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Sample records for green rooibos extract

  1. Protective effects of rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis ), green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the modulation of oxidative stress by an indigenous herbal tea, rooibos, Chinese green tea and commercial rooibos and green tea supplements in rat testicular tissue. Male Wistar rats (n = 60) were fed with either fermented rooibos, “green” rooibos, Chinese green tea, commercial rooibos or green tea ...

  2. Acute assessment of an aspalathin enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract with hypoglycaemic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, C.J.F; Joubert, E.; de Beer, D.

    2012-01-01

    Rooibos, an endemic South African plant, known for its use as herbal tea, has potential as an antidiabetic herbal product, following recent demonstration of the glucose lowering effect of its major flavonoid, the dihydrochalcone C-glucoside aspalathin. The purpose of this study was to confirm...

  3. Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Green and Fermented Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) in Dermal Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Nadine A; Koekemoer, Trevor C; Holzer, Andrea; Young, Carly; Venables, Luanne; van de Venter, Maryna

    2018-02-28

    The process of wound healing constitutes an ordered sequence of events that provides numerous opportunities for therapeutic intervention to improve wound repair. Rooibos, Aspalathus linearis , is a popular ingredient in skin care products, however, little scientific data exists exploring its therapeutic potential. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fermented and aspalathin-enriched green rooibos in various in vitro models representative of dermal wound healing. Treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with fermented rooibos resulted in increased nitric oxide production as well as increased levels of cellular inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, which are typical markers for classically activated macrophages. In contrast, the green extract was devoid of such activity. Using glycated gelatin as a model to mimic diabetic wounds, only the green extract showed potential to reduce cyclooxygenase-2 levels. Considering the role of reactive oxygen species in wound healing, the effects of rooibos on oxidative stress and cell death in human dermal fibroblasts was evaluated. Both fermented and green rooibos decreased cellular reactive oxygen species and attenuated apoptotic/necrotic cell death. Our findings highlight several properties that support the therapeutic potential of rooibos, and demonstrate that green and fermented rooibos present distinctly different properties with regards to their application in wound healing. The proinflammatory nature of fermented rooibos may have therapeutic value for wounds characterised with a delayed initial inflammatory phase, such as early diabetic wounds. The green extract is more suited to wounds burdened with excessive inflammation as it attenuated cyclooxygenase-2 levels and effectively protected fibroblasts against oxidative stress. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Short-Term and Sub-Chronic Dietary Exposure to Aspalathin-Enriched Green Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) Extract Affects Rat Liver Function and Antioxidant Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Johanna Debora; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2015-12-18

    An aspalathin-enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract (GRE) was fed to male Fischer rats in two independent studies for 28 and 90 days. The average dietary total polyphenol (TP) intake was 756 and 627 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/kg body weight (bw)/day over 28 and 90 days, respectively, equaling human equivalent doses (HEDs) of 123 and 102 GAE mg/kg bw/day. Aspalathin intake of 295 mg/kg bw/day represents a HED of 48 mg/kg bw/day (90 day study). Consumption of GRE increased feed intake significantly (p stress related genes, indicative, among others, of an underlying oxidative stress related to changes in the GSH redox pathway and possible biliary dysfunction.

  5. Chemical profiling of infusions and decoctions of Helichrysum italicum subsp. picardii by UHPLC-PDA-MS and in vitro biological activities comparatively with green tea (Camellia sinensis) and rooibos tisane (Aspalathus linearis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Catarina Guerreiro; Barreira, Luísa; Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Pieters, Luc; Neves, Vanessa; Rodrigues, Maria João; Rivas, Ricardo; Varela, João; Custódio, Luísa

    2017-10-25

    Several medicinal plants are currently used by the food industry as functional additives, for example botanical extracts in herbal drinks. Moreover, the scientific community has recently begun focusing on halophytes as sources of functional beverages. Helichrysum italicum subsp. picardii (everlasting) is an aromatic halophyte common in southern Europe frequently used as spice and in traditional medicine. In this context, this work explored for the first time H. italicum subsp. picardii as a potential source of innovative herbal beverages with potential health promoting properties. For that purpose, infusions and decoctions were prepared from roots, vegetative aerial-organs (stems and leaves) and flowers and evaluated for in vitro antioxidant and anti-diabetic activities. Samples were also assessed for toxicity in different mammalian cell lines and chemically characterized by spectrophotometric methods and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass-spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-MS). Results were expressed relating to 'a cup-of-tea' and compared with those obtained with green tea (Camellia sinensis) and rooibos tisane (Aspalathus linearis). Tisanes from the everlasting's above-ground organs, particularly flowers, have high polyphenolic content and several phenolics were identified; the main compounds were chlorogenic and quinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic-acid isomers and gnaphaliin-A. The antioxidant activity of beverages from the everlasting's above-ground organs matched or surpassed that of green tea and rooibos. Its anti-diabetic activity was moderate and toxicity low. Overall, our results suggest that the everlasting is a potential source of innovative and functional herbal beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Beneficial Role of Rooibos in Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moe Sasaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In a rapid increase in cases of diabetes mellitus worldwide, there has been interested in the use of plant-derived polyphenols as nutraceuticals to prevent the onset and progression of diabetes mellitus and its associated complications. Aspalathus linearis, commonly known as rooibos, is a rich source of uncommon glycosylated plant polyphenols with various critical health-promoting properties, including the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM. This study aimed to examine these effects by meta-analyzing the current evidence in diabetic rodent models. Peer-reviewed studies written in English from two databases, PubMed and Embase, were searched up to 28 February 2018. Studies reporting blood glucose levels in diabetic rodents with and without receiving rooibos extracts or their major phenolic compounds are included. Twelve studies enrolling 88 diabetic rodents treated with rooibos extracts or their polyphenols and 85 diabetic control males reported blood glucose levels. The pooled effect size was −0.89 (95% CI: −1.44 to −0.35 with a substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 67.0%. This effect was likely to be modified by type of rooibos extracts and their polyphenols and treatment period. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in diabetic rodent models treated with the phenolic compound rich in rooibos extracts, PPAG.

  7. Effect of organic cultivation of rooibos tea plants ( Aspalathus linearis )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shoots of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren) plants, cultivated organically by small-scale farmers in Nieuwoudtville, are harvested for the production of tea. These practices could lead to decreasing soil fertility. It was hypothesised that soil from cultivated rooibos plots will have lower nutrient ...

  8. Adverse effects of concentrated green tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönthal, Axel H

    2011-06-01

    A myriad of health claims are being made in favor of the consumption of green tea. However, mostly due to the easy availability and greater than ever popularity of highly concentrated green tea extracts, sometimes combined with an attitude of more-is-better, certain health risks of green tea consumption have begun to emerge. Among such risks are the possibility of liver damage, the potential to interact with prescription drugs to alter their therapeutic efficacy, and the chance to cause harm when combined with other highly popular herbal remedies. This review will summarize documented examples of adverse effects of green tea in humans, and will discuss risks of copious consumption of highly concentrated green tea extracts as indicated by studies in animals. While there is no intention to minimize any of the scientifically established benefits of the use of green tea, the purpose of this review is to focus primarily on the potential for adverse effects and raise awareness of the rare, yet under-appreciated risks. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The potential role of polyphenols in the modulation of skin cell viability by Aspalathus linearis and Cyclopia spp. herbal tea extracts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magcwebeba, Tandeka Unathi; Riedel, Sylvia; Swanevelder, Sonja; Swart, Pieter; De Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Andreas Gelderblom, Wentzel Christoffel

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between polyphenol constituents, antioxidant properties of aqueous and methanol extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), the herbal teas, rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia spp.), against skin cell viability was investigated in vitro. The effect of extracts, characterised in terms of polyphenol content and antioxidant properties, on cell viability of premalignant, normal and malignant skin cells was determined. Phenolic composition, particularly high levels of potent antioxidants, of rooibos and green tea methanol extracts was associated with a strong reduction in cell viability specifically targeting premalignant cells. In contrast, the aqueous extracts of Cyclopia spp. were more effective in reducing cell viability. This correlated with a relatively high flavanol/proanthocyanidin content and ABTS radical cation scavenging capacity. The major green tea flavanol (epigallocatechin gallate) and rooibos dihydrochalcone (aspalathin) exhibited differential effects against cell viability, while the major honeybush xanthone (mangiferin) and flavanone (hesperidin) lacked any effect presumably due to a cytoprotective effect. The underlying mechanisms against skin cell viability are likely to involve mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from polyphenol-iron interactions. The polyphenol constituents and antioxidant parameters of herbal tea extracts are useful tools to predict their activity against skin cell survival in vitro and potential chemopreventive effects in vivo. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Population nutrikinetics of green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Catharina; Lepper, Anna; Lehr, Thorsten; Hanke, Nina; Schneider, Katharina Luise; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Seufferlein, Thomas; Stingl, Julia Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols may contribute to the prevention of cancer and other diseases. To learn more about the pharmacokinetics and interindividual variation of green tea polyphenols after oral intake in humans we performed a population nutrikinetic study of standardized green tea extract. 84 healthy participants took green tea extract capsules standardized to 150 mg epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) twice a day for 5 days. On day 5 catechin plasma concentrations were analyzed using non-compartmental and population pharmacokinetic methods. A strong between-subject variability in catechin pharmacokinetics was found with maximum plasma concentrations varying more than 6-fold. The AUCs of EGCG, EGC and ECG were 877.9 (360.8-1576.5), 35.1 (8.0-87.4), and 183.6 (55.5-364.6) h*μg/L respectively, and the elimination half lives were 2.6 (1.8-3.8), 3.9 (0.9-10.7) and 1.8 (0.8-2.9) h, respectively. Genetic polymorphisms in genes of the drug transporters MRP2 and OATP1B1 could at least partly explain the high variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. The observed variability in catechin plasma levels might contribute to interindividual variation in benefical and adverse effects of green tea polyphenols. Our data could help to gain a better understanding of the causes of variability of green tea effects and to improve the design of studies on the effects of green tea polyphenols in different health conditions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01360320.

  11. Content of Selected Minerals and Active Ingredients in Teas Containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Marzec, Zbigniew; Sembratowicz, Iwona; Samolińska, Wioletta; Kiczorowska, Bożena; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to determine the content of selected elements: sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and active ingredients such as phenolic acids and tannins in teas containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos cultivated in various areas. The study material comprised six samples of Yerba Mate teas and of Rooibos teas, both tea bags and leaves, purchased in Puławy and online via Allegro. In total, 24 samples were tested. Yerba Mate was particularly abundant in Mn and Fe. The richest source of these elements was Yerba Mate Yer-Vita (2261.3 mg · kg(-1) d.m.) and (691.6 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). The highest content of zinc was determined in Yerba Mate Amanda with lime (106.0 mg · kg(-1) d.m.), while copper was most abundant in Yerba Mate Big-Active cocoa and vanilla (14.05 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos, the content of sodium was several times higher than in Yerba Mate. A clear difference was observed in the content of minerals in dry weight of the examined products, which could be a result of both the taxonomic distinctness and the origin of the raw material. Leaf teas turned out to be a better source of tannins; on the other hand, tea bags contained substantially more phenolic acids. The richest source of phenolic acids was Yer-Vita in bags (1.8 %), and the highest amount of tannins was recorded in the leaf tea Green Goucho caramel and dark chocolate (9.04 g · 100 g(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos products, the highest content of phenolic acids was recorded in tea bags (Savannah with honey and vanilla 0.96 %), and tannins in (Lord Nelson with strawberry and cream 7.99 g · 100 g (-1) d.m.).

  12. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale R. Ajuwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis, red palm oil (RPO (Elaeis guineensis, or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P<0.05 elevation in conjugated dienes (CD and malondialdehyde (MDA levels, significantly (P<0.05 decreased reduced glutathione (GSH and GSH : GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P<0.05 decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status.

  13. Green Approaches to Extract Astaxanthin from Shrimp Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of comme......Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility...

  14. Spectroscopic Study of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaves Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Suryanti, V.; Virgynia, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports the analysis of UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectra of different concentrations of green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf extract in two different solvent systems (chloroform and ethyl acetate). In those solvents, two different peaks characterizing green tea are observed at different wavelengths, namely 296 nm and 329 nm (extracted in chloroform) and 391 nm and 534 nm (extracted in ethyl acetate). We then investigated the absorption spectra change as function of green tea concentration in both solvents. We found that light absorption increases linearly with the increase of green tea concentration. Different wavelengths, however, respond this change differently. However, the way it changes is wavelength dependence.

  15. Green Soap: An Extraction and Saponification of Avocado Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutheimer, Susan; Caster, Jacqueline M.; Smith, Simone H.

    2015-01-01

    An introductory level green chemistry experiment is described that places a new twist on soap-making in lab. In this experiment, oil is extracted from an avocado, after which the oil is saponified to produce bars of green craft soap. Commonly used extraction solvents, such as petroleum ether, methylene chloride, and hexane, are replaced with safer…

  16. The influence of processing on the microbial risk associated with Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouws, Pieter; Hartel, Toni; van Wyk, Rudean

    2014-12-01

    This review discusses the influence of processing on the microbial risk associated with Salmonella in Rooibos tea, the identification of Salmonella and preventative and control measures to control microbial contamination. Rooibos tea, like other plant products, naturally contains a high microbial load. Downstream processing steps of these products usually help in reducing any contaminants present. Due to the delicate flavour properties and nature of Rooibos, gentle processing techniques are necessary for the production of good quality tea. However, this has a major influence on the microbiological status of the product. The presence of Salmonella in Rooibos is poorly understood. The ubiquitous distribution of Salmonella in the natural environment and its prevalence in the global food chain, the physiological adaptability, virulence of the bacterial pathogen and its serious economic impact on the food industry, emphasises the need for continued awareness and stringent controls at all levels of food production. With the advances of technology and information at hand, the processing of Rooibos needs to be re-evaluated. Since the delicate nature of Rooibos prohibits the use of harsh methods to control Salmonella, alternative methods for the steam pasteurisation of Rooibos show great potential to control Salmonella in a fast, efficient and cost-effective manner. These alternative methods will significantly improve the microbiological quality of Rooibos and provide a product that is safe to consumers. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S P Jeevan; Prasad, S Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K; Kulkarni, Kalyani S; Ramesh, K V

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n -hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330 kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to look for alternative options. To circumvent the problem, green solvents could be a promising approach to replace solvent extraction. In this review, green solvents and technology like aqueous assisted enzyme extraction are better solution for oil extraction from oilseeds. Enzyme mediated extraction is eco-friendly, can obtain higher yields, cost-effective and aids in obtaining co-products without any damage. Enzyme technology has great potential for oil extraction in oilseed industry. Similarly, green solvents such as terpenes and ionic liquids have tremendous solvent properties that enable to extract the oil in eco-friendly manner. These green solvents and technologies are considered green owing to the attributes of energy reduction, eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and non-harmfulness. Hence, the review is mainly focussed on the prospects and challenges of green solvents and technology as the best option to replace the conventional methods without compromising the quality of the extracted products.

  18. Green extraction of natural products: concept and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Vian, Maryline Abert; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    The design of green and sustainable extraction methods of natural products is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Herein we aimed to introduce the six principles of green-extraction, describing a multifaceted strategy to apply this concept at research and industrial level. The mainstay of this working protocol are new and innovative technologies, process intensification, agro-solvents and energy saving. The concept, principles and examples of green extraction here discussed, offer an updated glimpse of the huge technological effort that is being made and the diverse applications that are being developed.

  19. Green Extraction of Natural Products: Concept and Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Cravotto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of green and sustainable extraction methods of natural products is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Herein we aimed to introduce the six principles of green-extraction, describing a multifaceted strategy to apply this concept at research and industrial level. The mainstay of this working protocol are new and innovative technologies, process intensification, agro-solvents and energy saving. The concept, principles and examples of green extraction here discussed, offer an updated glimpse of the huge technological effort that is being made and the diverse applications that are being developed.

  20. Terpenes as Green Solvents for Extraction of Oil from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Dejoye Tanzi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein is described a green and original alternative procedure for the extraction of oil from microalgae. Extractions were carried out using terpenes obtained from renewable feedstocks as alternative solvents instead of hazardous petroleum solvents such as n-hexane. The described method is achieved in two steps using Soxhlet extraction followed by the elimination of the solvent from the medium using Clevenger distillation in the second step. Oils extracted from microalgae were compared in terms of qualitative and quantitative determination. No significant difference was obtained between each extract, allowing us to conclude that the proposed method is green, clean and efficient.

  1. Acoustic Green's function extraction in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoqin

    The acoustic Green's function (GF) is the key to understanding the acoustic properties of ocean environments. With knowledge of the acoustic GF, the physics of sound propagation, such as dispersion, can be analyzed; underwater communication over thousands of miles can be understood; physical properties of the ocean, including ocean temperature, ocean current speed, as well as seafloor bathymetry, can be investigated. Experimental methods of acoustic GF extraction can be categorized as active methods and passive methods. Active methods are based on employment of man-made sound sources. These active methods require less computational complexity and time, but may cause harm to marine mammals. Passive methods cost much less and do not harm marine mammals, but require more theoretical and computational work. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages that should be carefully tailored to fit the need of each specific environment and application. In this dissertation, we study one passive method, the noise interferometry method, and one active method, the inverse filter processing method, to achieve acoustic GF extraction in the ocean. The passive method of noise interferometry makes use of ambient noise to extract an approximation to the acoustic GF. In an environment with a diffusive distribution of sound sources, sound waves that pass through two hydrophones at two locations carry the information of the acoustic GF between these two locations; by listening to the long-term ambient noise signals and cross-correlating the noise data recorded at two locations, the acoustic GF emerges from the noise cross-correlation function (NCF); a coherent stack of many realizations of NCFs yields a good approximation to the acoustic GF between these two locations, with all the deterministic structures clearly exhibited in the waveform. To test the performance of noise interferometry in different types of ocean environments, two field experiments were performed and ambient noise

  2. Green Extraction of Natural Products: Concept and Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Cravotto; Maryline Abert Vian; Farid Chemat

    2012-01-01

    The design of green and sustainable extraction methods of natural products is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Herein we aimed to introduce the six principles of green-extraction, describing a multifaceted strategy to apply this concept at research and industrial level. The mainstay of this working protocol are new and innovative technologies, process intensification, agro-solvents and energy saving. The concept, princi...

  3. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  4. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  5. Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes. TI Mbata, LU Debiao, A Saikia. Abstract. The antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis on Listeria monocytogenes were investigated using agar-gel diffusion, paper disk ...

  6. Extractive spectrophotometric determination of uranium with malachite green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, S C; Nadkarni, M N [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Fuel Reprocessing Div.

    1977-04-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method based on the extraction of a uranium-benzoate-Malachite Green complex by chlorobenzene is described. The absorption maximum is at 635 nm and the molar absorptivity is 8.3 x 10/sup 4/1. mole /sup -1/ cm/sup -1/. A preliminary separation of uranium by extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone from acid-deficient aluminium nitrate solution is used to avoid interferences. An aliquot of the extract in then diluted with chlorobenzene and shaken with benzoate buffer containing Malachite Green (MG). The method has been applied for the determination of uranium in a synthetic leach solution. The complex extracted is probably (U0/sub 2/(C/sub 6/H/sub 5/C00/sub 3//sup -/)(MG/sup +/).

  7. Extractive spectrophotometric determination of uranium with malachite green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, S.C.; Nadkarni, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method based on the extraction of a uranium-benzoate-Malachite Green complex by chlorobenzene is described. The absorption maximum is at 635 nm and the molar absorptivity is 8.3 x 10 4 1. mole -1 cm -1 . A preliminary separation of uranium by extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone from acid-deficient aluminium nitrate solution is used to avoid interferences. An aliquot of the extract in then diluted with chlorobenzene and shaken with benzoate buffer containing Malachite Green (MG). The method has been applied for the determination of uranium in a synthetic leach solution. The complex extracted is probably [U0 2 (C 6 H 5 C00 3 - ][MG + ]. (author)

  8. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  10. Effect of Japanese Green Tea Extract on Canine Periodontal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Isogai, E.; Isogai, H.; Kimura, K.; Nishikawa, T.; Fujii, N.; Benno, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Asaccharolytic pigmented Porphyromonas strains were isolated from the plaque of dogs with gingivitis and periodontitis. Various species of Porphyromonas, including P. endodontalis, P. gingivalis, P. circumdentaria and unclassified species, were detectable. Canine Porphyromonas were sensitive to Japanese green tea extract (JGTE). We examined the effects of dietary JGTE on periodontal diseases. A special diet was prepared on the basis of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC: 0.8 mg/ml) of ...

  11. Antioxidative and Antimelanoma Effects of Various Tea Extracts via a Green Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis contains high level of antioxidant elements and is a well-known beverage consumed worldwide. The purpose of this study is to compare different concentrations of green tea, black tea, oolong tea 861, oolong tea 732, and jasmine green tea. These five types of tea extracts were known to have antioxidative properties, reducing power, and metal ion chelating activity. The current study compared these five extracts in terms of their inhibiting effects on human malignant melanoma: A2058 and A375. To determine the cell viability between normal cell and malignant melanoma cells, an MTT assay was applied to evaluate the cytotoxic potential on human melanoma cells, with all tea extracts showing decreased cell viability with increasing tea extract concentrations. Cytotoxicity on HaCat (normal skin cells showed no effect on the cell viabilities at lower concentrations of the tea extracts. These results suggest the antioxidative effect of five tea extracts that protect against oxidation and melanoma production, with green tea and jasmine green tea showing the lowest cell viability when tested against malignant melanoma cells.

  12. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Zokti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD, gum arabic (GA and chitosan (CTS and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%–88.04%, 19.32–24.90 (g GAE/100 g, and 29.52%–38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%–5.11%, 0.28–0.36, 3.22%–4.71%, 0.22–0.28 g/cm3 and 40.43–225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF was determined as 142.00%–188.63% and 207.55%–231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05 under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35–60, 34–65 and 231–288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  13. Green Tea and Its Extracts in Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Schulze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (GT and green tea extracts (GTE have been postulated to decrease cancer incidence. In vitro results indicate a possible effect; however, epidemiological data do not support cancer chemoprevention. We have performed a PubMED literature search for green tea consumption and the correlation to the common tumor types lung, colorectal, breast, prostate, esophageal and gastric cancer, with cohorts from both Western and Asian countries. We additionally included selected mechanistical studies for a possible mode of action. The comparability between studies was limited due to major differences in study outlines; a meta analysis was thus not possible and studies were evaluated individually. Only for breast cancer could a possible small protective effect be seen in Asian and Western cohorts, whereas for esophagus and stomach cancer, green tea increased the cancer incidence, possibly due to heat stress. No effect was found for colonic/colorectal and prostatic cancer in any country, for lung cancer Chinese studies found a protective effect, but not studies from outside China. Epidemiological studies thus do not support a cancer protective effect. GT as an indicator of as yet undefined parameters in lifestyle, environment and/or ethnicity may explain some of the observed differences between China and other countries.

  14. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Iravani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods.

  15. Green Chemistry Glucose Biosensor Development using Etlingera elatior Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoni, A.; Anggraeni, M. D.; Zusfahair; Iqlima, H.

    2018-01-01

    Glucose biosensor development is one of the important strategies for early detection of diabetes mellitus disease. This study was aimed to explore the flower extract of Etlingera elatior for a green-analysis method of glucose biosensor. Flowers were extracted using ethanol: HCl and tested its performances as an indicator of glucose biosensor using glucose oxidase enzyme. The glucose oxidase react with glucose resulted hydrogen peroxide that would change the color of the flower extract. Furthermore, the extract was also studied including their stability to pH, oxidizing and reducing, temperature, and storage. The results showed that the Etlingera elatior extract had high correlation between color change and glucose concentration with regression equation of y = -0.0005x + 0.4724 and R2 of 0.9965. The studied biosensor showed a wide linear range to detect glucose sample of 0 to 500 mM. The extract characterization showed a more stable in low pH (acid), reducing agent addition, heating treatment and storage.

  16. Spent Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) Tea Biomass as an Adsorbent for Organic Dye Removal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Maděrová, Zdeňka; Horská, Kateřina; Baldíková, Eva; Pospišková, K.; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2015), s. 183-187 ISSN 1088-9868 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13709S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : dye adsorption * postmagnetization * spent rooibos biomass Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.852, year: 2015

  17. Modulation of antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male wistar rats following intake of red palm oil and/or rooibos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ademola Ayeleso; Nicole Brooks; Oluwafemi Oguntibeju

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role of red palm oil(RPO), rooibos tea extract(RTE) and their combined treatment(RPO+RTE) on antioxidant status in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Methods:Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single administration of streptozotocin(50 mg/kg) and the rats were treated for7 weeks.Antioxidant enzymes [catalase(CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase(SOD)], antioxidant capacity [trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity(ORAC)] as well as total protein, albumin, globulin, total glutathione, conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) were investigated.Results:Treatment withRPO,RTE andRPO+RTE significantly(p>0.05) improved liverSOD and plasmaORAC in the diabetic rats.Similarly, diabetic rats treated withRTE and RPO+RTE enhanced liverGPx.A significant(P<0.05) increase in the plasmaTBARS in the diabetic control group was observed when compared with the normal control group.Treatment of diabetic rats withRTE andRPO+RTE reduced plasmaTBARS to a level not significantly different atP<0.05 from the normal control group. Conclusions:The results revealed the anti-oxidative potentials of red palm oil, rooibos and their combination in diabetic conditions and hence, they could be useful in the management of diabetes and its complications.

  18. Fruit peel extract mediated green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, O. J.; Soto-Robles, C. A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, C. M.; Vilchis-Nestor, A. R.; Castro-Beltrán, A.; Olivas, A.; Luque, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a study of the effects on the photocatalytic capabilities of zinc oxide nanoparticles when prepared via green synthesis using different fruit peel extracts as reducing agents. Zinc nitrate was used as a source of the zinc ions, while Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Citrus sinensis (orange), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) and Citrus aurantifolia (lemon) contributed their peels for extracts. The Synthesized Samples were studied and characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). All samples presented a band at 618 cm-1, indicating the presence of the Znsbnd O bond. The different samples all presented the same hexagonal crystal growth in their structure, the Wurtzite phase. The surface morphology of the nanoparticles showed that, depending on the extract used, the samples vary in size and shape distribution due to the chemical composition of the extracts. The photocatalytic properties of the zinc oxide samples were tested through UV light aided degradation of methylene blue. Most samples exhibited degradation rates at 180 min of around 97%, a major improvement when compared to chemically synthesized commercially available zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  19. Green reduction of graphene oxide via Lycium barbarum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Dandan, E-mail: houdandan114@163.com; Liu, Qinfu, E-mail: lqf@cumtb.edu.cn; Cheng, Hongfei, E-mail: h.cheng@cumtb.edu.cn; Zhang, Hao, E-mail: 1073261516@qq.com; Wang, Sen, E-mail: wscumtb@163.com

    2017-02-15

    The synthesis of graphene from graphene oxide (GO) usually involves toxic reducing agents that are harmful to human health and the environment. Here, we report a facile approach for effective reduction of GO, for the first time, using Lycium barbarum extract as a green and natural reducing agent. The morphology and de-oxidation efficiency of the reduced graphene were characterized and results showed that Lycium barbarum extract can effectively reduce GO into few layered graphene with a high carbon to oxygen ratio (6.5), comparable to that of GO reduced by hydrazine hydrate (6.6). The possible reduction mechanism of GO may be due to the active components existing in Lycium barbarum fruits, which have high binding affinity to the oxygen containing groups to form their corresponding oxides and other by-products. This method avoided the use of any nocuous chemicals, thus facilitating the mass production of graphene and graphene-based bio-materials. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the preparation of reduced graphene by Lycium barbarum extract. - Highlights: • The Lycium barbarum extract was used for the reduction of graphene oxide. • The obtained few layered graphene exhibited high carbon to oxygen ratio. • This approach can be applied in the preparation of graphene-based bio-materials.

  20. Extraction and evaluation of bioactive compounds with antioxidant potential from green arabica coffee extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona PATRICHE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade researches concerning the essential role of coffee in health and disease prevention showed an increased development. In the present study we obtained extracts from three green Arabica coffee varieties which demonstrated a significant antioxidant potential due to the presence in their composition of two bioactive compounds, caffeine and chlorogenic acids. The content and antioxidant activity of bioactive compounds were evaluated by qualitative and quantitative analyses using spectrophotometric and chromatography methods. The chlorogenic acid was found in high concentrations, being followed by gallic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The highest caffeine contents were found in the green coffee extracts of the Supremo–Columbia and Top Quality–Kenya products.

  1. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Avena sativa L. Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Amini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nowadays, nanoparticles bio production, considering their performance in medicine and biological science, is increasing. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles The objectives of this study were the production of silver nanoparticles using Avena sativa L. extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of substrate (silver nitrate (AgNo3 and temperature on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. Methods: In this work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from an extract of Avena sativa L. at different temperatures (30° C, 60° C, 90° C  and AgNo3 concentrations( 1 mM, 2mM, 4mM . The morphology and size of the nanoparticles were determined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. Results: SEM images showed that by increasing temperature nanoparticles size were decreased and by increasing concentrations of AgNo3 the number of nanoparticles was increased. Conclusions: The results indicated that by increasing the reaction temperature, the size of the nanoparticles would decrease. Also by increasing the concentrations of AgNo3, the amount of produced nanoparticles would be increased, but won't have a significant effect on its size. The preparation of nano- structured silver particles using Avena sativa L. extract provides an environmentally friendly option as compared to currently available chemical/ physical methods.

