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Sample records for green tea extracts

  1. Adverse effects of concentrated green tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönthal, Axel H

    2011-06-01

    A myriad of health claims are being made in favor of the consumption of green tea. However, mostly due to the easy availability and greater than ever popularity of highly concentrated green tea extracts, sometimes combined with an attitude of more-is-better, certain health risks of green tea consumption have begun to emerge. Among such risks are the possibility of liver damage, the potential to interact with prescription drugs to alter their therapeutic efficacy, and the chance to cause harm when combined with other highly popular herbal remedies. This review will summarize documented examples of adverse effects of green tea in humans, and will discuss risks of copious consumption of highly concentrated green tea extracts as indicated by studies in animals. While there is no intention to minimize any of the scientifically established benefits of the use of green tea, the purpose of this review is to focus primarily on the potential for adverse effects and raise awareness of the rare, yet under-appreciated risks. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Population nutrikinetics of green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Catharina; Lepper, Anna; Lehr, Thorsten; Hanke, Nina; Schneider, Katharina Luise; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Seufferlein, Thomas; Stingl, Julia Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols may contribute to the prevention of cancer and other diseases. To learn more about the pharmacokinetics and interindividual variation of green tea polyphenols after oral intake in humans we performed a population nutrikinetic study of standardized green tea extract. 84 healthy participants took green tea extract capsules standardized to 150 mg epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) twice a day for 5 days. On day 5 catechin plasma concentrations were analyzed using non-compartmental and population pharmacokinetic methods. A strong between-subject variability in catechin pharmacokinetics was found with maximum plasma concentrations varying more than 6-fold. The AUCs of EGCG, EGC and ECG were 877.9 (360.8-1576.5), 35.1 (8.0-87.4), and 183.6 (55.5-364.6) h*μg/L respectively, and the elimination half lives were 2.6 (1.8-3.8), 3.9 (0.9-10.7) and 1.8 (0.8-2.9) h, respectively. Genetic polymorphisms in genes of the drug transporters MRP2 and OATP1B1 could at least partly explain the high variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. The observed variability in catechin plasma levels might contribute to interindividual variation in benefical and adverse effects of green tea polyphenols. Our data could help to gain a better understanding of the causes of variability of green tea effects and to improve the design of studies on the effects of green tea polyphenols in different health conditions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01360320.

  3. Spectroscopic Study of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaves Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Suryanti, V.; Virgynia, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports the analysis of UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectra of different concentrations of green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf extract in two different solvent systems (chloroform and ethyl acetate). In those solvents, two different peaks characterizing green tea are observed at different wavelengths, namely 296 nm and 329 nm (extracted in chloroform) and 391 nm and 534 nm (extracted in ethyl acetate). We then investigated the absorption spectra change as function of green tea concentration in both solvents. We found that light absorption increases linearly with the increase of green tea concentration. Different wavelengths, however, respond this change differently. However, the way it changes is wavelength dependence.

  4. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  6. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  7. Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes. TI Mbata, LU Debiao, A Saikia. Abstract. The antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis on Listeria monocytogenes were investigated using agar-gel diffusion, paper disk ...

  8. Antioxidative and Antimelanoma Effects of Various Tea Extracts via a Green Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis contains high level of antioxidant elements and is a well-known beverage consumed worldwide. The purpose of this study is to compare different concentrations of green tea, black tea, oolong tea 861, oolong tea 732, and jasmine green tea. These five types of tea extracts were known to have antioxidative properties, reducing power, and metal ion chelating activity. The current study compared these five extracts in terms of their inhibiting effects on human malignant melanoma: A2058 and A375. To determine the cell viability between normal cell and malignant melanoma cells, an MTT assay was applied to evaluate the cytotoxic potential on human melanoma cells, with all tea extracts showing decreased cell viability with increasing tea extract concentrations. Cytotoxicity on HaCat (normal skin cells showed no effect on the cell viabilities at lower concentrations of the tea extracts. These results suggest the antioxidative effect of five tea extracts that protect against oxidation and melanoma production, with green tea and jasmine green tea showing the lowest cell viability when tested against malignant melanoma cells.

  9. Green Tea and Its Extracts in Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Schulze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (GT and green tea extracts (GTE have been postulated to decrease cancer incidence. In vitro results indicate a possible effect; however, epidemiological data do not support cancer chemoprevention. We have performed a PubMED literature search for green tea consumption and the correlation to the common tumor types lung, colorectal, breast, prostate, esophageal and gastric cancer, with cohorts from both Western and Asian countries. We additionally included selected mechanistical studies for a possible mode of action. The comparability between studies was limited due to major differences in study outlines; a meta analysis was thus not possible and studies were evaluated individually. Only for breast cancer could a possible small protective effect be seen in Asian and Western cohorts, whereas for esophagus and stomach cancer, green tea increased the cancer incidence, possibly due to heat stress. No effect was found for colonic/colorectal and prostatic cancer in any country, for lung cancer Chinese studies found a protective effect, but not studies from outside China. Epidemiological studies thus do not support a cancer protective effect. GT as an indicator of as yet undefined parameters in lifestyle, environment and/or ethnicity may explain some of the observed differences between China and other countries.

  10. Effect of Japanese Green Tea Extract on Canine Periodontal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Isogai, E.; Isogai, H.; Kimura, K.; Nishikawa, T.; Fujii, N.; Benno, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Asaccharolytic pigmented Porphyromonas strains were isolated from the plaque of dogs with gingivitis and periodontitis. Various species of Porphyromonas, including P. endodontalis, P. gingivalis, P. circumdentaria and unclassified species, were detectable. Canine Porphyromonas were sensitive to Japanese green tea extract (JGTE). We examined the effects of dietary JGTE on periodontal diseases. A special diet was prepared on the basis of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC: 0.8 mg/ml) of ...

  11. Review and perspective on the composition and safety of green tea extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growing body of evidence regarding the putative health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis), including reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, has led to an increase in the consumption of brewed green tea and the formulation of green tea extracts (GTE) into a variety of food and ...

  12. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Zokti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD, gum arabic (GA and chitosan (CTS and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%–88.04%, 19.32–24.90 (g GAE/100 g, and 29.52%–38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%–5.11%, 0.28–0.36, 3.22%–4.71%, 0.22–0.28 g/cm3 and 40.43–225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF was determined as 142.00%–188.63% and 207.55%–231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05 under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35–60, 34–65 and 231–288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  13. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Polyamide Packaging Film

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asghar Barzegaran; Maryam Jokar; Majid Javanmard Dakheli

    2014-01-01

    Polyamide 6 has been widely used in food packaging applications and also green tea contains amounts of antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was investigation of green tea effects on properties of polyamide packaging polymer. Polyamide 6 was dissolved in methanol which was saturated with calcium chloride. The active packaging film was produced by incorporation of methanol green tea extracts at levels of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% in polyamide solution by solution casting method. Mechanical and...

  14. Electrosprayed Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) Submicron Particles Loaded by Green Tea Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin; Sriyanti, I.; Edikresnha, D.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal, K.

    2018-05-01

    Electrospraying technique has been successfully used to synthesize composite submicron particles of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and green tea extract (GTE). The precursor solutions were PVP in ethanol (15 wt%) and GTE in ethanol (10 wt%), which were then mixed at varying ratio. The mixed solution then underwent electrospraying process at an applied voltage of 15 kV, a distance of collector to the nozzle at 15 cm, and a flow rate of 3 µL/min. The composite submicron particles of PVP-GTE showed smooth and fine spherical morphology without fibers or beaded fibers. To a certain degree, the increase of GTE content in the PVP-GTE mixed solution decreased the average diameter of PVP-GTE composite particles. Moreover, the analysis of the FTIR spectra confirmed the existing molecular interaction between PVP and GTE in the composite submicron particles as shown by the shift of PVP wavenumber towards GTE, which has typically smaller wavenumber.

  15. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  16. Interaction between green tea extract and 99mTc-pertechnetate on in vivo distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burak Sabuncu; Fazilet Zumrut Biber Muftuler; Ayfer Yurt Kilcar; Betul Cekic; Eser Ucar; Perihan Unak

    2014-01-01

    People drink various types of tea without knowing the side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions. In current study, it is aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea extract in different extraction solvents on the radiolabeling of the blood constituents with 99m Tc and on the biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) in male Wistar Albino rats. The extraction of green tea was performed in different solvents. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with green tea extract in different extraction solvents or saline (0.9 % NaCl) as a control group for 7 days. The radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with SnCl 2 and 99m Tc. According to experimental results, radiolabeling blood components with 99m Tc were not modified in the usage of the different extraction solvents for green tea extraction, but a significant alteration (P 99m TcO 4 was observed after treatment with green tea extract in distilled water. Although there is no considerable effect on radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially with green tea extract in distilled water. The identified change monitored in this study may cause to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or avoid the repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine. (author)

  17. The Effects of Green Tea Extract on Working Memory in Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Fly, A D; Wang, Z; Klaunig, J E

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of green tea extract on working memory in healthy younger (21 - 29 y) and older (50 - 63 y) women. A single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used. A university laboratory. Twenty non-smoking Caucasian women were recruited in the younger (10) and older (10) age group. Subjects received 5.4 g green tea extract (at least 45% epigallocatechin-3-gallate) or placebo (cornstarch) within a 24-hour period. Working memory was measured by reading span and N-back task paradigm. Blood sample (20 mL) was collected and measured for plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) concentration. A 24-hour recall was conducted for each treatment period to ensure similar dietary patterns. Green tea extract significantly improved reading span performance in older women, indicated by higher absolute and partial scores of reading span. No significant changes were observed in the younger group. N-back latencies and accuracies were not significantly different after green tea treatment in either age group. Plasma concentration of MDA and TEAC were not different after green tea extract in either group. Acute supplementation of decaffeinated green tea extract may enhance working memory capacity of women between 50 to 63 years of age. This study provides preliminary evidence that consumption of green tea extract may enhance the cognitive performance in older adults and thus provide potential chemopreventive benefits in this group. The mechanism should be explored in future research.

  18. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Polyamide Packaging Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Barzegaran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyamide 6 has been widely used in food packaging applications and also green tea contains amounts of antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was investigation of green tea effects on properties of polyamide packaging polymer. Polyamide 6 was dissolved in methanol which was saturated with calcium chloride. The active packaging film was produced by incorporation of methanol green tea extracts at levels of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% in polyamide solution by solution casting method. Mechanical and barrier properties of polyamide films were investigated using ASTM standards and antioxidant activity of polyamide films was evaluated using DPPH method. Results indicated that green tea extract increased antioxidant properties and tensile and young modulus of polyamide films. Oxygen and water vapor permeability of films were decreased by incorporation of green tea extract into polyamide matrix. Green tea extract improved barrier and tensile properties of polyamide films, however elongation at break reduced as increasing of green tea extract in polyamide-based films significantly (P<0.05.

  19. Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes. Mbata, T. I.1*, Debiao, L. U.2 and Saikia, A.3. 1Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B 5025, Awka, Nigeria. 2Cash Crops Bureau, Zhejianq Provincial Department of Agriculture, Hangzhou, 310020, ...

  20. Green tea extract impairs meat emulsion properties by disturbing protein disulfide cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongberg, Sisse; Terkelsen, Linda de S; Miklos, Rikke; Lund, Marianne N

    2015-02-01

    The dose-dependent effects of green tea extract (100, 500, or 1500ppm) on the textural and oxidative stability of meat emulsions were investigated, and compared to a control meat emulsion without extract. All levels of green tea extract inhibited formation of TBARS as a measure for lipid oxidation. Overall protein thiol oxidation and myosin heavy chain (MHC) cross-linking were inhibited by 100ppm green tea extract without jeopardizing the textural stability, while increasing concentrations of extract resulted in reduced thiol concentration and elevated levels of non-reducible protein modifications. Addition of 1500ppm green tea extract was found to modify MHC as evaluated by SDS-PAGE combining both protein staining and specific thiol staining, indicating that protein modifications generated through reactions of green tea phenolic compounds with protein thiols, disrupted the meat emulsion properties leading to reduced water holding capacity and textural stability. Hence, a low dose of green tea extract preserves both the textural and the oxidative stability of the meat proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract

    OpenAIRE

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. Methods A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times we...

  2. Optimization design and application of composite ultrasonic extraction method for effective constituents of green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A composite ultrasonic process is used to extract five constituent components of green tea, namely caffeine, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin, and chlorogenic acid. The optimal parameters of the extraction process are determined using the robust Taguchi design method. The extracted products are analyzed using gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed ultrasonic technique in extracting the components of interest. Moreover, it is shown that the optimal extraction parameters depend on the particular component. In general, the present findings provide a useful reference for further research on the processing of green tea.

  3. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul; Wisuda Suvitayavat; Vanida Sangalangkarn; Yuko Nawa; Kiyoshi Kikuchi; Koichi Kawahara; Tawee Saiwichai; Somphong Narkpinit; Pratap Singhasivanon; Ikuro Maruyama; Salunya Tancharoen

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE) on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-tre...

  4. Greener synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles using green tea extract and their magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karade, V. C.; Waifalkar, P. P.; Dongle, T. D.; Sahoo, Subasa C.; Kollu, P.; Patil, P. S.; Patil, P. B.

    2017-09-01

    The facile green synthesis method has been employed for the synthesis of biocompatible Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using green tea extract. The effective reduction of ferric ions (Fe3+) were done using an aqueous green tea extract where it acts as reducing as well as capping agent. The effect of iron precursor to green tea extract ratio and reaction temperature was studied. The MNPs were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometer. It was observed that the reaction temperature strongly affects the magnetic and structural properties of MNPs. The magnetic measurements study showed that Fe3O4 MNPs are superparamagnetic at 300 K, while at 60 K have ferromagnetic as well as superparamagnetic contributions.

  5. The Effect of Mercury Vapor and the Role of Green Tea Extract on Brain Cells

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    Dhona Afriza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a wellknown toxic metal that is capable to induce free radical-induced oxidative stress. It can cause human disease including brain disorders. Objective: To identify the effect of mercury vapor inhalation on brain cells and the role of green tea extract (Camellia sinensis as antioxidant on the brain cells exposed to mercury. Methods: Fourty-eight male Mus musculus were divided into 8 groups, which were given treatment for 3 and 6 weeks. Group A did not receive any treatment and served as a negative control. Group B was a positive control exposed to Mercury. Group C was exposed to Mercury and treated with 26μg/g green tea extract. Group D was exposed to mercury and treated with 52μg/g green tea extract. All animals in the Group B, C, D were exposed to mercury through inhalation for 4 hours daily. The effect of mercury on the brain cells were examined histopathologically. Results: The numbers of necrotic cells counted in the green tea-treated mice group were significantly lower than those untreated group (p<0,05. Conclusion: Mercury vapor inhalation may cause necrosis on brain cells. Administration of green tea extract as an antioxidant reduced the amount of mercury-induced necrotic brain cells in mice.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.151

  6. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Lee, H.J.; Byun, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract

  7. Changing oxidation in whey fat concentrate upon addition of green tea extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Marianne; Nielsen, J; Sørensen, J

    2011-01-01

    was measured using a number of different antioxidants: Trolox (TRX), propyl gallate (PG), Grindox 1021 (GRX), green tea extract (GTE) and rosemary extract (RE). The development of the secondary lipid oxidation product hexanal was inhibited by all the tested antioxidants, and GTE was found to be the most...

  8. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of phenolic antioxidants from green tea using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lan-Sook; Lee, Namhyouck; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Chang-Ho; Hong, Sang Pil; Jeon, Yeo-Won; Kim, Young-Eon

    2013-10-31

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 ° C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio of (EGCg + ECg)/EGC was identified a major factor contributing to the antioxidant activity of green tea extracts. In this study, ultrasonic extraction showed that the ethanol concentration and extraction time used for antioxidant extraction could be remarkably reduced without a decrease in antioxidant activity compared to the conventional extraction conditions.

  9. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Green Tea Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Sook Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 °C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio of (EGCg + ECg/EGC was identified a major factor contributing to the antioxidant activity of green tea extracts. In this study, ultrasonic extraction showed that the ethanol concentration and extraction time used for antioxidant extraction could be remarkably reduced without a decrease in antioxidant activity compared to the conventional extraction conditions.

  10. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme- iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samman, S.; Sandstrøm, B.; Toft, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    the effect of phenolic-rich extracts obtained from green tea or rosemary on nonheme-iron absorption. Design: Young women aged 19-39 y consumed test meals on 4 separate occasions. The meals were identical except for the absence (meal A) or presence (meal B) of a phenolic-rich extract from green tea (study 1......-body retention of 59Fe and the ratio of Fe-55 to 59Fe activity in blood samples. Results: The presence of the phenolic-rich extracts resulted in decreased nonheme-iron absorption. Mean (+/-SD) iron absorption decreased from 12.1 +/- 4.5% to 8.9 +/- 5.2% (P tea extract and from 7...

  11. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zahedifar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, control animals were located under natural condition, sham -exposed animals were prepared by experimental condition without cell phone waves radiation. Experimental 1 group that irradiated at cell phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and experimental 2 groups were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days and experimental 3 group that irradiated at active mobile phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days. After treatment period micronucleus test was evaluated in polychromatic erythrocytes on bone marrow. The quantitative data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test with using of SPSS-13 software at the level of p<0.05.Results: Based on this study, treatment with extracts of green tea decreased micronucleus frequency in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of Balb/C mouse that irradiated at cell phone microwave (0.92±0.129, (p<0.001.Conclusion: Cell phone microwaves (940 MHz increased micronucleus on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of male Balb/C mouse, but green tea had inhibitory effect and it decreased the average number of micronucleus.

  12. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Green Tea Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Lan-Sook; Lee, Namhyouck; Kim, Young; Lee, Chang-Ho; Hong, Sang; Jeon, Yeo-Won; Kim, Young-Eon

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 °C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio ...

  13. New Approaches for Effective Microwave Assisted Extraction of Caffeine and Catechins from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül SERDAR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop an effective microwave assisted extraction (MAE method for extraction of caffeine and catechins from green tea samples. A series of solvents (water, ethanol:water mixture or citric acid:water mixture were used for extraction of green tea samples (fresh, frozen or dried collected in three collection periods (first, second and third collection periods. Tea samples were extracted using water in a close microwave system under the certain extraction conditions. Extraction was carried out under a controlled 600 W microwave power at 80 oC temperature for 4 min irradiation time. Alternative to water, an ethanol-water mixture (1:1 or a citric acid-water (1:1 mixture was used as extracting solvent under the same conditions. After MAE crude aqueous extract was partitioned first with chloroform to separate caffeine then ethyl acetate for catechins.  Both caffeine and catechin extraction was quite successful with microwave assisted system employing only 4 minutes treatment. The highest caffeine yield was obtained in the second collection period using frozen green tea samples and ethanol-water as extracting solvent. The yield of catechin extracts was between 0.84-3.96% depending on the solvent system used for extraction. Ethanol-water mixture seems to be appropriate for effective extraction in the basis of extract yields. However, HPLC results showed that individual catechin content of each extraction is more important criteria for the evaluation of most effective extraction medium rather than the mass of the extract.  Using citric acid as extracting solvent in MAE seem to be more fruitful providing 100% catechin mixture with the highest EGCG content. 

  14. Quantification of catechins and caffeine from green tea (Camellia sinensis infusions, extract, and ready-to-drink beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Macedo Mendes De Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the levels of catechins and caffeine in various forms of presentation of green tea: infusion tea bags, extract, and ready-to-drink beverage and, based on their content, identify the most suitable for consumption. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analytical method was used for the quantification of catechins and caffeine. The tea bags had the highest concentration of total catechins with 5 to 9.5% followed by the extract with 3.64 to 4.88%, and ready-to-drink green tea beverage showed low levels of catechins, from 0.14 to 0.26%. As for caffeine content, green tea extract had higher concentration (1.96 to 3.54% compared to the tea bags (1.39 to 1.57%. Tea bags were found the most suitable for consumption because it contains higher amounts of catechins and smaller amounts of caffeine.

  15. Effect of Green Tea Extract on the Treatment of Dentin Erosion: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mirkarimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of green tea on dentin erosion.Materials and Methods: Twelve extracted sound human premolars were immersed in Coca Cola with a pH of 2.8 for 5 minutes. The surface microhardness was measured with a Knoop diamond under a load of 50gr/10s. The teeth were immersed in green tea (Camellia sinensis solution for one minute. The microhardness values were measured again and compared with pretreatment values by the Wilcoxon test. Three eroded teeth, which were treated with green tea, were evaluated under scanning electron microscope.Results: The mean ± SD of microhardness values before and after immersion in green tea were 46.5±2.79 and 54.5±4.4, respectively with statistically significant differences between the two measurements (P<0.01. In SEM evaluation there was an improvement in eroded dentin appearance and there were deposits on the dentin surface.Conclusion: Green tea (Camellia sinensis increased the microhardness of eroded dentin and improved the eroded texture.

  16. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER AND PALLADIUM NANOPARTICLES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE USING COFFEE AND TEA EXTRACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extremely simple green approach that generates bulk quantities of nanocrystals of noble metals such as silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) using coffee and tea extract at room temperature is described. The single-pot method uses no surfactant, capping agent, and/or template. The ob...

  17. Comparison of Some Extraction Methods for Isolation of Catechins and Caffeine from Turkish Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi DEMİR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective extraction of anticancer and antioxidant principles from Turkish green tea were main purpose of this work. The pre-optimized experimental condition for liquid extraction was employed for comparative appraisal.  Not only extraction methods also nature of the green tea samples (fresh, dried or frozen and quantitative yields related to collection periods were investigated.  After extraction of the green tea with various techniques the extract was partitioned with chloroform to remove caffeine, after that the extract was partitioned with ethyl acetate to obtain catechin mixture. Quantification of individual catechins was carried out by HPLC and analysis results proved that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG was main catechin specie present in all extracts. The results indicate that hot water extraction (at 80 0C provides higher catechin yield when compared to other methods. The highest extract yields were obtained with dried leaves collected in second collection period. The crude catechin mixture contains high amount of EGCG and might be used as raw material for production of plant remedies at industrial scale.

  18. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed

  19. Role of catechins in the antioxidant capacity of an active film containing green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, M; Nerin, C

    2012-10-03

    The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method was used to characterize the antioxidant capacity of natural extracts of green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit. These natural extracts were incorporated into a plastic film layer, which was subsequently subjected to a free radical gas stream in order to determine the antioxidant capacity directly in the active film. The green tea extract (GTE) afforded the strongest antioxidant activity. To identify the active compounds in the extract, concentration of the diverse catechins in samples were determined by HPLC-UV analysis. The results showed that the content of catechins in the GTE is around 77% (w/w), the major components being (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epicatechin. A variation in the concentration profile of catechins was detected during the oxidation process. The chromatographic study demonstrated that (-)-gallocatechin, (-)- epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, and (-)-catechin gallate exhibited the most radical scavenging.

  20. Artificial neural network modeling and optimization of ultrahigh pressure extraction of green tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jun; Xue, Yujing; Xu, Yinxiang; Shen, Yuhong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the ultrahigh pressure extraction of green tea polyphenols was modeled and optimized by a three-layer artificial neural network. A feed-forward neural network trained with an error back-propagation algorithm was used to evaluate the effects of pressure, liquid/solid ratio and ethanol concentration on the total phenolic content of green tea extracts. The neural network coupled with genetic algorithms was also used to optimize the conditions needed to obtain the highest yield of tea polyphenols. The obtained optimal architecture of artificial neural network model involved a feed-forward neural network with three input neurons, one hidden layer with eight neurons and one output layer including single neuron. The trained network gave the minimum value in the MSE of 0.03 and the maximum value in the R(2) of 0.9571, which implied a good agreement between the predicted value and the actual value, and confirmed a good generalization of the network. Based on the combination of neural network and genetic algorithms, the optimum extraction conditions for the highest yield of green tea polyphenols were determined as follows: 498.8 MPa for pressure, 20.8 mL/g for liquid/solid ratio and 53.6% for ethanol concentration. The total phenolic content of the actual measurement under the optimum predicated extraction conditions was 582.4 ± 0.63 mg/g DW, which was well matched with the predicted value (597.2mg/g DW). This suggests that the artificial neural network model described in this work is an efficient quantitative tool to predict the extraction efficiency of green tea polyphenols. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effect of Grape Seed and Green Tea Extracts on Durability of Tilapia

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    Rozita Golvardzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study tried to investigate the antioxidant and anti-bacterial effects of green tea and grape seed extract (with a volume of 2% on durability of Tilapia packed inpolyethylene bags, which were kept in cool temperature of 4 ± 1 °C. Methods: Prepared fish were divided into 3 batches: 2 batches were treated by dipping for 30 min in ethanolic of green tea extract (2% v/v and grape seed (2% v/v, respectively, while the third batch was dipped in distilled water as a control sample. The control and treated fish samples were analyzed for microbiological such as total volatile count and psychrotrophic count, and chemical such as thiobarbituric acid (TBA, and free fatty acid (FFA values. The sensory characteristic was over a period of 20 days. Results: The results indicated that the two extracts' treatments delayed significantly (P < 0.05. Lipid oxidation and process of spoilage in comparison with the psychrotrophic bacteria and total viable count control also remained lower than the proposed acceptable limit (7 log CFU/g. According to sensory, chemical, and microbiological analyses results, the treatment of grape seed extract had high quality and enhanced the beneficial effects on sensory characteristics in comparison with other treatments. Conclusions: the present study showed that the grape seed extract and green tea were very effective in extending the shelf life of Tilapia during refrigerated storage.

  2. ESR detection of free radicals in polyphenolic extracts from wine grapes, olives and green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R.; Romani, A.; Mulinacci, N.; Vincieri, F.F.; Hunter, C.R.; Hewitt, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Polyphenols are widespread in vegetables and fruits and they play an important role in human diet and health: these compounds act mainly as antioxidants and radical scavengers. In this work we have detected free radicals in the following natural polyphenols: Endotelon, an anthocyanic grapeskin extract; malvidin 3,5-O-diglucosides (malvin); oleuropein, an olive polyphenol; a commercial green tea extract, and pure epigallocatechingallate EGCG. The investigation was performed using a Varian E-12 ESR Spectrometer (∼9.1 GHz) at room temperature. All except the green tea extract gave single unstructured lines of ∼ 10 gauss linewidth. The tea extract signal showed 3 lines, one ∼ 20 gauss wide, one ∼ 10 gauss wide, and one ∼ 2-3 gauss wide. Saturation behaviour of these lines at room and liquid N 2 temperature showed them to be from different radicals About 50% of the extract is represented by epigallocatechingallate (EGCG). Using the pure sample EGCG it was possible to assign the appropriate radical, which corresponded with the broadest and strongest 'single' signal (∼20g wide). The presence of the free radicals in the solid extracts shows that the appropriate molecules can act as radical scavengers by forming stable radicals

  3. The contents of fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their aqueous extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.N.; Kazi, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The content of fifteen elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined in Green Tea samples imported from different countries such as India, China, Kenya and Bangladesh in packets and without packets were purchased from authorized tea dealers in Peshawar. Wet ashing procedures were employed for decomposing the organic matter in the tea samples. Aqueous extract of each green tea sample was also prepared by heating with de-ionized water at 80 /sup o/C on electric heating plates. (author)

  4. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times were determined together with the dissolution profiles in compendial and biorelevant media. All formulations disintegrated within 30 min, meeting the USP criteria for botanical formulations. An immediate release dissolution profile was achieved for gelatin capsules in all media but not for the specified HPMC formulations. Dissolution release was especially impaired for HPMCgell at pH 1.2 and for both HPMC formulations in FeSSIF media suggesting the potential for food interactions. The delayed release from studied HPMC capsule materials is likely attributed to an interaction between the catechins, the major constituents of the green tea extract, and the capsule shell material. An assessment of in vitro dissolution is recommended prior to the release of a dietary supplement or clinical trial investigational product to ensure efficacy.

  5. In-vitro study investigating influence of toothpaste containing green tea extract on the microhardness of demineralized human enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrian, K.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, DJ

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of toothpaste containing green tea extract on the microhardness of demineralized enamel. Human tooth, which was demineralised in citric acid solution, had a toothpaste containing green tea extract of concentration of 5, 10 or 15% application. Microhardness measurement was carried out on each enamel surface of the teeth for initial, after the demineralization and after application of the tooth pastes. It showed that there was significant decrease between enamel microhardness of the teeth at the initial condition and after demineralization. After application of the toothpaste containing green tea extract of each concentration the microhardnss increased significantly. However, there the microhardness was insignificant between the applications of each green tea concentration.

  6. Facile Separation of 5-O-Galloylquinic Acid from Chinese Green Tea Extract using Mesoporous Zirconium Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yilong; Shang, Yafang; Zhu, Danye; Wang, Caihong; Zhong, Zhifeng; Xu, Ziyang

    2016-05-01

    5-O-Galloylquinic acid from green tea and other plants is attracting increasing attention for its antioxidant and antileishmanial bioactivities. It is always isolated using a silica column, a Sephadex column and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, which are either laborious or instrument dependent. To develop a new method to easily separate 5-O-galloylquinic acid. Mesoporous zirconium phosphate (m-ZrP) was prepared to conveniently separate 5-O-galloylquinic acid from Chinese green tea extract, and the target compound was easily obtained by simple steps of adsorption, washing and desorption. The effects of the green tea extraction conditions, extract concentrations, and m-ZrP adsorption/desorption dynamics on the 5-O-galloylquinic acid separation were evaluated. 5-O-Galloylquinic acid that was separated from a 70% ethanol extract of green tea was of moderate HPLC purity (92%) and recovery (88%), and an increased non-specific binding of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on m-ZrP was observed in the diluted tea extract. The times for maximal adsorption of 5-O-galloylquinic acid in 70% ethanol extract and maximal desorption of 5-O-galloylquinic acid in 0.4% phosphoric acid solution were confirmed as 7 h and 5 h, respectively. A facile method to separate 5-O-galloylquinic acid from Chinese green tea extract using m-ZrP was established. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Topical application of green and white tea extracts provides protection from solar-simulated ultraviolet light in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camouse, Melissa M; Domingo, Diana Santo; Swain, Freddie R; Conrad, Edward P; Matsui, Mary S; Maes, Daniel; Declercq, Lieve; Cooper, Kevin D; Stevens, Seth R; Baron, Elma D

    2009-06-01

    Tea polyphenols have been found to exert beneficial effects on the skin via their antioxidant properties. We sought to determine whether topical application of green tea or white tea extracts would prevent simulated solar radiation-induced oxidative damages to DNA and Langerhans cells that may lead to immune suppression and carcinogenesis. Skin samples were analysed from volunteers or skin explants treated with white tea or green tea after UV irradiation. In another group of patients, the in vivo immune protective effects of green and white tea were evaluated using contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene. Topical application of green and white tea offered protection against detrimental effects of UV on cutaneous immunity. Such protection is not because of direct UV absorption or sunscreen effects as both products showed a sun protection factor of 1. There was no significant difference in the levels of protection afforded by the two agents. Hence, both green tea and white tea are potential photoprotective agents that may be used in conjunction with established methods of sun protection.

  8. Conventional and accelerated-solvent extractions of green tea (camellia sinensis) for metabolomics-based chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Joshua J; Wallace, Emily D; Graf, Tyler N; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B

    2017-10-25

    Metabolomics has emerged as an important analytical technique for multiple applications. The value of information obtained from metabolomics analysis depends on the degree to which the entire metabolome is present and the reliability of sample treatment to ensure reproducibility across the study. The purpose of this study was to compare methods of preparing complex botanical extract samples prior to metabolomics profiling. Two extraction methodologies, accelerated solvent extraction and a conventional solvent maceration, were compared using commercial green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae)] products as a test case. The accelerated solvent protocol was first evaluated to ascertain critical factors influencing extraction using a D-optimal experimental design study. The accelerated solvent and conventional extraction methods yielded similar metabolite profiles for the green tea samples studied. The accelerated solvent extraction yielded higher total amounts of extracted catechins, was more reproducible, and required less active bench time to prepare the samples. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of accelerated solvent as an efficient methodology for metabolomics studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Evaluation of anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of green tea and cinnamon on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem Shokri; Hamed Fathi; Majid Jafari Sabet; Nafiseh Nasri Nasrabadi; Ramin Ataee

    2015-01-01

    Today diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world that affects half of the world population. The use of medicinal herbs especially green tea and cinnamon has been taken into consideration for relieving the symptoms of diabetes, but there were some different ideas about their effectiveness. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon and green tea extract, individually and in combination, on blood glucose and weight loss in diabetic mice with Streptozotocin (ST...

  10. Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis L. Effects on Uric Acid Levels on Hyperuricemia Rats (Rattus norvegicus

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    Putranty Widha Nugraheni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid is the end product of purine degradation. When uric acid levels exceed normal limits, it will build up and cause hyperuricemia. Allopurinol is one of the most effective and common medicine for hyperuricemia, but it brings serious side effects, therefore it is needed alternative therapy for hyperuricemia. One plant that may be expected to low uric acid levels is green tea (Camellia sinensis L., that contains many antioxidants polyphenols, especially flavonoids. Flavonoid has strong antioxidant properties, act as free radical and metal scavengers, and also xanthine oxidase (XOD inhibitors. This study investigates the potential of green tea using various doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of body weight in 24 white male rats (Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain that has been received high purine diet in 60 consecutive days. This study used DHBSA methods to measure uric acid levels in blood serum and urine that excreted 8 hours before surgery. Green tea extract that contains polyphenol can inhibit XOD activities, therefore, it leads to decrease uric acid level in blood and increase the excretion through urine by modulating urate gene transporter. A therapy with 600 mg/kg body weight of GTE is the most effective dose to decrease uric acid levels in serum and to increase excretion of exceeding uric acid significantly (p < 0.01, from One Way ANOVA and Tukey analysis.

  11. The Powdering Process with a Set of Ceramic Mills for Green Tea Promoted Catechin Extraction and the ROS Inhibition Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For serving green tea, there are two prominent methods: steeping the leaf or the powdered leaf (matcha style in hot water. The purpose of the present study was to reveal chemical and functional differences before and after the powdering process of green tea leaf, since powdered green tea may contribute to expanding the functionality because of the different ingesting style. In this study, we revealed that the powdering process with a ceramic mill and stirring in hot water increased the average extracted concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG by more than three times compared with that in leaf tea using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography–tandem mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses. Moreover, powdered green tea has a higher inhibition effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS production in vitro compared with the same amount of leaf tea. Our data suggest that powdered green tea might have a different function from leaf tea due to the higher catechin contents and particles.

  12. Effect of Green Tea Extract on T cell Mediated Hypersensitivity Reaction in BALB/c Mice Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A.M.; Ismail Al-kadey, M.M.I.; Shabon, M.H.; Hussien, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma radiation is widely used in the treatment of malignant neoplasms. However, it deprives the host immune function which may retard tumor rejection by the immune response. The main purpose of the present study is to test the ability of green tea dry extract to restore the T cell hypersensitivity reaction in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It aims also to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of ionizing radiation and green tea dry extract in the immune function. Four groups of BALB/c mice, each of ten, have been used in each experiment. The first group served as a control, the second group received green tea dry extract and the third group was exposed to 2 Gy gamma irradiation, while the fourth group received green tea dry extract before and after gamma irradiation. The following parameters were determined, the contact sensitivity reaction by the mouse ear swelling response, local dendritic cell migration, local lymph node weight, lymphocyte proliferation, spleen and thymus weight with their lymphocyte count. The effect of gamma irradiation and green tea dry extract on the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity was also determined. Data from the present study showed that gamma irradiation caused a significant decrease of the mouse ear swelling response and retarded dendritic cell migration. They also showed a significant decline in the lymphocytes proliferation in lymph node draining the contact sensitizer application. Total body exposure to 2 Gy gamma irradiation induced marked decline of thymus weight and thymocyte count, while it reduced spleen weight and spleenocyte count to a lesser extent. Exposure to gamma irradiation enhanced the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity. Administration of green tea dry extract partially preserved the contact sensitivity response to oxazolone in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It markedly minimized the enhancement of the elicitation phase of ear swelling. In conclusion, the present study heralds a beneficial role of

  13. Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthin Audomkasok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 106 infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment.

  14. Green tea extract induces protective autophagy in A549 non-small lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Magdalena; Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas, Marta; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Alina

    2015-12-31

    For many decades, polyphenols, including green tea extract catechins, have been reported to exert multiple anti-tumor activities. However, to date the mechanisms of their action have not been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of green tea extract on non-small lung cancer A549 cells. A549 cells following treatment with GTE were analyzed using the inverted light and fluorescence microscope. In order to evaluate cell sensitivity and cell death, the MTT assay and Tali image-based cytometer were used, respectively. Ultrastructural alterations were assessed using a transmission electron microscope. The obtained data suggested that GTE, even at the highest dose employed (150 μM), was not toxic to A549 cells. Likewise, the treatment with GTE resulted in only a very small dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE was seen at the light and electron microscopic level. Furthermore, an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and LC3-II puncta formation was observed under the fluorescence microscope, following GTE treatment. The analysis of the functional status of autophagy revealed that GTE-induced autophagy may provide self-protection against its own cytotoxicity, since we observed that the blockage of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased the viability of A549 cells and potentiated necrotic cell death induction in response to GTE treatment. Collectively, our results revealed that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of the green tea extract, probably due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These data suggest that a potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than in monotherapy.

  15. Green tea extract induces protective autophagy in A549 non-small lung cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Izdebska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: For many decades, polyphenols, including green tea extract catechins, have been reported to exert multiple anti-tumor activities. However, to date the mechanisms of their action have not been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of green tea extract on non-small lung cancer A549 cells. Material and methods: A549 cells following treatment with GTE were analyzed using the inverted light and fluorescence microscope. In order to evaluate cell sensitivity and cell death, the MTT assay and Tali image-based cytometer were used, respectively. Ultrastructural alterations were assessed using a transmission electron microscope.Results: The obtained data suggested that GTE, even at the highest dose employed (150 μM, was not toxic to A549 cells. Likewise, the treatment with GTE resulted in only a very small dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE was seen at the light and electron microscopic level. Furthermore, an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and LC3-II puncta formation was observed under the fluorescence microscope, following GTE treatment. The analysis of the functional status of autophagy revealed that GTE-induced autophagy may provide self-protection against its own cytotoxicity, since we observed that the blockage of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased the viability of A549 cells and potentiated necrotic cell death induction in response to GTE treatment.Conclusion: Collectively, our results revealed that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of the green tea extract, probably due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These data suggest that a potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than in monotherapy.

  16. Extractability of radiocesium from processed green tea leaves with hot water. The first emergent tea leaves harvested after the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Ishii, N.

    2012-01-01

    In some tea tree planting areas within 300 km from the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), it was found that newly emerged tea plant leaves for green tea contained two radiocesium species (cesium-134 and cesium-137). In this study, using processed green tea leaves for drinking, extraction ratios of radiocesium under several brew conditions were observed. When 90 deg C water was used, 50-70% of radiocesium was extracted into the water, while 54-60% of radiocesium was extracted with 60 deg C water. A part of radiocesium would be removed from leaves if the leaves were washed with 20 and 60 deg C water before brewing, and the efficiencies were 11 and 32%, respectively. Newly emerged camellia leaves were used to simulate the radiocesium removal ratio from raw tea leaves by washing and boiling; radioactivity concentration was decreased to 60% of the original concentration with washing and 10 min boiling. From these results, it was found that almost half of the radiocesium would not be removed from raw or processed tea leaves. The values obtained in the present study could be used for internal radiation dose estimation from tea leaves. (author)

  17. Evaluation of anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of green tea and cinnamon on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Shokri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world that affects half of the world population. The use of medicinal herbs especially green tea and cinnamon has been taken into consideration for relieving the symptoms of diabetes, but there were some different ideas about their effectiveness. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon and green tea extract, individually and in combination, on blood glucose and weight loss in diabetic mice with Streptozotocin (STZ. The experiment was performed on 50 Wistar rats.  A total of 50 rats were divided into 10 groups of 5 and STZ was injected at the dose of 40 mg/kg/day for 5 days intraperitoneally. After diabetes induction, three groups received, 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of green tea extract,  three groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of cinnamon extract  and three final groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of  cinnamon  and green tea in combination by gavages daily for 6 weeks. After each period of treatments, blood glucose and the weight of animals were determined. At the end of the sixth week, blood glucose and weight loss were improved in diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner and the dose of 200 mg/kg extract cinnamon with green tea had the most appropriate synergic effect.

  18. Green tea, red wine and lemon extracts reduce experimental tumor growth and cancer drug toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletok, S P; Gulua, L; Wicker, L; Shlyakhovenko, V A; Gogol, S; Orlovsky, O; Karnaushenko, O V; Verbinenko, A; Milinevska, V; Samoylenko, O; Todor, I; Turmanidze, T

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate antitumor effect of plant polyphenol extracts from green tea, red wine lees and/or lemon peel alone and in combination with antitumor drugs on the growth of different transplanted tumors in experimental animals. Green tea extract (GTE) was prepared from green tea infusion. GTE-based composites of red wine (GTRW), lemon peel (GTRWL) and/or NanoGTE as well as corresponding nanocomposites were prepared. The total polyphenolics of the different GTE-based extracts ranged from 18.0% to 21.3%. The effects of GTE-based extracts were studied in sarcoma 180, Ehrlich carcinoma, B16 melanoma, Ca755 mammary carcinoma, P388 leukemia, L1210 leukemia, and Guerin carcinoma (original, cisplatin-resistant and doxorubicin-resistant variants). The extracts were administered as 0.1% solution in drinking water (0.6-1.0 mg by total polyphenolics per mouse per day and 4.0-6.3 mg per rat per day). Tumor growth inhibition (TGI) in mice treated with NanoGTE, cisplatin or cisplatin + NanoGTE was 27%, 55% and 78%, respectively, in Sarcoma 180%, 21%, 45% and 59%, respectively, in Ehrlich carcinoma; and 8%, 13% and 38%, respectively in B16 melanoma. Composites of NanoGTE, red wine, and lemon peel (NanoGTRWL) enhanced the antitumor effects of cyclophosphamide in mice with Ca755 mammary carcinoma. The treatment with combination of NanoGTE and inhibitors of polyamines (PA) synthesis (DFMO + MGBG) resulted in significant TGI of P388 leukemia (up to 71%) and L1210 leukemia. In rats transplanted with Guerin carcinoma (parental strain), treatment with GTRW or GTE alone resulted in 25-28% TGI vs. 55-68% TGI in cisplatin-treated animals. The inhibition observed in the case of combination of GTE or GTRW with cisplatin was additive giving 81-88% TGI. Similar effects were observed when combinations of the cytostatics with GTE (or NanoGTE) were tested against cisplatin- or doxorubicin-resistant Guerin carcinoma. Moreover, the plant extracts lowered side toxicity of the drugs. Treatment with GTE

  19. The Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio Reveals the Prooxidant Effect of Green Tea Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tea increased plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity, the European Food Safety Administration (EFSA denied claims related to tea and its protection from oxidative damage. Furthermore, the Supplement Information Expert Committee (DSI EC expressed some doubts on the safety of green tea extract (GTE. We performed a pilot study in order to evaluate the effect of a single dose of two capsules of a GTE supplement (200 mg × 2 on the peroxidation of leukocytes index ratio (PLIR in relation to uric acid (UA and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP, as well as the sample size to reach statistical significance. GTE induced a prooxidant effect on leukocytes, whereas FRAP did not change, in agreement with the EFSA and the DSI EC conclusions. Besides, our results confirm the primary role of UA in the antioxidant defences. The ratio based calculation of the PLIR reduced the sample size to reach statistical significance, compared to the resistance to an exogenous oxidative stress and to the functional capacity of oxidative burst. Therefore, PLIR could be a sensitive marker of redox status.

  20. Impact of green tea extract addition on oxidative changes in the lipid fraction of pastry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żbikowska, Anna; Kowalska, Małgorzata; Rutkowska, Jarosława; Kozłowska, Mariola; Onacik-Gür, Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    Alongside flour, fat is the key ingredient of sponge cakes, including those with long shelf lives. It is an unstable food component, whose quality and nutritional safety depend on the composition and pres- ence of oxidation products. Consumption of fat oxidation products adversely affects the human body and contributes to the incidence of a number of medical conditions. Qualitative changes in fats extracted from thermostat sponge cakes with and without antioxidant additions were determined in this study. In the study, two types of antioxidant were used: natural - green tea extract in three doses (0.02%; 0.2% and 1.0%) and synthetic BHA (0.02%) and 100%, solid bakery shortening. Sponge-cakes were thermostatted at temperatures 63°C after twenty-eight days. In this study, the quality of the lipid fraction was analyzed. The amount of primary (PV) and secondary (AnV) oxidation products was determined, and   a Rancimat test was performed. Adding antioxidants to fats varied in the degree to which oxidation processes of lipids fractions were inhibited. The peroxide value after twenty-eight days of thermostatting ranged from 3.57 meq O/kg (BHA) and 11.14 O meq/kg (extract content - 1%) to 62.85 meq O/kg (control sample). In turn, the value of AnV after the storage period ranged from 4.84 (BHA) and 6.71 (extract content - 1%) to 16.83 (control sample). The best protective effects in the process of oxidation was achieved by BHA. The longest in- duction time and the lowest peroxide value and anisidine value were obtained for this antioxidant. It was achieved after twenty-eight days of fat thermostatting. Nonetheless, the results demonstrated it is possible to use the commercially available green tea extract to slow the adverse process of fat oxidation in sponge cake products.

  1. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

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    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1 protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS. Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-treated with GTE dietary supplement, and the control, respectively. Our findings by immunocytochemistry showed that abundant HMGB1 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the lung tissues of rats that were exposed to CS, whereas HMGB1 was localized to the nuclei of CSG and C group. For in vitro studies, cotinine stimulated the secretion of HMGB1 in a dose and time dependent manner and the HMGB1 level was suppressed by GTE in murine macrophage cell lines. Our results could suggest that GTE supplementation which could suppress HMGB1 may offer a beneficial effect against diseases.

  2. Green tea phytocompounds as anticancer: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is universally considered significant and its benefits have been experimentally explored by researchers and scientists. Anticancer potential of green tea has been completely recognized now. Green tea contains anti-cancerous constituents and nutrients that have powerful remedial effects. By using electronic data base (1998–2015, different compounds in green tea possessing anticancer activity including epigallocatechin-3-gallate, paclitaxel and docetaxel combinations, ascorbic acid, catechins, lysine, synergistic arginine, green tea extract, proline, and green tea polyphenols has been reported. Green tea extracts exhibited remedial potential against cancer of lung, colon, liver, stomach, leukemic cells, prostate, breast, human cervical cells, head, and neck. For centuries, green tea has been utilized as medicine for therapeutic purposes. It originated in China and extensively used in Asian countries for blood pressure depression and as anticancer medicine. Green tea has therapeutic potential against many diseases such as lowering of blood pressure, Parkinson’s disease, weight loss, esophageal disease, skin-care, cholesterol, Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes.

  3. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huvaere, Kevin André Jurgen; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were...

  4. Green tea extract only affects markers of oxidative status postprandially: lasting antioxidant effect of flavonoid-free diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J.F.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Haraldsdottir, J.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) used as a food antioxidant on markers of oxidative status after dietary depletion...

  5. Evaluation of green tea extract as a safe personal hygiene against viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Ha; Jang, Yo Han; Kim, Young-Seok; Kim, Jinku; Seong, Baik Lin

    2018-01-01

    Viral infections often pose tremendous public health concerns as well as economic burdens. Despite the availability of vaccines or antiviral drugs, personal hygiene is considered as effective means as the first-hand measure against viral infections. The green tea catechins, in particular, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are known to exert potent antiviral activity. In this study, we evaluated the green tea extract as a safe personal hygiene against viral infections. Using the influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) as a model, we examined the duration of the viral inactivating activity of green tea extract (GTE) under prolonged storage at various temperature conditions. Even after the storage for 56 days at different temperatures, 0.1% GTE completely inactivated 10 6 PFU of the virus (6 log 10 reduction), and 0.01% and 0.05% GTE resulted in 2 log 10 reduction of the viral titers. When supplemented with 2% citric acid, 0.1% sodium benzoate, and 0.2% ascorbic acid as anti-oxidant, the inactivating activity of GTE was temporarily compromised during earlier times of storage. However, the antiviral activity of the GTE was steadily recovered up to similar levels with those of the same concentrations of GTE without the supplements, effectively prolonging the duration of the virucidal function over extended period. Cryo-EM and DLS analyses showed a slight increase in the overall size of virus particles by GTE treatment. The results suggest that the virucidal activity of GTE is mediated by oxidative crosslinking of catechins to the viral proteins and the change of physical properties of viral membranes. The durability of antiviral effects of GTE was examined as solution type and powder types over extended periods at various temperature conditions using human influenza A/H1N1 virus. GTE with supplements demonstrated potent viral inactivating activity, resulting in greater than 4 log 10 reduction of viral titers even after storage for up to two months at a wide range of

  6. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  7. The analysis of aroma/flavor compounds in green tea using ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluhayb, Abdullah H; Logue, Brian A

    2017-10-06

    Worldwide, green tea is one of the most popular beverages. It promotes blood circulation, liver function, and lowers the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This drink is characterized by the distinctive odors and flavors produced by its constituent compounds, with its value predicated on the amount and type of constituents extracted from the tea leaves during brewing. Ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer (ICECLES) is a novel sample preparation technique, especially applicable for the extraction of relatively polar compounds while retaining excellent extraction efficiencies for non-polar compounds. In this study, ICECLES was used to prepare green tea for analysis of aroma/flavor compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ICECLES performed very well, revealing 301 constituents as compared to 245 for SBSE (i.e., 56 more constituents were detected via ICECLES). Moreover, ICECLES produced stronger signal to noise ratios for all except 4 of 301 constituents, with a maximum signal enhancement of 19. Of the constituents which were only detectable using ICECLES, some very important aroma/flavor and/or medicinal compounds were easily identified, including furfural, furfural alcohol, maltol, eugenol, 2-methylpyrazine, phenethyl alcohol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and α-terpineol. Overall, we confirmed that ICECLES sample preparation followed by GC-MS consistently allowed more complete green tea aroma/flavor analysis, especially for relatively polar compounds, some of which are critical for flavor quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Presurgical Study of Lecithin Formulation of Green Tea Extract in Women with Early Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeroni, Matteo; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Gandini, Sara; Johansson, Harriet; Serrano, Davide; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Aristarco, Valentina; Macis, Debora; Mora, Serena; Caldarella, Pietro; Pagani, Gianmatteo; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Riva, Antonella; Petrangolini, Giovanna; Morazzoni, Paolo; DeCensi, Andrea; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiologic data support an inverse association between green tea intake and breast cancer risk. Greenselect Phytosome (GSP) is a lecithin formulation of a caffeine-free green tea catechin extract. The purpose of the study was to determine the tissue distribution of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and its effect on cell proliferation and circulating biomarkers in breast cancer patients. Twelve early breast cancer patients received GSP 300 mg, equivalent to 44.9 mg of EGCG, daily for 4 weeks prior to surgery. The EGCG levels were measured before (free) and after (total) enzymatic hydrolysis by HPLC-MS/MS in plasma, urine, breast cancer tissue, and surrounding normal breast tissue. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline, before the last administration, and 2 hours later. Repeated administration of GSP achieved levels of total EGCG ranging from 17 to 121 ng/mL in plasma. Despite a high between-subject variability, total EGCG was detectable in all tumor tissue samples collected up to 8 ng/g. Median total EGCG concentration was higher in the tumor as compared with the adjacent normal tissue (3.18 ng/g vs. 0 ng/g, P = 0.02). Free EGCG concentrations ranged from 8 to 65.8 ng/mL in plasma ( P between last administration and 2 hours after breast tumor tissue and is associated with antiproliferative effects on breast cancer tissue. Cancer Prev Res; 10(6); 363-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. The effect of green tea extract on the removal of sulfur-containing oral malodor volatiles in vitro and its potential application in chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q C; Wu, A Z; Pika, J

    2010-09-01

    Increasing pH solution from 7.5 to 8.0 was found to significantly improve the effectiveness of green tea extract for methanethiol removal in vitro. Green tea extract was also found to remove hydrogen sulfide and its effectiveness was greatly improved under alkaline conditions. It was found that with green tea extract, maximum H₂S removal was achieved when the pH was between 8.1 and 8.4 at 37 °C for 5 min. Further increases in pH resulted in decrease of the extract effectiveness. Vegetable acetone powders which contain polyphenol oxidases or peroxidases were found to further enhance the effectiveness for the removal of thiols when used in combination with green tea extracts at body temperature under alkaline conditions. Adding 5% baking soda to green tea extract-containing chewing gum was found to buffer saliva pHs to 8.0 during 10 min of chewing. However, severe discoloration was observed and undesirable bitterness was perceived, most likely due to the polymerization of unencapsulated green tea polyphenols. Therefore, encapsulation of green tea extract is recommended for applications at elevated pHs.

