped to improve overall skin quality of women.

  10. Potential role of green tea catechins in the management of oxidative stress-associated infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Agarwal, Ashok; Virk, Gurpriya; Cho, Chak-Lam

    2017-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are present in low concentrations in the genital tracts of males and females. Excessive ROS lead to oxidative stress, which damages DNA, lipids and proteins. Such molecular changes result in compromised vitality, increased morphological defects and decreased sperm motility in the male. In the female, oxidative stress interferes with oocyte maturation, and may inhibit in-vitro maturation of the oocyte. Recently, green tea supplementation has been reported to possess properties that may improve the quality of male and female gametes largely due to the ability of catechin polyphenols to quench ROS. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is considered the most promising bioactive compound in green tea due to its strong antioxidant activity. The unique property of green tea catechins may potentially improve reproductive health and pose an important research area. We present a comprehensive overview on the effects and potential roles of green tea catechins on oxidative stress in male and female reproduction and fertility. In this review, possible mechanisms of action are highlighted to better understand the potential use of green tea catechins in the reduction of oxidative stress and its associated beneficial effects in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols with protective effects against skin photoaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Eunmiri; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Park, Jun Seong; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-05-24

    Whereas green tea has historically been consumed in high quantities in Northeast Asia, its popularity is also increasing in many Western countries. Green tea is an abundant source of plant polyphenols exhibiting numerous effects that are potentially beneficial for human health. Accumulating evidence suggests that green tea polyphenols confer protective effects on the skin against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging, involving antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects as well as prevention of immunosuppression. Melanin pigmentation in the skin is a major defense mechanism against UV irradiation, but pigmentation abnormalities such as melasma, freckles, senile lentigines, and other forms of melanin hyperpigmentation can also cause serious health and aesthetic issues. Furthermore, UV irradiation initiates the degradation of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, promoting the process of skin aging through deep wrinkle formation and loss of tissue elasticity. UV irradiation-induced formation of free radicals also contributes to accelerated photoaging. Additionally, immunosuppression caused by UV irradiation plays an important role in photoaging and skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and immunosuppression preventive mechanisms of green tea polyphenols that have been demonstrated to protect against UV irradiation-stimulated skin photoaging, and gauge the quality of evidence supporting the need for clinical studies using green tea polyphenols as anti-photoaging agents in novel cosmeceuticals.

  12. Green tea and coffee consumption is inversely associated with depressive symptoms in a Japanese working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Kurotani, Kayo; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kume, Ayami; Sato, Masao; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    To examine the association between the consumption of green tea, coffee and caffeine and depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional study. Consumption of green tea and coffee was ascertained with a validated dietary questionnaire and the amount of caffeine intake was estimated from these beverages. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for depressive symptoms with adjustments for potential confounders. Two workplaces in north-eastern Kyushu, Japan, in 2009. A total of 537 men and women aged 20-68 years. Higher green tea consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. Compared with participants consuming ≤1 cup/d, those consuming ≥4 cups green tea/d had a 51% significantly lower prevalence odds of having depressive symptoms after adjustment for potential confounders, with significant trend association (P for trend = 0·01). Further adjustment for serum folate slightly attenuated the association. Coffee consumption was also inversely associated with depressive symptoms (≥2 cups/d v. green tea, coffee and caffeine may confer protection against depression.

  13. Influence of cigarette smoke and green tea on radiation-induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yong; Hao Enzhu; Ni Yanbo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of cigarette smoke and green tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation, and to provide scientific information for prevention and treatment of radiation damage. Methods: There were 8 groups in the factorial experiment design with 3 factors at 2 levels. Mice were randomly divided into each group. There were 8 mice in each group. Mice in seven experimental groups were exposed to cigarette smoke, green tea, radiation or their mixtures respectively. One group was treated as the blank control group. The frequencies of micrnucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE) were scored by single blinded method. The data were analyzed with factorial experiments analysis of variance using SAS 8.0. Results: Analysis of variance showed that radiation, cigarette smoke and green tea were independently significant factors (P<0.01). Interactions between cigarette smoke and radiation or between green tea and radiation were statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: Radiation and cigarette smoke can cause bone marrow cell mutations independently. There is synergistic effect between cigarette smoke and radiation. Green tea can inhibit radiation-induced cell mutation. (authors)

  14. Microsatellite markers from tea green leafhopper Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii: a powerful tool for studying genetic structure in tea plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Dietrich, Christopher H; Qin, Daozheng

    2016-07-29

    Tea green leafhopper is one of the most dominant pests in Chinese tea plantations. Recent evidence, including morphological and molecular data, revealed that tea green leafhopper in China is the same species as in Japan, Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. Previous morphological study that revealed variation in the structure of the male genitalia within and among populations of this species suggested that there may be significant population-level genetic variation. To provide powerful molecular markers to explore the population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this pest in China, microsatellite markers were obtained by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO). Eighteen polymorphic markers were evaluated for five populations of E. (M.) onukii, Two related empoascine leafhopper species were selected to test the transferability of the markers. Population genetic structure of E. (M.) onukii was detected using Structure analysis, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and variance analysis. The identified markers were polymorphic with total number of alleles ranging from 6 to 24 per locus, observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.133 to 0.9 and 0.183 to 0.926, respectively, and the polymorphic information content value over all populations varied from 0.429 to 0.911. This is the first study to demonstrate that microsatellite markers provide valuable information for genetic structure of E. (M.) onukii in Chinese tea plantations. There is obvious genetic differentiation between the two populations in the Southwest tea area. These microsatellite markers will be the powerful tools for genetic studies of E. (M.) onukii and improve understanding of the microevolution of this species.

  15. Aged leaves effect on essential components in green and oolong tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Rahman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaf encompasses essential components like caffeine, polyphenol, lipid etc. The study was conducted to find out the essential constituents in green and oolong tea from aged tea leaves during the year of 2012. Tea leaves with different plucked aged were collected from Lackatoorah Tea Estate at sylhet district in Bangladesh. Collected leaves were processesed to make desirable samples for biochemical analysis in the laboratory of Department of Food Enginnering and Tea Technology, SUST. Results revealed that the essential constituents like moisture, caffeine, polyphenol, lipid, protein, ash, ascorbic acid, acidity and pH value in green tea made from different aged leaves were found slightly higher than oolong tea, ranged from 6.38±1.06 to 3.49±0.59%; 4.91±0.82 to 1.49±0.24%; 30.88±5.15 to 18.23±3.04%; 7.50±1.25 to 9.58±1.59%; 13.15±2.19 to 17.33±2.88%; 3.87±1.65 to 7.86±1.31%; 48.4±8.05 to 21.3±3.55(mg; 2.13±0.68 to 1.18±0.19% and 5.52±0.11 to 5.97±0.18%, respectively. Similarly, the moisture, caffeine, polyphenol, lipid, protein, ash, ascorbic acid, acidity and pH value from different aged leaves were found in oolong tea from 6.19±1.04 to 2.98±0.49%; 4.68±0.78 to 1.11±0.19%; 20.89±3.48 to 8.23±1.37%; 6.40±1.07 to 9.13±1.52%; 13.03±2.17 to 17.19±2.86%; 3.44±0.58 to 7.57±1.27% 6.44±1.08 to 0.98±0.17 (mg; 2.02±0.34to 1.02±0.17% and 5.53±0.11 to 5.97±0.20%, respectively. Therefore, young tea leaves (i.e. 5 to 8 days tea leaves should be plucked for considering useful constituents in processed green tea and oolong tea.