  2. Comparison of Protein Extracts from Various Unicellular Green Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuling, Emma; Wierenga, Peter A; Schrama, Johan W; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-09-13

    Photosynthetic unicellular organisms are considered as promising alternative protein sources. The aim of this study is to understand the extent to which these green sources differ with respect to their gross composition and how these differences affect the final protein isolate. Using mild isolation techniques, proteins were extracted and isolated from four different unicellular sources (Arthrospira (spirulina) maxima, Nannochloropsis gaditana, Tetraselmis impellucida, and Scenedesmus dimorphus). Despite differences in protein contents of the sources (27-62% w/w) and in protein extractability (17-74% w/w), final protein isolates were obtained that had similar protein contents (62-77% w/w) and protein yields (3-9% w/w). Protein solubility as a function of pH was different between the sources and in ionic strength dependency, especially at pH < 4.0. Overall, the characterization and extraction protocol used allows a relatively fast and well-described isolation of purified proteins from novel protein sources.

  3. Online gas chromatography combustion/pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HRGC-C/P-IRMS) of (+/-)-Dihydroactinidiolide from tea ( Camellia sinensis ) and rooibos tea ( Aspalathus linearis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mar Caja, María; Preston, Christina; Menzel, Michael; Kempf, Michael; Schreier, Peter

    2009-07-08

    Online capillary gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry in both the combustion and the pyrolysis modes (HRGC-C/P-IRMS) was employed to perform authentication studies of the flavoring agent (+/-)-dihydroactinidiolide. Thus, the delta(13)C(V-PDB) and delta(2)H(V-SMOW) values of synthetic (ex synthetic beta-ionone and natural beta-carotene) as well as enzymatically (ex synthetic and natural beta-carotene) produced references were studied in comparison with those of the natural substance isolated from black (n = 17) and green teas (n = 6) ( Camellia sinensis ) as well as Rooibos tea ( Aspalathus linearis ) (n = 7). The isotope values determined for both the synthetic and enzymatically produced samples of (+/-)-dihydroactinidiolide reflected the influence of the origin of their educts. Hence, in cases when synthetic educts were used, the delta(13)C(V-PDB) and delta(2)H(V-SMOW) values ranged from -27.0 to -28.4 per thousand and from -28 to -169 per thousand, respectively, whereas the use of natural educts led to ranges from -30.3 to -31.6 per thousand and from -154 to -228 per thousand, respectively. As to the tea samples, delta(13)C(V-PDB) and delta(2)H(V-SMOW) values ranging from -29.0 to -34.1 per thousand and from -153 to -274 per thousand, respectively, were recorded for (+/-)-dihydroactinidiolide from black and green teas, whereas that from Rooibos tea showed (2)H/(1)H ratios ranging from -189 to -210 per thousand as well as slightly enriched values in the (13)C/(12)C ratios ranging from -24.4 to -27.1 per thousand.

  4. Electrosprayed Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) Submicron Particles Loaded by Green Tea Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin; Sriyanti, I.; Edikresnha, D.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal, K.

    2018-05-01

    Electrospraying technique has been successfully used to synthesize composite submicron particles of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and green tea extract (GTE). The precursor solutions were PVP in ethanol (15 wt%) and GTE in ethanol (10 wt%), which were then mixed at varying ratio. The mixed solution then underwent electrospraying process at an applied voltage of 15 kV, a distance of collector to the nozzle at 15 cm, and a flow rate of 3 µL/min. The composite submicron particles of PVP-GTE showed smooth and fine spherical morphology without fibers or beaded fibers. To a certain degree, the increase of GTE content in the PVP-GTE mixed solution decreased the average diameter of PVP-GTE composite particles. Moreover, the analysis of the FTIR spectra confirmed the existing molecular interaction between PVP and GTE in the composite submicron particles as shown by the shift of PVP wavenumber towards GTE, which has typically smaller wavenumber.

  5. Review and perspective on the composition and safety of green tea extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growing body of evidence regarding the putative health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis), including reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, has led to an increase in the consumption of brewed green tea and the formulation of green tea extracts (GTE) into a variety of food and ...

  6. Role of catechins in the antioxidant capacity of an active film containing green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, M; Nerin, C

    2012-10-03

    The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method was used to characterize the antioxidant capacity of natural extracts of green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit. These natural extracts were incorporated into a plastic film layer, which was subsequently subjected to a free radical gas stream in order to determine the antioxidant capacity directly in the active film. The green tea extract (GTE) afforded the strongest antioxidant activity. To identify the active compounds in the extract, concentration of the diverse catechins in samples were determined by HPLC-UV analysis. The results showed that the content of catechins in the GTE is around 77% (w/w), the major components being (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epicatechin. A variation in the concentration profile of catechins was detected during the oxidation process. The chromatographic study demonstrated that (-)-gallocatechin, (-)- epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, and (-)-catechin gallate exhibited the most radical scavenging.

  7. Interaction between green tea extract and 99mTc-pertechnetate on in vivo distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burak Sabuncu; Fazilet Zumrut Biber Muftuler; Ayfer Yurt Kilcar; Betul Cekic; Eser Ucar; Perihan Unak

    2014-01-01

    People drink various types of tea without knowing the side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions. In current study, it is aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea extract in different extraction solvents on the radiolabeling of the blood constituents with 99m Tc and on the biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) in male Wistar Albino rats. The extraction of green tea was performed in different solvents. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with green tea extract in different extraction solvents or saline (0.9 % NaCl) as a control group for 7 days. The radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with SnCl 2 and 99m Tc. According to experimental results, radiolabeling blood components with 99m Tc were not modified in the usage of the different extraction solvents for green tea extraction, but a significant alteration (P 99m TcO 4 was observed after treatment with green tea extract in distilled water. Although there is no considerable effect on radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially with green tea extract in distilled water. The identified change monitored in this study may cause to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or avoid the repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine. (author)

  8. Optimization design and application of composite ultrasonic extraction method for effective constituents of green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A composite ultrasonic process is used to extract five constituent components of green tea, namely caffeine, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin, and chlorogenic acid. The optimal parameters of the extraction process are determined using the robust Taguchi design method. The extracted products are analyzed using gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed ultrasonic technique in extracting the components of interest. Moreover, it is shown that the optimal extraction parameters depend on the particular component. In general, the present findings provide a useful reference for further research on the processing of green tea.

  9. Cationic dyes as extraction and spectrophotometric reagents: extraction of thiocyanate complex of mercury (II) in association with malachite green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, N V; Murthy, T K.S.

    1975-01-01

    An extraction spectrophotometric method for the determination of Hg(II) is described. This is based on the extraction of Hg(CNS)/sub 3//sup -/ complex in association with the cation of malachite green into benzene. The benzene extract has lambda max at 640 mm. Maximal extraction takes place from an aqueous solution of pH 4.5. Although four extractions are needed for quantitative recovery of Hg(II), a single extraction with aqueous organic = 2.5 : 1 is recommended for analysis and the apparent molar absorptivity is 65,000. The interference from a number of anions and cations has also been studied. (auth)

  10. The Effects of Green Tea Extract on Working Memory in Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Fly, A D; Wang, Z; Klaunig, J E

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of green tea extract on working memory in healthy younger (21 - 29 y) and older (50 - 63 y) women. A single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used. A university laboratory. Twenty non-smoking Caucasian women were recruited in the younger (10) and older (10) age group. Subjects received 5.4 g green tea extract (at least 45% epigallocatechin-3-gallate) or placebo (cornstarch) within a 24-hour period. Working memory was measured by reading span and N-back task paradigm. Blood sample (20 mL) was collected and measured for plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) concentration. A 24-hour recall was conducted for each treatment period to ensure similar dietary patterns. Green tea extract significantly improved reading span performance in older women, indicated by higher absolute and partial scores of reading span. No significant changes were observed in the younger group. N-back latencies and accuracies were not significantly different after green tea treatment in either age group. Plasma concentration of MDA and TEAC were not different after green tea extract in either group. Acute supplementation of decaffeinated green tea extract may enhance working memory capacity of women between 50 to 63 years of age. This study provides preliminary evidence that consumption of green tea extract may enhance the cognitive performance in older adults and thus provide potential chemopreventive benefits in this group. The mechanism should be explored in future research.

  11. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Polyamide Packaging Film

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asghar Barzegaran; Maryam Jokar; Majid Javanmard Dakheli

    2014-01-01

    Polyamide 6 has been widely used in food packaging applications and also green tea contains amounts of antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was investigation of green tea effects on properties of polyamide packaging polymer. Polyamide 6 was dissolved in methanol which was saturated with calcium chloride. The active packaging film was produced by incorporation of methanol green tea extracts at levels of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% in polyamide solution by solution casting method. Mechanical and...

  12. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of phenolic antioxidants from green tea using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lan-Sook; Lee, Namhyouck; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Chang-Ho; Hong, Sang Pil; Jeon, Yeo-Won; Kim, Young-Eon

    2013-10-31

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 ° C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio of (EGCg + ECg)/EGC was identified a major factor contributing to the antioxidant activity of green tea extracts. In this study, ultrasonic extraction showed that the ethanol concentration and extraction time used for antioxidant extraction could be remarkably reduced without a decrease in antioxidant activity compared to the conventional extraction conditions.

  13. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Green Tea Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Sook Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 °C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio of (EGCg + ECg/EGC was identified a major factor contributing to the antioxidant activity of green tea extracts. In this study, ultrasonic extraction showed that the ethanol concentration and extraction time used for antioxidant extraction could be remarkably reduced without a decrease in antioxidant activity compared to the conventional extraction conditions.

  14. Green tea extract impairs meat emulsion properties by disturbing protein disulfide cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongberg, Sisse; Terkelsen, Linda de S; Miklos, Rikke; Lund, Marianne N

    2015-02-01

    The dose-dependent effects of green tea extract (100, 500, or 1500ppm) on the textural and oxidative stability of meat emulsions were investigated, and compared to a control meat emulsion without extract. All levels of green tea extract inhibited formation of TBARS as a measure for lipid oxidation. Overall protein thiol oxidation and myosin heavy chain (MHC) cross-linking were inhibited by 100ppm green tea extract without jeopardizing the textural stability, while increasing concentrations of extract resulted in reduced thiol concentration and elevated levels of non-reducible protein modifications. Addition of 1500ppm green tea extract was found to modify MHC as evaluated by SDS-PAGE combining both protein staining and specific thiol staining, indicating that protein modifications generated through reactions of green tea phenolic compounds with protein thiols, disrupted the meat emulsion properties leading to reduced water holding capacity and textural stability. Hence, a low dose of green tea extract preserves both the textural and the oxidative stability of the meat proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Polyamide Packaging Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Barzegaran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyamide 6 has been widely used in food packaging applications and also green tea contains amounts of antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was investigation of green tea effects on properties of polyamide packaging polymer. Polyamide 6 was dissolved in methanol which was saturated with calcium chloride. The active packaging film was produced by incorporation of methanol green tea extracts at levels of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% in polyamide solution by solution casting method. Mechanical and barrier properties of polyamide films were investigated using ASTM standards and antioxidant activity of polyamide films was evaluated using DPPH method. Results indicated that green tea extract increased antioxidant properties and tensile and young modulus of polyamide films. Oxygen and water vapor permeability of films were decreased by incorporation of green tea extract into polyamide matrix. Green tea extract improved barrier and tensile properties of polyamide films, however elongation at break reduced as increasing of green tea extract in polyamide-based films significantly (P<0.05.

  16. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract

    OpenAIRE

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. Methods A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times we...

  17. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Green Tea Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Lan-Sook; Lee, Namhyouck; Kim, Young; Lee, Chang-Ho; Hong, Sang; Jeon, Yeo-Won; Kim, Young-Eon

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 °C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio ...

  18. Greener synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles using green tea extract and their magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karade, V. C.; Waifalkar, P. P.; Dongle, T. D.; Sahoo, Subasa C.; Kollu, P.; Patil, P. S.; Patil, P. B.

    2017-09-01

    The facile green synthesis method has been employed for the synthesis of biocompatible Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using green tea extract. The effective reduction of ferric ions (Fe3+) were done using an aqueous green tea extract where it acts as reducing as well as capping agent. The effect of iron precursor to green tea extract ratio and reaction temperature was studied. The MNPs were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometer. It was observed that the reaction temperature strongly affects the magnetic and structural properties of MNPs. The magnetic measurements study showed that Fe3O4 MNPs are superparamagnetic at 300 K, while at 60 K have ferromagnetic as well as superparamagnetic contributions.

  19. New Approaches for Effective Microwave Assisted Extraction of Caffeine and Catechins from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül SERDAR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop an effective microwave assisted extraction (MAE method for extraction of caffeine and catechins from green tea samples. A series of solvents (water, ethanol:water mixture or citric acid:water mixture were used for extraction of green tea samples (fresh, frozen or dried collected in three collection periods (first, second and third collection periods. Tea samples were extracted using water in a close microwave system under the certain extraction conditions. Extraction was carried out under a controlled 600 W microwave power at 80 oC temperature for 4 min irradiation time. Alternative to water, an ethanol-water mixture (1:1 or a citric acid-water (1:1 mixture was used as extracting solvent under the same conditions. After MAE crude aqueous extract was partitioned first with chloroform to separate caffeine then ethyl acetate for catechins.  Both caffeine and catechin extraction was quite successful with microwave assisted system employing only 4 minutes treatment. The highest caffeine yield was obtained in the second collection period using frozen green tea samples and ethanol-water as extracting solvent. The yield of catechin extracts was between 0.84-3.96% depending on the solvent system used for extraction. Ethanol-water mixture seems to be appropriate for effective extraction in the basis of extract yields. However, HPLC results showed that individual catechin content of each extraction is more important criteria for the evaluation of most effective extraction medium rather than the mass of the extract.  Using citric acid as extracting solvent in MAE seem to be more fruitful providing 100% catechin mixture with the highest EGCG content. 

  20. Extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L.) shows inhibition of blood capillary formation in vitro

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mirshahi, M.; Mirshahi, P.; Negro, S.; Soria, J.; Sreekumar, P.K.; Kotnala, S.; Therwath, A; Chatterji, A

    The extract of the Indian green mussel (Perna viridis L.) was found to inhibit the formation of endothelial cell capillary tube in a concentration dependent manner in vitro. At a concentration of 5 mg/ml of crude extract, there no formation...

  1. Changing oxidation in whey fat concentrate upon addition of green tea extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Marianne; Nielsen, J; Sørensen, J

    2011-01-01

    was measured using a number of different antioxidants: Trolox (TRX), propyl gallate (PG), Grindox 1021 (GRX), green tea extract (GTE) and rosemary extract (RE). The development of the secondary lipid oxidation product hexanal was inhibited by all the tested antioxidants, and GTE was found to be the most...

  2. Comparison of Protein Extracts from Various Unicellular Green Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, Emma; Wierenga, Peter A.; Schrama, Johan W.; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthetic unicellular organisms are considered as promising alternative protein sources. The aim of this study is to understand the extent to which these green sources differ with respect to their gross composition and how these differences affect the final protein isolate. Using mild isolation

  3. Antibacterial activities of the extracts of cyanobacteria and green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In compliance to the recent surveys on algal species and their potentials to produce biologically active compounds, seven algal species belonging to cyanobacteria such as Spirulina platensis, Nostoc linckia, Phormidium autumnale, Tolypothrix distorta and Microcystis aeruginosa and green algae such as Chlorella vulgaris, ...

  4. Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes. Mbata, T. I.1*, Debiao, L. U.2 and Saikia, A.3. 1Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B 5025, Awka, Nigeria. 2Cash Crops Bureau, Zhejianq Provincial Department of Agriculture, Hangzhou, 310020, ...

  5. Seasonal variation in the nitrogen nutrition and carbon assimilation in wild and cultivated Aspalathus linearis (rooibos tea)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lötter, D

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rooibos tea is a unique health enhancing beverage made from a shrub-like bush which grows only in the Cederberg mountains of the Western Cape, South Africa. The area has a semi-arid climate and infertile soils which makes crop production challenging...

  6. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S. P. Jeevan; Prasad, S. Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K.; Kulkarni, Kalyani S.; Ramesh, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n-hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330?kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to...

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Stevia leaves extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguta, Iryna; Stavinskaya, Oksana; Kazakova, Olga; Fesenko, Tetiana; Brychka, Sergey

    2018-02-01

    Three extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) were prepared using different types of raw materials: leaves of plants grown ex situ, leaves of plants grown in vitro, callus culture formed on damaged leaves. Composition of the extracts was studied by means of high-performance liquid chromatography and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry; total phenol content was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau method. Flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were found to be the main groups of phenol antioxidants available in the Stevia leaves, with the amount of these compounds in the extract being dependent on the type of raw material. The reducing properties of phenol compounds identified in the extracts were characterized using quantum chemical method; flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were found to have similar redox parameters. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) colloids were synthesized using three Stevia extracts; AgNPs size distribution were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy. All the extracts revealed significant activity in AgNPs synthesis; the nanoparticles of predominantly spherical shape with the average sizes of 16-25 nm were formed. The reducing properties of the extracts were found to correlate with total phenol content; the activity of extracts from the leaves of plants grown ex situ and from callus culture in Ag+ ions reduction was similar to each other and exceeded the activity of extract from the leaves of plants grown in vitro.

  8. Solvent extraction of Sb(III) with malachite green into chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanbhag, B.S.; Turel, Z.R.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid and selective method for the solvent extraction of Sb(III) using malachite green (C. I. Basic green 4) has been described. Effect of different parameters affecting the extraction coefficient value of Sb(III) such as acidity, time of equilibration, KI concentration, solvents, anions, etc. has been studied. For various elements the separation factor has been evaluated. The stoichiometry of the extracted species has been determined by the method of substoichiometric extraction. The decontamination factor for some elements using substoichiometric quantities of the extracting agent has been evaluated. Radiotracers were employed for the extraction studies. The method elaborated has been employed for the quantitative determination of antimony in normal, benign and cancerous tissues of the human brain. (author)

  9. Gossipium hirsutum L. extract as green corrosion inhibitor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibitive effect of Gossipium hirsutum L. leaves extract on the acid corrosion of aluminum in 1 M HCl solution was studied by weight loss technique. The extract at optimum concentration inhibited the corrosion of aluminum, with about 92% inhibition efficiency and the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing ...

  10. Comparison of Some Extraction Methods for Isolation of Catechins and Caffeine from Turkish Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi DEMİR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective extraction of anticancer and antioxidant principles from Turkish green tea were main purpose of this work. The pre-optimized experimental condition for liquid extraction was employed for comparative appraisal.  Not only extraction methods also nature of the green tea samples (fresh, dried or frozen and quantitative yields related to collection periods were investigated.  After extraction of the green tea with various techniques the extract was partitioned with chloroform to remove caffeine, after that the extract was partitioned with ethyl acetate to obtain catechin mixture. Quantification of individual catechins was carried out by HPLC and analysis results proved that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG was main catechin specie present in all extracts. The results indicate that hot water extraction (at 80 0C provides higher catechin yield when compared to other methods. The highest extract yields were obtained with dried leaves collected in second collection period. The crude catechin mixture contains high amount of EGCG and might be used as raw material for production of plant remedies at industrial scale.

  11. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul; Wisuda Suvitayavat; Vanida Sangalangkarn; Yuko Nawa; Kiyoshi Kikuchi; Koichi Kawahara; Tawee Saiwichai; Somphong Narkpinit; Pratap Singhasivanon; Ikuro Maruyama; Salunya Tancharoen

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE) on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-tre...

  12. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Soil Vapor Extraction & Air Sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, approximately one-quarter of Superfund source control projects have involved soil vapor extraction (SVE) to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sorbed to soil in the unsaturated (vadose) zone.

  13. EFFECTS OF GREEN COFFEE BEAN EXTRACT IN SOME BIOMARKERS OF ADULT BRAZILIAN SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Adriana de Assis JÁCOME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the acute effects of the green coffee extracts consumption in some biomarkers of adult Brazilian subjects. Twenty healthy adult subjects between 18 and 35 years old of different sex and ethnic groups took part in the present study. All participants were submitted a 12 hours overnight fast before experiments. Plasma and serum biochemical parameters were measured in distinct intervals after a breakfast standard ingestion and 0.6 L of green coffee been extract consumption. No statistically differences (Wilcoxon test on serum lipid profi le and plasmatic homocysteine concentration were noted after green coffee beverage intake. Caffeine has been associated with increase of the glycaemia in roasted coffee consumers. In the present study, a signifi cant increase (p= 0.03 in glycaemia was observed thirty minutes after the green coffee beverage ingestion and, then, there was a tendency of glycaemia maintenance. The low amount of free caffeine found in green coffee matrix could explain the quick stabilization of the glycaemia. The ingestion of green coffee beverage also signifi cantly reduced uricaemia (p= 0.03 (Wilcoxon test. It is possible that the polyphenols, present in high amounts in this beverage, could act inhibiting the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Therefore, the consumption of green coffee has to stabilize blood glucose 30 minutes after ingestion of test meal, and reduction of uricaemia.

  14. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Lee, H.J.; Byun, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract

  15. Development of green nanocomposites reinforced by cellulose nanofibers extracted from paper sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hitoshi; Nakagaito, Antonio N.; Kusaka, Kazuya; Muneta, Yuya

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers have been showing much greater potential to enhance the mechanical and physical properties of polymer-based composite materials. The purpose of this study is to extract the cellulose nanofibers from waste bio-resources; such as waste newspaper and paper sludge. The cellulosic raw materials were treated chemically and physically in order to extract individualized cellulose nanofiber. The combination of acid hydrolysis and following mechanical treatment resulted in the extraction of cellulose nanofibers having diameter of about 40 nm. In order to examine the reinforcing effect of the extracted cellulose nanofibers, fully biodegradable green nanocomposites were fabricated by composing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) resin with the extracted cellulose nanofibers, and then the tensile tests were conducted. The results showed that the enhancement in mechanical properties was successfully obtained in the cellulose nanofiber/PVA green nanocomposites.

  16. Evaluation of sample extraction methods for proteomics analysis of green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2016-05-01

    Many protein extraction methods have been developed for plant proteome analysis but information is limited on the optimal protein extraction method from algae species. This study evaluated four protein extraction methods, i.e. direct lysis buffer method, TCA-acetone method, phenol method, and phenol/TCA-acetone method, using green algae Chlorella vulgaris for proteome analysis. The data presented showed that phenol/TCA-acetone method was superior to the other three tested methods with regards to shotgun proteomics. Proteins identified using shotgun proteomics were validated using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) technique. Additionally, SWATH provides protein quantitation information from different methods and protein abundance using different protein extraction methods was evaluated. These results highlight the importance of green algae protein extraction method for subsequent MS analysis and identification. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Effect of Mercury Vapor and the Role of Green Tea Extract on Brain Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhona Afriza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a wellknown toxic metal that is capable to induce free radical-induced oxidative stress. It can cause human disease including brain disorders. Objective: To identify the effect of mercury vapor inhalation on brain cells and the role of green tea extract (Camellia sinensis as antioxidant on the brain cells exposed to mercury. Methods: Fourty-eight male Mus musculus were divided into 8 groups, which were given treatment for 3 and 6 weeks. Group A did not receive any treatment and served as a negative control. Group B was a positive control exposed to Mercury. Group C was exposed to Mercury and treated with 26μg/g green tea extract. Group D was exposed to mercury and treated with 52μg/g green tea extract. All animals in the Group B, C, D were exposed to mercury through inhalation for 4 hours daily. The effect of mercury on the brain cells were examined histopathologically. Results: The numbers of necrotic cells counted in the green tea-treated mice group were significantly lower than those untreated group (p<0,05. Conclusion: Mercury vapor inhalation may cause necrosis on brain cells. Administration of green tea extract as an antioxidant reduced the amount of mercury-induced necrotic brain cells in mice.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.151

  18. Green Synthesis of Barium Sulfate Particles Using Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Long

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological molecules in the extracts of four fruits or vegetables: kiwifruit, oranges, tomato and carrot, were used as templates to synthesize barium sulfate (BaSO4 particles. The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray power diffractometry. The results showed that, leaf-shaped barite BaSO4 crystals with toothed edge were obtained with kiwifruit extracts; thorn spherical barium sulfate crystals with diameter of 2-4 micrometers were produced with tomato extracts; rod-like or quasi-spherical BaSO4 crystals with size of several hundred nanometers to several micrometers were gained with orange extracts; while quasi-spherical BaSO4 nano-crystals were obtained with carrot extracts. The formation mechanism of BaSO4 is also discussed, showing that the proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and organic acids in above four kinds of fruits or vegetables may provide nucleation sites, controlling the growth of BaSO4 crystals with different morphologies.

  19. Extraction photometric determination of uranium (6) with use of malachite green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, Yu.V.; Bagdasarov, K.N.; Shchemeleva, G.G.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the reaction between uranium (6) and malachite green in the presence of sodium benzoate has indicated that, in a weakly acid medium (pH 4.5 to 5.5), the reaction yields a poorly soluble greenish compound which tends to be extracted by a 1-to-1 mixture of benzene and chloroform. The compound comprises uranium, a benzoate and a malachite green in a ratio of 1/3/1. A method has been developed for an extraction-photometric determination of uranium in metallic lead

  20. Extraction photometric determination of uranium (6) with use of malachite green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, Yu V; Bagdasarov, K N; Shchemeleva, G G [Rostovskij-na-Donu Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1975-12-01

    A study of the reaction between uranium (6) and malachite green in the presence of sodium benzoate has indicated that, in a weakly acid medium (pH 4.5 to 5.5), the reaction yields a poorly soluble greenish compound which tends to be extracted by a 1-to-1 mixture of benzene and chloroform. The compound comprises uranium, a benzoate and a malachite green in a ratio of 1/3/1. A method has been developed for an extraction-photometric determination of uranium in metallic lead.

  1. EFFECT OF NATURAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON PORCINE OVARIAN FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kádasi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This report provides information about the impact of chosen natural plant extracts on basic ovarian functions. This article summarizes our results concerning the effect of selected plant extracts on proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion – release of progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and leptin (L on porcine granulosa cells (GC, We analyzed effects of ginkgo (GB, rooibos (RB, flaxseed (FL, green tea polyphenols (GTPP, green tea - epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, resveratrol (RSV and curcumin (CURC (0; 1; 10 and 100 μg.ml-1 on markers of proliferation, apoptosis and secretory activity of porcine ovarian granulosa cells by using immunocytochemistry and EIA. It was demonstrated, that all these natural plants and plant molecules inhibited the accumulation of proliferation-related peptide (PCNA and apoptosis-associated peptide (Bax in cultured. Furthermore, it was observed that natural plant extracts altered progesterone, testosterone and leptin release in porcine ovarian cells. It is concluded, that GB, RB, FL, RSV, CURC, GTPP and EGCG can directly affect ovarian cells and therefore they could potentially influence ovarian functions.

  2. Green synthesis approach: extraction of chitosan from fungus mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Kaur, Surinder; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

    2013-12-01

    Chitosan, copolymer of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine is mainly derived from chitin, which is present in cell walls of crustaceans and some other microorganisms, such as fungi. Chitosan is emerging as an important biopolymer having a broad range of applications in different fields. On a commercial scale, chitosan is mainly obtained from crustacean shells rather than from the fungal sources. The methods used for extraction of chitosan are laden with many disadvantages. Alternative options of producing chitosan from fungal biomass exist, in fact with superior physico-chemical properties. Researchers around the globe are attempting to commercialize chitosan production and extraction from fungal sources. Chitosan extracted from fungal sources has the potential to completely replace crustacean-derived chitosan. In this context, the present review discusses the potential of fungal biomass resulting from various biotechnological industries or grown on negative/low cost agricultural and industrial wastes and their by-products as an inexpensive source of chitosan. Biologically derived fungal chitosan offers promising advantages over the chitosan obtained from crustacean shells with respect to different physico-chemical attributes. The different aspects of fungal chitosan extraction methods and various parameters having an effect on the yield of chitosan are discussed in detail. This review also deals with essential attributes of chitosan for high value-added applications in different fields.

  3. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zahedifar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, control animals were located under natural condition, sham -exposed animals were prepared by experimental condition without cell phone waves radiation. Experimental 1 group that irradiated at cell phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and experimental 2 groups were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days and experimental 3 group that irradiated at active mobile phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days. After treatment period micronucleus test was evaluated in polychromatic erythrocytes on bone marrow. The quantitative data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test with using of SPSS-13 software at the level of p<0.05.Results: Based on this study, treatment with extracts of green tea decreased micronucleus frequency in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of Balb/C mouse that irradiated at cell phone microwave (0.92±0.129, (p<0.001.Conclusion: Cell phone microwaves (940 MHz increased micronucleus on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of male Balb/C mouse, but green tea had inhibitory effect and it decreased the average number of micronucleus.

  4. Microwave-assisted extraction of green coffee oil and quantification of diterpenes by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukui, A; Santos Júnior, H M; Oigman, S S; de Souza, R O M A; Bizzo, H R; Rezende, C M

    2014-12-01

    The microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of 13 different green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.) was compared to Soxhlet extraction for oil obtention. The full factorial design applied to the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), related to time and temperature parameters, allowed to develop a powerful fast and smooth methodology (10 min at 45°C) compared to a 4h Soxhlet extraction. The quantification of cafestol and kahweol diterpenes present in the coffee oil was monitored by HPLC/UV and showed satisfactory linearity (R(2)=0.9979), precision (CV 3.7%), recovery (yield calculated on the diterpenes content for sample AT1 (Arabica green coffee) showed a six times higher value compared to the traditional Soxhlet method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme- iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samman, S.; Sandstrøm, B.; Toft, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    the effect of phenolic-rich extracts obtained from green tea or rosemary on nonheme-iron absorption. Design: Young women aged 19-39 y consumed test meals on 4 separate occasions. The meals were identical except for the absence (meal A) or presence (meal B) of a phenolic-rich extract from green tea (study 1......-body retention of 59Fe and the ratio of Fe-55 to 59Fe activity in blood samples. Results: The presence of the phenolic-rich extracts resulted in decreased nonheme-iron absorption. Mean (+/-SD) iron absorption decreased from 12.1 +/- 4.5% to 8.9 +/- 5.2% (P tea extract and from 7...