  10. Study on tea leaves extract as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, A. B.; Suryanto; Haider, F. I.

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitor from extraction of plant has been considered as the most preferable and most chosen technique to prevent corrosion of metal in acidic medium because of the environmental friendly factor. In this study, black tea leaves extraction was tested as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 0.1M of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor. The efficiency and effectiveness of black tea as corrosion inhibitor was tested by using corrosion weight loss measurement experiment was carried out with varies parameters which with different concentration of black tea extract solution. The extraction of black tea solution was done by using aqueous solvent method. The FT-IR result shows that black tea extract containing compounds such as catechin, caffeine and tannins that act as anti-corrosive reagents and responsible to enhance the effectiveness of black tea extract as corrosion inhibitor by forming the hydrophobic thin film through absorption process. As a result of weight loss measurement, it shows that loss in weight of mild steel reduces as the concentration of inhibitor increases. The surface analysis was done on the mild steel samples by using SEM.

  11. Biotransformation of catechin and extraction of active polysaccharide from green tea leaves via simultaneous treatment with tannase and pectinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Joo Hyun; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Park, Yooheon; Yu, Kwang-Won; Suh, Hyung Joo; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2015-08-30

    Green tea is a dietary source of bioactive compounds for human health. Enzymatic treatments induce the bioconversion of bioactive components, which can improve biological activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of simultaneous treatment with tannase and Rapidase on biotransformation of catechins and extraction of polysaccharide from green tea extract (GTE). Tannase and pectinase treatments induced the biotransformation of catechins and altered tea polysaccharide () content. The addition of GTE to the enzyme reaction resulted in a significant increase in degallated catechins, including gallic acid, a product of the tannase reaction (314.5-4076.0 µg mL(-1)) and a reduction in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Biotransformation of catechins improved the radical scavenging activity of GTE. Pectinase treatment led to change of TPS composition in GTE by hydrolyzing polysaccharides. In addition, pectinase-driven hydrolysis in polysaccharides significantly increased TPS-induced Interleukin 6 (IL-6) production in macrophages. In particular, treatment of Rapidase (TPS-Ra) led to the highest IL-6 production among TPS samples, similar to treatment of highly purified pectinase (TPS-GTE), a positive control. Simultaneous processing with tannase and Rapidase can be an efficient method for the extraction of bioactive polysaccharides and biotransformation of catechins with enhanced radical scavenging activity from green tea. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of extraction time on antioxidants and bioactive volatile components of green tea (Camellia sinensis, using GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two green tea types, leaf grade and sanding, were extracted at different time intervals: 20, 40, and 120 min at a constant temperature of 50°C. The extracts were analyzed by GC/MS technique. The major compounds identified were myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, 1H-purine-2,6-dione, caffeine, linoleic acid, diethyl ester, and 1H-purine-6-amine. Stearic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and myristic acid were more abundantly present in the leaf-grade variety than sanding. However, some levels of acetic acid, cyclobutanol, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, and caffeine were also found in both the tea types. Most of the volatile compounds were detected between 20–40-min time of extraction. The 40-min time of extraction also showed the maximum content of polyphenols and antioxidants in both the tea types. Thus, 40 min was suggested as the most suitable time for maximum extraction of bioactive volatiles, antioxidants, and polyphenols from green tea.

  13. Protocol for MInimizing the Risk of Metachronous Adenomas of the CoLorectum with Green Tea Extract (MIRACLE: a randomised controlled trial of green tea extract versus placebo for nutriprevention of metachronous colon adenomas in the elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockmöller Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of colorectal cancer is a major health care issue. People who have undergone colonoscopy screening and had colorectal polyps removed have a higher risk of being diagnosed with polyps again compared to the normal population. Therefore, it would be ideal to find appropriate means that effectively help to prevent the reoccurrence of polyps after polypectomy. So far, pharmaceutical chemoprevention with NSAIDs including aspirin has been shown to be effective but not gained general acceptance due to side effects. Nutraceuticals such as polyphenols from tea plants have demonstrated remarkable therapeutic and preventive effects in molecular, epidemiological and clinical trials. However, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating the efficacy of nutraceuticals for the (secondary prevention of colorectal polyps as precursors for colorectal cancer are missing. Methods/Design We present the design of a randomized, placebo controlled, multicentre trial to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with green tea extract containing 300 mg epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the major polyphenol in green tea, on the recurrence of colon adenomas. Patients who have undergone polypectomy for colonic polyps will be randomized to receive either green tea extract containing 150 mg EGCG two times daily or a placebo over the course of three years. After a one month run-in period in which all patients will receive the active intervention, 2534 patients will be randomized, and 2028 patients are expected to complete the whole study course. Incidence, number and histology of adenoma at endpoint colonoscopy at three years will be compared in both groups. Discussion The beneficial safety profile of decaffeinated green tea extract, the quantifiable and known active content EGCG, and the accumulating evidence of its cancer preventive potential require, in our view, a validation of this compound for the nutriprevention of colorectal adenoma. Good

  14. The Antioxidant Capacity of Rosemary and Green Tea Extracts to Replace the Carcinogenic Antioxidant (BHA in Chicken Burgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela A. Pires

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of natural extracts (rosemary and green tea extracts in frozen storage of chicken burgers. Chicken burger treatments were prepared as follows: control (CON, 20 mg BHA/kg (BHA20, 10 mg green tea extract/kg (GT10, 38 mg green tea extract/kg (GT38, 18.6 mg rosemary extract/kg (RO18, and 480 mg rosemary extract/kg (RO480. Analysis of physicochemical parameters, color, TBAR index, and sensory acceptance were performed at 0, 30, 60, and 120 days of storage at −18°C in burgers packaged in LDPE plastic bags. The addition of natural antioxidants did not affect (p>0.05 the color and physicochemical parameters of the chicken burgers. After 120 days at −18°C, the RO480 sample showed a TBAR index similar (p>0.05 to BHA20 (0.423 and 0.369 mg, resp.. Sensory acceptance did not differ (p>0.05 among the treatments throughout the storage period (p>0.05.

  15. The Effectiveness of Green Tea or Green Tea Extract on Insulin Resistance and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyue Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea or green tea extract (GT/GTE has been demonstrated to reduce insulin resistance and improve glycemic control. However, evidence for this health beneficial effect is inconsistent. This systematic review evaluated the effect of GT/GTE on insulin resistance and glycemic control in people with pre-diabetes/type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to April 2017 for randomised controlled trials of participants with pre-diabetes or T2DM, where the intervention was GT/GTE. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the standardised mean difference (SMD in biomarkers of insulin resistance and glycemic control between GT/GTE and placebo groups. Six studies (n=382 were pooled into random-effects meta-analysis. Overall, no differences were found between GT/GTE and the placebo for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c: SMD, −0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.86 to 0.23, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR: SMD, 0.10; 95% CI, −0.17 to 0.38, fasting insulin (SMD, −0.25; 95% CI, −0.64 to 0.15, and fasting glucose (SMD, −0.10; 95% CI, −0.50 to 0.30. No evidence support the consumption of GT/GTE could reduce the levels of HbA1c, HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, or fasting glucose in people with pre-diabetes/T2DM. However, the studies included were small and of varying quality.

  16. Development of new antioxidant active packaging films based on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) and green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Dicastillo, Carol; Nerin, Cristina; Alfaro, Pilar; Catala, Ramon; Gavara, Rafael; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2011-07-27

    Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) films containing green tea extract were successfully produced by extrusion. The films were brown and translucent, and the addition of the extract increased the water and oxygen barrier at low relative humidity but increased the water sensitivity, the glass transition temperature, and the crystallinity of the films and improved their thermal resistance. An analysis by HPLC revealed that the antioxidant components of the extract suffered partial degradation during extrusion, reducing the content of catechin gallates and increasing the concentration of free gallic acid. Exposure of the films to various food simulants showed that the liquid simulants increased their capacity to reduce DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) radicals. The release of green tea extract components into the simulant monitored by HPLC showed that all compounds present in the green tea extract were partially released, although the extent and kinetics of release were dependent on the type of food. In aqueous food simulants, gallic acid was the main antioxidant component released with partition coefficient values ca. 200. In 95% ethanol (fatty food simulant) the K value for gallic acid decreased to 8 and there was a substantial contribution of catechins (K in the 1000 range) to a greatly increased antioxidant efficiency. Kinetically, gallic acid was released more quickly than catechins, owing to its faster diffusivity in the polymer matrix as a consequence of its smaller molecular size, although the most relevant effect is the plasticization of the matrix by alcohol, increasing the diffusion coefficient >10-fold. Therefore, the materials here developed with the combination of antioxidant substances that constitute the green tea extract could be used in the design of antioxidant active packaging for all type of foods, from aqueous to fatty products, the compounds responsible for the protection being those with the higher compatibility with the packaged product.

  17. The green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the ethanol extract pf black tea and its tannin free fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banoee, M.; Mokhtari, N.; Akhavan Sepahi, A.; Jafari Fesharaki, P.; Monsef-Esfahani, H. R.; Ehsanfar, Z.; Khoshayand, M. R.; Shahverdi, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    In this research the ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free fraction used for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles. All the extracts were used separately for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles through the reduction of aqueous AuCl 4 - . Transmission electron microscopy and visible absorption spectroscopy confirmed the reduction of gold ions to gold nanoparticles. The ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free ethanol extract produced gold nanoparticles in the size ranges of 2.5-27.5 nm and 1.25-17.5 nm with an average size of 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively. The prepared colloid gold nanoparticles, using the ethanol extract of black tea, did not show the appropriate stability during storage time (24 hours) at 4 d eg C . In contrast, gold colloids, which were synthesized by a tannin free fraction showed no particle aggregation during short and long storage times at the same conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles using ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free fraction.

  18. Properties and antioxidant action of actives cassava starch films incorporated with green tea and palm oil extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátya Karine Nery Carneiro Lins Perazzo

    Full Text Available There is an interest in the development of an antioxidant packaging fully biodegradable to increase the shelf life of food products. An active film from cassava starch bio-based, incorporated with aqueous green tea extract and oil palm colorant was developed packaging. The effects of additives on the film properties were determined by measuring mechanical, barrier and thermal properties using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack butter (maintained for 45 days under accelerated oxidation conditions. The antioxidant action of the active films was evaluated by analyzing the peroxide index, total carotenoids, and total polyphenol. The same analysis also evaluated unpacked butter, packed in films without additives and butter packed in LDPE films, as controls. The results suggested that incorporation of the antioxidants extracts tensile strength and water vapor barrier properties (15 times lower compared to control without additives. A lower peroxide index (231.57%, which was significantly different from that of the control (p<0.05, was detected in products packed in film formulations containing average concentration of green tea extracts and high concentration of colorant. However, it was found that the high content of polyphenols in green tea extract can be acted as a pro-oxidant agent, which suggests that the use of high concentration should be avoided as additives for films. These results support the applicability of a green tea extract and oil palm carotenoics colorant in starch films totally biodegradable and the use of these materials in active packaging of the fatty products.

  19. Antioxidant efficacy of crude methanol extract of ashitaba green tea against radiation induced oxidative stress in E.coli K12 bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darshan Raj, C.G.; Sindhu Priya, E.S.; Sarojini, B.K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity of methanol crude extract of ashitaba green tea (G). The DPPH scavenging assay was evaluated for green tea extract to determine its radical scavenging capacity. The bacteria was pretreated with ashitaba green tea extract, quercetin (Q) and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate (E) at below MIC level. Oxidative stress was induced at 0.4 Gy using gamma radiation. The antioxidant efficacy of ashitaba green tea was evaluated through enzyme antioxidant studies like SOD (Superoxidedismutase) and CAT (Catalase). The oxidative stress marker Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) was also evaluated. Further the protective efficacy of the(G) was confirmed by colony forming units (CFU) study. Among the tested compounds the crude extract of ashitaba (G) exhibited excellent antioxidant activity in comparison with quercetin and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate. (abstract)

  20. Fermented green tea extract alleviates obesity and related complications and alters gut microbiota composition in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dae-Bang; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Cho, Donghyun; Lee, Bum Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Choi, Jae Young; Bae, Il-Hong; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure and accumulation of excess lipids in adipose tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that green tea and its processed products (e.g., oolong and black tea) are introduced to exert beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. Here, we propose that fermented green tea (FGT) extract, as a novel processed green tea, exhibits antiobesity effects. FGT reduced body weight gain and fat mass without modifying food intake. mRNA expression levels of lipogenic and inflammatory genes were downregulated in white adipose tissue of FGT-administered mice. FGT treatment alleviated glucose intolerance and fatty liver symptoms, common complications of obesity. Notably, FGT restored the changes in gut microbiota composition (e.g., the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and Bacteroides/Prevotella ratios), which is reported to be closely related with the development of obesity and insulin resistance, induced by high-fat diets. Collectively, FGT improves obesity and its associated symptoms and modulates composition of gut microbiota; thus, it could be used as a novel dietary component to control obesity and related symptoms.

  1. Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-09-01

    Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Development of an active food packaging system with antioxidant properties based on green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gullo, Giuseppe; Bosetti, Osvaldo; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A formula including green tea extract (GTE) was developed as an active food packaging material. This formula was moulded to obtain an independent component/device with antioxidant properties that could be easily coupled to industrial degassing valves for food packaging in special cases. GTE components (i.e., gallic acid, catechins and caffeine) were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV and UPLC-MS and migration/diffusion studies were carried out. Antioxidant properties of the formula alone and formula-valve were measured with static and dynamic methods. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity (scavenging of free radicals) of the new GTE formula was 40% higher than the non-active system (blank). This antioxidant activity increased in parallel with the GTE concentration. The functional properties of the industrial target valve (e.g., flexibility) were studied for different mixtures of GTE, and good results were found with 17% (w/w) of GTE. This new active formula can be an important addition for active packaging applications in the food packaging industry, with oxidative species-scavenging capacity, thus improving the safety and quality for the consumer and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food.

  3. Green tea extract selectively targets nanomechanics of live metastatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, Sarah E; Gimzewski, James K; Jin Yusheng; Lu Qingyi; Rao Jianyu

    2011-01-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) is known to be a potential anticancer agent (Yang et al 2009 Nat. Rev. Cancer 9 429-39) with various biological activities (Lu et al 2005 Clin. Cancer Res. 11 1675-83; Yang et al 1998 Carcinogenesis 19 611-6) yet the precise mechanism of action is still unclear. The biomechanical response of GTE treated cells taken directly from patient's body samples was measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Binnig et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930). We found significant increase in stiffness of GTE treated metastatic tumor cells, with a resulting value similar to untreated normal mesothelial cells, whereas mesothelial cell stiffness after GTE treatment is unchanged. Immunofluorescence analysis showed an increase in cytoskeletal-F-actin in GTE treated tumor cells, suggesting GTE treated tumor cells display mechanical, structural and morphological features similar to normal cells, which appears to be mediated by annexin-I expression, as determined by siRNA analysis of an in vitro cell line model. Our data indicates that GTE selectively targets human metastatic cancer cells but not normal mesothelial cells, a finding that is significantly advantageous compared to conventional chemotherapy agents.

  4. Antioxidant activity of Green tea extract against Isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis continues to be a common health problem worldwide. Isoniazid, an antibiotic used routinely for tuberculosis chemotherapy is documented to be a potent hepatotoxicant. The aim of the present study was to assess the antioxidant activity of Green tea extract (GTE against Isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in the rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 animals each including 1- normal healthy control rats, 2- healthy rats receiving (GTE 3- toxicant control, and 4- toxicant drug+ GTE treatment group. In groups 2 and 4 GTE (1.5%, w/v was given as only source of drinking for 8 weeks. In the midst stage of experiment (4th and 5th weeks, Isonizid (50 mg/kg b.w./day, i.p. was administrated for groups 3 and 4 for a period of 2 weeks. At the end of experiment, product of lipid peroxidation (MDA, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and glutathione reductase (GR were assayed in liver homogenates to evaluate antioxidant activity. Significant differences among the groups were determined by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p

  5. Effects of Green Tea Extracts on the Pharmacokinetics of Quetiapine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Ezzeldin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic, used clinically in the treatment of schizophrenia, acute mania in bipolar disorders, and bipolar depression in adults. In this study, the effect of green tea extracts (GTE on the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine (substrate of CYP3A4 was investigated in rats. Male Wistar albino rats received GTE (175 mg/kg or saline (control by oral gavage for 7 days before a single intragastric administration of 25 mg/kg quetiapine. Plasma concentrations of quetiapine were measured up to 12 h after its administration by a validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Pretreatment with GTE produced significant reductions in the maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve of quetiapine by 45% and 35%, respectively, compared to quetiapine alone. However, GTE did not produce significant change in elimination half-life and oral clearance of quetiapine. This study concluded that GTE may decrease the bioavailability of quetiapine when coadministered.

  6. Electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/green tea extract composite nanofiber mats and their antioxidant activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusporini, Pusporini; Edikresnha, Dhewa; Sriyanti, Ida; Suciati, Tri; Miftahul Munir, Muhammad; Khairurrijal, Khairurrijal

    2018-05-01

    Electrospinning was employed to make PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone)/GTE (green tea extract) composite nanofiber mats. The electrospun PVP nanofiber mat as well as the PVP/GTE nanofiber mats were uniform. The average fiber diameter of PVP/GTE composite nanofiber mat decreased with increasing the GTE weight fraction (or decreasing the PVP weight fraction) in the PVP/GTE solution because the PVP/GTE solution concentration decreased. Then, the broad FTIR peak representing the stretching vibrations of O–H in hydroxyl groups of phenols and the stretching of N–H in amine groups of the GTE paste shifted to higher wavenumbers in the PVP/GTE composite nanofiber mats. These peak shifts implied that PVP and catechins of GTE in the PVP/GTE composite nanofiber mats had intermolecular interactions via hydrogen bonds between carbonyl groups of PVP and hydroxyl groups of catechins in GTE. Lastly, the antioxidant activity of the PVP/GTE composite nanofiber mat increased with reducing the average fiber diameter because the amount of catechins in the composite nanofiber mat increased with the increase of surface area due to the reduction of the average fiber diameter.

  7. Study of Pre and Post Supplementation Green Tea Extracts to MDA Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Goenawan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High intensity exercise (HI induces oxidative stress. Running for 2400 meters is one of the simple exercise form which can be counted as HI. During HI, increase of oxygen consumption happened in muscle cell resulted in an increase of oxidant level. The aim of the study was to measure the effects of Indonesian green tea supplementation, before and after HI to the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARSMalonyldialdehyde (MDA. The subjects of study were 42 male students from Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran (FMUP and Faculty of Physical Exercise, Indonesia University of Education (FPOK-UPI. The subjects were divided into trained and untrained subject. Subjects were divided into groups using Astrand Harvard step test. The purpose of this test was measuring the level of VO2 max. Blood samples for MDA level were collected at 3 hours before and after high intensity aerobic exercise. Oxidative stress was induced by 2400 meters run. The result showed that green tea supplement-ation was effective to decrease MDA plasma level especially after exercise. Green tea could serve as natural antioxidant resources, which potentially can be used as potential sport supplemental drink.

  8. THE EFFECT OF GREEN TEA EXTRACT - EPIGALLOCATECHIN GALLATE (EGCG ON PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELL

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    Attila Kádasi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to elucidate the potential effect of green tea substance on basic ovarian functions. For this purpose, we examined the action of green tea bioactive molecule, epigallocatechin gallate (given at doses 0, 1, 10, 100 μg/mL, on cultured porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions - proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenesis. Accumulation of PCNA (marker of proliferation, BAX (marker of apoptosis and the release of steroid hormones (progesterone and testosterone were analysed by immunocytochemistry and RIA respectively. It was observed that epigallocatechin gallate addition decreased the percentage of proliferative (PCNA-positive cells at all used doses (1, 10 and 100 μg/mL. The percentage of apoptotic (BAX-positive cells was increased at the highest used dose (100 μg/mL, but not a lower doses. Epigallocatechin gallate stimulated progesterone release (at 10 μg/mL but not at 1 and 100 μg/mL and diminished testosterone release (at 1 μg/mL but not at 10 and 100 μg/mL by porcine granulosa cells. Our results suggest a direct effect of epigallocatechin gallate on proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenesis in porcine ovaries. Taken together, these data suggest that green tea molecule epigallocatechin gallate can negatively affect reproductive (ovarian functions – suppress ovarian cell proliferation, promote their apoptosis and alter release of steroid hormones.

  9. Effect of oral administration of green tea extract in various dosage schemes on oxidative stress status of mice in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bártíková Hana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a favorite beverage and its extracts are popular components of dietary supplements. The aim of the present in vivo study was to obtain detailed information about the effect of a standard green tea extract (Polyphenon, P, at different doses, on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in murine blood, liver, small and large intestine. In all doses, P improved the oxidative stress status via an increased content of plasmatic SH-groups (by 21-67 %. Regarding antioxidant enzymes in tissues, the low dose of P had the best positive effect as it elevated the activity of NADPH quinone reductase in liver and small intestine, thioredoxin reductase in small intestine and hepatic superoxide dismutase. Based on these facts, consumption of green tea seems to be safe and beneficial, while consumption of dietary supplements containing high doses of catechins may disturb oxidative balance by lowering the activity of thioredoxin reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase

  10. In vitro comparison of the effect of Ledermix® paste and green tea extract on the concentration of inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vatanpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of Ledermix® paste and green tea extract on the concentration of inflammatory mediators. Materials and methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, first, the noncytotoxic concentrations of Ledermix® medicament and green tea extract were determined by MTT assay. Afterwards, the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α inflammatory mediators were assessed by ELISA test in the four experimental groups and also in the control group at different time intervals of 2, 24, and 48 hours and after 7 days. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the obtained raw data followed by Tukey's post-hoc test for pair comparisons. Results: the noncytotoxic concentration of green tea extract and Ledermix® paste equaled 12 µg/ml and 0.25 µg/ml, respectively. Time interval had no significant effect on the concentration of the mediators. Generally, both substances significantly decreased the concentration of IL-1β and IL-6 inflammatory mediators in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: Green tea extract is less cytotoxic and more biocompatible than Ledermix® paste. Both Ledermix® paste and green tea extract expressed anti-inflammatory effects.

  11. Diet supplementation with green tea extract epigallocatechin gallate prevents progression to glucose intolerance in db/db mice

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    Ortsäter Henrik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green tea was suggested as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes more than 70 years ago, but the mechanisms behind its antidiabetic effect remains elusive. In this work, we address this issue by feeding a green tea extract (TEAVIGO™ with a high content of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG or the thiazolidinedione PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone, as positive control, to db/db mice, an animal model for diabetes. Methods Young (7 week-old db/db mice were randomized and assigned to receive diets supplemented with or without EGCG or rosiglitazone for 10 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake was measured along the treatment. Glucose and insulin levels were determined during an oral glucose tolerance test after 10 weeks of treatment. Pancreata were sampled at the end of the study for blinded histomorphometric analysis. Islets were isolated and their mRNA expression analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results The results show that, in db/db mice, EGCG improves glucose tolerance and increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. EGCG supplementation reduces the number of pathologically changed islets of Langerhans, increases the number and the size of islets, and heightens pancreatic endocrine area. These effects occurred in parallel with a reduction in islet endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, possibly linked to the antioxidative capacity of EGCG. Conclusions This study shows that the green tea extract EGCG markedly preserves islet structure and enhances glucose tolerance in genetically diabetic mice. Dietary supplementation with EGCG could potentially contribute to nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  12. ANTIOXIDATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEVERAGES MADE FROM A MIXTURE OF LEMONGRASS EXTRACT AND GREEN TEA [Studi Karakteristik Antioksidan Minuman Campuran Ekstrak Serai dan Teh Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremia Manuel Halim*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combination of lemongrass extract and green tea infusion is expected to produce functional beverage that has potential antioxidant activity as compared to individual materials. This research was aimed to investigate the appropriate solvent type and extraction methods to produce lemongrass extract with highest antioxidant activity and also to investigate the antioxidant characteristic of beverages prepared from a mixture of lemongrass extract and green tea. Lemongrass were subjected to extraction under reflux and maceration using three type of solvents (distilled water, ethanol, and ethyl acetate. The resulting extracts were assessed for their total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. Extraction under reflux and using ethanol as solvent resulted in extract with best antioxidant activity (IC50=158.70±47.88 mg/L for reflux method and 103.73±8.03 mg/L for ethanol. This extract was combined with green tea with several ratios (lemongrass extract to green tea [w/w] = 1:3; 1:2; 1:1; 2:1; 3:1. Four level of stevia were used in the beverages (0, 200, 400, 600 ppm. Beverages made with lomogass: tea ratio of 1:3 and 1:1 (w/w and 600 ppm stevia turned out to be beverages with the highest antioxidant activity (IC50=271.83±44.48 mg/L and 287.15±36.25 mg/L for ratio 1:3 and 1:1 [w/w] consecutively, 301.59±80.89 mg/L for stevia level 600 ppm. Hedonic testing on beverages revealed that beverage made from lemongrass: tea ratio 1:1 [w/w] ratio with addition of stevia at 600 ppm is the most preferred based on colour, aroma, and overall acceptance.

  13. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Xiao, Ting T.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results. PMID:26200774

  14. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results.

  15. Biophysical Approach to Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Green Tea Catechins

    OpenAIRE

    Masami Suganuma; Atsushi Takahashi; Tatsuro Watanabe; Keisuke Iida; Takahisa Matsuzaki; Hiroshi Y. Yoshikawa; Hirota Fujiki

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AF...

  16. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Green Tea Polyphenols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity is one of the most popular approaches for treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and others. In the present study, we evaluated inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by different concentrations of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) extract using ...

  17. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Examining the Effects of Green Tea Extract on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamekhi, Z; Amani, R; Habibagahi, Z; Namjoyan, F; Ghadiri, Ata; Saki Malehi, A

    2017-07-01

    Antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory benefit of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in autoimmune disease has been proven in recent studies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of green tea on disease activity and quality of life in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. A randomized controlled trial on subjects with lupus was conducted, and 68 patients in the age range of 39.1 ± 10.3 years and body mass index of 25.7 ± 5.21 kg/m 2 completed the 12-week study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (1000 mg green tea extract, two capsules/day) and control (1000 mg of starch, two capsules/day). Main outcome measure, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity, was assessed by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index at the first and after 3 months of intervention. In addition, patient's quality of life was evaluated by short form of quality-of-life questionnaire at baseline and after 3 months. Green tea extract supplementation significantly reduced disease activity in lupus patients (p tea extracts for 12 weeks improves the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity as well as some aspects of quality of life. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Photoprotective Effect of Tea and its Extracts against Ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure induces photodamage of skin. It is a matter of ... to the skin as well as the photoprotective effects of tea and its extracts have been highlighted. ..... storage of skin cream supplemented with green tea catechins or EGCG ...

  19. Heterocyclic aromatic amine content in chicken burgers and chicken nuggets sold in fast food restaurants and effects of green tea extract and microwave thawing on their formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in chicken burgers (CBs) and chicken nuggets (CNs) purchased from fast food restaurants and the effects of green tea extract addition (GTE) to the covering material as wel...

  20. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Meguro

    Full Text Available Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  1. High-throughput screening of vitamins and natural antioxidants in nutraceuticals from green tea extracts by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Chang, James; Zhang, Feng

    2015-08-07

    A new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 52 vitamins and natural antioxidants in nutraceutical products obtained from green tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts. The automated extraction procedure was achieved in a simple disposable pipet extraction. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The method was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in European SANCO/12571/2013 Guideline 2013 and Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The extraction recoveries were in a range of 84.9-112.7%, with coefficient of variation 0.99. This validated method has been successfully applied on screening of vitamins and natural antioxidants in 136 different commercial nutraceutical products from green tea extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Green tea as a source of food antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Jie

    of green tea catechins and green tea extract were investigated in terms of scavenging efficiency of the food-derived free radicals. The relevant experimental methods were based on electrochemical detection of oxygen consumption, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, Rancimat test and liposome...... induced by free radicals. Moreover, the combinations of green tea catechins and green tea extract with α-tocopherol were found to exert synergistic antioxidant effects in the heterogeneous systems such as o/w emulsions. Secondly, the ability of green tea catechins to reduce the protein radicals generated...... and proteins. Lipid oxidation as well as the Maillard reactions can affect the quality of foods. An efficient way to retard or inhibit both types of reactions can be achieved by utilizing natural antioxidants, which are normally presumed to be safe when the source is plant material, “Generally Recognized...

  3. Effect of Green Tea Extract/Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid Complex in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Cheor Bae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is associated with the rapid spread of obesity. Obesity induces insulin resistance, resulting in β-cell dysfunction and thus T2DM. Green tea extract (GTE has been known to prevent obesity and T2DM, but this effect is still being debated. Our previous results suggested that circulating green tea gallated catechins (GCs hinders postprandial blood glucose lowering, regardless of reducing glucose and cholesterol absorption when GCs are present in the intestinal lumen. This study aimed to compare the effect of GTE with that of GTE coadministered with poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA, which is likely to inhibit the intestinal absorption of GCs.MethodsThe db/db mice and age-matched nondiabetic mice were provided with normal chow diet containing GTE (1%, γ-PGA (0.1%, or GTE+γ-PGA (1%:0.1% for 4 weeks.ResultsIn nondiabetic mice, none of the drugs showed any effects after 4 weeks. In db/db mice, however, weight gain and body fat gain were significantly reduced in the GTE+γ-PGA group compared to nondrug-treated db/db control mice without the corresponding changes in food intake and appetite. Glucose intolerance was also ameliorated in the GTE+γ-PGA group. Histopathological analyses showed that GTE+γ-PGA-treated db/db mice had a significantly reduced incidence of fatty liver and decreased pancreatic islet size. Neither GTE nor γ-PGA treatment showed any significant results.ConclusionThese results suggest that GTE+γ-PGA treatment than GTE or γ-PGA alone may be a useful tool for preventing both obesity and obesity-induced T2DM.

  4. Analytical strategy coupled with response surface methodology to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from ternary mixtures of green, yellow, and red teas (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Daniel; Grevink, Raymond; Zielinski, Acácio A F; Nunes, Domingos S; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2014-10-22

    This work aimed at using a simplex-centroid design to model the effects of green, yellow, and red tea mixtures (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) on metal chelation activity, phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and instrumental taste profile. The regression models that described the extraction of flavan-3-ols, o-diphenols, total phenolic compounds (TPC), free radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), cupric ion reducing antioxidant activity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were significant, and data were fit satisfactorily (R(2) > 80%). A mixture of green and red teas had a synergism in CUPRAC and TPC, whereas a mixture of yellow and red teas had a positive effect on CUPRAC and DPPH. An optimization was performed to maximize the antioxidant activity and flavan-3-ol content and to render a tea with mild bitterness, and results showed that a mixture of 14.81% green, 56.86% yellow, and 28.33% red teas would be the most suitable combination of factors.

  5. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María de la Luz; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents. PMID:25383680

  6. Green synthesis palladium nanoparticles mediated by white tea (Camellia sinensis extract with antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities toward the human leukemia (MOLT-4 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Susan Azizi,1 Mahnaz Mahdavi Shahri,2 Heshu Sulaiman Rahman,3–5 Raha Abdul Rahim,6 Abdullah Rasedee,5 Rosfarizan Mohamad1,7 1Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran; 3College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani Nwe, 4College of Health Science, Komar University of Science and Technology (KUST, Chaq-Chaq Qularaise, Sulaimani City, Iraq; 5Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 6Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, 7Laboratory of Biopolymer and Derivatives, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Among nanoparticles used for medical applications, palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs are among the least investigated. This study was undertaken to develop PdNPs by green synthesis using white tea (W.tea; Camellia sinensis extract to produce the Pd@W.tea NPs. The Pd@W.tea NPs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, and evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The Pd@W.tea NPs were spherical (size 6–18 nm and contained phenols and flavonoids acquired from the W.tea extract. Pd@W.tea NPs has good 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, OH, and NO-scavenging properties as well as antibacterial effects toward Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. MTT assay showed that Pd@W.tea NPs (IC50 =0.006 µM were more antiproliferative toward the human leukemia (MOLT-4 cells than the W.tea extract (IC50 =0.894 µM, doxorubicin (IC50 =2.133 µM, or cisplatin (IC50 =0.013 µM, whereas they were relatively innocuous for normal human fibroblast (HDF-a cells. The anticancer cell effects of Pd@W.tea NPs are mediated through the induction of apoptosis

  7. Elucidation of the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 1.0 M HCl by Catechin Monomers from Commercial Green Tea Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofrizal, S.; Rahim, Afidah A.; Saad, Bahruddin; Bothi Raja, P.; Shah, Affaizza M.; Yahya, S.

    2012-04-01

    The inhibitive action of commercial green tea extracts on mild steel (MS) in a 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed conclusively that of the eight catechin monomers and caffeine found in the original extracts, only four components were responsible for the inhibition of MS. The decreasing adsorption capacity of monomers on MS is related to the stereochemistry of molecules and the number of phenolic groups, and it is as follows: epigallocatechin gallate > epicatechin gallate > epigallocatechin > epicatechin. Adsorption of green tea extract constituent was found to follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the calculated Gibb's free energy values indicated the physisorption of inhibitor over MS surface. Physisorption was supported well by the potential zero charge (PZC) and molecular surface energy-level calculations.

  8. Properties and Antioxidant Action of Actives Cassava Starch Films Incorporated with Green Tea and Palm Oil Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Kátya Karine Nery Carneiro Lins; Conceição, Anderson Carlos de Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Juliana Caribé Pires; Assis, Denilson de Jesus; Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Druzian, Janice Izabel

    2014-01-01

    There is an interest in the development of an antioxidant packaging fully biodegradable to increase the shelf life of food products. An active film from cassava starch bio-based, incorporated with aqueous green tea extract and oil palm colorant was developed packaging. The effects of additives on the film properties were determined by measuring mechanical, barrier and thermal properties using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack butter (maintained for 45 days) under accelerated oxidation conditions. The antioxidant action of the active films was evaluated by analyzing the peroxide index, total carotenoids, and total polyphenol. The same analysis also evaluated unpacked butter, packed in films without additives and butter packed in LDPE films, as controls. The results suggested that incorporation of the antioxidants extracts tensile strength and water vapor barrier properties (15 times lower) compared to control without additives. A lower peroxide index (231.57%), which was significantly different from that of the control (pstarch films totally biodegradable and the use of these materials in active packaging of the fatty products. PMID:25251437

  9. Protective effects of Mengshan green tea and hawk tea against UV-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Ren Zhenglong; Zhang Huaiyu; Tang Zongxiang; Luo Peigao

    2005-01-01

    A group of cultured normal human skin-derived fibroblasts was used as the cell model to investigate protective and repair effects of aqueous extracts of Mengshan green tea and Hawk tea against 320-400 nm UV-ray irradiation, with the methods of MTT colorimetry and LDH release. It was found that the aqueous extracts had strong protective effect on fibroblasts against the UV-rays with dose dependence. There were no significant differences between the two kinds of tea aqueous extracts in a higher concentration of 5 mg/mL, whereas at lower concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 mg/mL the, green tea aqueous extract was less effective than the hawk-tea aqueous extract in protecting fibroblasts from the UV-ray damage. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the green tea and hawk-tea aqueous extract could repair damages induced by the UV irradiation with dose dependence. But there were no statistically significant differences between the two kinds of aqueous extract. The effects may be related to antioxidant effect of tea polyphenol. (authors)

  10. Effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea in reducing the formation of acrylamide during the bread baking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengjie; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Zhou, Weibiao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yutao; Lu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    This is the first study to investigate the extent of reduction in acrylamide formation during baking with the addition of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea, and to determine whether EGCG influences the texture and colour attributes of bread, or interacts with other ingredients. EGCG powders were added to white bread formulations at the concentrations of 3.3, 6.6 and 9.9g·kg -1 . The amount of acrylamide in the bread was analysed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. EGCG addition significantly reduced the acrylamide formation by 37% compared to the control and decreased the moisture content of the bread by 6%. It did not affect its texture attribute, but increased the lightness and the yellowness and decreased the redness of bread crust (with contrasting results in crumb). It also decreased granule size and porosity. In conclusion, EGCG fortification is a feasible method to decrease acrylamide formation in baked bread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Gelatin-Based Edible Coatings Incorporated with Aloe vera and Black and Green Tea Extracts on the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Oranges

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    Mohsen Radi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gelatin coating incorporated with Aloe vera gel (50,100% and green and black tea extracts (5,10% on physicochemical, microbial, and sensorial properties of fresh-cut oranges at 4°C for 17 days. Significant differences in terms of quality parameters were observed between the control and coated fresh-cut oranges. The highest variation of quality parameters was observed in control, while the least variations were observed in coated slices with 100% Aloe vera and 10% green tea extract. The weight loss was increased with time, but the coating treatment especially with 100% Aloe vera had significant effect on the prevention of weight loss. Also, Aloe vera coated samples obtained the highest score in sensory evaluation. Coating with gelatin incorporated with Aloe vera and green tea extracts successfully retarded the microbial growth and therefore extended the shelf life of fresh-cut oranges during cold storage.

  12. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  13. Protective effects of rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis ), green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the modulation of oxidative stress by an indigenous herbal tea, rooibos, Chinese green tea and commercial rooibos and green tea supplements in rat testicular tissue. Male Wistar rats (n = 60) were fed with either fermented rooibos, “green” rooibos, Chinese green tea, commercial rooibos or green tea ...

  14. Effect of steeping temperature on antioxidant and inhibitory activities of green tea extracts against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and intestinal glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyuan; Ai, Zeyi; Qu, Fengfeng; Chen, Yuqiong; Ni, Dejiang

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of steeping temperature on the biological activities of green tea, including the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities, and glucose uptake inhibitory activity in Caco-2 cells. Results showed that, with increasing extraction temperature, the polyphenol content increased, which contributed to enhance antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Green tea steeped at 100°C showed the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities with EC 50 or IC 50 values of 6.15μg/mL, 0.09mg/mL, and 6.31mg/mL, respectively. However, the inhibitory potential on glucose uptake did not show an upward trend with increasing extraction temperature. Green tea steeped at 60°C had significantly stronger glucose uptake inhibitory activity (ptea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolomics-Driven Nutraceutical Evaluation of Diverse Green Tea Cultivars

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    Ida, Megumi; Kosaka, Reia; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nesumi, Atsushi; Saito, Takeshi; Kanda, Tomomasa; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Background Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity) of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6) and Sunrouge (SR) strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive extract

  16. Green tea extracts ameliorate high-fat diet-induced muscle atrophy in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Shintaro; Ishino, Mayu; Kitazawa, Hidefumi; Yoto, Ai; Shimba, Yuki; Mochizuki, Yusuke; Unno, Keiko; Meguro, Shinichi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Miura, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    Muscle atrophy (loss of skeletal muscle mass) causes progressive deterioration of skeletal function. Recently, excessive intake of fats was suggested to induce insulin resistance, followed by muscle atrophy. Green tea extracts (GTEs), which contain polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate, have beneficial effects on obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, but their effects against muscle atrophy are still unclear. Here, we found that GTEs prevented high-fat (HF) diet-induced muscle weight loss in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8), a murine model of senescence. SAMP8 mice were fed a control diet, an HF diet, or HF with 0.5% GTEs (HFGT) diet for 4 months. The HF diet induced muscle weight loss with aging (measured as quadriceps muscle weight), whereas GTEs prevented this loss. In HF diet-fed mice, blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations increased in comparison with the control group, and these mice had insulin resistance as determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). In these mice, serum concentrations of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), which is known to induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, were elevated, and insulin signaling in muscle, as determined by the phosphorylation levels of Akt and p70 S6 kinases, tended to be decreased. In HFGT diet-fed mice, these signs of insulin resistance and elevation of serum LECT2 were not observed. Although our study did not directly show the effect of serum LECT2 on muscle weight, insulin resistance examined using HOMA-IR indicated an intervention effect of serum LECT2 on muscle weight, as revealed by partial correlation analysis. Accordingly, GTEs might have beneficial effects on age-related and HF diet-induced muscle weight loss, which correlates with insulin resistance and is accompanied by a change in serum LECT2.

  17. Green tea extract suppresses adiposity and affects the expression of lipid metabolism genes in diet-induced obese zebrafish

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    Hasumura Takahiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral fat accumulation is one of the most important predictors of mortality in obese populations. Administration of green tea extract (GTE can reduce body fat and reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases in mammals. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of GTE on adiposity in diet-induced obese (DIO zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish at 3.5 to 4.5 months post-fertilization were allocated to four groups: non-DIO, DIO, DIO + 0.0025%GTE, and DIO + 0.0050%GTE. The non-DIO group was fed freshly hatched Artemia once daily (5 mg cysts/fish daily for 40 days. Zebrafish in the three DIO groups were fed freshly hatched Artemia three times daily (60 mg cysts/fish daily. Zebrafish in the DIO + 0.0025%GTE and DIO + 0.0050%GTE groups were exposed to GTE after the start of feeding three times daily for 40 days. Results Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography analysis showed that GTE exposure significantly decreased the volume of visceral but not subcutaneous fat tissue in DIO zebrafish. GTE exposure increased hepatic expression of the lipid catabolism genes ACOX1 (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl, ACADM (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, c-4 to c-12 straight chain, and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. GTE exposure also significantly decreased the visceral fat expression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3b which inhibits leptin signaling. Conclusions The present results are consistent with those seen in mammals treated with GTE, supporting the validity of studying the effects of GTE in DIO zebrafish. Our results suggest that GTE exerts beneficial effects on adiposity, possibly by altering the expression of lipid catabolism genes and SOCS3.

  18. Evaluation of γ-radiation on green tea odor volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, G.B.; Duarte, R.C.; Araujo, M.M.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on green tea odor volatiles in green tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The green tea had a large influence on radiation effects, increasing the identified volatiles in relation to control samples. The dose of 10 kGy was responsible to form the majority of new odor compounds following by 5 and 20 kGy. However, the dose of 5 kGy was the dose that degraded the majority of volatiles in non-irradiated samples, following by 20 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy showed has no effect on odor volatiles. The gamma radiation, at dose up to 20 kGy, showed statistically no difference between irradiated and non irradiated green tea on odors compounds.

  19. Fabrication, physicochemical characterization and preliminary efficacy evaluation of a W/O/W multiple emulsion loaded with 5% green tea extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Mahmood

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex multiple emulsions have an excellent ability to fill large volumes of functional cosmetic agents. This study was aimed to encapsulate large volume of green tea in classical multiple emulsion and to compare its stability with a multiple emulsion without green tea extract. Multiple emulsions were developed using Cetyl dimethicone copolyol as lipophilic emulsifier and classic polysorbate-80 as hydrophilic emulsifier. Multiple emulsions were evaluated for various physicochemical aspects like conductivity, pH, microscopic analysis, rheology and these characteristics were followed for a period of 30 days in different storage conditions. In vitro and in vivo skin protection tests were also performed for both kinds of multiple emulsions i.e. with active (MeA and without active (MeB. Both formulations showed comparable characteristics regarding various physicochemical characteristics in different storage conditions. Rheological analysis showed that formulations showed pseudo plastic behavior upon continuous shear stress. Results of in vitro and in vivo skin protection data have revealed that the active formulation has comparable skin protection effects to that of control formulation. It was presumed that stable multiple emulsions could be a promising choice for topical application of green tea but multiple emulsions presented in this study need improvement in the formula, concluded on the basis of pH, conductivity and apparent viscosity data.

  20. Physical properties of Gelidium corneum-gelatin blend films containing grapefruit seed extract or green tea extract and its application in the packaging of pork loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y-H; Lim, G-O; Song, K B

    2009-01-01

    Edible Gelidium corneum-gelatin (GCG) blend films containing grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) or green tea extract (GTE) were manufactured, and the quality of pork loins packed with the film during storage was determined. Tensile strength (TS) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films containing GFSE or GTE were better than those of the control. The film's antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes increased with increasing antimicrobial concentration, resulting in a decrease in the populations of bacteria by 0.77 to 2.08 and 0.91 to 3.30 log CFU/g, respectively. Pork loin samples were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. The samples packed with the GCG film containing GFSE (0.08%) or GTE (2.80%) had a decrease in the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes of 0.69 to 1.11 and 1.05 to 1.14 log CFU/g, respectively, compared to the control after 4 d of storage. The results showed that the quality of pork loins during storage could be improved by packaging them with the GCG film containing GFSE or GTE.

  1. Effect of green tea extract on bonding durability of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to caries-affected dentin

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    Carolina CARVALHO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Green tea extract has been advocated as a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP inhibitor; however, its effect on bond durability to caries-affected dentin has never been reported. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two MMP inhibitors (2% chlorhexidine and 2% green tea extract, applied after acid etching, on bond durability of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to caries-affected dentin. Material and Methods Occlusal enamel was removed from third molars to expose the dentin surface, and the molars were submitted to a caries induction protocol for 15 days. After removal of infected dentin, specimens were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid (15 seconds and randomly divided into three groups, according to the type of dentin pretreatment (n=10: NT: no treatment; GT: 2% green tea extract; CLX: 2% chlorhexidine. The etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions, and composite resin restorations were built on the dentin. After 24 hours, at 37°C, the resin-tooth blocks were sectioned perpendicularly to the adhesive interface in the form of sticks (0.8 mm2 of adhesive area and randomly subdivided into two groups according to when they were to be submitted to microtensile bond strength (μTBS testing: immediately or 6 months after storage in distilled water. Data were reported in MPa and submitted to two-way ANOVA for completely randomized blocks, followed by Tukey’s test (α=0.05. Results After 24 hours, there was no significant difference in the μTBS of the groups. After 6 months, the GT group had significantly higher μTBS values. Conclusion It was concluded that the application of 2% green tea extract was able to increase bond durability of the etch-and-rinse system to dentin. Neither the application of chlorhexidine nor non-treatment (NT - control had any effect on bond strength after water storage.

  2. Green tea extract does not affect exogenous glucose appearance but reduces insulinemia with glucose ingestion in exercise recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian J; McGlory, Chris; MacInnis, Martin J; Allison, Mary K; Phillips, Stuart M; Gibala, Martin J

    2016-12-01

    We reported that supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) lowered the glycemic response to an oral glucose load following exercise, but via an unknown mechanism (Martin BJ, MacInnis MJ, Gillen JB, Skelly LE, Gibala MJ. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 41: 1057-1063, 2016. Here we examined the effect of supplementation with GTE on plasma glucose kinetics on ingestion of a glucose beverage during exercise recovery. Eleven healthy, sedentary men (21 ± 2 yr old; body mass index = 23 ± 4 kg/m 2 , peak O 2 uptake = 38 ± 7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; means ± SD) ingested GTE (350 mg) or placebo (PLA) thrice daily for 7 days in a double-blind, crossover design. In the fasted state, a primed constant infusion of [U- 13 C 6 ]glucose was started, and 1 h later, subjects performed a graded exercise test (25 W/3 min) on a cycle ergometer. Immediately postexercise, subjects ingested a 75-g glucose beverage containing 2 g of [6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose, and blood samples were collected every 10 min for 3 h of recovery. The rate of carbohydrate oxidation was lower during exercise after GTE vs. PLA (1.26 ± 0.34 vs. 1.48 ± 0.51 g/min, P = 0.04). Glucose area under the curve (AUC) was not different between treatments after drink ingestion (GTE = 1,067 ± 133 vs. PLA = 1,052 ± 91 mM/180 min, P = 0.91). Insulin AUC was lower after GTE vs. PLA (5,673 ± 2,153 vs. 7,039 ± 2,588 µIU/180 min, P = 0.05), despite similar rates of glucose appearance (GTE = 0.42 ± 0.16 vs. PLA = 0.43 ± 0.13 g/min, P = 0.74) and disappearance (GTE = 0.43 ± 0.14 vs. PLA = 0.44 ± 0.14 g/min, P = 0.57). We conclude that short-term GTE supplementation did not affect glucose kinetics following ingestion of an oral glucose load postexercise; however, GTE was associated with attenuated insulinemia. These findings suggest GTE lowers the insulin required for a given glucose load during postexercise recovery, which warrants further mechanistic studies in humans. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. THE EFFECT OF GREEN TEA LEAF EXTRACT ON SPATIAL MEMORY FUNCTION AND SUPEROXYDE DISMUTASE ENZYME ACTIVITY IN MICE WITH D-GALACTOSE INDUCED DIMENTIA

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    Ainun Rahmasari Gumay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in pathogenesis of brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer. Green tea has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotective activity. Objectives: to determine the effect of green tea extract on spatial memory function and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity in mice with D-galactose induced dementia Methods: An experimental study using "post test only control group design". Twenty male BALB/c Mice aged 6-8 weeks were divided into 4 groups. Negative control group (NG was induced by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (150 mg/kg BW once daily for 6 weeks. GT-90, GT-270, GT-540 were induced by D-galactose and orally administered with 90, 270, and 540 mg/kg BW of green tea extract once daily for 6 weeks. The spatial memory functions were assessed using Morris water maze and SOD enzyme activities were evaluated using ELISA. One-way Anova and Kruskal-Wallis were used for statistical analysis.  Results: mean percentage of latency time in the GT-90 (35.29 (SD= 2.69%, GT-270 (35.28 (SD= 2.62%, and GT-540 (35.62 (SD=5.05% were significantly higher compared to that of NG (20.38 (SD = 3.21%, p <0.05. SOD enzyme activity in the GT-270 (0.78 (SD = 0.07 U/ml was significantly higher compared to that of NG (0.51 (SD = 0.01 U ml, p= 0.004. Conclusion: Green tea extract may improve spatial memory function and the activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme in mice with D-galactose induced dementia.

  4. Characterization of Black and Green Tea from Local Market

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    Sonia Ancuta Socaci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves from Camellia sinensis are used from ancient times for preparation of tea but also as raw material for different extracts which are used in food industry as well as in pharmaceutical or cosmetic products. Due to the increasing interest in tea health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize several brands of green and black tea found on local market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed through the evaluation of free radical scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The results obtained for the green and black tea samples varied widely, depending on the tea variety. The antioxidant capacity of the analyzed teas ranged between 12.10 and 40.03%RSA, while the total phenolic content was within 2090 and 6080 mg GA/ 100g. The concentrantion in flavonoids was between 9.04 and 15.34 g/100g of tea.