  16. Quantification of total polyphenols, catechin, caffeine, L-theanine, determination of antioxidant activity and effect on antileishmanial drugs of ethiopian tea leaves extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, Alemu; Hymete, Ariaya; Bekhit, Adnan A.; Mohammed, Salahuddin Farooq

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study four tea samples Gumero black, Wushwush black and Wushwush green from Agri- Ceft Plc and East Africa black tea leaves from East African Agribusiness Plc were investigated for total polyphenols, caffeine, catechin and L-theanine content. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extracts were investigated for their antioxidant and antileishmanial property and effect on amphotericin B, miltefocine and sodium stibogluconate, the commonly used antileishmanial drugs. Antileishman...

  17. Changes in the Composition of Raw Tea Leaves from the Korean Yabukida Plant during High-temperature Processing to Pan-Fried Kamairi-cha Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop a better understanding of compositional changes occurring during the production of commercial teas, we determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) changes in ingredient levels during each of several manufacturing steps used to produce Kamairi-cha, a premium green tea. We ...

  18. The Place of Green Tea in the Prevention of Osteoporosis in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülbahtiyar Demirel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is one of the most important health-related problems in today’s world that it is increasing in incidence specifically after menopause in women. Various risk factors including genetic characteristics, Vitamin D deficiency, insufficient calcium intake, sedentary lifestyle and late menarche enable osteoporosis to be contained in terms of its progress and to be treated. The consumption of green tea is one of the non-pharmacological methods utilized in the prevention of osteoporosis in recent years. Studies conducted abroad with relation to this subject identified that the consumption of green tea is effective in the regulation of bone density and the protection of bone health. However, this finding lacks sufficient data at the national scale. The present review will provide healthcare professionals information on the necessity for the consumption of green tea in the prevention of osteoporosis in women. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 84-6

  19. Anti-cancer properties epigallocatechin-gallate contained in green tea 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Donejko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies point to the possibility of using green tea’s catechins in chemoprevention of cancer. Recent studies show the inhibitory effects of epigallocatechin gallate on the growth of existing tumors including breast cancer, skin cancer and gastrointestinal tract cancers. Another mode of action of biologically active compounds in green tea involves inhibiting the neoplastic process.All these mechanisms may be useful in prevention and inhibition of the cancer processes (initiation, promotion and progress by the consumption of green tea. However, clinical studies show contradictory results. Several independent factors, such as the temperature of the beverage, the duration of consumption, the amount of consumed tea and the diet used by the analyzed group, have a decisive effect on the final effect of plant polyphenols on the process of carcinogenesis. 

  20. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Liu, A.M.; Kampman, E.; Zhang, Z.F.; Veer, P. van 't; Wu, D.L.; Wang, P.H.; Yang, J.; Qin, Y.; Mu, L.N.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a

  1. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high and low risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Liu, A.; Kampman, E.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Veer, van 't P.; Wu, P.; Wang, P.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Major Constituents in Green Tea with Different Plucking Periods and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Sook Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the plucking periods and the major constituents and the antioxidant activity in green tea. Green tea was prepared from leaves plucked from the end of April 2013 to the end of May 2013 at intervals of one week or longer. The contents of theanine, theobromine, caffeine, catechin (C, and gallocatechin gallate (GCg were significantly decreased, whereas those of epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg and epigallocatechin (EGC were significantly increased along with the period of tea leaf plucking. In addition, antioxidant activity of green tea and standard catechins was investigated using ABTS, FRAP and DPPH assays. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in relatively the oldest leaf, regardless of the assay methods used. Additionally, the order of antioxidant activity of standard catechins was as follows: EGCg ³ GCg ³ ECg > EGC ³ GC ³ EC ³ C. Moreover, the cis-catechins contents were the key factor affecting the antioxidant activity of green tea in all assays employed (ABTS, r = 0.731, p < 0.01; FRAP, r = 0.886, p < 0.01; DPPH, r = 0.778, p < 0.01.

  3. Oxidative stress reduced by a green tea concentrate and Capsicum combination: synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, Greg B; Morré, D James; Morré, Dorothy M

    2013-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species that are produced by aerobic metabolism and signaling cascades have the potential to play important roles in maintaining homeostatic redox and cell proliferation. When the balance between the production and elimination of reactive oxygen species is perturbed toward production, the result is oxidative stress. High levels of oxidative stress are a general characteristic of cancer. The altered redox state within a tumor microenvironment confers a growth advantage through increased proliferation rates, evasion of apoptosis, and increased resistance to therapeutic compounds. We have tested a synergistic combination of green tea-Camellia sinensis-concentrate and powdered Capsicum powder (TeaFense™/Capsol-T™) as a dietary supplement to reduce oxidative stress as an approach to elimination of malignant cells. Here, we demonstrate that the green tea-powdered Capsicum mixture effectively reduces levels of oxidative stress in both cancer (HeLa) and noncancer (MCF-10A) cells as determined from measurements of levels of the oxidative stress indicator Nrf-2 by western blot analysis. Nrf-2 is a transcription factor that controls an antioxidant response element. Increased expression of Nrf-2 is linked to high levels of oxidative stress and vice versa. Based on levels of Nrf-2, the mixture of green tea concentrate plus powdered Capsicum reduced oxidative stress by more than 50% compared with 15% by the green tea concentrate alone.

  4. Application of microencapsulation for the safe delivery of green tea polyphenols in food systems: Review and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massounga Bora, Awa Fanny; Ma, Shaojie; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Lu

    2018-03-01

    Green tea has been associated with the prevention and reduction of a wide range of severe health conditions such as cancer, immune, and cardiovascular diseases. The health benefits associated with green tea consumption have been predominantly attributed to green tea polyphenols. The functional properties of green tea polyphenols are mainly anti-oxidative, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, anti-microbial, etc. These excellent properties have recently gained considerable attention in the food industry. However, their application is limited by their sensitivity to factors like temperature, light, pH, oxygen, etc. More, studies have reported the occurrence of unpleasant taste and color transfer during food processing. Lastly, the production of functional food requires to maintain the stability, bioactivity, and bioavailability of the active compounds. To tackle these obstacles, technological approaches like microencapsulation have been developed and applied for the formulation of green tea-enriched food products. The present review discusses the novelty in microencapsulation techniques for the safe delivery of green tea polyphenols in food matrices. After a literature on the green tea polyphenols composition, and their health attributes, the encapsulation methods and the coating materials are presented. The application of green tea encapsulates in food matrices as well as their effect on food functional and sensory properties are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Contribution of temporal dominance of sensations method to the sensory description of taste properties of commercial green tea brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémi Dubová

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the most dominant taste attributes of green tea samples in panelists perception over time. In order to assess the samples, a brand new method of sensory evaluation called „Temporal Dominance of Sensations“ was used. The five commercial green tea brands were evaluated by eight trained panelists (students. For each sample of green tea, curves of the dominance of each attribute over time were computed. The TDS curves provided information about the sequence of attributes that were dominant during degustation. This methodology was useful to characterize taste properties of green tea samples.doi:10.5219/274 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This paper aims to investigate the most dominant taste attributes of green tea samples in panelists perception over time. In order to assess the samples, a brand new method of sensory evaluation called „Temporal Dominance of Sensations“ was used. The five commercial green tea brands were evaluated by eight trained panelists (students. For each sample of green tea, curves of the dominance of each attribute over time were computed. The TDS curves provided information about the sequence of attributes that were dominant during degustation. This methodology was useful to characterize taste properties of green tea samples.doi:10.5219/274