  6. A review on green trend for oil extraction using subcritical water technology and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoez, Weal; Ashour, Eman; Naguib, Shahenaz M

    2015-01-01

    It became a global agenda to develop clean alternative fuels which were domestically available, environmentally acceptable and technically feasible. Thus, biodiesel was destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. Utilization of the non edible vegetable oils as raw materials for biodiesel production had been handled frequently for the past few years. The oil content of these seeds could be extracted by different oil extraction methods, such as mechanical extraction, solvent extraction and by subcritical water extraction technology SWT. Among them, SWT represents a new promising green extraction method. Therefore this review covered the current used non edible oil seeds for biodiesel production as well as giving a sharp focus on the efficiency of using the SWT as a promising extraction method. In addition the advantages and the disadvantages of the different biodiesel production techniques would be covered.

  7. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds.

  8. Green Synthesis of Robust, Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticles Using Garlic Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.V.; Kerscher, P.; Brown, R.M.; Morella, J.D.; Kitchens, C.L.; McAllister, W.; Dean, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper details a facile approach for the synthesis of stable and monodisperse silver nanoparticles performed at ambient/low temperature, where Allium sativum (garlic) extract functions as the silver salt reducing agent during nanoparticle synthesis as well as the post synthesis stabilizing ligands. Varying the synthesis conditions provides control of particle size, size-distribution, and kinetics of particle formation. Infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray chemical analysis, and high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that allicin and other carbohydrates in the garlic extract are the primary nanoparticle stabilizing moieties. The synthesized silver nanoparticles also demonstrate potential for biomedical applications, owing to (1) enhanced stability in biological media, (2) resistance to oxidation by the addition of H 2 O 2 , (3) ease and scalability of synthesis, and (4) lack of harsh chemicals required for synthesis. Cytotoxicity assays indicated no decrease in cellular proliferation for vascular smooth muscle cells and 3T3 fibroblasts at a concentration of 25 μg/mL, confirming that silver nanoparticles synthesized with garlic extract are potential candidates for future experimentation and implementation in the biomedical field.

  9. In vitro antibacterial activity of alkaloid extracts from green, red and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... The current study presents the antibacterial effect of the alkaloid extracts of some green, red and brown algae were collected from western coast of Libya, against, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, ...

  10. Influence of green solvent extraction on carotenoid yield from shrimp (Pandalus borealis) processing waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Fretté, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sunflower oil (SF) and methyl ester of sunflower oil (ME-SF) were introduced as two green solvents for extracting astaxanthin (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The effects of temperature (25, 45, 70 °C), solvent to waste ratio (3, 6, 9), waste particle size (0.6 and 2.5 mm...

  11. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER AND PALLADIUM NANOPARTICLES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE USING COFFEE AND TEA EXTRACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extremely simple green approach that generates bulk quantities of nanocrystals of noble metals such as silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) using coffee and tea extract at room temperature is described. The single-pot method uses no surfactant, capping agent, and/or template. The ob...

  12. A fast, simple and green method for the extraction of carbamate pesticides from rice by microwave assisted steam extraction coupled with solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weitao; Zhang, Yiqun; Li, Guijie; Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Qi; He, Dong; Zhao, Chun; Ding, Lan

    2014-01-15

    This paper presented a fast, simple and green sample pretreatment method for the extraction of 8 carbamate pesticides in rice. The carbamate pesticides were extracted by microwave assisted water steam extraction method, and the extract obtained was immediately applied on a C18 solid phase extraction cartridge for clean-up and concentration. The eluate containing target compounds was finally analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimised. The limits of detection ranging from 1.1 to 4.2ngg(-1) were obtained. The recoveries of 8 carbamate pesticides ranged from 66% to 117% at three spiked levels, and the inter- and intra-day relative standard deviation values were less than 9.1%. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method cost less extraction time and organic solvent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on the extraction yield, antioxidant, and antityrosinase activities of pistachio green hull extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Ali; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory of non-irradiated and irradiated pistachio green hull (PGH) extracts were investigated. After irradiation of PGH by different doses of gamma ray (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy), their phenolic compounds were extracted by water. Antioxidant activities of extracts were examined by DPPH• and FRAP methods. The results showed that irradiation not only do not have negative effects on antioxidant activity but also it can increase the amount of total phenolic compounds of water extract in comparison with non-irradiated sample. Water extract of irradiated PGH at the dose of 30 kGy, showed the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH° test with EC50 equal to 289.0 ± 1.2 μg/ml. Irradiated (30 kGy) and non-irradiated water extracts had the highest antityrosinase activities with IC50 of 10.8 ± 1.1 and 11.9 ± 1.2 μg phenolic/ml, respectively. In addition, it was found that the water extract of irradiated PGH can prevent enzymatic browning in sliced raw potatoes. According to the antityrosinase potential of PGH extract, it may be suggested as an antibrowning agent in some foodstuffs or cosmetic products.

  14. The Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effect of Grape Seed and Green Tea Extracts on Durability of Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Golvardzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study tried to investigate the antioxidant and anti-bacterial effects of green tea and grape seed extract (with a volume of 2% on durability of Tilapia packed inpolyethylene bags, which were kept in cool temperature of 4 ± 1 °C. Methods: Prepared fish were divided into 3 batches: 2 batches were treated by dipping for 30 min in ethanolic of green tea extract (2% v/v and grape seed (2% v/v, respectively, while the third batch was dipped in distilled water as a control sample. The control and treated fish samples were analyzed for microbiological such as total volatile count and psychrotrophic count, and chemical such as thiobarbituric acid (TBA, and free fatty acid (FFA values. The sensory characteristic was over a period of 20 days. Results: The results indicated that the two extracts' treatments delayed significantly (P < 0.05. Lipid oxidation and process of spoilage in comparison with the psychrotrophic bacteria and total viable count control also remained lower than the proposed acceptable limit (7 log CFU/g. According to sensory, chemical, and microbiological analyses results, the treatment of grape seed extract had high quality and enhanced the beneficial effects on sensory characteristics in comparison with other treatments. Conclusions: the present study showed that the grape seed extract and green tea were very effective in extending the shelf life of Tilapia during refrigerated storage.

  15. Solvent extraction of W(VI) with malachite green into nitrobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, V.B.; Turel, Z.R.

    1995-01-01

    A rapid and selective method has been developed for the extraction of W(VI) with malachite green into nitrobenzene. The effect of various parameters on the extraction coefficient value such as effect of pH, time of equilibration, effect of various cations and anions have been evaluated. The stoichiometry of metal to reagent determined by the method of substoichiometric extraction was found to be 1:1. It was further supported by the slope ratio method. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Solvent extraction of W(VI) with malachite green into nitrobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, V B; Turel, Z R [The Institute of Science, Bombay (India). Nuclear Chemistry Division

    1995-04-01

    A rapid and selective method has been developed for the extraction of W(VI) with malachite green into nitrobenzene. The effect of various parameters on the extraction coefficient value such as effect of pH, time of equilibration, effect of various cations and anions have been evaluated. The stoichiometry of metal to reagent determined by the method of substoichiometric extraction was found to be 1:1. It was further supported by the slope ratio method. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  17. Process design and economic evaluation of green extraction methods for recovery of astaxanthin from shrimp waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2017-01-01

    (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of commercial use of the green solvents under plausible process conditions is compared to extraction with a mixture of hexane: isopropanol (Hex:IPA). The process flowsheets describing these processes were modelled by means of SuperPro Designer...... processes with SF or the methyl ester of SF (ME-SF) was 2.5 and 153 ppm with a production cost of 0.06 and 0.16 $/mg of ASX, respectively. In addition, shrimp feed production was considered as a feasible application of the low concentration ASX obtained by SF extraction. A combination of ASX extracted...... with SF and synthetic ASX yielded a shrimp feed production cost comparable to the current market price. The calculated feed price based on the ASX production cost of the other green processes, ME-SF and SCFE, resulted in a significantly higher production cost....

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of boron by solvent extraction with 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyric acid and malachite green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shigeya; Uchikawa, Sumio

    1984-01-01

    A very simple and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of boron was developed. Boron was found to react with 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyric acid in weak acidic aqueous solution at room temperature to form a complex anion which can be extracted into chlorobenzene with malachite green in a single extraction; boron is determined indirectly by measuring the absorbance of malachite green in the extract at 629 nm. The calibration graph is linear over the range (7.50 x 10 -7 - 2.00 x 10 -5 ) mol dm -3 boron; the apparent molar absorptivity is 6.50 x 10 4 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1 . The method is applied to the determination of micro amounts of boron in natural waters with satisfactory results. (author)

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of boron by solvent extraction with 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyric acid and malachite green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shigeya; Uchikawa, Sumio [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1984-03-01

    A very simple and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of boron was developed. Boron was found to react with 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyric acid in weak acidic aqueous solution at room temperature to form a complex anion which can be extracted into chlorobenzene with malachite green in a single extraction; boron is determined indirectly by measuring the absorbance of malachite green in the extract at 629 nm. The calibration graph is linear over the range (7.50 x 10/sup -7/ - 2.00 x 10/sup -5/) mol dm/sup -3/ boron; the apparent molar absorptivity is 6.50 x 10/sup 4/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/. The method is applied to the determination of micro amounts of boron in natural waters with satisfactory results.

  20. Portable microwave assisted extraction: An original concept for green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; de la Guardia, Miguel; Chemat, Farid

    2013-11-08

    This paper describes a portable microwave assisted extraction apparatus (PMAE) for extraction of bioactive compounds especially essential oils and aromas directly in a crop or in a forest. The developed procedure, based on the concept of green analytical chemistry, is appropriate to obtain direct in-field information about the level of essential oils in natural samples and to illustrate green chemical lesson and research. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for the extraction of essential oil of rosemary directly in a crop and allows obtaining a quantitative information on the content of essential oil, which was similar to that obtained by conventional methods in the laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and characterization of a green procedure for apigenin extraction from Scutellaria barbata D. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Chiao; Wei, Ming-Chi

    2018-06-30

    This study compared the use of ultrasound-assisted supercritical CO 2 (USC-CO 2 ) extraction to obtain apigenin-rich extracts from Scutellaria barbata D. Don with that of conventional supercritical CO 2 (SC-CO 2 ) extraction and heat-reflux extraction (HRE), conducted in parallel. This green procedure yielded 20.1% and 31.6% more apigenin than conventional SC-CO 2 extraction and HRE, respectively. Moreover, the extraction time required by the USC-CO 2 procedure, which used milder conditions, was approximately 1.9 times and 2.4 times shorter than that required by conventional SC-CO 2 extraction and HRE, respectively. Furthermore, the theoretical solubility of apigenin in the supercritical fluid system was obtained from the USC-CO 2 dynamic extraction curves and was in good agreement with the calculated values for the three empirical density-based models. The second-order kinetics model was further applied to evaluate the kinetics of USC-CO 2 extraction. The results demonstrated that the selected model allowed the evaluation of the extraction rate and extent of USC-CO 2 extraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Conventional and accelerated-solvent extractions of green tea (camellia sinensis) for metabolomics-based chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Joshua J; Wallace, Emily D; Graf, Tyler N; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B

    2017-10-25

    Metabolomics has emerged as an important analytical technique for multiple applications. The value of information obtained from metabolomics analysis depends on the degree to which the entire metabolome is present and the reliability of sample treatment to ensure reproducibility across the study. The purpose of this study was to compare methods of preparing complex botanical extract samples prior to metabolomics profiling. Two extraction methodologies, accelerated solvent extraction and a conventional solvent maceration, were compared using commercial green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae)] products as a test case. The accelerated solvent protocol was first evaluated to ascertain critical factors influencing extraction using a D-optimal experimental design study. The accelerated solvent and conventional extraction methods yielded similar metabolite profiles for the green tea samples studied. The accelerated solvent extraction yielded higher total amounts of extracted catechins, was more reproducible, and required less active bench time to prepare the samples. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of accelerated solvent as an efficient methodology for metabolomics studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Extraction and Antibacterial Properties of Thyme Leaf Extracts: Authentic Practice of Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Sean C.; Pande, Prithvi; Lin, Yingxin; Rivera, Ernesto J.; Paw U, Latisha; Smallwood, Luisa M.; Kerstiens, Geri A.; Armstrong, Laura B.; Robak, MaryAnn T.; Baranger, Anne M.; Douskey, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    In this undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment, students quantitatively assess the antibacterial activity of essential oils found in thyme leaves ("Thymus vulgaris") in an authentic, research-like environment. This multi-week experiment aims to instill green chemistry principles as intrinsic to chemical problem solving. Students…

  4. Green Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Sterculia nobilis Fruit Waste and Analysis of Phenolic Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-Jiao Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The waste of Sterculia nobilis fruit was massively produced during food processing, which contains lots of natural antioxidants. In this study, antioxidants in the Sterculia nobilis fruit waste were extracted using the green microwave-assisted extraction (MAE technique. The effects of five independent variables (ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, temperature, and microwave power on extraction efficiency were explored, and three major factors (ethanol concentration, extraction time, and temperature showing great influences were chosen to study their interactions by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were as follows: 40.96% ethanol concentration, 30 mL/g solvent/material ratio, 37.37 min extraction time at 66.76 °C, and 700 W microwave power. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value obtained in optimal conditions was in agreement with the predicted value. Besides, MAE improved the extraction efficiency compared with maceration and Soxhlet extraction methods. Additionally, the phenolic profile in the extract was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS, and eight kinds of phenolic compounds were identified and quantified, including epicatechin, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, and p-hydroxycinnamic acid. This study could contribute to the value-added utilization of the waste from Sterculia nobilis fruit, and the extract could be developed as food additive or functional food.

  5. Ginger extract as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidrusli, A.; Suryanto; Mahmood, M.

    2018-01-01

    Ginger extract as corrosion inhibitor from natural resources was studied to prevent corrosion of mild steel in acid media. Ginger rhizome was extracted to produce green corrosion inhibitor (G-1) while ginger powder bought at supermarket was also extract to form green corrosion inhibitor (G-2). Effectiveness of inhibitor in preventing corrosion process of mild steel was studied in 1.0 M of hydrochloric acid. The experiment of weight loss method and polarization technique were conducted to measure corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency of mild steel in solution containing 1.0 M of hydrochloric acid with various concentration of inhibitor at room temperature. The results showed that, the rate of corrosion dropped from 8.09 mmpy in solution containing no inhibitor to 0.72 mmpy in solution containing 150g/l inhibitor while inhibition efficiency up to 91% was obtained. The polarization curve in polarization experiments shows that the inhibition efficiency is 86% with high concentration of inhibitor. The adsorption of ginger extract on the surface of mild steel was observed by using optical microscope and the characterization analysis was done by using pH measurement method. When high concentration of green inhibitor in the acid solution is used, the pH at the surface of steel is increasing.

  6. Artificial neural network modeling and optimization of ultrahigh pressure extraction of green tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jun; Xue, Yujing; Xu, Yinxiang; Shen, Yuhong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the ultrahigh pressure extraction of green tea polyphenols was modeled and optimized by a three-layer artificial neural network. A feed-forward neural network trained with an error back-propagation algorithm was used to evaluate the effects of pressure, liquid/solid ratio and ethanol concentration on the total phenolic content of green tea extracts. The neural network coupled with genetic algorithms was also used to optimize the conditions needed to obtain the highest yield of tea polyphenols. The obtained optimal architecture of artificial neural network model involved a feed-forward neural network with three input neurons, one hidden layer with eight neurons and one output layer including single neuron. The trained network gave the minimum value in the MSE of 0.03 and the maximum value in the R(2) of 0.9571, which implied a good agreement between the predicted value and the actual value, and confirmed a good generalization of the network. Based on the combination of neural network and genetic algorithms, the optimum extraction conditions for the highest yield of green tea polyphenols were determined as follows: 498.8 MPa for pressure, 20.8 mL/g for liquid/solid ratio and 53.6% for ethanol concentration. The total phenolic content of the actual measurement under the optimum predicated extraction conditions was 582.4 ± 0.63 mg/g DW, which was well matched with the predicted value (597.2mg/g DW). This suggests that the artificial neural network model described in this work is an efficient quantitative tool to predict the extraction efficiency of green tea polyphenols. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A single-step method for rapid extraction of total lipids from green microalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Axelsson

    Full Text Available Microalgae produce a wide range of lipid compounds of potential commercial interest. Total lipid extraction performed by conventional extraction methods, relying on the chloroform-methanol solvent system are too laborious and time consuming for screening large numbers of samples. In this study, three previous extraction methods devised by Folch et al. (1957, Bligh and Dyer (1959 and Selstam and Öquist (1985 were compared and a faster single-step procedure was developed for extraction of total lipids from green microalgae. In the single-step procedure, 8 ml of a 2∶1 chloroform-methanol (v/v mixture was added to fresh or frozen microalgal paste or pulverized dry algal biomass contained in a glass centrifuge tube. The biomass was manually suspended by vigorously shaking the tube for a few seconds and 2 ml of a 0.73% NaCl water solution was added. Phase separation was facilitated by 2 min of centrifugation at 350 g and the lower phase was recovered for analysis. An uncharacterized microalgal polyculture and the green microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus, Selenastrum minutum, and Chlorella protothecoides were subjected to the different extraction methods and various techniques of biomass homogenization. The less labour intensive single-step procedure presented here allowed simultaneous recovery of total lipid extracts from multiple samples of green microalgae with quantitative yields and fatty acid profiles comparable to those of the previous methods. While the single-step procedure is highly correlated in lipid extractability (r² = 0.985 to the previous method of Folch et al. (1957, it allowed at least five times higher sample throughput.

  8. ESR detection of free radicals in polyphenolic extracts from wine grapes, olives and green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R.; Romani, A.; Mulinacci, N.; Vincieri, F.F.; Hunter, C.R.; Hewitt, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Polyphenols are widespread in vegetables and fruits and they play an important role in human diet and health: these compounds act mainly as antioxidants and radical scavengers. In this work we have detected free radicals in the following natural polyphenols: Endotelon, an anthocyanic grapeskin extract; malvidin 3,5-O-diglucosides (malvin); oleuropein, an olive polyphenol; a commercial green tea extract, and pure epigallocatechingallate EGCG. The investigation was performed using a Varian E-12 ESR Spectrometer (∼9.1 GHz) at room temperature. All except the green tea extract gave single unstructured lines of ∼ 10 gauss linewidth. The tea extract signal showed 3 lines, one ∼ 20 gauss wide, one ∼ 10 gauss wide, and one ∼ 2-3 gauss wide. Saturation behaviour of these lines at room and liquid N 2 temperature showed them to be from different radicals About 50% of the extract is represented by epigallocatechingallate (EGCG). Using the pure sample EGCG it was possible to assign the appropriate radical, which corresponded with the broadest and strongest 'single' signal (∼20g wide). The presence of the free radicals in the solid extracts shows that the appropriate molecules can act as radical scavengers by forming stable radicals

  9. Alternative oil extraction methods from Echium plantagineum L. seeds using advanced techniques and green solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J

    2018-04-01

    The edible oil processing industry involves large losses of organic solvent into the atmosphere and long extraction times. In this work, fast and environmentally friendly alternatives for the production of echium oil using green solvents are proposed. Advanced extraction techniques such as Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE), Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) were evaluated to efficiently extract omega-3 rich oil from Echium plantagineum seeds. Extractions were performed with ethyl acetate, ethanol, water and ethanol:water to develop a hexane-free processing method. Optimal PLE conditions with ethanol at 150 °C during 10 min produced a very similar oil yield (31.2%) to Soxhlet using hexane for 8 h (31.3%). UAE optimized method with ethanol at mild conditions (55 °C) produced a high oil yield (29.1%). Consequently, advanced extraction techniques showed good lipid yields and furthermore, the produced echium oil had the same omega-3 fatty acid composition than traditionally extracted oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from seed extract of Brassica nigra and its antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAKSHA PANDIT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pandit R. 2015. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from seed extract of Brassica nigra and its antibacterial activity. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 15-19. We report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of Brassica nigra. UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peak at 432 nm which indicated the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles Tracking and Analysis (NTA was used to determine the size of synthesized silver nanoparticles. Zeta potential analysis was carried out to study the stability of nanoparticles while FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of proteins as capping agents that provided stability to nanoparticles in colloid. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The activity of Vancomycin was significantly increased in combination with silver nanoparticles showing synergistic activity against all bacteria while the maximum activity was noted against P. acnes.

  11. Extraction-absorptiometric determination of copper by malachite green in natural and waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arstamyan, Zh.M.; Mangasaryan, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    In interaction of Cu anionic complex with three phenylmethane basic dye-malachite green has been studied. The colored ionic associate could be extracted by benzene in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution. The method is based on the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) with ascorbic acid.The calibration graph obeyed Beer's law over the range 0,125-10,0 m kg/ml copper. The apparent molar absorptivity of the extract was 8,7·10 4± 500 l mol - 1 c m 1 . The molar ratio between Cu(I) chloride complex and cation of malachite green in ionic associate has been determined by method Asmuse which is (1:1). The influence of foreign ions on the determination of copper has been studied. Methods was applied for determination of cooper in natural and waste waters

  12. A facile and green preparation of reduced graphene oxide using Eucalyptus leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyang; Zhuang, Zechao; Jin, Xiaoying; Chen, Zuliang

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a green and facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (GO) by Eucalyptus leaf extract (EL-RGO) was investigated, which was characterized with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TG). Eucalyptus leaf extract also play both reducing and capping stabilizing agents prepared EL-RGO as shown a good stability and electrochemical properties. This approach could provide an alternative method to prepare EL-RGO in large-scale production. Moreover, the good electrochemical property and biocompatibility can be used in various applications. In addition, the merit of this study is that both the oxidized products and the reducing agents are environmental friendly by green reduction.

  13. Effect of Green Tea Extract on the Treatment of Dentin Erosion: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mirkarimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of green tea on dentin erosion.Materials and Methods: Twelve extracted sound human premolars were immersed in Coca Cola with a pH of 2.8 for 5 minutes. The surface microhardness was measured with a Knoop diamond under a load of 50gr/10s. The teeth were immersed in green tea (Camellia sinensis solution for one minute. The microhardness values were measured again and compared with pretreatment values by the Wilcoxon test. Three eroded teeth, which were treated with green tea, were evaluated under scanning electron microscope.Results: The mean ± SD of microhardness values before and after immersion in green tea were 46.5±2.79 and 54.5±4.4, respectively with statistically significant differences between the two measurements (P<0.01. In SEM evaluation there was an improvement in eroded dentin appearance and there were deposits on the dentin surface.Conclusion: Green tea (Camellia sinensis increased the microhardness of eroded dentin and improved the eroded texture.

  14. A novel 'green' synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (SNP) using Dillenia indica fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susmita; Saikia, Jyoti P; Buragohain, Alak K

    2013-02-01

    In the present research we have defined a novel green method of silver nanoparticles synthesis using Dillenia indica fruit extract. D. indica is an edible fruit widely distributed in the foothills of Himalayas and known for its antioxidant and further predicted for cancer preventive potency. The maximum absorbance of the colloidal silver nanoparticle solution was observed at 421 nm when examined with UV-vis spectrophotometer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times were determined together with the dissolution profiles in compendial and biorelevant media. All formulations disintegrated within 30 min, meeting the USP criteria for botanical formulations. An immediate release dissolution profile was achieved for gelatin capsules in all media but not for the specified HPMC formulations. Dissolution release was especially impaired for HPMCgell at pH 1.2 and for both HPMC formulations in FeSSIF media suggesting the potential for food interactions. The delayed release from studied HPMC capsule materials is likely attributed to an interaction between the catechins, the major constituents of the green tea extract, and the capsule shell material. An assessment of in vitro dissolution is recommended prior to the release of a dietary supplement or clinical trial investigational product to ensure efficacy.

  16. Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthin Audomkasok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 106 infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment.

  17. Comparison of reduced sugar high quality chocolates sweetened with stevioside and crude stevia 'green' extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Frati, Alessandra; Ninfali, Paolino; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Morini, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The demand for zero and reduced-sugar food products containing cocoa is expanding continuously. The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing high-quality chocolate sweetened with a crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) prepared by a green microwave-assisted water-steam extraction procedure. Seven approximately isosweet chocolate formulations were developed, mixing cocoa paste, sucrose, commercial stevioside, crude green extract and maltitol in different proportions. All samples were analyzed for the determination of polyphenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and sensory acceptability. The use of a crude stevia extract allowed low-sugar, high-quality chocolates to be obtained that were also acceptable by consumers and had a significant increased antioxidant activity. Moreover, consumers' segmentation revealed a cluster of consumers showing the same overall liking for the sample with 50% sucrose replaced by the stevia crude extract as that obtained with the commercial stevioside and the control sample (without sucrose replacement). The results provide information that can contribute to promoting the development of sweet food products, with advantages in terms of an improved nutritional value (reduced sugar content and increased antioxidant activity) and a reduced impact of the production process on the environment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Antimicrobial potential of green synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles from Olea europaea leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Nazar, Mudassar; Naz, Sania; Hussain, Talib; Jabeen, Nyla; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Abbas, Fazal; Jan, Tariq

    This article reports the green fabrication of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) using Olea europaea leaf extract and their applications as effective antimicrobial agents. O. europaea leaf extract functions as a chelating agent for reduction of cerium nitrate. The resulting CeO 2 NPs exhibit pure single-face cubic structure, which is examined by X-ray diffraction, with a uniform spherical shape and a mean size 24 nm observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirms the characteristic absorption peak of CeO 2 NPs at 315 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflects stretching frequencies at 459 cm -1 , showing utilization of natural components for the production of NPs. Thermal gravimetric analysis predicts the successful capping of CeO 2 NPs by bioactive molecules present in the plant extract. The antimicrobial studies show significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application. Furthermore, reduction of cerium salt by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  19. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A strategy for the protein purification with a deep eutectic solvent(DES)-based aqueous two-phase system. • Choline chloride-glycerin DES was selected as the extraction solvent. • Bovine serum albumin and trypsin were used as the analytes. • Aggregation phenomenon was detected in the mechanism research. - Abstract: As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n = 3), 1.6057% (n = 3) and 1.6132% (n = 3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV–vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES–protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins

  20. Green Extraction of Antioxidants from Different Varieties of Red Grape Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Otero-Pareja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol.

  1. Green extraction of antioxidants from different varieties of red grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Pareja, María José; Casas, Lourdes; Fernández-Ponce, María Teresa; Mantell, Casimiro; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J

    2015-05-26

    The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol.

  2. Antimicrobial potential of green synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles from Olea europaea leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqbool Q

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Qaisar Maqbool,1 Mudassar Nazar,1 Sania Naz,2 Talib Hussain,3 Nyla Jabeen,4 Rizwan Kausar,5 Sadaf Anwaar,4 Fazal Abbas,6,7 Tariq Jan6 1Department of Biotechnology, Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology (NINVAST, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Lab., International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 5Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan; 6Department of Physics, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 7Interdisciplinary Research Organization, University of Chakwal (UOC, Chakwal, Pakistan Abstract: This article reports the green fabrication of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs using Olea europaea leaf extract and their applications as effective antimicrobial agents. O. europaea leaf extract functions as a chelating agent for reduction of cerium nitrate. The resulting CeO2 NPs exhibit pure single-face cubic structure, which is examined by X-ray diffraction, with a uniform spherical shape and a mean size 24 nm observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirms the characteristic absorption peak of CeO2 NPs at 315 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflects stretching frequencies at 459 cm-1, showing utilization of natural components for the production of NPs. Thermal gravimetric analysis predicts the successful capping of CeO2 NPs by bioactive molecules present in the plant extract. The antimicrobial studies show significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application. Furthermore, reduction of cerium salt by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over

  3. Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

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    Fang, Xiaowei; Yang, Shuiping; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Xinglei; Zhou, Zhiquan; Zhao, Zhanfeng

    2016-08-11

    Exposure to malachite green (MG) may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been extended to the trace detection of MG within lake water and aquiculture water, due to the intensive use of MG as a biocide in fisheries. This method has the advantage of obviating offline liquid-liquid extraction or tedious matrix separation prior to the measurement of malachite green in native aqueous medium. The experimental results indicate that the extrapolated detection limit for MG was ~3.8 μg·L(-1) (S/N = 3) in lake water samples and ~0.5 μg·L(-1) in ultrapure water under optimized experimental conditions. The signal intensity of MG showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10-1000 μg·L(-1). Measurement of practical water samples fortified with MG at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg·L(-1) gave a good validation of the established calibration curve. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) of malachite green in lake water and Carassius carassius fish farm effluent water were 115% (6.64% RSD), 85.4% (9.17% RSD) and 96.0% (7.44% RSD), respectively. Overall, the established EESI-MS/MS method has been demonstrated suitable for sensitive and rapid (malachite green in various aqueous media, indicating its potential for online real-time monitoring of real life samples.

  4. High-dimensional nested analysis of variance to assess the effect of production season, quality grade and steam pasteurization on the phenolic composition of fermented rooibos herbal tea.