  5. The effect of green tea and olive oil on the mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines extracted from common food consumed in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awney, Hala

    2011-05-01

    The effect of green tea (GT) and green tea with olive oil (GT+OL) as antioxidants on the formation and mutagenic activity of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) extracted from beef shawerma, grilled chicken and fried beef liver was examined. HCAs were extracted by blue rayon, analyzed as spiked and unspiked samples with high-performance liquid chromatography and its mutagenic response was assessed by Sallmonela typhimurium 100 in the Ames test. Surprisingly, GT and GT+OL augmented HCAs measured in beef shawerma and grilled chicken but total HCAs measured in GT+OL were less than GT treatment. Both treatments altered the HCA profile as imidazoquinoline type became the most abundant. In control and GT+OL fried beef liver no HCAs were detected, but Trp-P1 was detected in GT treatment. Generally, the mutagenic response of HCAs measured in GT+OL was less than GT in beef shawerma and grilled chicken. However, the mutagenic response of control and 2% GT+OL fried liver was negative. These data suggest that GT concentrations used in this study may induce free radical formation during the Millared reaction due to its pro-oxidative effect, which augmented the HCAs formed and its mutagenic response. In order to optimize both safety and quality of our diets, more need to be done to fully understand the risk of HCAs in food.

  6. Comparing the effect of aqueous extract of green tea and catechin on gonadotropins, β-estradiol, Progesterone, testosterone and ovarian follicle in polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model

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    Sayed Damoon Sadoughi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Compared with green tea, catechin has a more favorable effect on improving hormonal parameters, especially FSH hormone and increasing the number of ovarian follicles in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  7. Biophysical Approach to Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Green Tea Catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Masami; Takahashi, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Iida, Keisuke; Matsuzaki, Takahisa; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y; Fujiki, Hirota

    2016-11-18

    Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and microfluidic optical stretcher. Specifically, determination of biophysical properties of cancer cells, low cell stiffness, and high deformability in relation to migration, along with biophysical effects, were studied by treatment with green tea catechins. The study with AFM revealed that low average values of Young's moduli, indicating low cell stiffness, are closely associated with strong potential of cell migration and metastasis for various cancer cells. It is important to note that treatments with EGCG and green tea extract elevated the average values of Young's moduli resulting in increased stiffness (large elasticity) of melanomas and various cancer cells. We discuss here the biophysical basis of multifunctions of green tea catechins and green tea extract leading to beneficial effects for cancer prevention and treatment.

  8. Biophysical Approach to Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Green Tea Catechins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Suganuma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AFM and microfluidic optical stretcher. Specifically, determination of biophysical properties of cancer cells, low cell stiffness, and high deformability in relation to migration, along with biophysical effects, were studied by treatment with green tea catechins. The study with AFM revealed that low average values of Young’s moduli, indicating low cell stiffness, are closely associated with strong potential of cell migration and metastasis for various cancer cells. It is important to note that treatments with EGCG and green tea extract elevated the average values of Young’s moduli resulting in increased stiffness (large elasticity of melanomas and various cancer cells. We discuss here the biophysical basis of multifunctions of green tea catechins and green tea extract leading to beneficial effects for cancer prevention and treatment.

  9. Green Tea Antioxidative Potential in Irradiated Pregnant Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafy, Y.A.; Roushdy, H.ML.; Ashry, O.M.; Salama, S.F.; Abdel-Haliem, M.; Mossad, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Green tea (Gt) derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis contains polyphenolic compounds, also known as epicatechins, which are antioxidants in nature. This study aims to evaluate the possible anti oxidative potential of 2 concentrations of green tea extract in pregnant rats exposed to fractionated 3 Gy gamma irradiation of 1Gy installments at the 7 th, 11 th and 15 th days of gestation. Total and absolute white blood cells count, red blood cells count, hematocrit value, hemoglobin content and blood indices as well as glutathione were significantly decreased by irradiation at the end of the gestation period. Lipid peroxidation, serum lipid profile (total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol cone.) were elevated. Serum Na+ decreased and K+ ions elevated. Results revealed significant protection by both green tea cone, to counts of RBCs, WBCs, Hg, Ht, as well as lymphocytes and monocytes. Glutathione decreased with both green tea cone, and dropped further with both treatments. Lipid peroxidation and lipid profile were depressed. Moreover, Na+ and K+ levels were significantly ameliorated by both green tea cone., which suggests its applicability as an effective radioprotector. The steadily increasing use of nuclear and radiation technology extended to different fields, which has been paralleled by increasing potential risk for radiation exposure (Kajioka et al, 2000). The low-level radioactivity by environmental, medical and occupational settings has been found to cause several kinds of health damage including premature births, congenital defects, infant mortality, mental retardation, heart ailments, allergies/asthma, cancer, genetic damage and chronic fatigue syndrome (Sternglass, 1986)

  10. Effect of Green Tea Extract as Antioxidant on Shear Bond Strength of Resin Composite to in-Office and Home-Bleached Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharafeddin F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Shear bond strength (SBS of home and office bleached enamel will be compromised by immediate application of composite restoration. Antioxidant agent may overcome this problem. Objectives: This in vitro study assessed the effect of green tea extract on shear bond strength of resin composite to in-office and home-bleached enamel. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 extracted intact human incisors were embedded in cylindrical acrylic resin blocks (2.5 ×1.5 cm, with the coronal portion above the cemento enamel junction out of the block. Then, after bleaching labial enamel surfaces of 20 teeth with 15% carbamide peroxide 6 hours a day for 5 days, they were randomly divided into two groups: A1 and A2 (n = 10, depending upon whether or not they are treated with antioxidant. Labial enamel surfaces of the remaining 20 teeth were bleached with 38% hydrogen peroxide before being randomly divided into groups B1 and B2 (n = 10, again depending on whether or not the antioxidant was used in their treatment . The experimental groups (A2,B2 were treated with 5% solution of green tea extract before resin composite restoration was done by a cylindrical Teflon mould (5×2 mm. Shear bond strength of the specimens was tested under a universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020. The SBS data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (p < 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between shear bond strength of the control group (A1 and treated group (A2 but there were statistically significant differences between the groups B1 and B2 (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Application of antioxidant did not increase the shear bond strength of home-bleached enamel to resin composite but its application increased the shear bond strength of in-office bleached enamel to resin composite.

  11. Effect of green tea phytochemicals on mood and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Background: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea

  12. [Identification of green tea brand based on hyperspectra imaging technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Liang; Liu, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Feng-Le; He, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technology was developed to identify different brand famous green tea based on PCA information and image information fusion. First 512 spectral images of six brands of famous green tea in the 380 approximately 1 023 nm wavelength range were collected and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed with the goal of selecting two characteristic bands (545 and 611 nm) that could potentially be used for classification system. Then, 12 gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features (i. e., mean, covariance, homogeneity, energy, contrast, correlation, entropy, inverse gap, contrast, difference from the second-order and autocorrelation) based on the statistical moment were extracted from each characteristic band image. Finally, integration of the 12 texture features and three PCA spectral characteristics for each green tea sample were extracted as the input of LS-SVM. Experimental results showed that discriminating rate was 100% in the prediction set. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) assessment methods were used to evaluate the LS-SVM classification algorithm. Overall results sufficiently demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging technology can be used to perform classification of green tea.

  13. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj P Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb.

  14. Bioavailability and activity of phytosome complexes from botanical polyphenols: the silymarin, curcumin, green tea, and grape seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Parris M

    2009-09-01

    Plant-derived polyphenols are increasingly receiving attention as dietary supplements for the homeostatic management of inflammation, to support detoxication, and for anticancer, weight loss, and other benefits. Their pro-homeostatic effects on genes, transcription factors, enzymes, and cell signaling pathways are being intensively explored, but the poor bioavailability of some polyphenols likely contributes to poor clinical trial outcomes. This review covers four polyphenol preparations with poor bioavailability and their complexation into phytosomes to bypass this problem. Silybin and the other silymarin flavonolignans from milk thistle conserve tissue glutathione, are liver-protective, and have anticancer potential. Curcumin and its related diphenolic curcuminoids have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties. The green tea flavan-3-ol catechins have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio- and neuro-protective effects, and anti-carcinogenic benefits, with fat oxidation effects coupled to weight loss. The complex grape seed proanthocyanidin mix (including catechin and epicatechin monomers and oligomers) counters oxidative stress and protects the circulatory system. For each of these preparations, conversion into phytosomes has improved efficacy without compromising safety. The phytosome technology creates intermolecular bonding between individual polyphenol molecules and one or more molecules of the phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC). Molecular imaging suggests that PC molecule(s) enwrap each polyphenol; upon oral intake the amphipathic PC molecules likely usher the polyphenol through the intestinal epithelial cell outer membrane, subsequently accessing the bloodstream. PC itself has proven clinical efficacy that contributes to phytosome in vivo actions. As a molecular delivery vehicle, phytosome technology substantially improves the clinical applicabilities of polyphenols and other poorly absorbed plant medicinals.

  15. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  16. Antimicrobial activities of tapioca starch/decolorized hsian-tsao leaf gum coatings containing green tea extracts in fruit-based salads, romaine hearts and pork slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po-En; Lai, Lih-Shiuh

    2010-04-30

    The antimicrobial activities of edible coatings based on a tapioca starch/decolorized hsian-tsao leaf gum (dHG) matrix with various green tea extracts (GTEs) were evaluated. Its effect on the shelf-life extension of fruit-based salads, romaine hearts, and pork slices were investigated as well. Three types of GTEs from hot water (80 degrees C) (W), 40% (E4) and 80% (E8) ethanol were prepared. It was found that all GTEs showed pronounced inhibition on Gram positive bacteria in agar media, including Staphylococcus aureus BCRC 10781, Bacillus cereus BCRC 11778 and Listeria monocytogenes BCRC 14848, but not on Gram negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli DH10beta and Salmonella enteria BCRC 10747. The antimicrobial activities increased with increasing GTEs concentration (1, 2 and 5%), but did not differentiate significantly in terms of the effect of extraction solvents. When various GTEs (1%) were added to an edible coating formulation based on 1.35% tapioca starch +0.15% dHG +0.225% glycerol, pronounced antimicrobial activity on Gram positive bacteria was also observed as evaluated by using cylinder diffusion and antimicrobial migration tests. It was believed that the active compounds in green tea extracts could leave the coating matrix and migrate to increase the non-growth area. When being sprayed on various real food models, all tapioca starch/dHG coatings containing GTEs could successfully reduce the aerobic counting and growth of yeasts/molds by 1 to 2 log cycles in fruit-based salads, as compared to the control sample. Furthermore, during refrigerated storage of romaine hearts and pork slices for 48h, tapioca starch/dHG coatings with E4 extracts demonstrated pronounced antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (4-6 log cycles reduction), followed by W extracts and E8 extracts in a decreasing order. Such results implied the high efficacy of antimicrobial migration of tapioca starch/dHG coatings containing GTEs and their application potentials on

  17. Green tea yogurt: major phenolic compounds and microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirdivani, Shabboo; Baba, Ahmad Salihin Hj

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fermentation of milk in the presence of green tea (Camellia sinensis) with respect to changes in antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Pasteurized full fat cow's milk and starter culture were incubated at 41 °C in the presence of two different types of green tea extracts. The yogurts formed were refrigerated (4 °C) for further analysis. The total phenolic content was highest (p yogurt (MGT) followed by steam-treated green tea (JGT) and plain yogurts. Four major compounds in MGTY and JGTY were detected. The highest concentration of major phenolic compounds in both samples was related to quercetin-rhamnosylgalactoside and quercetin-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnosyl-glucoside for MGTY and JGTY respectively during first 7 day of storage. Diphenyl picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods showed highest antioxidant capacity in MGTY, JGTY and PY. Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus spp. were highest in MGTY followed by JGTY and PY. This paper evaluates the implementation of green tea yogurt as a new product with functional properties and valuable component to promote the growth of beneficial yogurt bacteria and prevention of oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  18. The anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Tianyi; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang; Xie, Tianpei; Xu, Jifeng; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping

    2017-10-15

    Tea includes puer tea, black tea, green tea and many others. By using model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract were systemically examined in this study. We found that water extract of puer tea, black tea and green tea all increased the lifespan of worms, postponed Aβ-induced progressive paralysis in Alzheimer's disease transgenic worms, and improved the tolerance of worms to the oxidative stress induced by heavy metal Cr 6+ . Moreover, the anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract at low concentration were different among 4 kinds of brands of green tea. The underlying mechanisms were further explored using genetically manipulated-mutant worms. The anti-oxidative stress effects of green tea water extract depend on the dietary restriction and germline signaling pathways, but not the FOXO and mitochondrial respiratory chain signals. Therefore, tea water extract provides benefits of anti-aging, anti-AD and anti-oxidation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an

  20. Antiviral effects of green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) against pathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tea is the second most addictive worldwide after formulations containing caffeine in carbonated beverage. Green tea is made from leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. In the repertoire of traditional Chinese medicine, green tea beverages have played a fundamental role associated with their culture.

  1. Antioxidant effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, E J J; Sathiyaraj, P; Deena, T; Kumar, D S

    2015-01-01

    Extract from Green Tea (GTE) acts as an antioxidant in acrylamide based polymer gel dosimeter. In this work, PAGAT gel was used for investigation of antioxidant effect of GTE.PAGAT was called PAGTEG (Polyacrylamide green tea extract gel dosimeter) after adding GTE. Free radicals in water cause pre polymerization of polymer gel before irradiation. Polyphenols from GTE are highly effective to absorb the free radicals in water. THPC is used as an antioxidant in polymer gel dosimeter but here we were replaced it by GTE and investigated its effect by spectrophotometer. GTE added PAGAT samples response was lower compared to THPC added sample. To increase the sensitivity of the PAGTEG, sugar was added. This study confirmed that THPC was a good antioxidant for polymer gel dosimeter. However, GTE also can be used as an antioxidant in polymer gel if use less quantity (GTE) and add sugar as sensitivity enhancer

  2. Analytical Strategy Coupled with Response Surface Methodology To Maximize the Extraction of Antioxidants from Ternary Mixtures of Green, Yellow, and Red Teas (Camillia sinensis var. Sinensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, D.; Grevink, R.; Zielinski, R.; Nunes, D.S.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed at using a simplex-centroid design to model the effects of green, yellow, and red tea mixtures (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) on metal chelation activity, phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and instrumental taste profile. The regression models that described the

  3. Interaction of green tea polyphenols with dairy matrices in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Azimy, Naheed; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of polyphenols in green tea has been associated with beneficial health effects. Although polyphenols are unstable in the intestinal environment, they may be protected by interactions with dairy proteins during digestion. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of a green tea extract on the digestibility of different dairy matrices and to monitor the antioxidant activity of these matrices with or without the green tea extract during digestion in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. Milk, yogurt and cheese with similar fat-to-protein ratios were subjected to simulated digestion. Matrix degradation, protein and fat hydrolysis, polyphenol concentration and radical scavenging activity were analyzed during gastric and intestinal digestion phases. Cheese was the matrix most resistant to protein and fat digestion. The addition of the green tea extract significantly decreased proteolysis in the gastric phase but had no effect in the intestinal phase. The kinetics of fatty acid release was reduced by the presence of the green tea extract. Transition from the gastric phase to the intestinal phase induced a 50% decrease in the antioxidant activity of the control (tea extract dispersed in water) due to the degradation of polyphenols. The presence of dairy matrices significantly improved polyphenol stability in the intestinal phase and increased the antioxidant activity by 29% (cheese) to 42% (milk) compared to the control. These results suggest that simultaneous consumption of green tea and dairy products helps to maintain the integrity and antioxidant activity of polyphenols during digestion.

  4. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  5. Effect of Green Tea Extract on Systemic Metabolic Homeostasis in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Determined via RNA-Seq Transcriptome Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (GT has various health effects, including anti-obesity properties. However, the multiple molecular mechanisms of the effects have not been fully determined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the anti-obesity effects of GT via the analysis of its metabolic and transcriptional responses based on RNA-seq profiles. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal, high-fat (60% energy as fat, or high-fat + 0.25% (w/w GT diet for 12 weeks. The GT extract ameliorated obesity, hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity (DIO mice. GT supplementation resulted in body weight gain reduction than mice fed high-fat through enhanced energy expenditure, and reduced adiposity. The transcriptome profiles of epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT suggested that GT augments transcriptional responses to the degradation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs, as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling, which suggests enhanced energy homeostasis. Our findings provide some significant insights into the effects of GT for the prevention of obesity and its comorbidities. We demonstrated that the GT extract contributed to the regulation of systemic metabolic homeostasis via transcriptional responses to not only lipid and glucose metabolism, but also amino acid metabolism via BCAA degradation in the adipose tissue of DIO mice.

  6. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbae Oh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE and tea pomace extracts (TPE by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD

  7. Comparison of the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus colony count changes in saliva following chlorhexidine (0.12% mouth rinse, combination mouth rinse, and green tea extract (0.5% mouth rinse in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul J Hegde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compounds present in green tea have been shown to inhibit the growth and activity of bacteria associated with oral infections. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of chlorhexidine (0.12% mouth rinse and combination (chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouth rinse to that of green tea extract (0.5% mouth rinse in reducing the salivary count of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in children. Materials and Methods: The sample for the study consisted of 75 school children aged 8–12 years with four or more (decay component of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Children were divided randomly into three equal groups and were asked to rinse with the prescribed mouth rinse once daily for 2 weeks after breakfast under supervision. Nonstimulated whole salivary sample (2 ml was collected at baseline and postrinsing and tested for the colony forming units of S. mutans and Lactobacillus. Results: The results of the study indicate that there was a statistically significant reduction in S. mutans and lactobacilli count in all the three study groups. The statistically significant reduction in the mean S. mutans and lactobacilli counts were more in 0.12% chlorhexidine group than in the combination mouth rinse and 0.5% green tea mouth rinse group. There was no statistically significant difference in the reduction of S. mutans and lactobacilli count between combination mouth rinse group and 0.5% green tea mouth rinse group. Conclusion: Green tea mouth rinse can be a promising preventive therapy worldwide for the prevention of dental caries.

  8. Teor de fluoretos em infusões de chá verde (Camellia sinensis Fluoride content in green tea infusions (Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Reto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of green tea consumption on fluoride ingestion. The extraction conditions of fluorides from green tea infusions were defined and nine brands of green tea available in Portugal were analyzed. The quantification of fluorides in the green tea was preceded by the implementation and validation of the potentiometric method (commercial fluoride selective electrode. The concentration of fluorides in the samples ranged from 0. 8 to 2. 0 mg L-1.

  9. Green-Tea and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate are Bactericidal against Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-13

    strategies against B. anthracis (3). 60 After water, tea is the most consumed beverage in the world. Although containing little 61 caloric value, teas...Civilian B. 2002. Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: updated 270 recommendations for management . JAMA 287:2236-52. 271 4. Cabrera C, Artacho R...Sharma A, Gupta S, Sarethy IP, Dang S, Gabrani R. 2012. Green tea extract: possible mechanism 285 and antibacterial activity on skin pathogens. Food

  10. Effects of green tea extract and α-tocopherol on the lipid oxidation rate of omega-3 oils, incorporated into table spreads, prepared using multiple emulsion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Sandra P O'; O'Beirne, David; Ní Eidhin, Deirdre; O'Kennedy, Brendan T

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of fat and water soluble antioxidants on the oxidative stability of omega (ω)-3 rich table spreads, produced using novel multiple emulsion technology. Table spreads were produced by dispersing an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion (500 g/kg 85 camelina/15 fish oil blend) in a hardstock/rapeseed oil blend, using sodium caseinate and polyglycerol polyricinoleate as emulsifiers. The O/W and oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O) emulsions contained either a water soluble antioxidant (green tea extract [GTE]), an oil soluble antioxidant (α-Tocopherol), or both. Spreads containing α-Tocopherol had the highest lipid hydroperoxide values, whereas spreads containing GTE had the lowest (P < 0.05), during storage at 5°C, while p-Anisidine values did not differ significantly. Particle size was generally unaffected by antioxidant type (P < 0.05). Double emulsion (O/W/O) structures were clearly seen in confocal images of the spreads. By the end of storage, none of the spreads had significantly different G' values. Firmness (Newtons) of all spreads generally increased during storage (P < 0.05). © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Quality improvement of a rice-substituted fried noodle by utilizing the protein-polyphenol interaction between a pea protein isolate and green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngwoon; Yoo, Sang-Ho

    2017-11-15

    The quality of rice-substituted fried noodles was improved by applying interaction between pea protein isolate (PPI) and green tea extract (GTE). Radical-scavenging activities of GTE were stably maintained when exposed to acidic pH, UV light, and fluorescent light, but decreased by approximately 65% when exposed to 80°C for 168h. The RVA profiles of noodle dough showed that peak viscosity and breakdown increased significantly but that setback and final viscosity remained unchanged with 20% rice flour replacement. PPI significantly decreased the viscosity parameters of rice-supplemented dough, and the addition of GTE recovered these values significantly. The cooking loss and viscoelasticity (R max ) of cooked rice-supplemented noodles were fully restored by combined treatment of PPI and GTE. GTE decreased the peroxide value of fried noodles by 14% after storage at 63°C for 16days. Therefore, PPI+GTE treatment has great potential for use in fried noodles owing to the reinforced network and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by waste tea extract and degradation of organic dye in the absence and presence of H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Weixia; Chen, Kui; Wang, Yong; Liu, Xiuhua; Lu, Minghua

    2017-11-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) had been successfully synthesized by using an aqueous extract of waste tea as a stabilizing and reducing agent. The green synthesized AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and zeta potential. The work focused on the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and ethyl violet (EV) in aqueous solution with AgNPs as catalyst in the absence and presence of H2O2. The AgNPs exhibit fast, efficient and stable catalytic activity in the degradation of cationic organic dyes, but it is no catalytic degradation of anionic organic dyes at room temperature. The kinetics of dyes degradation with AgNPs follows the pseudo-second-order model. Meanwhile, the AgNPs also show better antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. The formed highly catalytic active AgNPs can be used as catalyst in industries and water purification.

  13. Green Tea Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Deficits in Ischemic Rats via Its Active Component Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate by Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Jen Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke results in brain damage and behavioral deficits including memory impairment. Protective effects of green tea extract (GTex and its major functional polyphenol (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on memory were examined in cerebral ischemic rats. GTex and EGCG were administered 1 hr before middle cerebral artery ligation in rats. GTex, EGCG, and pentoxifylline (PTX significantly improved ishemic-induced memory impairment in a Morris water maze test. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were increased by long-term treatment with GTex and EGCG. Both compounds were also associated with reduced cerebral infraction breakdown of MDA and GSH in the hippocampus. In in vitro experiments, EGCG had anti-inflammatory effects in BV-2 microglia cells. EGCG inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced nitric oxide production and reduced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV-2 cells. GTex and its active polyphenol EGCG improved learning and memory deficits in a cerebral ischemia animal model and such protection may be due to the reduction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body...... between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and a reduction in body weight. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  15. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  16. Green tea extract with polyethylene glycol-3350 reduces body weight and improves glucose tolerance in db/db and high-fat diet mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, Yong Woon; Kim, Sang Pyo; Cho, Ho-Chan; Ahn, Shinbyoung; Bae, Ki-Cheor; Im, Seung-Soon; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Song, Dae-Kyu

    2013-08-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) is regarded to be effective against obesity and type 2 diabetes, but definitive evidences have not been proven. Based on the assumption that the gallated catechins (GCs) in GTE attenuate intestinal glucose and lipid absorption, while enhancing insulin resistance when GCs are present in the circulation through inhibiting cellular glucose uptake in various tissues, this study attempted to block the intestinal absorption of GCs and prolong their residence time in the lumen. We then observed whether GTE containing the nonabsorbable GCs could ameliorate body weight (BW) gain and glucose intolerance in db/db and high-fat diet mice. Inhibition of the intestinal absorption of GCs was accomplished by co-administering the nontoxic polymer polyethylene glycol-3350 (PEG). C57BLKS/J db/db and high-fat diet C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 weeks with drugs as follows: GTE, PEG, GTE+PEG, voglibose, or pioglitazone. GTE mixed with meals did not have any ameliorating effects on BW gain and glucose intolerance. However, the administration of GTE plus PEG significantly reduced BW gain, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, without affecting food intake and appetite. The effect was comparable to the effects of an α-glucosidase inhibitor and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ/α agonist. These results indicate that prolonging the action of GCs of GTE in the intestinal lumen and blocking their entry into the circulation may allow GTE to be used as a prevention and treatment for both obesity and obesity-induced type 2 diabetes.

  17. Effects of rye bread enriched with green tea extract on weight maintenance and the characteristics of metabolic syndrome following weight loss: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerska, Joanna; Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether the incorporation of green tea extract enriched rye bread (GTRB) into the diet can improve weight loss (WL) maintenance and control of abnormalities linked to metabolic syndrome (MS). A total of 55 obese men and women (mean age: 53.0±7.0 years, body mass index: 35.0±5.5 kg m(-2)) were recruited. The study had a single-blind randomized study design and consisted of an 8-week WL phase with low-energy calorie diet, followed by a 12-week weight maintenance (WM) phase. During the WM phase, the subjects were randomized into two groups, receiving either the control rye bread (control group) or the GTRB (intervention group). The ingestion of 280 and 360 g GTRB provided daily totals of 123.2 and 158.4 mg caffeine, and 188.3 and 242.1 mg of epigallocatechin gallate, for women and men, respectively. After the WL phase, subjects lost 7.3±3.1 kg of their baseline body weight. GTRB intake did not significantly influence the maintenance of WL, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose concentrations. Although, it resulted in significant differences (mean difference [95% confidence interval]) between the treatment groups in the maintenance of waist circumference (-1.22 cm [-2.4, -0.02; P=.04]), the results were not clinically meaningful. Nevertheless, the ingestion of GTRB led to the maintenance of lower blood pressure (BP), also the proportion of subjects fulfilling the criteria of MS after the WM phase was lower in the intervention group than in the control group. Although GTRB consumption did not improve significantly the WL maintenance, it resulted in a better control of BP.

  18. Effect of Green Tea Extract Encapsulated Into Chitosan Nanoparticles on Hepatic Fibrosis Collagen Fibers Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy in Rat Hepatic Fibrosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, Abdel-Majeed A; Hanafy, Nomany A; Bharali, Dhruba J; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker A

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of Green Tea Extract (GTE) encapsulated into Chitosan Nanoparticles (CS-NPs) on hepatic fibrosis in rat model as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The bioactive compounds in GTE encapsulated into CS-NPs were determined using LC-MS/MS method. Additionally, the uptake of GTE-CS NPs in HepG2 cells showed enhanced uptake. In experimental fibrosis model, AFM was used as a high resolution microscopic tool to investigate collagen fibers as an indicator of hepatic fibrosis induced by treatment with CCl4. Paraffin sections of fibrotic liver tissues caused by CC4 treatment of rats and the effect of GTE-CS NPs treatment with or without CCl4 on hepatic fibrosis were examined. Liver tissues from the different groups of animals were de-waxed and processed as for normal H/E staining and Masson's trichrome staining to locate the proper area of ECM collagen in the CCl4 group versus collagen in liver tissues treated with the GTE-CS NPs with or without CCl4. Selected areas of paraffin sections were trimmed off and fixed flat on top of mica and inserted in the AFM stage. H/E staining, Masson's trichrome stained slides, and AFM images revealed that collagen fibers of 250 to 300 nm widths were abundant in the fibrotic liver samples while those of GTE-CS NPs were clear as in the control group. Data confirmed the hypothesis that GTE-CS NPs are effective in removing all the extracellular collagen caused by CCl4 in the hepatic fibrosis rat liver.

  19. Quercetin and Green Tea Extract Supplementation Downregulates Genes Related to Tissue Inflammatory Responses to a 12-Week High Fat-Diet in Mice

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    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin (Q and green tea extract (E are reported to counter insulin resistance and inflammation and favorably alter fat metabolism. We investigated whether a mixture of E + Q (EQ could synergistically influence metabolic and inflammation endpoints in a high-fat diet (HFD fed to mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 40 were put on HFD (fat = 60%kcal for 12 weeks and randomly assigned to Q (25 mg/kg of body weight (BW/day, E (3 mg of epigallocatechin gallate/kg BW/day, EQ, or control groups for four weeks. At 16 weeks, insulin sensitivity was measured via the glucose tolerance test (GTT, followed by area-under-the-curve (AUC estimations. Plasma cytokines and quercetin were also measured, along with whole genome transcriptome analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR on adipose, liver, and skeletal muscle tissues. Univariate analyses were conducted via analysis of variance (ANOVA, and whole-genome expression profiles were examined via gene set enrichment. At 16 weeks, plasma quercetin levels were higher in Q and EQ groups vs. the control and E groups (p < 0.05. Plasma cytokines were similar among groups (p > 0.05. AUC estimations for GTT was 14% lower for Q vs. E (p = 0.0311, but non-significant from control (p = 0.0809. Genes for cholesterol metabolism and immune and inflammatory response were downregulated in Q and EQ groups vs. control in adipose tissue and soleus muscle tissue. These data support an anti-inflammatory role for Q and EQ, a result best captured when measured with tissue gene downregulation in comparison to changes in plasma cytokine levels.

  20. Green Tea Modulation of Obesity and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    tea on weight reduction in obese Thais : A randomized, controlled trial. Physiology & behavior 2008; 93(3):486-491. 4. Nagao T, Meguro S, Hase T...1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0013 TITLE: Green Tea Modulation of Obesity...2013 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Summary 3. DATES COVERED 1 March 2012 – l 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Green Tea Modulation of Obesity and Breast Cancer Risk

  1. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

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    Suzana Saric

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies and tea, type not specified (two studies. Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  2. Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mechanisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food. In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food

  3. Green tea effects on cognition, mood and human brain function: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Edele; Beglinger, Christoph; Drewe, Jürgen; Zanchi, Davide; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2017-10-15

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a beverage consumed for thousands of years. Numerous claims about the benefits of its consumption were stated and investigated. As green tea is experiencing a surge in popularity in Western culture and as millions of people all over the world drink it every day, it is relevant to understand its effects on the human brain. To assess the current state of knowledge in the literature regarding the effects of green tea or green tea extracts, l-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate both components of green tea-on general neuropsychology, on the sub-category cognition and on brain functions in humans. We systematically searched on PubMed database and selected studies by predefined eligibility criteria. We then assessed their quality and extracted data. We structured our effort according to the PRISMA statement. We reviewed and assessed 21 studies, 4 of which were randomised controlled trials, 12 cross-over studies (both assessed with an adapted version of the DELPHI-list), 4 were cross-sectional studies and one was a cohort study (both assessed with an adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa assessment scale). The average study quality as appraised by means of the DELPHI-list was good (8.06/9); the studies evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa-scale were also good (6.7/9). The reviewed studies presented evidence that green tea influences psychopathological symptoms (e.g. reduction of anxiety), cognition (e.g. benefits in memory and attention) and brain function (e.g. activation of working memory seen in functional MRI). The effects of green tea cannot be attributed to a single constituent of the beverage. This is exemplified in the finding that beneficial green tea effects on cognition are observed under the combined influence of both caffeine and l-theanine, whereas separate administration of either substance was found to have a lesser impact. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. The Effect of Green Tea and Sour Tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Muscle Damage in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Amir; Pourmasoumi, Makan; Kafeshani, Marzieh; Karimian, Jahangir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2017-05-04

    Additional oxygen consumption during intense exercises may lead to oxidative stress and contribute to muscular fatigue. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), which contain various flavonoids and polyphenols, have many healthful properties such as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and heart protecting effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer athletes. This randomized, double-blind control trial was conducted on 54 male soccer players. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups to receive: 450 mg/d green tea extract (GTE) in the first group (n = 18), 450 mg/d sour tea extract (STE) in the second group (n = 18) and 450 mg/d maltodextrin in the control group (n = 18). Fasting whole blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and the end of the study to quantify the serum levels of muscle damage indices, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). After six weeks intervention, athletes who received GTE and STE supplements compared with the placebo had a significantly decreased MDA level (P = 0.008). Furthermore, STE supplementation resulted in a significant increase in TAC level compared with GTE and placebo groups (P = 0.01). However, supplementation with GTE and STE had no significant effects on muscle damage indices. GTE and STE supplementation have beneficial effects on oxidative stress status in male athletes. However, both kinds of tea extract did not affect muscle damage status.

  5. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  6. Application of radiation technology to develop green tea leaf as a natural resource for the cosmetic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju Woon; Jo, Sung Kee; Kim, Kwan Soo

    2004-01-01

    The irradiation of natural resources such as green tea leaf, persimmon leaf, licorice root and stolon or Lonicera japonica improved the color of the extract, resulting in a higher applicability without any adverse change to the beneficial functions such as the inhibitory effects of oxidation, melanin hyperpigmentation on the skin, and others. To investigate the application of irradiated natural resources for a real cosmetic composition, the physiological activities of irradiated green tea leaf extract powder dissolved in butylene glycol and ethanol were compared to a commercial green tea extract product. Furthermore, a cream lotion was manufactured using the powder and the physiological activities were compared. Results showed that the irradiation of the green tea leaf extract and the freeze-dried powder from the extract had the same physiological activities as the commercial product in a cosmetic composition

  7. Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe3O4/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline from Green Tea

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    Guizhen Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES based on choline chloride (ChCl and ionic liquids (ILs based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs, and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE. The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM. Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80% as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc (8:2 as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g−1 and 5.07 mg•g−1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples.

  8. Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe₃O₄/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline) from Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guizhen; Wang, Xiaoqin; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-06-25

    Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES) based on choline chloride (ChCl) and ionic liquids (ILs) based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs), and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline) from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE). The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine) from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80%) as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc) (8:2) as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g-1 and 5.07 mg•g-1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples.

  9. Green Tea attenuates some biochemical disorders induced by γ- irradiation in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.S.; Amin, N.E.; Aziz, M.M.; Ain-Shoka, A.; Abdel-Latif, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    While radiation hazards, due to free radical generation, present an enormous challenge for biological and medical safety, green tea extract is a potent scavenger of a variety of free radicals. This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of green tea against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage in the liver and kidney in male rats using vitamin E as a reference drug. Green tea aqueous extract (300 mg/Kg body weighty) or vitamin E (40 mg/ Kg body weighty) were administered to male albino rats via gavages during 21 successive days before whole body exposure to gamma rays (6.5 Gy), from cesium-137 source, and during 7 days after irradiation. The animals were sacrificed the 7th day post-irradiation. The levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), urea, and creatinine, as well as activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased in sera of the irradiated rats. Moreover, radiation induced disturbances in liver and kidney content of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn). Treatment with green tea extract and or vitamin E before and post irradiation were significantly ameliorated the levels of cholesterol, TG, creatinine, and urea, as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP in serum. Also, green tea extract and or vitamin E achieved significant amelioration liver and kidney contents of Ca, Mg and Mn. In conclusion, green tea extract and or vitamin E show a radioprotective impact against ionizing-radiation-induced liver and kidney injury

  10. Green tea moisturizer improves skin hydration in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Oentarini Tjandra; Linda J Wijayadi; Marcella E Rumawas

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dry skin is a major skin health problem in elderly. Green tea, which has an antioxidant effect, has recently been used as an active ingredient in moisturizing creams; yet the effect has not been well studied. This study compares the skin hydration effect of green tea and vitamin E moisturizer among elderly. METHODS This quasi-experimental study involved 60 elderly living in Tresna Werda Budi Mulia 4 Social Institution, Jakarta. Using the Runve HL 611 skin analyzer, skin c...

  11. Green tea catechins reduced the glycaemic potential of bread: an in vitro digestibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Royston; Gao, Jing; Ananingsih, Victoria K; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-08-01

    Green tea catechins are potent inhibitors of enzymes for carbohydrate digestion. However, the potential of developing low glycaemic index bakery food using green tea extract has not been investigated. Results of this study showed that addition of green tea extract (GTE) at 0.45%, 1%, and 2% concentration levels significantly reduced the glycaemic potential of baked and steamed bread. The average retention levels of catechins in the baked and steamed bread were 75.3-89.5% and 81.4-99.3%, respectively. Bread fortified with 2% GTE showed a significantly lower level of glucose release during the first 90 min of pancreatic digestion as well as a lower content of rapidly digested starch (RDS) content. A significantly negative correlation was found between the catechin retention level and the RDS content of bread. The potential of transforming bread into a low GI food using GTE fortification was proven to be promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of pectin methyl esterase activity by green tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kristin C; Selzer, Tzvia; Shahar, Chen; Udi, Yael; Tworowski, Dmitry; Sagi, Irit

    2008-10-01

    Pectin methyl esterases (PMEs) and their endogenous inhibitors are involved in the regulation of many processes in plant physiology, ranging from tissue growth and fruit ripening to parasitic plant haustorial formation and host invasion. Thus, control of PME activity is critical for enhancing our understanding of plant physiological processes and regulation. Here, we report on the identification of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea component, as a natural inhibitor for pectin methyl esterases. In a gel assay for PME activity, EGCG blocked esterase activity of pure PME as well as PME extracts from citrus and from parasitic plants. Fluorometric tests were used to determine the IC50 for a synthetic substrate. Molecular docking analysis of PME and EGCG suggests close interaction of EGCG with the catalytic cleft of PME. Inhibition of PME by the green tea compound, EGCG, provides the means to study the diverse roles of PMEs in cell wall metabolism and plant development. In addition, this study introduces the use of EGCG as natural product to be used in the food industry and agriculture.

  13. An Update on the Health Benefits of Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda C. Reygaert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea, which is produced from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Over the past 30 years or more, scientists have studied this plant in respect to potential health benefits. Research has shown that the main components of green tea that are associated with health benefits are the catechins. The four main catechins found in green tea are: (−-epicatechin (EC, (−-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (−-epigallocatechin (EGC, and (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Of these four, EGCG is present in the largest quantity, and so has been used in much of the research. Among the health benefits of green tea are: anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, and benefits in cardiovascular disease and oral health. Research has been carried out using various animal models and cells lines, and is now more and more being carried out in humans. This type of research will help us to better understand the direct benefits of green tea. This review will focus primarily on research conducted using human subjects to investigate the health benefits of green tea.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Green Tea Catechins on Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monira Pervin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tea is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea are made from the same plant Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze. Among them, green tea has been the most extensively studied for beneficial effects on diseases including cancer, obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Several human observational and intervention studies have found beneficial effects of tea consumption on neurodegenerative impairment, such as cognitive dysfunction and memory loss. These studies supported the basis of tea’s preventive effects of Parkinson’s disease, but few studies have revealed such effects on Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast, several human studies have not reported these favorable effects with regard to tea. This discrepancy may be due to incomplete adjustment of confounding factors, including the method of quantifying consumption, beverage temperature, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and differences in genetic and environmental factors, such as race, sex, age, and lifestyle. Thus, more rigorous human studies are required to understand the neuroprotective effect of tea. A number of laboratory experiments demonstrated the benefits of green tea and green tea catechins (GTCs, such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, and proposed action mechanisms. The targets of GTCs include the abnormal accumulation of fibrous proteins, such as Aβ and α-synuclein, inflammation, elevated expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, and oxidative stress, which are associated with neuronal cell dysfunction and death in the cerebral cortex. Computational molecular docking analysis revealed how EGCG can prevent the accumulation of fibrous proteins. These findings suggest that GTCs have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and could be useful for the development of new drugs.

  15. Black tea extract and dental caries formation in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Harald A B; LeGeros, Racquel Z

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that green tea and Oolong tea extracts have antibacterial and anticariogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a standardized black tea extract (BTE) on caries formation in inbred hamsters on a regular and a cariogenic diet. Eighty hamsters were divided into four groups of 20 animals each. Two groups received a pelleted regular diet (LabChow) with water or BTE ad libitum. The other two groups received a powdered cariogenic diet (Diet 2000, containing 56% sucrose) with water or BTE ad libitum. The animals were kept for 3 months on their respective diets and then were sacrificed. The heads were retained, the jaws were prepared and stained using alizarin mordant red II, and were then scored for dental caries according to the Keyes method. This is the first study indicating that BTE, as compared with water, significantly decreased caries formation by 56.6% in hamsters on a regular diet and by 63.7% in hamsters on a cariogenic diet (P cariogenic diet group BTE, reduced the mandibular caries score of the hamsters slightly more than the maxillary caries score. The fluoride content of the standardized BTE solution was frequently monitored during the experiment; the mean fluoride concentration was found to be 4.22 ppm. A frequent intake of black tea can significantly decrease caries formation, even in the presence of sugars in the diet.

  16. Antigenotoxic and Apoptotic Activity of Green Tea Polyphenol Extracts on Hexavalent Chromium-Induced DNA Damage in Peripheral Blood of CD-1 Mice: Analysis with Differential Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen García-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the modulating effects of green tea polyphenols on genotoxic damage and apoptotic activity induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI] in CD-1 mice. Animals were divided into the following groups: (i injected with vehicle; (ii treated with green tea polyphenols (30 mg/kg via gavage; (iii injected with CrO3 (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally; (iv treated with green tea polyphenols in addition to CrO3. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCEs obtained from peripheral blood at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed by differential acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining. Treatment of green tea polyphenols led to no significant changes in the MN-PCEs. However, CrO3 treatment significantly increased MN-PCEs at 24 and 48 h after injection. Green tea polyphenols treatment prior to CrO3 injection led to a decrease in MN-PCEs compared to the group treated with CrO3 only. The average of apoptotic cells was increased at 48 h after treatment compared to control mice, suggesting that apoptosis could contribute to eliminate the DNA damaged cells induced by Cr (VI. Our findings support the proposed protective effects of green tea polyphenols against the genotoxic damage induced by Cr (VI.

  17. Residue pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during green tea manufacturing and their transfer rates during tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guanwei; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Pingxiang; Hao, Zhenxia; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Chen; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-06-01

    Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in green tea and tea infusion were determined using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their dissipation pattern during green tea processing and infusion. Concentration and evaporation of PAHs during tea processing were the key factors affecting PAH residue content in product intermediates and in green tea. PAH residues in tea leaves increased by 2.4-3.1 times during the manufacture of green tea using the electric heating model. After correction to dry weight, PAH residue concentrations decreased by 33.5-48.4% during green tea processing because of PAH evaporation. Moreover, spreading and drying reduced PAH concentrations. The transfer rates of PAH residues from green tea to infusion varied from 4.6% to 7.2%, and PAH leaching was higher in the first infusion than in the second infusion. These results are useful for assessing exposure to PAHs from green tea and in formulating controls for the maximum residue level of PAHs in green tea.

  18. Effect of marinating chicken meat with lemon, green tea, and turmeric against foodborne bacterial pathogenss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne diseases affect millions of people each year. To reduce the incidence of bacterial foodborne pathogens more effective treatment methods are needed. In this study we evaluated the effect of marinating chicken breast fillets with extracts of lemon, green tea, and turmeric against Campylob...

  19. Possibility of irradiation degradation of Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin in green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yifang; Wan Xiaochun; Hou Ruyan; Zhang Haiwei; Zhao Xiuxia; Wang Xiaohui

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ irradiation and green tea manufacturing processing on degradation of Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin in green tea during its manufacturing processing were studied. The two pesticides were sprayed onto the tea bushes and fresh tea leaves were picked at the same day, respectively. Half of the fresh leaves were processed into green tea. The fresh tea leaves and green tea were irradiated at 5 kGy and the Fenpropathrin in fresh tea degraded 7.3% after irradiation, while Deltamethrin degraded 14.7%. In green tea, Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin degraded 2.2% and 12.1% respectively after irradiation. Green tea manufacturing processes could reduce 16.4% of Fenpropathrin, and 4.4% of Deltamethrin. (authors)

  20. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant, there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity (Obese group or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% white tea extract (Obese + WTE for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress were studied. White tea supplementation was not able to reduce food intake, body weight, or visceral adiposity. Similarly, there were no changes in cholesterol rich lipoprotein profile between the groups. A reduction in blood triacylglycerols associated with increased cecal lipids was observed in the group fed the diet supplemented with white tea. White tea supplementation also reduced oxidative stress in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, white tea extract supplementation (0.5% does not influence body weight or adiposity in obese mice. Its benefits are restricted to the reduction in oxidative stress associated with obesity and improvement of hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  1. Green Tea Protects Testes against Atrazine-induced Toxicity in Rat

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    Reza Kheirandish

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrazine (ATZ is a common herbicide in agriculture for control of grass and broad-leaved weeds. It persists in the environment and causes reproductive problems in both human and animals. The present study was aimed at protective effect of green tea against ATZ toxicity in the reproductive system of male rats. Methods: The present study was performed in Veterinary School, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2016. ATZ and treatment groups received ATZ daily 200 mg/kg BW orally for 14 d. In addition, 0.2% methanolic green tea extract was administrated in the treatment group. Results: In histopathologic investigation, number of germinal layers reduced in the most seminiferous tubules in the ATZ group and spermatids were absence. Necrotic spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa were evident in the testicular tubules. In the morphometric measurements, tubular diameter, germinal epithelium height, and meiosis index decreased significantly. Conclusion: Green tea extract had reduced testicular toxicity of atrazine significantly. ATZ induces toxicity through oxidative damage and green tea extract can protect the testes due to antioxidant activity of its polyphenols especially flavonoids.

  2. Exploring optimal supplement strategy of medicinal herbs and tea extracts for bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Liao, Jia-Hui; Hsu, An-Wei; Tsai, Po-Wei; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan

    2018-05-01

    This first-attempt study used extracts of appropriate antioxidant abundant Camellia and non-Camellia tea and medicinal herbs as model ESs to stably intensify bioelectricity generation performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). As electron shuttles (ESs) could stimulate electron transport phenomena by significant reduction of electron transfer resistance, the efficiency of power generation for energy extraction in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could be appreciably augmented. Using environmentally friendly natural bioresource as green bioresource of ESs is the most promising to sustainable practicability. As comparison of power-density profiles indicated, supplement of Camellia tea extracts would be the most appropriate, then followed non-Camellia Chrysanthemum tea and medicinal herbs. Antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents and power stimulating activities were all electrochemically associated. In particular, the extract of unfermented Camellia tea (i.e., green tea) was the most promising ESs to augment bioenergy extraction compared to other refreshing medicinal herb extracts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential Effects of Tea Extracts on Growth and Cytokine Production by Normal and Leukemic Human Leukocytes

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    Diana Bayer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is one of the world’s most highly consumed beverages, second only to water. It is affordable and abundant and thus has great potential for improving health of those in both developed and developing areas. Green, oolong, and black teas differ in the extent of fermentation and types of bioactive polyphenols produced. Green tea and its major polyphenol decrease growth of some cancer cells and effect production of immune system cytokines. This study compares the effects of different types of tea extracts on viability and cytokine production by normal and leukemic human T lymphocytes. Generation of the toxic reactive oxygen species H2O2 by extracts was also examined.Methods: The Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and mitogen-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used in this study. Cell viability was determined by (3-4,5-dimethylthiamizol-2-yl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and production of interleukin-2 by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Levels of H2O2 generated by tea extracts were determined using the xylenol-orange method.Results: We found that green, oolong, and black tea extracts differentially effect the growth and viability of T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, substantially decreasing both growth and viability of leukemic T lymphocytes and having much lesser effects on their normal counterparts. Tea extracts also had differential effects on the production of the T lymphocyte growth factor interleukin-2, significantly decreasing production by leukemic cells while having only minor effects on normal cells. All three extracts induced H2O2 generation, with green and oolong tea extracts having the greatest effect. Leukemic cells were much more susceptible to growth inhibition and killing by H2O2 than normal lymphocytes.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:72-85 Conclusions: The three tea extracts studied altered leukemic T lymphocyte

  4. Green tea catechins potentiate the effect of antibiotics and modulate adherence and gene expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Larente, Jade; Morin, Marie-Pierre; Grenier, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    A number of studies have brought evidence that green tea catechins may contribute to periodontal health. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of a green tea extract and its principal constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to potentiate the antibacterial effects of antibiotics (metronidazole, tetracycline) against Porphyromonas gingivalis, and to modulate the adherence to oral epithelial cells and expression of genes coding for virulence factors and the high temperature requirement A (HtrA) stress protein in P. gingivalis. A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the green tea extract and EGCG. The synergistic effects of either compounds in association with metronidazole or tetracycline were evaluated using the checkerboard technique. A fluorescent assay was used to determine bacterial adherence to oral epithelial cells. The modulation of gene expression in P. gingivalis was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. The Vibrio harveyi bioassay was used for monitoring quorum sensing inhibitory activity. The MIC values of the green tea extract on P. gingivalis ranged from 250 to 1000 μg/ml, while those of EGCG ranged from 125 to 500 μg/ml. A marked synergistic effect on P. gingivalis growth was observed for the green tea extract or EGCG in combination with metronidazole. Both the green tea extract and EGCG caused a dose-dependent inhibition of P. gingivalis adherence to oral epithelial cells. On the one hand, green tea extract and EGCG dose-dependently inhibited the expression of several P. gingivalis genes involved in host colonization (fimA, hagA, hagB), tissue destruction (rgpA, kgp), and heme acquisition (hem). On the other hand, both compounds increased the expression of the stress protein htrA gene. The ability of the green tea extract and EGCG to inhibit quorum sensing may contribute to the modulation of gene expression. This study explored the preventive and therapeutic potential of green tea

  5. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers based on silica modified by deep eutectic solvents for the rapid simultaneous magnetic-based solid-phase extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge, Glycine max (Linn.) Merr and green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guizhen; Wang, Xiaoqin; Row, Kyung Ho

    2018-04-01

    Novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) with multiple-template based on silica were modified by four types of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) for the rapid simultaneous magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of tanshinone Ⅰ, tanshinone ⅡA, and cryptotanshinone from Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge; glycitein, genistein, and daidzein from Glycine max (Linn.) Merr; and epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, and epicatechin gallate from green tea, respectively. The synthesized materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Single factor experiments were to explore the relationship between the extraction efficiency and four factors (the sample solution pH, amount of DESs for modification, amount of adsorbent, and extraction time). It was showed that the DES4-MMIPs have better extraction ability than the MMIPs without DESs and the other three DESs-modified MMIPs. The best extraction recoveries with DES4-MMIP were tanshinone Ⅰ (85.57%), tanshinone ⅡA (80.58%), cryptotanshinone (92.12%), glycitein (81.65%), genistein (87.72%), daidzein (92.24%), epicatechin (86.43%), epigallocatechin gallate (80.92%), and epicatechin gallate (93.64%), respectively. The novel multiple-template MMIPs materials modified by DES for the rapid simultaneous MSPE of active compounds were proved to reduce the experimental steps than single-template technique, and increase the extraction efficiency. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Green tea extracts reduce leukocyte cell-Derived chemotaxin 2 and selenoprotein P levels in the livers of C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Shintaro; Kitazawa, Hidefumi; Meguro, Shinichi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro

    2018-05-31

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green tea extracts (GTEs), including catechins such as epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate, have a beneficial effect on obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation. Although several studies have shown that catechins directly modulate the cellular and molecular alterations in the liver tissue, the contributions of indirect mechanisms underlying these systemic effects of catechins remain unclear. In this study, we report that, in the C57BL/6J mouse liver, GTEs reduce high-fat diet-induced increases in the levels of hepatokines, liver-derived secretary proteins such as leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 and selenoprotein P production, which have been shown to induce systemic adverse effects, including several metabolic diseases. These findings suggest that the systemic effects of GTEs involve the regulation of hepatokine production as an indirect mechanism.

  7. Metabolic dependence of green tea on plucking positions revisited: a metabolomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Bum-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Ah; Ko, Kwang-Sup; Chung, Jin-Oh; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Jun; Hong, Young-Shick

    2011-10-12

    The dependence of global green tea metabolome on plucking positions was investigated through (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis coupled with multivariate statistical data set. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were employed for a finding metabolic discrimination among fresh green tea leaves plucked at different positions from young to old leaves. In addition to clear metabolic discrimination among green tea leaves, elevations in theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid levels but reductions in catechins, such as epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), glucose, and sucrose levels were observed, as the green tea plant grows up. On the other hand, the younger the green tea leaf is, the more theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid but the lesser catechins accumlated in the green tea leaf, revealing a reverse assocation between theanine and catechins levels due to incorporaton of theanine into catechins with growing up green tea plant. Moreover, as compared to the tea leaf, the observation of marked high levels of theanine and low levels of catechins in green tea stems exhibited a distinct tea plant metabolism between the tea leaf and the stem. This metabolomic approach highlights taking insight to global metabolic dependence of green tea leaf on plucking position, thereby providing distinct information on green tea production with specific tea quality.