  6. Comparison of Protective Effect of Green Tea and Vitamin C Against Cypermethrin Induce Nephrotoxicity in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, S.; Mehboob, K.; Naveed, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insecticide toxicity is the problem of every person in under developed countries. It is necessary to counteract its effect by natural and cheap remedies like green tea and vitamin C. In this manner common man can also enjoy blessings of life. The current research was performed to compare the protective function of green tea and vitamin C on experimental cypermethrin provoked nephrotoxicity Method: Forty healthy Balb/C mice purchased from National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan and divided in to four groups (10 each). Group a was control which received only normal diet. Group B, group C and group D were experimental groups which were given Cypermethrin, Cypermethrin with green tea and Cypermethrin with vitamin C respectively. These groups were also given normal diet. After 1 month blood was drawn by intra-cardiac method to assess renal parameters. Results: One month research showed increase in serum urea to 6.8±.48 m.mol/l (n=3.9±.44) while green tea and vitamin C normalize them to 4.0±.83 m.mol/l and 3.4±.33 m.mol/l respectively. Serum creatinine increased to 42.90±3.28 m.mol/l (n=29.50±3.95) while green tea and vitamin C normalize them to 28.80±4.58 m.mol/l and 22.60±2.06 m.mol/l correspondingly. Conclusion The results showed that green tea and vitamin C neutralized toxicity induced by Cypermethrin in mice and their effect is comparable. (author)

  7. Coffee and green tea consumption is associated with insulin resistance in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Kochi, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Kurotani, Kayo; Akter, Shamima; Kabe, Isamu; Sato, Masao; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    Higher coffee and green tea consumption has been suggested to decrease risk of type 2 diabetes, but their roles in insulin resistance (IR) and insulin secretion remain unclear. This study examined the association between habitual consumption of these beverages and markers of glucose metabolism in a Japanese working population. Participants were 1440 Japanese employees (1151 men and 289 women) aged 18-69years. Consumption of coffee and green tea was ascertained via a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression was used to estimate means (95% confidence intervals) of fasting insulin, fasting plasma glucose, homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Coffee consumption was significantly, inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P for trend=0.03), and the association appeared to be confined to overweight subjects (BMI≥25kg/m(2)) (P for trend=0.01, P for interaction=0.08). Unexpectedly, green tea consumption was positively associated with HOMA-IR (P for trend=0.02), though there was no dose-response relationship among daily consumers of green tea. Neither coffee nor green tea consumption was associated with HOMA-β and HbA1c. Our findings indicate that coffee consumption may be associated with decreased IR, but not with insulin secretion. The positive association between green tea consumption and IR warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Green tea catechins and their metabolites in human skin before and after exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kayleigh A; Dew, Tristan P; Watson, Rachel E B; Farrar, Mark D; Osman, Joanne E; Nicolaou, Anna; Rhodes, Lesley E; Williamson, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids may protect against sunburn inflammation in skin. Preliminary reports using less complete analysis suggest that certain catechins and their metabolites are found in skin biopsies and blister fluid after consumption of green tea; however, it is not known if they are affected by solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation (UVR) or whether conjugated forms, with consequently altered bioactivity, are present. The present study tested the hypothesis that UVR affects the catechin levels in the skin of healthy volunteers after consumption of green tea and how catechins in the plasma are related to their presence in skin tissue samples. In an open oral intervention study, 11 subjects consumed green tea and vitamin C supplements daily for 3months. Presupplementation and postsupplementation plasma samples, suction blister fluid and skin biopsies were collected; the latter two samples were collected both before and after UVR. A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric assay was used to measure the intact catechin metabolites, conjugates and free forms. Seven green tea catechins and their corresponding metabolites were identified postsupplementation in skin biopsies, 20 in blister fluid and 26 in plasma, with 15 green tea catechin metabolites present in both blister fluid and plasma. The valerolactone, O-methyl-M4-O-sulfate, a gut microbiota metabolite of catechins, was significantly increased 1.6-fold by UVR in blister fluid samples. In conclusion, there were some common catechin metabolites in the plasma and blister fluid, and the concentration was always higher in plasma. The results suggest that green tea catechins and metabolites are bioavailable in skin and provide a novel link between catechin metabolites derived from the skin and gut microbiota. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison Of Protective Effect Of Green Tea And Vitamin C Against Cypermethrin Induce Nephrotoxicity In Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Saima; Mehboob, Khadija; Naveed, Abdul Khaliq

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide toxicity is the problem of every person in under developed countries. It is necessary to counteract its effect by natural and cheap remedies like green tea and vitamin C. In this manner common man can also enjoy blessings of life. The current research was performed to compare the protective function of green tea and vitamin C on experimental cypermethrin provoked nephrotoxicity. Forty healthy Balb/C mice purchased from National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan and divided in to four groups (10 each). Group a was control which received only normal diet. Group B, group C and group D were experimental groups which were given Cypermethrin, Cypermethrin with green tea and Cypermethrin with vitamin C respectively. These groups were also given normal diet. After 1 month blood was drawn by intra-cardiac method to assess renal parameters. One month research showed increase in serum urea to 6.8±.48 m.mol/l (n=3.9±.44) while green tea and vitamin C normalize them to 4.0±.83m.mol/l and 3.4±.33m.mol/l respectively. Serum creatinine increased to 42.90±3.28m.mol/l (n=29.50±3.95) while green tea and vitamin C normalize them to 28.80±4.58m.mol/l and 22.60±2.06m.mol/l correspondingly. The results showed that green tea and vitamin C neutralized toxicity induced by Cypermethrin in mice and their effect is comparable.

  10. The Efficacy of Coffee and Green Tea in Ameliorating Histological and Biochemical Changes Induced By γ-Irradiation in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Darwish, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation results in oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of coffee, green tea, or coffee + green tea consumption on radiation-induced damage in liver and heart tissues of rats. Rats received/day, by gavages, the water extract of 0.3 g green tea and/or 0.2 g coffee, for a period of 7 days. The last dose was given 60 min before irradiation with a dose of 6.5 Gy. Histological examination through light microscope of sections in the liver and heart tissues on the 3rd day post-irradiation revealed that all treatments has attenuated radiation-induced oxidative damage. Necrosis, apoptosis, cell death and rupture of cell membrane in both tissues were less severe and were associated with significant decrease of serum malonaldehyde (MDA) content and significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content, compared to their corresponding value in non irradiated rats. The results were substantiated by significant amelioration in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the content of triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC), markers of liver and heart functions. No significant changes were recorded between the 3 treatments. However, coffee + green tea provoked better results with respect to radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, which might be attributed to their synergistic effect as free radical scavengers. It could be concluded that drinking coffee associated with green tea is healthier than drinking coffee or green tea alone to protect liver and heart tissues from oxidative stress