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    Stanimirova, I; Kazura, M; de Beer, D; Joubert, E; Schulze, A E; Beelders, T; de Villiers, A; Walczak, B

    2013-10-15

    A nested analysis of variance combined with simultaneous component analysis, ASCA, was proposed to model high-dimensional chromatographic data. The data were obtained from an experiment designed to investigate the effect of production season, quality grade and post-production processing (steam pasteurization) on the phenolic content of the infusion of the popular herbal tea, rooibos, at 'cup-of-tea' strength. Specifically, a four-way analysis of variance where the experimental design involves nesting in two of the three crossed factors was considered. For the purpose of the study, batches of fermented rooibos plant material were sampled from each of four quality grades during three production seasons (2009, 2010 and 2011) and a sub-sample of each batch was steam-pasteurized. The phenolic content of each rooibos infusion was characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD). In contrast to previous studies, the complete HPLC-DAD signals were used in the chemometric analysis in order to take into account the entire phenolic profile. All factors had a significant effect on the phenolic content of a 'cup-of-tea' strength rooibos infusion. In particular, infusions prepared from the grade A (highest quality) samples contained a higher content of almost all phenolic compounds than the lower quality plant material. The variations of the content of isoorientin and orientin in the different quality grade infusions over production seasons are larger than the variations in the content of aspalathin and quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Ferulic acid can be used as an indicator of the quality of rooibos tea as its content generally decreases with increasing tea quality. Steam pasteurization decreased the content of the majority of phenolic compounds in a 'cup-of-tea' strength rooibos infusion. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Plant Extract Synthesized PLA Nanoparticles for Controlled and Sustained Release of Quercetin: A Green Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has been extensively carried out by using plant extracts (PEs) which have property of stabilizers/ emulsifiers. To our knowledge, there is no comprehensive study on applying a green approach using PEs for fabrication of biodegradable PLA NPs. Conventional methods rely on molecules like polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, D-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol 1000) succinate as stabilizers/emulsifiers for the synthesis of such biodegradable NPs which are known to be toxic. So, there is urgent need to look for stabilizers which are biogenic and non-toxic. The present study investigated use of PEs as stabilizers/emulsifiers for the fabrication of stable PLA NPs. Synthesized PLA NPs through this green process were explored for controlled release of the well known antioxidant molecule quercetin. Methodology/Principal Findings Stable PLA NPs were synthesized using leaf extracts of medicinally important plants like Syzygium cumini (1), Bauhinia variegata (2), Cedrus deodara (3), Lonicera japonica (4) and Eleaocarpus sphaericus (5). Small and uniformly distributed NPs in the size range 70±30 nm to 143±36 nm were formed with these PEs. To explore such NPs for drugs/ small molecules delivery, we have successfully encapsulated quercetin a lipophilic molecule on a most uniformly distributed PLA-4 NPs synthesized using Lonicera japonica leaf extract. Quercetin loaded PLA-4 NPs were observed for slow and sustained release of quercetin molecule. Conclusions This green approach based on PEs mediated synthesis of stable PLA NPs pave the way for encapsulating drug/small molecules, nutraceuticals and other bioactive ingredients for safer cellular uptake, biodistribution and targeted delivery. Hence, such PEs synthesized PLA NPs would be useful to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated small molecules/drugs. Furthermore, different types of plants can be explored for the synthesis of PLA as well as other

  6. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-03-15

    As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n=3), 1.6057% (n=3) and 1.6132% (n=3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV-vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES-protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extract: Mini-review

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    Reza Teimuri-mofrad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we examine the greenest nanoparticles of zero-valent metals, metal oxides and metal salts, with emphasis on recent developments routes. Products from nature or those derived from natural products, such as extracts of several plants or parts of plants, tea, coffee, banana, simple amino acids, as well as wine, table sugar and glucose, have been used as reductants and as capping agents during the present synthesis method. Polyphenols found in plant material often play a key role in the processes mentioned here. The techniques involved are generally one-pot processes, environmentally friendly and simple. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using several extracts and spices extracts was conducted, in which aqueous extracts HAuCl4.3H2O reduce to Au° has establishing themselves in specific crystal phase. Synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by the color change of auric chloride which is yellow. The growth of nanoparticles was monitored by the behavior of surface Plasmon using UV-Vis spectroscopy; also the pH was determined meanwhile. Moreover, this approach is not only of a green rapid synthesis kind and considered as a better alternative to chemical synthesis, but also found to be effective for large scale synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

  8. Green Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Artemisia capillaris Water Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo Hyeon; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using a water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC-AuNPs) under different extract concentrations, and their catalytic activity was evaluated in a 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction in the presence of sodium borohydride. The AC-AuNPs showed violet or wine colors with characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands at 534 543 nm that were dependent on the extract concentration. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 16.88 ± 5.47 29.93 ± 9.80 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. A blue shift in the maximum surface plasmon resonance was observed with increasing extract concentration. The face-centered cubic structure of AC-AuNPs was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and amino acids present in the extract contributed to the reduction of Au ions to AC-AuNPs. The average size of the AC-AuNPs decreased as the extract concentration during the synthesis was increased. Higher 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction rate constants were observed for smaller sizes. The extract in the AC-AuNPs was removed by centrifugation to investigate the effect of the extract in the reduction reaction. Interestingly, the removal of extracts greatly enhanced their catalytic activity by up to 50.4 %. The proposed experimental method, which uses simple centrifugation, can be applied to other metallic nanoparticles that are green synthesized with plant extracts to enhance their catalytic activity.

  9. Mimusops elengi bark extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Rakhi; Bag, Braja Gopal; Ghosh, Pooja

    2016-04-01

    The bark extract of Mimusops elengi is rich in different types of plant secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids and saponins. The present study shows the usefulness of the bark extract of Mimusops elengi for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles in water at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles was complete within a few minutes without any extra stabilizing or capping agents and the polyphenols present in the bark extract acted as both reducing as well as stabilizing agents. The synthesized colloidal gold nanoparticles were characterized by HRTEM, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as an efficient catalyst for the reduction of 3-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol to their corresponding aminophenols in water at room temperature.

  10. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Azadirachta indica leaf extract and its antimicrobial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pragyan; Das, Bhagyalaxmi; Mohanty, Abhipsa; Mohapatra, Sujata

    2017-11-01

    In this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was done using leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica. The flavonoids and terpenoids present in the extract act as both reducing and capping agent. Microbes ( Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria) were isolated from borewell water using selective media. The silver nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria and E. coli. However the silver nanoparticles were more effective against E. coli as compared to Gram-positive bacteria. Various techniques were used to characterize synthesized silver nanoparticles such as DLS and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The absorbance peak was in the range of 420-450 nm, that varied depending upon the variation in the concentration of neem extract. This is a very rapid and cost-effective method for generation of silver nanoparticle at room temperature, however, its exact dose in water purification has to be determined.

  11. Green Extraction from Pomegranate Marcs for the Production of Functional Foods and Cosmetics

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    Raffaella Boggia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of retrieving polyphenolic antioxidants directly from wet pomegranate marcs: the fresh by-products obtained after pomegranate juice processing. These by-products mainly consist of internal membranes (endocarp and aril residues. Even if they are still edible, they are usually discharged during juice production and, thus, they represent a great challenge in an eco-sustainable industrial context. Green technologies, such as ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE and microwave assisted extraction (MAE, have been employed to convert these organic residues into recycled products with high added value. UAE and MAE were used both in parallel and in series in order to make a comparison and to ensure exhaustive extractions, respectively. Water, as an environmentally friendly extraction solvent, has been employed. The results were compared with those ones coming from a conventional extraction. The most promising extract, in terms of total polyphenol yield and radical scavenging activity, has been tested both as a potential natural additive and as a functional ingredient after its incorporation in a real food model and in a real cosmetic matrix, respectively. This study represents a proposal to the agro-alimentary sector given the general need of environmental “responsible care”.

  12. Facile Separation of 5-O-Galloylquinic Acid from Chinese Green Tea Extract using Mesoporous Zirconium Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yilong; Shang, Yafang; Zhu, Danye; Wang, Caihong; Zhong, Zhifeng; Xu, Ziyang

    2016-05-01

    5-O-Galloylquinic acid from green tea and other plants is attracting increasing attention for its antioxidant and antileishmanial bioactivities. It is always isolated using a silica column, a Sephadex column and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, which are either laborious or instrument dependent. To develop a new method to easily separate 5-O-galloylquinic acid. Mesoporous zirconium phosphate (m-ZrP) was prepared to conveniently separate 5-O-galloylquinic acid from Chinese green tea extract, and the target compound was easily obtained by simple steps of adsorption, washing and desorption. The effects of the green tea extraction conditions, extract concentrations, and m-ZrP adsorption/desorption dynamics on the 5-O-galloylquinic acid separation were evaluated. 5-O-Galloylquinic acid that was separated from a 70% ethanol extract of green tea was of moderate HPLC purity (92%) and recovery (88%), and an increased non-specific binding of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on m-ZrP was observed in the diluted tea extract. The times for maximal adsorption of 5-O-galloylquinic acid in 70% ethanol extract and maximal desorption of 5-O-galloylquinic acid in 0.4% phosphoric acid solution were confirmed as 7 h and 5 h, respectively. A facile method to separate 5-O-galloylquinic acid from Chinese green tea extract using m-ZrP was established. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Antibacterial Studies and Effect of Poloxamer on Gold Nanoparticles by Zingiber Officinale Extracted Green Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, K; Reena, K; Manikandan, A; Antony, S Arul

    2015-07-01

    Poloxamer finds excellent clinical and therapeutic uses for curing of various ailments. The Zin- giber officinale (Z. officinale) is one of the well-known medicinal plants. The poloxamer188 and the rhizome extract of Z. officinale have been used to synthesize the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by a green approach. The Z. officinale extract has been used as a reducing agent while the polox- amerl88 has been used as a stabilizing agent. The effect of addition of poloxamer on the controlling the shape and size of the AuNPs has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering techniques. The formation of AuNPs has also been confirmed by UV-Visible spectral, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The anti-bacterial activity of the green synthesized AuNPs has been investigated on the three human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia. The poloxamer188 protected AuNPs inhibit the bacterial growth more effectively than the pure Z. officinale extract and the standard tetracycline (TA).

  14. Determination of malachite green in fish based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer extraction followed by electrochemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baomei; Zhou, Xibin; Chen, Jing; Wu, Guofan; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2015-09-01

    A novel procedure for selective extraction of malachite green (MG) from fish samples was set up by using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIP) as the solid phase extraction material followed by electrochemiluminescence (ECL) determination. MMIP was prepared by using Fe3O4 magnetite as magnetic component, MG as template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinking agent. MMIP was characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, VSM and XRD. Leucomalachite green (LMG) was oxidized in situ to MG by 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). And then MMIP was successfully used to selectively enrich MG from fish samples. Adsorbed MG was desorbed and determined by ECL. Under the optimal conditions, calibration curve was good linear in the range of 0.29-290 μg/kg and the limit of detection (LOD) was 7.3 ng/kg (S/N=3). The recoveries of MMIP extraction were 77.1-101.2%. In addition, MMIP could be regenerated. To the best of our knowledge, MMIP coupling with ECL quenching of Ru(bpy)3(2+)/TPA for the determination of MG has not yet been developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Palladium Nanoparticles Using Origanum vulgare L. Extract and Their Catalytic Activity

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    Mohammed Rafi Shaik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Palladium (Pd nanoparticles by green methods has attracted remarkable attention in recent years because of its superiority above chemical approaches, owing to its low cost and ecological compatibility. In this present work, we describe a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs using an aqueous extract of aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OV as a bioreductant. This plant is available in many parts of the world as well as in Saudi Arabia and is known to be a rich source of phenolic components, a feature we fruitfully utilized in the synthesis of Pd NPs, using various concentrations of plant extracts. Moreover, the OV extract phytomolecules are not only accountable for the reduction and progression of nanoparticles, but they also act as stabilizing agents, which was confirmed by several characterization methods. The as-synthesized Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs were analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Further, FT-IR study has proven that the OV not merely represents a bioreductant but also functionalizes the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the green synthesized metallic Pd NPs were successfully applied as catalysts for selective oxidation of alcohols.

  16. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanorods using Piper nigrum extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Bandita; Kuriakose, Sini; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver nanorods were synthesized by photoreduction using Piper nigrum extract. • The morphological and structural properties were studied by XRD and AFM. • Silver nanoparticles were formed at lower AgNO 3 concentration. • Increase in AgNO 3 concentration resulted in formation of silver nanorods. - Abstract: We report sun light driven rapid green synthesis of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles and nanorods at room temperature using photoreduction of silver ions with Piper nigrum extract. Silver nanoparticles were formed within 3 min of sun light irradiation following addition of Piper nigrum extract to the AgNO 3 solution. The effects of AgNO 3 concentration and irradiation time on the formation and plasmonic properties of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were studied using UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles were well characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size of Ag nanoparticles increased with increase in irradiation time, leading to the formation of anisotropic nanostructures. Increasing the AgNO 3 concentration resulted in the formation of Ag nanorods. UV–visible absorption studies revealed the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks which red shift and broaden with increasing AgNO 3 concentration. We have demonstrated a facile, energy efficient and rapid green synthetic route to synthesize stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles and nanorods

  17. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanorods using Piper nigrum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, Bandita [Multifunctional Nanomaterials Laboratory, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); Kuriakose, Sini [Multifunctional Nanomaterials Laboratory, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); Mohapatra, Satyabrata, E-mail: smiuac@gmail.com [Multifunctional Nanomaterials Laboratory, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanorods were synthesized by photoreduction using Piper nigrum extract. • The morphological and structural properties were studied by XRD and AFM. • Silver nanoparticles were formed at lower AgNO{sub 3} concentration. • Increase in AgNO{sub 3} concentration resulted in formation of silver nanorods. - Abstract: We report sun light driven rapid green synthesis of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles and nanorods at room temperature using photoreduction of silver ions with Piper nigrum extract. Silver nanoparticles were formed within 3 min of sun light irradiation following addition of Piper nigrum extract to the AgNO{sub 3} solution. The effects of AgNO{sub 3} concentration and irradiation time on the formation and plasmonic properties of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were studied using UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles were well characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size of Ag nanoparticles increased with increase in irradiation time, leading to the formation of anisotropic nanostructures. Increasing the AgNO{sub 3} concentration resulted in the formation of Ag nanorods. UV–visible absorption studies revealed the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks which red shift and broaden with increasing AgNO{sub 3} concentration. We have demonstrated a facile, energy efficient and rapid green synthetic route to synthesize stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles and nanorods.

  18. Anti-oxidative effects of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis on immobilization-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

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    In-Sun Hong

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic psychological stress may be related to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS or free radicals, and thus, long-term exposure to high levels of oxidative stress may cause the accumulation of oxidative damage and eventually lead to many neurodegenerative diseases. Compared with other organs, the brain appears especially susceptible to excessive oxidative stress due to its high demand for oxygen. In the case of excessive ROS production, endogenous defense mechanisms against ROS may not be sufficient to suppress ROS-associated oxidative damage. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to protect neurons against a variety of experimental neurodegenerative conditions. In particular, Rooibos tea might be a good source of antioxidants due to its larger proportion of polyphenolic compounds. An optimal animal model for stress should show the features of a stress response and should be able to mimic natural stress progression. However, most animal models of stress, such as cold-restraint, electric foot shock, and burn shock, usually involve physical abuse in addition to the psychological aspects of stress. Animals subjected to chronic restraint or immobilization are widely believed to be a convenient and reliable model to mimic psychological stress. Therefore, in the present study, we propose that immobilization-induced oxidative stress was significantly attenuated by treatment with Rooibos tea. This conclusion is demonstrated by Rooibos tea's ability to (i reverse the increase in stress-related metabolites (5-HIAA and FFA, (ii prevent lipid peroxidation (LPO, (iii restore stress-induced protein degradation (PD, (iv regulate glutathione metabolism (GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio, and (v modulate changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT.

  19. In-vitro study investigating influence of toothpaste containing green tea extract on the microhardness of demineralized human enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrian, K.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, DJ

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of toothpaste containing green tea extract on the microhardness of demineralized enamel. Human tooth, which was demineralised in citric acid solution, had a toothpaste containing green tea extract of concentration of 5, 10 or 15% application. Microhardness measurement was carried out on each enamel surface of the teeth for initial, after the demineralization and after application of the tooth pastes. It showed that there was significant decrease between enamel microhardness of the teeth at the initial condition and after demineralization. After application of the toothpaste containing green tea extract of each concentration the microhardnss increased significantly. However, there the microhardness was insignificant between the applications of each green tea concentration.

  20. Green tea extract induces protective autophagy in A549 non-small lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Magdalena; Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas, Marta; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Alina

    2015-12-31

    For many decades, polyphenols, including green tea extract catechins, have been reported to exert multiple anti-tumor activities. However, to date the mechanisms of their action have not been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of green tea extract on non-small lung cancer A549 cells. A549 cells following treatment with GTE were analyzed using the inverted light and fluorescence microscope. In order to evaluate cell sensitivity and cell death, the MTT assay and Tali image-based cytometer were used, respectively. Ultrastructural alterations were assessed using a transmission electron microscope. The obtained data suggested that GTE, even at the highest dose employed (150 μM), was not toxic to A549 cells. Likewise, the treatment with GTE resulted in only a very small dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE was seen at the light and electron microscopic level. Furthermore, an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and LC3-II puncta formation was observed under the fluorescence microscope, following GTE treatment. The analysis of the functional status of autophagy revealed that GTE-induced autophagy may provide self-protection against its own cytotoxicity, since we observed that the blockage of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased the viability of A549 cells and potentiated necrotic cell death induction in response to GTE treatment. Collectively, our results revealed that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of the green tea extract, probably due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These data suggest that a potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than in monotherapy.

  1. Green tea extract induces protective autophagy in A549 non-small lung cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Izdebska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: For many decades, polyphenols, including green tea extract catechins, have been reported to exert multiple anti-tumor activities. However, to date the mechanisms of their action have not been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of green tea extract on non-small lung cancer A549 cells. Material and methods: A549 cells following treatment with GTE were analyzed using the inverted light and fluorescence microscope. In order to evaluate cell sensitivity and cell death, the MTT assay and Tali image-based cytometer were used, respectively. Ultrastructural alterations were assessed using a transmission electron microscope.Results: The obtained data suggested that GTE, even at the highest dose employed (150 μM, was not toxic to A549 cells. Likewise, the treatment with GTE resulted in only a very small dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE was seen at the light and electron microscopic level. Furthermore, an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and LC3-II puncta formation was observed under the fluorescence microscope, following GTE treatment. The analysis of the functional status of autophagy revealed that GTE-induced autophagy may provide self-protection against its own cytotoxicity, since we observed that the blockage of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased the viability of A549 cells and potentiated necrotic cell death induction in response to GTE treatment.Conclusion: Collectively, our results revealed that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of the green tea extract, probably due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These data suggest that a potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than in monotherapy.

  2. Impact of green tea extract addition on oxidative changes in the lipid fraction of pastry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żbikowska, Anna; Kowalska, Małgorzata; Rutkowska, Jarosława; Kozłowska, Mariola; Onacik-Gür, Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    Alongside flour, fat is the key ingredient of sponge cakes, including those with long shelf lives. It is an unstable food component, whose quality and nutritional safety depend on the composition and pres- ence of oxidation products. Consumption of fat oxidation products adversely affects the human body and contributes to the incidence of a number of medical conditions. Qualitative changes in fats extracted from thermostat sponge cakes with and without antioxidant additions were determined in this study. In the study, two types of antioxidant were used: natural - green tea extract in three doses (0.02%; 0.2% and 1.0%) and synthetic BHA (0.02%) and 100%, solid bakery shortening. Sponge-cakes were thermostatted at temperatures 63°C after twenty-eight days. In this study, the quality of the lipid fraction was analyzed. The amount of primary (PV) and secondary (AnV) oxidation products was determined, and   a Rancimat test was performed. Adding antioxidants to fats varied in the degree to which oxidation processes of lipids fractions were inhibited. The peroxide value after twenty-eight days of thermostatting ranged from 3.57 meq O/kg (BHA) and 11.14 O meq/kg (extract content - 1%) to 62.85 meq O/kg (control sample). In turn, the value of AnV after the storage period ranged from 4.84 (BHA) and 6.71 (extract content - 1%) to 16.83 (control sample). The best protective effects in the process of oxidation was achieved by BHA. The longest in- duction time and the lowest peroxide value and anisidine value were obtained for this antioxidant. It was achieved after twenty-eight days of fat thermostatting. Nonetheless, the results demonstrated it is possible to use the commercially available green tea extract to slow the adverse process of fat oxidation in sponge cake products.

  3. Green tea, red wine and lemon extracts reduce experimental tumor growth and cancer drug toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletok, S P; Gulua, L; Wicker, L; Shlyakhovenko, V A; Gogol, S; Orlovsky, O; Karnaushenko, O V; Verbinenko, A; Milinevska, V; Samoylenko, O; Todor, I; Turmanidze, T

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate antitumor effect of plant polyphenol extracts from green tea, red wine lees and/or lemon peel alone and in combination with antitumor drugs on the growth of different transplanted tumors in experimental animals. Green tea extract (GTE) was prepared from green tea infusion. GTE-based composites of red wine (GTRW), lemon peel (GTRWL) and/or NanoGTE as well as corresponding nanocomposites were prepared. The total polyphenolics of the different GTE-based extracts ranged from 18.0% to 21.3%. The effects of GTE-based extracts were studied in sarcoma 180, Ehrlich carcinoma, B16 melanoma, Ca755 mammary carcinoma, P388 leukemia, L1210 leukemia, and Guerin carcinoma (original, cisplatin-resistant and doxorubicin-resistant variants). The extracts were administered as 0.1% solution in drinking water (0.6-1.0 mg by total polyphenolics per mouse per day and 4.0-6.3 mg per rat per day). Tumor growth inhibition (TGI) in mice treated with NanoGTE, cisplatin or cisplatin + NanoGTE was 27%, 55% and 78%, respectively, in Sarcoma 180%, 21%, 45% and 59%, respectively, in Ehrlich carcinoma; and 8%, 13% and 38%, respectively in B16 melanoma. Composites of NanoGTE, red wine, and lemon peel (NanoGTRWL) enhanced the antitumor effects of cyclophosphamide in mice with Ca755 mammary carcinoma. The treatment with combination of NanoGTE and inhibitors of polyamines (PA) synthesis (DFMO + MGBG) resulted in significant TGI of P388 leukemia (up to 71%) and L1210 leukemia. In rats transplanted with Guerin carcinoma (parental strain), treatment with GTRW or GTE alone resulted in 25-28% TGI vs. 55-68% TGI in cisplatin-treated animals. The inhibition observed in the case of combination of GTE or GTRW with cisplatin was additive giving 81-88% TGI. Similar effects were observed when combinations of the cytostatics with GTE (or NanoGTE) were tested against cisplatin- or doxorubicin-resistant Guerin carcinoma. Moreover, the plant extracts lowered side toxicity of the drugs. Treatment with GTE

  4. The green synthesis of fine particles of gold using an aqueous extract of Monotheca buxifolia (Flac.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Natasha; Khan, Abbas; Shah, Mohib; Azam, Andaleeb; Zaman, Khair; Parven, Zahida

    2016-12-01

    This study deals with the synthesis and physicochemical investigation of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of Monotheca buxifolia (Flac.). On the treatment of aqueous solution of tetrachloroauric acid with the plant extract, gold nanoparticles were rapidly fabricated. The synthesized particles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation of AuNPs was confirmed by noting the change in color through visual observations as well as via UV-Vis spectroscopy. UV‒Vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing gold nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 540 nm. FTIR was used to identify the chemical composition of gold nanoparticles and Au-capped plant extract. The presence of elemental gold was also confirmed through EDX analysis. SEM analysis of the gold nanoparticles showed that they have a uniform spherical shape with an average size in the range of 70-78 nm. This green system showed to be better capping and stabilizing agent for the fine particles. Further, the antioxidant activity of Monotheca buxifolia (Flac.) extract and Au-capped with the plant extract was also evaluated using FeCl3/K3[Fe(CN)]6 in vitro assay.

  5. Potato extract as reducing agent and stabiliser in a facile green one-step synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buazar, Foad; Bavi, M.; Kroushawi, Feisal

    2016-01-01

    A facile green recipe was developed to synthesise highly pure, safe and durable zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Nps) using homemade starch-rich potato extract. The ZnO Nps were synthesised using zinc nitrate and potato extract, and the whole reaction is carried out for 30 min at 80 °C...

  6. Effect of Green Tea Extract on T cell Mediated Hypersensitivity Reaction in BALB/c Mice Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A.M.; Ismail Al-kadey, M.M.I.; Shabon, M.H.; Hussien, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma radiation is widely used in the treatment of malignant neoplasms. However, it deprives the host immune function which may retard tumor rejection by the immune response. The main purpose of the present study is to test the ability of green tea dry extract to restore the T cell hypersensitivity reaction in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It aims also to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of ionizing radiation and green tea dry extract in the immune function. Four groups of BALB/c mice, each of ten, have been used in each experiment. The first group served as a control, the second group received green tea dry extract and the third group was exposed to 2 Gy gamma irradiation, while the fourth group received green tea dry extract before and after gamma irradiation. The following parameters were determined, the contact sensitivity reaction by the mouse ear swelling response, local dendritic cell migration, local lymph node weight, lymphocyte proliferation, spleen and thymus weight with their lymphocyte count. The effect of gamma irradiation and green tea dry extract on the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity was also determined. Data from the present study showed that gamma irradiation caused a significant decrease of the mouse ear swelling response and retarded dendritic cell migration. They also showed a significant decline in the lymphocytes proliferation in lymph node draining the contact sensitizer application. Total body exposure to 2 Gy gamma irradiation induced marked decline of thymus weight and thymocyte count, while it reduced spleen weight and spleenocyte count to a lesser extent. Exposure to gamma irradiation enhanced the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity. Administration of green tea dry extract partially preserved the contact sensitivity response to oxazolone in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It markedly minimized the enhancement of the elicitation phase of ear swelling. In conclusion, the present study heralds a beneficial role of

  7. Coacervative extraction as a green technique for sample preparation for the analysis of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Wolska, L; Namieśnik, J

    2014-04-25

    One of the present trends in analytical chemistry is miniaturization, which is one of the methods of green analytical chemistry application. A particular emphasis is placed on the elimination of the use of large amounts of organic solvents which are toxic and harmful to the environment, maintaining high efficiency of the extraction process, high recovery values and low values of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD) limits. These requirements are fulfilled by coacervative extraction (CAE) technique. In this review, theoretical aspects of the coacervation process are presented along with environmental and bioanalytical applications of this technique, its advantages, limitations and competitiveness with other techniques. Due to its simplicity and rapidity, CAE is an excellent alternative for currently practiced procedures of sample preparation for the analysis of organic compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Camellia sinensis extract on Zinc Oxide nanoparticle green synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, O. J.; Luque, P. A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, C. M.; Vilchis-Nestor, A. R.; Castro-Beltrán, A.; Mota-González, M. L.; Olivas, A.

    2017-04-01

    This work addresses low cost, non-toxic green synthesis of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles prepared using different amounts of Camellia sinensis extract. The Synthesized material was studied and characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Zinc Oxide nanoparticles presented the desired Znsbnd O bond at 618 cm-1, demonstrated growth in a purely hexagonal Wurtzite crystal structure, and, depending on the amount of extract used, they presented different size and shape homogeneity. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained Zinc Oxide nanoparticles was studied. The photocatalytic degradation studies were done at a 1:1 M ratio of methylene blue to Zinc Oxide nanoparticles under UV light. The obtained results presented a better degradation rate than commercially available Zinc Oxide nanoparticles.

  9. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pimpinella anisum L. Seed Aqueous Extract and Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Akhlaghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous extract of Pimpinella anisum was used for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by bio reduction of an aqueous solution of silver nitrate. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Vis spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX. The increase in absorption at 420 nm was used for recording the formation of a colloidal suspension of silver nanoparticles. The binding properties of the capped Ag nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous extract of P. anisum were analyzed by FTIR. XRD studies revealed that most of the nanoparticles were cubic and face centered cubic in shape. SEM analysis showed the size and shape of silver nanoparticles and EDAX confirmed the presence of silver. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed DPPH free radical scavenging activity.

  10. Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis L. Effects on Uric Acid Levels on Hyperuricemia Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putranty Widha Nugraheni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid is the end product of purine degradation. When uric acid levels exceed normal limits, it will build up and cause hyperuricemia. Allopurinol is one of the most effective and common medicine for hyperuricemia, but it brings serious side effects, therefore it is needed alternative therapy for hyperuricemia. One plant that may be expected to low uric acid levels is green tea (Camellia sinensis L., that contains many antioxidants polyphenols, especially flavonoids. Flavonoid has strong antioxidant properties, act as free radical and metal scavengers, and also xanthine oxidase (XOD inhibitors. This study investigates the potential of green tea using various doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of body weight in 24 white male rats (Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain that has been received high purine diet in 60 consecutive days. This study used DHBSA methods to measure uric acid levels in blood serum and urine that excreted 8 hours before surgery. Green tea extract that contains polyphenol can inhibit XOD activities, therefore, it leads to decrease uric acid level in blood and increase the excretion through urine by modulating urate gene transporter. A therapy with 600 mg/kg body weight of GTE is the most effective dose to decrease uric acid levels in serum and to increase excretion of exceeding uric acid significantly (p < 0.01, from One Way ANOVA and Tukey analysis.

  11. Effect of green coffee extract on rheological, physico-sensory and antioxidant properties of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkundur Vasudevaiah, A; Chaturvedi, A; Kulathooran, R; Dasappa, I

    2017-06-01

    Green coffee extract, GCE ( Coffee canephora ) was used at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% levels for making bioactive rich bread. The processed GCE from the green coffee beans had 21.42% gallic acid equivalents (GAE) total polyphenols (TPP), 37.28% chlorogenic acid (CGA) and 92.73% radical scavenging activity (RSA), at 100 ppm concentration of GCE and caffeine content (1.75%). Rheological, physico-sensory and antioxidant properties of GCE incorporated breads were analysed and compared with control bread. The results revealed not much significant change in the rheological characteristics of dough up to 1.5% level; an increase in bread volume; greenness of bread crumb and mostly unchanged textural characteristics of the bread with increased addition of GCE from 0 to 2.0%. Sensory evaluation showed that maximum level of incorporation of GCE without adverse effect on the overall quality of bread (especially taste) was at 1.5% level. The contents of TPP, RSA and CGA increased by 12, 6 and 42 times when compared to control bread and had the highest amount of 4-5 caffeoylquinic acid.