  8. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures

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    Makoto Kondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS and black tea by-product silage (BTS were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin’s activity in the rumen.

  9. Green tea and its anti-angiogenesis effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Bahman; Malekzadeh, Mehrnoush; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Masoudifar, Aria; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis. Indeed, they are the targets for anti-angiogenic drugs currently approved. Green tea (from the Camellia sinensis plant) is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is able to inhibit angiogenesis by different mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Green tea and its polyphenolic substances (like catechins) show chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic features in various types of cancer and experimental models for human cancers. The tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have multiple effects on the cellular proteome and signalome. Note that the polyphenolic compounds from green tea are able to change the miRNA expression profile associated with angiogenesis in various cancer types. This review focuses on the ability of the green tea constituents to suppress angiogenesis signaling and it summarizes the mechanisms by which EGCG might inhibit the VEGF family. We also highlighted the miRNAs affected by green tea which are involved in anti-angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Study the influence factors to the adsorption process for separation of polyphenols from green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Lan Huong; Tran, Trung Kien; Van Quyet, Chu; Phi, Nguyen Thien

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this work is applying adsorption process for separation of polyphenols from extract solution of green tea by-product. The older leaves and stem of green tea tree are collected from Hiep Khanh Tea Company (Hoabinh province, Vietnam). In this study, two kinds of adsorbent (silicagel, active carbon) were applied for the adsorption process in batch stirring vessel. The factors that affected to the process productivity were investigated: temperature, solid/liquid ratio, duration time, stirring speed. The process has been empirically described with statistical models obtained by Design of Experiments. The results indicated that active carbon was verified to offer good adsorption productivity (more than 95%), much more effective than silicagel (with only about 20%). From the model, the most affected factor to the process could be seen as solid/liquid ratio.

  11. Formation and emission of linalool in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves infested by tea green leafhopper (Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Lanting; Fu, Xiumin; Li, Jianlong; Tang, Jinchi; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-12-15

    Famous oolong tea (Oriental Beauty), which is manufactured by tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) infected with tea green leafhoppers, contains characteristic volatile monoterpenes derived from linalool. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of linalool in tea exposed to tea green leafhopper attack. The tea green leafhopper responsible for inducing the production of characteristic volatiles was identified as Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. E. (M.) onukii attack significantly induced the emission of linalool from tea leaves (ptea leaves exposed to E. (M.) onukii attack. This information should prove helpful for the future use of stress responses of plant secondary metabolism to improve quality components of agricultural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of irradiation decontamination on the qualities of green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Liu Chunquan; Yu Gang; Zhao Yongfu; Ji Ping; Jin Jie; Gu Guiqiang

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of irradiation on the main chemical components, such as heavy metal elements, pesticide residues as well as sensory qualities of green tea. The results indicated that irradiation had no significant impact on proteins, tea polyphenols, theine and heavy metal elements, slight differences in the contents of soluble sugar and amino acids. The content of cypermethrin reduced with the increase of irradiation dose. The color, liquor color, flavor and aroma of the tea decoction changed slightly when irradiated at the dose lower than 5 kGy. It was concluded that the optimal doses for the purpose of green team decontamination was at the range of 3-5 kGy according to the analysis of various quality factors. (authors)

  13. Improvement effect of green tea on hepatic dysfunction, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have evaluated the antioxidant effect of green tea on cadmium-induced hepatic dysfunction and stress oxidant in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were administered cadmium by injection with 20 μmoles/Kg bw/3 days for six months. Results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) liver dysfunction, lipid peroxidation and a decline in ...

  14. Study of nutritional value of dried tea leaves and infusions of black, green and white teas from Chinese plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernicka, Maria; Zaguła, Grzegorz; Bajcar, Marcin; Saletnik, Bogdan; Puchalski, Czesław

    The processing of tea leaves determines the contents of bioactive ingredients, hence it should be expected that each variety of tea, black, red or green, will represent a different package of compounds of physiological importance. Taste and aroma, as well as price and brand are the main factors impacting consumers’ preferences with regard to tea of their choice; on the other hand consumers less frequently pay attention to the chemical composition and nutritional value of tea. The purpose of the study was assessment of the nutritional value of black, green and white high-quality tea leaf from Chinese plantations based on the chemical composition of the dried leaves as well as minerals and caffeine content in tea infusions. The research material included 18 high-quality loose-leaf teas produced at Chinese plantations, imported to Poland, and purchased in an online store. The analyses included examination of the dried tea leaves for their chemical composition (contents of water, protein, volatile substances and ash) and assessment of selected minerals and caffeine contents in the tea infusions. High-quality Chinese green teas were found with the most valuable composition of minerals, i.e. the highest contents of Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Ca and Al and the highest contents of protein in comparison to the other products. Chinese black teas had the highest contents of total ash and caffeine and white teas were characterized with high content of volatile substances, similar to the black teas, and the highest content of water and the lowest content of total ash. The three types of tea brews examined in the present study, in particular green tea beverages, significantly enhance the organism’s mineral balance by providing valuable elements

  15. Stability of green tea catechins in commercial tea leaves during storage for 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, C E; Lee, S-U; Kozukue, N

    2009-03-01

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea products, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea ingredients, we determined by HPLC 7 catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-catechin (C), (+)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), (-)-gallocatechin 3-gallate (GCG), (-)-epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG), and (-)-catechin 3-gallate (CG)] in samples of 8 commercial green tea leaves of unknown history sold as tea bags in the United States, Korea, and Japan. The samples were stored at 20 degrees C and sampled at 1 wk and 1, 2, 4, and 6 mo. The following ranges in the initial values (0 controls) were observed (in mg/g tea leaves): EGC and C, 0 to trace amounts; EC, 1.9 to 21.1; EGCG, 13.3 to 113.0; GCG, 0.2 to 1.6; ECG, 5.7 to 50.5; CG 0.5 to 3.7; total catechins 36.5 to 169.7. Statistical analysis of the results and plots of changes in individual and total catechin levels as a function of storage time indicate a progressive decrease in the content in the total levels, most of which is due to losses in the most abundant catechins, EGCG and ECG. Possible mechanisms of degradations of catechins during storage and the possible significance of the results to consumers of tea are discussed.

  16. NMR Metabolic profiling of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaves grown at Kemuning, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, D. S. C.; Kristanti, M. W.; Putri, R. K.; Rinanto, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) has been famous as a beverage and natural medicine. It contains a broad range of primary and secondary metabolites i.e. polyphenols. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has been widely used for metabolic profiling in medicinal plants. It provides a very fast and detailed analysis of the biomolecular composition of crude extracts. Moreover, an NMR spectrum is a physical characteristic of a compound and thus highly reproducible. Therefore, this study aims to profile metabolites of three different varieties of green tea C. Sinensis grown in Kemuning, Middle Java. Three varieties of green tea collected on Kemuning (TR1 2025, Gambung 4/5, and Chiaruan 143) were used in this study. 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 230C on a 400 MHz Agilent WB (Widebore). The analysis was performed on dried green tea leaves and analyzed by 1H-NMR, 2D-J-resolved and 1H-1H correlated spectroscopy (COSY). MestRenova version 11.0.0 applied to identify metabolites in samples. A 1H-NMR spectrum of tea showed amino acids and organic acids signal at the area δ 0.8-4.0. These were theanine, alanine, threonine, succinic acid, aspartic acid, lactic acid. Anomeric protons of carbohydrate were shown by the region of β-glucose, α-glucose, fructose and sucrose. The phenolic region was depicted at area δ 5.5-8.5. Epigallocatechin derivates and caffeine were detected in the tea leaves. The detail compound identification was observed and discussed in the text.

  17. NMR Metabolic profiling of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaves grown at Kemuning, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahyuni, D. S. C.; Kristanti, M. W.; Putri, R. K.; Rinanto, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) has been famous as a beverage and natural medicine. It contains a broad range of primary and secondary metabolites i.e. polyphenols. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has been widely used for metabolic profiling in medicinal plants. It provides a very fast and detailed analysis of the biomolecular composition of crude extracts. Moreover, an NMR spectrum is a physical characteristic of a compound and thus highly reproducible. Therefore, this study aims to profile metabolites of three different varieties of green tea C. Sinensis grown in Kemuning, Middle Java. Three varieties of green tea collected on Kemuning (TR1 2025, Gambung 4/5, and Chiaruan 143) were used in this study. 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 230C on a 400 MHz Agilent WB (Widebore). The analysis was performed on dried green tea leaves and analyzed by 1H-NMR, 2D-J-resolved and 1H-1H correlated spectroscopy (COSY). MestRenova version 11.0.0 applied to identify metabolites in samples. A 1 H-NMR spectrum of tea showed amino acids and organic acids signal at the area δ 0.8–4.0. These were theanine, alanine, threonine, succinic acid, aspartic acid, lactic acid. Anomeric protons of carbohydrate were shown by the region of β-glucose, α-glucose, fructose and sucrose. The phenolic region was depicted at area δ 5.5-8.5. Epigallocatechin derivates and caffeine were detected in the tea leaves. The detail compound identification was observed and discussed in the text. (paper)

  18. Improving the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion with tannase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Na; Yin, Jun-Feng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Du, Qi-Zhen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Xu, Yong-Quan

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project. Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008, 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64 among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86 among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06 among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  20. Development of green tea scented with organic roses "Vitality" from Nevado Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Beltrán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/11/03 - Accepted: 2014/12/15The aim of this study was to obtain a flavored green tea with organic rose petals "Vitality" from Nevado Ecuador. Green tea, purchased from a private company, it was subjected to analysis to verify compliance with the requirements of standard INEN 2381: 2005. The Characterization of fresh rose petals was to made and for the dehydration was used two temperatures and two geometries. Analysis of total polyphenol content (Folin-Ciocalteu and antioxidant capacity (TEACmethod were performed. The dried petals, with a higher content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, were used in the preparation to flavored tea. Three formulations with different amounts of dried rose petals (10, 17.5 and 25% were tested sensorially by 100 judges to determine the aroma rose in the tea. The final product was analyzed to determine compliance of the requirements of the standard INEN of the tea. Finally acceptability and purchase intention of the product is evaluated. The values of content total polyphenol in the extracts of rose petals were superior to fruits such as blackberries, and strawberries.

  1. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Bui, Vuong N; Trinh, Dai Q; Yamaguchi, Emi; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Thampaisarn, Rapeewan; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2016-10-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective antiviral agents is warranted. We screened the antiviral effects of 11 herbal tea extracts (hibiscus, black tea, tencha, rosehip tea, burdock tea, green tea, jasmine tea, ginger tea, lavender tea, rose tea and oak tea) against the H5N1 HPAIV in vitro. Among the tested extracts, only the hibiscus extract and its fractionated extract (frHibis) highly and rapidly reduced the titers of all H5 HPAIVs and low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) used in the pre-treatment tests of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were inoculated with a mixture of the virus and the extract. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that anti-H5 monoclonal antibodies could not bind to the deformed H5 virus particles pretreated with frHibis. In post-treatment tests of MDCK cells cultured in the presence of frHibis after infection with H5N1 HPAIV, the frHibis inhibited viral replication and the expression of viral antigens and genes. Among the plants tested, hibiscus showed the most prominent antiviral effects against both H5 HPAIV and LPAIV.

  2. Both phenolic and non-phenolic green tea fractions inhibit migration of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-p...

  3. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the upregulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-Isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited five-fold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both mRNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by AhR and Nrf2 proteins were upregulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126 which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

  4. Green tea supplementation produces better neuroprotective effects than red and black tea in Alzheimer-like rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimidt, Helen L; Garcia, Alexandre; Martins, Alexandre; Mello-Carpes, Pamela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-10-01

    Green tea from Camellia sinensis plays a neuroprotective role in different neurodegenerative conditions, such as memory deficits in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, whether other teas from Camellia sinensis present similar neuroprotective effect still is not clear. Here we investigate effects of green, red and black tea supplementation on memory and hippocampus oxidative status in a rat model of Alzheimer-like disease (AD-like). Wistar male rats were supplemented with green, red or black tea during 8weeks before Aβ intra-hippocampal injection (2μL of Aβ-25-35, CA1 region). AD and sham rats were submitted to memory tests. After euthanasia, oxidative status in the bilateral hippocampus was quantified. Green and red teas avoid memory deficits in AD rats, but only green tea also avoids oxidative stress and damage in the hippocampus. Green tea was more effective for neuroprotection than red and black teas from the Camellia sinensis in the AD rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reactions of green and black teas with Cu(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, B A; Ferreira Severino, J; Pirker, K F

    2012-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of the products of reactions between Cu(II) and samples of green and black teas showed spectral components from at least six different Cu(II) complexes with both tea types. Several of these complexes were common to both teas in spite of major differences in their polyphenol compositions. The pH range observed for complex formation, and the total signal intensity in the pH range 4-8, were greatly different from those for the reactions of Cu(II) with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid, the main polyphenols responsible for the free radical signals observed during oxidation of these beverages. Components with spectral parameters similar to those of Cu(II) complexes with theanine, the major amino acid in tea, may contribute to two of the spectra recorded under acidic conditions. However, the initial complexes formed at the lowest pH values investigated are still unidentified. EPR spectra with parameters consistent with Cu(II) polyphenol complexes were only observed under alkaline conditions, thus suggesting that components of tea other than polyphenols might be more important in reactions with copper, and possibly other transition metals, in solutions under physiological conditions. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  6. Green Nanotechnology from Tea: Phytochemicals in Tea as Building Blocks for Production of Biocompatible Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nune, Satish K; Chanda, Nripen; Shukla, Ravi; Katti, Kavita; Kulkarni, Rajesh R; Thilakavathi, Subramanian; Mekapothula, Swapna; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh V

    2009-06-01

    Phytochemicals occluded in tea have been extensively used as dietary supplements and as natural pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various diseases including human cancer. Results on the reduction capabilities of phytochemicals present in tea to reduce gold salts to the corresponding gold nanoparticles are presented in this paper. The phytochemicals present in tea serve the dual roles as effective reducing agents to reduce gold and also as stabilizers to provide robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step. The Tea-generated gold nanoparticles (T-AuNPs), have demonstrated remarkable in vitro stability in various buffers including saline, histidine, HSA, and cysteine solutions. T-AuNPs with phytochemical coatings have shown significant affinity toward prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. Results on the cellular internalization of T-AuNPs through endocytosis into the PC-3 and MCF-7 cells are presented. The generation of T-AuNPs follows all principles of green chemistry and have been found to be non toxic as assessed through MTT assays. No 'man made' chemicals, other than gold salts, are used in this true biogenic green nanotechnological process thus paving excellent opportunities for their applications in molecular imaging and therapy.

  7. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. Methods A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times were determined together with the dissolution profiles in compendial and biorelevant media. Results All formulations disintegrated within 30 min, meeting the USP criteria for botanical formulations. An immediate release dissolution profile was achieved for gelatin capsules in all media but not for the specified HPMC formulations. Dissolution release was especially impaired for HPMCgell at pH 1.2 and for both HPMC formulations in FeSSIF media suggesting the potential for food interactions. Conclusions The delayed release from studied HPMC capsule materials is likely attributed to an interaction between the catechins, the major constituents of the green tea extract, and the capsule shell material. An assessment of in vitro dissolution is recommended prior to the release of a dietary supplement or clinical trial investigational product to ensure efficacy. PMID:25755998

  8. Sensory and Instrumental Flavor Changes in Green Tea Brewed Multiple Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores; Chambers, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Green teas in leaf form are brewed multiple times, a common selling point. However, the flavor changes, both sensory and volatile compounds, of green teas that have been brewed multiple times are unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine how the aroma and flavor of green teas change as they are brewed multiple times, to determine if a relationship exists between green tea flavors and green tea volatile compounds, and to suggest the number of times that green tea leaves can be brewed. The first and second brews of the green tea samples provided similar flavor intensities. The third and fourth brews provided milder flavors and lower bitterness and astringency when measured using descriptive sensory analysis. In the brewed liquor of green tea mostly linalool, nonanal, geraniol, jasmone, and β-ionone volatile compounds were present at low levels (using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The geraniol, linalool, and linalool oxide compounds in green tea may contribute to the floral/perfumy flavor. Green teas in leaf form may be brewed up to four times: the first two brews providing stronger flavor, bitterness, and astringency whereas the third and fourth brews will provide milder flavor, bitterness, and astringency. PMID:28239138

  9. Inhibition of Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity By Green Tea Catechins

    OpenAIRE

    Sagi, Irit; Lewis, Kristin; Tworowski, Dmitry; Shahar, Chen; Selzer, Tzvia

    2008-01-01

    Pectin methyl esterases (PMEs) and their endogenous inhibitors are involved in the regulation of many processes in plant physiology, ranging from tissue growth and fruit ripening to parasitic plant haustorial formation and host invasion. Thus, control of PME activity is critical for enhancing our understanding of plant physiological processes and regulation. Here we report on the identification of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea component, as a natural inhibitor for pectin ...

  10. [Role of green tea in oxidative stress prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, D; Muraca, U; Manasseri, L

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition caused by an increase of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) or by a shortage of the mechanisms of cellular protection and antioxidant defence. ROS have a potential oxidative effect towards various cellular macromolecules: proteins, nucleic acids, proteoglycans, lipids, with consequent damages in several cellular districts and promotion of the ageing process of the organism. However, some substances are able to prevent and/or reduce the damages caused by ROS; therefore, they are defined antioxidant. The present research studied, in a group of subjects, the antioxidant effects of the green tea, that was administered with fruit and vegetables in a strictly controlled diet. 50 subjects were selected and requested to daily consume 2-3 fruit portions (especially pineapple), 3-5 portions of vegetables (especially tomato) and 2-3 glasses of green tea for about 2 months to integrate the controlled basic diet. Some indicators of the oxidative stress were measured in the plasma before and after the integration period. The integration of a basic diet with supplements of fruit, vegetables and green tea turned out to be able in increasing both plasmatic total antioxidant capacity and endogenous antioxidant levels and to reduce the lipid peroxidation of the membranes, suggesting a reduction of the oxidative stress. These data suggest that an adequate supplement of antioxidants can prevent oxidative stress and correlated pathologies.

  11. Green tea as an effective antimicrobial for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda eReygaert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a very most common type of infection worldwide, and result in billions of dollars in medical care costs. Escherichia coli is the infective agent for 80%-90% of all UTIs. Green tea, derived from leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant has been shown to have various potential health benefits (e.g. cardiovascular disease and cancer. The major beneficial components of green tea have been characterized, and are now known to be polyphenolic catechins. The main catechins in green tea are (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, (--epicatechin (EC, and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. EGCG and EGC have been shown to have antimicrobial effects, but only EGC has been shown to be excreted in urine. Isolates of E. coli from urinary tract infections collected between 2007-2008 were characterized for antimicrobial resistance to standard drugs. Then 80 of these isolates, representing a wide spectrum of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, were selected for testing using an extract of green tea.Results: The concentrations of green tea extract tested were 0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 mg/ml. All of the strains tested, except one, had MICs of ≤4.0 mg/ml, with 40% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤2.5 mg/ml, 36% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤3.0 mg/ml, 18% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤3.5 mg/ml, and 5% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤4.0 mg/ml. Two control strains varied in susceptibility, one having an MIC of ≤2.5 mg/ml, another having an MIC of ≤3.5 mg/ml, and the third having an MIC of ≤4.0 mg/ml.Conclusion: Since EGC has been shown to have antimicrobial effects on E. coli, and EGC has been shown to be excreted in the urine in a high enough concentration to potentially be effective as an antimicrobial; these MIC results suggest that ingesting green tea could have potential antimicrobial effects on urinary tract infections caused by E. coli.

  12. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Maleki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan. The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea, respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas ( P 0.05. Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers.

  13. Neuroprotective Properties of the Standardized Extract from Camellia sinensis (Green Tea and Its Main Bioactive Components, Epicatechin and Epigallocatechin Gallate, in the 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Bitu Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Camellia sinensis (green tea is largely consumed, mainly in Asia. It possesses several biological effects such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objectives were to investigate the neuroprotective actions of the standardized extract (CS, epicatechin (EC and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, on a model of Parkinson’s disease. Male Wistar rats were divided into SO (sham-operated controls, untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned and 6-OHDA-lesioned treated for 2 weeks with CS (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg, EC (10 mg/kg, or EGCG (10 mg/kg groups. One hour after the last administration, animals were submitted to behavioral tests and euthanized and their striata and hippocampi were dissected for neurochemical (DA, DOPAC, and HVA and antioxidant activity determinations, as well as immunohistochemistry evaluations (TH, COX-2, and iNOS. The results showed that CS and catechins reverted behavioral changes, indicating neuroprotection manifested as decreased rotational behavior, increased locomotor activity, antidepressive effects, and improvement of cognitive dysfunction, as compared to the untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned group. Besides, CS, EP, and EGCG reversed the striatal oxidative stress and immunohistochemistry alterations. These results show that the neuroprotective effects of CS and its catechins are probably and in great part due to its powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, pointing out their potential for the prevention and treatment of PD.

  14. Multielement determination and speciation of major-to-ultratrace elements in green tea leaves by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hirotaka; Hokura, Akiko; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the multi-elemental composition of green tea leaves as well as chemical species in tea infusions, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used for elemental analysis and elemental speciation with the aid of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). As a result, the multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in green tea leaves and green tea infusions was carried out by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. About 40 elements in these tea samples could be determined in a wide concentration range of over 8 orders of magnitude. The extraction efficiency of each element was estimated as the ratio of its concentration in tea infusion to that in tea leaves. It was found from the experimental results that the elements in tea leaves could be classified into three characteristic groups, depending on their extraction efficiencies. Furthermore, tea infusions were analyzed by a combined system of SEC, UV absorption detector, and ICP-AES (or ICP-MS) for the speciation of major-to-ultratrace elements. Most of the elements in tea infusions were found to be present as associated complexes with large organic molecules. (author)

  15. Antioxidant Effects of Green-Tea on biochemical and Histopathological Changes of liver in Male Rats Poisoned by Malathion Insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Raoofi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphate pesticide which is widely used in agriculture, veterinary and industries. Oxidative stress has been identified as one of Malathion’s main molecular mechanisms of action in plasma, liver, pancreas, muscles and the brain. Green tea (Camellia sinensis, which is the most common drink across the world after water, has many antioxidant properties. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of Malathion on the liver and the preventive effects of green tea on Malathion-induced poisoning. Seventy-two Wistar male rats were randomly divided into the control, the sham, and the experimental groups (receiving respectively 40 mg/kg of Malathion; 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of green tea; and 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of Malathion and green tea respectively. All injections were performed intraperitoneally for 14 consecutive days. On the 15th day, blood samples were taken from the hearts of the rats to measure serum level of hepatic enzymes, and their liver tissues were removed to be studied. To do the statistical analysis One-way ANOVA test and Duncan’s test at the 5% significance level were used. aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Total Oxidation Capacity(TOC concentrations in the treatment groups with Malathion and green tea extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses showed a significant decline compared to the Malathion group(p<0.05, whileTotal Antioxidant Capacity (TAC level showed a significant increase with various doses of green tea and Malathion compared to the Malathion group (p<0.05. Green tea, probably due to its strong antioxidant properties, could improve the destructive effects of Malathion on the rat liver.

  16. Green Tea Consumption Affects Cognitive Dysfunction in the Elderly: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Ide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is known to have various health benefits for humans. However, the effect of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction remains to be clinically verified. We conducted a clinical study to investigate the effects of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction. Twelve elderly nursing home residents with cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination Japanese version (MMSE-J score: <28 participated in the study (2 men, 10 women; mean age, 88 years. The participants consumed green tea powder 2 g/day for 3 months. After three months of green tea consumption, the participants’ MMSE-J scores were significantly improved (before, 15.3 ± 7.7; after, 17.0 ± 8.2; p = 0.03. This result suggests that green tea consumption may be effective in improving cognitive function or reducing the progression of cognitive dysfunction; however, long-term large-scale controlled studies are needed to further clarify the effect.

  17. Cariostatic Effect of Green Tea in Comparison with Common Anticariogenic Agents: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Jazaeri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Anticariogenic effects of different mouthrinses have been shown previously. In this in vitro study the anticariogenic effects of polyphenol extract of green tea with 0.05% fluoride, 0.2% chlorhexidine and fluoride-chlorhexidine were compared. Materials and methods. This in vitro study was performed on 50 maxillary premolars in 5 groups: 1 normal saline; 2 a 10% solution of green tea polyphenol extract; 3 0.05% fluoride; 4 0.2% chlorhexidine; and 5 fluoride-chlorhexidine. Each tooth was placed in a tube which contained a cariogenic solution. Every day the teeth were washed (depending on the ex-perimental groups with 5 mL of mouthrinse solution. The depth of the caries was measured under a polarized light micro-scope. Data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 with Kolmogorov–Smirnov, one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results. The mean and standard deviation (in m of caries depth were 194±16.43, 175±17.94, 142±9.34, 155±13.27, and 144±8.57 in groups 1 to 5, respectively, with significant differences between the groups (P0.001, they were significantly less than those in groups 3 to 5 (P0.001. Conclusion. The anticariogenic effect of fluoride-chlorhexidine was the highest among the groups. Although green tea showed higher cariostatic effects than normal saline, in comparison with other mouthrinses, it is less effective. More re-search is strongly recommended for clinical use of green tea as an anticariogenic agent.

  18. Antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea and their major contributed antioxidant compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Shuqin; Wang, Kaidi; Lei, Yukun; Yao, Shuting; Lu, Baiyi; Huang, Weisu

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea were evaluated, and their major antioxidant compounds contributed to the total amount of synergy were determined. The antioxidant compounds in O. fragrans flowers with green tea were identified by LC-MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA. The synergistic antioxidant interactions between O. fragrans flowers with green tea and their antioxidant compounds were tested using the Prieto?s model after the simulated digestion. T...

  19. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstedt Sandra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. Methods The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times. Results Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water. Conclusions Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea. Trial registration number NCT01086189

  20. Radioprotective effects saffron and its combination with green tea against γ-radiation-induced DNA damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, Apurva; Abraham, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Protective effects of aqueous extract of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L.) alone and its combination with green tea against γ-radiation-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress were investigated in Swiss albino mice. Saffron (40 mg/kg bw) alone and in combination with green tea (40 mg/kg bw) were orally administered to mice for six consecutive days, followed by exposure to γ-radiation (2.25 Gy) on 6 th day after final feeding. Antigenotoxic effect of saffron was assayed using micronucleus test in bone marrow cells which showed a significant decrease in the number of micronucleated PCEs in saffron alone and its combination with green tea pre-treated animals when compared with the radiation alone treated animals. Saffron alone and its combination with green tea pre-treated animals showed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation levels with a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant defense system enzymes, viz. acetylcholine esterase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and non-enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), when compared with the radiation alone treated animals. Our results suggested that saffron in combination with green tea exhibits radioprotective effects against γ-radiation induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. (author)

  1. In vitro activity of 23 tea extractions and epigallocatechin gallate against Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Zhai, Lin; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the susceptibility of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus fumigatus using the EUCAST microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method (final tea supernatant concentration range 5.......0-0.005 mg/ml) to 23 different teas and tea catechins including epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) isolated from green tea. All teas exhibited potent in vitro antifungal activity against C. glabrata. Six out of nine green teas and three of eight black teas had an MIC of 0.078 mg/ml, one white tea had an MIC...... of 0.156 mg/ml, and finally three of five oolong teas had an MIC of 0.156 mg/ml. Three teas exhibited activity against C. albicans (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), one green tea was active against C. parapsilosis (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), but none were effective against C. krusei, C. tropicalis or A. fumigatus...

  2. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in green tea affected in harvesting time and their correlation to consumer preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmok; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Mina K

    2016-10-01

    Current study was designed to find out how tea harvesting time affects the volatile and non-volatile compounds profiles of green tea. In addition, correlation of instrumental volatile and non-volatile compounds analyses to consumer perception were analyzed. Overall, earlier harvested green tea had stronger antioxidant capacity (~61.0%) due to the polyphenolic compounds from catechin (23,164 mg/L), in comparison to later harvested green teas (11,961 mg/L). However, high catechin content in green tea influenced negatively the consumer likings of green tea, due to high bitterness (27.6%) and astringency (13.4%). Volatile compounds drive consumer liking of green tea products were also identified, that included linalool, 2,3-methyl butanal, 2-heptanone, (E,E)-3,5-Octadien-2-one. Finding from current study are useful for green tea industry as it provide the difference in physiochemical properties of green tea harvested at different intervals.

  3. Multiligand Metal-Phenolic Assembly from Green Tea Infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Md Arifur; Björnmalm, Mattias; Bertleff-Zieschang, Nadja; Ju, Yi; Mettu, Srinivas; Leeming, Michael G; Caruso, Frank

    2018-03-07

    The synthesis of hybrid functional materials using the coordination-driven assembly of metal-phenolic networks (MPNs) is of interest in diverse areas of materials science. To date, MPN assembly has been explored as monoligand systems (i.e., containing a single type of phenolic ligand) where the phenolic components are primarily obtained from natural sources via extraction, isolation, and purification processes. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of MPNs from a readily available, crude phenolic source-green tea (GT) infusions. We employ our recently introduced rust-mediated continuous assembly strategy to prepare these GT MPN systems. The resulting hollow MPN capsules contain multiple phenolic ligands and have a shell thickness that can be controlled through the reaction time. These multiligand MPN systems have different properties compared to the analogous MPN systems reported previously. For example, the Young's modulus (as determined using colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy) of the GT MPN system presented herein is less than half that of MPN systems prepared using tannic acid and iron salt solutions, and the disassembly kinetics are faster (∼50%) than other, comparable MPN systems under identical disassembly conditions. Additionally, the use of rust-mediated assembly enables the formation of stable capsules under conditions where the conventional approach (i.e., using iron salt solutions) results in colloidally unstable dispersions. These differences highlight how the choice of phenolic ligand and its source, as well as the assembly protocol (e.g., using solution-based or solid-state iron sources), can be used to tune the properties of MPNs. The strategy presented herein expands the toolbox of MPN assembly while also providing new insights into the nature and robustness of metal-phenolic interfacial assembly when using solution-based or solid-state metal sources.

  4. Polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating white tea extract for nutraceutical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Lubinu, Giuseppe; Madau, Pierluigi; Pala, Nicolino; Nurra, Salvatore; Mariani, Alberto; Sechi, Mario

    2015-02-25

    With the aim to obtain controlled release and to preserve the antioxidant activity of the polyphenols, nanoencapsulation of white tea extract into polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and alginate was successfully performed. NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and were characterized in terms of morphology and chemical properties. Total polyphenols and catechins contents before and after encapsulation were determined. Moreover, in vitro release profiles of encapsulated polyphenols from NPs were investigated in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The antioxidant activity and stability of encapsulated extract were further evaluated. Interestingly, NPs released 20% of the polyphenols in simulated gastric medium, and 80% after 5 h at pH 7.4, showing a good capacity to control the polyphenols delivery. Furthermore, DPPH(•) assay confirmed that white tea extract retained its antioxidant activity and NPs protected tea polyphenols from degradation, thus opening new perspectives for the exploitation of white tea extract-loaded NPs for nutraceutical applications.

  5. Extraction and analysis of tea (Camellia sinensis) seed oil from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMONDI-GUYA

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... spectrophotometer (Model JENWAY6705, multi-cell changer) against a blank ... All the tea seed oil extracts were golden yellow in color and liquid at .... respectively, the two being products of oxidative rancidity. (Chindo et al.

  6. The antiplaque efficacy of white tea extract mouthrinse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika Kalyan Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to assess the antiplaque efficacy of a mouthwash containing white tea. It also assessed the antibacterial properties of white tea against Prevotella intermedia (Pi, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa in vitro. Materials and Methods: Forty-five subjects with healthy periodontium were randomly chosen and were divided into three groups and advised to use mouthwashes A, B, and C (Group A, white tea; Group B, distilled water [placebo]; Group C, chlorhexidine for 4 days. They were advised to refrain from any kind of mechanical oral hygiene techniques. Plaque index (PI was checked on day 1 and 5. In vitro testing for against Pi, Pg, and Aa against white tea extract was undertaken. Results: PI significantly increased from day 1 to day 5 (P < 0.01 in Groups A, B, and C. In inter-group comparison, there was a statistical significant difference between white tea mouthrinse group and placebo group, chlorhexidine group and placebo group and also chlorhexidine group and white tea mouthrinse group. However, chlohexidine showed superior antiplaque activity. In vitro test, white tea showed effective inhibition against all three bacterial strains Pi, Pg, and Aa at 1% concentration. Conclusion: White tea mouthrinse potently inhibits plaque formation although not as comparable to chlorhexidine mouthrinse. Hence, for those preferring herbal products, white tea mouthrinse is a good option.

  7. Quantification of catechins and caffeine from green tea (Camellia sinensis infusions, extract, and ready-to-drink beverages Quantificação de catequinas e cafeína do chá verde (Camellia sinensis infusão, extrato e bebida pronta

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    Rafaela Macedo Mendes De Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the levels of catechins and caffeine in various forms of presentation of green tea: infusion tea bags, extract, and ready-to-drink beverage and, based on their content, identify the most suitable for consumption. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analytical method was used for the quantification of catechins and caffeine. The tea bags had the highest concentration of total catechins with 5 to 9.5% followed by the extract with 3.64 to 4.88%, and ready-to-drink green tea beverage showed low levels of catechins, from 0.14 to 0.26%. As for caffeine content, green tea extract had higher concentration (1.96 to 3.54% compared to the tea bags (1.39 to 1.57%. Tea bags were found the most suitable for consumption because it contains higher amounts of catechins and smaller amounts of caffeine.O presente estudo teve como objetivo quantificar os teores de catequinas e cafeína em diferentes formas de apresentação do chá verde -infusão, extrato e bebida pronta - e, baseado no teor destes constituintes, identificar aquela mais apropriada para consumo. A cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE foi a metodologia analítica utilizada para a quantificação das catequinas e cafeína. O chá verde sachê obteve maior concentração de catequinas totais com 5 a 9,5%, seguido do extrato com 3,64 a 4,88%, o chá verde bebida pronta apresentou baixos teores de catequinas, 0,14 a 0,26%. Quanto ao teor de cafeína, o chá verde na forma de extrato obteve maior concentração, 1,96 a 3,54%, quando comparado ao sachê, 1,39 a 1,57%. O chá verde na forma de sachê mostrou-se mais indicado para consumo por conter maiores quantidades de catequinas e menores quantidades de cafeína.

  8. Effect of green tea as a protective measure against dental erosion in coronary dentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Denise Rodrigues DE MORAES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of green tea as a protective measure on eroded dentin. Disks of human coronary dentin were selected based on surface hardness and randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 10: DW - distilled water, CHX - 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate, and GT - green tea. The disks were allowed to acquire pellicle for 2 hours and were then subjected to 3 cycles per day of demineralization (C6H8O7 0.05 M, pH 3.75, 60 s, treatment (DW or CHX or GT, 5 min and remineralization (artificial saliva, 60 min over a period of 3 days. Changes in the dentin were determined by loss of surface hardness (%SHL and mechanical profilometry analysis at the end of each day. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test for %SHL and profilometry (p 0.05. A significant difference was observed between DW and GT treatments for wear and roughness measurements (p < 0.05. The green tea extract solution was able to reduce the wear and roughness caused by dentin erosion under the conditions of this study.

  9. Stability and anti-glycation properties of intermediate moisture apple products fortified with green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Vera; Corey, Mark; Kerr, William; Vantaggi, Claudia

    2011-07-15

    Intermediate moisture products made from blanched apple flesh and green tea extract (about 6mg of monomeric flavan 3-ols added per g of dry apple) or blanched apple flesh (control) were produced, and their quality attributes were investigated over storage for two months at water activity (a(w)) levels of 0.55 and 0.75, at 30°C. Products were evaluated for colour (L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) Hunter's parameters), phytochemical contents (flavan 3-ols, chlorogenic acid, dihydrochalcones, ascorbic acid and total polyphenols), ferric reducing antioxidant potential, 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ability to inhibit formation of fructose-induced advanced glycation end-products. During storage of the fortified and unfortified intermediate moisture apples, water availability was sufficient to support various chemical reactions involving phytochemicals, which degraded at different rates: ascorbic acid>flavan 3-ols>dihydrochalcones and chlorogenic acid. Colour variations occurred at slightly slower rates after green tea addition. In the intermediate moisture apple, antioxidant and anti-glycoxidative properties decreased at similar rates (half-life was about 80d at a(w) of 0.75, 30°C). In the green tea-fortified intermediate moisture apple, the antioxidant activity decreased at a slow rate (half-life was 165d at a(w) of 0.75, 30°C) and the anti-glycoxidative properties did not change, indicating that flavan 3-ol degradation involved the formation of derivatives that retained the properties of their parent compounds. Since these properties are linked to oxidative- and advanced glycation end-product-related diseases, these results suggest that green tea fortification of intermediate moisture apple products could be a valuable means of product innovation, to address consumers' nutritional needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of different brewing conditions on catechin content and sensory acceptance in Turkish green tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklar, Sena; Ertas, Erdal; Ozdemir, Ibrahim S; Karadeniz, Bulent

    2015-10-01

    The optimal brewing conditions for Turkish green tea were determined on the basis of extracted catechins and sensory attributes. Green tea infusions were prepared at 75, 85 and 95 °C with brewing times of 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 45 min. The amounts of epistructured catechins (EGCG, EGC, ECG, EC), non-epistructured catechins (C, GC, GCG) and caffeine in brewed tea samples were analysed. Sensory analyses were performed by nine trained panelists for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability. Brewing at 85 °C for 3 min was found to be the optimal condition, where the EGCG content was at a maximum of 50.69 mg/100 ml with the highest sensory scores. It was observed that the yield of epistructured catechins increased rapidly for the first 3-5 min of brewing at 85 °C, and increased brewing time resulted in a decrease in the yield of epistructured catechins. The amount of nonepistructured catechins continued to increase with longer extraction times. Sensory scores for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability were highest at 3 and 5 min brewing times at all temperatures. Sensory scores were very low for 30 and 45 min brewing at 85 and 95 °C due to the bitter taste and dark colour.

  11. A rapid green strategy for the synthesis of Au "meatball"-like nanoparticles using green tea for SERS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shichao; Zhou, Xi; Yang, Xiangrui; Hou, Zhenqing; Shi, Yanfeng; Zhong, Lubin; Jiang, Qian; Zhang, Qiqing

    2014-09-01

    We report a simple and rapid biological approach to synthesize water-soluble and highly roughened "meatball"-like Au nanoparticles using green tea extract under microwave irradiation. The synthesized Au meatball-like nanoparticles possess excellent monodispersity and uniform size (250 nm in diameter). Raman measurements show that these tea-generated meatball-like gold nanostructures with high active surface areas exhibit a high enhancement of surface-enhanced Raman scattering. In addition, the Au meatball-like nanoparticles demonstrate good biocompatibility and remarkable in vitro stability at the biological temperature. Meanwhile, the factors that influence the Au meatball-like nanoparticles morphology are investigated, and the mechanisms behind the nonspherical shape evolution are discussed.

  12. Fungal evaluation on green tea irradiated with different water activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Correa, Benedito

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the fungal contamination in green tea irradiated with different radiation doses and water activities. Samples were irradiated in 60 Co irradiator at doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0kGy with three different water activities. In the sample with decreased water activity, the count of fungi was lower than others samples followed by original Aw and the samples with the higher water activity, however there is no difference between the increased and decreased water activities samples after the irradiation on fungi contamination at dose of 2.5 kGy. (author)

  13. Fungal evaluation on green tea irradiated with different water activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CTR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes; Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the fungal contamination in green tea irradiated with different radiation doses and water activities. Samples were irradiated in {sup 60}Co irradiator at doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0kGy with three different water activities. In the sample with decreased water activity, the count of fungi was lower than others samples followed by original Aw and the samples with the higher water activity, however there is no difference between the increased and decreased water activities samples after the irradiation on fungi contamination at dose of 2.5 kGy. (author)

  14. Detecting aroma changes of local flavored green tea (Camellia sinensis) using electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralisnawati, D.; Sukartiko, A. C.; Suryandono, A.; Triyana, K.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is currently the sixth largest tea producer in the world. However, consumption of the product in the country was considered low. Besides tea, the country also has various local flavor ingredients that are potential to be developed. The addition of local flavored ingredients such as ginger, lemon grass, and lime leaves on green tea products is gaining acceptance from consumers and producers. The aroma of local flavored green tea was suspected to changes during storage, while its sensory testing has some limitations. Therefore, the study aimed to detect aroma changes of local flavors added in green tea using electronic nose (e-nose), an instrument developed to mimic the function of the human nose. The test was performed on a four-gram sample. The data was collected with 120 seconds of sensing time and 60 seconds of blowing time. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to find out the aroma changes of local flavored green tea during storage. We observed that electronic nose could detect aroma changes of ginger flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 with variance percentage 99.6%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lemon grass flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.3%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lime leaves flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.4%.

  15. Modification of functional quality of beer by using microencapsulated green tea (Camellia sinensis L. and Ganoderma mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum L. bioactive compounds

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    Belščak-Cvitanović Ana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing interest in production of frequently consumed functional food products has focused the present study on implementation of microencapsulated Ganoderma mushroom and green tea bioactive compounds in beer production. Electrostatic extrusion assisted microencapsulation of green tea and Ganoderma extracts enabled production of particles ranging from 490 to 1000 μm in size, with up to 75% of entrapped total polyphenols. Dried, powdered extracts, as well as microparticles encapsulating Ganoderma and green tea extracts that exhibited the best morphological properties and retarded release of polyphenols (alginate and alginate-chitosan coated, as well as chitosan coated pectin microbeads were implemented in beer production. The addition of Ganoderma microbeads to pilsner beer did not augment its polyphenolic concentration (TPC, as opposed to the addition of green tea encapsulating microbeads to radler, while adding dried Ganoderma and spray dried green tea extracts enabled to increase the TPC for up to 3-fold higher values. Ganoderma dried extract-enriched pilsner beer and spray dried green tea extract-enriched radler were preferred in terms of sensory properties, due to the lowest bitterness intensity and most pronounced herbal aroma of the added adjuncts. Refrigerated storage of Ganoderma hydrogel microbeads-enriched pilsner beer revealed fluctuations of TPC, while green tea hydrogel microbeads-enriched radler exhibited better stability. The established methodology provides a procedure suitable for microencapsulate-enrichment of drink and food products, thus setting a reliable basis for future functional food production by microencapsulate implementation strategies. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 46001, Grant no. 46010 and Grant no. 31020

  16. Text mining factor analysis (TFA) in green tea patent data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Sela; Suprijadi, Jadi; Zulhanif

    2017-03-01

    Factor analysis has become one of the most widely used multivariate statistical procedures in applied research endeavors across a multitude of domains. There are two main types of analyses based on factor analysis: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Both EFA and CFA aim to observed relationships among a group of indicators with a latent variable, but they differ fundamentally, a priori and restrictions made to the factor model. This method will be applied to patent data technology sector green tea to determine the development technology of green tea in the world. Patent analysis is useful in identifying the future technological trends in a specific field of technology. Database patent are obtained from agency European Patent Organization (EPO). In this paper, CFA model will be applied to the nominal data, which obtain from the presence absence matrix. While doing processing, analysis CFA for nominal data analysis was based on Tetrachoric matrix. Meanwhile, EFA model will be applied on a title from sector technology dominant. Title will be pre-processing first using text mining analysis.

  17. Health Benefits of Theanine in Green Tea: A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Zhejiang University Tea Research Institute, Hangzhou 310058, 2Guizhou Tea and Tea Products Quality Supervision and. Inspection ... The bioactive functions of theanine as well as its .... the concentrations of dopamine (DA) and hepatic.

  18. The effects of green tea extract on teratogenicity induced by low frequency electromagnetic field on bone marrow Balb/C mice embryo

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    Baharara Javad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electromagnetic fields produce free radicals which might be teratogen. Camellia sinensis is rich in natural antioxidants and antioxidants can neutralize free radicals effects. In present research the effect of C. sinensis extract in reduction of teratogenicity induced by electromagnetic field with 50 gauss intensity was studied on bone marrow of Balb/C mice fetuses. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 Balb/C pregnant mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, sham exposed (off position, experimental 1 (electromagnetic field with 50-gauss intensity and experimental 2 (treatment by C. sinensis extract + electromagnetic field with 50-gauss intensity. After treatment period, the bone marrow aspirates of Balb/C mice embryos were prepared and studied by Giemsa. The quantitative data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kolmogorov- Smirnov using SPSS16 software at the level of p<0.05. Results: The mean number of promyelocytes, myelocytes, erythrocytes, necrotic and apoptotic cells in experimental group1 compared with sham exposed embryos showed significant increase but the mean number of eosinophils in experimental group 1 compared with sham exposed embryos showed significant decrease. The mean number of promyelocyte and erythrocyte in experimental group 2 compared with experimental group 1 showed significant decrease. The mean of necrotic and apoptotic cells, in experimental group 2 compared with experimental group 1 showed significant increase. Conclusion: Usage of C. sinensis can decrease the damage due to teratogenicity induced by low frequency electromagnetic field in some cells.

  19. Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Tannis M; Whelan, Anne Marie; Killian, Lara; Doucette, Steve; Kirk, Sara; Foy, Elizabeth

    2012-12-12

    Preparations of green tea are used as aids in weight loss and weight maintenance. Catechins and caffeine, both contained in green tea, are each believed to have a role in increasing energy metabolism, which may lead to weight loss. A number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the role of green tea in weight loss have been published; however, the efficacy of green tea preparations in weight loss remains unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of green tea preparations for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults. We searched the following databases from inception to specified date as well as reference lists of relevant articles: The Cochrane Library (Issue 12, 2011), MEDLINE (December 2011), EMBASE (December 2011), CINAHL (January 2012), AMED (January 2012), Biological Abstracts (January 2012), IBIDS (August 2010), Obesity+ (January 2012), IPA (January 2012) and Web of Science (December 2011). Current Controlled Trials with links to other databases of ongoing trials was also searched. RCTs of at least 12 weeks' duration comparing green tea preparations to a control in overweight or obese adults. Three authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias and quality, with differences resolved by consensus. Heterogeneity of included studies was assessed visually using forest plots and quantified using the I(2) statistic. We synthesised data using meta-analysis and descriptive analysis as appropriate; subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Adverse effects reported in studies were recorded. Due to the level of heterogeneity among studies, studies were divided into two groups; those conducted in Japan and those conducted outside Japan. Study length ranged between 12 and 13 weeks. Meta-analysis of six studies conducted outside Japan showed a mean difference (MD) in weight loss of -0.04 kg (95% CI -0.5 to 0.4; P = 0.88; I(2) = 18%; 532 participants). The eight studies conducted in Japan were not similar

  20. Characterization of Two Homogalacturonan Pectins with Immunomodulatory Activity from Green Tea

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    Huijun Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two natural homogalacturonan (HG pectins (MW ca. 20 kDa were isolated from green tea based on their immunomodulatory activity. The crude tea polysaccharides (TPS1 and TPS2 were obtained from green tea leaves by hot water extraction and followed by 40% and 70% ethanol precipitation, respectively. Two homogenous water soluble polysaccharides (TPS1-2a and TPS1-2b were obtained from TPS1 after purification with gel permeation, which gave a higher phagocytic effect than TPS2. A combination of composition, methylation and configuration analyses, as well as NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that TPS1-2a and TPS1-2b were homogalacturonan (HG pectins consisting of a backbone of 1,4-linked α-d-galacturonic acid (GalA residues with 28.4% and 26.1% of carboxyl groups as methyl ester, respectively. The immunological assay results demonstrated that TPS1-2, which consisted mainly of HG pectins, showed phagocytosis-enhancing activity in HL-60 cells.

  1. Differential Contribution of Jasmine Floral Volatiles to the Aroma of Scented Green Tea

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    Jian-Xia Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea volatiles’ generation and retention over manufacturing processes are crucial for tea quality. In this study, floral volatile adsorption and retention in green tea scented with Jasminum sambac flowers were examined over the scenting process. Out of 34 enhanced volatiles in the scented tea, β-ionone, β-linalool, indole, and methyl anthranilate were the most potent odorants with 5.1–45.2-fold higher odor activity values than the corresponding controls in the nonscented tea. Scenting efficiencies for the floral volatiles retained in the scented tea (the percentage of volatile abundance over its corresponding amount in jasmine flowers ranged from 0.22% for α-farnesene to 75.5% for β-myrcene. Moreover, due to additional rounds of heat treatment for scented green tea manufacturing, some volatiles such as carotenoid-derived geraniol and β-ionone and lipid-derived (Z-jasmone were heat-enhanced and others such as nonanal were heat-desorbed in the scented green tea. Our study revealed that dynamic volatile absorption and desorption collectively determined tea volatile retention and tea aroma. Our findings may have a great potential for practical improvement of tea aroma.

  2. Green tea and its major polyphenol EGCG increase the activity of oral peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narotzki, Baruch; Levy, Yishai; Aizenbud, Dror; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2013-01-01

    Oral peroxidases (OPO) consist mainly of salivary peroxidase and myeloperoxidase and are involved in oral defense mechanisms. Salivary peroxidase is synthesized and secreted by salivary glands, whereas myeloperoxidase is found in polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which migrate into the oral cavity at gingival crevices. Green tea is the world's second most popular drink after water. Polyphenols are the most biologically active group of tea components. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the interaction between green tea & EGCG (Epigallocatechin 3-gallate), its main polyphenol and OPO. In previous studies we have shown that elderly trained people who drink green tea for 3 months, have a higher level of OPO activity compared to non-drinkers. Thus, we decided to extend our project in order to understand the above observations by studying the interaction of green tea and OPO both in vitro and in vivo. Addition of green tea and black tea infusions (50 μl/ml) and EGCG (50 μM) to saliva, resulted in a sharp rise of OPO activity +280% (p = 0.009), 54% (p = 0.04) and 42% (p = 0.009), respectively. The elevation of OPO activity due to addition of green tea and EGCG was in a dose dependent manner: r = 0.91 (p = 0.001) and r = 0.637 (p = 0.019), respectively. Also, following green tea infusion mouth rinsing, a rise of OPO activity was observed: +268% (p = 0.159). These results may be of great clinical importance, as tea consumer's oral epithelium may have better protection against the deleterious effects of hydroxyl radicals, produced by not removed hydrogen peroxides in the presence of metal ions. Higher OPO activity upon green tea drinking may provide an extra protection against oxidative stress in the oral cavity.

  3. Characterization of the volatile components in green tea by IRAE-HS-SPME/GC-MS combined with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Qin; Yin, Hong-Xu; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Dong, Chun-Wang; Deng, Yu-Liang

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, a novel infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction (IRAE-HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for rapid determination of the volatile components in green tea. The extraction parameters such as fiber type, sample amount, infrared power, extraction time, and infrared lamp distance were optimized by orthogonal experimental design. Under optimum conditions, a total of 82 volatile compounds in 21 green tea samples from different geographical origins were identified. Compared with classical water-bath heating, the proposed technique has remarkable advantages of considerably reducing the analytical time and high efficiency. In addition, an effective classification of green teas based on their volatile profiles was achieved by partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Furthermore, the application of a dual criterion based on the variable importance in the projection (VIP) values of the PLS-DA models and on the category from one-way univariate analysis (ANOVA) allowed the identification of 12 potential volatile markers, which were considered to make the most important contribution to the discrimination of the samples. The results suggest that IRAE-HS-SPME/GC-MS technique combined with multivariate analysis offers a valuable tool to assess geographical traceability of different tea varieties.