  11. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters of blood in adolescent rats and histomorphological changes in the jejunal epithelium and liver after chronic exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green tea vs black, red or white tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Dobrowolski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, or white tea would have a protective effect similar to the action of green tea on the intestine and liver in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb within the limits of human environmental exposure to these elements. Rats at the age of 6 weeks were divided into the control and four groups supplemented with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), or white (WT) tea extracts. Their diet (except the control) was mixed with 7 mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg. The experiment lasted 12 weeks. The effects of administration of tea in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on plasma biochemical parameters and the jejunal epithelium and liver were determined. The highest body mass was found in the GT group. The highest hemoglobin and Fe concentrations were in the control and GT groups. The highest activity of AST was in groups poisoned with Cd and Pb independently on supplementation. The highest ALT activity was in BT and RT groups with lower content of polifenoles. Pb and Cd disturbed the liver leading to necrosis and fatty degenerative changes, and a loss of normal architecture of the hepatocytes. Rats from the GT group had the highest cell proliferation rate in intestinal glands and the largest absorptive surface. Black, red, and white tea exerted a varied impact on the histological structure and innervation of the small intestine wall as well as on the absorptive function of small intestine mucosa in rats poisoned with Pb and Cd than green tea. On the other hand, taking into account the number of apoptotic cells, the effect of the teas was the same. Moreover, it is clear that long term exposure to Cd and Pb contamination causes toxic effect in the liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN LAKASE DARI JAMUR TIRAM PUTIH (Pleurotus ostreatus TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN TEH HIJAU [Effect of The Addition of Laccase from White Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus Towards Antioxidant Activity of Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagor M. Siregar1*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laccase is one of the enzymes that can be used in organic synthesis using aromatic compounds (polyphenols and aminofenol as substrates. Polyphenol compound in green tea is flavan-3-ols or catechin which are susceptible to enzymatic reaction with laccase. In this research laccase isolated from white oyster mushroom was added into the green tea extract. Addition of laccase is expected to yield products with a higher antioxidant activity. Prior to it’s use, laccase activity was determined and had a specific activity of 0.54 Unit/mg. The green tea extract was prepared using methanol and water as solvents. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging activity method and the total flavonoid content was assayed by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant compounds are identified by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and GC-MS. Addition of laccase into green tea extract resulted in precipitates showing a significant increase in flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Use of methanol as solvent resulted in extract with higher antioxidant activity and total flavonoid than that extracted with water. Qualitative analysis with spectrophotometer UV-Vis and GC-MS showed that the new components in the precipitates were a variety of dimeric products with increased molecular weight and antioxidant activity. Addition of laccase into green tea extract has yielded products with higher antioxidant activity.

  13. PLE in the analysis of plant compounds. Part I. The application of PLE for HPLC analysis of caffeine in green tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Wianowska, Dorota

    2005-04-29

    A broad spectrum of sample preparation methods is currently used for the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds from plant and herbal materials. The paper compares the effectiveness of infusion, microwave assisted solvent extraction (MASE), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) as sample preparation methods for the isolation of caffeine from green tea leaves. The effect of PLE variables, such as extraction temperature, pressure and time, on the yield of caffeine from the investigated matrix is discussed. The obtained results revealed that PLE, in comparison with other sample preparation methods applied, has significantly lower efficacy for caffeine isolation from green tea leaves. The evaluation of PLE conditions leads to the conclusion that elevated pressure applied in the PLE process is the factor hindering the extraction.

  14. Improving The Egg Quality Trough Addition Of Green Tea In Diet On Laying Hen

    OpenAIRE

    Muharlien Muharlien

    2012-01-01

    The Research  was conducted to study the effect of green tea  addition in diet to egg weight, egg number, egg yolk colour , fat level and cholesterol level of egg yolk on laying hens. The materials used were 72 laying hens of 28 weeks old. The method of  the research was experiment arranged in Completely Randomized Design. The treatment were green tea  addition levels were 0 %, 1 %, 2 %, and 3 %. The variables observed were  egg weight,  egg number,  egg yolk colour, fat level and cholesterol...

  15. Fluorine content of Fukien teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.H.; Lin, C.S.; Wu, C.; Liao, C.E.; Lin, H.Y.

    1949-01-01

    A study was made on the fluorine contents of Fukien teas and analytical results indicated the amount ranged from 5.7 to 35.5 mg. per 100 grams of dry tea. The high content of fluorine was found not to be due to contamination nor to the high fluorine content of the soil in which the tea plant was cultivated. Differences in the methods of manufacture had no effect on the fluorine content of the final products. Different varieties of tea plants have different powers to absorb fluorine from the soil. Of the two varieties of tea plants studied, Shui-Sen leaves possessed the lower fluorine content. Age of the tea leaves exerted an important influence on the fluorine content, the older leaves containing considerably more fluorine than the younger. The amount of fluorine that may be extracted in a two per cent infusion varies from 29.1 per cent for fresh leaves to 50.5 per cent for black tea. The process of roasting and rolling rendered the fluorine more soluble, hence the amount extracted increased in green tea. Fermentation further increased the extractability of the fluorine; thus the amount extracted was the highest in black tea, which was fermented, less in the semi-fermented oolong tea, and least in the unfermented green tea. The extractability of fluorine was also increased with age of the leaves.

  16. Chryseobacterium camelliae sp. nov., isolated from green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, MooChang; Son, Heung-Min; Ngo, Hien T T; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2014-03-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and flexirubin-type-pigmented strain, THG C4-1(T), was isolated from green tea leaves in Jangheung-gun, Republic of Korea. Strain THG C4-1(T) grew well at 20-30 °C, at pH 7.0-7.5 and in the absence of NaCl on nutrient agar. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG C4-1(T) was most closely related to Chryseobacterium taiwanense Soil-3-27(T) (97.7 %), C. hagamense RHA2-9(T) (97.2 %), C. gregarium P 461/12(T) (97.2 %), C. ginsenosidimutans THG 15(T) (97.1 %), C. taeanense PHA3-4(T) (97.0 %) and C. daeguense K105(T) (97.0 %), but DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG C4-1(T) and its closest phylogenetic neighbours was below 21 %. The DNA G+C content was 41.7 mol%. The only isoprenoid quinone detected in strain THG C4-1(T) was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The major component of the polyamine pattern was sym-homospermidine. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and unidentified aminolipids. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C17 : 1ω9c. These data supported the affiliation of strain THG C4-1(T) to the genus Chryseobacterium. The results of physiological and biochemical tests enabled strain THG C4-1(T) to be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from recognized species of the genus Chryseobacterium. Therefore, the novel isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Chryseobacterium camelliae sp. nov. is proposed, with THG C4-1(T) ( = KACC 16985(T) = JCM 18745(T)) as the type strain.

  17. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huibin; Guo, Qiuxuan; Qiu, Changsheng; Huang, Baoying; Fu, Xianguo; Yao, Jin; Liang, Jixing; Li, Liantao; Chen, Ling; Tang, Kaka; Lin, Lixiang; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang; Wen, Junping; Lin, Caijing; Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black) consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.27-0.65), 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12-0.46), and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.93), respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.98), 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90), and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97), respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16-30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16-30 cups per week.

  18. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women.

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    Huibin Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. METHODS: A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. RESULTS: Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI 0.27-0.65, 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12-0.46, and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.93, respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.98, 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90, and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97, respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16-30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16-30 cups per week.

  19. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

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    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  20. Coffee and green tea consumption is associated with upper aerodigestive tract cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oze, Isao; Matsuo, Keitaro; Kawakita, Daisuke; Hosono, Satoyo; Ito, Hidemi; Watanabe, Miki; Hatooka, Shunzo; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Shinoda, Masayuki; Tajima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Hideo

    2014-07-15

    The impact of coffee and green tea consumption on upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk has not been established. Evaluation of the possible anticarcinogenic properties of their ingredients is confounded by the potential increase in risk owing to the high temperatures at which these beverages are generally consumed. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the association between coffee and tea consumption and the risk of UADT cancer. The study enrolled 961 patients with UADT cancer and 2,883 noncancer outpatients who visited Aichi Cancer Center between 2001 and 2005. Information on coffee and green tea consumption and other lifestyle factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Consumption of three or more cups of coffee per day had a significant inverse association with UADT cancer [odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.96]. In contrast, consumption of three or more cups of green tea per day had a significant positive association with UADT cancer (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13-1.70). These associations were evident for head and neck cancer but not for esophageal cancer. The association of coffee consumption with head and neck cancer was observed only among never smokers and alcohol drinkers. Similarly, the association of green tea consumption was observed among never smokers and never alcohol drinkers. No change in these associations was seen on stratification by each confounding factors. These findings suggest that consumption of coffee might be associated with a decreased risk of UADT cancer, whereas that of green tea might be associated with an increased risk. © 2013 UICC.