  12. Z-2-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-phenylpropenoic acid, an α-hydroxy acid from rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) with hypoglycemic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, C.J.F.; Joubert, Elizabeth; Pheiffer, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Scope: The rare enolic phenylpyruvic acid glucoside, Z-2-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-phenylpropenoic acid (PPAG) is one of the major constituents of fermented rooibos infusions. 3-Phenylpyruvic acid (2-oxo-3-phenylpropanoic acid) (PPA), without the sugar moiety and with a keto instead of enolic arr...

  13. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Greene and Tioga Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Fisher, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in the area of Pennsylvania. Coalbed methane, which is sometimes extracted using the same technique, is commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and is frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Greene County and Tioga County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics are also used to quantify these changes and are included in this publication.

  14. New fluorescence spectroscopic method for the simultaneous determination of alkaloids in aqueous extract of green coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisak, Hagos; Redi-Abshiro, Mesfin; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2018-05-11

    There is no fluorescence spectroscopic method for the determination of trigonelline and theobromine in green coffee beans. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a new fluorescence spectroscopic method to determine the alkaloids simultaneously in the aqueous extract of green coffee beans. The calibration curves were linear in the range 2-6, 1-6, 1-5 mg/L for caffeine, theobromine and trigonelline, respectively, with R 2  ≥ 0.9987. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 2, 6 and 7 µg/L and 40, 20 and 20 µg/L for caffeine, theobromine and trigonelline, respectively. Caffeine and trigonelline exhibited well separated fluorescence excitation spectra and therefore the two alkaloids were selectively quantified in the aqueous extract of green coffee. While theobromine showed overlapping fluorescence excitation spectra with caffeine and hence theobromine could not be determined in the aqueous extract of green coffee beans. The amount of caffeine and trigonelline in the three samples of green coffee beans were found to be 0.95-1.10 and 1.00-1.10% (w/w), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD ≤ 4%) of the method for the three compounds of interest were of very good. The accuracy of the developed analytical method was evaluated by spiking standard caffeine and trigonelline to green coffee beans and the average recoveries were 99 ± 2% for both the alkaloids. A fast, sensitive and reliable fluorescence method for the simultaneous determination of caffeine and trigonelline in the aqueous extract of green coffee beans was developed and validated. The developed method reflected an effective performance to the direct determination of the two alkaloids in the aqueous extract of green coffee beans.

  15. Characterization of Polypropylene Green Composites Reinforced by Cellulose Fibers Extracted from Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Dinh Vu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP based green composites containing 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% of cellulose fibers (CFs which were extracted from rice straw were successfully prepared by melt blend method. The CFs washed with H2O2 after alkaline extraction showed lower water absorption than that not washed with H2O2. The thermal, mechanical, and biodegradation properties of composites were also investigated. The 10% weight loss temperature of the composites was decreased with the increasing CFs content, but all the composites showed over 300°C. Young’s modulus and flexural properties of PP were improved by blending PP with CFs. The pure PP showed no degradability, but the PP/CFs composites degraded from about 3 to 23 wt%, depending on CFs content after being buried in soil for 50 days. These PP/CFs composites with high thermal, mechanical properties and biodegradability may be useful as green composite materials for various environmental fields.

  16. Effect of Poloxamer on Zingiber Officinale Extracted Green Synthesis and Antibacterial Studies of Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, K; Manikandan, A; Antony, S Arul

    2016-01-01

    The Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) plant is one of the well-known medicinal plants. Poloxamer finds excellent clinical and therapeutic uses for curing of various ailments. The poloxamer 188 polymer and the plant extract of Z. officinale have been used to prepare the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a green synthesis route. The Z. officinale plant extract has been used as a reducing agent, while the poloxamer 188 has been used as a stabilizing agent. The formation of face-centered cubic (fcc) structure AgNPs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern. The effect of addition of poloxamer on the controlling the shape, size and morphologies of the AgNPs has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering techniques. The elemental composition of AgNPs was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The anti-bacterial activity of AgNPs has been investigated using three human pathogens Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The poloxamer 188 protected AgNPs inhibit the bacterial growth more effectively than the pure Z. officinale extract and the Z. officinale extract AgNPs.

  17. Green Approach for the Effective Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Salvadora persica L. Root (Miswak) Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H.; Khan, Merajuddin; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Mohri, Nils; Adil, Syed Farooq; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z.; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, green reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) using various natural materials, including plant extracts, has drawn significant attention among the scientific community. These methods are sustainable, low cost, and are more environmentally friendly than other standard methods of reduction. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly method for the bioreduction of GRO using Salvadora persica L. ( S. persica L.) roots (miswak) extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared highly reduced graphene oxide (SP-HRG) was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents. The dispersion quality of SP-HRG in deionized water was investigated in detail by preparing different samples of SP-HRG with increasing concentration of root extract. Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG). The developed eco-friendly method for the reduction of GRO could provide a better substitute for a large-scale production of dispersant-free graphene and graphene-based materials for various applications in both technological and biological fields such as electronics, nanomedicine, and bionic materials.

  18. NMR Confirmation and HPLC Quantification of Javamide-I and Javamide-II in Green Coffee Extract Products Available in the Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae B

    2017-01-01

    Javamide-I/javamide-II are phenolic amides found in coffee. Recent reports suggested that they may contain several biological activities related to human health. Therefore, there is emergent interest about their quantities in coffee-related products. Green coffee extract is a powder extract made of unroasted green coffee beans, available as a dietary supplement. However, there is little information about the amounts of javamide-I/javamide-II in green coffee extract products in the market. Therefore, in this paper, javamide-I/javamide-II were extracted from green coffee extract products and their identifications were confirmed by NMR. After that, the amounts of javamide-I/javamide-II were individually quantified from seven different green coffee extract samples using the HPLC method coupled to an electrochemical detector. The HPLC method provided accurate and reliable measurement of javamide-I/javamide-II with excellent peak resolution and low detection limit. In all seven green coffee extract samples, javamide-II was found to be between 0.28 and 2.96 mg/g, but javamide-I was detected in only five samples in the concentration levels of 0.15-0.52 mg/g, suggesting that green coffee extract products contain different amounts of javamide-I/javamide-II. In summary, javamide-I/javamide-II can be found in green coffee extract products sold in the market, but their amounts are likely to be comparatively different in between green coffee extract brands.

  19. Evaluation of anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of green tea and cinnamon on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem Shokri; Hamed Fathi; Majid Jafari Sabet; Nafiseh Nasri Nasrabadi; Ramin Ataee

    2015-01-01

    Today diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world that affects half of the world population. The use of medicinal herbs especially green tea and cinnamon has been taken into consideration for relieving the symptoms of diabetes, but there were some different ideas about their effectiveness. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon and green tea extract, individually and in combination, on blood glucose and weight loss in diabetic mice with Streptozotocin (ST...

  20. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized using Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yan-yu [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Yang, Hui, E-mail: 549456369@qq.com [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Wang, Tao [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Wang, Chuang [Department of Highway & Bridge, Shaanxi Railway Institute, Weinan 714000 (China)

    2016-11-25

    Various parts of plants can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is eco-friendly way and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this project, Ginkgo biloba leaf, an abundantly available medicinal plant in China, was for the first time adopted as a reducing and stabilizing agent to synthesize smaller sized and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To improve the quality of AgNPs, the reduction was accelerated by changing the concentrations of initial Ag{sup +} (0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mol/L) of the reaction mixture consisting of silver nitrate solution (AgNO{sub 3}) and Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. At pH = 8 and lower AgNO{sub 3} concentration (0.02 mol/L), a colloid consisting of well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles was obtained. The synthesized nanocrystals were successfully characterized by UV–vis and XRD. TEM images revealed the size of the spherical AgNPs ranged between 10–16 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of −NH{sub 2}, −OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activities against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. Compared to traditional chemical methods, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract provides an easy green synthetical way. It is anticipated that the biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications. - Highlights: • Monodisperse silver nanoparticles were first prepared by a green synthetical way through Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract. • The synthesized AgNPs is of high crystallinity, stable and good dispersion with smaller sizes between 10–16 nm. • The achieved AgNPs exhibits good antibacterial activities. • The biosynthesis method is advantageous for its cost effectiveness, availability, portability, nontoxic and environmentally benign.

  1. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized using Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yan-yu; Yang, Hui; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Various parts of plants can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is eco-friendly way and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this project, Ginkgo biloba leaf, an abundantly available medicinal plant in China, was for the first time adopted as a reducing and stabilizing agent to synthesize smaller sized and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To improve the quality of AgNPs, the reduction was accelerated by changing the concentrations of initial Ag + (0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mol/L) of the reaction mixture consisting of silver nitrate solution (AgNO 3 ) and Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. At pH = 8 and lower AgNO 3 concentration (0.02 mol/L), a colloid consisting of well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles was obtained. The synthesized nanocrystals were successfully characterized by UV–vis and XRD. TEM images revealed the size of the spherical AgNPs ranged between 10–16 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of −NH 2 , −OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activities against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. Compared to traditional chemical methods, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract provides an easy green synthetical way. It is anticipated that the biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications. - Highlights: • Monodisperse silver nanoparticles were first prepared by a green synthetical way through Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract. • The synthesized AgNPs is of high crystallinity, stable and good dispersion with smaller sizes between 10–16 nm. • The achieved AgNPs exhibits good antibacterial activities. • The biosynthesis method is advantageous for its cost effectiveness, availability, portability, nontoxic and environmentally benign.

  2. Quantification of catechins and caffeine from green tea (Camellia sinensis infusions, extract, and ready-to-drink beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Macedo Mendes De Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the levels of catechins and caffeine in various forms of presentation of green tea: infusion tea bags, extract, and ready-to-drink beverage and, based on their content, identify the most suitable for consumption. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analytical method was used for the quantification of catechins and caffeine. The tea bags had the highest concentration of total catechins with 5 to 9.5% followed by the extract with 3.64 to 4.88%, and ready-to-drink green tea beverage showed low levels of catechins, from 0.14 to 0.26%. As for caffeine content, green tea extract had higher concentration (1.96 to 3.54% compared to the tea bags (1.39 to 1.57%. Tea bags were found the most suitable for consumption because it contains higher amounts of catechins and smaller amounts of caffeine.

  3. Evaluation of anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of green tea and cinnamon on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Shokri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world that affects half of the world population. The use of medicinal herbs especially green tea and cinnamon has been taken into consideration for relieving the symptoms of diabetes, but there were some different ideas about their effectiveness. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon and green tea extract, individually and in combination, on blood glucose and weight loss in diabetic mice with Streptozotocin (STZ. The experiment was performed on 50 Wistar rats.  A total of 50 rats were divided into 10 groups of 5 and STZ was injected at the dose of 40 mg/kg/day for 5 days intraperitoneally. After diabetes induction, three groups received, 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of green tea extract,  three groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of cinnamon extract  and three final groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of  cinnamon  and green tea in combination by gavages daily for 6 weeks. After each period of treatments, blood glucose and the weight of animals were determined. At the end of the sixth week, blood glucose and weight loss were improved in diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner and the dose of 200 mg/kg extract cinnamon with green tea had the most appropriate synergic effect.

  4. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Lantana camara leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajitha, B.; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y.; Sreedhara Reddy, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated on Lantana camara mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different leaf extract (LE) quantity for the evaluation of efficient bactericidal activity. The AgNPs were prepared by simple, capable, eco-friendly and biosynthesis method using L. camara LE. This method allowed the synthesis of crystalline nanoparticles, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the formation of metallic silver and elucidates the surface state composition of AgNPs. UV–vis spectra of AgNPs and visual perception of brownish yellow color from colorless reaction mixture confirmed the AgNP formation. Involvement of functional groups of L. camara leaf extract in the reduction and capping process of nanoparticles was well displayed in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Decrement of particle size with an increment of leaf extract volume was evident in AFM, TEM images and also through a blue shift in the UV–vis spectra. The rate of formation and size of AgNPs were dependent on LE quantity. Meanwhile, these AgNPs exhibited effective antibacterial activity with the decrement of particle size against all tested bacterial cultures. - Highlights: • Monodispersed AgNPs are synthesized using L. camara leaf extract. • The higher the L. camara content, the smaller the particle size. • Green synthesized AgNPs are found to be photoluminescent. • Size dependence of antibacterial activity is reported. • The nanoparticle stability is improved by leaf extract quantity

  5. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Lantana camara leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajitha, B., E-mail: ajithabondu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sreedhara Reddy, P. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we have investigated on Lantana camara mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different leaf extract (LE) quantity for the evaluation of efficient bactericidal activity. The AgNPs were prepared by simple, capable, eco-friendly and biosynthesis method using L. camara LE. This method allowed the synthesis of crystalline nanoparticles, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the formation of metallic silver and elucidates the surface state composition of AgNPs. UV–vis spectra of AgNPs and visual perception of brownish yellow color from colorless reaction mixture confirmed the AgNP formation. Involvement of functional groups of L. camara leaf extract in the reduction and capping process of nanoparticles was well displayed in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Decrement of particle size with an increment of leaf extract volume was evident in AFM, TEM images and also through a blue shift in the UV–vis spectra. The rate of formation and size of AgNPs were dependent on LE quantity. Meanwhile, these AgNPs exhibited effective antibacterial activity with the decrement of particle size against all tested bacterial cultures. - Highlights: • Monodispersed AgNPs are synthesized using L. camara leaf extract. • The higher the L. camara content, the smaller the particle size. • Green synthesized AgNPs are found to be photoluminescent. • Size dependence of antibacterial activity is reported. • The nanoparticle stability is improved by leaf extract quantity.

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata and their antimicrobial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.Hanumanta; Lakshmidevi, N.; Pammi, S.V.N.; Kollu, Pratap; Ganapaty, S.; Lakshmi, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery and subsequent widespread use of antibiotics, a variety of bacterial species of human and animal origin have developed numerous mechanisms that render bacteria resistant to some, and in certain cases to nearly all antibiotics, thereby limiting the treatment options and compromising effective therapy. In the present study, the green synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out by the reduction of silver acetate in the presence of crude methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata, a member of family Ebenaceae. The UV–Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 428 nm, a characteristic peak of silver nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver. The average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which is in good agreement with the average crystallite size (19 nm) calculated from XRD analysis. Further the study has been extended to the antimicrobial activity against test pathogenic Gram (+), Gram (−) bacterial and fungal strains. The biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed promising activity against all the tested pathogenic strains and the activity has been enhanced with the increased dose levels. - Highlights: • Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extracts of Diospyros paniculata. • Average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from TEM analysis which is in good agreement with XRD analysis. • Antimicrobial activities of root extract mediated synthesis of silver Ag NPs were discussed in detail.

  7. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by using Eucalyptus Globulus Leaf Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Madheswaran; Saravanan, Shanmugam

    2017-12-01

    A single step eco-friendly, energy efficient and economically scalable green method was employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles. In this work, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract as reducing and capping agent along with water as solvent at normal room temperature is described. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from aqueous silver nitrate solution by adding the leaf extract. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible Spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscope (FTIS). X-ray diffraction studies brought to light the crystalline nature and the face centered cubic structure of the silver nanoparticles. Using HR-TEM. the nano sizes and morphology of the particles were studied. The mean sizes of the prepared silver nanoparticles ranged from 30 to 36 nm. The density of the particles was tuned by varying the molar ratio of silver nitrate. FTIS studies showed the functional group of organic molecules which were located on the surface of the silver nanoparticles. Originating from the leaf extracts, these organic molecules reduced and capped the particles.

  8. Qualitative comparison of active compounds between red and green Mariposa Christia Vespertillonis leaves extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, M. S.; Ghani, Z. A.; Ismail, N. F.; Razak, N. A. A.; Jaapar, J.; Ariff, M. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    At present time, Mariposa Christia Vespertillonis (MCV) leave has become popular for its anti-cancer and thus is used widely among the traditional medicine in Malaysia. There are several types of MCV plants and the one that is currently well-known for traditional medicine in Malaysia is the green MCV (GMCV). Red MCV (RMCV) is another type of MCV plant which can also be found easily in Malaysia. In this study, the active compounds for GMCV and RMCV will be compared and analyzed by using Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The active compounds will be extracted from the MCV leaves by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE). The findings of this study indicates the global yield of the MCV oils is 31 mg/g while the compound identification indicates the presence of anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and beneficial phytochemicals. This work is an explorative study to reveal the potential of MCV to be extracted using SFE method as potential therapeutic plants for the traditional medicine in Malaysia.

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata and their antimicrobial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.Hanumanta [Advanced Analytical Laboratory, DST-PURSE Programme, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Lakshmidevi, N. [Department of Microbiology, College of Science and Technology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Pammi, S.V.N. [Advanced Analytical Laboratory, DST-PURSE Programme, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, 305-764, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kollu, Pratap [DST-INSPIRE Faculty, Department of Metallurgical Engineering & Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Ganapaty, S. [GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Lakshmi, P., E-mail: lmkandregula@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, College of Science and Technology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Since the discovery and subsequent widespread use of antibiotics, a variety of bacterial species of human and animal origin have developed numerous mechanisms that render bacteria resistant to some, and in certain cases to nearly all antibiotics, thereby limiting the treatment options and compromising effective therapy. In the present study, the green synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out by the reduction of silver acetate in the presence of crude methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata, a member of family Ebenaceae. The UV–Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 428 nm, a characteristic peak of silver nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver. The average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which is in good agreement with the average crystallite size (19 nm) calculated from XRD analysis. Further the study has been extended to the antimicrobial activity against test pathogenic Gram (+), Gram (−) bacterial and fungal strains. The biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed promising activity against all the tested pathogenic strains and the activity has been enhanced with the increased dose levels. - Highlights: • Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extracts of Diospyros paniculata. • Average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from TEM analysis which is in good agreement with XRD analysis. • Antimicrobial activities of root extract mediated synthesis of silver Ag NPs were discussed in detail.

  10. Green synthesis, characterization and antibacterial efficacy of palladium nanoparticles synthesized using Filicium decipiens leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmila, G.; Farzana Fathima, M.; Haries, S.; Geetha, S.; Manoj Kumar, N.; Muthukumaran, C.

    2017-06-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles through green chemistry route is an emerging eco-friendly approach in the present days. An eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using Filicium decipiens leaf extract was reported in the present study. The synthesized PdNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The PdNPs formation was confirmed by UV-visible spectrophotometer and spherical shaped PdNPs with size range of 2-22 nm was observed in TEM analysis. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence of palladium in the synthesized nanoparticles. The crystalline nature of PdNPs was confirmed by XRD pattern and compared with the standard. The phytochemicals and proteins were identified by their functional groups in FT-IR spectrum and revealed the amide, amine groups present in F. decipiens may have involved in the bio-reduction reaction for PdNPs synthesis. Prepared PdNPs showed potential antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. F. decipiens leaf extract based PdNPs showed high bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa as compared to Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis Results showed that phytochemicals rich F. decipiens leaf extract may be utilized as an effective non-toxic reducing agent for PdNPs synthesis and prepared PdNPs may useful in biomedical applications.

  11. Green fabricated CuO nanobullets via Olea europaea leaf extract shows auspicious antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Iftikhar, Sidra; Nazar, Mudassar; Abbas, Fazal; Saleem, Asif; Hussain, Talib; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Jabeen, Nyla

    2017-06-01

    In present investigation, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been prepared via green chemistry. Olea europaea leaf extract act as strong chelating agent for tailoring physical as well as bio-medical characteristics of CuO at the nano-size. Physical characterisation such as scanning electron microscope analysis depicts the formation of homogenised spherical shape nanoparticles (NPs) with average size of 42 nm. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirmed the crystalline pure phase and monoclinic structure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) testing is performed to evaluate the relative concentration of bioactive molecules in the O. europaea leaf extract. From HPLC results capping action of organic molecules around CuO-NPs is hypothesised. The antimicrobial potency of biosynthesised CuO-NPs have been evaluated using colony forming unit (CFU) counting assay and disc diffusion method which shows a significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains may be highly potential for future antimicrobial pharmaceutics. Furthermore, reduction of various precursors by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  12. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  13. Green synthesis of biocompatible carbon dots using aqueous extract of Trapa bispinosa peel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewada, Ashmi; Pandey, Sunil, E-mail: gurus.spandey@gmail.com; Shinde, Sachin; Mishra, Neeraj; Oza, Goldie; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Sharon, Maheshwar; Sharon, Madhuri, E-mail: sharonmadhuri@gmail.com

    2013-07-01

    We are reporting highly economical plant based method for the production of luminescent water soluble carbon dots (C-dot) using Indian water plant Trapa bispinosa peel extract without adding any external oxidizing agent at 90 °C. C-dots ranging from 5 to 10 nm were found in the solution with a prominent green fluorescence under UV-light (λ{sub ex} = 365 nm). UV–vis spectra recorded at different time intervals (30–120 min) displayed signature absorption of C-dots between 400 and 600 nm. Fluorescence spectra of the dispersion after 120 min of synthesis exhibited characteristic emission peaks of C-dots when excited at 350, 400, 450 and 500 nm. C-dots were further analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy and Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Structure of the C-dots was found to be turbostratic when studied using XRD. C-dots synthesized by our method were found to be exceptionally biocompatible against MDCK cells. Highlights: • Novel report on biosynthesis of water soluble carbon dots using plant source • Prominent green fluorescence under UV light • Highly biocompatible nanoparticles against MDCK cells • Excellent imaging properties under fluorescent light.

  14. Extraction of thermal Green's function using diffuse fields: a passive approach applied to thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Margherita; Sternini, Simone; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Mariani, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In the field of non-destructive evaluation, defect detection and visualization can be performed exploiting different techniques relying either on an active or a passive approach. In the following paper the passive technique is investigated due to its numerous advantages and its application to thermography is explored. In previous works, it has been shown that it is possible to reconstruct the Green's function between any pair of points of a sensing grid by using noise originated from diffuse fields in acoustic environments. The extraction of the Green's function can be achieved by cross-correlating these random recorded waves. Averaging, filtering and length of the measured signals play an important role in this process. This concept is here applied in an NDE perspective utilizing thermal fluctuations present on structural materials. Temperature variations interacting with thermal properties of the specimen allow for the characterization of the material and its health condition. The exploitation of the thermographic image resolution as a dense grid of sensors constitutes the basic idea underlying passive thermography. Particular attention will be placed on the creation of a proper diffuse thermal field, studying the number, placement and excitation signal of heat sources. Results from numerical simulations will be presented to assess the capabilities and performances of the passive thermal technique devoted to defect detection and imaging of structural components.

  15. Cancellation of spurious arrivals in Green's function extraction and the generalized optical theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, R.; Van Wijk, K.; Haney, M.; Calvert, R.

    2008-01-01

    The extraction of the Green's function by cross correlation of waves recorded at two receivers nowadays finds much application. We show that for an arbitrary small scatterer, the cross terms of scattered waves give an unphysical wave with an arrival time that is independent of the source position. This constitutes an apparent inconsistency because theory predicts that such spurious arrivals do not arise, after integration over a complete source aperture. This puzzling inconsistency can be resolved for an arbitrary scatterer by integrating the contribution of all sources in the stationary phase approximation to show that the stationary phase contributions to the source integral cancel the spurious arrival by virtue of the generalized optical theorem. This work constitutes an alternative derivation of this theorem. When the source aperture is incomplete, the spurious arrival is not canceled and could be misinterpreted to be part of the Green's function. We give an example of how spurious arrivals provide information about the medium complementary to that given by the direct and scattered waves; the spurious waves can thus potentially be used to better constrain the medium. ?? 2008 The American Physical Society.

  16. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Ahmad, Mudasir; Swami, Babu Lal; Ikram, Saiqa

    2015-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are being utilized in every phase of science along with engineering including medical fields and are still charming the scientists to explore new dimensions for their respective worth which is generally attributed to their corresponding small sizes. The up-and-coming researches have proven their antimicrobial significance. Among several noble metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have attained a special focus. Conventionally silver nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical method using chemicals as reducing agents which later on become accountable for various biological risks due to their general toxicity; engendering the serious concern to develop environment friendly processes. Thus, to solve the objective; biological approaches are coming up to fill the void; for instance green syntheses using biological molecules derived from plant sources in the form of extracts exhibiting superiority over chemical and/or biological methods. These plant based biological molecules undergo highly controlled assembly for making them suitable for the metal nanoparticle syntheses. The present review explores the huge plant diversity to be utilized towards rapid and single step protocol preparatory method with green principles over the conventional ones and describes the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles. PMID:26843966

  17. Green Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Callicarpa maingayi Stem Bark Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zidan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Different biological methods are gaining recognition for the production of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs due to their multiple applications. The use of plants in the green synthesis of nanoparticles emerges as a cost effective and eco-friendly approach. In this study the green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Callicarpa maingayi stem bark extract has been reported. Characterizations of nanoparticles were done using different methods, which include; ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXF spectrometry, zeta potential measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed absorption peak at around 456 nm. The TEM study showed that mean diameter and standard deviation for the formation of silver nanoparticles were 12.40 ± 3.27 nm. The XRD study showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face centered cubic (fcc structure. The most needed outcome of this work will be the development of value added products from Callicarpa maingayi for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries.

  18. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1 protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS. Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-treated with GTE dietary supplement, and the control, respectively. Our findings by immunocytochemistry showed that abundant HMGB1 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the lung tissues of rats that were exposed to CS, whereas HMGB1 was localized to the nuclei of CSG and C group. For in vitro studies, cotinine stimulated the secretion of HMGB1 in a dose and time dependent manner and the HMGB1 level was suppressed by GTE in murine macrophage cell lines. Our results could suggest that GTE supplementation which could suppress HMGB1 may offer a beneficial effect against diseases.

  19. Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata flower extract separated fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Karuppiah; Priya, Sethuraman

    2017-05-01

    Cassia auriculata L., the flower aqueous extract was fractionated by separating funnel using n-hexane (A1), chloroform (A2), ethyl acetate (A3) and triple distilled water (A4). The A4 fraction was concentrated and determined the presence of preliminary phytochemicals such as tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates and polyphenolic compounds. These phytochemical compounds acted as reducing as well as a stabilizing agent in the green synthesis of Ag NPs from aqueous silver ions. Initially, the colour change and UV-vis absorbance surface Plasmon resonance strong, wide band located at 435 nm has confirmed the synthesis of Ag NPs. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of Ag NPs shows a face-centered cubic crystal structure. The observed values were calculated by Debye-Scherrer equation to theoretical confirms the particle size of 18 nm. The surface morphology of Ag NPs was viewed by HRTEM, the particles are spherical and triangle shapes with sizes from 10 to 35 nm. Further, the Ag NPs was effective catalytic activity in the reduction of highly environmental polluted organic compounds of 4-nitrophenol and methyl orange. The green synthesis of Ag NPs seems to eco-friendly, cost-effective, conventional one spot synthesis and greater performance of catalytic degradation of environmentally polluted organic dyes.

  20. Green Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activities of Silver Nanoparticles using Cell Free-Extracts of Enterococcus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyabo C. OLADIPO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cell-free extracts of six strains of Enterococcus species obtained from fermented foods were used for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, which was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The biosynthesized AgNPs were dark brown in colour having surface plasmon resonance in the range of 420-442 nm. The spherical shaped AgNPs had sizes of 4-55 nm, whose formations were facilitated by proteins as indicated by the presence of peaks 1,635-1,637 and 3,275-3,313 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra. The energy dispersive x-ray (EDX showed prominent presence of silver in the AgNPs colloidal solution, while the selected area electron diffraction was typified by the face-centred crystalline nature of silver. The particles inhibited the growth of multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris, and also potentiated the activities of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and cefuroxime in the AgNPs-antibiotic synergy studies. In addition, the prospective relevance of the particles as nanopreservative in paints was demonstrated with the inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger and A. flavus in AgNPs-paint admixture. This report further demonstrates the green synthesis of AgNPs by strains of Enterococcus species.

  1. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanoparticles are being utilized in every phase of science along with engineering including medical fields and are still charming the scientists to explore new dimensions for their respective worth which is generally attributed to their corresponding small sizes. The up-and-coming researches have proven their antimicrobial significance. Among several noble metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have attained a special focus. Conventionally silver nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical method using chemicals as reducing agents which later on become accountable for various biological risks due to their general toxicity; engendering the serious concern to develop environment friendly processes. Thus, to solve the objective; biological approaches are coming up to fill the void; for instance green syntheses using biological molecules derived from plant sources in the form of extracts exhibiting superiority over chemical and/or biological methods. These plant based biological molecules undergo highly controlled assembly for making them suitable for the metal nanoparticle syntheses. The present review explores the huge plant diversity to be utilized towards rapid and single step protocol preparatory method with green principles over the conventional ones and describes the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles.

  2. Structure, conformation in aqueous solution and antimicrobial activity of ulvan extracted from green seaweed Ulva reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Thanh Van; Truong, Hai Bang; Tran, Nguyen Ha Vy; Quach, Thi Minh Thu; Nguyen, Thi Nu; Bui, Minh Ly; Yuguchi, Yoshiaki; Thanh, Thi Thu Thuy

    2017-12-04

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the structure and investigate the antimicrobial activity of an ulvan obtained by water extraction from green seaweed Ulva reticulata collected at Nha Trang sea of Vietnam by using IR, NMR, SEC-MALLS and SAXS methods. The ulvan is composed of rhamnose, galactose, xylose, manose and glucose (mole ratio Rha: Gal: Xyl: Man: Glu = 1:0.12:0.1:0.06:0.03), uronic acid (22.5%) and sulphate groups (17.6%). Chemically structural determination showed that the ulvan mainly composed of disaccharide [→4)β-D-GlcA(1→4)α-L-Rha3S-(1→]. The results from SAXS indicated that ulvan under study has a rod-like bulky chain conformation. Ulvan from U. reticulata showed high antimicrobial activity, with inhibition zone diameter of 20 mm against Enterobacter cloace and 18 mm against Escherichia coli.