  4. Characterization of the volatile components in green tea by IRAE-HS-SPME/GC-MS combined with multivariate analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Qin Yang

    Full Text Available In the present work, a novel infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction (IRAE-HS-SPME followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS was developed for rapid determination of the volatile components in green tea. The extraction parameters such as fiber type, sample amount, infrared power, extraction time, and infrared lamp distance were optimized by orthogonal experimental design. Under optimum conditions, a total of 82 volatile compounds in 21 green tea samples from different geographical origins were identified. Compared with classical water-bath heating, the proposed technique has remarkable advantages of considerably reducing the analytical time and high efficiency. In addition, an effective classification of green teas based on their volatile profiles was achieved by partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA. Furthermore, the application of a dual criterion based on the variable importance in the projection (VIP values of the PLS-DA models and on the category from one-way univariate analysis (ANOVA allowed the identification of 12 potential volatile markers, which were considered to make the most important contribution to the discrimination of the samples. The results suggest that IRAE-HS-SPME/GC-MS technique combined with multivariate analysis offers a valuable tool to assess geographical traceability of different tea varieties.

  5. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  6. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  7. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Qin, Guangyong

    2017-03-30

    As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE) technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  8. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using green tea leaves: Experimental study on the morphological, rheological and antibacterial behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjavani, Maryam; Nikkhah, V.; Sarafraz, M. M.; Shoja, Saeed; Sarafraz, Marzieh

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, silver nanoparticles are produced via green synthesis method using green tea leaves. The introduced method is cost-effective and available, which provides condition to manipulate and control the average nanoparticle size. The produced particles were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopic images, UV visualization, digital light scattering, zeta potential measurement and thermal conductivity measurement. Results demonstrated that the produced samples of silver nanoparticles are pure in structure (based on the x-ray diffraction test), almost identical in terms of morphology (spherical and to some extent cubic) and show longer stability when dispersed in deionized water. The UV-visualization showed a peak in 450 nm, which is in accordance with the previous studies reported in the literature. Results also showed that small particles have higher thermal and antimicrobial performance. As green tea leaves are used for extracting the silver nanoparticles, the method is eco-friendly. The thermal behaviour of silver nanoparticle was also analysed by dispersing the nanoparticles inside the deionized water. Results showed that thermal conductivity of the silver nano-fluid is higher than that of obtained for the deionized water. Activity of Ag nanoparticles against some bacteria was also examined to find the suitable antibacterial application for the produced particles.

  9. Sensory quality evaluation for appearance of needle-shaped green tea based on computer vision and nonlinear tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Wang; Zhu, Hong-Kai; Zhao, Jie-Wen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Chen, Quan-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Tea is one of the three greatest beverages in the world. In China, green tea has the largest consumption, and needle-shaped green tea, such as Maofeng tea and Sparrow Tongue tea, accounts for more than 40% of green tea (Zhu et al., 2017). The appearance of green tea is one of the important indexes during the evaluation of green tea quality. Especially in market transactions, the price of tea is usually determined by its appearance (Zhou et al., 2012). Human sensory evaluation is usually conducted by experts, and is also easily affected by various factors such as light, experience, psychological and visual factors. In the meantime, people may distinguish the slight differences between similar colors or textures, but the specific levels of the tea are hard to determine (Chen et al., 2008). As human description of color and texture is qualitative, it is hard to evaluate the sensory quality accurately, in a standard manner, and objectively. Color is an important visual property of a computer image (Xie et al., 2014; Khulal et al., 2016); texture is a visual performance of image grayscale and color changing with spatial positions, which can be used to describe the roughness and directivity of the surface of an object (Sanaeifar et al., 2016). There are already researchers who have used computer visual image technologies to identify the varieties, levels, and origins of tea (Chen et al., 2008; Xie et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2017). Most of their research targets are crush, tear, and curl (CTC) red (green) broken tea, curly green tea (Bilochun tea), and flat-typed green tea (West Lake Dragon-well green tea) as the information sources. However, the target of the above research is to establish a qualitative evaluation method on tea quality (Fu et al., 2013). There is little literature on the sensory evaluation of the appearance quality of needle-shaped green tea, especially research on a quantitative evaluation model (Zhou et al., 2012; Zhu et al., 2017).

  10. Study on flavour volatiles of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile components of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) tea produced by two different kinds of technological process separately namely: vacuum and water immersion were studied. It was shown by the sensory evaluation that the color of the soup and the extracted leaves of GABA tea were similar to that of the oolong tea, ...

  11. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized open-label active-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Sadrneshin, Sara; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Ashraf, Alireza

    2018-02-01

    Green tea is known as a dietary supplement and a novel functional food worldwide. Since there are increasing preclinical evidence about efficacy of green tea for treating osteoarthritis, this study has aimed at assessing its efficacy and safety for patients with knee osteoarthritis. This is a randomized open-label active-controlled clinical trial. As many as fifty adults with osteoarthritis of knee were randomly allocated to receive the green tea extract (in dosage form of tablet) plus diclofenac tablet as "intervention group"; or: diclofenac tablet alone as "control group" for a period of four weeks. Patients were assessed at the beginning of intervention, and then 4 weeks later, in terms of pain score via visual analogue scale (VAS), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire's total score in addition to its 3 sub-scores. Furthermore, they were asked about any adverse effects during intervention period. Mean differences of VAS pain, total WOMAC, and WOMAC physical function scores in green tea group showed a significant reduction, compared with the control group (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P = 0.004, respectively). However, No significant differences between the two groups were observed, regarding mean differences of WOMAC pain and stiffness scores of the enrolled patients (P = 0.163, and P = 0.150, respectively). Additionally, only 1 patient reported gastric upset [in control group]. It seems that green tea extract might well be considered as an adjunctive treatment both for control of pain and for the betterment of knee joint physical function in adults with osteoarthritis. However, further studies of longer duration and larger sample size are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Polyphenol Bioaccessibility and Sugar Reducing Capacity of Black, Green, and White Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Coe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a widely consumed beverage and recognised for its potential enhancing effect on human health due to its rich polyphenol content. While a number of studies have investigated the quantity and type of polyphenols present in different tea samples, no study has reported the potential effect of digestive enzymes on the availability of tea polyphenols for human absorption or the subsequent impact on glycaemic response. The objectives of the present study were to assess the total polyphenol content of different teas, to assess the bioaccessibility of polyphenols in whole and bagged teas, and to determine the effect of black, white, and green tea infusions on sugar release. All of the teas were a significant source of polyphenols (10–116 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g. There was an overall increase in the release of polyphenols from both the bagged and the whole teas following in vitro digestion. Bagged green tea significantly ( reduced rapidly digestible starch from white bread samples compared to control and black and white bagged teas. The present study confirms that tea is a rich source of polyphenols and highlights the potential benefits it may have on modulating glycaemic response in humans.

  13. Effectiveness of Green Tea in a Randomized Human Cohort: Relevance to Diabetes and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naushad Ali Toolsee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have argued that green tea could mitigate diabetes and its complications. This study investigated the phytophenolic profile of Mauritian green tea and its antioxidant propensity. The effect of green tea on the risk factors: waist-hip ratio, glucose level, arterial pressure, antioxidant status, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in prediabetics was assessed. The experimental group consumed 3 cups of green tea daily for 14 weeks followed by a 2-week washout period. The control group followed a water regimen. Green tea contained high level of phenolics related to its antioxidant power. Green tea suppressed waist-hip ratio of women from a significant increase and suppressed mean arterial pressure of men and women from a significant decrease after week 14. It reduced ALT level in women by 13.0% (P<0.1 while increasing the antioxidant potential of men and women sera by 2.7% (P<0.1 and 5.1% (P<0.1. The study timescale may have been too short to enable demonstration of effects on fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c outcomes. Green tea regimen could form part of a healthy lifestyle that might ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome and subsequent risks for diabetes and its complications. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01248143.

  14. Application of Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy to optimization of green tea steaming process conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Daiki; Bamba, Takeshi; Oku, Yuichi; Yonetani, Tsutomu; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we constructed prediction models by metabolic fingerprinting of fresh green tea leaves using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis to objectively optimize of the steaming process conditions in green tea manufacture. The steaming process is the most important step for manufacturing high quality green tea products. However, the parameter setting of the steamer is currently determined subjectively by the manufacturer. Therefore, a simple and robust system that can be used to objectively set the steaming process parameters is necessary. We focused on FT-NIR spectroscopy because of its simple operation, quick measurement, and low running costs. After removal of noise in the spectral data by principal component analysis (PCA), PLS regression analysis was performed using spectral information as independent variables, and the steaming parameters set by experienced manufacturers as dependent variables. The prediction models were successfully constructed with satisfactory accuracy. Moreover, the results of the demonstrated experiment suggested that the green tea steaming process parameters could be predicted on a larger manufacturing scale. This technique will contribute to improvement of the quality and productivity of green tea because it can objectively optimize the complicated green tea steaming process and will be suitable for practical use in green tea manufacture. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Epigenetic effects of green tea polyphenols in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Susanne M; Wang, Piwen; Carpenter, Catherine L; Heber, David

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics describes heritable alterations of gene expression and chromatin organization without changes in DNA sequence. Both hypermethylation and hypomethylation of DNA can affect gene expression and the multistep process of carcinogenesis. Epigenetic changes are reversible and may be targeted by dietary interventions. Bioactive compounds from green tea (GT) such as (–)-epigallocatechin gallate have been shown to alter DNA methyltransferase activity in studies of esophageal, oral, skin, Tregs, lung, breast and prostate cancer cells, which may contribute to the chemopreventive effect of GT. Three out of four mouse model studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of (–)-epigallocatechin gallate on DNA methylation. A human study demonstrated that decreased methylation of CDX2 and BMP-2 in gastric carcinoma was associated with higher GT consumption. It is the goal of this review to summarize our current knowledge of the potential of GT to alter epigenetic processes, which may be useful in chemoprevention. PMID:24283885

  16. Tracking residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in green, herbal, and black tea leaves and infusions of commercially available tea products marketed in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan; Zalesak, Michal; Pohoryło, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The content of residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was examined in green, herbal, and black tea leaves as well as in their infusions prepared from tea products marketed in the main supermarkets in Poland. It was found that the detected mean levels of organochlorine residues in tea leaves ranged from tea occurred in the highest concentrations. Among dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolites the highest level of p,p'DDT (1.96 ng g -1 dw) was in green tea samples. The transfer of OCPs from tea leaves to brew was investigated. The present study revealed that during the infusion process, a significant percentage of the residues, particularly pesticides with high water solubility, were transferred to the infusions. The obtained results show that the percentage transfer of each pesticides from tea to the tea infusions ranged from 6.74% (heptachlor) to 86.6% (endrin). The detected residues were below current MRLs for these pesticides.

  17. Green tea for the prevention of cancer: evidence of field epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is derived from the leaf of Camellia sinensis, a natural beverage widely consumed around the world. Geological and botanical evidence suggests that the tea plant originated from China. Varying methods of processing tea leaves lead to green tea, black tea, or Oolong tea, which differ in their concentrations of polyphenols. Green tea polyphenols appear to have anti-tumorigenic properties, and form 30-40% of the dry weight of green tea compared with only 3-10% of black tea. Numerous studies in multiple animal models and different cancer cell lines have demonstrated the anti-tumorigenesis by green tea polyphenols. Despite the consistency of laboratory results, evidence of this effect occuring in humans has been inconclusive to date.Objective: To investigate if green tea consumption was associated with longer survival rates in ovarian cancer patients, and a lower risk of ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancer, in addition toadult leukemiaMethods: We have conducted one prospective cohort study in ovarian cancer patients, and fivecase-control studies in ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancers, and leukemia over the past decade. Tea consumption was measured using a structured questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was assessed in a preliminary study, and then evaluated by a test–retest. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain hazard ratios(HRs, 95% confidence intervals(95% CIs, and were adjusted for age at diagnosis, locality, body mass index(BMI, parity, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics(IFGO stage, histologic grade of differentiation, cytology of ascites, residual tumour, and chemotherapeutic status. Odds ratios(ORs and 95% CIs were obtained using logistic regression analyses, which accounted for demographic, lifestyle, hormonal and family cancer factors, and potential confounders.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2

  18. Photoprotective Effect of Tea and its Extracts against Ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure induces photodamage of skin. It is a matter of concern that the level of UV radiation reaching the earth surface is increasing as a result of depletion of the stratospheric ozone, and climate change. It is urgently necessary to develop strategies to protect the skin from UV-induced injuries. Tea extracts ...

  19. Modeling and optimization of green tea precipitation for the recovery of catechins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madalena Monsanto, M.F.; Hooshyar, N.; Meuldijk, J.; Zondervan, E.

    2014-01-01

    Green tea catechins are claimed to have several health benefits (e.g. antioxidant, antimutagenic and antiviral) with increasing applications in the food and pharmaceutical markets. By using the tea creaming effect and by enhancing it, as a phase separation via precipitation, it is possible to

  20. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of Green Tea Mouthwash in Postoperative Pain Control Following Surgical Removal of Impacted Third Molars: Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Eshghpour

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Pain following surgical removal of impacted molars has remained an important concern among practitioners. Various protocols have been proposed to reduce postoperative pain. However, each one has special side effects and limitations. As green tea possesses anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of green tea mouthwash in controlling postoperative pain.Materials and methods:In a study with split-mouth and double blind design, 44 patients in need of bilateral removal of impacted third molars underwent randomized surgical extraction; following one surgery patients rinsed with a green tea mouthwash from the first to seventh postoperative day and after other extraction rinsed with placebo mouthwash in the same duration. Both patients and surgeon were blinded to the type of mouthwash. The predictor variable was type of mouthwash and primary outcome variable was postoperative pain measured by visual analogue scale (VAS during first week after surgery. In addition, number of analgesics patients used after surgery recorded. To measure the effect of green tea mouthwash, repeated measures test with confidence interval of 95% was performed.Results:Total of 43 patients with mean age of 24 years underwent total of 86 surgeries. VAS value had no statistically difference prior rinsing among groups (P-value > 0.05. However, the mean value of VAS following rinsing with green tea was statistically lower than placebo in postoperative days of 3–7 (P-value < 0.05. In addition, while rinsing with green tea, patients took significantly lower number of analgesics after surgery (P-value < 0.05. No side effects reported.Conclusion:Green tea mouthwash could be an appropriate and safe choice to control postoperative pain after third molar surgery.

  2. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of white, green, black, and herbal teas: a kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon, E.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Camellia sinensis teas, and tisanes derived from herbs or fruit, are rich in polyphenolic, antioxidant compounds. This study compared the total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, DPPH radical scavenging capacity, and caffeine content of teas (black, green, white, chamomile, and mixed berry/hibiscus over a range of infusion times (0.5–10 mins at 90°C. Green, followed by black tea, respectively, had the greatest TPC (557.58 and 499.19μg GAE/g, TFC (367.84 and 325.18μg QE/g, FRAP (887.38 and 209.38μg TE/g, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity (1233.03 and 866.39μg AAE/g. Caffeine content per cup (200mL in black, green, and white tea was 63, 51, and 49mg respectively. Changes in the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of teas were modelled using zero, first, and fractional-conversion-first-order (FCFO kinetic models. Results fitted a FCFO kinetic model, providing useful data for maximum phytochemical preservation in the optimisation of industrial and domestic processing. As a dietary comparison, green, black, and white tea were found to have a greater phenolic content and antioxidant capacity than fresh orange and apple juice. It can be concluded that green and black teas are significant sources of dietary phenolic antioxidants.

  3. Green Tea Polyphenols for the Protection against Renal Damage Caused by Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Yokozawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea, prepared from the leaves of Camellia sinensis L., is a beverage that is popular worldwide. Polyphenols in green tea have been receiving much attention as potential compounds for the maintenance of human health due to their varied biological activity and low toxicity. In particular, the contribution of antioxidant activity to the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress has been focused upon. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of (−-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate and (−-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, which account for a large fraction of the components of green tea polyphenol, on oxidative stress-related renal disease. Our observations suggest that green tea polyphenols have a beneficial effect on pathological states related to oxidative stress of the kidney.

  4. Role of green tea on nicotine toxicity on liver and lung of mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR_Mohsen

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... formation of lipid peroxidative products (Zhen et al.,. 2007). Antioxidant .... mg/kg green tea for three weeks showing normal lung structure with ..... injury in experimental model of carrageenan induced pleurisy in mice. Resp.

  5. Extraction of caustic potash from spent tea for biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Sarina; Faiz Che Fisol, Ahmad; Sharikh, Atikah Mohamed; Noraini Jimat, Dzun; Jamal, Parveen

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to non-renewable fossil fuels due to its low gas emission and economical value. This study aims to extract caustic potash (KOH) from spent tea and to optimize the transesterfication process based on parameters such as amount of catalyst, reaction temperature and methanol to oil ratio. The spent tea was first dried at 60°C prior to calcination at 600°C for two hours. Caustic Potash were extracted from the calcined spent tea. The transesterification process was done based on Design of Experiments (DOE) to study the effects of amount of catalyst ranging from 0.5 wt % to 2.5 wt %, reaction temperature from 55°C to 65°C and methanol to oil ratio from 6:1 to 12:1 at a constant agitation rate of 300 rpm for three hours. The calcined spent tea produced was recorded the highest at 54.3 wt % and the extracted catalyst was 2.4 wt %. The optimized biodiesel yield recorded was 56.95% at the optimal conditions of 2.5 wt % amount of catalyst, 65°C reaction temperature and 9:1 methanol to oil ratio.

  6. The effect of green tea ointment on episiotomy pain and wound healing in primiparous women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrahmani, Hadis; Kariman, Nourossadat; Jannesari, Sharareh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mirzaei, Moghadameh; Ghalandari, Sahar; Shahrahmani, Nasim; Mardani, Gashtasb

    2018-03-01

    The delayed healing of episiotomy wound and its associated pain is a major problem in obstetrics. Because green tea has analgesic and wound-healing properties, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of green tea ointment on episiotomy pain and wound-healing. The green tea extract was also standardized by measuring its Phenolic and flavonoid compounds, antioxidant activity, and one of its active components, that is, Epigallocatechin gallate. The present clinical trial was conducted on 99 primiparous women visiting Afzalipour Hospital in Kerman in 2015. The subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups, including a green tea ointment group, a placebo ointment group, and a routine care group. The 2 ointment groups smeared 2 cm of the green tea or placebo ointments onto their sutured area twice daily for a total of 10 days. The severity of pain was assessed in the subjects using the visual pain scale and wound-healing using the Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA) scale before the intervention and on the 5th and 10th days after delivery. To standardize the extract, Epigallocatechin gallate was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phenolic and flavonoid compounds, as well as antioxidant activity of the extract were also determined by spectrometry methods. Before the intervention, no significant differences were observed between the 3 groups in terms of their personal and obstetric details (p > .05), the severity of pain (p = .118), and the REEDA score (p = .212). On the 5th and 10th days after delivery, the severity of pain was significantly lower in the green tea group than in the other 2 groups (p tea group compared to the other 2 groups (p tea were 74.2 mg/g Gallic acid equivalent and 16.3 mg/g Rutin equivalent, respectively, and its antioxidant capacity was 46% of b-carotene. Green tea ointment appears to be effective in relieving episiotomy pain and improving wound-healing in this study

  7. Influence of green tea consumption on cigarette smoking-induced biochemical changes in plasma and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthadu Shakeela Begum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking causes numerous adverse biochemical changes in plasma and blood leading to ill health effects for which therapeutic approaches are sought. The present study investigates the effect of green tea consumption on confirmed cigarette smokers. Blood samples were collected from 120 selected human male volunteers categorized in to four groups viz., controls, smokers, control volunteers consuming green tea with no habit of smoking and smokers consuming green tea were analysed. Results showed that altered plasma glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total cholesterol, lipoprotein patterns (HDL, LDL, VLDL and lipid peroxidation along with vitamins (vitamin-D, vitamin-B12, vitamin-C and minerals (iron, total iron binding capacity, calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, chloride followed by the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of green tea confirmed the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Antioxidants and free radical scavenging effects of green tea were assessed using 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+ and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH+. Results of this study clearly demonstrated that the adverse changes observed in the above biochemical parameters in smokers were reversed upon green tea supplementation which can be attributed to the phytoconstituents present in green tea. In conclusion, both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that phytocompounds present in green tea are able to scavenge free radicals and by there offers protection against smoking induced biochemical alterations.

  8. Antioxidant activities of distiller dried grains with solubles as protein films containing tea extracts and their application in the packaging of pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-04-01

    Distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as protein (DP) films were prepared. Additionally, to prepare anti-oxidant films, green tea extract (GTE), oolong tea extract (OTE), and black tea extract (BTE) were incorporated into the DP films. Consequently, the incorporation of the tea extracts did not alter the physical properties of the films much, whereas the antioxidant activities, such as ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were observed. To apply the DP films containing tea extracts to food packaging, pork meat was wrapped with the films and stored at 4 °C for 10 d. During storage, the pork meat wrapped with the DP films containing GTE, OTE, and BTE had less lipid oxidation than did the control. Among the tea extracts, the DP film containing GTE had the greatest antioxidant activity. These results indicate that the DP films containing green tea extracts can be utilized as an anti-oxidative packaging material for pork meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Catalytic and antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles green biosynthesized using soluble green tea powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Fan, Yapei; Liu, Xinfang; Luo, Denglin; Liu, Huan; Yang, Ningning

    2018-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were green fabricated using soluble green tea powder (SGTP) as stabilizer and reducing agent. The properties and morphology of Ag NPs were investigated through UV–visible spectroscopy, field emission transmission electron microscope (FE-TEM) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance around at 420 nm revealing the synthesis of Ag NPs. FE-TEM results confirmed that the Ag NPs are spherical and face-centered cubic structure. FT-IR spectroscopy identified the role of various functional groups in the nanoparticle synthesis. The one spot biosynthesized Ag NPs showed favourable antibacterial properties on Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, and excellent catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol. This work provided a feasible, green method to fabricate Ag NPs with promising photocatalytic and antimicrobial activities.

  10. Spectral features based tea garden extraction from digital orthophoto maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Akhtar; Bayram, Bulent; Kucuk, Turgay; Zafer Seker, Dursun

    2018-05-01

    The advancements in the photogrammetry and remote sensing technologies has made it possible to extract useful tangible information from data which plays a pivotal role in various application such as management and monitoring of forests and agricultural lands etc. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of spectral signatures for extraction of tea gardens from 1 : 5000 scaled digital orthophoto maps obtained from Rize city in Turkey. First, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was derived from the input images to suppress the non-vegetation areas. NDVI values less than zero were discarded and the output images was normalized in the range 0-255. Individual pixels were then mapped into meaningful objects using global region growing technique. The resulting image was filtered and smoothed to reduce the impact of noise. Furthermore, geometrical constraints were applied to remove small objects (less than 500 pixels) followed by morphological opening operator to enhance the results. These objects served as building blocks for further image analysis. Finally, for the classification stage, a range of spectral values were empirically calculated for each band and applied on candidate objects to extract tea gardens. For accuracy assessment, we employed an area based similarity metric by overlapping obtained tea garden boundaries with the manually digitized tea garden boundaries created by experts of photogrammetry. The overall accuracy of the proposed method scored 89 % for tea gardens from 10 sample orthophoto maps. We concluded that exploiting the spectral signatures using object based analysis is an effective technique for extraction of dominant tree species from digital orthophoto maps.

  11. Systematic Analysis of the Multiple Bioactivities of Green Tea through a Network Pharmacology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoude Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, a number of studies have demonstrated multiple beneficial health effects of green tea. Polyphenolics are the most biologically active components of green tea. Many targets can be targeted or affected by polyphenolics. In this study, we excavated all of the targets of green tea polyphenolics (GTPs though literature mining and target calculation and analyzed the multiple pharmacology actions of green tea comprehensively through a network pharmacology approach. In the end, a total of 200 Homo sapiens targets were identified for fifteen GTPs. These targets were classified into six groups according to their related disease, which included cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, cardiovascular disease, muscular disease, and inflammation. Moreover, these targets mapped into 143 KEGG pathways, 26 of which were more enriched, as determined though pathway enrichment analysis and target-pathway network analysis. Among the identified pathways, 20 pathways were selected for analyzing the mechanisms of green tea in these diseases. Overall, this study systematically illustrated the mechanisms of the pleiotropic activity of green tea by analyzing the corresponding “drug-target-pathway-disease” interaction network.

  12. Survival of Salmonella on chamomile, peppermint, and green tea during storage and subsequent survival or growth following tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process.

  13. Green tea induced gold nanostar synthesis mediated by Ag(I) ions

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiang; Kaneko, Toshiro; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2014-01-01

    We report a synthesis of tea components conjugated gold nanostars (AuNSs) with strong near infrared absorption by reducing an aqueous solution of chloroauric acid trihydrate via green tea in association with Ag(I) ions. Green tea acts as a reducing agent by providing electrons for the gold (III) reduction as well as a stabilizing agent by conjugating some of its components on the surfaces of AuNSs. Moreover, the Ag(I) ions play an important role in mediating the branched growth of the resulta...

  14. Dissolution behavior of 137Cs absorbed on the green tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Uchimura, Hiromichi; Toda, Kensuke; Okuno, Kenji; Ikka, Takashi; Morita, Akio

    2013-01-01

    The green tea leaves was dipped in the 137 CsCl solution to elucidate the dissolution behavior of 137 Cs contaminated on the green tea leaves. It was found that the amount of 137 Cs dissolved into tea water was controlled by the temperature of water, and the activation energy of 137 Cs dissolution was estimated to be 0.045 eV, indicating that most of 137 Cs would exist as the adsorbed state. In addition, the dissolution behavior was controlled by the concentration of stable Cs dissolved in water, although no large correlation with pH was observed. (author)

  15. Optical Determination of Lead Chrome Green in Green Tea by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR Transmission Spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Li

    Full Text Available The potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR transmission spectroscopy for determination of lead chrome green in green tea was investigated based on chemometric methods. Firstly, the qualitative analysis of lead chrome green in tea was performed based on partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and the correct rate of classification was 100%. And then, a hybrid method of interval partial least squares (iPLS regression and successive projections algorithm (SPA was proposed to select characteristic wavenumbers for the quantitative analysis of lead chrome green in green tea, and 19 wavenumbers were obtained finally. Among these wavenumbers, 1384 (C = C, 1456, 1438, 1419(C = N, and 1506 (CNH cm-1 were the characteristic wavenumbers of lead chrome green. Then, these 19 wavenumbers were used to build determination models. The best model was achieved by least squares support vector machine (LS-SVMalgorithm with high coefficient of determination and low root-mean square error of prediction set (R2p = 0.864 and RMSEP = 0.291. All these results indicated the feasibility of IR spectra for detecting lead chrome green in green tea.

  16. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols from green and toasted mate tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentrão, Patricia de Abreu Marques; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2011-05-01

    The production and distribution of toasted mate tea in Brazil has increased, which has resulted in its greater consumption. Mate tea is obtained by roasting non-fermented erva-mate in order to produce toasted erva-mate or toasted mate tea. However, although the product is much appreciated, studies of its chemical composition and the concentration of polyphenols, particularly flavonols present in toasted mate tea, are few and often controversial. This paper elucidates some misunderstandings involving the nomenclature of erva-mate and toasted mate, and mainly provides an overview of the composition of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of toasted mate tea and its raw material, erva-mate, in comparison with other teas, the compositions of which were found in the literature.

  17. The contents of fifteen essential trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Kazi, G.H.; Jakharani, M.A.; Shar, Q.G.; Shaikh, S.

    2005-01-01

    The content of fifteen elements i.e. Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined for 30 sample from three types of green tea samples using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples were purchased from authentic tea dealer in Peshawar imported from India, China and Kenya. However, some samples were taken which were locally produced in Pakistan with branded packing and without package. The NBS tea leaves. The wet digestion and infusion procedure reference material was also analyzed simultaneously with tea samples. The wet digestion and infusion procedures were employed for determination of total elements and aqueous extracted elements respectively. It was found that, considerable amount of essential and trace elements are present in total in tea infusion. The levels of toxic metals are low but level of aluminum is high in both forms. The results obtained from this analysis have shown good accuracy and reproducibility. The relative error and relative standard deviation were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed. (author)

  18. Metabolomic unveiling of a diverse range of green tea (Camellia sinensis) metabolites dependent on geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Bum-Jin; Chung, Jin-Oh; Kim, Hak-Nam; Kim, Eun-Hee; Jung, Sungheuk; Lee, Hyosang; Lee, Sang-Jun; Hong, Young-Shick

    2015-05-01

    Numerous factors such as geographical origin, cultivar, climate, cultural practices, and manufacturing processes influence the chemical compositions of tea, in the same way as growing conditions and grape variety affect wine quality. However, the relationships between these factors and tea chemical compositions are not well understood. In this study, a new approach for non-targeted or global analysis, i.e., metabolomics, which is highly reproducible and statistically effective in analysing a diverse range of compounds, was used to better understand the metabolome of Camellia sinensis and determine the influence of environmental factors, including geography, climate, and cultural practices, on tea-making. We found a strong correlation between environmental factors and the metabolome of green, white, and oolong teas from China, Japan, and South Korea. In particular, multivariate statistical analysis revealed strong inter-country and inter-city relationships in the levels of theanine and catechin derivatives found in green and white teas. This information might be useful for assessing tea quality or producing distinct tea products across different locations, and highlights simultaneous identification of diverse tea metabolites through an NMR-based metabolomics approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Green Tea as an Agricultural Based Health Promoting Food: The Past Five to Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-Yin Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of tea originated in ancient China over 4000 years ago and is currently the second most popular beverage in the world after water. Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. The link between tea intake, most notably green tea, and health has resulted in intense research on the components responsible for preventing the onset of several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity and diabetes. In particular, the high levels of chemically diverse phenols (e.g., phenolic acids, flavonoids present in tea exhibit potent protective properties against many of these diseases. Although health related research on green tea and its predominant phenol (catechins has been on-going for decades, major advances have occurred in the last 5–10 years. Therefore, this review focuses on seminal studies reported primarily within the last five years but not extending past ten years on the link between health and green tea with an emphasis on the catechins.

  20. The influence of gamma radiation on the aflatoxigenic fungi, phenolics content and antioxidant activity of the green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, S.G.; Silva, E.B.; Costa, L.F.; Nascimento, M.S.; Oliveira, I.S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of raw plants, including the green tea (Camelia sinensis), has been increasing in Brazil. Along with this increasing tea consumption, there are risks due to its unsuitable handling and storage, which points to the need of controlling possible contaminations. This could be achieved with the use of ionizing radiation. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation over the total phenolics amount, antioxidants and fungic activities of the green tea aqueous extract aiming its processing. Aliquots of the bulk samples have been analyzed before and after gamma irradiation (dosages of 0; 5; 7,5 and 10 kGy). The total phenolics content of the aqueous extracts was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent having the catechin as the standard. Those same extracts were used to evaluate its ability of scavenging the free radical DPPH. The microbiological analysis were performed through irradiated samples and control. The results have allowed to check that different dosages of radiation (5; 7,5 e 10 kGy) did not induce significant differences on the content of total phenols and on the antioxidant capacity of the analyzed samples when compared to control. Also, it was also observed that the radiation may have had a catalytic effect on the oxidation of the DPPH and was effective on the microbiological control, even though it was not possible to kill the aflatoxigenic fungus. (author)

  1. A comparative study of the effect of green tea and sour tea on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Kafeshani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are a set of metabolic disorders affecting heart and blood vessels. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. have attracted significant attention recently due to their high popularity, nutrient profile and therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 54 healthy adult men. The participants were randomly assigned to two intervention groups receiving 450 mg green tea or sour tea and one placebo group which consumed 450 mg placebo (maltodextrin for 6 weeks. Blood pressure, lipid profile, dietary intake and physical activity were measured pre- and post-intervention and compared. RESULTS: After 6 weeks of intervention, sour tea supplementation led to a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP compared with the placebo group. However, we faild to find any significant difference in SBP between green tea and control groups. Also, no significant changes were observed in diastolic blood pressure (DBP and lipid profile between the three groups. In comparison with baseline, there was a significant increase in the mean level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in green tea and sour tea groups. Also, the interventions resulted in significant decrease in the mean levels of serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and DBP in the sour tea group compared with the pre-intervention value. CONCLUSION: On the basis of our findings, sour tea supplementation led to decreased SBP in healthy men compared with the placebo, but there was no significant difference between their effects on DBP and lipid profile. 

  2. Evaluation of authenticity and green tea antimicrobial activity of different commercial brands that are sold in San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Campos, Jeyson

    2014-01-01

    Various brands of green tea are compared with the leaves of camellia sinensis to verify the antimicrobial effect, authenticity and quality. The main components with antibacterial effect commercially presented are compared to the components present in green tea leaf to determine the quality and authenticity, by thin layer chromatography. The brands marketed studied green tea in the metropolitan area of San Jose, Costa Rica has been really green tea good quality, this can be ensured by the findings in the analysis and comparison of the different profiles of flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids and amino acids. The antimicrobial activity has been without to confirmed in the bands of catechins analyzed [es

  3. Productivity and biochemical properties of green tea in response to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The expression of three homologues of the expansin genes, which regulate plant cell growth, and the CsCHS gene encoding a tea chalcone synthase, which critically regulates the biosynthesis of catechols, were induced in germinal leaves of tea plants following treatment with HpaG1–94 or HpaGXooc. Higher levels of ...

  4. Productivity and biochemical properties of green tea in response to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    either of the elements increased the effects (Liu et al 2006). .... proteins were prepared for use in tea. ... at 4 oC and diluted with tap water immediately before ... classes by the conventional standards (Wang 1981); .... As shown in table 2, the fresh weight of tea-picking units ..... flavonoids in cardiovascular health; Mol. Nutr.

  5. Health Benefits of Theanine in Green Tea: A Review | Liang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theanine is an amide exclusively present in tea and some fungi, and is an important bioactive component of tea. The bioactive effects of theanine include antitumour, anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, anti-stress activities, and the ability to improve cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It also has protective effect on ...

  6. Green Tea Polyphenols Decrease Strecker Aldehydes and Bind to Proteins in Lactose-Hydrolyzed UHT Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Therese; Rauh, Valentin; Danielsen, Bente P; Poojary, Mahesha M; Waehrens, Sandra S; Bredie, Wender L P; Sørensen, John; Petersen, Mikael A; Ray, Colin A; Lund, Marianne N

    2017-12-06

    The effect of epigallocatechin gallate enriched green tea extract (GTE) on flavor, Maillard reactions and protein modifications in lactose-hydrolyzed (LH) ultrahigh temperature (UHT) processed milk was examined during storage at 40 °C for up to 42 days. Addition of GTE inhibited the formation of Strecker aldehydes by up to 95% compared to control milk, and the effect was similar when GTE was added either before or after UHT treatment. Release of free amino acids, caused by proteolysis, during storage was also decreased in GTE-added milk either before or after UHT treatment compared to control milk. Binding of polyphenols to milk proteins was observed in both fresh and stored milk samples. The inhibition of Strecker aldehyde formation by GTE may be explained by two different mechanisms; inhibition of proteolysis during storage by GTE or binding of amino acids and proteins to the GTE polyphenols.

  7. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Water-Based Extraction of Substances from Dry Tea Leaves with the Use of Magnetic Field Assisted Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zaguła

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings of a study investigating the feasibility of using a magnetic field assisted technique for the water-based extraction of mineral components, polyphenols, and caffeine from dry black and green tea leaves. The authors present a concept of applying constant and variable magnetic fields in the process of producing water-based infusions from selected types of tea. Analyses investigating the effectiveness of the proposed technique in comparison with conventional infusion methods assessed the contents of selected mineral components—i.e., Al, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, P, S, and Zn—which were examined with the use of ICP-OES. The contents of caffeine and polyphenolic compounds were assessed using the HPLC. A changing magnetic field permitted an increased effectiveness of extraction of the mineral components, caffeine, and polyphenols. The findings support the conclusion that a changing magnetic field assisted extraction method is useful for obtaining biologically valuable components from tea infusions.

  8. Improving yield and composition of protein concentrates from green tea residue in an agri-food supply chain: Effect of pre-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Krimpen, Van Marinus M.; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Rather than improving crop-production yield, developing biorefinery technology for unused biomass from the agri-food supply chain may be the crucial factor to reach sustainable global food security. A successful example of food-driven biorefinery is the extraction of protein from green tea residues,

  9. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  10. Influence of cigarette smoke and green tea on radiation-induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yong; Hao Enzhu; Ni Yanbo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of cigarette smoke and green tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation, and to provide scientific information for prevention and treatment of radiation damage. Methods: There were 8 groups in the factorial experiment design with 3 factors at 2 levels. Mice were randomly divided into each group. There were 8 mice in each group. Mice in seven experimental groups were exposed to cigarette smoke, green tea, radiation or their mixtures respectively. One group was treated as the blank control group. The frequencies of micrnucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE) were scored by single blinded method. The data were analyzed with factorial experiments analysis of variance using SAS 8.0. Results: Analysis of variance showed that radiation, cigarette smoke and green tea were independently significant factors (P<0.01). Interactions between cigarette smoke and radiation or between green tea and radiation were statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: Radiation and cigarette smoke can cause bone marrow cell mutations independently. There is synergistic effect between cigarette smoke and radiation. Green tea can inhibit radiation-induced cell mutation. (authors)

  11. Effect of green tea on the second degree burn wounds in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Fatemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various studies indicate that the green tea has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Moreover, a few studies have been carried out that demonstrate beneficial effects of green tea on burned patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, green tea, Vaseline, and silver sulfadiazine dressings were used as first-aid treatment to deep dermal contact burns in rats, compared with a control of nothing. After creating second-degree burn on the dorsum of rats, the treatments were applied for 15 min in four groups. Wound dressing changes were daily. Macroscopic study was performed on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 by using a digital camera and software processing of photos. Microscopic examination was done by pathologic evaluation of skin specimens on day 14. Results: We observed that green tea usage significantly decreased burn size in comparison to the control group (P = 0.004. Conclusion: Green tea is effective on healing process of second degree burn wounds.

  12. Green tea polyphenols provide photoprotection, increase microcirculation, and modulate skin properties of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulrike; Moore, Carolyn E; De Spirt, Silke; Tronnier, Hagen; Stahl, Wilhelm

    2011-06-01

    Dietary constituents including polyphenols and carotenoids contribute to endogenous photoprotection and modulate skin characteristics related to structure and function of the tissue. Animal and in-vitro studies indicate that green tea polyphenols affect skin properties. In a 12-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 female volunteers were randomized to an intervention or control group. Participants consumed either a beverage with green tea polyphenols providing 1402 mg total catechins/d or a control beverage. Skin photoprotection, structure, and function were measured at baseline (wk 0), wk 6, and wk 12. Following exposure of the skin areas to 1.25 minimal erythemal dose of radiation from a solar simulator, UV-induced erythema decreased significantly in the intervention group by 16 and 25% after 6 and 12 wk, respectively. Skin structural characteristics that were positively affected included elasticity, roughness, scaling, density, and water homeostasis. Intake of the green tea polyphenol beverage for 12 wk increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to the skin. Likewise, in a separate, randomized, double-blind, single-dose (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g) study of green tea polyphenols, blood flow was maximized at 30 min after ingestion. In summary, green tea polyphenols delivered in a beverage were shown to protect skin against harmful UV radiation and helped to improve overall skin quality of women.

  13. Potential role of green tea catechins in the management of oxidative stress-associated infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Agarwal, Ashok; Virk, Gurpriya; Cho, Chak-Lam

    2017-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are present in low concentrations in the genital tracts of males and females. Excessive ROS lead to oxidative stress, which damages DNA, lipids and proteins. Such molecular changes result in compromised vitality, increased morphological defects and decreased sperm motility in the male. In the female, oxidative stress interferes with oocyte maturation, and may inhibit in-vitro maturation of the oocyte. Recently, green tea supplementation has been reported to possess properties that may improve the quality of male and female gametes largely due to the ability of catechin polyphenols to quench ROS. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is considered the most promising bioactive compound in green tea due to its strong antioxidant activity. The unique property of green tea catechins may potentially improve reproductive health and pose an important research area. We present a comprehensive overview on the effects and potential roles of green tea catechins on oxidative stress in male and female reproduction and fertility. In this review, possible mechanisms of action are highlighted to better understand the potential use of green tea catechins in the reduction of oxidative stress and its associated beneficial effects in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols with protective effects against skin photoaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Eunmiri; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Park, Jun Seong; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-05-24

    Whereas green tea has historically been consumed in high quantities in Northeast Asia, its popularity is also increasing in many Western countries. Green tea is an abundant source of plant polyphenols exhibiting numerous effects that are potentially beneficial for human health. Accumulating evidence suggests that green tea polyphenols confer protective effects on the skin against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging, involving antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects as well as prevention of immunosuppression. Melanin pigmentation in the skin is a major defense mechanism against UV irradiation, but pigmentation abnormalities such as melasma, freckles, senile lentigines, and other forms of melanin hyperpigmentation can also cause serious health and aesthetic issues. Furthermore, UV irradiation initiates the degradation of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, promoting the process of skin aging through deep wrinkle formation and loss of tissue elasticity. UV irradiation-induced formation of free radicals also contributes to accelerated photoaging. Additionally, immunosuppression caused by UV irradiation plays an important role in photoaging and skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and immunosuppression preventive mechanisms of green tea polyphenols that have been demonstrated to protect against UV irradiation-stimulated skin photoaging, and gauge the quality of evidence supporting the need for clinical studies using green tea polyphenols as anti-photoaging agents in novel cosmeceuticals.

  15. Microsatellite markers from tea green leafhopper Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii: a powerful tool for studying genetic structure in tea plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Dietrich, Christopher H; Qin, Daozheng

    2016-07-29

    Tea green leafhopper is one of the most dominant pests in Chinese tea plantations. Recent evidence, including morphological and molecular data, revealed that tea green leafhopper in China is the same species as in Japan, Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. Previous morphological study that revealed variation in the structure of the male genitalia within and among populations of this species suggested that there may be significant population-level genetic variation. To provide powerful molecular markers to explore the population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this pest in China, microsatellite markers were obtained by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO). Eighteen polymorphic markers were evaluated for five populations of E. (M.) onukii, Two related empoascine leafhopper species were selected to test the transferability of the markers. Population genetic structure of E. (M.) onukii was detected using Structure analysis, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and variance analysis. The identified markers were polymorphic with total number of alleles ranging from 6 to 24 per locus, observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.133 to 0.9 and 0.183 to 0.926, respectively, and the polymorphic information content value over all populations varied from 0.429 to 0.911. This is the first study to demonstrate that microsatellite markers provide valuable information for genetic structure of E. (M.) onukii in Chinese tea plantations. There is obvious genetic differentiation between the two populations in the Southwest tea area. These microsatellite markers will be the powerful tools for genetic studies of E. (M.) onukii and improve understanding of the microevolution of this species.

  16. Comparison of sensory characteristics of green tea in Thai Nguyen and Phu Tho, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Thi Minh Luyen; Ha, Duyen Tu; Lebailly, Philippe; Nguyen, Duy Thinh; Tu, Viet Phu

    2013-01-01

    Green tea is a popular consumption product in Vietnam. Especially, tea which origins from Tan Cuong, Thai Nguyen has been known for long by its better quality than those coming from other regions on the country. The study aims at comparing and finding out if the difference between tea in Thai Nguyen and Phu Tho can be figured by sensory tasting. Two products picked from Tan Cuong, Thai Nguyen province and two others from Phu Ho district, Phu Tho are were evaluated by a panel of twelve judg...

  17. Influence given to psychological stress of marketing and green tea beverage

    OpenAIRE

    桑原,早希; 古川,真一

    2011-01-01

    As for the polyphenol of a noteworthy tea leaf, the expectation for the effect of the stress relaxation is great, and the research is actively done recently. In the present study, the effect of the stress relaxation of marketing and green the tea beverage was pursued by using the saliva amylase enzyme weighing device and the peripheral-blood tube monitor device paying attention to the catechin kind of one of the tea leaf polyphenol. When a total anti oxidative potency of marketing and gre...

  18. Effects of the aqueous extract of white tea (Camellia sinensis) in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul

    2011-12-15

    White tea (WT) is very similar to green tea (GT) but it is exceptionally prepared only from the buds and young tea leaves of Camelia sinensis plant while GT is prepared from the matured tea leaves. The present study was investigated to examine the effects of a 0.5% aqueous extract of WT in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model of rats. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups of 6 animals in each group namely: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DBC) and diabetic white tea (DWT). Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg BW) in DBC and DWT groups except the NC group. After 4 weeks feeding of 0.5% aqueous extracts of WT, the drink intake was significantly (Pfood intake, body weight gain, serum insulin and fructosamine concentrations were not influenced by the consumption of WT. Data of this study suggest that the 0.5% aqueous extract of WT is effective to reduce most of the diabetes associated abnormalities in a steptozotocin-induced diabetes model of rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Liu, A.M.; Kampman, E.; Zhang, Z.F.; Veer, P. van 't; Wu, D.L.; Wang, P.H.; Yang, J.; Qin, Y.; Mu, L.N.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a

  20. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high and low risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Liu, A.; Kampman, E.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Veer, van 't P.; Wu, P.; Wang, P.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Major Constituents in Green Tea with Different Plucking Periods and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Sook Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the plucking periods and the major constituents and the antioxidant activity in green tea. Green tea was prepared from leaves plucked from the end of April 2013 to the end of May 2013 at intervals of one week or longer. The contents of theanine, theobromine, caffeine, catechin (C, and gallocatechin gallate (GCg were significantly decreased, whereas those of epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg and epigallocatechin (EGC were significantly increased along with the period of tea leaf plucking. In addition, antioxidant activity of green tea and standard catechins was investigated using ABTS, FRAP and DPPH assays. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in relatively the oldest leaf, regardless of the assay methods used. Additionally, the order of antioxidant activity of standard catechins was as follows: EGCg ³ GCg ³ ECg > EGC ³ GC ³ EC ³ C. Moreover, the cis-catechins contents were the key factor affecting the antioxidant activity of green tea in all assays employed (ABTS, r = 0.731, p < 0.01; FRAP, r = 0.886, p < 0.01; DPPH, r = 0.778, p < 0.01.

  2. Comparison of Protective Effect of Green Tea and Vitamin C Against Cypermethrin Induce Nephrotoxicity in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, S.; Mehboob, K.; Naveed, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insecticide toxicity is the problem of every person in under developed countries. It is necessary to counteract its effect by natural and cheap remedies like green tea and vitamin C. In this manner common man can also enjoy blessings of life. The current research was performed to compare the protective function of green tea and vitamin C on experimental cypermethrin provoked nephrotoxicity Method: Forty healthy Balb/C mice purchased from National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan and divided in to four groups (10 each). Group a was control which received only normal diet. Group B, group C and group D were experimental groups which were given Cypermethrin, Cypermethrin with green tea and Cypermethrin with vitamin C respectively. These groups were also given normal diet. After 1 month blood was drawn by intra-cardiac method to assess renal parameters. Results: One month research showed increase in serum urea to 6.8±.48 m.mol/l (n=3.9±.44) while green tea and vitamin C normalize them to 4.0±.83 m.mol/l and 3.4±.33 m.mol/l respectively. Serum creatinine increased to 42.90±3.28 m.mol/l (n=29.50±3.95) while green tea and vitamin C normalize them to 28.80±4.58 m.mol/l and 22.60±2.06 m.mol/l correspondingly. Conclusion The results showed that green tea and vitamin C neutralized toxicity induced by Cypermethrin in mice and their effect is comparable. (author)

  3. Contribution of temporal dominance of sensations method to the sensory description of taste properties of commercial green tea brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémi Dubová

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the most dominant taste attributes of green tea samples in panelists perception over time. In order to assess the samples, a brand new method of sensory evaluation called „Temporal Dominance of Sensations“ was used. The five commercial green tea brands were evaluated by eight trained panelists (students. For each sample of green tea, curves of the dominance of each attribute over time were computed. The TDS curves provided information about the sequence of attributes that were dominant during degustation. This methodology was useful to characterize taste properties of green tea samples.doi:10.5219/274 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This paper aims to investigate the most dominant taste attributes of green tea samples in panelists perception over time. In order to assess the samples, a brand new method of sensory evaluation called „Temporal Dominance of Sensations“ was used. The five commercial green tea brands were evaluated by eight trained panelists (students. For each sample of green tea, curves of the dominance of each attribute over time were computed. The TDS curves provided information about the sequence of attributes that were dominant during degustation. This methodology was useful to characterize taste properties of green tea samples.doi:10.5219/274

  4. Application of microencapsulation for the safe delivery of green tea polyphenols in food systems: Review and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massounga Bora, Awa Fanny; Ma, Shaojie; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Lu

    2018-03-01

    Green tea has been associated with the prevention and reduction of a wide range of severe health conditions such as cancer, immune, and cardiovascular diseases. The health benefits associated with green tea consumption have been predominantly attributed to green tea polyphenols. The functional properties of green tea polyphenols are mainly anti-oxidative, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, anti-microbial, etc. These excellent properties have recently gained considerable attention in the food industry. However, their application is limited by their sensitivity to factors like temperature, light, pH, oxygen, etc. More, studies have reported the occurrence of unpleasant taste and color transfer during food processing. Lastly, the production of functional food requires to maintain the stability, bioactivity, and bioavailability of the active compounds. To tackle these obstacles, technological approaches like microencapsulation have been developed and applied for the formulation of green tea-enriched food products. The present review discusses the novelty in microencapsulation techniques for the safe delivery of green tea polyphenols in food matrices. After a literature on the green tea polyphenols composition, and their health attributes, the encapsulation methods and the coating materials are presented. The application of green tea encapsulates in food matrices as well as their effect on food functional and sensory properties are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Efficacy of Coffee and Green Tea in Ameliorating Histological and Biochemical Changes Induced By γ-Irradiation in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Darwish, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation results in oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of coffee, green tea, or coffee + green tea consumption on radiation-induced damage in liver and heart tissues of rats. Rats received/day, by gavages, the water extract of 0.3 g green tea and/or 0.2 g coffee, for a period of 7 days. The last dose was given 60 min before irradiation with a dose of 6.5 Gy. Histological examination through light microscope of sections in the liver and heart tissues on the 3rd day post-irradiation revealed that all treatments has attenuated radiation-induced oxidative damage. Necrosis, apoptosis, cell death and rupture of cell membrane in both tissues were less severe and were associated with significant decrease of serum malonaldehyde (MDA) content and significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content, compared to their corresponding value in non irradiated rats. The results were substantiated by significant amelioration in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the content of triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC), markers of liver and heart functions. No significant changes were recorded between the 3 treatments. However, coffee + green tea provoked better results with respect to radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, which might be attributed to their synergistic effect as free radical scavengers. It could be concluded that drinking coffee associated with green tea is healthier than drinking coffee or green tea alone to protect liver and heart tissues from oxidative stress

  6. Fluorine content of Fukien teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T H; Lin, C S; Wu, C; Liao, C E; Lin, H Y

    1949-01-01

    A study was made on the fluorine contents of Fukien teas and analytical results indicated the amount ranged from 5.7 to 35.5 mg. per 100 grams of dry tea. The high content of fluorine was found not to be due to contamination nor to the high fluorine content of the soil in which the tea plant was cultivated. Differences in the methods of manufacture had no effect on the fluorine content of the final products. Different varieties of tea plants have different powers to absorb fluorine from the soil. Of the two varieties of tea plants studied, Shui-Sen leaves possessed the lower fluorine content. Age of the tea leaves exerted an important influence on the fluorine content, the older leaves containing considerably more fluorine than the younger. The amount of fluorine that may be extracted in a two per cent infusion varies from 29.1 per cent for fresh leaves to 50.5 per cent for black tea. The process of roasting and rolling rendered the fluorine more soluble, hence the amount extracted increased in green tea. Fermentation further increased the extractability of the fluorine; thus the amount extracted was the highest in black tea, which was fermented, less in the semi-fermented oolong tea, and least in the unfermented green tea. The extractability of fluorine was also increased with age of the leaves.