  1. Determination of fluoride in black, green and herbal teas by ionselective electrode using a standard-addition method

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    Mochammad Yuwono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves are very rich in fluoride, since tea plants take up fluoride from the soil and accumulate in its leaves. Some of this fluoride is released into the infusion, which is drunk as tea. Fluoride in tea could be beneficial for the prevention of dental caries, but it may result in excessive intake and lead to enamel fluorosis. The purpose of this work was to determine the fluoride levels in 12 different brands and types of tea by means of a computer-controlled ion-selective electrode potentiometry using a standard-addition method. It is a rapid method which showed good accuracy and precision. Fluoride contents of tea infusions after 5 min ranged from 0.95 to 4.73 mg/l for black teas; from 0.70 to 1.00 mg/l for green teas, and from 0.26 to 0.27 mg/l for herbal teas. It was concluded that black teas and green teas examined may be important contributors to the total daily fluoride intake. However, the ingestion of some black teas that were found to have high fluoride content by children at the age of risk to dental fluorosis should be avoided.

  2. Syneresis and rheological behaviors of set yogurt containing green tea and green coffee powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Özge; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of added green coffee powder (GCP) and green tea powder (GTP) on syneresis behavior and consistency of set yogurts. Adding GCP (1 or 2%) decreased syneresis rate. The effect of GTP on the syneresis rate was concentration dependent. In comparison to the control, GTP decreased syneresis rate when it was added at 0.02%, but it caused an increase when added at 2%. No significant difference was observed in the syneresis rates when GTP was added at 1 and 0.01%, until 14 and 7 d of storage, respectively. The Herschel-Bulkley model parameters indicated that the consistency of control was considerably lower than that of GCP yogurts during 14 d, whereas it was higher at the end of storage. The GTP yogurt results showed that the consistency coefficients of GTP yogurts were different from those of control samples until 14 d of storage. In conclusion, GTP and GCP behaved differently in acidified gel networks of set yogurt, modifying its rheological behavior, as they have different profiles and concentrations of polyphenols. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Green Tea versus Sour Tea on Insulin Resistance, Lipids Profiles and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: By decreasing oxidative stress and whereby decreasing insulin resistance, it may be possible to decrease complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Green tea and sour tea contain phytochemicals which have anti-oxidative function. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of sour and green tea consumption on insulin resistance and oxidative stress in DM. Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial in which 100 type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned into sour tea group (ST and green tea group (GT. The patients were instructed to drink 150ml sour tea and green tea infusion, respectively, three times a day for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, fructosamine, lipid profiles, fasting blood insulin (FBI, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; beta cell function (b%, insulin sensitivity (S% and malondialdehyde (MDA were monitored. Results: HDL-c significantly increased in both groups. The median of FBI in GT showed significant decrease (8.5 to 6.6 μIU/mL unlike the ST which showed significant increase (8.2 to 16.3 μIU/mL. The median of HOMA-IR after the intervention in GT showed lower levels than the ST (1.1 vs. 1.6, P=0.004. The median of b% only in ST showed significant increase from 38.2% at the baseline to 47.7% after the intervention. The mean of S% only in ST showed significant decrease after the intervention. Conclusion: This study shows that the use of 150 ml infusion of green tea or sour tea, three times a day for four weeks, has positive effect on insulin resistance and certain lipoproteins in type 2 DM. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201107317161N1

  4. Effects of Different Extraction Methods and Conditions on the Phenolic Composition of Mate Tea Extracts

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    Jelena Vladic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v and liquid CO2 extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C. Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO2 with aqueous ethanol (40% as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar.

  5. Tea consumption modulates hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliakal, P P; Coville, P F; Wanwimolruk, S

    2001-04-01

    The antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities of green tea and its polyphenols have been reported. As bioactivation of the precarcinogens and detoxification of ultimate carcinogens are mainly carried out by hepatic metabolizing enzymes, we have investigated the modulation of these enzyme activities subsequent to tea consumption in rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n = 5). Six groups were given aqueous solutions (2%, w/v) of six different teas (New Zealand green tea, Australian green tea, Java green tea, Dragon green tea, Gunpowder green tea or English Breakfast black tea) as the sole source of fluid. One group was given a standard green tea extract (0.5%, w/v) while the control group had free access to water. At the end of four-weeks treatment, different cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform and phase II enzyme activities were determined by incubation of the liver microsomes or cytosols with appropriate substrates. CYP 1A2 activity was markedly increased in all the tea treatment groups (P Java green tea-treatment groups. Cytosolic glutathione-S-transferase activity was significantly increased (PJava green tea-treatment groups. The microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activity remained unchanged or was moderately increased in most of the groups. The balance between the phase I carcinogen-activating enzymes and the phase II detoxifying enzymes could be important in determining the risk of developing chemically-induced cancer.

  6. [EFFECTS OF GREEN TEA ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF THE EXERCISE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert Pérez, Enrique José; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    assessing the magnitude of the effects of green tea in subjects that do exercise. a search was been carried out with key words "green tea" AND "exercise" in four documentary databases: Pubmed, EBSCOHOST, OvidSP and Proquest. adult age of the sample (18-65 years, based on WHO), and the consumption of a quantified amount of green tea or substitutes, along with doing physical exercise measurable in intensity, in clinical tests published between January 2010 and December 2014, whose source were indexed scientific journals. 260 articles were analyzed, of which 13 items were selected. 69% are studies with a designed workout, and 92% have included an exercise test to assess parameters. 77% fluctuate between 20-40 years and sample size between 9 and 36 subjects. 69% are long length. GTE has been the most used substitute (38%). 92% of studies have obtained some improvement and 92% of them, were significantly statistic. Interpretation of results: little homogeneity has been found in results in the analysis of results expression. Sample size is limited. There is a wide range of GTE substitutes and diversity of doses and exercise done. It cannot be possible to establish a dose, dosage and physical activity recommended. green tea gives us a wide variety of benefits in combination with physical exercise. There is a little evidence about quality. It cannot be possible to establish specific recommendations for obtaining benefits. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of green tea on nicotine toxicity on liver and lung of mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicotine is the more abundant component in cigarette smoking. The natural diet contains a variety of compounds, such as green tea that exhibit protective effects towards different toxicities. Nicotine is firstly metabolized in liver, and the lung is the main target organ susceptible to smoking; so, this study was aimed to ...