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles Using Lawsonia inermis and Gardenia jasminoides Leaves Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Naseem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has accumulated an ultimate interest over the last decade due to their distinctive properties that make them applicable in various fields of science and technology. Metal nanoparticles that are synthesized by using plants have emerged as nontoxic and ecofriendly. In this study a very cheap and simple conventional heating method was used to obtain the iron nanoparticles (FeNPs using the leaves extract of Lawsonia inermis and Gardenia jasminoides plant. The iron nanoparticles were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The antibacterial activity was studied against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus by using well-diffusion method.

  4. Preparation and characterization of green graphene using grape seed extract for bioapplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaragalla, Srinivasarao [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); Rajendran, Rajakumari; Jose, Jiya [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); AlMaadeed, Mariam A., E-mail: m.alali@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); Kalarikkal, Nandakumar, E-mail: nkkalarikkal@mgu.ac.in [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); Thomas, Sabu, E-mail: sabupolymer@yahoo.com [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India)

    2016-08-01

    The development of functionalized graphene materials concerning health and environmental aspects via green approaches is currently the most recent topic in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using grape seed extract (GSE). Structural properties of the prepared RGO were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV–Visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. These all characterization techniques clearly revealed that the RGO has been successfully prepared. Moreover, the average thickness (4.2 nm) of RGO layers was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties such as band gap and photoluminescence of the synthesized RGO were evaluated. The band gap of RGO was found to be 3.84 eV and it showed emission in the visible region. Efficient antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed with 4 μg ml{sup −1} & 5 μg ml{sup −1} of RGO and also the cell wall damage of these strains has been proved by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro study of RGO (500 μg) disclosed the effective anti-proliferative activity (88%) against HCT-116 cell lines. - Highlights: • Grape seed extract was used for the reduction of graphene oxide. • Detailed structural analysis of RGO was done. • Excellent antimicrobial activity with 4 and 5 μg ml{sup −1} was reported. • Anti-inflammatory activity of RGO was reported. • Excellent anti-cancer activity was reported with just 500 μg of RGO.

  5. Green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

    2014-08-01

    The shell extract of green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

  6. Determination of benzodiazepines in beverages using green extraction methods and capillary HPLC-UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Maurizio; Cappiello, Achille; Famiglini, Giorgio; Termopoli, Veronica; Palma, Pierangela

    2018-05-30

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with and without ultrasound assistance (DLLME, UA-DLLME) and microextraction with packed sorbent (MEPS) methods for the extraction and determination of eight different benzodiazepines (BDZ) (chlordiazepoxide, flurazepam, bromazepam, oxazepam, lorazepam, clobazam, clonazepam, and flunitrazepam) in three commercial non-alcoholic and light alcoholic beverages were optimized and compared. Benzodiazepines are frequently used for their extensive diffusion and strong numbing effect in drug-facilitated crimes (DFC). The tiny small amount of sample required for DLLME and MEPS extraction makes them very suitable for specimens collected at the crime scene of DFCs. Microextraction techniques are of increasing interest thanks to their accordance to green analytical chemistry (GAC) guidelines providing good recovery values. Ultrasound assistance (UA-DLLME) was used to investigate whether this type of energy can improve the recoveries of the analytes. Analyses of the extracts were performed with reverse-phase capillary high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC - UV), thanks to low environmental impact, robustness, diffusion, and affordability. Recovery percentages at three different concentrations in the three beverages were between 14.30% and 103.28% with intraday and interday RSD lower than ±2.78%. The same samples were extracted using a MEPS protocol, and the results were compared with those obtained with DLLME. MEPS gave recoveries between 20.90% and 101.88% for all matrices showing a better performance than DLLME at higher concentrations, though lower recoveries were observed with diluted samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of green tea extract as a safe personal hygiene against viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Ha; Jang, Yo Han; Kim, Young-Seok; Kim, Jinku; Seong, Baik Lin

    2018-01-01

    Viral infections often pose tremendous public health concerns as well as economic burdens. Despite the availability of vaccines or antiviral drugs, personal hygiene is considered as effective means as the first-hand measure against viral infections. The green tea catechins, in particular, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are known to exert potent antiviral activity. In this study, we evaluated the green tea extract as a safe personal hygiene against viral infections. Using the influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) as a model, we examined the duration of the viral inactivating activity of green tea extract (GTE) under prolonged storage at various temperature conditions. Even after the storage for 56 days at different temperatures, 0.1% GTE completely inactivated 10 6 PFU of the virus (6 log 10 reduction), and 0.01% and 0.05% GTE resulted in 2 log 10 reduction of the viral titers. When supplemented with 2% citric acid, 0.1% sodium benzoate, and 0.2% ascorbic acid as anti-oxidant, the inactivating activity of GTE was temporarily compromised during earlier times of storage. However, the antiviral activity of the GTE was steadily recovered up to similar levels with those of the same concentrations of GTE without the supplements, effectively prolonging the duration of the virucidal function over extended period. Cryo-EM and DLS analyses showed a slight increase in the overall size of virus particles by GTE treatment. The results suggest that the virucidal activity of GTE is mediated by oxidative crosslinking of catechins to the viral proteins and the change of physical properties of viral membranes. The durability of antiviral effects of GTE was examined as solution type and powder types over extended periods at various temperature conditions using human influenza A/H1N1 virus. GTE with supplements demonstrated potent viral inactivating activity, resulting in greater than 4 log 10 reduction of viral titers even after storage for up to two months at a wide range of

  8. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using cranberry powder aqueous extract: characterization and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Asmaa A; Raafat, Dina; El-Gowelli, Hanan M; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2015-01-01

    through a simple green route, using cranberry powder aqueous extract as a reducing as well as capping agent.

  9. Direct dissolution and supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from UO2 powder, granule, green pellet and sintered pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Ankita; Kumar, Pradeep; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, direct dissolution and extraction of UO 2 from the solid rejects various stages of fuel fabrication viz. powder granules green pellet and, sintered pellet has been studied. Powder and granules could be easily dissolved in TBP-HNO 3 complex at 50 deg C., whereas in case of green and sintered pellets at elevated temperature at raised to 80 deg C in TBP-HNO 3 complex. With supercritical (SC) CO 2 alone the efficiency was ∼70%. But with SC CO 2 +2.5% TBP, the efficiency was ∼95% for powder and granules, and ∼60% for green and sintered pellets. Nearly complete extraction (∼99%) was achievable for SC CO 2 + 2.5 % TTA in all cases. The method has distinct advantage of elimination of acid usage and minimization of liquid waste generation. (author)

  10. The Antioxidant Capacity of Rosemary and Green Tea Extracts to Replace the Carcinogenic Antioxidant (BHA in Chicken Burgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela A. Pires

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of natural extracts (rosemary and green tea extracts in frozen storage of chicken burgers. Chicken burger treatments were prepared as follows: control (CON, 20 mg BHA/kg (BHA20, 10 mg green tea extract/kg (GT10, 38 mg green tea extract/kg (GT38, 18.6 mg rosemary extract/kg (RO18, and 480 mg rosemary extract/kg (RO480. Analysis of physicochemical parameters, color, TBAR index, and sensory acceptance were performed at 0, 30, 60, and 120 days of storage at −18°C in burgers packaged in LDPE plastic bags. The addition of natural antioxidants did not affect (p>0.05 the color and physicochemical parameters of the chicken burgers. After 120 days at −18°C, the RO480 sample showed a TBAR index similar (p>0.05 to BHA20 (0.423 and 0.369 mg, resp.. Sensory acceptance did not differ (p>0.05 among the treatments throughout the storage period (p>0.05.

  11. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles by Allium sativum extract and their assessment as SERS substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Cristina; Leopold, Loredana Florina; Rugină, Olivia Dumitriţa; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; Leopold, Nicolae; Tofană, Maria; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    A green synthesis was used for preparing stable colloidal gold nanoparticles by using Allium sativum aqueous extract both as reducing and capping agent. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, their potential to be used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was investigated. The obtained gold nanoparticles have spherical shape with mean diameters of 9-15 nm (depending on the amount of reducing agent used under boiling conditions) and are stable up to several months. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the nanoparticles are capped by protein molecules from the extract. The protein shell offers a protective coating, relatively impervious to external molecules, thus, rendering the nanoparticles stable and quite inert. These nanoparticles have the potential to be used as SERS substrates, both in solution and inside human fetal lung fibroblast HFL-1 living cells. We were able to demonstrate both the internalization of the nanoparticles inside HFL-1 cells and their ability to preserve the SERS signal after cellular internalization.

  12. Sliding Window Based Feature Extraction and Traffic Clustering for Green Mobile Cyberphysical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the densification of small base stations and the diversity of user activities bring huge challenges for today’s heterogeneous networks, either heavy burdens on base stations or serious energy waste. In order to ensure coverage of the network while reducing the total energy consumption, we adopt a green mobile cyberphysical system (MCPS to handle this problem. In this paper, we propose a feature extraction method using sliding window to extract the distribution feature of mobile user equipment (UE, and a case study is presented to demonstrate that the method is efficacious in reserving the clustering distribution feature. Furthermore, we present traffic clustering analysis to categorize collected traffic distribution samples into a limited set of traffic patterns, where the patterns and corresponding optimized control strategies are used to similar traffic distributions for the rapid control of base station state. Experimental results show that the sliding window is more superior in enabling higher UE coverage over the grid method. Besides, the optimized control strategy obtained from the traffic pattern is capable of achieving a high coverage that can well serve over 98% of all mobile UE for similar traffic distributions.

  13. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO(3) contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO(3) concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized using Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan-yu; Yang, Hui; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    2016-11-01

    Various parts of plants can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is eco-friendly way and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this project, Ginkgo biloba leaf, an abundantly available medicinal plant in China, was for the first time adopted as a reducing and stabilizing agent to synthesize smaller sized and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To improve the quality of AgNPs, the reduction was accelerated by changing the concentrations of initial Ag+ (0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mol/L) of the reaction mixture consisting of silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) and Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. At pH = 8 and lower AgNO3 concentration (0.02 mol/L), a colloid consisting of well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles was obtained. The synthesized nanocrystals were successfully characterized by UV-vis and XRD. TEM images revealed the size of the spherical AgNPs ranged between 10-16 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activities against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. Compared to traditional chemical methods, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract provides an easy green synthetical way. It is anticipated that the biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications.

  15. Assessment of age and greenness of herbarium specimens as predictors for successful extraction and amplification of DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, R.H.J.; Cross, H.; Maas, J.W.; Hoenselaar, K.; Chatrou, L.W.

    2008-01-01

    Age and the greenness of leaves have been frequently used as indicators for selecting herbarium specimens for molecular studies. Although plant DNA extraction and amplification have been common lab procedures for the past 20 years, no studies specifically investigated the success of these

  16. The effect of green helium-neon laser on the healing of extraction wounds: histological study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli Filho, Walter Domingos; Picon, Luciana Christofolini; Okamoto, Tetuo; Cardenuto, Ney

    1993-01-01

    A histological study on healing of extraction wounds following laser irradiation, using a green He-Ne laser, was carried out in rats. The results suggest that this kind of treatment has no significant beneficial effect on bony wound healing. Proliferation of fibroblasts and formation of trabecular osteoid were found to be not more pro eminent within the irradiated group. (author)

  17. Combining essential oils and olive extract for control of multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the combined antimicrobial effects of plant essential oils and olive extract against antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Newport on organic leafy greens. Organic baby spinach, mature spinach, romaine lettuce, and iceberg lettuce were inoculated with S. Newport and dip-t...

  18. Fitting It All In: Adapting a Green Chemistry Extraction Experiment for Inclusion in an Undergraduate Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Heather L.; Beck, Annelise R.; Mulvihill, Martin J.; Douskey, Michelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Several principles of green chemistry are introduced through this experiment designed for use in the undergraduate analytical chemistry laboratory. An established experiment of liquid CO2 extraction of D-limonene has been adapted to include a quantitative analysis by gas chromatography. This facilitates drop-in incorporation of an exciting…

  19. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huvaere, Kevin André Jurgen; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were...

  20. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  1. Green tea extract only affects markers of oxidative status postprandially: lasting antioxidant effect of flavonoid-free diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J.F.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Haraldsdottir, J.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) used as a food antioxidant on markers of oxidative status after dietary depletion...

  2. Cytotoxicity assay of biosynthesis gold nanoparticles mediated by walnut (Juglans regia) green husk extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadiyan, Zahra; Shameli, Kamyar; Hara, Hirofumi; Mohd Taib, Siti Husnaa

    2018-01-01

    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) produce in plant extract make them attractive for use in medical and industrial applications, it is necessary to develop environmentally friendly methods for their synthesis. This can be accomplished by replacing the traditional chemical compounds for the reduction of the gold ions to Au-NPs during synthesis with natural plant extracts or with plasmas atmospheric pressure. Here, the biosynthesis of Au-NPs using the Juglans regia (J. regia) green husk extract was investigated as the reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of Au-NPs was initially monitored by visual observation and then characterized with the help of various characterization techniques. UV-vis spectroscopy results showed that Au-NPs synthesized using moderate temperature have a blue shifting, good distribution and smaller size compare with Au-NPs fabricated in room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed the distinctive formation of the crystalline structure of Au-NPs with a spherical shape. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the mean diameter and standard deviation of Au-NPs at room and moderate temperatures were 19.19 ± 4.7 and 14.32 ± 3.24 nm, respectively. The result of Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) are in good agreement with each other and confirm that by using the moderate temperature compare to the room temperature the yield of reaction increased. Based on the zeta potential result, Au-NPs has sufficient value for the stability of the solution. According to FTIR spectrum, the J. regia would be coated on the gold ions surface in a successful manner. The non-toxic effect of Au-NPs concentration below 250 μg/ml was observed in the studies of in vitro cytotoxicity on normal and cancerous cell lines, respectively. The dose-dependent toxicity made it a suitable candidate for various medical applications.

  3. Liquid phase micro-extraction: Towards the green methodology for ultratrace metals determination in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-López J. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are normally found, in natural waters, in very low concentrations. Some of them are essential for life in low level; however, in higher level they are toxic. Therefore, analyzing their bio-available fraction is of main interest. Standard methodology is based in the collection of a number of samples from a water body. Collected samples must be stored, pre-treated and then analyzed. Pre-treatment usually involves pre-concentrating the metal, with the corresponding risk of contamination or loss of analyte. This way, punctual information is obtained from every sampling campaign. As an alternative, passive sampling techniques allow the continuous and coupled sampling-pre-treatment for heavy metals analysis, giving a better approach in the characterization of the studied water body. Liquid phase micro-extraction (LPME is a green analytical alternative for liquid-liquid extraction that promotes a reduction of sample volume, solvent needed and waste generation. Using these systems, polypropylene hollow fibers (HF with pores in their walls can be used. A few micro-liters of organic solvent are supported in the pores. The sample is placed in the outer part of the fiber and a receiving phase is placed in its inner part, allowing continuous liquid extraction of the metal from the sample. Several fibers with different physical features have been employed to analyzed total concentration and bio-availability of some heavy metals (Ag, Ni, Cu in natural water samples. Thanks to fibers configuration, devices for passive sampling based in HF-LPME could be designed. Advantages of this methodology over existing ones are supported because the receiving phase is liquid. As a consequence, retained metals do not need to be eluted from the acceptor prior to instrumental analysis.

  4. Modified Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction Using Green Solvent for Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Vegetable Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kin, C.M.; Shing, W.L.

    2016-01-01

    According to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), most of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) known as genotoxic human carcinogen and mutagenic. PAHs represent as poorly degradable pollutants that exist in soils, sediments, surface water and atmosphere. A simple, rapid and sensitive extraction method termed modified Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro extraction (DLLME) using green solvent was developed to determine PAHs in vegetable samples namely radish, cabbage and cucumber prior to Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID). The extraction method is based on replacing chlorinated organic extraction solvent in the conventional DLLME with low toxic solvent, 1-bromo-3-methylbutane without using dispersive solvent. Several experimental factors such as type and volume of extraction solvents, extraction time, confirmation of 12 PAHs by GC-MS, recovery percentages on vegetable samples and the comparative analysis with conventional DLLME were carried out. Both DLLME were successfully extracted 12 types of PAHs. In modified DLLME, the recoveries of the analytes obtained were in a range of 72.72 - 88.07 % with RSD value below 7.5 % which is comparable to the conventional DLLME. The use of microliter of low toxic extraction solvent without addition of dispersive solvent caused the method is economic and environmental friendly which is fulfill the current requirement, green chemistry based analytical method. (author)

  5. A Presurgical Study of Lecithin Formulation of Green Tea Extract in Women with Early Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeroni, Matteo; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Gandini, Sara; Johansson, Harriet; Serrano, Davide; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Aristarco, Valentina; Macis, Debora; Mora, Serena; Caldarella, Pietro; Pagani, Gianmatteo; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Riva, Antonella; Petrangolini, Giovanna; Morazzoni, Paolo; DeCensi, Andrea; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiologic data support an inverse association between green tea intake and breast cancer risk. Greenselect Phytosome (GSP) is a lecithin formulation of a caffeine-free green tea catechin extract. The purpose of the study was to determine the tissue distribution of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and its effect on cell proliferation and circulating biomarkers in breast cancer patients. Twelve early breast cancer patients received GSP 300 mg, equivalent to 44.9 mg of EGCG, daily for 4 weeks prior to surgery. The EGCG levels were measured before (free) and after (total) enzymatic hydrolysis by HPLC-MS/MS in plasma, urine, breast cancer tissue, and surrounding normal breast tissue. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline, before the last administration, and 2 hours later. Repeated administration of GSP achieved levels of total EGCG ranging from 17 to 121 ng/mL in plasma. Despite a high between-subject variability, total EGCG was detectable in all tumor tissue samples collected up to 8 ng/g. Median total EGCG concentration was higher in the tumor as compared with the adjacent normal tissue (3.18 ng/g vs. 0 ng/g, P = 0.02). Free EGCG concentrations ranged from 8 to 65.8 ng/mL in plasma ( P between last administration and 2 hours after breast tumor tissue and is associated with antiproliferative effects on breast cancer tissue. Cancer Prev Res; 10(6); 363-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Biological activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles depends on the applied natural extracts: a comprehensive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rónavári, Andrea; Kovács, Dávid; Igaz, Nóra; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Boros, Imre Miklós; Kónya, Zoltán; Pfeiffer, Ilona; Kiricsi, Mónika

    2017-01-01

    Due to obvious disadvantages of the classical chemical methods, green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has attracted tremendous attention in recent years. Numerous environmentally benign synthesis methods have been developed yielding nanoparticles via low-cost, eco-friendly, and simple approaches. In this study, our aim was to determine the suitability of coffee and green tea extracts in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles as well as to compare the performance of the obtained materials in different biological systems. We successfully produced silver nanoparticles (C-AgNP and GT-AgNP) using coffee and green tea extracts; moreover, based on our comprehensive screening, we delineated major differences in the biological activity of C-AgNPs and GT-AgNPs. Our results indicate that although GT-AgNPs exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against all the examined microbial pathogens, these particles were also highly toxic to mammalian cells, which limits their potential applications. On the contrary, C-AgNPs manifested substantial inhibitory action on the tested microbes but were nontoxic to human and mouse cells, indicating an outstanding capacity to discriminate between potential pathogens and mammalian cells. These results clearly show that the various green materials used for stabilization and for reduction of metal ions have a defining role in determining and fine-tuning the biological activity of the obtained nanoparticles.

  7. Temperature sensitive molecularly imprinted microspheres for solid-phase dispersion extraction of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuko metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lei; Chen, Kuncai; He, Rong; Peng, Rongfei; Huang, Cong

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates the feasibility of an alternative strategy for producing temperature sensitive molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) for solid-phase dispersion extraction of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuko metabolites. Thermo-sensitive MIMs can change their structure following temperature stimulation. This allows capture and release of target molecules to be controlled by temperature. The fabrication technique provides surface molecular imprinting in acetonitrile using vinyl modified silica microspheres as solid supports, methacrylic acid and N-isopropyl acrylamide as the functional monomers, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, and malachite green as the template. After elution of the template, the MIMs can be used for fairly group-selective solid phase dispersion extraction of malachite green, crystal violet, leucomalachite green, and leucocrystal violet from homogenized fish samples at a certain temperature. Following centrifugal separation of the microspheres, the analytes were eluted with a 95:5 mixture of acetonitrile and formic acid, and then quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with isotope internal calibration. The detection limits for malachite green, crystal violet and their metabolites typically are 30 ng·kg −1 . Positive samples were identified by UHPLC-MS/MS in the positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The method was applied to the determination of the dyes and the respective leuko dyes in fish samples, and accuracy and precision were validated by comparative analysis of the samples by using aluminum neutral columns. (author)

  8. Effect of endogenous and exogenous enzymatic treatment of green vanilla beans on extraction of vanillin and main aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardío, Violeta T; Flores, Argel; López, Karla M; Martínez, David I; Márquez, Ofelia; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N

    2018-06-01

    Endogenous and exogenous enzymatic hydrolysis carried out to obtain vanilla extracts with higher concentrations of vanillin using green vanilla beans. Sequences initiated with freezing of green vanilla beans at - 1 °C for 24 h, followed by endogenous hydrolysis under optimal β-glucosidase activity at 4.2 and 35 °C for 96 h, exogenous hydrolysis with Crystalzyme PML-MX at pH 5.0 and 40 °C for 72 h, and ethanol extraction at 40% (v v -1 ) for 30 days. In the proposed method, 200 g of fresh green vanilla beans with 84% moisture (32 g dry base) were used to obtain a liter of single fold vanilla extract. This method allowed the release of 82.57% of the theoretically available vanillin from its precursor glucovanillin with 5.78 g 100 g -1 green vanilla beans (dry base). Vanillic acid, p -hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillyl alcohol were also released and found in commercial and enzymatic extracts. Glucovanillin was detected in commercial and traditional extracts but was absent in enzymatic extracts, indicating incomplete hydrolysis during the curing process. An in vitro assay was conducted to determine if the presence of peroxidase during hydrolysis might affect overall vanillin concentration. Results showed that POD can use vanillin as a substrate under conditions similar to those in which hydrolysis was conducted (pH 5.0 and 50 °C), possibly explaining why vanillin concentration was not complete at the end of the process.

  9. Development of new antioxidant active packaging films based on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) and green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Dicastillo, Carol; Nerin, Cristina; Alfaro, Pilar; Catala, Ramon; Gavara, Rafael; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2011-07-27

    Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) films containing green tea extract were successfully produced by extrusion. The films were brown and translucent, and the addition of the extract increased the water and oxygen barrier at low relative humidity but increased the water sensitivity, the glass transition temperature, and the crystallinity of the films and improved their thermal resistance. An analysis by HPLC revealed that the antioxidant components of the extract suffered partial degradation during extrusion, reducing the content of catechin gallates and increasing the concentration of free gallic acid. Exposure of the films to various food simulants showed that the liquid simulants increased their capacity to reduce DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) radicals. The release of green tea extract components into the simulant monitored by HPLC showed that all compounds present in the green tea extract were partially released, although the extent and kinetics of release were dependent on the type of food. In aqueous food simulants, gallic acid was the main antioxidant component released with partition coefficient values ca. 200. In 95% ethanol (fatty food simulant) the K value for gallic acid decreased to 8 and there was a substantial contribution of catechins (K in the 1000 range) to a greatly increased antioxidant efficiency. Kinetically, gallic acid was released more quickly than catechins, owing to its faster diffusivity in the polymer matrix as a consequence of its smaller molecular size, although the most relevant effect is the plasticization of the matrix by alcohol, increasing the diffusion coefficient >10-fold. Therefore, the materials here developed with the combination of antioxidant substances that constitute the green tea extract could be used in the design of antioxidant active packaging for all type of foods, from aqueous to fatty products, the compounds responsible for the protection being those with the higher compatibility with the packaged product.

  10. Antibacterial Activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa Extracts and Chemical Sanitizers Directly on Green Leaves Contaminated with Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Torres-Vitela, Ma Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Godínez-Oviedo, Angélica; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2018-02-01

    Leafy greens have been associated with foodborne disease outbreaks in different countries. To decrease microbial contamination of leafy greens, chemical agents are commonly used; however, a number of studies have shown these agents to have limited antimicrobial effect against pathogenic bacteria on vegetables. The objective of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, acetic acid, and colloidal silver against foodborne bacteria on leafy greens. Thirteen foodborne bacteria were used in the study: Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella serotypes Typhimurium Typhi, and Montevideo, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, five E. coli pathotypes (Shiga toxin-producing, enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, and enteroaggregative), and Vibrio cholerae O1. Each foodborne bacterium was separately inoculated on romaine lettuce, spinach, and coriander leaves. Separately, contaminated leafy greens were immersed in four hibiscus extracts and in sanitizers for 5 min. Next, green leaves were washed with sterile tap water. Separately, each green leaf was placed in a bag that contained 0.1% sterile peptone water and was rubbed for 2 min. Counts were done by plate count using appropriate dilutions (in sterile peptone water) of the bacterial suspensions spread on Trypticase soy agar plates and incubated at 35 ± 2°C for 48 h. Statistically significant differences ( P caused a significantly greater reduction ( P contaminated romaine lettuce, spinach, and coriander than did the sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid. Dry roselle calyx extracts may potentially be a useful addition to disinfection procedures for romaine lettuce, spinach, and coriander.

  11. Sustainability, Innovation, and Green Chemistry in the Production and Valorization of Phenolic Extracts from Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Romani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a circular economy process based on environmentally and economically sustainable procedures which was applied to the sector of olive oil processing on an industrial scale. Olea europaea L. tissues and by-products represent a renewable and low-cost source of polyphenols, in particular hydroxytyrosol (HTyr, a naturally occurring compound well known for its biological properties. Specifically, green leaves (GL, dried leaves (DL, and pitted olive pulp were treated with water in a pneumatic extractor to obtain the corresponding polyphenolic extracts. Three standardized fractions, named Soft Extract Olea GL, Soft Extract Olea DL, and Soft Extract Olea HTyr resulted after the following two steps: a separation process carried out by membrane technology, and a concentration step performed under reduced pressure and low temperature. The polyphenolic fractions showed antiradical activity and have potential industrial applications in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, feed, and agronomic fields. Novel functionalized extracts containing hydroxytyrosol methyl carbonate (HTyr-MC were obtained from Soft Extract Olea HTyr through an innovative approach based on green chemistry procedures, which appear to be a promising tool to increase the applications of the polyphenolic extracts.

  12. The contents of fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their aqueous extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.N.; Kazi, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The content of fifteen elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined in Green Tea samples imported from different countries such as India, China, Kenya and Bangladesh in packets and without packets were purchased from authorized tea dealers in Peshawar. Wet ashing procedures were employed for decomposing the organic matter in the tea samples. Aqueous extract of each green tea sample was also prepared by heating with de-ionized water at 80 /sup o/C on electric heating plates. (author)

  13. Selective Permeation and Organic Extraction of Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (gfpuv from Escherichia coli

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    Ishii Marina

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transformed cells of Escherichia coli DH5-α with pGFPuv, induced by IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside, express the green fluorescent protein (gfpuv during growth phases. E. coli subjected to the combination of selective permeation by freezing/thawing/sonication cycles followed by the three-phase partitioning extraction (TPP method were compared to the direct application of TPP to the same culture of E. coli on releasing gfpuv from the over-expressing cells. Material and Methods Cultures (37°C/100 rpm/ 24 h; μ = 0.99 h-1 - 1.10 h-1 of transformed (pGFP Escherichia coli DH5-α, expressing the green fluorescent protein (gfpuv, absorbance at 394 nm and emission at 509 nm were sonicated in successive intervals of sonication (25 vibrations/pulse to determine the maximum amount of gfpuv released from the cells. For selective permeation, the transformed previously frozen (-75°C cells were subjected to three freeze/thaw (-20°C/ 0.83°C/min cycles interlaid by sonication (3 pulses/ 6 seconds/ 25 vibrations. The intracellular permeate with gfpuv in extraction buffer (TE solution (25 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM β-mercaptoethanol β-ME, 0.1 mM PMSF was subjected to the three-phase partitioning (TPP method with t-butanol and 1.6 M ammonium sulfate. Sonication efficiency was verified on the application to the cells previously treated by the TPP method. The intra-cell releases were mixed and eluted through methyl HIC column with a buffer solution (10 mM Tris-HCl, 10 mM EDTA, pH 8.0. Results The sonication maximum released amount obtained from the cells was 327.67 μg gfpuv/mL (20.73 μg gfpuv/mg total proteins – BSA, after 9 min of treatment. Through the selective permeation by three repeated freezing/thawing/sonication cycles applied to the cells, a close content of 241.19 μg gfpuv/mL (29.74 μg gfpuv/mg BSA was obtained. The specific mass range of gfpuv released from the same cultures, by the three-phase partitioning (TPP

  14. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2015-04-01

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4.3H2O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  15. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd [Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Periasamy, Vengadesh [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physic, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl{sub 4}.3H{sub 2}O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  16. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2015-01-01

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl 4 .3H 2 O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine

  17. Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-09-01

    Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Development of an active food packaging system with antioxidant properties based on green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gullo, Giuseppe; Bosetti, Osvaldo; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A formula including green tea extract (GTE) was developed as an active food packaging material. This formula was moulded to obtain an independent component/device with antioxidant properties that could be easily coupled to industrial degassing valves for food packaging in special cases. GTE components (i.e., gallic acid, catechins and caffeine) were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV and UPLC-MS and migration/diffusion studies were carried out. Antioxidant properties of the formula alone and formula-valve were measured with static and dynamic methods. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity (scavenging of free radicals) of the new GTE formula was 40% higher than the non-active system (blank). This antioxidant activity increased in parallel with the GTE concentration. The functional properties of the industrial target valve (e.g., flexibility) were studied for different mixtures of GTE, and good results were found with 17% (w/w) of GTE. This new active formula can be an important addition for active packaging applications in the food packaging industry, with oxidative species-scavenging capacity, thus improving the safety and quality for the consumer and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food.