  7. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. METHODS: A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. RESULTS: Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI 0.27-0.65, 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12-0.46, and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.93, respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.98, 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90, and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97, respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16-30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16-30 cups per week.

  8. [Study on the analytical methods of catechins in tea and green tea polyphenol samples by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, J; Wang, H X; Chen, S W; Tang, J

    2001-09-01

    Hypersil BDS C18 and Zorbax SB C18, suitable to separate simultaneously seven kinds of catechins and caffeine, were screened out from seven brands of reversed-phase columns. Mobile phase was a solution of methanol-water-acetic acid (or trifluoro acetic acid). Seven kinds of catechins in tea samples from six places in China and three green tea polyphenol(GTP) samples from different producers were separated and determined in 30 min by isocratic and gradient elutions. The effects of mobile phase components and temperature of column on retention parameters of catechins and caffeine are reviewed. Chromatographic conditions and pretreatment methods of samples were optimized. Gallocatechin gallate(GCG) and (-)-catechin gallate(CG) were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(ESI-MS) and prepared by high performance liquid chromatography for quantitative analysis. The other catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (+)-catechin (D-C), (-)-epicatechin(EC), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate(EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate(ECG) were identified with standards.

  9. The potential role of polyphenols in the modulation of skin cell viability by Aspalathus linearis and Cyclopia spp. herbal tea extracts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magcwebeba, Tandeka Unathi; Riedel, Sylvia; Swanevelder, Sonja; Swart, Pieter; De Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Andreas Gelderblom, Wentzel Christoffel

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between polyphenol constituents, antioxidant properties of aqueous and methanol extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), the herbal teas, rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia spp.), against skin cell viability was investigated in vitro. The effect of extracts, characterised in terms of polyphenol content and antioxidant properties, on cell viability of premalignant, normal and malignant skin cells was determined. Phenolic composition, particularly high levels of potent antioxidants, of rooibos and green tea methanol extracts was associated with a strong reduction in cell viability specifically targeting premalignant cells. In contrast, the aqueous extracts of Cyclopia spp. were more effective in reducing cell viability. This correlated with a relatively high flavanol/proanthocyanidin content and ABTS radical cation scavenging capacity. The major green tea flavanol (epigallocatechin gallate) and rooibos dihydrochalcone (aspalathin) exhibited differential effects against cell viability, while the major honeybush xanthone (mangiferin) and flavanone (hesperidin) lacked any effect presumably due to a cytoprotective effect. The underlying mechanisms against skin cell viability are likely to involve mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from polyphenol-iron interactions. The polyphenol constituents and antioxidant parameters of herbal tea extracts are useful tools to predict their activity against skin cell survival in vitro and potential chemopreventive effects in vivo. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  11. PLE in the analysis of plant compounds. Part I. The application of PLE for HPLC analysis of caffeine in green tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Wianowska, Dorota

    2005-04-29

    A broad spectrum of sample preparation methods is currently used for the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds from plant and herbal materials. The paper compares the effectiveness of infusion, microwave assisted solvent extraction (MASE), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) as sample preparation methods for the isolation of caffeine from green tea leaves. The effect of PLE variables, such as extraction temperature, pressure and time, on the yield of caffeine from the investigated matrix is discussed. The obtained results revealed that PLE, in comparison with other sample preparation methods applied, has significantly lower efficacy for caffeine isolation from green tea leaves. The evaluation of PLE conditions leads to the conclusion that elevated pressure applied in the PLE process is the factor hindering the extraction.

  12. Flavonoids, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity: comparison between commercial green tea preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Harumi Kodama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential health benefits attributed to green tea and its catechins such as antioxidant effects, cancer chemoprevention, and weight loss have led to a huge increase of green tea products in the food market. The objectives of this work were to analyze and compare these products in terms of phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant capacity including tea bags, dehydrated leaves, and ready-to-drink preparations after standardization of the infusion preparation procedure. Total phenolics content in 1 cup of the different teas varied from 90 to 341 mg of catechin equivalents, and the highest and the lowest values were both those of the ready-to-drink products. Infusions prepared from tea bags had contents varying from 96 to 201 mg.200 mL-1, and there were no significant differences among batches. The DPPH radical scavenging and the Oxygen Radical Absorbing Capacities (ORAC varied largely among the different tea preparations, from 23 to 131 mmoles of Trolox Equivalents (TE.200 mL-1 (DPPH, and from 1.2 to 5.1 mmoles of TE.200 mL-1 (ORAC, but again there were no differences among infusions or ready-to-drink commercial preparations. However, the antioxidant capacity of ready-to-drink products was partially due to the presence of other non-phenolic compounds such as ascorbic acid

  13. Does green tea consumption improve the salivary antioxidant status of smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Somayyeh; Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Daraei, Azam

    2017-06-01

    
Considering the higher rate of oral cancer, and reduction in salivary antioxidants in smokers as indicated in previous studies, antioxidant- containing nutrients such as green tea, seem to be beneficial in counteracting against oxidative stress in this group. This study assessed the salivary total antioxidant alteration in smokers compared to nonsmokers, after short-tem (7days) and long-term (3 weeks), green tea drinking. In this experimental study, 20 volunteer moderate-to-heavy male smokers, and 20 matched healthy non-smokers were selected to participate, according to the inclusion criteria. Participants were instructed to drink two cups of green tea per day, by dissolving 2g of green tea in 150ml of hot water for each cup. After saliva collection, antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured at baseline, after 7days, and after 21days. Statistical evaluation was done by SPSS 21, using paired samplet tests, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. 
 At day zero nonsmokers had a higher antioxidant capacity than smokers (686.6±62.22 vs. 338.8±59.9) mM/50μl, Psmokers and non-smokers over the study period (after tea drinking). In addition, a significant difference was found in total antioxidant capacity alteration in smokers compared to non-smokers from baseline to day 21. Results support the effectiveness of green tea consumption in salivary antioxidants enhancement in smokers, in both the short- and long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Green Tea versus Sour Tea on Insulin Resistance, Lipids Profiles and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: By decreasing oxidative stress and whereby decreasing insulin resistance, it may be possible to decrease complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Green tea and sour tea contain phytochemicals which have anti-oxidative function. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of sour and green tea consumption on insulin resistance and oxidative stress in DM. Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial in which 100 type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned into sour tea group (ST and green tea group (GT. The patients were instructed to drink 150ml sour tea and green tea infusion, respectively, three times a day for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, fructosamine, lipid profiles, fasting blood insulin (FBI, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; beta cell function (b%, insulin sensitivity (S% and malondialdehyde (MDA were monitored. Results: HDL-c significantly increased in both groups. The median of FBI in GT showed significant decrease (8.5 to 6.6 μIU/mL unlike the ST which showed significant increase (8.2 to 16.3 μIU/mL. The median of HOMA-IR after the intervention in GT showed lower levels than the ST (1.1 vs. 1.6, P=0.004. The median of b% only in ST showed significant increase from 38.2% at the baseline to 47.7% after the intervention. The mean of S% only in ST showed significant decrease after the intervention. Conclusion: This study shows that the use of 150 ml infusion of green tea or sour tea, three times a day for four weeks, has positive effect on insulin resistance and certain lipoproteins in type 2 DM. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201107317161N1

  15. Syneresis and rheological behaviors of set yogurt containing green tea and green coffee powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Özge; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of added green coffee powder (GCP) and green tea powder (GTP) on syneresis behavior and consistency of set yogurts. Adding GCP (1 or 2%) decreased syneresis rate. The effect of GTP on the syneresis rate was concentration dependent. In comparison to the control, GTP decreased syneresis rate when it was added at 0.02%, but it caused an increase when added at 2%. No significant difference was observed in the syneresis rates when GTP was added at 1 and 0.01%, until 14 and 7 d of storage, respectively. The Herschel-Bulkley model parameters indicated that the consistency of control was considerably lower than that of GCP yogurts during 14 d, whereas it was higher at the end of storage. The GTP yogurt results showed that the consistency coefficients of GTP yogurts were different from those of control samples until 14 d of storage. In conclusion, GTP and GCP behaved differently in acidified gel networks of set yogurt, modifying its rheological behavior, as they have different profiles and concentrations of polyphenols. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Different Extraction Methods and Conditions on the Phenolic Composition of Mate Tea Extracts

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    Jelena Vladic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v and liquid CO2 extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C. Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO2 with aqueous ethanol (40% as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar.

  17. Effect of green tea supplementation on the microbiological, antioxidant, and sensory properties of probiotic milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Green tea and its constituents are known for a wide range of health-promoting properties. They may exert antimicrobial action but without altering lactic acid bacteria. The aim of the present study was to estimate the effect of green tea addition on the selected properties of probiotic milks. Bioyogurts (fermented with ABT-1 coculture of Streptococcus thermophilus , Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12) and acidophilus milks (fermented with pure L. acidophilus LA-5 culture) with addition of 0, 5, 10, or 15% ( v / v ) green tea infusion (GTI) were produced and analyzed for the antioxidant capacity by the "diphenyl picrylhydrazyl" (DPPH) and "ferric-reducing antioxidant power" (FRAP) methods, acidity, the count of starter bacteria, and sensory properties at the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st day of cold storage. The 15% addition of GTI to the acidophilus milk significantly reduced the lactic acid production during the whole study. The GTI had no impact on the level of S. thermophilus and B. lactis BB-12 in bioyogurts, and its effect on the count of L. acidophilus LA-5 depended on the concentration and probiotic milk type. GTI similarly and in a dose-dependent manner enhanced the antioxidant capacity of both milk types. There were no significant differences between the sensory notes received for bioyogurts, whereas acidophilus milks with tea were less appreciated by the panelists. In conclusion, green tea could be successfully used as a functional additive for selected probiotic milks enhancing their health benefits, but the proper selection of tea additive and starter culture is recommended.

  18. Modelling of packed bed adsorption columns for the separation of green tea catechins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsanto, Miguel; Thota Radhakrishnan, A.K.; Zondervan, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a rich source of catechins, which when purified have a high economic value as they can be used as a supplement in several products, to increase their health benefits. Catechins are regarded as desired components with several applications in a variety of areas such as foods, cosmetics

  19. Consumption of milk-protein combined with green tea modulates diet-induced thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-08-01

    Green tea and protein separately are able to increase diet-induced thermogenesis. Although their effects on long-term weight-maintenance were present separately, they were not additive. Therefore, the effect of milk-protein (MP) in combination with green tea on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was examined in 18 subjects (aged 18-60 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.1 kg/m(2)). They participated in an experiment with a randomized, 6 arms, crossover design, where energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured. Green tea (GT)vs. placebo (PL) capsules were either given in combination with water or with breakfasts containing milk protein in two different dosages: 15 g (15 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 15/47/38; 1.7 MJ/500 mL), and 3.5 g (3.5 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 41/59/0; 146.4 kJ/100 mL). After measuring resting energy expenditure (REE) for 30 min, diet-induced energy expenditure was measured for another 3.5 h after the intervention. There was an overall significant difference observed between conditions (p milk-protein inhibits the effect of green tea on DIT.

  20. Role of green tea on nicotine toxicity on liver and lung of mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR_Mohsen

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... Nicotine is the more abundant component in cigarette smoking. The natural diet contains a variety ... morphometrical methods and study the protective effect of green tea against toxicity of nicotine. Four groups of the male ... nicotine exposure induced oxidative stress and causes histopathological changes ...

  1. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungdo Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726. Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601 when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults.

  2. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  3. Role of green tea on nicotine toxicity on liver and lung of mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicotine is the more abundant component in cigarette smoking. The natural diet contains a variety of compounds, such as green tea that exhibit protective effects towards different toxicities. Nicotine is firstly metabolized in liver, and the lung is the main target organ susceptible to smoking; so, this study was aimed to ...

  4. Geno protective and anti-apoptotic effect of green tea against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study aims to examine the protective effect of green tea on the disturbances in oxidative stress and apoptosis related factors, mostly produced due to perinatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure, that subsequently induces liver cell damage. Materials and Methods: Anti-free radical, Antioxidant, scavenging, ...

  5. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of rice bran and green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of an enzyme bath of Oryza sativa (rice bran) and Camellia sinensis O. Kuntz (green tea) fermented with Bacillus subtilis (OCB). Methods: The anti-oxidant effects of OCB were assessed by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and flow ...

  6. pH-dependent radical scavenging capacity of green tea catechins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muzolf, M.; Szymusiak, H.; Gliszczynska-Swiglo, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Tyrakowska, B.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of pH on the radical scavenging capacity of green tea catechins was investigated using experimental as well as theoretical methods. It was shown that the radical scavenging capacity of the catechins, quantified by the TEAC value, increases with increasing pH of the medium. Comparison of

  7. Green tea EGCG, T-cell function, and T-cell-mediated autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autoimmune diseases are common, disabling immune disorders affecting millions of people. Recent studies indicate that dysregulated balance of different CD4+ T-cell subpopulations plays a key role in immune pathogenesis of several major autoimmune diseases. Green tea and its active ingredient, epigal...

  8. Allograft pretreatment for the repair of sciatic nerve defects: green tea polyphenols versus radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-hu Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of nerve allografts by exposure to irradiation or green tea polyphenols can eliminate neuroimmunogenicity, inhibit early immunological rejection, encourage nerve regeneration and functional recovery, improve tissue preservation, and minimize postoperative infection. In the present study, we investigate which intervention achieves better results. We produced a 1.0 cm sciatic nerve defect in rats, and divided the rats into four treatment groups: autograft, fresh nerve allograft, green tea polyphenol-pretreated (1 mg/mL, 4°C nerve allograft, and irradiation-pretreated nerve allograft (26.39 Gy/min for 12 hours; total 19 kGy. The animals were observed, and sciatic nerve electrophysiology, histology, and transmission electron microscopy were carried out at 6 and 12 weeks after grafting. The circumference and structure of the transplanted nerve in rats that received autografts or green tea polyphenol-pretreated nerve allografts were similar to those of the host sciatic nerve. Compared with the groups that received fresh or irradiation-pretreated nerve allografts, motor nerve conduction velocity in the autograft and fresh nerve allograft groups was greater, more neurites grew into the allografts, Schwann cell proliferation was evident, and a large number of new blood vessels was observed; in addition, massive myelinated nerve fibers formed, and abundant microfilaments and microtubules were present in the axoplasm. Our findings indicate that nerve allografts pretreated by green tea polyphenols are equivalent to transplanting autologous nerves in the repair of sciatic nerve defects, and promote nerve regeneration. Pretreatment using green tea polyphenols is better than pretreatment with irradiation

  9. Development of a partial least squares-artificial neural network (PLS-ANN) hybrid model for the prediction of consumer liking scores of ready-to-drink green tea beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peigen; Low, Mei Yin; Zhou, Weibiao

    2018-01-01

    In order to develop products that would be preferred by consumers, the effects of the chemical compositions of ready-to-drink green tea beverages on consumer liking were studied through regression analyses. Green tea model systems were prepared by dosing solutions of 0.1% green tea extract with differing concentrations of eight flavour keys deemed to be important for green tea aroma and taste, based on a D-optimal experimental design, before undergoing commercial sterilisation. Sensory evaluation of the green tea model system was carried out using an untrained consumer panel to obtain hedonic liking scores of the samples. Regression models were subsequently trained to objectively predict the consumer liking scores of the green tea model systems. A linear partial least squares (PLS) regression model was developed to describe the effects of the eight flavour keys on consumer liking, with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.733, and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 3.53%. The PLS model was further augmented with an artificial neural network (ANN) to establish a PLS-ANN hybrid model. The established hybrid model was found to give a better prediction of consumer liking scores, based on its R 2 (0.875) and RMSE (2.41%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training and Green Tea Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Inactive Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fathei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Physical activities, as well as diet, are known as the truest scientific methods to reduce the signs of the cardio-vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8–week aerobic trainings and green tea supplementation on some of the cardio-vascular risk factors in the obese inactive women. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 40 obese inactive women, who were residents of Mashhad Township, were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected via purposeful available sampling method, were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 per group. The groups were green tea, aerobic training, aerobic training and green tea supplementation, and control groups. 8-week training program consisted of three 45- to 60-minute sessions per week. Green tea was consumed by green tea group three times a day after each meal. The composed group underwent both interventions, while control group underwent no intervention. Data was analyzed by SPSS 15 software using correlated T test and one-way ANOVA. Findings: Mean total cholesterol level was significantly changed in green tea, aerobic training, and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean triglyceride level was significantly changed in green tea and aerobic training groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean low density lipoprotein was significantly changed in green tea and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean high-density lipoprotein was significantly changed only in aerobic group in posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. In addition, mean concentration of C-reactive protein was significantly reduced in aerobic training (p=0.01 and composed (p=0.04 groups. Conclusion: 8 weeks aerobic training, green tea consumption, and their composition reduce the cardiovascular risk factors in inactive obese women in a relatively similar manner.

  11. Optimal extraction parameters of Theabrownin from Sichuan Dark Tea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sichuan Dark Tea is a popular beverage with hypolipidemic and lifting greasy properties in the minority neighborhoods of Sichuan and Tibet regions. The theabrownin, an important pigment of dark tea, has been proven for the role of the hypolipidemic property in Sichuan Dark Tea. The objective of the study ...

  12. 28-Day oral (gavage) toxicity studies of green tea catechins prepared for beverages in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengelis, Christopher P; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie B; Regan, Karen S; Radovsky, Ann E; Beck, Melissa J; Morita, Osamu; Tamaki, Yasushi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    The beneficial health effects associated with drinking green tea are widely considered to be due primarily to tea catechins. Heat treatment of marketed green tea beverages for sterilization causes epimerization and/or polymerization of tea catechins. Safety studies on heat-treated tea catechins are limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate potential adverse effects, if any, of two standardized green tea catechin (GTC) preparations: one that underwent heat sterilization (GTC-H) and one that was not heat-sterilized (GTC-UH). A decaffeinated preparation of the GTC-H (GTC-HDC) was also evaluated to ascertain if any effects were due to caffeine. The GTC preparations were administered to rats once daily at levels up to 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There were no deaths attributable to the GTC preparations. The clinical condition of the animals, functional observational battery, motor activity, clinical pathology evaluations, organ weights, and gross necropsy findings were unaffected by any of the GTC preparations. GTC-HDC or GTC-UH dosing had no effects on body weights or microscopic findings, whereas lower body weights and food consumption were observed in the 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day GTC-H group males. The no observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for localized gastric effects for GTC-H was 1000 mg/kg/day. No other target organs were identified. Thus, the NOAEL for systemic toxicity following oral administration was 2000 mg/kg/day for GTC-H, GTC HDC, and GTC-UH under the conditions of this study.

  13. Extraction Efficiency of Different Solvents and LC-UV Determination of Biogenic Amines in Tea Leaves and Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Gianfranco Spizzirri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs, that is, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine, and serotonin, have been determined in several samples of tea leaves, tea infusions, and tea drinks by LC-UV method after derivatization with dansyl chloride. Different extraction solvents have been tested and TCA 5% showed better analytical performances in terms of linearity, recovery percentages, LOD, LOQ, and repeatability than HCl 0.1 M and HClO4 0.1 M and was finally exploited for the quantitative determination of BAs in all samples. In tea leaves total BAs concentration ranged from 2.23 μg g−1 to 11.24 μg g−1 and PUT (1.05–2.25 μg g−1 and SPD (1.01–1.95 μg g−1 were always present, while SER (nd–1.56 μg g−1, HIS (nd–2.44 μg g−1, and SPM (nd–1.64 μg g−1 were detected more rarely. CAD and PHE were determined in few samples at much lower concentrations while none of the samples contained TYR. Tea infusions showed the same trend with total BAs concentrations never exceeding 80.7 μg L−1. Black teas showed higher amounts of BAs than green teas and organic and decaffeinated samples always contained much lower BAs levels than their conventional counterparts.

  14. Fast gradient HPLC/MS separation of phenolics in green tea to monitor their degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilarová, Petra; Česlová, Lenka; Meloun, Milan

    2017-12-15

    The degradation of catechins and other phenolics in green tea infusions were monitored using fast HPLC/MS separation. The final separation was performed within 2.5min using Ascentis Express C18 column (50mm×2.1mm i.d.) packed with 2μm porous shell particles. Degradation was studied in relation to the temperature of water (70, 80, 90°C) and the standing time of the infusion (up to 6h). Along with chromatographic separation, the antioxidant properties of the infusions were monitored using two spectrophotometric methods. During staying of green tea infusion, the degradation of some catechins probably to gallic acid was observed. Finally, the influence of tea bag storage on antioxidant properties of green tea was evaluated. Rapid degradation of antioxidants after 3weeks was observed. The principal component analysis, factor analysis and discriminant analysis were used for the statistical evaluation of obtained experimental data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Complexation/encapsulation of green tea polyphenols in mixed calcium carbonate and phosphate micro-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbadi, Amal; Jeckelmann, Nicolas; Haefliger, Olivier P; Ouali, Lahoussine

    2011-01-01

    We used a double-jet mixer to encapsulate water-soluble polyphenols, green tea extract (GTE), with calcium-based inorganic materials. The device mixed calcium chloride solutions with a solution of carbonate and phosphate in the presence of a GTE solution, and formed micro-particles which capture the GTE molecules. The micro-particles were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy to determine the encapsulation yield and loading of the different GTE components. We established correlations between (1) the efficiency of the GTE encapsulation and the composition of the mixed anion solutions and (2) the protonation degree of the ions and the molar ratio of calcium cations and carbonate/phosphate anions. An optimal and reproducible GTE loading of about 40% with an encapsulation yield of 65% was observed for a carbonate/phosphate molar composition of 4 : 1. In addition, our experimental results showed that the process is selective and favours the encapsulation of gallated species which form stronger complexes with calcium cations.

  16. Green Tea Polyphenols Attenuated Glutamate Excitotoxicity via Antioxidative and Antiapoptotic Pathway in the Primary Cultured Cortical Neurons

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    Lin Cong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols are a natural product which has antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. It has been shown that glutamate excitotoxicity induced oxidative stress is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. In this study we explored the neuroprotective effect of green teen polyphenols against glutamate excitotoxicity in the primary cultured cortical neurons. We found that green tea polyphenols protected against glutamate induced neurotoxicity in the cortical neurons as measured by MTT and TUNEL assays. Green tea polyphenols were then showed to inhibit the glutamate induced ROS release and SOD activity reduction in the neurons. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that green tea polyphenols restored the dysfunction of mitochondrial pro- or antiapoptotic proteins Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 caused by glutamate. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols was abrogated when the neurons were incubated with siBcl-2. Taken together, these results demonstrated that green tea polyphenols protected against glutamate excitotoxicity through antioxidative and antiapoptotic pathways.

  17. Efficient procedure for isolating methylated catechins from green tea and effective simultaneous analysis of ten catechins, three purine alkaloids, and gallic acid in tea by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bing; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Bei; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Yi; Ye, Hong; Zhao, Liyan; Hu, Qiuhui; Wang, Guoxiang; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2009-04-10

    Monomers of (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3''Me) and (-)-3-O-methyl epicatechin gallate (ECG3'Me) (purity, >97%) were successfully prepared from extract of green tea by two-time separation with Toyopearl HW-40S column chromatography eluted by 80% ethanol. In addition, monomers of (-)-catechin (C), (-)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), and (-)-catechin gallate (CG) (purity, >98%) were prepared from EC, EGC, EGCG, and ECG by heat-epimerization and semi-preparative HPLC chromatography. With the prepared catechin standards, an effective and simultaneous HPLC method for the analysis of gallic acid, tea catechins, and purine alkaloids in tea was developed in the present study. Using an ODS-100Z C(18) reversed-phase column, fourteen compounds were rapidly separated within 15min by a linear gradient elution of formic acid solution (pH 2.5) and methanol. A 2.5-7-fold reduction in HPLC analysis time was obtained from existing analytical methods (40-105min) for gallic acid, tea catechins including O-methylated catechins and epimers of epicatechins, as well as purine alkaloids. Detection limits were generally on the order of 0.1-1.0ng for most components at the applied wavelength of 280nm. Method replication generally resulted in intraday and interday peak area variation of <6% for most tested components in green, Oolong, black, and pu-erh teas. Recovery rates were generally within the range of 92-106% with RSDs less than 4.39%. Therefore, advancement has been readily achievable with commonly used chromatography equipments in the present study, which will facilitate the analytical, clinical, and other studies of tea catechins.

  18. Green Tea Consumption and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Long Zeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging laboratory and animal studies indicate that green tea inhibits development and progression of pancreatic cancer, but evidence from epidemiologic studies appears inconsistent and inconclusive. A meta-analysis summarizing published case-control and cohort studies was performed to evaluate the association of green tea consumption with risk of pancreatic cancer. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and EMBASE up to April 2014. A random-effects model was assigned to compute summary risk estimates. A total of three case-control studies and five prospective studies were included, comprising 2317 incident cases and 288209 subjects. Of them, three studies were from China and the reminders were conducted in Japan. Overall, neither high vs. low green consumption (odds ratio (OR = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.78–1.25, nor an increase in green tea consumption of two cups/day (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.85–1.06 was associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. The null association persisted when the analysis was stratified by sex or restricted to non-smokers. In the stratification by study location, the summary OR for the studies from China and for those from Japan was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.60–0.99 and 1.21 (95% CI = 0.94–1.54, respectively (P for differences = 0.04. Cumulative epidemiologic evidence suggests that green tea consumption is not associated with pancreatic cancer.

  19. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of ethanol extract of rheumatic tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-acute toxicity profile of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF), a polyherbal tea consisting of Salix alba, Eucalyptus globulus and Albizia chevalieri was investigated in wistar rats of both sexes. Wistar rats were orally administered three different doses of ethanol extract of RTF for 28 days after which the effect on body weight, ...

  20. Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Unno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT, on stress and quality of sleep of middle–aged individuals (n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT was used as the control. These teas (≥300 mL/day, which were eluted with room temperature water, were consumed over a period of seven days after a single washout term. The level of salivary α-amylase activity (sAA, a stress marker, was significantly lower in participants that consumed LCGT (64.7 U/mL than in those that consumed SGT (73.9 U/mL. Sleep quality was higher in participants that consumed a larger quantity of LCGT. In addition, a self-diagnostic check for accumulated fatigue was significantly lower in those participants that consumed LCGT than SGT. These results indicate that LCGT intake can reduce stress in middle-aged individuals and improve their quality of sleep. The reduction in caffeine is suggested to be a valid reason for enhancing the anti-stress effect of green tea.

  1. Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Noda, Shigenori; Kawasaki, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi; Morita, Akio; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2017-07-19

    Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT), on stress and quality of sleep of middle-aged individuals ( n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years) in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT) was used as the control. These teas (≥300 mL/day), which were eluted with room temperature water, were consumed over a period of seven days after a single washout term. The level of salivary α-amylase activity (sAA), a stress marker, was significantly lower in participants that consumed LCGT (64.7 U/mL) than in those that consumed SGT (73.9 U/mL). Sleep quality was higher in participants that consumed a larger quantity of LCGT. In addition, a self-diagnostic check for accumulated fatigue was significantly lower in those participants that consumed LCGT than SGT. These results indicate that LCGT intake can reduce stress in middle-aged individuals and improve their quality of sleep. The reduction in caffeine is suggested to be a valid reason for enhancing the anti-stress effect of green tea.

  2. Implications of Green Tea and Its Constituents in the Prevention of Cancer via the Modulation of Cell Signalling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Al shabrmi, Fahad M.; Allemailem, Khaled S.; Aly, Salah M.; Khan, Masood A.

    2015-01-01

    Green tea is commonly used as a beverage worldwide, especially in China, Japan, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia. Green tea and its constituents have been considered very effective in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. It contains a variety of catechins, which show a pivotal role in the modulation of biological activities and also act as chemopreventive agents. Earlier studies have confirmed that green tea and its chief constituent epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have a potential role in the management of cancer through the modulation of cell signaling pathways. In this review, we focused on the beneficial effects of green tea and its constituents in the cancer prevention and treatment and its impact on modulation of molecular pathways. PMID:25977926

  3. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiocaesium concentration of the first crop of processed tea and it's extracts, and the second crop of processed tea manufactured in Kanagawa Prefecture in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya; Takeda, Hajime; Okamoto, Tamotsu; Funahashi, Hideto; Kita, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We conducted this study to understand the relation of 137 Cs concentration of the first crop of processed tea and that of its extracts manufactured in Kanagawa Prefecture in 2012. In the case of the first crop, processed tea was brewed in 30 times its volume in hot water (at 90℃) for 1 minute, the 137 Cs concentration of processed tea extracts was diluted to 1/68.9 that of processed tea on average and extraction efficiency of 137 Cs from processed tea was 46.2% on average. The correlation coefficient between 137 Cs concentration of the first crop of processed tea and that of extracts was 0.799(p 137 Cs concentration of the first and second crops of processed tea was analyzed. The 137 Cs concentration of the second crop of processed tea was 0.69 compared with that of the first crop of processed tea on average. The correlation coefficient between 137 Cs concentration of the first and second crop of processed tea was 0.803(p<0.01). (author)

  5. Alkaloid and polyphenol analysis by HPLC in green and black tea powders and their potential use as additives in ruminant diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul S.; Seal, Chris J.

    2018-02-01

    We used HPLC to examine the bioactive compounds such as alkaloids and polyphenols in green and black tea powders and their use as potential additives in ruminant diets. Caffeine was the highest alkaloid in both green and black teas. Green tea had significantly higher concentrations of alkaloids and catechins but lower theaflavins than black tea. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin were the major catechins in green tea while theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate and theaflavin-3-gallate were the major theaflavins in black tea. Tea powders in ruminant diets decreased in vitro rumen ammonia and methane production without affecting volatile fatty acid profiles and the degradability of the diets. The tea powders containing variable amounts of alkaloids, catechins and theaflavins can potentially be used to decrease rumen ammonia and methane productions without any detrimental effect on rumen functions in vitro and perhaps ruminant productive efficiency.

  6. Chá verde brasileiro (Camellia sinensis var assamica: efeitos do tempo de infusão, acondicionamento da erva e forma de preparo sobre a eficiência de extração dos bioativos e sobre a estabilidade da bebida Brazilian green tea (Camellia sinensis var assamica: effect of infusion time, mode of packaging and preparation on the extraction efficiency of bioactive compounds and on the stability of the beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Fernandes Nishiyama

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos do chá verde brasileiro (Camellia sinensis var assamica ainda são escassos quando comparados aos realizados com chás verdes produzidos em outros países. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar os efeitos do tempo de infusão, forma de acondicionamento da erva (a granel ou em sachês e forma de preparo da bebida na extração dos biativos do chá verde brasileiro e na estabilidade da bebida obtida. Foram avaliados os parâmetros sólidos solúveis e compostos fenólicos extraídos, bem como as propriedades antioxidantes da bebida pelo método DPPH (radicais 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil. Os dados obtidos evidenciam que o uso da erva a granel sob agitação e tempo de infusão de 5 minutos foi a condição mais propícia para a extração dos bioativos do chá verde. Aumentando-se o volume de preparação da bebida sem alteração da razão erva:água, aumentou-se a eficiência da extração dos bioativos, devido ao fato de que o resfriamento de volumes maiores é mais demorado que o resfriamento de volumes menores. As bebidas obtidas foram estáveis por 24 horas em temperatura ambiente e em geladeira, visto não terem sido detectadas redução das propriedades antioxidantes e variações significativas dos seus principais bioativos epigalocatequina galato, epicatequina, catequina e cafeína.Studies on the Brazilian green tea (Camellia sinensis var assamica are still scarce when compared with the great number of investigations conducted on the green tea produced in other countries. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate the effects of infusion time, mode of packaging (tea in bulk or in tea bags and preparation on the extraction of bioactive compounds from the Brazilian green tea and on the stability of the beverage. The evaluated parameters were: the amounts of soluble solutes and phenolic compounds that were extracted as well as the antioxidant properties of the beverage using the DPPH method (2,2-diphenyl-1

  7. The chemopreventive properties and therapeutic modulation of green tea polyphenols in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ui-Lyong; Choi, Sung-Weon

    2011-01-01

    Chemoprevention is a relatively novel and promising approach for controlling cancer that uses specific natural products or synthetic agents to suppress, reverse, or prevent premalignancy before transformation into invasive cancer. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) represents a large, worldwide health burden with approximately 274,000 cases diagnosed annually worldwide. Smoking and alcohol consumption are major inducers of OCSCC. Recently, the human papilloma virus was also shown to potentially be an etiologic factor. Due to its easily identifiable risk factors and the presence of premalignant regions, oral cancer makes a good candidate for chemoprevention. Green tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and it has received considerable attention because of its abundant, scientifically proven, beneficial effects on human health. In this review, we discuss the role of green tea in oral cancer chemoprevention with regard to the multiple molecular mechanisms proposed in various in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials.

  8. Orthogonal analytical methods for botanical standardization: determination of green tea catechins by qNMR and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, José G; Gödecke, Tanja; Lankin, David C; Jaki, Birgit U; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2014-05-01

    The development of analytical methods for parallel characterization of multiple phytoconstituents is essential to advance the quality control of herbal products. While chemical standardization is commonly carried out by targeted analysis using gas or liquid chromatography-based methods, more universal approaches based on quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR) measurements are being used increasingly in the multi-targeted assessment of these complex mixtures. The present study describes the development of a 1D qHNMR-based method for simultaneous identification and quantification of green tea constituents. This approach utilizes computer-assisted (1)H iterative Full Spin Analysis (HiFSA) and enables rapid profiling of seven catechins in commercial green tea extracts. The qHNMR results were cross-validated against quantitative profiles obtained with an orthogonal LC-MS/MS method. The relative strengths and weaknesses of both approaches are discussed, with special emphasis on the role of identical reference standards in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential protection of green tea polyphenols against 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation-induced injury on rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Li; Wen, Jian-Qiang; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2011-10-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) are harmful to public health, but the certain anti-irradiation mechanism is not clear yet. The present study was performed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea polyphenols against electromagnetic radiation-induced injury in the cultured rat cortical neurons. In this study, green tea polyphenols were used in the cultured cortical neurons exposed to 1800 MHz EMFs by the mobile phone. We found that the mobile phone irradiation for 24 h induced marked neuronal cell death in the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) and TUNEL (TdT mediated biotin-dUTP nicked-end labeling) assay, and protective effects of green tea polyphenols on the injured cortical neurons were demonstrated by testing the content of Bcl-2 Assaciated X protein (Bax) in the immunoprecipitation assay and Western blot assay. In our study results, the mobile phone irradiation-induced increases in the content of active Bax were inhibited significantly by green tea polyphenols, while the contents of total Bax had no marked changes after the treatment of green tea polyphenols. Our results suggested a neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols against the mobile phone irradiation-induced injury on the cultured rat cortical neurons.

  10. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Periodontal Dressing-containing Green Tea Epigallocathechin gallate Increases Fibroblasts Number in Gingival Artifical Wound Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardisa U. Pradita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Green tea leaf (Camellia sinensis is one of herbal plants that is used for traditional medicine. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG in green tea is the most potential polyphenol component and has the strongest biological activity. It is known that EGCG has potential effect on wound healing. Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of adding green tea EGCG into periodontal dressing on the number of fibroblasts after gingival artificial wound in animal model. Methods: Gingival artifical wound model was performed using 2mm punch biopsy on 24 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The animals were divided into two groups. Periodontal dressing with EGCG and without EGCG was applied to the experimental and control group, respectively. Decapitation period was scheduled at day 3, 5, and 7 after treatment. Histological analysis to count the number of fibroblasts was performed. Results: Number of fibroblasts was significantly increased in time over the experimental group treated with EGCG periodontal dressing compared to control (p<0.05. Conclusion: EGCG periodontal dressing could increase the number of fibroblast, therefore having role in wound healing after periodontal surgery in animal model.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i3.197

  12. Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Using Tea: A Green Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. K.; Gulati, Shikha; Mehta, Shilpa

    2012-01-01

    Assimilating green chemistry principles in nanotechnology is a developing area of nanoscience research nowadays. Thus, there is a growing demand to develop environmentally friendly and sustainable methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles that utilize nontoxic chemicals, environmentally benign solvents, and renewable materials to avoid their…

  13. Effects of Tannic Acid, Green Tea and Red Wine on hERG Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chu

    Full Text Available Tannic acid presents in varying concentrations in plant foods, and in relatively high concentrations in green teas and red wines. Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG channels expressed in multiple tissues (e.g. heart, neurons, smooth muscle and cancer cells, and play important roles in modulating cardiac action potential repolarization and tumor cell biology. The present study investigated the effects of tannic acid, green teas and red wines on hERG currents. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wines on hERG currents stably transfected in HEK293 cells were studied with a perforated patch clamp technique. In this study, we demonstrated that tannic acid inhibited hERG currents with an IC50 of 3.4 μM and ~100% inhibition at higher concentrations, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ23.2 mV. Remarkably, a 100-fold dilution of multiple types of tea (green tea, oolong tea and black tea or red wine inhibited hERG currents by ~90%, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ30.8 mV and Δ26.0 mV, respectively. Green tea Lung Ching and red wine inhibited hERG currents, with IC50 of 0.04% and 0.19%, respectively. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wine on hERG currents were irreversible. These results suggest tannic acid is a novel hERG channel blocker and consequently provide a new mechanistic evidence for understanding the effects of tannic acid. They also revealed the potential pharmacological basis of tea- and red wine-induced biology activities.

  14. Effects of Tannic Acid, Green Tea and Red Wine on hERG Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingyuan; Li, Wenya; Lin, Yue; Sun, Xiaorun; Ding, Chunhua; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Tannic acid presents in varying concentrations in plant foods, and in relatively high concentrations in green teas and red wines. Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels expressed in multiple tissues (e.g. heart, neurons, smooth muscle and cancer cells), and play important roles in modulating cardiac action potential repolarization and tumor cell biology. The present study investigated the effects of tannic acid, green teas and red wines on hERG currents. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wines on hERG currents stably transfected in HEK293 cells were studied with a perforated patch clamp technique. In this study, we demonstrated that tannic acid inhibited hERG currents with an IC50 of 3.4 μM and ~100% inhibition at higher concentrations, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ23.2 mV). Remarkably, a 100-fold dilution of multiple types of tea (green tea, oolong tea and black tea) or red wine inhibited hERG currents by ~90%, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ30.8 mV and Δ26.0 mV, respectively). Green tea Lung Ching and red wine inhibited hERG currents, with IC50 of 0.04% and 0.19%, respectively. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wine on hERG currents were irreversible. These results suggest tannic acid is a novel hERG channel blocker and consequently provide a new mechanistic evidence for understanding the effects of tannic acid. They also revealed the potential pharmacological basis of tea- and red wine-induced biology activities. PMID:26625122

  15. Experimental variability and data pre-processing as factors affecting the discrimination power of some chemometric approaches (PCA, CA and a new algorithm based on linear regression) applied to (+/-)ESI/MS and RPLC/UV data: Application on green tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorgulescu, E; Voicu, V A; Sârbu, C; Tache, F; Albu, F; Medvedovici, A

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the experimental variability (instrumental repeatability, instrumental intermediate precision and sample preparation variability) and data pre-processing (normalization, peak alignment, background subtraction) on the discrimination power of multivariate data analysis methods (Principal Component Analysis -PCA- and Cluster Analysis -CA-) as well as a new algorithm based on linear regression was studied. Data used in the study were obtained through positive or negative ion monitoring electrospray mass spectrometry (+/-ESI/MS) and reversed phase liquid chromatography/UV spectrometric detection (RPLC/UV) applied to green tea extracts. Extractions in ethanol and heated water infusion were used as sample preparation procedures. The multivariate methods were directly applied to mass spectra and chromatograms, involving strictly a holistic comparison of shapes, without assignment of any structural identity to compounds. An alternative data interpretation based on linear regression analysis mutually applied to data series is also discussed. Slopes, intercepts and correlation coefficients produced by the linear regression analysis applied on pairs of very large experimental data series successfully retain information resulting from high frequency instrumental acquisition rates, obviously better defining the profiles being compared. Consequently, each type of sample or comparison between samples produces in the Cartesian space an ellipsoidal volume defined by the normal variation intervals of the slope, intercept and correlation coefficient. Distances between volumes graphically illustrates (dis)similarities between compared data. The instrumental intermediate precision had the major effect on the discrimination power of the multivariate data analysis methods. Mass spectra produced through ionization from liquid state in atmospheric pressure conditions of bulk complex mixtures resulting from extracted materials of natural origins provided an excellent data

  16. A Phytochemical-Sensing Strategy Based on Mass Spectrometry Imaging and Metabolic Profiling for Understanding the Functionality of the Medicinal Herb Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2017-09-27

    Low-molecular-weight phytochemicals have health benefits and reduce the risk of diseases, but the mechanisms underlying their activities have remained elusive because of the lack of a methodology that can easily visualize the exact behavior of such small molecules. Recently, we developed an in situ label-free imaging technique, called mass spectrometry imaging, for visualizing spatially-resolved biotransformations based on simultaneous mapping of the major bioactive green tea polyphenol and its phase II metabolites. In addition, we established a mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling technique capable of evaluating the bioactivities of diverse green tea extracts, which contain multiple phytochemicals, by focusing on their compositional balances. This methodology allowed us to simultaneously evaluate the relative contributions of the multiple compounds present in a multicomponent system to its bioactivity. This review highlights small molecule-sensing techniques for visualizing the complex behaviors of herbal components and linking such information to an enhanced understanding of the functionalities of multicomponent medicinal herbs.

  17. Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinbach, Helene Christine; Smeets, A.; Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background & aims Bioactive ingredients have been shown to reduce appetite and energy intake. The magnitude of these effects might depend on energy balance why it was investigated how capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper as well as green tea and capsaicin affect appetite and energy...... intake during respectively negative and positive energy balance. Methods 27 subjects were randomized to three weeks of negative and three weeks of positive energy balance during which capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper, capsaicin + green tea or placebo was ingested on ten separate test days while...... the effects on appetite, energy intake, body weight and heart rate were assessed. Results CH-19 sweet pepper and a combination of capsaicin and green tea reduced energy intake during positive energy balance. Capsaicin and green tea suppressed hunger and increased satiety more during negative than during...

  18. Green tea increases anti-inflammatory tristetraprolin and decreases pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor mRNA levels in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussel Anne M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tristetraprolin (TTP/ZFP36 family proteins have anti-inflammatory activity by binding to and destabilizing pro-inflammatory mRNAs such as Tnf mRNA, and represent a potential therapeutic target for inflammation-related diseases. Tea has anti-inflammatory properties but the molecular mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. We hypothesized that TTP and/or its homologues might contribute to the beneficial effects of tea as an anti-inflammatory product. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR was used to investigate the effects of green tea (0, 1, and 2 g solid extract/kg diet on the expression of Ttp family genes (Ttp/Tis11/Zfp36, Zfp36l1/Tis11b, Zfp36l2/Tis11d, Zfp36l3, pro-inflammatory genes (Tnf, Csf2/Gm-csf, Ptgs2/Cox2, and Elavl1/Hua/Hur and Vegf genes in liver and muscle of rats fed a high-fructose diet known to induce insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and TNF-alpha levels. Results Ttp and Zfp36l1 mRNAs were the major forms in both liver and skeletal muscle. Ttp, Zfp36l1, and Zfp36l2 mRNA levels were more abundant in the liver than those in the muscle. Csf2/Gm-csf and Zfp36l3 mRNAs were undetectable in both tissues. Tea (1 g solid extract/kg diet increased Ttp mRNA levels by 50–140% but Tnf mRNA levels decreased by 30% in both tissues, and Ptgs2/Cox2 mRNA levels decreased by 40% in the muscle. Tea (2 g solid extract/kg diet increased Elavl1/Hua/Hur mRNA levels by 40% in the liver but did not affect any of the other mRNA levels in liver or muscle. Conclusion These results show that tea can modulate Ttp mRNA levels in animals and suggest that a post-transcriptional mechanism through TTP could partially account for tea's anti-inflammatory properties. The results also suggest that drinking adequate amounts of green tea may play a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases.

  19. Health Benefits of Tea Consumption | Sharma | Tropical Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tea is the most common beverage after water. It is extracted from the leaves of Camellia sinensis (family: Theaceae). It is consumed in different forms, namely, oolong, green, black and Ilex tea depending on post-harvest treatment and chemical components. Being rich in natural antioxidants, tea is reported to be used in the ...

  20. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate differentially modulates oxidative stress in PC12 cell compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie

    2005-01-01

    Tea polyphenols have been reported to be potent antioxidants and beneficial in oxidative stress related diseases. Prooxidant effects of tea polyphenols have also been reported in cell culture systems. In the present study, we have studied oxidative stress in the subcellular compartments of PC12 cells after treatment with different concentrations of the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). We have demonstrated that EGCG has differentially affected the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) metabolism and cytochrome P450 2E1 activity in the different subcellular compartments in PC12 cells. Our results have shown that although the cell survival was not inhibited by EGCG, there was, however, an increased DNA breakdown and activation of apoptotic markers, caspase 3 and poly- (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) at higher concentrations of EGCG treatment. Our results suggest that the differential effects of EGCG might be related to the alterations in oxidative stress, GSH pools and CYP2E1 activity in different cellular compartments. These results may have implications in determining the chemopreventive therapeutic use of tea polyphenols in vivo

  1. Growth inhibition of Walker carcinosarcoma 256 with alcoholic extract of green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis Inibição do crescimento do carcinossarcoma 256 de Walker pelo extrato alcoólico de folhas de chá verde(Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauriclécio Franco Ponte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the antitumor activity of alcoholic extracts of green tea (Camella sinensis. METHODS: Four groups of six Wistar rats were inoculated intramuscularly with 10(6 Walker tumor cells/mL. During 10 days, the animals received by gavage either 0.9% saline solution (Group I; negative control, solution containing 20 mg/Kg of tamoxifen (Group II; positive control, solution containing 0.07 g/Kg alcoholic extract of C. sinensis (Group III, or solution containing 0.14 g/Kg alcoholic extract of C. sinensis (Group IV. Following euthanasia on the tenth day, the tumor, liver, kidneys and spleen were excised and weighed, and tumor volume and tumor growth inhibition were quantified. RESULTS: The average weight of the animals was greater in Group IV than in Group II (p=0.0107. Tumor weight was smaller in Group IV than in Group I (p=0.0062, but did not differ from Group II. Tumor volume was smaller in Groups II and IV than in Group I (p=0.0131. Tumor growth inhibition was observed in Groups II (44.67% ± 32.47, III (16.83% ± 53.02 and IV (66.4% ± 25.82 (p>0.05. The groups did not differ with regard to the weight of the excised organs. CONCLUSION: Alcoholic extracts of green tea have antitumor activity.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade antitumoral do extrato alcoólico do chá verde (C. sinensis. MÉTODOS: Quatro grupos de seis ratos Wistar foram inoculados com 1x10(6 células/mL do tumor de Walker por via intramuscular. Os grupos foram tratados durante 10 dias, por gavagem, com salina 0,9 % (Grupo I, controle negativo, 20 mg/Kg de tamoxifeno (Grupo II, controle positivo e extrato alcoólico de C. sinensis nas doses de 0,07 g/Kg (Grupo III ou 0,14 g/Kg (Grupo IV. O volume e a inibição do crescimento tumoral foram calculados. RESULTADOS: A média dos pesos dos animais foi maior no Grupo IV do que no Grupo II (p=0,0107. O peso tumoral do Grupo IV foi menor do que o Grupo I (p=0,0062, mas não houve diferença quando comparado ao Grupo II. O volume

  2. CFD Analysis to Calculate the Optimal Air Velocity in Drying Green Tea Process Using Fluidized Bed Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohana, Eflita; Nugraha, Afif Prasetya; Diana, Ade Eva; Mahawan, Ilham; Nugroho, Sri

    2018-02-01

    Tea processing is basically distinguished into three types which black tea, green tea, and oolong tea. Green tea is processed by heating and drying the leaves. Green tea factories in Indonesia are generally using the process of drying by panning the leaves. It is more recommended to use the fluidization process to speed up the drying process as the quality of the tea can be maintained. Bubbling fluidization is expected to occur in this research. It is a process of bubbles are formed in the fluidization. The effectiveness of the drying process in a fluidized bed dryer machine needs to be improved by using a CFD simulation method to proof that umf < u < ut, where the average velocity value is limited by the minimum and the maximum velocity of the calculation the experimental data. The minimum and the maximum velocity value of the fluidization is 0.96 m/s and 8.2 m/s. The result of the simulation obtained that the average velocity of the upper bed part is 1.81 m/s. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the calculation and the simulation data is in accordance with the condition of bubbling fluidization in fluidized bed dryer.

  3. Determination of theanine, GABA, and other amino acids in green, oolong, black, and Pu-erh teas with dabsylation and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Kai-Yang; Lin, Chih-Li; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2008-09-10

    Dabsyl chloride (dimethylaminoazobenzene sulfonyl chloride), a useful chromophoric labeling reagent for amino acids and amines, was developed in this laboratory in 1975. Although several methods have been developed to determine various types of amino acids, a quick and easy method of determining theanine, GABA, and other amino acids has not been developed in one HPLC system. In this paper are analyzed the free amino acid contents of theanine and GABA in different teas (green tea, black tea, oolong tea, Pu-erh tea, and GABA tea) with a dabsylation and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system coupled with a detector at 425 nm absorbance. Two reverse phase columns, Hypersil GOLD and Zorbax ODS, were used and gave different resolutions of dabsyl amino acids in the gradient elution program. The data suggest that the tea source or the steps of tea-making may contribute to the theanine contents variations. High theanine contents of high-mountain tea were observed in both green tea and oolong tea. Furthermore, the raw (natural fermented) Pu-erh tea contained more theanine than ripe (wet fermented) Pu-erh tea, and the GABA contents in normal teas were generally lower than that in GABA tea.

  4. The influence of gamma radiation on the aflatoxigenic fungi, phenolics content and antioxidant activity of the green tea; Irradiacao do cha verde para controle de fungos Aspergillus sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, S.G.; Silva, E.B.; Costa, L.F., E-mail: sloana.lemos@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias; Nascimento, M.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Departamento de Antibioticos; Oliveira, I.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CAV/UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria

    2013-08-15

    The use of raw plants, including the green tea (Camelia sinensis), has been increasing in Brazil. Along with this increasing tea consumption, there are risks due to its unsuitable handling and storage, which points to the need of controlling possible contaminations. This could be achieved with the use of ionizing radiation. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation over the total phenolics amount, antioxidants and fungic activities of the green tea aqueous extract aiming its processing. Aliquots of the bulk samples have been analyzed before and after gamma irradiation (dosages of 0; 5; 7,5 and 10 kGy). The total phenolics content of the aqueous extracts was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent having the catechin as the standard. Those same extracts were used to evaluate its ability of scavenging the free radical DPPH. The microbiological analysis were performed through irradiated samples and control. The results have allowed to check that different dosages of radiation (5; 7,5 e 10 kGy) did not induce significant differences on the content of total phenols and on the antioxidant capacity of the analyzed samples when compared to control. Also, it was also observed that the radiation may have had a catalytic effect on the oxidation of the DPPH and was effective on the microbiological control, even though it was not possible to kill the aflatoxigenic fungus. (author)

  5. Effectiveness of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais: A randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvichayapat, Paradee; Prapochanung, Montira; Tunkamnerdthai, Oratai; Sripanidkulchai, Bung-orn; Auvichayapat, Narong; Thinkhamrop, Bandit; Kunhasura, Soontorn; Wongpratoom, Srisuda; Sinawat, Supat; Hongprapas, Pranithi

    2008-02-27

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais. A randomized, controlled trial involving 60 obese subjects (body mass index, BMI > 25 kg/m2) was conducted. All subjects consumed a Thai diet containing 3 meals (8373.6 kJ/day) for 12 weeks, prepared by the Nutritional Unit at Srinagarind Hospital. The diet contained 65% carbohydrates, 15% protein, and 20% fat. Body weight, BMI, body composition, resting energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation were measured at baseline, and during weeks 4, 8, and 12 of the study. Serum levels of leptin and urine VMA were measured at baseline and during the 12th week. Differences over time and between the treatments (green tea or placebo) over time were determined using two-factor ANOVA with repeated measures. In comparing the two groups, differences in weight loss were 2.70, 5.10, and 3.3 kg during the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks of the study, respectively. At the 8th and 12th weeks of the study, body weight loss was significantly different (P tea can reduce body weight in obese Thai subjects by increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation.