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Green Tea on Dental Caries and Composite Restorations

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    Hala Ibrahim Awadalla

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background :An increasing number of people all around the world are turning to the nature by using the natural herbal products in both prophylaxis and treatment of different diseases. Green tea with active chemical ingredients posses diverse pharmacological properties that include anti-inflammatory, anticariogenic, antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Subjects & Methods: The researchers used the following measurments: Streptococcus Mutans count in saliva, Streptococcus Mutans count in plaque samples from margins of composite restorations and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI. The above mentioned measurements were applied to a sample consists of 60 subjects divided equally into control and study groups where in control group they use the regular oral hygiene measurements only while in study group they applicate 2% green tea 3 times daily for 7 days (long term study. This experimental intervention study was carried in Azhar university clinic. Objective: to assess the possible protective properties of green tea on oral health. Results: The results of present study showed that there was a statistically significant difference among cases and controls concerning streptococcus mutans count in saliva, streptococcus mutans count in plaque samples from composite restoration margins and GBI. Conclusion : This study supports the effectiveness of local application of green tea as antibacterial and anticariogenic material. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 269-274

  9. Green tea EGCG, T-cell function, and T-cell-mediated autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autoimmune diseases are common, disabling immune disorders affecting millions of people. Recent studies indicate that dysregulated balance of different CD4+ T-cell subpopulations plays a key role in immune pathogenesis of several major autoimmune diseases. Green tea and its active ingredient, epigal...

  10. Geno protective and anti-apoptotic effect of green tea against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geno protective and anti-apoptotic effect of green tea against perinatal lipopolysaccharide-exposure induced liver toxicity in rat newborns. Ahmed A. Allam, Sami A. Gabr, Jamaan Ajarem, Ahmad H. Alghadir, Revathi Sekar, Billy K.C. Chow ...

  11. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of rice bran and green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of an enzyme bath of Oryza sativa (rice bran) and Camellia sinensis O. Kuntz (green tea) fermented with Bacillus subtilis (OCB). Methods: The anti-oxidant effects of OCB were assessed by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and flow ...

  12. Green tea polyphenols attenuate deterioration of bone microarchitecture in female rats with systemic chronic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Our previous study demonstrated that green tea polyphenols (GTP) benefit bone health in female rats with chronic inflammation, because of GTP’s antioxidant capacity. The current study further evaluates whether GTP can restore bone microstructure along with related mechanism in rats wit...

  13. Green tea polyphenols supplementation improves bone microstructure in orchidectomized middle-Aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study shows that green tea polyphenols (GTP) attenuate trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized middle-aged female rats. To investigate whether GTP prevents bone loss in male rats, 40 rats with and without oriectomy (ORX) were assigned to 4 groups in a 2 (sham vs. ORX)× 2 (no GTP and 0.5% G...

  14. Green tea EGCG, T cells, and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the proposed health benefits of consuming green tea is its protective effect on autoimmune diseases. Research on the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has made significant progression in the past few years and several key concepts have been revised. T cells, particularly CD4+ T helper...

  15. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  16. Supplementation with green tea polyphenols improves bone microstructure and quality in aged, orchidectomized rats

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    Recent studies show that green tea polyphenols (GTP) attenuate bone loss and microstructure deterioration in ovariectomized aged female rats, a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, it is not known if such an osteo-protective role of GTP is demonstrable in androgen-deficient aged rats, a mo...

  17. Green Tea Polyphenols and Vitamin D3 Protect Bone Microarchitecture in Female Rats with Chronic Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study showed that green tea polyphenols (GTP) in conjunction with 1-a-OH¬vit-D3 (vitD3) treatment mitigates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone mineral density loss in female rats. This study was undertaken to further explore the mechanism and bone microarchitecture of GTP plus vitD3 in...

  18. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

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    Kyungdo Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726. Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601 when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults.

  19. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Yuet Ying; Chieng, Buong Woei; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2012-01-01

    The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine.

  20. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia Sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Yuet Ying; Chieng, Buong Woei; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2012-01-01

    The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine. PMID:22904632

  1. Coffee, green tea, black tea and oolong tea consumption and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineharu, Yohei; Koizumi, Akio; Wada, Yasuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Date, Chigusa; Yamamoto, Akio; Kikuchi, Shogo; Inaba, Yutaka; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Kondo, Takaaki; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2011-03-01

    The effects of coffee and green, black and oolong teas and caffeine intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality have not been well defined in Asian countries. To examine the relationship between the consumption of these beverages and risk of mortality from CVD, 76,979 individuals aged 40-79 years free of stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD) and cancer at entry were prospectively followed. The daily consumption of beverages was assessed by questionnaires. 1362 deaths were documented from strokes and 650 deaths from CHD after 1,010,787 person-years of follow-up. Compared with non-drinkers of coffee, the multivariable HR and 95% CI for those drinking 1-6 cups/week, 1-2 cups/day and ≥ 3 cups/day were 0.78 (0.50 to 1.20), 0.67 (0.47 to 0.96) and 0.45 (0.17 to 0.87) for strokes among men (p = 0.009 for trend). Compared with non-drinkers of green tea, the multivariable HR for those drinking 1-6 cups/week, 1-2 cups/day, 3-5 cups/day and ≥ 6 cups/day were 0.34 (0.06-1.75), 0.28 (0.07-1.11), 0.39 (0.18-0.85) and 0.42 (0.17-0.88) for CHD among women (p = 0.038 for trend). As for oolong tea, the multivariable HR of those drinking 1-6 cups/week and ≥ 1 cups/day were 1.00 (0.65-1.55) and 0.39 (0.17-0.88) for total CVD among men (p = 0.049 for trend). Risk reduction for total CVD across categories of caffeine intake was most prominently observed in the second highest quintile, with a 38% lower risk among men and 22% among women. Consumption of coffee, green tea and oolong tea and total caffeine intake was associated with a reduced risk of mortality from CVD.

  2. Hypolipidemic effects of crude green tea polysaccharide on rats, and structural features of tea polysaccharides isolated from the crude polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Michiko; Miura, Sayaka; Takagaki, Akiko; Nanjo, Fumio

    2017-05-01

    Crude tea polysaccharide (crude TPS) was prepared from instant green tea by ethanol precipitation followed by ultrafiltration membrane treatment and its effects on blood lipid, liver lipid, and fecal lipid levels were examined with Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet. Although crude TPS showed no effects on the serum lipid levels, it suppressed the liver lipid accumulation and increased the fecal excretion of dietary fat. Then, the structural features of crude TPS were investigated. After separation of crude TPS by DEAE-cellulose and gel-filtration column chromatography, two kinds of neutral tea polysaccharides (NTPS-LP and NTPS-HH) and an acidic polysaccharide (ATPS-MH) were obtained. According to monosaccharide composition, methylation, and NMR analyses, NTPS-LP, NPTS-HH, and ATPS-MH were presumed to be starch, arabinogalactan with β-1,3-linked galactosyl backbone blanched at position 6 and with 1,5-linked arabinofuranosyl residues, and α-1,4-linked galacturonic acid backbone with arabinogalactan region, respectively.

  3. The acute effects of green tea and carbohydrate coingestion on systemic inflammation and oxidative stress during sprint cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Masaki; Li, Chia-Yang; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Tomari, Miki; Shing, Cecilia M; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2015-10-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, which may be beneficial to athletes performing high-intensity exercise. This study investigated the effects of carbohydrate and green tea coingestion on sprint cycling performance and associated oxidative stress and immunoendocrine responses to exercise. In a crossover design, 9 well-trained male cyclists completed 3 sets of 8 repetitions of 100-m uphill sprint cycling while ingesting green tea and carbohydrate (TEA) (22 mg/kg body mass catechins, 6 mg/kg body mass caffeine, 230 mg/kg glucose, and 110 mg/kg fructose) or carbohydrate only (CHO) (230 mg/kg body mass glucose and 110 mg/kg body mass fructose) during each 10-min recovery period between sets. Blood samples were collected before exercise, 10 min after exercise, and 14 h after exercise. There was no effect of acute TEA ingestion on cycling sprint performance (p = 0.29), although TEA maintained postexercise testosterone and lymphocyte concentrations, which decreased significantly in the CHO group (p TEA (p = 0.05), there were no significant differences between TEA and CHO for circulating cytokines (p > 0.20), markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity (p > 0.17), adiponectin concentration (p = 0.60), or muscle damage markers (p > 0.64). While acute green tea ingestion prevents the postexercise decrease in testosterone and lymphocytes, it does not appear to benefit cycling sprint performance or reduce markers of oxidation and inflammation when compared with carbohydrate alone.