  19. Green tea extract selectively targets nanomechanics of live metastatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, Sarah E; Gimzewski, James K; Jin Yusheng; Lu Qingyi; Rao Jianyu

    2011-01-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) is known to be a potential anticancer agent (Yang et al 2009 Nat. Rev. Cancer 9 429-39) with various biological activities (Lu et al 2005 Clin. Cancer Res. 11 1675-83; Yang et al 1998 Carcinogenesis 19 611-6) yet the precise mechanism of action is still unclear. The biomechanical response of GTE treated cells taken directly from patient's body samples was measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Binnig et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930). We found significant increase in stiffness of GTE treated metastatic tumor cells, with a resulting value similar to untreated normal mesothelial cells, whereas mesothelial cell stiffness after GTE treatment is unchanged. Immunofluorescence analysis showed an increase in cytoskeletal-F-actin in GTE treated tumor cells, suggesting GTE treated tumor cells display mechanical, structural and morphological features similar to normal cells, which appears to be mediated by annexin-I expression, as determined by siRNA analysis of an in vitro cell line model. Our data indicates that GTE selectively targets human metastatic cancer cells but not normal mesothelial cells, a finding that is significantly advantageous compared to conventional chemotherapy agents.

  20. Antioxidant activity of Green tea extract against Isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis continues to be a common health problem worldwide. Isoniazid, an antibiotic used routinely for tuberculosis chemotherapy is documented to be a potent hepatotoxicant. The aim of the present study was to assess the antioxidant activity of Green tea extract (GTE against Isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in the rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 animals each including 1- normal healthy control rats, 2- healthy rats receiving (GTE 3- toxicant control, and 4- toxicant drug+ GTE treatment group. In groups 2 and 4 GTE (1.5%, w/v was given as only source of drinking for 8 weeks. In the midst stage of experiment (4th and 5th weeks, Isonizid (50 mg/kg b.w./day, i.p. was administrated for groups 3 and 4 for a period of 2 weeks. At the end of experiment, product of lipid peroxidation (MDA, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and glutathione reductase (GR were assayed in liver homogenates to evaluate antioxidant activity. Significant differences among the groups were determined by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p

  1. Green synthesis of Au nanoparticles using potato extract: stability and growth mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-López, D. N.; Pal, U.

    2014-08-01

    We report on the synthesis of spherical, well-dispersed colloidal gold nanoparticles of 17.5-23.5 nm average sizes in water using potato extract (PE) both as reducing and stabilizing agent. The effects of PE content and the pH value of the reaction mixture have been studied. Formation and growth dynamics of the Au nanoparticles in the colloids were studied using transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis optical absorption spectroscopy techniques. While the reductor content and, hence, the nucleation and growth rates of the nanoparticles could be controlled by controlling the PE content in the reaction solution, the stability of the nanoparticles depended strongly on the pH of the reaction mixture. The mechanisms of Au ion reduction and stabilization of Au nanoparticles by potato starch have been discussed. The use of common natural solvent like water and biological reductor like PE in our synthesis process opens up the possibility of synthesizing Au nanoparticles in fully green (environmental friendly) way, and the Au nanoparticles produced in such way should have good biocompatibility.

  2. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata and their antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Hanumanta; N, Lakshmidevi; Pammi, S V N; Kollu, Pratap; S, Ganapaty; P, Lakshmi

    2016-05-01

    Since the discovery and subsequent widespread use of antibiotics, a variety of bacterial species of human and animal origin have developed numerous mechanisms that render bacteria resistant to some, and in certain cases to nearly all antibiotics, thereby limiting the treatment options and compromising effective therapy. In the present study, the green synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out by the reduction of silver acetate in the presence of crude methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata, a member of family Ebenaceae. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 428 nm, a characteristic peak of silver nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver. The average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which is in good agreement with the average crystallite size (19 nm) calculated from XRD analysis. Further the study has been extended to the antimicrobial activity against test pathogenic Gram (+), Gram (-) bacterial and fungal strains. The biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed promising activity against all the tested pathogenic strains and the activity has been enhanced with the increased dose levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae) green fruits in normal and diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O; Adewunmi, C O

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a debilitating hormonal disorder in which strict glycemic control and prevention of associated complications are of crucial importance. This study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of mature, green fruits of Musa paradisiaca (MEMP) in normal (normoglycemic) and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated, diabetic (hyperglycemic) mice, using chlorpropamide as the reference antidiabetic agent. MEMP (100-800 mg/kg p.o.) induced significant, dose-related (p < 0.05-0.001) reductions in the blood glucose concentrations of both normal and diabetic mice. Chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) also produced significant (p < 0.01-0.001) reductions in the blood glucose concentrations of normal and diabetic mice. The results of this experimental study indicate that, in the mammalian model used, MEMP possesses hypoglycemic activity. Although the precise mechanism of the hypoglycemic action of MEMP is still unclear and will have to await further studies, it could be due, at least in part, to stimulation of insulin production and subsequent glucose utilization. Nevertheless, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that MEMP possesses hypoglycemic activity, and thus lends credence to the suggested folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of adult-onset, type-2 diabetic mellitus among the Yoruba-speaking people of South-Western Nigeria.

  4. Effects of Green Tea Extracts on the Pharmacokinetics of Quetiapine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Ezzeldin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic, used clinically in the treatment of schizophrenia, acute mania in bipolar disorders, and bipolar depression in adults. In this study, the effect of green tea extracts (GTE on the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine (substrate of CYP3A4 was investigated in rats. Male Wistar albino rats received GTE (175 mg/kg or saline (control by oral gavage for 7 days before a single intragastric administration of 25 mg/kg quetiapine. Plasma concentrations of quetiapine were measured up to 12 h after its administration by a validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Pretreatment with GTE produced significant reductions in the maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve of quetiapine by 45% and 35%, respectively, compared to quetiapine alone. However, GTE did not produce significant change in elimination half-life and oral clearance of quetiapine. This study concluded that GTE may decrease the bioavailability of quetiapine when coadministered.

  5. Cadmium removal from aqueous solution by green synthesis zero valent silver nanoparticles with Benjamina leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairia M. Al-Qahtani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (II is an important element used in various industries, however, it is a poisonous element that affects the health of plants, animals and humans alike. It’s very important to remove this element from contaminated waters. This study aims at synthesizing zero valent silver nanoparticles by environmentally ecofriendly method without using hazardous compounds (via green approach. In this work, silver nanoparticles were prepared using hot water for the Ficus tree (Ficus Benjamina leaf extract (FBLE. The size of crystalline for AgNPs was measured by UV–vis spectroscopy and flourier transform infrared (FTIR. The properties of nano-silver particles (AgNPs have been studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The capability of nanoparticles to remove Cd2+ from contaminated solution was then studied. Parameter like adsorbent dose, heavy metal concentration, pH, agitation speed and contact time were studied. Cadmium removal increased when the dosage of biosorbent increases, pH increased from 1 to 6, contact time from 5 to 40 and initial concentration of Cd decrease. Isotherm adsorption was also described by the Freundleich model with a constant correlation (R2 higher than 0.973.

  6. Pulsed electric field pretreatment of rapeseed green biomass (stems) to enhance pressing and extractives recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Gouyo, T; Grimi, N; Bals, O; Vorobiev, E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) pretreatment on the valorization of extractives (proteins and polyphenols) from rapeseed green biomass (stems) by pressing. The effect of pressure, electric field strength and pulse number on the juice expression yield, total polyphenols and total proteins content in the expressed juices were studied. Experiments conducted under optimal conditions (E = 8 kV/cm, tPEF = 2 ms, P = 10 bar) permitted to increase the juice expressed yield from 34% to 81%. Significant increases in total polyphenols content (0.48 vs. 0.10 g GAE/100g DM), in total proteins content (0.14 vs. 0.07 g BSA/100g DM) and in consolidation coefficient (9.0 × 10(-8) vs. 2.2 × 10(-8)m(2)/s) were also observed after PEF pretreatment. The recovered press cake was well dehydrated with an increase of dry matter content from 8.8% to 53.0%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structure and cytotoxic activity of ulvan extracted from green seaweed Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Thi Thu Thuy; Quach, Thi Minh Thu; Nguyen, Thi Nu; Vu Luong, Dang; Bui, Minh Ly; Tran, Thi Thanh Van

    2016-12-01

    The structure of an ulvan obtained by water extraction from green seaweed Ulva lactuca was elucidated by using IR, NMR, SEC-MALL and ESIMS methods. The ulvan was also evaluated for its cytotoxic effects on three human cancer cell lines. The results showed that the ulvan was composed of rhamnose, galactose, xylose, manose, glucose (with a mole ratio of Rha: Gal: Xyl: Man: Glu equal to 1: 0.03: 0.07: 0.01: 0.06), uronic acid (21.5%) and sulfate content (18.9%) with a molecular weight of 347000. This ulvan mainly consists of disaccharide [→4)-β-d-GlcA-(1→4)-α-l-Rha3S-(1→] and other minor disaccharide β-GlcA-(1→2)-α-Xyl and β-GlcA-(→2)-α-Rha. The ulvan showed a significant cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (IC 50 29.67±2.87μg/ml), human breast cancer (IC 50 25.09±1.36μg/ml), and cervical cancer (IC 50 36.33±3.84μg/ml). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/green tea extract composite nanofiber mats and their antioxidant activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusporini, Pusporini; Edikresnha, Dhewa; Sriyanti, Ida; Suciati, Tri; Miftahul Munir, Muhammad; Khairurrijal, Khairurrijal

    2018-05-01

    Electrospinning was employed to make PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone)/GTE (green tea extract) composite nanofiber mats. The electrospun PVP nanofiber mat as well as the PVP/GTE nanofiber mats were uniform. The average fiber diameter of PVP/GTE composite nanofiber mat decreased with increasing the GTE weight fraction (or decreasing the PVP weight fraction) in the PVP/GTE solution because the PVP/GTE solution concentration decreased. Then, the broad FTIR peak representing the stretching vibrations of O–H in hydroxyl groups of phenols and the stretching of N–H in amine groups of the GTE paste shifted to higher wavenumbers in the PVP/GTE composite nanofiber mats. These peak shifts implied that PVP and catechins of GTE in the PVP/GTE composite nanofiber mats had intermolecular interactions via hydrogen bonds between carbonyl groups of PVP and hydroxyl groups of catechins in GTE. Lastly, the antioxidant activity of the PVP/GTE composite nanofiber mat increased with reducing the average fiber diameter because the amount of catechins in the composite nanofiber mat increased with the increase of surface area due to the reduction of the average fiber diameter.

  9. The Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio Reveals the Prooxidant Effect of Green Tea Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tea increased plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity, the European Food Safety Administration (EFSA denied claims related to tea and its protection from oxidative damage. Furthermore, the Supplement Information Expert Committee (DSI EC expressed some doubts on the safety of green tea extract (GTE. We performed a pilot study in order to evaluate the effect of a single dose of two capsules of a GTE supplement (200 mg × 2 on the peroxidation of leukocytes index ratio (PLIR in relation to uric acid (UA and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP, as well as the sample size to reach statistical significance. GTE induced a prooxidant effect on leukocytes, whereas FRAP did not change, in agreement with the EFSA and the DSI EC conclusions. Besides, our results confirm the primary role of UA in the antioxidant defences. The ratio based calculation of the PLIR reduced the sample size to reach statistical significance, compared to the resistance to an exogenous oxidative stress and to the functional capacity of oxidative burst. Therefore, PLIR could be a sensitive marker of redox status.

  10. Solvent extraction of W(VI) and Hg(II) with malachite green and rhodamine-B respectively into organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, V.B.; David, M.M.; Turel, Z.R.

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous malachite green and alcoholic rhodamine-B have been used for the extraction of tungsten( W(VI)) and mercury( Hg(II)) respectively into nitrobenzene. This paper deals with developing a rapid method and selective method for the extraction of tungsten(W(VI)) and mercury (Hg(II)) using malachite green and rhodamine-B respectively. 185 W and 203 Hg were used as tracers for studying the extraction process.(author). 2 refs., 2 tab

  11. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from purple sweet potato using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenzhou; Guan, Qingyan; Guo, Ying; He, Jingren; Liu, Gang; Li, Shuyi; Barba, Francisco J.; Jaffrin, Michel Y.

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize experimental conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of valuable components (anthocyanins and phenolics) from purple sweet potatoes using water as a solvent. The Box-Behnken design was used for optimizing extraction responses of anthocyanin extraction yield, phenolic extraction yield, and specific energy consumption. Conditions to obtain maximal anthocyanin extraction yield, maximal phenolic extraction yield, and minimal specific energy consumption were different; an overall desirability function was used to search for overall optimal conditions: extraction temperature of 68ºC, ultrasonic treatment time of 52 min, and a liquid/solid ratio of 20. The optimized anthocyanin extraction yield, phenolic extraction yield, and specific energy consumption were 4.91 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight, 3.24 mg g-1 fresh weight, and 2.07 kWh g-1, respectively, with a desirability of 0.99. This study indicates that ultrasound-assisted extraction should contribute to a green process for valorization of purple sweet potatoes.

  12. The analysis of aroma/flavor compounds in green tea using ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluhayb, Abdullah H; Logue, Brian A

    2017-10-06

    Worldwide, green tea is one of the most popular beverages. It promotes blood circulation, liver function, and lowers the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This drink is characterized by the distinctive odors and flavors produced by its constituent compounds, with its value predicated on the amount and type of constituents extracted from the tea leaves during brewing. Ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer (ICECLES) is a novel sample preparation technique, especially applicable for the extraction of relatively polar compounds while retaining excellent extraction efficiencies for non-polar compounds. In this study, ICECLES was used to prepare green tea for analysis of aroma/flavor compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ICECLES performed very well, revealing 301 constituents as compared to 245 for SBSE (i.e., 56 more constituents were detected via ICECLES). Moreover, ICECLES produced stronger signal to noise ratios for all except 4 of 301 constituents, with a maximum signal enhancement of 19. Of the constituents which were only detectable using ICECLES, some very important aroma/flavor and/or medicinal compounds were easily identified, including furfural, furfural alcohol, maltol, eugenol, 2-methylpyrazine, phenethyl alcohol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and α-terpineol. Overall, we confirmed that ICECLES sample preparation followed by GC-MS consistently allowed more complete green tea aroma/flavor analysis, especially for relatively polar compounds, some of which are critical for flavor quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Properties and antioxidant action of actives cassava starch films incorporated with green tea and palm oil extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátya Karine Nery Carneiro Lins Perazzo

    Full Text Available There is an interest in the development of an antioxidant packaging fully biodegradable to increase the shelf life of food products. An active film from cassava starch bio-based, incorporated with aqueous green tea extract and oil palm colorant was developed packaging. The effects of additives on the film properties were determined by measuring mechanical, barrier and thermal properties using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack butter (maintained for 45 days under accelerated oxidation conditions. The antioxidant action of the active films was evaluated by analyzing the peroxide index, total carotenoids, and total polyphenol. The same analysis also evaluated unpacked butter, packed in films without additives and butter packed in LDPE films, as controls. The results suggested that incorporation of the antioxidants extracts tensile strength and water vapor barrier properties (15 times lower compared to control without additives. A lower peroxide index (231.57%, which was significantly different from that of the control (p<0.05, was detected in products packed in film formulations containing average concentration of green tea extracts and high concentration of colorant. However, it was found that the high content of polyphenols in green tea extract can be acted as a pro-oxidant agent, which suggests that the use of high concentration should be avoided as additives for films. These results support the applicability of a green tea extract and oil palm carotenoics colorant in starch films totally biodegradable and the use of these materials in active packaging of the fatty products.

  14. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some selected green seaweed extracts from Muttam coastal areas, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushparaj Arunachalam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the selected marine green algae Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca, Cheatomorpha linoides and Helimeda macroloba against six strains of Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus] and Gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis]. Methods: The selected green seaweed extracts were experimented with four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and chloroform against the selected pathogens by using agar disc diffusion method. Results: The maximum activity (7 mm was observed by the extract of U. lactuca against Proteus mirabilis by using methanol as a solvent and the lowest activity (2 mm was recorded by the extract of U. lactuca against L. acidophilus by using chloroform as a solvent and ethanol extract against P. aeruginosa. The lowest activity (2 mm was seen in the extract of Cheatomorpha linoides by using ethanol and methanol as a solvent against S. aureus. In Helimeda macroloba extract, the lowest activity was recorded against Escherichia coli by using chloroform as a solvent. The microbial strains S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and L. acidophilus were resistant to the chloroform and methanol of all selected seaweeds. Conclusions: Further study should be needed to identify the prime compound which is responsible for the activity against the selected pathogens especially those causing the human diseases.

  15. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Camellia sinensis extract: a green approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumari, J. Celina; Ahila, M.; Malligavathy, M.; Padiyan, D. Pathinettam

    2017-09-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles were cost-effectively synthesized using nontoxic chemicals and green tea ( Camellia sinensis) extract via a green synthesis method. The structural properties of the obtained nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction, which indicated that the crystallite size was less than 20 nm. The particle size and morphology of the nanoparticles were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The morphological analysis revealed agglomerated spherical nanoparticles with sizes varying from 5 to 30 nm. The optical properties of the nanoparticles' band gap were characterized using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The band gap was found to decrease with increasing annealing temperature. The O vacancy defects were analyzed using photoluminescence spectroscopy. The increase in the crystallite size, decreasing band gap, and the increasing intensities of the UV and visible emission peaks indicated that the green-synthesized SnO2 may play future important roles in catalysis and optoelectronic devices.

  16. EXTRACTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CAROTENOIDS IN GREEN EATABLE VEGETABLES – A PROPOSAL FOR PRACTICAL CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S Paiva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The  carotenoids  are  natural  colored  pigments  varying  from  yellow  to  red.  They  are  divided  in  carotenes,  as  β-carotene  and lycopene, and their oxygenated derivatives, the xanthophylls, as astaxanthin present in shellfishes.  β-carotenes are precursors of vitamin A being an important anti-oxidant molecule. Both β-carotene and lycopene, have been  used  in  the  cancer  inhibition.  In  the  present  work,  we  detected  the  presence  of  carotenoids  using  thin  layer chromatography (TLC for the separation of the pigments of green eatable vegetables, aiming the application of those methods  in  the  practical  classes  of  the  Biological  Science  Course  of  UFPE.  Spinacia  oleracea  (spinach,  Brassica oleracea (cabbage and Lactuca sativa (lettuce were macerated with washed send in the presence of sodium sulfate followed by the addition of 25 ml of hexane until total homogeneity. The extracts were filtrated, washed with 10 ml of hexane, concentrated in vacuum  evaporator  and resuspended in hexane. The  hexanic extract was applied  on silica gel  G  plates  activated  at  120°C  for  30  min.  The  chromatogram  was  developed  in  hexane-benzene-pyridine  system (40:5:5.  All  the  used  solvents  were  from  analytical  grade,  β-carotene  (C40H56  and  astaxanthin  (C40H52O4  from Sigma  St.  Louis  – USA  were  used  as  standards.  Meanwhile,  the  lycopene  was  identified  by  a  comparison  with  the same compound present in a tomato extract. The results demonstrated that β-carotene has a higher concentration in the  spinach  and  cabbage  than  in  the  lettuce.  However,  lettuce  presented  more  lycopene  than  the  others  two vegetables. Astaxanthin was not detected in all studied vegetables. In conclusion, green eatable vegetables could be a  good  source  of

  17. The effect of green tea extract on the removal of sulfur-containing oral malodor volatiles in vitro and its potential application in chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q C; Wu, A Z; Pika, J

    2010-09-01

    Increasing pH solution from 7.5 to 8.0 was found to significantly improve the effectiveness of green tea extract for methanethiol removal in vitro. Green tea extract was also found to remove hydrogen sulfide and its effectiveness was greatly improved under alkaline conditions. It was found that with green tea extract, maximum H₂S removal was achieved when the pH was between 8.1 and 8.4 at 37 °C for 5 min. Further increases in pH resulted in decrease of the extract effectiveness. Vegetable acetone powders which contain polyphenol oxidases or peroxidases were found to further enhance the effectiveness for the removal of thiols when used in combination with green tea extracts at body temperature under alkaline conditions. Adding 5% baking soda to green tea extract-containing chewing gum was found to buffer saliva pHs to 8.0 during 10 min of chewing. However, severe discoloration was observed and undesirable bitterness was perceived, most likely due to the polymerization of unencapsulated green tea polyphenols. Therefore, encapsulation of green tea extract is recommended for applications at elevated pHs.

  18. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Xiao, Ting T.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results. PMID:26200774

  19. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results.

  20. Effect of Interface Nanotexture on Light Extraction of InGaN-Based Green Light Emitting Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao-Bo, Pan; Sheng-Li, Qi; Hao, Fang; Guo-Yi, Zhang; Mao-Sheng, Hao

    2010-01-01

    We report the enhancement of the light extraction of InGaN-based green light emitting diodes (LEDs) via the interface nanotexturing. The texture consists of high-density nanocraters on the surface of a sapphire substrate with an in situ etching. The width of nanocraters is about 0.5 μm and the depth is around 0.1 μm. It is demonstrated that the LEDs with interface texture exhibit about a 27% improvement in luminance intensity, compared with standard LEDs. High power InGaN-based green LEDs are obtained by using the interface nanotexture. An optical ray-tracing simulation is performed to investigate the effect of interface nanotexture on light extraction. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. The Powdering Process with a Set of Ceramic Mills for Green Tea Promoted Catechin Extraction and the ROS Inhibition Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For serving green tea, there are two prominent methods: steeping the leaf or the powdered leaf (matcha style in hot water. The purpose of the present study was to reveal chemical and functional differences before and after the powdering process of green tea leaf, since powdered green tea may contribute to expanding the functionality because of the different ingesting style. In this study, we revealed that the powdering process with a ceramic mill and stirring in hot water increased the average extracted concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG by more than three times compared with that in leaf tea using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography–tandem mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses. Moreover, powdered green tea has a higher inhibition effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS production in vitro compared with the same amount of leaf tea. Our data suggest that powdered green tea might have a different function from leaf tea due to the higher catechin contents and particles.

  2. Topical application of green and white tea extracts provides protection from solar-simulated ultraviolet light in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camouse, Melissa M; Domingo, Diana Santo; Swain, Freddie R; Conrad, Edward P; Matsui, Mary S; Maes, Daniel; Declercq, Lieve; Cooper, Kevin D; Stevens, Seth R; Baron, Elma D

    2009-06-01

    Tea polyphenols have been found to exert beneficial effects on the skin via their antioxidant properties. We sought to determine whether topical application of green tea or white tea extracts would prevent simulated solar radiation-induced oxidative damages to DNA and Langerhans cells that may lead to immune suppression and carcinogenesis. Skin samples were analysed from volunteers or skin explants treated with white tea or green tea after UV irradiation. In another group of patients, the in vivo immune protective effects of green and white tea were evaluated using contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene. Topical application of green and white tea offered protection against detrimental effects of UV on cutaneous immunity. Such protection is not because of direct UV absorption or sunscreen effects as both products showed a sun protection factor of 1. There was no significant difference in the levels of protection afforded by the two agents. Hence, both green tea and white tea are potential photoprotective agents that may be used in conjunction with established methods of sun protection.

  3. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  4. Combining protein extraction and anaerobic digestion to produce feed, fuel and fertilizer from green biomass – An organic biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Maria Santamaria; Salces, Beatriz Molinuevo; Lübeck, Mette

    Organically grown green biomass (red clover, clover grass) was investigated as a resource for organic feed and organic fertilizer by combination of proteins extraction and anaerobic digestion of the residues. Extraction of proteins from both crops revealed very favourable amino acid composition...... for the use as animal feed. The residual 90% of organic matter, leaving the separation as solid press cake and brown juice was subjected to anaerobic digestion to produce biogas and fertilizer. Methane yields of 220-310 and 430-540 ml CH4/g VS were obtained for press cake and brown juice, respectively...

  5. Biotransformation of catechin and extraction of active polysaccharide from green tea leaves via simultaneous treatment with tannase and pectinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Joo Hyun; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Park, Yooheon; Yu, Kwang-Won; Suh, Hyung Joo; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2015-08-30

    Green tea is a dietary source of bioactive compounds for human health. Enzymatic treatments induce the bioconversion of bioactive components, which can improve biological activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of simultaneous treatment with tannase and Rapidase on biotransformation of catechins and extraction of polysaccharide from green tea extract (GTE). Tannase and pectinase treatments induced the biotransformation of catechins and altered tea polysaccharide () content. The addition of GTE to the enzyme reaction resulted in a significant increase in degallated catechins, including gallic acid, a product of the tannase reaction (314.5-4076.0 µg mL(-1)) and a reduction in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Biotransformation of catechins improved the radical scavenging activity of GTE. Pectinase treatment led to change of TPS composition in GTE by hydrolyzing polysaccharides. In addition, pectinase-driven hydrolysis in polysaccharides significantly increased TPS-induced Interleukin 6 (IL-6) production in macrophages. In particular, treatment of Rapidase (TPS-Ra) led to the highest IL-6 production among TPS samples, similar to treatment of highly purified pectinase (TPS-GTE), a positive control. Simultaneous processing with tannase and Rapidase can be an efficient method for the extraction of bioactive polysaccharides and biotransformation of catechins with enhanced radical scavenging activity from green tea. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Use of Extracted Green Inhibitors as a Friendly Choice in Corrosion Protection of Low Alloy Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jano, A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of corrosion impact on environment is an important step in environmental protection. Use of environmentally friendly corrosion protection methods is very important. It is smart to choose cheap and safe to handle compounds as corrosion inhibitors. The use of green inhibitors (extracted inexpensively, from the seed endosperm of some Leguminosae plants, and investigation of their efficiency in corrosion protection is the aim of this study. As green inhibitor one kind of polysaccharides (galactomannan from locust bean gum (also known as carob gum, carob bean gum extracted from the seed of carob tree is used. Corrosion protection efficiency of these extracted green inhibitors was tested for carbon steel marked as: steel 39, steel 44, and iron B 500 (usually applied as reinforcing bars to concrete. Sulfuric acid solution in the presence of chloride ions was used as corrosion media. The composition of corrosion acid media used was 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 and 10-3 mol L-1 Cl- (in the form of NaCl. Electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization methods were used for inhibitor efficiency testing.

  7. Effect of extraction time on antioxidants and bioactive volatile components of green tea (Camellia sinensis, using GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two green tea types, leaf grade and sanding, were extracted at different time intervals: 20, 40, and 120 min at a constant temperature of 50°C. The extracts were analyzed by GC/MS technique. The major compounds identified were myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, 1H-purine-2,6-dione, caffeine, linoleic acid, diethyl ester, and 1H-purine-6-amine. Stearic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and myristic acid were more abundantly present in the leaf-grade variety than sanding. However, some levels of acetic acid, cyclobutanol, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, and caffeine were also found in both the tea types. Most of the volatile compounds were detected between 20–40-min time of extraction. The 40-min time of extraction also showed the maximum content of polyphenols and antioxidants in both the tea types. Thus, 40 min was suggested as the most suitable time for maximum extraction of bioactive volatiles, antioxidants, and polyphenols from green tea.

  8. Use of Vegetable Waste Extracts for Controlling Microstructure of CuO Nanoparticles: Green Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical syntheses involve either hazardous reactants or byproducts which adversely affect the environment. It is, therefore, desirable to develop synthesis processes which either do not involve hazardous reactants or consume all the reactants giving no byproducts. We have synthesized CuO nanoparticles (NPs adhering to some of the principles of green chemistry. The CuO NPs have been synthesized exploiting extracts of vegetable wastes, that is, Cauliflower waste and Potatoes and Peas peels. The extracts were aimed to work as capping agents to get control over the microstructure and morphology of the resulting CuO NPs. The green synthesized CuO NPs were characterized to explore the microstructure, morphology, optical bandgaps, and photocatalytic performances. XRD revealed that the CuO NPs of all the samples crystallized in a single crystal system, that is, monoclinic. However, the morphologies and the optical bandgaps energies varied as a function of the extract of vegetable waste. Similarly, the CuO NPs obtained through different extracts have shown different photocatalytic activities. The CuO NPs produced with extract of Cauliflower have shown high degradation of MB (96.28% compared to obtained with Potatoes peels (87.37% and Peas peels (79.11%.