  6. The Possible Protective Role of Green Tea against Radiation induced Certain Biochemical and Trace Element Changes in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, M.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The process of ionization occurring after radiation energy absorption in atoms and molecules of biological matter results in biochemical alterations, which cause damage to cellular elements. This damage is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that in turn damage proteins, lipids, nucleic-acids and trace elements. They also can attack poly unsaturated fatty acids and initiate lipid peroxidation within the cell. So the present study was constructed in order to assess the role of green tea extract (GTE) (300 mg/kg) to overcome the hazards of ionizing radiation. The parameters studied in the current work were serum AST, ALT and ALP activities as well as serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, urea and creatinine. Liver and kidney glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and metallothioneins (MTs) contents were also investigated. In addition, contents of some trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, Se and Mn) in liver, kidney, spleen and testis tissues as well as the content of these trace elements in green tea plant and green tea extract were also estimated. Vitamin E was selected and used at dose of 40 mg/kg as reference standard. Male Wistar albino rats (48) were used, weighing 120-150 g, divided into 6 groups, each consists of 8 rats: Group (1) → received saline for 28 days and served as normal group, Group (2) → received GTE once daily for 28 days, Group (3) → received vitamin E once daily for 28 days, Group 4 → received saline for 21 days then were exposed to 6.5 Gy single dose whole body gamma irradiation followed by receiving saline for 7 days later and served as irradiated control, Group (5) → received GTE once daily for 21 days, and then were exposed to single dose whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy), followed by treatment with GTE 7 days later to be 28 days as group 2 and Group (6) → received vitamin E once daily for 21 days, and then were exposed to single dose whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy), followed by

  7. Identification and quantification of phytochemicals in nutraceutical products from green tea by UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gutiérrez, Noelia; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2015-04-15

    A method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous detection and quantification of phytochemicals in nutraceutical products obtained from green tea. For that purpose, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to single-stage Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS) has been used. A database containing 37 compounds has been used for the detection and identification of the target compounds. The developed methodology was based on solid-liquid extraction, using a mixture of methanol:H2O (80:20, v/v, pH 4), followed by dilution (10 times) with a mixture of ammonium acetate:methanol (50:50, v/v). Chromatographic conditions were optimised and full scan accurate mass data acquisition using electrospray ionisation in positive and negative ion mode was used. Moreover, all-ion fragmentation mode was used to get information of fragment ions, and they were used for identification purposes. The developed method was validated, obtaining repeatability (intra-day) and inter-day precision values (expressed as relative standard deviation, RSD) lower than 16% and 20%, respectively. Lower limits were also evaluated and limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 1 to 50 μg L(-1), while limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 2 to 150 μg L(-1). Recovery was performed at five levels and it ranged from 70% to 109%. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the phytochemical content in 10 samples (tablets or capsules), showing concentrations of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, gallic acid, (-)-gallocatechin and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, ranging from 258 (C6) to 10,729 (C6) mg kg(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid Determination of the Monosaccharide Composition and Contents in Tea Polysaccharides from Yingshuang Green Tea by Pre-Column Derivatization HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Ai, Yujie; Yu, Zhi; Chen, Yuqiong; Zhu, Xiaojing; Ai, Zeyi; Liu, Shuyuan; Ni, Dejiang

    2016-01-01

    A pre-column derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and optimized to characterize and quantify the monosaccharides present in tea polysaccharides (TPS) isolated from Yingshuang green tea. TPS sample was hydrolyzed with trifluoroacetic acid, subjected to pre-column derivatization using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), and separated on an Agilent TC-C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) with UV detection at 250 nm. A mixture of ten PMP derivatives of...

  9. Influences of Product Temperature on Emotional Responses to, and Sensory Attributes of, Coffee and Green Tea Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudya, Ragita C.; Seo, Han-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Coffee and green tea are popular beverages consumed at both hot and cold temperatures. When people consume hot beverages concurrently with other activities, they may experience at different temperatures over the period of consumption. However, there has been limited research investigating the effects of product temperatures on emotional responses and sensory attributes of beverages. This study aimed to determine whether emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, brewed coffee and green tea vary as a function of sample temperature. Using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) method, 157 participants (79 for coffee and 78 for green tea) were asked to evaluate either coffee or green tea samples served at cold (5°C), ambient (25°C), and hot (65°C) temperatures with respect to emotional responses and sensory attributes. The results showed that sample temperature could have significant influences on emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea samples. More specifically, 6 and 18 sensory attributes of coffee and green tea samples, respectively, significantly differed with sample temperature. Beverage samples evaluated at 65°C were characterized, regardless of activation/arousal level, by positive emotional responses terms and favorable sensory attributes. While beverages evaluated at 25°C were associated more with negative emotional responses with low activation/arousal, those evaluated at 5°C were more frequently characterized as having negative emotional responses with high activation/arousal. Sensory and emotional drivers of liking for both coffee and green tea differed both with sample temperature and gender. While both emotional responses and sensory attributes were identified as drivers of liking among females, only emotional responses were identified as drivers of liking among males. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that both emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea beverages can

  10. Anti-stress effects of drinking green tea with lowered caffeine and enriched theanine, epigallocatechin and arginine on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Hara, Ayane; Nakagawa, Aimi; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Ohshio, Megumi; Morita, Akio; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2016-11-15

    Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effects on animals and humans. However, the anti-stress effects of drinking green tea have not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to explore anti-stress effects of green tea and roles of tea components in a mouse model of psychosocial stress. We examined anti-stress effects of three types of green teas, theanine-rich "Gyokuro", standard "Sencha", and Sencha with lowered caffeine (low-caffeine green tea). Furthermore, the roles of tea components such as caffeine, catechins, and other amino acids in anti-stress effects were examined. To prepare low-caffeine green tea, plucked new tea leaves were treated with a hot-water spray. Mice were psychosocially stressed from a conflict among male mice under confrontational housing. Mice consumed each tea that was eluted with room temperature water ad libitum. As a marker for the stress response, adrenal hypertrophy was compared with mice that ingested water. Caffeine was significantly lowered by spraying hot-water on tea leaves. While epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the main catechin in tea leaves, epigallocatechin (EGC) was mainly infused into water at room temperature. Adrenal hypertrophy was significantly suppressed in mice that ingested theanine-rich and low-caffeine green tea that were eluted with water at room temperature. Caffeine and EGCG suppressed the anti-stress effects of theanine while EGC and arginine (Arg) retained these effects. These results suggest that drinking green tea exhibits anti-stress effects, where theanine, EGC and Arg cooperatively abolish the counter-effect of caffeine and EGCG on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Red wine and green tea reduce H pylori- or VacA-induced gastritis in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Paolo; Rossi, Giacomo; Tombola, Francesco; Pancotto, Laura; Lauretti, Laura; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Zoratti, Mario

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether red wine and green tea could exert anti-H pylori or anti-VacA activity in vivo in a mouse model of experimental infection. METHODS: Ethanol-free red wine and green tea concentrates were administered orally as a mixture of the two beverages to H pylori infected mice, or separately to VacA-treated mice. Gastric colonization and gastric inflammation were quantified by microbiological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: In H pylori-infected mice, the red wine and green tea mixture significantly prevented gastritis and limited the localization of bacteria and VacA to the surface of the gastric epithelium. Similarly, both beverages significantly prevented gastric epithelium damage in VacA-treated mice; green tea, but not red wine, also altered the VacA localization in the gastric epithelium. CONCLUSION: Red wine and green tea are able to prevent H pylori-induced gastric epithelium damage, possibly involving VacA inhibition. This observation supports the possible relevance of diet on the pathological outcome of H pylori infection. PMID:17230601

  12. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Renata Attademo, E-mail: luizronaldoa@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa da Santa Casa, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso Brant; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1{sup st} week) and end (18{sup th} week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm 2 , while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Conclusions: Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area. (author)

  13. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raso, Renata Attademo; Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso Brant; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1 st week) and end (18 th week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm 2 , while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Conclusions: Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area. (author)

  14. Topical application of ointment containing 0.5% green tea catechins suppresses tongue oxidative stress in 5-fluorouracil administered rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyai, Hisataka; Maruyama, Takayuki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Yoneda, Toshiki; Azuma, Tetsuji; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Sugiura, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Terumasa; Ekuni, Daisuke; Morita, Manabu

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of topical application of green tea catechins on tongue oxidative stress induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) administration in rats. Male Wistar rats (n=28, 8 weeks old) were divided into four groups of seven rats each: a negative control group (saline administration and application of ointment without green tea catechins), a positive control group (5-FU administration and application of ointment without green tea catechins), and two experimental groups (5-FU administration and application of ointment containing 0.1% or 0.5% green tea catechins). Topical application of each ointment to the ventral surface of the tongue was performed once a day for 5days. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. Fluorescence staining was also performed to confirm nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation to the nucleus. After the experimental period, the ratios of 8-OHdG-positive cells in the ventral tongue tissue were higher in the positive control group than in the negative control group (Ptea catechin group, but not in the 0.1% green tea catechin group, were lower than the positive control group (Ptea catechin group than in the positive control group (Ptea catechins could prevent tongue oxidative stress in 5-FU administered rats, via up-regulation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract and pre-freezing equilibration time on the post-thawing quality of ram semen cryopreserved in a soybean lecithin-based extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipour, Mahdieh; Daghigh Kia, Hossein; Najafi, Abouzar; Vaseghi Dodaran, Hossein; García-Álvarez, Olga

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Camellia sinensis extract as antioxidant supplement and pre-freezing equilibration times in a soybean lecithin extender for freezing ram semen. In this study, a total of 20 ejaculates were collected from four Ghezel rams and diluted with extenders (1.5% soybean lecithin, 7% glycerol) containing no supplements (control) and Camellia sinensis extract (5, 10, and 15 mg/L) and cryopreserved, immediately after thermal equilibrium was reached at 5 °C (0 h), or 4 h after equilibration. Sperm motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, apoptotic status, MDA and antioxidant activities (GPx, SOD and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)) were evaluated following freeze-thawing. Camellia sinensis extract at level 10 mg/L led to the highest total and progressive motilities percentages, in comparison to other treatments (P extract at level of 5 and 10 mg/L led to higher plasma membrane integrity, mitochondria activity and Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in comparison to the level of 15 mg/L and control group (P extract at 10 mg/L level produced the highest percentage of live spermatozoa and the lowest apoptotic spermatozoa in comparison to all treatments (P concentration, 10 mg/L, compared to all treatments (P  0.05) were observed between equilibration times (0 h vs. 4 h) for sperm samples incubated with or without different concentrations of Camellia sinensis extract. In conclusion, addition of Camellia sinensis extract at level of 10 mg/L can improve post-thawing quality of ram semen cryopreserved in a soybean lecithin extender. However, further research is needed to standardize the process of Camellia sinensis extraction and specially for identifying which compounds are responsible of its beneficial effect on ram sperm cryopreservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A prospective study of stomach cancer death in relation to green tea consumption in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiyama, Y; Kawaguchi, T; Miura, Y; Mizoue, T; Tokui, N; Yatsuya, H; Sakata, K; Kondo, T; Kikuchi, S; Toyoshima, H; Hayakawa, N; Tamakoshi, A; Ohno, Y; Yoshimura, T

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate whether green tea consumption provides protection against stomach cancer death, relative risks were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis in the Japan Collaborative Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk, sponsored by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (JACC Study). The study was based on 30 370 men and 42 481 women aged 40–79. After adjustment for age, smoking status, history of peptic ulcer, family history of stomach cancer along with certain dietary items, the risks associated with drinking one or two, three or four, five to nine, and 10 or more cups of green tea per day, relative to those of drinking less than one cup per day, were 1.6 (95% CI: 0.9–2.9), 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6–1.9), 1.0 (95% CI: 0.5–2.0), and 1.0 (95% CI: 0.5–2.0), respectively, in men (P for trend=0.669), and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.5–2.5), 1.0 (95% CI: 0.5–2.5), 0.8 (95% CI: 0.4–1.6), and 0.8 (95% CI: 0.3–2.1), respectively, in women (P for trend=0.488). We found no inverse association between green tea consumption and the risk of stomach cancer death. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 309–313. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600487 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12177800

  17. Consumption of Milk-Protein Combined with Green Tea Modulates Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and protein separately are able to increase diet-induced thermogenesis. Although their effects on long-term weight-maintenance were present separately, they were not additive. Therefore, the effect of milk-protein (MP in combination with green tea on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT was examined in 18 subjects (aged 18–60 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.1 kg/m2. They participated in an experiment with a randomized, 6 arms, crossover design, where energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ were measured. Green tea (GT vs. placebo (PL capsules were either given in combination with water or with breakfasts containing milk protein in two different dosages: 15 g (15 MP (energy% P/C/F: 15/47/38; 1.7 MJ/500 mL, and 3.5 g (3.5 MP (energy% P/C/F: 41/59/0; 146.4 kJ/100 mL. After measuring resting energy expenditure (REE for 30 min, diet-induced energy expenditure was measured for another 3.5 h after the intervention. There was an overall significant difference observed between conditions (p < 0.001. Post-hoc, areas under the curve (AUCs for diet-induced energy expenditure were significantly different (P ≤ 0.001 for GT + water (41.11 [91.72] kJ·3.5 h vs. PL + water (10.86 [28.13] kJ·3.5 h, GT + 3.5 MP (10.14 [54.59] kJ·3.5 h and PL + 3.5 MP (12.03 [34.09] kJ·3.5 h, but not between GT + 3.5 MP, PL + 3.5 MP and PL + water, indicating that MP inhibited DIT following GT. DIT after GT + 15 MP (167.69 [141.56] kJ·3.5 h and PL + 15 MP (168.99 [186.56] kJ·3.5 h was significantly increased vs. PL + water (P < 0.001, but these were not different from each other indicating that 15 g MP stimulated DIT, but inhibited the GT effect on DIT. No significant differences in RQ were seen between conditions for baseline and post-treatment. In conclusion, consumption of milk-protein inhibits the effect of green tea on DIT.

  18. Quality Evaluation for Appearance of Needle Green Tea Based on Machine Vision and Process Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Chunwang; Zhu, Hongkai; Zhou, Xiaofen

    2017-01-01

    ), extreme learning machine (ELM) and strong predictor integration algorithm (ELM-AdaBoost). The comparison of the results showed that the ELM-AdaBoost model based on image characteristics had the best performance (RPD was more than 2). Its predictive performance was superior to other models, with smaller......, and modeling faster (0.014~0.281 s). AdaBoost method, which was a hybrid integrated algorithm, can further promote the accuracy and generalization capability of the model. The above conclusions indicated that it was feasible to evaluate the quality of appearance of needle green tea based on machine vision...

  19. Quantification of taste of green tea with taste sensor; Aji sensor wo mochiita ryokucha no aji no teiryoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezaki, H.; Taniguchi, A. [Anritsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    We have developed a multichannel taste sensor with artificial lipid membranes and have applied it to quantification of taste of green tea. We used multiple regression analysis and found high correlations of outputs of the taste sensor with the results of sensory test (taste, flavor and color) and chemical analyses (amino acids and tannin that are main taste substances in green tea). It is concluded that the taste sensor has a potential for quantification of taste of green tea. The taste sensor responds not only to amino acids and tannin, but also to many other taste substances, and hence it contains much more taste information than conventional chemical analyses. 12 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Biological and Mechanistic Characterization of Novel Prodrugs of Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin Gallate Analogs in Human Leiomyoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Reda Saber Ibrahim; Liu, Gang; Renzetti, Andrea; Farshi, Pershang; Yang, Huanjie; Soave, Claire; Saed, Ghassan; El-Ghoneimy, Ashraf Ahmed; El-Banna, Hossny Awad; Foldes, Robert; Chan, Tak-Hang; Dou, Q Ping

    2016-10-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are very common benign tumors grown on the smooth muscle layer of the uterus, present in up to 75% of reproductive-age women and causing significant morbidity in a subset of this population. Although the etiology and biology of uterine fibroids are unclear, strong evidence supports that cell proliferation, angiogenesis and fibrosis are involved in their formation and growth. Currently the only cure for uterine fibroids is hysterectomy; the available alternative therapies have limitations. Thus, there is an urgent need for developing a novel strategy for treating this condition. The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inhibits the growth of uterine leiomyoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and the use of a green tea extract (containing 45% EGCG) has demonstrated clinical activity without side effects in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids. However, EGCG has a number of shortcomings, including low stability, poor bioavailability, and high metabolic transformations under physiological conditions, presenting challenges for its development as a therapeutic agent. We developed a prodrug of EGCG (Pro-EGCG or 1) which shows increased stability, bioavailability and biological activity in vivo as compared to EGCG. We also synthesized prodrugs of EGCG analogs, compounds 2a and 4a, in order to potentially reduce their susceptibility to methylation/inhibition by catechol-O-methyltransferase. Here, we determined the effect of EGCG, Pro-EGCG, and 2a and 4a on cultured human uterine leiomyoma cells, and found that 2a and 4a have potent antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and antifibrotic activities. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2357-2369, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Prevention of chinese green tea on 3,4-benzopyrene-induced lung cancer and its mechanism in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua GU

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Chinese green tea is one of the daily consumption beverages in the world and is considered a promising cancer chemopreventive agent. In the present study, we investigate the role of lung cancer prevention by green tea and its mechanism. Methods Three groups of female SD rats were kept with the same feed. Rats in group A were administrated with 1% green tea drinking, while in group B and group C with water only. Animals in group A and group B were given 3,4-benzopyrene-corn oil mixture pulmonary injection fortnightly for 4 times, while in group C corn oil only. Rats were sacrificed 1 year after the first injection under narcotism. Lung tumors and lung tissues were performed H&E staining for cancer identification. Each case of lung cancer was examined for expression of p53 and Bcl-2 with in situ hybridization analysis and immunohistochemistry staining. Results No cancer was found in rats in group C. However, in group B, 15 out of 20 rats were found generating lung cancer, and in group A, 6 out of 20 rats inducing lung cancer were recorded. The rate of lung carcinogenesis in rats was decreased from 75% to 30% by 1% chinese green tea oral administration (χ2=8.12, P0.05. However, significantly lower level of Bcl-2 expression was found in lung cancer tissues of group A than that of group B (P<0.05. Conclusion The results indicate that chinese green tea inhibits lung carcinogenesis. Chinese green tea can slightly upregulate expression of p53, but significantly downregulate expression of Bcl-2 in lung cancer, and this may be related to the mechanism of lung cancer prevention.

  2. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peiró

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols was optimal at 65 °C, the maximum antioxidant capacity was achieved with an extraction temperature of 90 °C. This study has identified the optimal conditions for the extraction of tea liquor with the best antioxidant properties. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin were extracted from white tea at concentrations up to 29.6 ± 10.6, 5.40 ± 2.09, 5.04 ± 0.20 and 2.48 ± 1.10 mg/100 g.

  3. Synergetic effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter and determination of optimal wavelength to choose light source for optical computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiya Raj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The ultimate aim of this study is to observe the effect of Green tea as a co-antioxidant in PAGAT gel dosimeter and evaluate the appropriate light source for scanning the PAGAT and NIPAM polymer gel.Methods: Both PAGAT (Poly Acrylamide Gelatin Tetrakis hydroxyl phosphonium chloride and NIPAM (N-Isopropyl acrylamide gel were prepared in normoxic condition. The green tea extract (GTE was prepared and tested only on PAGAT. Co-60 teletherapy machine has been used for irradiation purpose, and the gel samples were scanned using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Water equivalency of the gel has been tested in terms of their electron density, effective atomic number and Ratio of oxygen and hydrogen (O/H. We have used NIST XCOM database to test the water equivalency.Results: In this study we found that the GTE added to the gel do not respond to the given doses. By adding sugar we can enhance the sensitivity of the gel. Further investigations are required to use Green tea as a co antioxidant concentration of THPC (Tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride. The optimal wavelength with different region for scanning the PAGAT is 450 to 480 nm (Blue region, for NIPAM it is 540 nm and 570 nm (Green and yellow region. The PAGAT and NIPAM showed better sensitivity at 510 nm. Both gels have their effective atomic number closer to water (NIPAM-7.2, PAGAT-7.379.Conclusion: As per our results, we concluded that GTE alone is not an effective co-antioxidant for polymer gels. When the GTE is combined with sugar and THPC, it protects the gel from pre-polymerization. This study strongly suggests that the blue light is an optimal source for scanning the PAGAT and green to yellow light for NIPAM gel. Though both gels were considered as water equivalent, the PAGAT is equivalent to water and the temporal stability of this gel is higher than NIPAM.

  4. Development of a candidate certified reference material of cypermethrin in green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, Della W.M.; Chan, Pui-kwan; Cheung, Samuel T.C.; Wong, Yee-Lok; Wong, Siu-kay; Mok, Chuen-shing; Wong Yiuchung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A cypermethrin CRM in green tea was developed. ► Using two isotope dilution mass spectrometry techniques for characterization. ► Certified value of 148 μg kg −1 with expanded uncertainty of ±9.2%. ► Support quality assurance of pesticide residue analysis in tea to testing. - Abstract: This paper presents the preparation of a candidate certified reference material (CRM) of cypermethrin in green tea, GLHK-11-01a according to the requirements of ISO Guide 34 and 35. Certification of the material was performed using a newly developed isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) approach, with gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (GC–HRMS) and gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS). Statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) showed excellent agreement of the analytical data sets generated from the two mass spectrometric detections. The characterization methods have also been satisfactorily applied in an Asia-Pacific Metrology Program (APMP) interlaboratory comparison study. Both the GC–HRIDMS and GC–IDMS/MS methods proved to be sufficiently reliable and accurate for certification purpose. The certified value of cypermethrin in dry mass fraction was 148 μg kg −1 and the associated expanded uncertainty was 14 μg kg −1 . The uncertainty budget was evaluated from sample in homogeneity, long-term and short-term stability and variability in the characterization procedure. GLHK-11-01a is primarily developed to support the local and wider testing community on need basis in quality assurance work and in seeking accreditation.

  5. Update of green tea interactions with cardiovascular drugs and putative mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Werba

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many patients treated with cardiovascular (CV drugs drink green tea (GT, either as a cultural tradition or persuaded of its putative beneficial effects for health. Yet, GT may affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CV compounds. Novel GT-CV drug interactions were reported for rosuvastatin, sildenafil and tacrolimus. Putative mechanisms involve inhibitory effects of GT catechins at the intestinal level on influx transporters OATP1A2 or OATP2B1 for rosuvastatin, on CYP3A for sildenafil and on both CYP3A and the efflux transporter p-glycoprotein for tacrolimus. These interactions, which add to those previously described with simvastatin, nadolol and warfarin, might lead, in some cases, to reduced drug efficacy or risk of drug toxicity. Oddly, available data on GT interaction with CV compounds with a narrow therapeutic index, such as warfarin and tacrolimus, derive from single case reports. Conversely, GT interactions with simvastatin, rosuvastatin, nadolol and sildenafil were documented through pharmacokinetic studies. In these, the effect of GT or GT derivatives on drug exposure was mild to moderate, but a high inter-individual variability was observed. Further investigations, including studies on the effect of the dose and the time of GT intake are necessary to understand more in depth the clinical relevance of GT-CV drug interactions. Keywords: Cardiovascular drugs, Green tea, Herb–drug interactions

  6. CAM use in dermatology. Is there a potential role for honey, green tea, and vitamin C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Naiara S; Kalaaji, Amer N

    2014-02-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a group of non-traditional medical practices that includes natural products, manipulations, and mind and body medicine. CAM use has grown and become popular among patients. In dermatology, honey, green tea, and vitamin C have been used as topical treatments for a variety of diseases. We performed a systematic review to explore the cutaneous effects of each of these three products. Honey's unique antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties were shown to contribute to wound healing, especially in ulcers and burns. Green tea, among many health benefits, demonstrated protection from ultraviolet-induced events, such as photoimmunosuppression and skin cancer growth. Vitamin C, known for its antioxidant properties and key role in collagen production, has been shown to produce positive effects on skin hyperpigmentation and aging. Future large well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to further investigate the potential of these agents as dermatological therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Additional Information on Consumer Acceptance: An Example with Pomegranate Juice and Green Tea Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Higa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate Juice (PJ and Green Tea (GT products have increased in popularity because of their beneficial health properties. Consumers look for healthier beverages, and rely on labels, claims, and product packaging when choosing a product. The objectives of this study were to determine (1 the sensory profiles and acceptance of PJ and GT blends; (2 whether additional information would have an effect on consumer acceptance; and (3 the total phenolic content (TPC of the samples. Six PJ and GT blends were evaluated by a descriptive panel in order to explore sensory differences in flavor characteristics. A consumer panel (n = 100 evaluated the samples before and after beneficial health information about the samples was provided to them. The blends that were higher in tea concentration were higher in Green and GT-like flavors, and lower in berry, beet, floral, sweetness, and cherry flavors. The overall liking scores of all of the samples increased after the information was provided to the consumers. The sample highest in PJ and lowest in GT blend was liked the most. In addition, as the samples increased in PJ, the TPC content increased. These results may be of interest to the beverage industry, providing information of consumer liking of beverage blends, and how information on health related claims affects consumer acceptance.

  8. Study of aroma formation and transformation during the manufacturing process of Biluochun green tea in Yunnan Province by HS-SPME and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lv, Shidong; Wu, Yuanshuang; Lian, Ming; Gao, Xuemei; Meng, Qingxiong

    2016-10-01

    Biluochun is a typical non-fermented tea and is also famous for its unique aroma in China. Few studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of the manufacturing process on the formation and content of its aroma. The volatile components were extracted at different manufacturing process steps of Biluochun green tea using fully automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and further characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among 67 volatile components collected, the fractions of linalool oxides, β-ionone, phenylacetaldehyde, aldehydes, ketones, and nitrogen compounds were increased while alcohols and hydrocarbons declined during the manufacturing process. The aroma compounds decreased the most during the drying steps. We identified a number of significantly changed components that can be used as markers and quality control during the producing process of Biluochun. The drying step played a major role in the aroma formation of green tea products and should be the most important step for quality control. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Nutrient intake, digestibility and performance of Gaddi kids supplemented with tea seed or tea seed saponin extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, haemato-biochemical attributes, immune response and growth performance of Gaddi kids fed with oat fodder based basal diet supplemented with either tea seed or tea seed saponin (TSS extract. Methods Eighteen male kids, 7.03±0.16 months of age and 19.72±0.64 kg body weight, were distributed into three groups, T0 (control, T1, and T2, consisting of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design. The kids were fed a basal diet consisting of concentrate mixture and oat fodder (50:50. Animals in group III (T2 were supplemented with TSS at 0.4% of dry matter intake (DMI, and group II (T1 were supplemented with tea seed at 2.6% of DMI to provide equivalent dose of TSS as in T2. Two metabolism trials were conducted, 1st after 21 days and 2nd after 90 days of feeding to evaluate the short term and long term effects of supplementation. Results The tea seed (T1 or TSS (T2 supplementation did not affect DMI as well as the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre. Nutritive value of diet and plane of nutrition were also comparable for both the periods. However, the average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 as compared to T0. The microbial protein supply was also higher (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 for both the periods. There was no effect of supplementation on most blood parameters. However, the triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (p<0.05 and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level increased (p<0.05 in T2 as compared with T0 and T1. Supplementation also did not affect the cell mediated and humoral immune response in goats. Conclusion Tea seed at 2.6% of DMI and TSS at 0.4% DMI can be fed to Gaddi goats to improve growth rate, FCR and microbial protein synthesis.

  10. Tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis, chooses suitable host plants by detecting the emission level of (3Z)-hexenyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Z-J; Li, X-W; Bian, L; Sun, X-L

    2017-02-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) have been reported to play an important role in the host-locating behavior of several folivores that feed on angiosperms. However, next to nothing is known about how the green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis, chooses suitable host plants and whether it detects differing emission levels of GLV components among genetically different tea varieties. Here we found that the constitutive transcript level of the tea hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) gene CsiHPL1, and the amounts of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and of total GLV components are significantly higher in tea varieties that are susceptible to E. vitis (Enbiao (EB) and Banzhuyuan (BZY)) than in varieties that are resistant to E. vitis (Changxingzisun (CX) and Juyan (JY)). Moreover, the results of a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay and an oviposition preference assay suggest that (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (Z)-3-hexenol offer host and oviposition cues for E. vitis female adults. Taken together, the two GLV components, (Z)-3-hexenol and especially (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, provide a plausible mechanism by which tea green leafhoppers distinguish among resistant and susceptible varieties. Future research should be carried out to obtain the threshold of the above indices and then assess their reasonableness. The development of practical detection indices would greatly improve our ability to screen and develop tea varieties that are resistant to E. vitis.

  11. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

  12. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed oil extracted by optimized supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20-90 min), temperature (35-45 °C) and pressure (50-90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO(2) extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO(2) contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO(2) is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO(2) is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

  13. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas of tea (Camellia sinensis L. plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min, temperature (35–45 °C and pressure (50–90 MPa. The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6% was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that (25.3 ± 1.0% given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

  14. Antimutagenicity and catechin content of soluble instant teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, A; Varga, N; Richoz, J; Stadler, R H

    1996-03-01

    The antimutagenic properties of soluble instant teas were examined using the bacterial Ames assay. Inhibition of the numbers of revertants induced from a number of known mutagens indicates that aqueous extracts of instant teas have antimutagenic activity and antioxidative properties, and can inhibit nitrosation reactions. Despite a significant reduction in the amounts of major green tea catechins, quantified using reversed-phase HPLC with electro-chemical detection, no differences in antimutagenicity were observed between the instant teas, a black fermented tea and a green tea. Oxidation of polyphenolic compounds which occurs during the production of instant tea does not therefore decrease the antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimutagenic properties. This suggests that catechins are not the only compounds responsible for the protective effects of teas.

  15. Analysis of some selected catechins and caffeine in green tea by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahawi, M S; Hamza, A; Bahaffi, S O; Al-Sibaai, A A; Abduljabbar, T N

    2012-10-15

    Green tea seems to have a positive impact on health due to the catechins-found as flavanols. Thus, the present study was aimed to develop a low cost reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of flavanol contents, namely catechin (C), epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) and caffeine in 29 commercial green tea samples available in a Saudi Arabian local market. A C-18 reversed-phase column, acetonitrile-trifluoroacetic acid as a mobile phase, coupled with UV detector at 205 nm, was successfully used for precise analysis of the tested analytes in boiled water of digested tea leaves. The average values of N (No. of theoretical plates), HETP (height equivalent of theoretical plates) and R(s) (separation factor) (at 10 μg ml(-1) of the catechins EC, EGC, EGCG and ECG) were 2.6×10(3)±1.2×10(3), 1.7×10(-3)±4.7×10(-4) cm and 1.7±5.53×10(-2), respectively. The developed HPLC method demonstrated excellent performance, with low limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of the tested catechins of 0.004-0.05 μg ml(-1) and 0.01-0.17 μg ml(-1), respectively, and recovery percentages of 96-101%. The influence of infusion time (5-30 min) and temperature on the content of the flavanols was investigated by HPLC. After a 5 min infusion of the tea leaves, the average concentrations of caffeine, catechin, EC, EGC, ECG and EGCG were found to be in the ranges 0.086-2.23, 0.113-2.94, 0.58-10.22, 0.19-24.9, 0.22-13.9 and 1.01-43.3 mg g(-1), respectively. The contents of caffeine and catechins followed the sequence: EGCG>EGC>ECG>EC>C>caffeine. The method was applied satisfactorily for the analysis of (+)-catechin, even at trace and ultra trace concentrations of catechins. The method was rapid, accurate, reproducible and ideal for routine analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of a (Na+K+)-ATPase inhibitor in extracts of tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagnella, G.A.; MacGregor, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of tea were examined for inhibitors of the sodium-potassium pump by investigating the effect of the extracts on 1) isolated preparations of (Na + -K + )-ATPase from hog brain and human blood cells; 2) the displacement of radioactive ouabain from its specific receptor on red blood cells, and 3) the uptake of radioactive rubidium in intact red blood cells. It has been found that extracts of tea were potent inhibitors of the purified hog brain (Na + -K + )-ATPase. However, the inhibition was not specific for the (Na + -K + )-ATPase and the extract of tea did not displace 3 H-ouabain in a specific ouabain-receptor assay. Additionally, the tea extracts displayed only a small inhibitory effect on the uptake of 86 Rb in intact red blood cells. These observations suggest that the material is not like digitalis and that, unlike cardiac glycosides, it may inhibit the activity of the (Na + -K + )-ATPase by interacting with the enzyme at intracellular sites

  17. Green tea polyphenols mitigate bone loss of female rats in a chronic inflammation-induced bone loss model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to explore bioavailability, efficacy, and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) related to preventing bone loss in rats with chronic inflammation. A 2 (placebo vs. lipopolysaccharide, LPS) × 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5% GTP in drinking water) factorial design using ...

  18. Effect of different levels of green tea (Camellia sinensis on productive performance, carcass characteristics and organs of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to determine the effect of different levels of green tea in powder form to feed on productive performance, carcass parameters and organs in broiler chickens. Totally 240 day-old broiler chickens Ross 308 were divided to four dietary groups (n = 60 namely control and three experimental groups with supplementation of green tea to feed mixture in levels 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Broiler chickens were feeding with commercial feed mixtures and feed and drinking water were provided ad libittum. The feeding period lasted 42 days. Individual body weight of broiler chickens was determined at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 day, feed sonsumption and mortality per group were determined at 42 day of fattening period. Carcass quality and organs weight of broiler chickens were determined at the end of the experiment. The results indicated that supplementation of different levels of green tea statistically significant decreased body weight gain and we recorded lower body weight in 21 days of age compared with control group. However, in second period of fattening, broiler chickens in experimental groups growing faster and in 42 days of age we found statistically no significantly differences among control and experimental groups. Feed consumption did not differ among the dietary groups at 42 days of fattening. Mortality no affected by supplementation of green tea to broiler chickens diets in comparison with control group. From the carcass parameters addition of green tea significantly decreased percentage of abdominal fat between control and 1.5% green tea level, in other parameters (percentage of breast, percentage of drumstick, carcass yield were different among control and experimental groups not statistically significant. The caecum and small intestine weights was significantly (p ≤0.05 decreased in chickens fed diets containing 0.5% green tea supplement compared to 1% and 1.5%. For neck, crop, heart, liver, proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas

  19. Rock Tea extract (Jasonia glutinosa) relaxes rat aortic smooth muscle by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Marta Sofía; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Garrido, Irene; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Murillo, María Divina; Köhler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    In traditional herbal medicine, Rock Tea (Jasonia glutinosa) is known for its prophylactic and therapeutic value in various disorders including arterial hypertension. However, the mechanism by which Rock Tea exerts blood pressure-lowering actions has not been elucidated yet. Our aim was to demonstrate vasorelaxing effects of Rock Tea extract and to reveal its possible action mechanism. Isometric myography was conducted on high-K+-precontracted rings from rat thoracic aorta and tested extracts at concentrations of 0.5-5 mg/ml. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (line A7r5) to determine blocking effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extract relaxed the aorta contracted by high [K+] concentration dependently with an EC50 of ≈2.4 mg/ml and produced ≈75 % relaxation at the highest concentration tested. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, verapamil (10(-6) M), had similar effects. Rock Tea extract had no effect in nominally Ca(2+)-free high-K(+) buffer but significantly inhibited contractions to re-addition of Ca(2+). Rock Tea extract inhibited the contractions induced by the L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 (10(-5) M) and by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). Rock Tea extract and Y-27632 (10(-6) M), Rho-kinase inhibitor, had similar effects and the respective effects were not additive. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that Rock Tea extract (2.5 mg/ml) virtually abolished L-type Ca(2+) currents in A7r5. We conclude that Rock Tea extract produced vasorelaxation of rat aorta and that this relaxant effect is mediated by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extracts may be of phytomedicinal value for prevention and adjuvant treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Effect of aqueous plant extracts on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four aqueous plant extracts (APEs) of Acorus calamus (L), Xanthium strumarium (L), Polygonum hydropiper (L) and Clerodendron infortunatum (Gaertn) were evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions at 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% (w/v) concentrations against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner). Also, the ...

  1. The antioxidant effect of Green Tea Mega EGCG against electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nawal A; Radwan, Nasr M; Aboul Ezz, Heba S; Salama, Noha A

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of cellular phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals and changing the antioxidant defense systems of tissues, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Green tea has recently attracted significant attention due to its health benefits in a variety of disorders, ranging from cancer to weight loss. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EMR (frequency 900 MHz modulated at 217 Hz, power density 0.02 mW/cm 2 , SAR 1.245 W/kg) on different oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus and striatum of adult rats. This study also extends to evaluate the therapeutic effect of green tea mega EGCG on the previous parameters in animals exposed to EMR after and during EMR exposure. The experimental animals were divided into four groups: EMR-exposed animals, animals treated with green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of EMR exposure, animals treated with green tea mega EGCG during EMR exposure and control animals. EMR exposure resulted in oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum as evident from the disturbances in oxidant and antioxidant parameters. Co-administration of green tea mega EGCG at the beginning of EMR exposure for 2 and 3 months had more beneficial effect against EMR-induced oxidative stress than oral administration of green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of exposure. This recommends the use of green tea before any stressor to attenuate the state of oxidative stress and stimulate the antioxidant mechanism of the brain.

  2. The Effect of Isomaltulose Together with Green Tea on Glycemic Response and Antioxidant Capacity: A Single-Blind, Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraphad, Passakorn; Suklaew, Phim On; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Mäkynen, Kittana

    2017-05-06

    Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 15 healthy subjects (eight women and seven men; ages 23.5 ± 0.7 years; with body mass index of 22.6 ± 0.4 kg/m²) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of water; (3) 400 mL of green tea; (4) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL of green tea; and (5) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of green tea. Incremental area under postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were determined during 120 min of administration. Following the consumption of isomaltulose, the incremental 2-h area under the curve (AUC 0-2 h ) indicated a higher reduction of postprandial glucose (43.4%) and insulin concentration (42.0%) than the consumption of sucrose. The addition of green tea to isomaltulose produced a greater suppression of postprandial plasma glucose (20.9%) and insulin concentration (37.7%). In accordance with antioxidant capacity, consumption of sucrose (40.0%) and isomaltulose (28.7%) caused the reduction of green tea-induced postprandial increases in FRAP. A reduction in postprandial MDA after drinking green tea was attenuated when consumed with sucrose (34.7%) and isomaltulose (17.2%). In conclusion, green tea could enhance the reduction of postprandial glucose and insulin concentration when consumed with isomaltulose. In comparison with sucrose, isomaltulose demonstrated less alteration of plasma antioxidant capacity after being consumed with green tea.

  3. Detection of caffeine in tea, instant coffee, green tea beverage, and soft drink by direct analysis in real time (DART) source coupled to single-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Pengyue; Zhang, Fengzu; Bai, Aijuan; Pan, Canping

    2013-01-01

    Ambient ionization direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled to single-quadrupole MS (DART-MS) was evaluated for rapid detection of caffeine in commercial samples without chromatographic separation or sample preparation. Four commercial samples were examined: tea, instant coffee, green tea beverage, and soft drink. The response-related parameters were optimized for the DART temperature and MS fragmentor. Under optimal conditions, the molecular ion (M+H)+ was the major ion for identification of caffeine. The results showed that DART-MS is a promising tool for the quick analysis of important marker molecules in commercial samples. Furthermore, this system has demonstrated significant potential for high sample throughput and real-time analysis.

  4. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples—Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xungang Gu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%–109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%–12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas.

  5. Investigation of Polyhenolic Content of Rose Hip (Rosa canina L. Tea Extracts: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep İlbay

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three different brands of Rose hip (Rosa canina L. tea were extracted with water, ethanol (EtOH, methanol (MeOH, and aqueous mixtures (50%, v/v by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE and Soxhlet methods. Total phenolic content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were presented by means of the extract yields and total phenolic contents, expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g of dried matter (DM. The greatest amount of extract observed in tea samples was obtained by UAE through water with the value of 619.37 ± 0.58 mg/g DM. Regarding the phenolic content, the best result was achieved by the Soxhlet method through 50% MeOH mixture (59.69 ± 0.89 mg GAE/g DM, followed by the UAE method with water (48.59 ± 0.29 mg GAE/g DM.

  6. Investigation of Polyhenolic Content of Rose Hip (Rosa canina L.) Tea Extracts: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlbay, Zeynep; Şahin, Selin; Kırbaşlar, Ş. İsmail

    2013-01-01

    Three different brands of Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) tea were extracted with water, ethanol (EtOH), methanol (MeOH), and aqueous mixtures (50%, v/v) by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and Soxhlet methods. Total phenolic content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were presented by means of the extract yields and total phenolic contents, expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g of dried matter (DM). The greatest amount of extract observed in tea samples was obtained by UAE through water with the value of 619.37 ± 0.58 mg/g DM. Regarding the phenolic content, the best result was achieved by the Soxhlet method through 50% MeOH mixture (59.69 ± 0.89 mg GAE/g DM), followed by the UAE method with water (48.59 ± 0.29 mg GAE/g DM). PMID:28239095

  7. Determination of catechin in green tea using a catechol oxidase biomimetic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Suellen C.; Osorio, Renata El-Hage M. de Barros; Anjos, Ademir dos; Neves, Ademir; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Vieira, Iolanda C.

    2008-01-01

    A catechol oxidase biomimetic sensor, based on a novel copper(II) complex, was developed for the determination of catechin in green tea and the results were compared with those obtained by capillary electrophoresis. The dinuclear copper(II) complex, [Cu 2 (HL)(μ-CH 3 COO)](ClO 4 ), containing the ligand N,N-[bis-(2-pyridylmethyl)]-N',N'-[(2-hydroxybenzyl)(2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert - butylbenzyl)]-1,3-propanediamine-2-ol (H 3 L), was synthesized and characterized by IR, 1 H NMR and elemental analysis. The best conditions for the optimization of the biomimetic sensor were established by square wave voltammetry. The best performance for this sensor was obtained in 75:15:10% (m/m/m) of the graphite powder:nujol:copper(II) complex, 0.05 mol L -1 phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.5) and frequency, pulse amplitude, scan increment at 30 Hz, 80 mV, 3.3 mV, respectively. The analytical curve was linear in the concentration range 4.95 x 10 -6 to 3.27 x 10 -5 mol L -1 (r = 0.9993) with a detection limit of 2.8 x 10 -7 mol L -1 . This biomimetic sensor demonstrated long-term stability (9 months; 800 determinations) and reproducibility with a relative standard deviation of 3.5%. The recovery of catechin from green tea samples ranged from 93.8 to 106.9% and the determination, compared with that obtained using capillary electrophoresis, was found to be acceptable at the 95% confidence level. (author)

  8. Larvicidal activity and in vitro effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis L. water infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žabar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study green tea water infusion was tested on Drosophila melanogaster wild-type larvae in vivo, also an in vitro antihemolytic and hemolytic tests were performed. Three different concentrations were used 7.5 mg/ml, 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml, the lowest dose representing the recommended dose followed by five times and ten times higher doses. Effect of these three concentrations was monitored and tested in vivo on Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, 1830 wt (wild type larval development and surviving. All three concentrations showed toxic effect for larvae, with toxicity being increased in dose – depended manner. The time needed for larvae to fully develop was delayed. This decrease of developmental time was in dose – dependent manner, too. Amount of hemolysis caused by the lowest concentration was very small when compared with the percent of spontaneous hemolysis. Other two higher concentrations, 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml, showed higher hemolytic effect. During the four hour incubation period percent of hemolysis grew in time – dependent manner. The highest hemolytic effect was recorded for the concentration of 37.5 mg/ml. Antihemolytic test showed that the lowest concentration had the highest inhibitory effect to H2O2 induced hemolysis. The 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml concentrations had lower inhibitory effect when compared with the dose of 7.5 mg/ml. According to our study it can be concluded that the high concentrations of green tea water infusion exhibit larvicidal activity against D. melanogaster larvae, don't have protective effect to RBC membrane and cause greater hemolysis.

  9. Green tea polyphenols and Tai Chi for bone health: Designing a placebo-controlled randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyu Ming-Chien

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem in postmenopausal women. Evidence suggests the importance of oxidative stress in bone metabolism and bone loss. Tea consumption may be beneficial to osteoporosis due to its antioxidant capability. However, lack of objective data characterizing tea consumption has hindered the precise evaluation of the association between tea ingestion and bone mineral density in previous questionnaire-based epidemiological studies. On the other hand, although published studies suggest that Tai Chi (TC exercise can benefit bone health and may reduce oxidative stress, all studies were conducted using a relatively healthy older population, instead of a high-risk one such as osteopenic postmenopausal women. Therefore, this study was designed to test an intervention including green tea polyphenol (GTP and TC exercise for feasibility, and to quantitatively assess their individual and interactive effects on postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Methods/Design One hundred and forty postmenopausal women with osteopenia (defined as bone mineral density T-score at the spine and/or hip between 1 to 2.5 SD below the reference database were randomly assigned to 4 treatment arms: (1 placebo group receiving 500 mg medicinal starch daily, (2 GTP group receiving 500 mg of GTP per day, (3 placebo+TC group receiving both placebo treatment and TC training (60-minute group exercise, 3 times per week, and (4 GTP+TC group receiving both GTP and TC training for 24 weeks. The outcome measures were bone formation biomarker (serum bone alkaline phosphatase, bone resorption biomarker (serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, and oxidative DNA damage biomarker (urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. All outcome measures were determined at baseline, 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Urinary and serum GTP concentrations were also determined at baseline, 4, 12, and 24 weeks for bioavailability. Liver function was monitored monthly for safety. A

  10. Rapid Determination of the Monosaccharide Composition and Contents in Tea Polysaccharides from Yingshuang Green Tea by Pre-Column Derivatization HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Ai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pre-column derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed and optimized to characterize and quantify the monosaccharides present in tea polysaccharides (TPS isolated from Yingshuang green tea. TPS sample was hydrolyzed with trifluoroacetic acid, subjected to pre-column derivatization using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP, and separated on an Agilent TC-C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm with UV detection at 250 nm. A mixture of ten PMP derivatives of standard monosaccharides (mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, xylose, galactose, arabinose, and fucose could be baseline separated within 20 min. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the component monosaccharides in Yingshuang green tea TPS was achieved, indicating the TPS consisted of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, xylose, galactose, and arabinose in the molar contents of 0.72, 0.78, 0.89, 0.13, 0.15, 0.36, 0.39, 0.36, 0.36, and 0.38 μM, respectively. Recovery efficiency for component monosaccharides from TPS ranged from 93.6 to 102.4% with RSD values lower than 2.5%. In conclusion, pre-column derivatization HPLC provides a rapid, reproducible, accurate, and quantitative method for analysis of the monosaccharide composition and contents in TPS, which may help to further explore the relationship between TPS monosaccharides isolated from different tea varieties and their biological activity.

  11. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of methylxanthines from maté tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D.A. Saldaña

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylxanthines are alkaloids found in natural products such as tea, coffee and guaraná. These alkaloids are commonly used in cola drinks and pharmaceutical products due principally to their stimulant and diuretic effects on the human organism. In this work, experimental data on the supercritical CO2 extraction of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine from herbal maté tea, a beverage traditionally consumed by the gauchos of southern Brazil, the Argentine, Paraguay and Uruguay, were obtained using high pressure extraction equipment that allows adequate control of temperature and pressure. The continuous extraction/fractionation of maté tea leaves, Ilex paraguariensis in natura using carbon dioxide was carried out at 313.2 and 343.2 K and pressures of 13.8 and 25.5 MPa. Extraction/fractionation curves revealed the large influence of temperature and pressure on extraction yield. CO2 was also found to show a higher selectivity for caffeine than for theophylline and theobromine.

  13. Adult Tea Green Leafhoppers, Empoasca onukii (Matsuda), Change Behaviors under Varying Light Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Longqing; Vasseur, Liette; Huang, Huoshui; Zeng, Zhaohua; Hu, Guiping; Liu, Xin; You, Minsheng

    2017-01-01

    Insect behaviors are often influenced by light conditions including photoperiod, light intensity, and wavelength. Understanding pest insect responses to changing light conditions may help with developing alternative strategies for pest control. Little is known about the behavioral responses of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to light conditions. The behavior of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda, was examined when exposed to different light photoperiods or wavelengths. Observations included the frequency of locomotion and cleaning activities, and the duration of time spent searching. The results suggested that under normal photoperiod both female and male adults were generally more active in darkness (i.e., at night) than in light. In continuous darkness (DD), the locomotion and cleaning events in Period 1 (7:00-19:00) were significantly increased, when compared to the leafhoppers under normal photoperiod (LD). Leafhoppers, especially females, changed their behavioral patterns to a two day cycle under DD. Under continuous illumination (continuous quartz lamp light, yellow light at night, and green light at night), the activities of locomotion, cleaning, and searching were significantly suppressed during the night (19:00-7:00) and locomotion activities of both females and males were significantly increased during the day (7:00-19:00), suggesting a shift in circadian rhythm. Our work suggests that changes in light conditions, including photoperiod and wavelength, can influence behavioral activities of leafhoppers, potentially affecting other life history traits such as reproduction and development, and may serve as a method for leafhopper behavioral control.

  14. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea) were determined. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in Japan. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Green tea chemoprotection in rats treated with Diethylnitrosamine Ação quimioprotetora do chá verde em ratos tratados com Dietilnitrosamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halha Ostrensky Saridakis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (Camellia sinensis and its main components, the catechins present several biological activities such as: antioxidant and chemoprotective action against hepatotoxic agent as diethylnitrosamine(DEN, a known cytotoxic substance. This work has the objective to evaluate and understand the green tea extract (GTE mechanisms of action as a chemoprotector agent. Therefore, tests in vivo with Wistar rats using GTE 2% (2mg/100mL was taken orally as the only source of water for 35 days. To verify the antioxidant and chemoprotective capacity of GTE, DEN (200mg/kg was used as a lesion agent. The results indicate that green tea if the dosage close to the ones taken by the population is not able to expressively inhibit the lesion caused for the high dose of DEN, but the results indicated a tendency to chemoprotection, suggesting to green tea may act as a prevention substance even in low dosage in presence of a classically known hepatotoxic agent. O chá verde (Camellia sinensis e seus principais componentes, as catequinas, apresentam várias atividades biológicas, dentre elas a ação antioxidante e quimioprotetora contra agentes hepatotóxicos, como a dietilnitrosamina (DEN, um conhecido agente citotóxico. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar e compreender os mecanismos da ação do extrato do chá verde (ECV, como agente antioxidante e quimioprotetor. Foram realizados testes in vivo com ratos Wistar machos utilizando o ECV a 2% (2mg/100mL via oral, como única fonte de água, durante 35 dias. Para verificar a capacidade antioxidante e quimioprotetora do ECV utilizou-se a DEN (200mg/kg como agente lesivo. Os resultados indicam que o chá verde, nas doses próximas as que são ingeridas pela população, não é capaz de inibir significativamente a lesão causada pela alta dose da DEN, mas os resultados indicaram uma tendência à quimioproteção, sugerindo que o chá verde pode agir como substância preventiva mesmo em baixasdoses, frente a um

  16. Green Approaches to Extract Astaxanthin from Shrimp Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of comme......Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility...