  4. Development of a partial least squares-artificial neural network (PLS-ANN) hybrid model for the prediction of consumer liking scores of ready-to-drink green tea beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peigen; Low, Mei Yin; Zhou, Weibiao

    2018-01-01

    In order to develop products that would be preferred by consumers, the effects of the chemical compositions of ready-to-drink green tea beverages on consumer liking were studied through regression analyses. Green tea model systems were prepared by dosing solutions of 0.1% green tea extract with differing concentrations of eight flavour keys deemed to be important for green tea aroma and taste, based on a D-optimal experimental design, before undergoing commercial sterilisation. Sensory evaluation of the green tea model system was carried out using an untrained consumer panel to obtain hedonic liking scores of the samples. Regression models were subsequently trained to objectively predict the consumer liking scores of the green tea model systems. A linear partial least squares (PLS) regression model was developed to describe the effects of the eight flavour keys on consumer liking, with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.733, and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 3.53%. The PLS model was further augmented with an artificial neural network (ANN) to establish a PLS-ANN hybrid model. The established hybrid model was found to give a better prediction of consumer liking scores, based on its R 2 (0.875) and RMSE (2.41%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Green tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a report from the Shanghai Men’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Xianglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2011-01-01

    Tea and its constituents have demonstrated anticarcinogenic activity in both in vitro and in vivo animal studies. Results from epidemiologic studies, however, have been inconsistent. Some factors that coexist with tea consumption, such as cigarette smoking, may confound or modify the association between tea consumption and cancer risk. The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the association between green tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in a population-based prospective cohort study, the Shanghai Men’s Health Study. The analysis included 60 567 Chinese men aged 40–74 years at baseline. During ∼5 years of follow-up, 243 incident cases of colorectal cancer were identified. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of developing colorectal cancer. Regular green tea consumption (ever drank green tea at least three times per week for more than six consecutive months) was associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer in non-smokers (multivariable-adjusted HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34–0.86). The risk decreased as the amount of green tea consumption increased (Ptrend = 0.01). Each 2 g increment of intake of dry green tea leaves per day (approximately equivalent to the amount of tea in a tea bag) was associated with a 12% reduction in risk (HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.78–0.99). No significant association was found among smokers (HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.66–1.34). This study suggests that regular consumption of green tea may reduce colorectal cancer risk among non-smokers. PMID:21856996

  6. Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training and Green Tea Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Inactive Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fathei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Physical activities, as well as diet, are known as the truest scientific methods to reduce the signs of the cardio-vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8–week aerobic trainings and green tea supplementation on some of the cardio-vascular risk factors in the obese inactive women. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 40 obese inactive women, who were residents of Mashhad Township, were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected via purposeful available sampling method, were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 per group. The groups were green tea, aerobic training, aerobic training and green tea supplementation, and control groups. 8-week training program consisted of three 45- to 60-minute sessions per week. Green tea was consumed by green tea group three times a day after each meal. The composed group underwent both interventions, while control group underwent no intervention. Data was analyzed by SPSS 15 software using correlated T test and one-way ANOVA. Findings: Mean total cholesterol level was significantly changed in green tea, aerobic training, and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean triglyceride level was significantly changed in green tea and aerobic training groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean low density lipoprotein was significantly changed in green tea and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean high-density lipoprotein was significantly changed only in aerobic group in posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. In addition, mean concentration of C-reactive protein was significantly reduced in aerobic training (p=0.01 and composed (p=0.04 groups. Conclusion: 8 weeks aerobic training, green tea consumption, and their composition reduce the cardiovascular risk factors in inactive obese women in a relatively similar manner.

  7. Monitoring of essential and heavy metals in green tea from different geographical origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezicha-Cirocka, Justyna; Grembecka, Małgorzata; Szefer, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The present study measured the concentrations of toxic metals (Cd, Pb) and other elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni) in tea leaves and their infusions. The total metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Phosphorus concentration was determined using an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. Assessment of the mineral composition enabled determination of the leaching percentage and the risk of exceeding provisional tolerable weekly intake for Cd through daily tea consumption. The concentrations of bioelements were analyzed based on the recommended daily intake values for each. According to recently established standards, green tea was found to be a rich source of Mn. The average Pb and Cd levels in a 200-mL beverage were 0.002 and 0.003 mg, respectively. Indian teas had the highest percentage of Cd leaching (43.8%) and Chinese tea had the lowest (9.41%). Multivariate analysis techniques such as factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to differentiate samples according to geographical origin (China, India, or Japan). Potassium, P, Mn, Fe, Cu, Co, and Cd were effective descriptors for the identification of tea samples from China, India, and Japan.

  8. Rapid tea catechins and caffeine determination by HPLC using microwave-assisted extraction and silica monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, A A; Nofrizal, S; Saad, Bahruddin

    2014-03-15

    A rapid reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method using a monolithic column for the determination of eight catechin monomers and caffeine was developed. Using a mobile phase of water:acetonitrile:methanol (83:6:11) at a flow rate of 1.4 mL min(-1), the catechins and caffeine were isocratically separated in about 7 min. The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.11-0.29 and 0.33-0.87 mg L(-1), respectively. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained (94.2-105.2 ± 1.8%) for all samples when spiked at three concentrations (5, 40 and 70 mg L(-1)). In combination with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), the method was applied to the determination of the catechins and caffeine in eleven tea samples (6 green, 3 black and 2 oolong teas). Relatively high levels of caffeine were found in black tea, but higher levels of the catechins, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were found in green teas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fast gradient HPLC/MS separation of phenolics in green tea to monitor their degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilarová, Petra; Česlová, Lenka; Meloun, Milan

    2017-12-15

    The degradation of catechins and other phenolics in green tea infusions were monitored using fast HPLC/MS separation. The final separation was performed within 2.5min using Ascentis Express C18 column (50mm×2.1mm i.d.) packed with 2μm porous shell particles. Degradation was studied in relation to the temperature of water (70, 80, 90°C) and the standing time of the infusion (up to 6h). Along with chromatographic separation, the antioxidant properties of the infusions were monitored using two spectrophotometric methods. During staying of green tea infusion, the degradation of some catechins probably to gallic acid was observed. Finally, the influence of tea bag storage on antioxidant properties of green tea was evaluated. Rapid degradation of antioxidants after 3weeks was observed. The principal component analysis, factor analysis and discriminant analysis were used for the statistical evaluation of obtained experimental data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN LAPHET LABORATORY PROCESS AND TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS) PRODUCTS BETWEEN CHINA AND MYANMAR

    OpenAIRE

    Pyie Phyo Maung; Qian He

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of extraction method on the flavonoids and antioxidant activity was investigated. The flavonoid contents of Laphet(fermented pickled tea leaves) possessed more than twice as much than fresh tea leaves. Chinese green tea had higher flavonoid contents than Myanmar green tea. But Myanmar black tea’s flavonoid contents were higher. In laphet, both countries tea’s products possessed similar contents. Antioxidant activity of tea extracts were determined by using DPPH assay...