  17. Antagonism of phenanthrene cytotoxicity for human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I by green tea polyphenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei Xin [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth Development and Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Wu Yuanyuan; Mao Xiao [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Tu Youying, E-mail: youytu@zju.edu.c [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some commercial teas around the world and pose a threat to tea consumers. However, green tea polyphenols (GTP) possess remarkable antioxidant and anticancer effects. In this study, the potential of GTP to block the toxicity of the model PAH phenanthrene was examined in human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I. Both GTP and phenanthrene treatment individually caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. A full factorial design experiment demonstrated that the interaction of phenanthrene and GTP significantly reduced growth inhibition. Using the median effect method showed that phenanthrene and GTP were antagonistic when the inhibitory levels were less than about 50%. Apoptosis and cell cycle detection suggested that only phenanthrene affected cell cycle significantly and caused cell death; GTP lowered the mortality of HFL-I cells exposed to phenanthrene; However, GTP did not affect modulation of the cell cycle by phenanthrene. - Green tea polyphenols antagonised cytotoxicity of a low-ring PAH phenanthrene.

  18. Robust and Automated Internal Quality Grading of a Chinese Green Tea (Longjing by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

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    Xian-Shu Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and chemometric methods were applied to internal quality control of a Chinese green tea, Longjing, with Protected Geographical Indication (PGI. A total of 2745 authentic Longjing tea samples of three different grades were analyzed by NIR spectroscopy. To remove the influence of abnormal samples, The Stahel-Donoho estimate (SDE of outlyingness was used for outlier analysis. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA was then used to classify the grades of tea based on NIR spectra. Different data preprocessing methods, including smoothing, taking second-order derivative (D2 spectra, and standard normal variate (SNV transformation, were performed to reduce unwanted spectral variations in samples of the same grade before classification models were developed. The results demonstrate that smoothing, taking D2 spectra, and SNV can improve the performance of PLSDA models. With SNV spectra, the model sensitivity was 1.000, 0.955, and 0.924, and the model specificity was 0.979, 0.952, and 0.996 for samples of three grades, respectively. FT-NIR spectrometry and chemometrics can provide a robust and effective tool for rapid internal quality control of Longjing green tea.

  19. Antagonism of phenanthrene cytotoxicity for human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I by green tea polyphenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Xin; Wu Yuanyuan; Mao Xiao; Tu Youying

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some commercial teas around the world and pose a threat to tea consumers. However, green tea polyphenols (GTP) possess remarkable antioxidant and anticancer effects. In this study, the potential of GTP to block the toxicity of the model PAH phenanthrene was examined in human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I. Both GTP and phenanthrene treatment individually caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. A full factorial design experiment demonstrated that the interaction of phenanthrene and GTP significantly reduced growth inhibition. Using the median effect method showed that phenanthrene and GTP were antagonistic when the inhibitory levels were less than about 50%. Apoptosis and cell cycle detection suggested that only phenanthrene affected cell cycle significantly and caused cell death; GTP lowered the mortality of HFL-I cells exposed to phenanthrene; However, GTP did not affect modulation of the cell cycle by phenanthrene. - Green tea polyphenols antagonised cytotoxicity of a low-ring PAH phenanthrene.

  20. Volatile composition of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) commercial teas through solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riachi, L G; Abi-Zaid, I E; Moreira, R F A; De Maria, C A B

    2012-12-01

    Volatiles from aqueous extract of peppermint commercial sachets were investigated through gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS). Samples were prepared under similar conditions as in homemade tea. Volatiles were isolated using solid phase extraction method (SPE) with Porapak Q trap followed by desorption with acetone. Estimated mean values for short and medium chain carboxylic acids (C2-C12) and ketones lay in the range of 50-64 microg kg(-1) whilst aliphatic alcohols and acyclic hydrocarbons had values lower than 6 microg kg(-1). The major volatiles were terpenes (275-382 microg kg(-1)) that reached 89 % of the total composition. A total of 16 compounds, among them dodecane, acetoin, acetol, citral, geraniol and octanoic acid have been described by the first time in peppermint tea. These findings could be attributed to the different analytical approach employed, mainly to the use of different extraction/pre-concentration techniques. Given the apparently lower proportion of terpenes in the aqueous extract it may be that the chemical properties of the peppermint essential oil are not entirely reproduced with homemade tea.

  1. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion of commercial tea products available in uae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessa, F.; Khan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, twenty four commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic contents based on the brewing/infusing period. Tea samples were infused/brewed in 200 mL boiled water at 120 degree C for 1, 2 and 5 min, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of tea infusion/brewing were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay method. The results were ranged from 67.81-90.51% for black tea bags, 90.37-94.51% for green tea bags, 24.66-92.25% for black tea powder, 16.08-93.06% for green tea powder and 32.90- 45.54% for Camomile herbal infusion. The results showed that 1 or 2 min black tea bags infusion exhibited highest radical scavenging activity than 5 min infusion. Antioxidant activities of tea powders were variable with the amount of tea powder. It was observed that antioxidant activity increased with increasing boiling time for smaller amount of sample. In contrary, shorter boiling time was better for larger amount of sample. The polyphenol contents of tea infusion were determined and the results were expressed as milligram quercetin equivalent/200 mL of tea infusion. The polyphenol content was increased with increased brewing period. In contrary, brewing for longer time rendered extract less antiradical activity. This study suggests that infusing tea bag for 1 or 2 min is sufficient for getting infusion with maximum radical scavenging activity and in case of tea powder, shorter boiling time is better for larger amount of powder or small amount of powder should be boiled for minimum 5 min for rendering extract with maximum radical scavenging activity. (author)

  2. New insights into the mechanisms of polyphenols beyond antioxidant properties; lessons from the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate

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    Hae-Suk Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is rich in polyphenol flavonoids including catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG is the most abundant and potent green tea catechin. EGCG has been extensively studied for its beneficial health effects as a nutriceutical agent. Based upon its chemical structure, EGCG is often classified as an antioxidant. However, treatment of cells with EGCG results in production of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in the presence of Fe (III. Thus, EGCG functions as a pro-oxidant in some cellular contexts. Recent investigations have revealed many other direct actions of EGCG that are independent from anti-oxidative mechanisms. In this review, we discuss these novel molecular mechanisms of action for EGCG. In particular, EGCG directly interacts with proteins and phospholipids in the plasma membrane and regulates signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, DNA methylation, mitochondrial function, and autophagy to exert many of its beneficial biological actions.

  3. A Phytochemical-Sensing Strategy Based on Mass Spectrometry Imaging and Metabolic Profiling for Understanding the Functionality of the Medicinal Herb Green Tea

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    Yoshinori Fujimura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-molecular-weight phytochemicals have health benefits and reduce the risk of diseases, but the mechanisms underlying their activities have remained elusive because of the lack of a methodology that can easily visualize the exact behavior of such small molecules. Recently, we developed an in situ label-free imaging technique, called mass spectrometry imaging, for visualizing spatially-resolved biotransformations based on simultaneous mapping of the major bioactive green tea polyphenol and its phase II metabolites. In addition, we established a mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling technique capable of evaluating the bioactivities of diverse green tea extracts, which contain multiple phytochemicals, by focusing on their compositional balances. This methodology allowed us to simultaneously evaluate the relative contributions of the multiple compounds present in a multicomponent system to its bioactivity. This review highlights small molecule-sensing techniques for visualizing the complex behaviors of herbal components and linking such information to an enhanced understanding of the functionalities of multicomponent medicinal herbs.

  4. Coffee and Green Tea Consumption and Subsequent Risk of Malignant Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma in Japan: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugai, Tomotaka; Matsuo, Keitaro; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-08-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of coffee and green tea consumption and the risk of malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma in a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan. Methods: In this analysis, a total of 95,807 Japanese subjects (45,937 men and 49,870 women; ages 40-69 years at baseline) of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study who completed a questionnaire about their coffee and green tea consumption were followed up until December 31, 2012, for an average of 18 years. HRs and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a Cox regression model adjusted for potential confounders as a measure of association between the risk of malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma associated with coffee and green tea consumption at baseline. Results: During the follow-up period, a total of 411 malignant lymphoma cases and 138 multiple myeloma cases were identified. Overall, our findings showed no significant association between coffee or green tea consumption and the risk of malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma for both sexes. Conclusions: In this study, we observed no significant association between coffee or green tea consumption and the risk of malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma. Impact: Our results do not support an association between coffee or green tea consumption and the risk of malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1352-6. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. The enhanced inhibition of water extract of black tea under baking treatment on α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Da-Peng; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Guo, Xiao-Na; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2018-02-01

    This paper studied the inhibition of water extract of natural or baked black tea on the activity of α-amylase and α- glucosidase. Baking treatment was found to be one effective way to enhance the inhibition of black tea on both α-amylase and α- glucosidase, and IC 50 of water extract of baked black tea (BBTWE) were 1.213mg/mL and 4.190mg/mL, respectively, while IC 50 of water extract of black tea (BTWE) were 1.723mg/mL and 6.056mg/mL, respectively. This study further studied the mechanism of the effect of water extract on α-amylase and α- glucosidase using HPLC, circular dichroism, and synchronous fluorescence. HPLC analysis of tea polyphenols showed that the content of tea polyphenols with low polarity increased after baking. In addition, BBTWE had higer abilty on decreasing the hydrophobicity of tryptophan residues than BTWE for both α-amylase and α- glucosidase.The increase of α-helix proportion of α-amylase when treated with BBTWE was more obvious than that when treated with BTWE. In a word, thermal process of baked foods may be beneficial for tea polyphenols to reduce the rate of starch digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A nanocomposite consisting of graphene oxide and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for the extraction of flavonoids from tea, wine and urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianrong; Xiao, Deli; Peng, Jun; Wang, Cuixia; Zhang, Chan; He, Jia; Zhao, Hongyan; He, Hua

    2015-01-01

    We describe a single-step solvothermal method for the preparation of nanocomposites consisting of graphene oxide and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (GO/Fe 3 O 4 ). This material is shown to be useful as a magnetic sorbent for the extraction of flavonoids from green tea, red wine, and urine samples. The nanocomposite is taking advantage of the high surface area of GO and the magnetic phase separation feature of the magnetic sorbent. The nanocomposite is recyclable and was applied to the extraction of flavonoids prior to their determination by HPLC. The effects of amount of surfactant, pH value of the sample solution, extraction time, and desorption condition on the extraction efficiency, and the regeneration conditions were optimized. The limits of detection for luteolin, quercetin and kaempferol range from 0.2 to 0.5 ng∙ mL −1 in urine, from 3.0 to 6.0 ng∙mL −1 in green tea, and from 1.0 to 2.5 ng∙mL −1 in red wine. The recoveries are between 82.0 and 101.4 %, with relative standard deviations of <9.3 %. (author)

  7. A green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate enhances neuroregeneration after spinal cord injury by altering levels of inflammatory cytokines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová-Urdzíková, Lucia; Růžička, Jiří; Kárová, Kristýna; Kloudová, Anna; Svobodová, Barbora; Anubhav, A.; Dubišová, Jana; Schmidt, M.; Kubinová, Šárka; Jhanwar Uniyal, M.; Jendelová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 126, nov. (2017), s. 213-223 ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000419; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA MŠk LTAUSA17120 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : cytokines * EGCG * green tea Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 5.012, year: 2016

  8. Absorption kinetics of vitamin E nanoemulsion and green tea microstructures by intestinal in situ single perfusion technique in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, Rijuta Ganesh; Lee, Hee-Seok; Koo, Yong Eui; Saratale, Ganesh Dattatraya; Kim, Young Jun; Imm, Jee Young; Park, Yooheon

    2018-04-01

    The absorption kinetics of food ingredients such as nanoemulsified vitamin E and green tea microstructures were evaluated by the intestinal in situ single perfusion technique. Absorption rate, sub-acute oral toxicity and organ morphology in a rat model were examined. The intestinal in situ single perfusion technique and HPLC analysis were applied to investigate the absorption rate of selected materials by examining time-dependent changes in the serum levels of catechin and dl-α-tocopherol. The acute toxicity test and histopathological evaluation were applied to analyze the safety of microsized green tea and nanosized vitamin E in a rat model. Total serum dl-α-tocopherol levels significantly increased with nanosized vitamin E administration (PE until 90min after administration showed significantly increased absorption rate of serum dl-α-tocopherol levels at each time point (10min interval) (PE and microsized green tea did not show signs of acute toxicity or death after 14days of observation. In addition, macroscopic analysis showed that there were no changes in representative organ sections of rats following the oral administration of food-related nanoscale materials. We successfully demonstrated that using nanosized vitamin E increased absorption rate to a greater extent than normal food-related material, and these results occurs via safety analyses on food-related nanoscale materials for human consumption. These results could be useful for the design and development of novel nanoemulsified vitamin E and microsized green tea formulations that can overcome the problem of their bioavailability and improve their efficacy while still maintaining their essential therapeutic efficacies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in quality parameters between types of commercial tea from Argentina

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    Ana Eugenia Thea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE To determine differences in quality parameters between different types of tea elaborated in Argentina, water extract, crude fibre, caffeine, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, sorption isotherms and colour parameters (L, a, b were determined. Fifty-one industrial samples of commercially available teas including green tea, semifermented tea, black tea and black tea sub-product (BTSP were used for this study.Water extract contents were significantly higher in black tea and green tea (40.3% and 40.7% w/w, respectively, while semifermented tea and BTSP showed higher levels of crude fibre (22.3% and 20.4% w/w, respectively. Caffeine contents of black teas (2.7% w/w were significantly higher than in the other types of tea. Green teas revealed the highest concentrations of phenolic compounds and the major antioxidant activities (14.9 g GAE/100g dm and 30.0 g AAE/100g dm, respectively. The results also highlighted significant differences (p<0.05 in colour values between the different types of tea.

  10. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of neem, green tea, triphala and sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

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    Karan Bhargava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main objective of root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. Although cleaning and shaping and use of antimicrobial medicaments are effective in reducing the bacterial load some bacteria do remain behind and multiply, causing reinfection of the canal. Considering the ineffectiveness, potential side effects and safety concerns of synthetic drugs, the herbal alternatives for endodontic usage might prove to be advantageous. Aim: To check the antimicrobial efficacy of Neem, Green Tea, Triphala and sodium hypochlorite against the endodontic microflora. Materials and Methods: Mixed cultures of bacteria were isolated from patients, with carious teeth and associated with periapical radiolucencies. A paper point was inserted into the canal to obtain a sample of a mixed culture of micro organisms. These paper points were cultured and agar diffusion test was done for the different irrigants. The irrigants were divided into Group I: Neem (60mg/ml in 10% DMSO,Group II: Green Tea Polyphenols (60mg/ml in 10% DMSO, Group III: Triphala (60 mg/ml in 10% DMSO, Group IV: 3% NaOCI, Group V: Sterile saline. Results: Sodium hypochlorite showed the maximum antimicrobial activity, followed by Neem. There was no statistical difference between the activity of sodium hypochlorite and Neem. This was followed by Triphala and Green Tea, respectively. Conclusion: Neem is as effective as Sodium Hypochlorite against endodontic microflora.

  11. Effects of γ-radiation on microbial load and antioxidant proprieties in green tea irradiated with different water activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, G.B.; Hassimotto, N.M.A.; Bastos, D.H.M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of gamma radiation on green tea irradiated with different water activities. The green tea samples had their Aw adjusted to three values (0.93, 0.65, and 0.17) and were irradiated in 60 Co source at doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kGy. The methods used were: microbiology, total phenolic compounds quantification, antioxidant activity by ORAC, and quantification of the main antioxidants. It was observed that the greater the amount of free water present in the samples, lower was the dose to achieve microbiological control. Despite the irradiation with 5.0 kGy with high water activity has a small decrease in phenolic compounds and in some catechins content, this condition is recommended once was the dose to ensure microbiological safety without interfering in the main catechins and the antioxidant activity. - Highlights: • Higher the Aw, lower is the radiation dose to archive microbiology safety. • The doses up to 10.0 kGy had no effect on antioxidant capacity in all Aw used. • The recommended dose to irradiated green tea is 5.0 kGy

  12. Effect of green tea mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans in plaque and saliva in children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of green tea catechin as a mouth wash on colony count of Streptococcus mutans in children. Materials and Methods: A sample size of thirty children was selected out of screened 290 children by simple random sampling between the age group of 7 and 12 years. The study was conducted over a period of 2 weeks. After 24 h of oral prophylaxis, the baseline samples were collected and each group was subjected to mouth rinsing with green tea mouth wash for 2 weeks and further plaque and saliva samples were collected at 1- and 2-week intervals from baseline. Microbiological analysis of plaque and saliva samples was done by Dentocult SM strip kit (Orion Diagnostica, Finland, and the results were statistically analyzed and tabulated. Results: Statistically, there was highly significant reduction in S. mutans count in plaque as well as in saliva for after 1- and 2-week intervals from baseline. Conclusion: Hence, finally, our study showed that green tea catechin is effective as a mouth wash against S. mutans and having better action in plaque as compared to saliva. It can be used as an adjunct to commercially available mouthwashes.

  13. Enrichment of Biscuits with Matcha Green Tea Powder: Its Impact on Consumer Acceptability and Acute Metabolic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjapor Phongnarisorn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Matcha green tea powder (MGTP is made with finely ground green tea leaves that are rich in phytochemicals, most particularly catechins. Shortbread biscuits were enriched with MGTP and evaluated for consumer acceptability and potential functional health properties. Baking decreased the content of total catechins by 19% compared to dough, although epimerization increased the amount of (+-gallocatechin gallate at the expense of other catechins such as (−-epigallocatechin gallate. Consumer acceptability tests using a 9-point hedonic scale showed that consumers preferred enriched biscuits with low content of MGTP (2 g of MGTP 100 g−1 of flour, and an increase of sugar content did not significantly improve the acceptability of MGTP-enriched biscuits. Overall, enrichment of biscuits with MGTP did not significantly affect the postprandial glucose or triglyceride response (area under curve compared to non-enriched biscuits consumed with water or MGTP drink. Enriching biscuits with Matcha green tea is acceptable to consumers, but may not bring significant postprandial effects.

  14. The use of preservatives consist of green tea, piper betel and potassium sorbate on boiled salted fish processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyani, F.; Hermana, I.; Hidayah, I.

    2018-03-01

    The main problem in boiled salted fish ikan pindang is mucus and mold on the surface of the fish which is produced relatively fast as well as the high level of histamine content especially when scombroid fish species are used as raw material. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of various preservatives to overcome such problems. Three combinations of preservatives P1 (green tea and sorbate), P3 (green tea, piper betel, sorbate), P4 (green tea and piper betel) and P0 (no preservative/control) resulted from the previous study were used in this study. Before being used, the preservatives were tested against deteriorating microorganisms commonly found in boiled salted products, of which the result showed that all microorganisms were inhibited. The preservatives were then applied at three different stages of the process of boiled salted fish, i.e. before boiling, during boiling and after boiling. Sensory attributes and microbial characteristics of the products were then evaluated. The results showed that the performance of all tested preservatives against deteriorating microorganisms was relatively similar. It was also shown that the application before and during boiling performed better.

  15. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  16. Green tea polyphenol tailors cell adhesivity of RGD displaying surfaces: multicomponent models monitored optically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beatrix; Farkas, Eniko; Forgacs, Eniko; Saftics, Andras; Kovacs, Boglarka; Kurunczi, Sandor; Szekacs, Inna; Csampai, Antal; Bosze, Szilvia; Horvath, Robert

    2017-02-10

    The interaction of the anti-adhesive coating, poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) and its Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) functionalized form, PLL-g-PEG-RGD, with the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) was in situ monitored. After, the kinetics of cellular adhesion on the EGCg exposed coatings were recorded in real-time. The employed plate-based waveguide biosensor is applicable to monitor small molecule binding and sensitive to sub-nanometer scale changes in cell membrane position and cell mass distribution; while detecting the signals of thousands of adhering cells. The combination of this remarkable sensitivity and throughput opens up new avenues in testing complicated models of cell-surface interactions. The systematic studies revealed that, despite the reported excellent antifouling properties of the coatings, EGCg strongly interacted with them, and affected their cell adhesivity in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the differences between the effects of the fresh and oxidized EGCg solutions were first demonstrated. Using a semiempirical quantumchemical method we showed that EGCg binds to the PEG chains of PLL-g-PEG-RGD and effectively blocks the RGD sites by hydrogen bonds. The calculations supported the experimental finding that the binding is stronger for the oxidative products. Our work lead to a new model of polyphenol action on cell adhesion ligand accessibility and matrix rigidity.

  17. The Green Tea Catechin Epigallocatechin Gallate Ameliorates Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Westphal

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT is a standard treatment for leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. The major complication of allo-HSCT is graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD, a progressive inflammatory illness characterized by donor immune cells attacking the organs of the recipient. Current GVHD prevention and treatment strategies use immune suppressive drugs and/or anti-T cell reagents these can lead to increased risk of infections and tumor relapse. Recent research demonstrated that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, a component found in green tea leaves at a level of 25-35% at dry weight, may be useful in the inhibition of GVHD due to its immune modulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-angiogenic capacities. In murine allo-HSCT recipients treated with EGCG, we found significantly reduced GVHD scores, reduced target organ GVHD and improved survival. EGCG treated allo-HSCT recipients had significantly higher numbers of regulatory T cells in GVHD target organs and in the blood. Furthermore, EGCG treatment resulted in diminished oxidative stress indicated by significant changes of glutathione blood levels as well as glutathione peroxidase in the colon. In summary, our study provides novel evidence demonstrating that EGCG ameliorates lethal GVHD and reduces GVHD-related target organ damage. Possible mechanisms are increased regulatory T cell numbers and reduced oxidative stress.

  18. Coffee consumption but not green tea consumption is associated with adiponectin levels in Japanese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imatoh, T; Tanihara, S; Miyazaki, M; Momose, Y; Uryu, Y; Une, H

    2011-06-01

    Coffee is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Numerous epidemiological studies have reported a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Therefore, we conducted an epidemiological study to clarify the relationship between coffee consumption and adiponectin levels in Japanese males. We also evaluated whether green tea consumption affected adiponectin levels. We carried out a cross-sectional study. The subjects were 665 male employees in Japan. Coffee consumption was assessed, using a self-administered questionnaire, as the number of times per week and cups per day respondents drank, and subjects were grouped into four levels (non, 1-5 times/week, 1-2 cups/day and ≥3 cups/day). The means of adiponectin levels were positively associated with coffee consumption. A dose-response relationship was found between coffee consumption and circulating adiponectin levels. The relationship remained significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors (P for trend coffee consumption is associated with higher adiponectin levels in Japanese males but also found a dose-dependent association between coffee consumption and adiponectin levels. Therefore, our study suggested that coffee components might play an important role in the elevation of adiponectin level.

  19. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate counteracts daytime overeating induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Kek, Huiling Calvina; Lim, Joy; Gelling, Richard Wayne; Han, Weiping

    2016-12-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) induces overeating and obesity. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces HFD-induced body weight and body fat gain mainly through increased lipid metabolism and fat oxidation. However, little is known about its effect on HFD-induced alterations in feeding behavior. Three diet groups of wildtype C57B/6j male mice at 5 months old were fed on normal chow diet, 1 week of HFD (60% of energy) and 3 months of HFD (diet-induced obesity (DIO)) prior to EGCG supplement in respective diet. EGCG had no effect on feeding behavior in normal chow diet group. Increased daytime feeding induced by HFD was selectively corrected by EGCG treatment in HFD groups, including reversed food intake, feeding frequency and meal size in HFD + EGCG group, and reduced food intake and feeding frequency in DIO + EGCG group. Moreover, EGCG treatment altered diurnally oscillating expression pattern of key appetite-regulating genes, including AGRP, POMC, and CART, and key circadian genes Clock and Bmal1 in hypothalamus of DIO mice, indicating its central effect on feeding regulation. Our study demonstrates that EGCG supplement specifically counteracts daytime overeating induced by HFD in mice, suggesting its central role in regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Enhance Glycogen Synthesis and Inhibit Lipogenesis in Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane J. Y. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP against metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes by suppressing appetite and nutrient absorption have been well reported. However the direct effects and mechanisms of GTP on glucose and lipid metabolism remain to be elucidated. Since the liver is an important organ involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, we examined the effects and mechanisms of GTP on glycogen synthesis and lipogenesis in HepG2 cells. Concentrations of GTP containing 68% naturally occurring (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG were incubated in HepG2 cells with high glucose (30 mM under 100 nM of insulin stimulation for 24 h. GTP enhanced glycogen synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. 10 μM of EGCG significantly increased glycogen synthesis by 2fold (P<0.05 compared with insulin alone. Western blotting revealed that phosphorylation of Ser9 glycogen synthase kinase 3β and Ser641 glycogen synthase was significantly increased in GTP-treated HepG2 cells compared with nontreated cells. 10 μM of EGCG also significantly inhibited lipogenesis (P<0.01. We further demonstrated that this mechanism involves enhanced expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase α and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HepG2 cells. Our results showed that GTP is capable of enhancing insulin-mediated glucose and lipid metabolism by regulating enzymes involved in glycogen synthesis and lipogenesis.

  1. Green Tea Catechin-Based Complex Micelles Combined with Doxorubicin to Overcome Cardiotoxicity and Multidrug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tangjian; Liu, Jinjian; Ren, Jie; Huang, Fan; Ou, Hanlin; Ding, Yuxun; Zhang, Yumin; Ma, Rujiang; An, Yingli; Liu, Jianfeng; Shi, Linqi

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy for cancer treatment has been demonstrated to cause some side effects on healthy tissues and multidrug resistance of the tumor cells, which greatly limits therapeutic efficacy. To address these limitations and achieve better therapeutic efficacy, combination therapy based on nanoparticle platforms provides a promising approach through delivering different agents simultaneously to the same destination with synergistic effect. In this study, a novel green tea catechin-based polyion complex (PIC) micelle loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) was constructed through electrostatic interaction and phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction between poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lysine-co-lysine-phenylboronic acid) (PEG-PLys/PBA) and EGCG. DOX was co-loaded in the PIC micelles through π-π stacking interaction with EGCG. The phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction endowed the PIC micelles with high stability under physiological condition. Moreover, acid cleavability of phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction in the micelle core has significant benefits for delivering EGCG and DOX to same destination with synergistic effects. In addition, benefiting from the oxygen free radicals scavenging activity of EGCG, combination therapy with EGCG and DOX in the micelle core could protect the cardiomyocytes from DOX-mediated cardiotoxicity according to the histopathologic analysis of hearts. Attributed to modulation of EGCG on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity, this kind of PIC micelles could effectively reverse multidrug resistance of cancer cells. These results suggested that EGCG based PIC micelles could effectively overcome DOX induced cardiotoxicity and multidrug resistance. PMID:27375779

  2. Green tea polyphenols rescue of brain defects induced by overexpression of DYRK1A.

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    Fayçal Guedj

    Full Text Available Individuals with partial HSA21 trisomies and mice with partial MMU16 trisomies containing an extra copy of the DYRK1A gene present various alterations in brain morphogenesis. They present also learning impairments modeling those encountered in Down syndrome. Previous MRI and histological analyses of a transgenic mice generated using a human YAC construct that contains five genes including DYRK1A reveal that DYRK1A is involved, during development, in the control of brain volume and cell density of specific brain regions. Gene dosage correction induces a rescue of the brain volume alterations. DYRK1A is also involved in the control of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Increased gene dosage results in brain morphogenesis defects, low BDNF levels and mnemonic deficits in these mice. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG - a member of a natural polyphenols family, found in great amount in green tea leaves - is a specific and safe DYRK1A inhibitor. We maintained control and transgenic mice overexpressing DYRK1A on two different polyphenol-based diets, from gestation to adulthood. The major features of the transgenic phenotype were rescued in these mice.

  3. Safety evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract on irradiated tea parasite: Acute toxicity study on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendig Winarno

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of the pharmacological efficacy of tea parasite and the use of ionizing radiation for decontamination of microbes and extending shelf life have been reported, but there is no information on its safety, such as the acute toxicity. In this study, the acute toxicity of two ethyl acetate extracts from unirradiated and irradiated (irradiation dose of 10 kGy) tea parasites Scurrula atropurpurea on Swiss Webster mice have been examined. The observation was done after the treatment of a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract in various dose groups, i.e.: control (0 g/kg of mice body weight), D1 (0.625 g/kg), D2 (1.25 g/kg), D3 (2.5 g/kg) D4 (5 g/kg), D5 (10 g/kg) by observing the effect on behavioral response (pharmacological profile), the body weight gains and mortality until the day 14 th . At the last day, the observation of vital organs has also been done. The result showed that no acute toxicity was found in mice treated with a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated tea parasite and irradiated tea parasite at the dose of 10 kGy. At the dose up to 10 g/kg (equivalent to 77.6 g of extract which administered to human), the normal body weight gains were observed in mice of all dose groups, no mice deaths in any of the dose groups, and no significant change (p > 0.05) in organ weights relative to the body weight i.e.: liver, spleen, kidneys, lung, heart, testes and seminal vesicle (for male), and ovaries and uterus (for female). The approximate lethal doses for male and female mice were determined to be higher than 10 g/kg of mice body weight. It is suggested that the treatment of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated and irradiated tea parasites until dose up to 10 g/kg of mice body weight was still safe. (author)

  4. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels by gallotannins as a possible molecular basis for health benefits of red wine and green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, Wan; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Verkman, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    TMEM16A was found recently to be a calcium-activated Cl− channel (CaCC). CaCCs perform important functions in cell physiology, including regulation of epithelial secretion, cardiac and neuronal excitability, and smooth muscle contraction. CaCC modulators are of potential utility for treatment of hypertension, diarrhea, and cystic fibrosis. Screening of drug and natural product collections identified tannic acid as an inhibitor of TMEM16A, with IC50 ∼ 6 μM and ∼100% inhibition at higher concentrations. Tannic acid inhibited CaCCs in multiple cell types but did not affect CFTR Cl− channels. Structure-activity analysis indicated the requirement of gallic or digallic acid substituents on a macromolecular scaffold (gallotannins), as are present in green tea and red wine. Other polyphenolic components of teas and wines, including epicatechin, catechin, and malvidin-3-glucoside, poorly inhibited CaCCs. Remarkably, a 1000-fold dilution of red wine and 100-fold dilution of green tea inhibited CaCCs by >50%. Tannic acid, red wine, and green tea inhibited arterial smooth muscle contraction and intestinal Cl− secretion. Gallotannins are thus potent CaCC inhibitors whose biological activity provides a potential molecular basis for the cardioprotective and antisecretory benefits of red wine and green tea.—Namkung, W., Thiagarajah, J. R., Phuan, P.-W., Verkman, A. S. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels by gallotannins as a possible molecular basis for health benefits of red wine and green tea. PMID:20581223

  5. Separation and purification of both tea seed polysaccharide and saponin from camellia cake extract using macroporous resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengjie; Zhou, Mingda; Zhou, Chengyun; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Chen, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A novel method to separate and purify tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake extract by macroporous resin was developed. Among four kinds of resins (AB-8, NKA-9, XDA-6, and D4020) tested, AB-8 macroporous resin possessed optimal separating capacity for the two substances and thus was selected for the separation, in which deionized water was used to elute tea seed polysaccharide, 0.25% NaOH solution to remove the undesired pigments, and 90% ethanol to elute tea seed saponin. Further dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments on AB-8 resin-based column chromatography were conducted to obtain the optimal parameters. Under optimal dynamic adsorption and desorption conditions, 18.7 and 11.8% yield of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin were obtained with purities of 89.2 and 96.0%, respectively. The developed method provides a potential approach for the large-scale production of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Green Soap: An Extraction and Saponification of Avocado Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutheimer, Susan; Caster, Jacqueline M.; Smith, Simone H.

    2015-01-01

    An introductory level green chemistry experiment is described that places a new twist on soap-making in lab. In this experiment, oil is extracted from an avocado, after which the oil is saponified to produce bars of green craft soap. Commonly used extraction solvents, such as petroleum ether, methylene chloride, and hexane, are replaced with safer…

  7. The effect of Tributyltin on thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats and the possible protective role of green tea: a toxicological, histological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr El Dine, Fatma M M; Nabil, Iman M; Dwedar, Fatma I

    2017-01-01

    Tributyltin is one of the important and wide-spread persistent organic contaminants that accumulate in the food chain. It is suspected to cause endocrine-disrupting effects in mammals, due in part to its possible transfer through marine food chains and to the consumption of contaminated seafood. Was to study the possible toxic effect of Tributyltin on thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats and to evaluate the possible protective role of green tea. Forty-five adult male albino rats were included and randomly divided into 3 equal groups: a control group (Group I); Group II: received tributyltin chloride (TBT) dissolved in corn oil orally in a dose of 5 mg/kg for 30 days. Group III: received tributyltin chloride in the same dose with concomitant oral administration of green tea extract for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were subjected to hormonal assay for T3, T4 and TSH levels. Malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione were assessed. The thyroid tissue was processed for histological and ultrastructure examination. The colloid area of thyroid follicles was evaluated morphometrically and statistically analyzed. A significant decrease in T3 and T4 levels and serum reduced glutathione in the group II when compared with the other groups. Furthermore, a significant increase in serum Malondialdehyde and TSH levels was recorded in group II treated group by comparison to the other two groups. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes of thyroid gland follicles were detected in tributyltin treated rats; the follicular cells appeared swollen and vacuolated. Epithelial stratification was noticed in some foci with excessive vacuolation of the colloid. Dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum filled with flocculent material and increased number of lysosomes were also detected together with variation in shape and size of the nuclei. A marked improvement in the histological features of thyroid follicles was noticed in

  8. Protected Geographical Indication Identification of a Chinese Green Tea (Anji-White by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometric Class Modeling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a rapid identification method for a Chinese green tea with PGI, Anji-white tea, by class modeling techniques and NIR spectroscopy. 167 real and representative Anji-white tea samples were collected from 8 tea plantations in their original producing areas for model training. Another 81 non-Anji-white tea samples of similar appearance were collected from 7 important tea producing areas and used for validation of model specificity. Diffuse NIR spectra were measured with finely ground tea powders. OCPLS and SIMCA were used to describe the distribution of representative Anji-white tea objects and predict the authenticity of new objects. For data preprocessing, smoothing, derivatives, and SNV were applied to improve the raw spectra and classification performance. It is demonstrated that taking derivatives and SNV can improve classification accuracy and reduce the complexity of class models by removing spectral background and baseline. For the best models, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.886 and 0.951 for OCPLS, 0.886 and 0.938 for SIMCA with SNV spectra, respectively. Although it is difficult to perform an exhaustive analysis of all types of potential false objects, the proposed method can detect most of the important non-Anji-white teas in the Chinese market.

  9. Biological activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles depends on the applied natural extracts: a comprehensive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rónavári, Andrea; Kovács, Dávid; Igaz, Nóra; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Boros, Imre Miklós; Kónya, Zoltán; Pfeiffer, Ilona; Kiricsi, Mónika

    2017-01-01

    Due to obvious disadvantages of the classical chemical methods, green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has attracted tremendous attention in recent years. Numerous environmentally benign synthesis methods have been developed yielding nanoparticles via low-cost, eco-friendly, and simple approaches. In this study, our aim was to determine the suitability of coffee and green tea extracts in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles as well as to compare the performance of the obtained materials in different biological systems. We successfully produced silver nanoparticles (C-AgNP and GT-AgNP) using coffee and green tea extracts; moreover, based on our comprehensive screening, we delineated major differences in the biological activity of C-AgNPs and GT-AgNPs. Our results indicate that although GT-AgNPs exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against all the examined microbial pathogens, these particles were also highly toxic to mammalian cells, which limits their potential applications. On the contrary, C-AgNPs manifested substantial inhibitory action on the tested microbes but were nontoxic to human and mouse cells, indicating an outstanding capacity to discriminate between potential pathogens and mammalian cells. These results clearly show that the various green materials used for stabilization and for reduction of metal ions have a defining role in determining and fine-tuning the biological activity of the obtained nanoparticles.

  10. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S P Jeevan; Prasad, S Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K; Kulkarni, Kalyani S; Ramesh, K V

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n -hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330 kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to look for alternative options. To circumvent the problem, green solvents could be a promising approach to replace solvent extraction. In this review, green solvents and technology like aqueous assisted enzyme extraction are better solution for oil extraction from oilseeds. Enzyme mediated extraction is eco-friendly, can obtain higher yields, cost-effective and aids in obtaining co-products without any damage. Enzyme technology has great potential for oil extraction in oilseed industry. Similarly, green solvents such as terpenes and ionic liquids have tremendous solvent properties that enable to extract the oil in eco-friendly manner. These green solvents and technologies are considered green owing to the attributes of energy reduction, eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and non-harmfulness. Hence, the review is mainly focussed on the prospects and challenges of green solvents and technology as the best option to replace the conventional methods without compromising the quality of the extracted products.

  11. Chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis): a study of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis Jacques, Rosângela; dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; Flores Peres, Valéria; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Bastos Caramão, Elina

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the extraction of Ilex paraguariensis leaves by means of three extraction techniques: pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, also called accelerated solvent extraction--ASE), maceration, and sonication. Samples of mate tea leaves were collected from an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Indfistria e Comércio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. Six solvents with increasing polarities (n-hexane, toluene, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) were used in this investigation. Chemical analysis of the extracts was performed by GC coupled with a mass spectrometer detector. The identification and quantification were accomplished by coinjections of certified standards. The results showed that no significant differences in the qualities of the extracts were noticed regarding the extraction methods. On the other hand, the PLE technique was found to be more effective for the extractions of caffeine, phytol, palmitic, and stearic acid. The use of PLE led to a significant decrease in the total extraction time, amount of solvent consumption, and manipulation of samples compared to maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

  12. Structural characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Qingzhuan brick tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinhe; Huang, Mingjun; Qin, Caiqin; Lv, Bangyu; Mao, Qingli; Liu, Zhonghua

    2017-08-01

    The crude tea polysaccharides (CTPS) from Qingzhuan brick tea(QZBT) were extracted and fractionated to afford two fractions, namely TPS-1 and TPS-2. Analyses were conducted concerning the structural characterization and antioxidant activities of these samples. Component analysis revealed that the carbohydrate, uronic acid, protein and polyphenol contents of these samples differed significantly. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that these samples showed similar characteristic absorption peaks for polysaccharides. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, circular dichroism, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analyses indicated that there were considerable differences in the presence of protein, surface features, conformational characteristics and thermodynamic behaviors. For antioxidant activities in vitro, CTPS, TPS-1 and TPS-2 exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activities, with TPS-2 showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than CTPS and TPS-1. These results provide a scientific and strong foundation for the use of tea polysaccharides(TPS) from QZBT and further research towards the relationships between the characteristics and antioxidant activities of TPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of preparation processes on polonium 210 transfer from tea and mate leaves to aqueous extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2002-08-01

    Polonium 210 was determined in 34 kinds of tea samples and 8 kinds of mate samples collected from the local market. The results have shown that the activities of 210 Po in tea and meta samples were relatively high and varied between 5.5 and 39 Bq.Kg -1 , and 47 to 82 Bq.Kg -1 in tea and mate samples respectively. In order to estimate the annual intake of 210 Po by drinking of the aqueous extract of these materials, preparation processes of the leaves were performed at different conditions (temperature, duration of soaking). The results have shown that the amount of 210 Po transferred to the aqueous extract varied between 9 and 21% and 3 and 15% for tea leaves and mate respectively. There was a clear variations in the soluble amount according to the applied different conditions of soaking. The annual intake of 210 Po due to drinking tea and meta extracts was calculated and found to be 9 Bq.year -1 and 151 Bq.year -1 for tea and mate respectively. (author)

  14. Green tea polyphenols and sulfasalazine have parallel anti-inflammatory properties in colitis models

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    Helieh S Oz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no cure for autoimmune chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. IBD patients commonly use complementary and alternative medications of which the safety, efficacy and interaction with standard-of-care therapies are not fully known. Thus the consequences can become life-threatening. Sulfasalazine commonly used in IBD, potentially has severe adverse effects, including infertility, pulmonary fibrosis, lack of response and ultimately patients may require intestinal resection. We hypothesized that green tea polyphenols (GrTP, EGCG and sulfasalazine have similar anti-inflammatory properties. Methods: BALB/c mice received Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS to induce colitis (ulcerative colitis model. Exposure of IL-10 deficient mice (BALB/c-background to normal microbiota provoked enterocolitis (mimics Crohn’s disease. Animals were treated with agents incorporated into daily diets. Control animals received sham treatment. Results: DSS-treated animals developed severe bloody diarrhea and colitis (score 0-4, 3.2+0.27. IL-10 deficient mice developed severe enterocolitis as manifested by diarrhea, rectal prolapse and colonic lesions. Animals tolerated regimens (GrTP, EGCG, sulfasalazine with no major side effects, and further developed less severe colitis/enterocolitis. GrTP, EGCG and sulfasalazine significantly ameliorated colonic damage and histological scores in treated animals in a similar manner (GrTP vs DSS p<0.05; EGCG, sulfasalazine vs DSS p<0.01. The inflammatory markers TNFα (3-fold, IL-6 (14-fold and serum amyloid A (40-fold increased in colitic animals and significantly decreased with treatment regiments. In contrast, circulatory leptin levels decreased in colitic animals (2-fold. EGCG additionally reduced leptin levels (p<0.01 while GrTP and sulfasalazine had no effect on leptin levels (p<0.05. Hepatic and colonic antioxidants were significantly depleted in colitic animals and treatment regiments significantly restored

  15. Breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia Sinensis (green tea): an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Movahedi, Mino

    2017-02-01

    Camellia sinensis belongs to the plant family of Theaceae, native to East Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia, but naturalized in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to overview its anti-breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects. This review article is aimed to overview breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia sinensis (green tea). This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases. The initial search strategy identified around 108 references. In this study, 68 studies were accepted for further screening, and met all our inclusion criteria [in English, full text, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia sinensis and dated mainly from the year 1999 to 2016. The search terms were Camellia sinensis, chemopreventive, chemotherapeutic properties, pharmacological effects. The result of this study suggested that the catechin available in Camellia sinensis has properties which can prevent and treat breast cancer. It has also been shown to inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells and to block carcinogenesis. It was found that increased Camellia sinensis consumption may lower the risk of breast cancer. Camellia sinensis intake was shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer incidence. In addition, potential breast cancer chemopreventive effect of Camellia sinensis both in vivo and in vitro was highly confirmed. However, the evidence of low effect and no effect was observed. More clinical trial studies are needed to prove its anti-breast cancer activity decisively. Camellia sinensis is broadly utilized as a part of customary medication since antiquated time because of its cost adequacy, and fewer reaction properties. The studies demonstrated anti-breast cancer activity of Camellia sinensis and its component by adjusting cell signaling pathways such as angiogenesis, apoptosis, and transcription factor. Furthermore

  16. Effect of supplementation of green tea polyphenols on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes in vitro

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    Z.G. Wang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of green tea polyphenols (GTPs supplementation during in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization, and in vitro culture on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes aspirated from the ovaries were matured in vitro (38.5ºC for 24 h and fertilized (38.5ºC for 15-18 h and embryos were cultured (38.5ºC for 192 h in a defined conditioned medium with or without GTPs supplementation. The GTPs used in the present study contained 99% catechin derivatives, with the major components being 50% (--epigallocatechin gallate, 22% (--epicatechin gallate, 18% (--epigallocatechin, and 10% (--epicatechin. Four replicate trials were done for each type of experiment. GTPs supplementation (15 µM of the maturation medium led to a significant increase in the rate of blastocyst formation (34.0 vs 21.4%, P < 0.05. However, the rate of blastocyst formation was not improved when higher GTPs concentrations (20 or 25 µM were added to the in vitro maturation medium. During in vitro fertilization, supplementation with higher GTPs concentrations (20 or 25 µM significantly reduced the rate of blastocyst formation (P < 0.05. Supplementation of the culture medium with 15 µM GTPs improved the rate of blastocyst formation, while higher GTPs concentrations (25 µM significantly reduced embryo development (P < 0.05. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that supplementation with GTPs at low concentration (15 µM during in vitro maturation and in vitro culture improved the developmental competence of bovine oocytes.

  17. Anti-plaque effect of a synergistic combination of green tea and Salvadora persica L. against primary colonizers of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Raad; Himratul-Aznita, Wan Harun; Baharuddin, Nor Adinar

    2016-10-01

    Green tea (Gt), leafs of Camellia sinensis var. assamica, is widely consumed as healthy beverage since thousands of years in Asian countries. Chewing sticks (miswak) of Salvadora persica L. (Sp) are traditionally used as natural brush to ensure oral health in developing countries. Both Gt and Sp extracts were reported to have anti-bacterial activity against many dental plaque bacteria. However, their combination has never been tested to have anti-bacterial and anti-adherence effect against primary dental plaque colonizers, playing an initial role in the dental plaque development, which was investigated in this study. Two-fold serial micro-dilution method was used to measure minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous extracts of Gt, Sp and their combinations. Adsorption to hexadecane was used to determine the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of bacterial cells. Glass beads were used to mimic the hard tissue surfaces, and were coated with saliva to develop experimental pellicles for the adhesion of the primary colonizing bacteria. Gt aqueous extracts exhibited better anti-plaque effect than Sp aqueous extracts. Their combination, equivalent to 1/4 and 1/2 of MIC values of Gt and Sp extracts respectively, showed synergistic anti-plaque properties with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) equal to 0.75. This combination was found to significantly reduce CSH (pplaque activity, and could be used as a useful active agent to produce oral health care products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular insights into the differences in anti-inflammatory activities of green tea catechins on IL-1β signaling in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechtner, Sabrina; Singh, Anil; Chourasia, Mukesh; Ahmed, Salahuddin

    2017-08-15

    In this study, we found that catechins found in green tea (EGCG, EGC, and EC) differentially interfere with the IL-1β signaling pathway which regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and IL-8) and Cox-2 in primary human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). EGCG and EGC inhibited IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-2 production and selectively inhibited Cox-2 expression. EC did not exhibit any inhibitory effects. When we looked at the expression of key signaling proteins in the IL-1β signaling pathway, we found all the tested catechins could inhibit TAK-1 activity. Therefore, the consumption of green tea offers an overall anti-inflammatory effect. Molecular docking analysis confirms that EGCG, EGC, and EC all occupy the active site of the TAK1 kinase domain. However, EGCG occupies the majority of the TAK1 active site. In addition to TAK1 inhibition, EGCG can also inhibit P38 and nuclear NF-κB expression whereas EC and EGC were not effective inhibitors. Our findings suggest one of the main health benefits associated with the consumption of green tea are due to the activity of EGCG and EGC which are both present at higher amounts. Although EGCG is the most effective catechin at inhibiting downstream inflammatory signaling, its effectiveness could be hindered by the presence of EC. Therefore, varying EC content in green tea may reduce the anti-inflammatory effects of other potential catechins in green tea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis and Olive (Olea europaea L. Leaves Extracts on Male Mice Exposed to Diazinon

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    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5 mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors.

  20. Decaffeinated green and black tea polyphenols decrease weight gain and alter microbiome populations and function in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Susanne M; Yang, Jieping; Hsu, Mark; Lee, Ru-Po; Grojean, Emma M; Ly, Austin; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-09-30

    Decaffeinated green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) polyphenols inhibit weight gain in mice fed an obesogenic diet. Since the intestinal microflora is an important contributor to obesity, it was the objective of this study to determine whether the intestinal microflora plays a role in the anti-obesogenic effect of GT and BT. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF/HS, 32% energy from fat; 25% energy from sucrose) or the same diet supplemented with 0.25% GTP or BTP or a low-fat/high-sucrose (LF/HS, 10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose) diet for 4 weeks. Bacterial composition was assessed by MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. GTP and BTP diets resulted in a decrease of cecum Firmicutes and increase in Bacteroidetes. The relative proportions of Blautia, Bryantella, Collinsella, Lactobacillus, Marvinbryantia, Turicibacter, Barnesiella, and Parabacteroides were significantly correlated with weight loss induced by tea extracts. BTP increased the relative proportion of Pseudobutyrivibrio and intestinal formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) analyzed by gas chromatography. Cecum propionic acid content was significantly correlated with the relative proportion of Pseudobutyrivibrio. GTP and BTP induced a significant increase in hepatic 5'adenosylmonophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation by 70 and 289%, respectively (P < 0.05) determined by Western blot. In summary, both BTP and GTP induced weight loss in association with alteration of the microbiota and increased hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. We hypothesize that BTP increased pAMPK through increased intestinal SCFA production, while GTPs increased hepatic AMPK through GTP present in the liver.

  1. Atividade das glicosidases na presença de chá verde e de chá preto Activity of glycosidases in the presence of green tea and black tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L.S. Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Várias plantas têm sido consideradas produtos terapêuticos, dentre elas destacam-se os chás verde e preto, popularmente utilizados para controle da hiperglicemia e obesidade. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o potencial inibitório sobre as enzimas α-amilase, α e β-glicosidases e o teor de compostos fenólicos do chá verde e do chá preto. O teor de compostos fenólicos encontrados foram de 80,8 ± 0,43 mg g-1 no chá preto e 32,0 ± 0,12 mg g-1 no chá verde. O chá verde e o chá preto, em condições de consumo, inibiram as enzimas em estudo, porém, após a simulação do fluido gástrico o inibidor presente no chá verde perdeu a ação. O chá preto deixou de inibir a α-amilase e apresentou inibição inalterada para α e β-glicosidases. Tais resultados sugerem que o chá preto pode ser auxiliar em dietas de restrição de carboidratos.Several plants have been considered therapeutic products, including green and black tea, popularly used to control hyperglycemia and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory potential of the enzymes α-amylase, α and β-glycosidases, as well as the content of phenolic compounds in green tea and black tea. The concentrations of phenolic compounds found were 80.8 ± 0.43 mg g-1 in black tea and 32.0 ± 0.12 mg g-1 in green tea. Under the tested conditions of use, green and black tea inhibited the enzyme under study. However, after simulation of the gastric fluid, the inhibitor present in green tea lost its action. Black tea no longer inhibited a-amylase and showed unaltered inhibition for α and β-glycosidases. These results suggest that black tea can be helpful in diets restricting carbohydrates.

  2. The impact of packaging materials on the antioxidant phytochemical stability of aqueous infusions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmok; Welt, Bruce A; Talcott, Stephen T

    2011-05-11

    Ready to drink (RTD) teas are a growing segment in the beverage category, brought about by improvements in the flavor of these products and healthy market trends driven by consumers. The presented results evaluated the antioxidant phytochemical stability of RTD teas from aqueous infusions of traditional green tea (Camellia sinensis) and a botanical tea from yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) as influenced by packaging materials during cold storage. Two common packaging materials for RTD products are glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and have been compared to a retortable pouch (RP), an emerging packaging material for various types of food since it is durable, inexpensive, lightweight, and easy to sterilize. Storage stability was then evaluated for each aqueous infusion prepared at 10 g/L at 90 °C for 10 min and evaluated at 3 °C in the absence of light over 12 weeks. Analyses included quantification and characterization of individual polyphenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry as well as changes in total antioxidant capacity. For green tea, concentrations of the three major flavan-3-ols, epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin gallate were better retained in glass bottles as compared to other packages over 12 weeks. In yaupon holly, chlorogenic acid and its isomers that were the predominant compounds were generally stable in each packaging material, and a 20.6-fold higher amount of saponin was found as compared to green tea, which caused higher stability of flavonol glycosides present in yaupon holly durin