  11. Optimal extraction parameters of Theabrownin from Sichuan Dark Tea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sichuan Dark Tea is a popular beverage with hypolipidemic and lifting greasy properties in the minority neighborhoods of Sichuan and Tibet regions. The theabrownin, an important pigment of dark tea, has been proven for the role of the hypolipidemic property in Sichuan Dark Tea. The objective of the study ...

  12. Plasma appearance and correlation between coffee and green tea metabolites in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Mathieu; Guy, Philippe; Marmet, Cynthia; Longet, Karin; Fraering, Anne-Lise; Moulin, Julie; Barron, Denis; Dionisi, Fabiola; Cavin, Christophe; Steiling, Heike; Williamson, Gary

    2010-12-01

    Coffee and green tea are two of the most widely consumed hot beverages in the world. Their respective bioavailability has been studied separately, but absorption of their respective bioactive phenolics has not been compared. In a randomised cross-over design, nine healthy subjects drank instant coffee and green tea. Blood samples were collected over 12 h and at 24 h to assess return to baseline. After green tea consumption, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) was the major catechin, appearing rapidly in the plasma; (-)-EGC gallate (EGCg) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were also present, but (-)-EC gallate and C were not detected. Dihydroferulic acid and dihydrocaffeic acid were the major metabolites that appeared after coffee consumption with a long time needed to reach maximum plasma concentration, suggesting metabolism and absorption in the colon. Other phenolic acid equivalents (caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA) and isoferulic acid (iFA)) were detected earlier, and they peaked at lower concentrations. Summations of the plasma area under the curves (AUC) for the measured metabolites showed 1.7-fold more coffee-derived phenolic acids than green tea-derived catechins (P = 0.0014). Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between coffee metabolites based on AUC. Inter-individual differences were observed, but individuals with a high level of CA also showed a correspondingly high level of FA. However, no such correlation was observed between the tea catechins and coffee phenolic acids. Correlation between AUC and maximum plasma concentration was also significant for CA, FA and iFA and for EGCg. This implies that the mechanisms of absorption for these two classes of compounds are different, and that a high absorber of phenolic acids is not necessarily a high absorber of catechins.

  13. Protective role of green tea administration against radiation-induced biological changes in pregnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafy, Y.A.; Roushdy, H.ML.; Ashry, O.M.; Salama, S.F.; Abdel-Haliem, M.; Mossad, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Green tea (Gt) derived from the leaves of camelia sinensis contains polyphenolic compounds also known as eipcatechins, which are anioxidant in nature. This study aims to evaluate the radioprotective, anioxidative potential of two concentrations of Gt extract in pregnant rats. Animals exposed to fractionated 3 Gy gamma radiation of 1 Gy installments at the 7 th , 11 th and 15 th days of gestation were examined on the 20 th day. Total protenis, uric acid, urea and creatinine, as well as ransmiase were measured. Irradiation of rats caused significant drop in serum total protein, which was significantly elevated specially with Gt 3%. Elevation in serum uric acid was dropped secially with Gt while, elevation in urea after irradiation dropped by Gt% only. Both concentrations of Gt did not signficantly change creatinine elevation exerted by irradiation. Results revealed sigbificat protection by both Gt concentrations against the elevation in serum glucose level. While was dropped approaching control by irradiation, which ASt dropped by irradiation was normalized attaining almost control level with Gt3%. While, AST dropped by irradiation was normalized attaining almost control level with Gt 3%. Histological damage to liver cells by irradiation was ameliorated by administration og Gt in both concentrations. This was indicated by restoration of the cellular integrity besides by nucleated cells and slight regenerative signs in the nuclei

  14. Complexation/encapsulation of green tea polyphenols in mixed calcium carbonate and phosphate micro-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbadi, Amal; Jeckelmann, Nicolas; Haefliger, Olivier P; Ouali, Lahoussine

    2011-01-01

    We used a double-jet mixer to encapsulate water-soluble polyphenols, green tea extract (GTE), with calcium-based inorganic materials. The device mixed calcium chloride solutions with a solution of carbonate and phosphate in the presence of a GTE solution, and formed micro-particles which capture the GTE molecules. The micro-particles were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy to determine the encapsulation yield and loading of the different GTE components. We established correlations between (1) the efficiency of the GTE encapsulation and the composition of the mixed anion solutions and (2) the protonation degree of the ions and the molar ratio of calcium cations and carbonate/phosphate anions. An optimal and reproducible GTE loading of about 40% with an encapsulation yield of 65% was observed for a carbonate/phosphate molar composition of 4 : 1. In addition, our experimental results showed that the process is selective and favours the encapsulation of gallated species which form stronger complexes with calcium cations.

  15. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia Sinensis

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    Loo YY

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yuet Ying Loo,1 Buong Woei Chieng,2 Mitsuaki Nishibuchi,3 Son Radu11Centre of Excellent for Food Safety Research, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Center for South East Asian Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, JapanAbstract: The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine.Keywords: silver, nanoparticles, green synthesis, leaf extract, transmission electron microscopy, nanotechnology

  16. Interaction of Environmental Moisture with Powdered Green Tea Formulations: Relationship between Catechin Stability and Moisture-Induced Phase Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Julieta; Kestur, Umesh S.; Taylor, Lynne S.; Mauer, Lisa J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of phase transformations of amorphous and deliquescent ingredients on catechin stability in green tea powder formulations. Blends of amorphous green tea and crystalline sucrose, citric acid, and/or ascorbic acid were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic water vapor sorption, water activity measurements, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after storage for up to 12 weeks at 0–75% relative humidity (RH) and 22 °C. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of green tea was reduced to below room temperature (moisture sorption. Catechin degradation was affected by Tg of green tea powder and both dissolution and deliquescence of citric and ascorbic acids. PMID:19489621

  17. Implications of Green Tea and Its Constituents in the Prevention of Cancer via the Modulation of Cell Signalling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Al shabrmi, Fahad M.; Allemailem, Khaled S.; Aly, Salah M.; Khan, Masood A.

    2015-01-01

    Green tea is commonly used as a beverage worldwide, especially in China, Japan, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia. Green tea and its constituents have been considered very effective in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. It contains a variety of catechins, which show a pivotal role in the modulation of biological activities and also act as chemopreventive agents. Earlier studies have confirmed that green tea and its chief constituent epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have a potential role in the management of cancer through the modulation of cell signaling pathways. In this review, we focused on the beneficial effects of green tea and its constituents in the cancer prevention and treatment and its impact on modulation of molecular pathways. PMID:25977926

  18. Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Noda, Shigenori; Kawasaki, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi; Morita, Akio; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2017-07-19

    Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT), on stress and quality of sleep of middle-aged individuals ( n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years) in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT) was used as the control. These teas (≥300 mL/day), which were eluted with room temperature water, were consumed over a period of seven days after a single washout term. The level of salivary α-amylase activity (sAA), a stress marker, was significantly lower in participants that consumed LCGT (64.7 U/mL) than in those that consumed SGT (73.9 U/mL). Sleep quality was higher in participants that consumed a larger quantity of LCGT. In addition, a self-diagnostic check for accumulated fatigue was significantly lower in those participants that consumed LCGT than SGT. These results indicate that LCGT intake can reduce stress in middle-aged individuals and improve their quality of sleep. The reduction in caffeine is suggested to be a valid reason for enhancing the anti-stress effect of green tea.

  19. Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Unno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT, on stress and quality of sleep of middle–aged individuals (n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT was used as the control. These teas (≥300 mL/day, which were eluted with room temperature water, were consumed over a period of se