  9. Protocol for MInimizing the Risk of Metachronous Adenomas of the CoLorectum with Green Tea Extract (MIRACLE: a randomised controlled trial of green tea extract versus placebo for nutriprevention of metachronous colon adenomas in the elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockmöller Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of colorectal cancer is a major health care issue. People who have undergone colonoscopy screening and had colorectal polyps removed have a higher risk of being diagnosed with polyps again compared to the normal population. Therefore, it would be ideal to find appropriate means that effectively help to prevent the reoccurrence of polyps after polypectomy. So far, pharmaceutical chemoprevention with NSAIDs including aspirin has been shown to be effective but not gained general acceptance due to side effects. Nutraceuticals such as polyphenols from tea plants have demonstrated remarkable therapeutic and preventive effects in molecular, epidemiological and clinical trials. However, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating the efficacy of nutraceuticals for the (secondary prevention of colorectal polyps as precursors for colorectal cancer are missing. Methods/Design We present the design of a randomized, placebo controlled, multicentre trial to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with green tea extract containing 300 mg epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the major polyphenol in green tea, on the recurrence of colon adenomas. Patients who have undergone polypectomy for colonic polyps will be randomized to receive either green tea extract containing 150 mg EGCG two times daily or a placebo over the course of three years. After a one month run-in period in which all patients will receive the active intervention, 2534 patients will be randomized, and 2028 patients are expected to complete the whole study course. Incidence, number and histology of adenoma at endpoint colonoscopy at three years will be compared in both groups. Discussion The beneficial safety profile of decaffeinated green tea extract, the quantifiable and known active content EGCG, and the accumulating evidence of its cancer preventive potential require, in our view, a validation of this compound for the nutriprevention of colorectal adenoma. Good

  10. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed

  11. Development of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yuzhi; Xu, Kaijia; Huang, Yanhua; Wen, Qian; Ding, Xueqin

    2016-05-15

    Six kinds of new type of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized. Deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase systems (DES-ATPS) were established and successfully applied in the extraction of protein. Betaine-urea (Be-U) was selected as the suitable extractant. Single factor experiments were carried out to determine the optimum conditions of the extraction process, such as the salt concentration, the mass of DES, the separation time, the amount of protein, the temperature and the pH value. The extraction efficiency could achieve to 99.82% under the optimum conditions. Mixed sample and practical sample analysis were discussed. The back extraction experiment was implemented and the back extraction efficiency could reach to 32.66%. The precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were investigated. UV-vis, FT-IR and circular dichroism (CD) spectra confirmed that the conformation of protein was not changed during the process of extraction. The mechanisms of extraction were researched by dynamic light scattering (DLS), the measurement of the conductivity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DES-protein aggregates and embraces phenomenon play considerable roles in the separation process. All of these results indicated that betaine-based DES-ATPS may provide a potential substitute new method for the separation of proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic responses and β-carotene production by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina exposed to leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Einali

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present work investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus globulus and elderberry ( Sambucus ebulus leaves on β-carotene productivity in Dunaliella salina, a green microalga. Leaf extracts from eucalyptus have greater amounts of phenolics and flavonoids, as well as greater ferric reducing antioxidant potential than elderberry. The extracts of both species greatly inhibited growth of algal suspensions. However, chlorophyll and β-carotene concentration increased in cells treated with leaf extracts, and the highest values were detected in 1 % eucalyptus and 2 % elderberry extracts. Fresh weight, total sugar, and protein content significantly increased following exposure of cells to different doses of leaf extracts. However, in doses containing more than 2 % eucalyptus, the upward trend for total sugar and protein ceased and remained statistically unchanged. These results suggest that metabolic modifications enable D. salina cells to tolerate the stress induced by the leaf extracts through allocating carbon flux to the synthesis of osmolytes and putative antioxidant molecules (e.g. sugars and β-carotene. Therefore, the use of leaf extracts holds potential to be a promising and effective way to improve D. salina cultivation for β-carotene production and other biotechnological and industrial applications.

  13. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle L TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Green Sirih (Piper betle L Extract towards Food Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliantari1

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Green sirih (Piper betle L extract were prepared using water, ethanol and ethyl acetate extraction of the dried materials. The extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. At concentrations 10-50% the extracts effectively inhibited the growth of all tested bacteria as shown by the clear zones which varied from 7 to 24 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC varied from 0.1 to 1 %. E. coli, S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were more resistance to the green sirih extracts than other tested bacteria. The results showed that in general, ethanol extraction produced the best extract with strong antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus. Analysis of the extract components with GC-MS revealed that sirih extract contained phenol, chavicol, eugenol, caryophylene, cylene, chalarene and others.

  14. Rooibos Flavonoids Inhibit the Activity of Key Adrenal Steroidogenic Enzymes, Modulating Steroid Hormone Levels in H295R Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindie Schloms

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Major rooibos flavonoids—dihydrochalcones, aspalathin and nothofagin, flavones—orientin and vitexin, and a flavonol, rutin, were investigated to determine their influence on the activity of adrenal steroidogenic enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD2 and cytochrome P450 (P450 enzymes, P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1, P450 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2 and P450 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1. All the flavonoids inhibited 3βHSD2 and CYP17A1 significantly, while the inhibition of downstream enzymes, CYP21A2 and CYP11B1, was both substrate and flavonoid specific. The dihydrochalcones inhibited the activity of CYP21A2, but not that of CYP11B1. Although rutin, orientin and vitexin inhibited deoxycortisol conversion by CYP11B1 significantly, inhibition of deoxycorticosterone was <20%. These three flavonoids were unable to inhibit CYP21A2, with negligible inhibition of deoxycortisol biosynthesis only. Rooibos inhibited substrate conversion by CYP17A1 and CYP21A2, while the inhibition of other enzyme activities was <20%. In H295R cells, rutin had the greatest inhibitory effect on steroid production upon forskolin stimulation, reducing total steroid output 2.3-fold, while no effect was detected under basal conditions. Nothofagin and vitexin had a greater inhibitory effect on overall steroid production compared to aspalathin and orientin, respectively. The latter compounds contain two hydroxyl groups on the B ring, while nothofagin and vitexin contain a single hydroxyl group. In addition, all of the flavonoids are glycosylated, albeit at different positions—dihydrochalcones at C3' and flavones at C8 on ring A, while rutin, a larger molecule, has a rutinosyl moiety at C3 on ring C. Structural differences regarding the number and position of hydroxyl and glucose moieties as well as structural flexibility could indicate different mechanisms by which these flavonoids influence the activity of adrenal steroidogenic enzymes.

  15. Antioxidant efficacy of crude methanol extract of ashitaba green tea against radiation induced oxidative stress in E.coli K12 bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darshan Raj, C.G.; Sindhu Priya, E.S.; Sarojini, B.K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity of methanol crude extract of ashitaba green tea (G). The DPPH scavenging assay was evaluated for green tea extract to determine its radical scavenging capacity. The bacteria was pretreated with ashitaba green tea extract, quercetin (Q) and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate (E) at below MIC level. Oxidative stress was induced at 0.4 Gy using gamma radiation. The antioxidant efficacy of ashitaba green tea was evaluated through enzyme antioxidant studies like SOD (Superoxidedismutase) and CAT (Catalase). The oxidative stress marker Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) was also evaluated. Further the protective efficacy of the(G) was confirmed by colony forming units (CFU) study. Among the tested compounds the crude extract of ashitaba (G) exhibited excellent antioxidant activity in comparison with quercetin and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate. (abstract)

  16. Asymmetric dumbbell-shaped silver nanoparticles and spherical gold nanoparticles green-synthesized by mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp waste extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Su; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2017-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp waste extract was used to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles by a green strategy. The extract was both a reducing and stabilizing agent during synthesis. Phytochemical screening of the extract was conducted to obtain information regarding the presence/absence of primary and secondary metabolites in the extract. The in vitro antioxidant activity results demonstrated that the extract had excellent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to a standard (butylated hydroxy toluene). Spherical gold nanoparticles (gold nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AuNPs]) with an average size of 15.37±3.99 to 44.20±16.99 nm were observed in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images. Most interestingly, the silver nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AgNPs]) had asymmetric nanodumbbell shapes where one tail grew from a spherical head. The average head size was measured to be 13.65±5.07 to 31.08±3.99 nm from HR-TEM images. The hydrodynamic size of both nanoparticles tended to increase with increasing extract concentration. Large negative zeta potentials (−18.92 to −34.77 mV) suggested that each nanoparticle solution possessed excellent colloidal stability. The reaction yields were 99.7% for GM-AuNPs and 82.8% for GM-AgNPs, which were assessed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. A high-resolution X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face-centered cubic structure of both nanoparticles. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, the hydroxyl functional groups of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenolic compounds were most likely involved in a reduction reaction of gold or silver salts to their corresponding nanoparticles. The in vitro cytotoxicity (based on a water-soluble tetrazolium assay) demonstrated that GM-AgNPs were toxic to both A549 (a human lung

  17. Effect of oral administration of green tea extract in various dosage schemes on oxidative stress status of mice in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bártíková Hana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a favorite beverage and its extracts are popular components of dietary supplements. The aim of the present in vivo study was to obtain detailed information about the effect of a standard green tea extract (Polyphenon, P, at different doses, on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in murine blood, liver, small and large intestine. In all doses, P improved the oxidative stress status via an increased content of plasmatic SH-groups (by 21-67 %. Regarding antioxidant enzymes in tissues, the low dose of P had the best positive effect as it elevated the activity of NADPH quinone reductase in liver and small intestine, thioredoxin reductase in small intestine and hepatic superoxide dismutase. Based on these facts, consumption of green tea seems to be safe and beneficial, while consumption of dietary supplements containing high doses of catechins may disturb oxidative balance by lowering the activity of thioredoxin reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase

  18. Vegetable Oils as Alternative Solvents for Green Oleo-Extraction, Purification and Formulation of Food and Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara-Varón, Edinson; Li, Ying; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Chemat, Farid

    2017-09-05

    Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. This review presents an overview of vegetable oils as solvents enriched with various bioactive compounds from natural resources, as well as the relationship between dissolving power of non-polar and polar bioactive components with the function of fatty acids and/or lipid classes in vegetable oils, and other minor components. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.

  19. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2015-10-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  20. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera dentata leaf extract at room temperature and their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deenadayalan Ashok; Palanichamy, V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2014-06-05

    A green rapid biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles AgNPs using Alternanthera dentata (A. dentata) aqueous extract was demonstrated in this present study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) at 430nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles by A. dentata extract was completed within 10min. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy; Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The extracellular silver nanoparticles synthesis by aqueous leaf extract demonstrates rapid, simple and inexpensive method comparable to chemical and microbial methods. The colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and, Enterococcus faecalis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction and characterization of mixed phase KNO2-KNO3 nanocrystals derived from flat-leaf green spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, S; Mohanta, D

    2013-01-01

    Naturally available green spinach, which is a rich source of potassium, was used as the key ingredient to extract mixed-phase ferroelectric crystals of nitrite and nitrate derivatives (KNO 2 + KNO 3 ). The KNO 3 phase was found to be dominant for higher pH values, as revealed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. The characteristic optical absorption spectra exhibited intra-band π-π* electronic transitions, whereas Fourier transform infrared spectra exhibited characteristic N-O stretching vibrations. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed a broad endothermic peak at ∼121.8 °C, highlighting a transition from phase II to I via phase III of KNO 3 . Obtaining nanoscale ferroelectrics via the adoption of green synthesis is economically viable for large-scale production and possible application in ferroelectric elements/devices.

  2. The green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the ethanol extract pf black tea and its tannin free fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banoee, M.; Mokhtari, N.; Akhavan Sepahi, A.; Jafari Fesharaki, P.; Monsef-Esfahani, H. R.; Ehsanfar, Z.; Khoshayand, M. R.; Shahverdi, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    In this research the ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free fraction used for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles. All the extracts were used separately for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles through the reduction of aqueous AuCl 4 - . Transmission electron microscopy and visible absorption spectroscopy confirmed the reduction of gold ions to gold nanoparticles. The ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free ethanol extract produced gold nanoparticles in the size ranges of 2.5-27.5 nm and 1.25-17.5 nm with an average size of 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively. The prepared colloid gold nanoparticles, using the ethanol extract of black tea, did not show the appropriate stability during storage time (24 hours) at 4 d eg C . In contrast, gold colloids, which were synthesized by a tannin free fraction showed no particle aggregation during short and long storage times at the same conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles using ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free fraction.

  3. Cloud-point extraction of green-polymers from Cupriavidus necator lysate using thermoseparating-based aqueous two-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yoong Kit; Lan, John Chi-Wei; Loh, Hwei-San; Ling, Tau Chuan; Ooi, Chien Wei; Show, Pau Loke

    2017-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), a class of renewable and biodegradable green polymers, have gained attraction as a potential substitute for the conventional plastics due to the increasing concern towards environmental pollution as well as the rapidly depleting petroleum reserve. Nevertheless, the high cost of downstream processing of PHA has been a bottleneck for the wide adoption of PHAs. Among the options of PHAs recovery techniques, aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) outshines the others by having the advantages of providing a mild environment for bioseparation, being green and non-toxic, the capability to handle a large operating volume and easily scaled-up. Utilizing unique properties of thermo-responsive polymer which has decreasing solubility in its aqueous solution as the temperature rises, cloud point extraction (CPE) is an ATPE technique that allows its phase-forming component to be recycled and reused. A thorough literature review has shown that this is the first time isolation and recovery of PHAs from Cupriavidus necator H16 via CPE was reported. The optimum condition for PHAs extraction (recovery yield of 94.8% and purification factor of 1.42 fold) was achieved under the conditions of 20 wt/wt % ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) with molecular weight of 3900 g/mol and 10 mM of sodium chloride addition at thermoseparating temperature of 60°C with crude feedstock limit of 37.5 wt/wt %. Recycling and reutilization of EOPO 3900 can be done at least twice with satisfying yield and PF. CPE has been demonstrated as an effective technique for the extraction of PHAs from microbial crude culture. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Asymmetric dumbbell-shaped silver nanoparticles and spherical gold nanoparticles green-synthesized by mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp waste extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park JS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ji Su Park, Eun-Young Ahn, Youmie Park College of Pharmacy, Inje Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea Abstract: Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp waste extract was used to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles by a green strategy. The extract was both a reducing and stabilizing agent during synthesis. Phytochemical screening of the extract was conducted to obtain information regarding the presence/absence of primary and secondary metabolites in the extract. The in vitro antioxidant activity results demonstrated that the extract had excellent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to a standard (butylated hydroxy toluene. Spherical gold nanoparticles (gold nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AuNPs] with an average size of 15.37±3.99 to 44.20±16.99 nm were observed in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM images. Most interestingly, the silver nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AgNPs] had asymmetric nanodumbbell shapes where one tail grew from a spherical head. The average head size was measured to be 13.65±5.07 to 31.08±3.99 nm from HR-TEM images. The hydrodynamic size of both nanoparticles tended to increase with increasing extract concentration. Large negative zeta potentials (–18.92 to –34.77 mV suggested that each nanoparticle solution possessed excellent colloidal stability. The reaction yields were 99.7% for GM-AuNPs and 82.8% for GM-AgNPs, which were assessed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. A high-resolution X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face-centered cubic structure of both nanoparticles. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, the hydroxyl functional groups of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenolic compounds were most likely involved in a reduction reaction of

  5. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. peel extract and its antibacterial activity against Salmonella parathypi A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestari Puji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs have been synthesized via green method using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. peel (RP extract. RP extract was prepared by washing the RP using tap water thoroughly and boiling it in distilled water at 70°C for 60 min. RP extract and AgNO3 were used as the starting materials for the synthesis of AgNPs. RP extract was added to 10-3 M AgNO3 solution with a ratio by volume of 1:10 (RP : AgNO3, stirred at room temperature. The solution’s color changes from reddish to dark brown, indicating the reduction of Ag+ in the solution. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer, FTIR Spectrophotometer, and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS instruments. UV-Visible spectra show that the AgNPs have the maximum absorption band at 450 nm which is typical for AgNPs. The FTIR spectra revealed that the protein in RP extract acts as the capping agent for the synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for their antibacterial activity against Salmonella parathypi A. The antibacterial test shows that 50 μL of AgNPs resulted in the inhibition zone of 4 mm against the aforementioned microorganism.

  6. Lantana camara Linn leaf extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal; Hota, Poulami

    2015-03-01

    A facile one-step green synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and the leaf extract of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae family) at room temperature. The leaf extract enriched in various types of plant secondary metabolites is highly efficient for the reduction of chloroaurate ions into metallic gold and stabilizes the synthesized AuNPs without any additional stabilizing or capping agents. Detailed characterizations of the synthesized gold nanoparticles were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies. The synthesized AuNPs have been utilized as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature under mild reaction condition. The kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

  7. Green synthesis of Pd NPs from Pimpinella tirupatiensis plant extract and their application in photocatalytic activity dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasaiah, Palajonna; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Sarada, N. C.

    2017-11-01

    The present report the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles through the green method route offers few advantages over the common chemical and physical procedures, as it is an easy and fast, eco-friendly and does not involve any costly chemicals as well as hazardous chemicals. In this study, we reported synthesis of Pd NPs by using the Pimpinella tirupatiensis plant Extract (PTPE). The synthesized Pd NPs was characterization using different technique such as UV-Visible for the formation of Pd NPs. FT-IR spectroscopy was performed to detect the bio-active molecules liable for reduction and capping of biogenic Pd NPs. Crystallinity of Pd NPs conformed by powder - XRD. In the present study performed photo catalytic activity of synthesized Pd NPs using organic dye such as Congo red (CR). Hence, this study concludes the PTPE aqueous extract produced Pd NPs can be act as promising material for the degradation of organic pollutants.

  8. Effect of scenedesmus acuminatus green algae extracts on the development of Candida lipolytic yeast in gas condensate-containing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilmes, B. I.; Kasymova, G. A.; Runov, V. I.; Karavayeva, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons during growth in media with de-aromatized gas-condensate FNZ as the carbon source with aqueous and alcohol extracts of S. acuminatus as the biostimulants. It is shown that the decoction and aqueous extract of green algae has the most intensive stimulating effect on the yeast growth. When a decoction of algae is added to the medium, the content of residual hydrocarbons in the biomass of C. lipolytica yeast is reduced by 4%; the quantity of protein, lipids, thamine and inositol with replacement of the yeast autolysate by the decoction of algae is altered little.

  9. Fermented green tea extract alleviates obesity and related complications and alters gut microbiota composition in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dae-Bang; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Cho, Donghyun; Lee, Bum Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Choi, Jae Young; Bae, Il-Hong; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure and accumulation of excess lipids in adipose tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that green tea and its processed products (e.g., oolong and black tea) are introduced to exert beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. Here, we propose that fermented green tea (FGT) extract, as a novel processed green tea, exhibits antiobesity effects. FGT reduced body weight gain and fat mass without modifying food intake. mRNA expression levels of lipogenic and inflammatory genes were downregulated in white adipose tissue of FGT-administered mice. FGT treatment alleviated glucose intolerance and fatty liver symptoms, common complications of obesity. Notably, FGT restored the changes in gut microbiota composition (e.g., the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and Bacteroides/Prevotella ratios), which is reported to be closely related with the development of obesity and insulin resistance, induced by high-fat diets. Collectively, FGT improves obesity and its associated symptoms and modulates composition of gut microbiota; thus, it could be used as a novel dietary component to control obesity and related symptoms.

  10. The Effectiveness of Green Tea or Green Tea Extract on Insulin Resistance and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyue Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea or green tea extract (GT/GTE has been demonstrated to reduce insulin resistance and improve glycemic control. However, evidence for this health beneficial effect is inconsistent. This systematic review evaluated the effect of GT/GTE on insulin resistance and glycemic control in people with pre-diabetes/type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to April 2017 for randomised controlled trials of participants with pre-diabetes or T2DM, where the intervention was GT/GTE. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the standardised mean difference (SMD in biomarkers of insulin resistance and glycemic control between GT/GTE and placebo groups. Six studies (n=382 were pooled into random-effects meta-analysis. Overall, no differences were found between GT/GTE and the placebo for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c: SMD, −0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.86 to 0.23, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR: SMD, 0.10; 95% CI, −0.17 to 0.38, fasting insulin (SMD, −0.25; 95% CI, −0.64 to 0.15, and fasting glucose (SMD, −0.10; 95% CI, −0.50 to 0.30. No evidence support the consumption of GT/GTE could reduce the levels of HbA1c, HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, or fasting glucose in people with pre-diabetes/T2DM. However, the studies included were small and of varying quality.

  11. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids from pomegranate wastes using vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Athanasia M; Ververi, Maria; Adamopoulou, Anna; Kaderides, Kyriakos

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new process for pomegranate peels application in food industries based on ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids using different vegetable oils as solvents. In this way, an oil enriched with antioxidants is produced. Sunflower oil and soy oil were used as alternative solvents and the effects of various parameters on extraction yield were studied. Extraction temperature, solid/oil ratio, amplitude level, and extraction time were the factors investigated with respect to extraction yield. Comparative studies between ultrasound-assisted and conventional solvent extraction were carried out in terms of processing procedure and total carotenoids content. The efficient extraction period for achieving maximum yield of pomegranate peel carotenoids was about 30min. The optimum operating conditions were found to be: extraction temperature, 51.5°C; peels/solvent ratio, 0.10; amplitude level, 58.8%; solvent, sunflower oil. A second-order kinetic model was successfully developed for describing the mechanism of ultrasound extraction under different processing parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Green and efficient extraction strategy to lithium isotope separation with double ionic liquids as the medium and ionic associated agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jingjing; Li Zaijun; Gu Zhiguo; Wang Guangli; Liu Junkang

    2013-01-01

    The paper reported a green and efficient extraction strategy to lithium isotope separation. A 4-methyl-10-hydroxybenzoquinoline (ROH), hydrophobic ionic liquid-1,3-di(isooctyl)imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([D(i-C 8 )IM][PF 6 ]), and hydrophilic ionic liquid-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (ILCl) were used as the chelating agent, extraction medium and ionic associated agent. Lithium ion (Li + ) first reacted with ROH in strong alkali solution to produce a lithium complex anion. It then associated with IL + to form the Li(RO) 2 IL complex, which was rapidly extracted into the organic phase. Factors for effect on the lithium isotope separation were examined. To obtain high extraction efficiency, a saturated ROH in the [D(i-C 8 )IM][PF 6 ] (0.3 mol l -1 ), mixed aqueous solution containing 0.3 mol l -1 lithium chloride, 1.6 mol l -1 sodium hydroxide and 0.8 mol l -1 ILCl and 3:1 were selected as the organic phase, aqueous phase and phase ratio (o/a). Under optimized conditions, the single-stage extraction efficiency was found to be 52 %. The saturated lithium concentration in the organic phase was up to 0.15 mol l -1 . The free energy change (ΔG), enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) of the extraction process were -0.097 J mol -1 , -14.70 J mol K -1 and -48.17 J mol -1 K -1 , indicating a exothermic process. The partition coefficients of lithium will enhance with decrease of the temperature. Thus, a 25 deg C of operating temperature was employed for total lithium isotope separation process. Lithium in Li(RO) 2 IL was stripped by the sodium chloride of 5 mol l -1 with a phase ratio (o/a) of 4. The lithium isotope exchange reaction in the interface between organic phase and aqueous phase reached the equilibrium within 1 min. The single-stage isotope separation factor of 7 Li- 6 Li was up to 1.023 ± 0.002, indicating that 7 Li was concentrated in organic phase and 6 Li was concentrated in aqueous phase. All chemical reagents used can be well recycled

  13. Optimized production of vanillin from green vanilla pods by enzyme-assisted extraction combined with pre-freezing and thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Mo, Limei; Chen, Feng; Lu, Minquan; Dong, Wenjiang; Wang, Qinghuang; Xu, Fei; Gu, Fenglin

    2014-02-19

    Production of vanillin from natural green vanilla pods was carried out by enzyme-assisted extraction combined with pre-freezing and thawing. In the first step the green vanilla pods were pre-frozen and then thawed to destroy cellular compartmentation. In the second step pectinase from Aspergillus niger was used to hydrolyze the pectin between the glucovanillin substrate and β-glucosidase. Four main variables, including enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time and pH, which were of significance for the vanillin content were studied and a central composite design (CCD) based on the results of a single-factor tests was used. Response surface methodology based on CCD was employed to optimize the combination of enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH for maximum vanillin production. This resulted in the optimal condition in regards of the enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH at 84.2 mg, 49.5 °C, 7.1 h, and 4.2, respectively. Under the optimal condition, the experimental yield of vanillin was 4.63% ± 0.11% (dwb), which was in good agreement with the value predicted by the model. Compared to the traditional curing process (1.98%) and viscozyme extract (2.36%), the optimized method for the vanillin production significantly increased the yield by 133.85% and 96%, respectively.

  14. Green preparation using black soybeans extract for graphene-based porous electrodes and their applications in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hwei-Jay; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa

    2016-08-01

    Adopting an in situ construction strategy, green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and the formation of an open porous structure are simultaneously completed in a one-pot process using an aqueous extract of an anthocyanin-containing plant, black soybean, as a green reducing agent. The reduced GO prepared by the aqueous extract of black soybean (BRGO), and the hydrogel of BRGO are characterized to better understand the nature of BRGO and the evolution of BRGO from GO. Graphene-based porous electrodes for supercapacitors are fabricated using the BRGO hydrogel as a primary material, and the electrochemical performance of the electrodes are further improved when the BRGO porous electrodes are treated in a microwave oven. Owing to the formation of uniformly dispersed nanoparticles on the graphene surface during the microwave treatment, the electrical conductivity of the electrodes improves by four orders of magnitude and the electroactive surface area also increases by over four times, as a consequence, the capacitance is significantly enhanced, reaching a capacitance of 268.4 F g-1 at a charging current of 0.1 A g-1.

  15. Optimized Production of Vanillin from Green Vanilla Pods by Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Combined with Pre-Freezing and Thawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Production of vanillin from natural green vanilla pods was carried out by enzyme-assisted extraction combined with pre-freezing and thawing. In the first step the green vanilla pods were pre-frozen and then thawed to destroy cellular compartmentation. In the second step pectinase from Aspergillus niger was used to hydrolyze the pectin between the glucovanillin substrate and β-glucosidase. Four main variables, including enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time and pH, which were of significance for the vanillin content were studied and a central composite design (CCD based on the results of a single-factor tests was used. Response surface methodology based on CCD was employed to optimize the combination of enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH for maximum vanillin production. This resulted in the optimal condition in regards of the enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH at 84.2 mg, 49.5 °C, 7.1 h, and 4.2, respectively. Under the optimal condition, the experimental yield of vanillin was 4.63% ± 0.11% (dwb, which was in good agreement with the value predicted by the model. Compared to the traditional curing process (1.98% and viscozyme extract (2.36%, the optimized method for the vanillin production significantly increased the yield by 133.85% and 96%, respectively.

  16. Diet supplementation with green tea extract epigallocatechin gallate prevents progression to glucose intolerance in db/db mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortsäter Henrik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green tea was suggested as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes more than 70 years ago, but the mechanisms behind its antidiabetic effect remains elusive. In this work, we address this issue by feeding a green tea extract (TEAVIGO™ with a high content of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG or the thiazolidinedione PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone, as positive control, to db/db mice, an animal model for diabetes. Methods Young (7 week-old db/db mice were randomized and assigned to receive diets supplemented with or without EGCG or rosiglitazone for 10 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake was measured along the treatment. Glucose and insulin levels were determined during an oral glucose tolerance test after 10 weeks of treatment. Pancreata were sampled at the end of the study for blinded histomorphometric analysis. Islets were isolated and their mRNA expression analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results The results show that, in db/db mice, EGCG improves glucose tolerance and increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. EGCG supplementation reduces the number of pathologically changed islets of Langerhans, increases the number and the size of islets, and heightens pancreatic endocrine area. These effects occurred in parallel with a reduction in islet endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, possibly linked to the antioxidative capacity of EGCG. Conclusions This study shows that the green tea extract EGCG markedly preserves islet structure and enhances glucose tolerance in genetically diabetic mice. Dietary supplementation with EGCG could potentially contribute to nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  17. In vitro comparison of the effect of Ledermix® paste and green tea extract on the concentration of inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vatanpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of Ledermix® paste and green tea extract on the concentration of inflammatory mediators. Materials and methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, first, the noncytotoxic concentrations of Ledermix® medicament and green tea extract were determined by MTT assay. Afterwards, the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α inflammatory mediators were assessed by ELISA test in the four experimental groups and also in the control group at different time intervals of 2, 24, and 48 hours and after 7 days. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the obtained raw data followed by Tukey's post-hoc test for pair comparisons. Results: the noncytotoxic concentration of green tea extract and Ledermix® paste equaled 12 µg/ml and 0.25 µg/ml, respectively. Time interval had no significant effect on the concentration of the mediators. Generally, both substances significantly decreased the concentration of IL-1β and IL-6 inflammatory mediators in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: Green tea extract is less cytotoxic and more biocompatible than Ledermix® paste. Both Ledermix® paste and green tea extract expressed anti-inflammatory effects.

  18. Evaluation of antiangiogenic and antiproliferative potential of the organic extract of green algae chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyadari, Mahender; Fatma, Tasneem; Azad, Rajvardhan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: algae isolates obtained from fresh and marine resources could be one of the richest sources of novel bioactive secondary metabolites expected to have pharmaceutical significance for new drug development. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in experimental models of angiogenesis and by MTT assay. Materials and Methods: lyophilized extract of C. pyrenoidosa was extracted using dichloromethane/methanol (2:1), concentrated and vacuum evaporated to obtain the dried extract. The crude extract was evaluated in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in in ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) at various concentrations (n = 8) using thalidomide and normal saline as positive and untreated control groups, respectively. The crude extract was also subjected to the antiangiogenic activity in the silver nitrate/potassium nitrate cautery model of corneal neovascularization (CN) in rats where topical bevacizumab was used as a positive control. The vasculature was photographed and blood vessel density was quantified using Aphelion imaging software. The extract was also evaluated for its anti proliferative activity by microculture tetrazolium test (MTT) assay using HeLa cancer cell line (ATCC). Results: VEGF increased the blood vessel density by 220% as compared to normal and thalidomide treatment decreased it to 67.2% in in ovo assay. In the in-vivo CN model, the mean neovascular density in the control group, the C. pyrenoidosa extract and bevacizumab group were found to be 100%, 59.02%, and 32.20%, respectively. The Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract negatively affected the viability of HeLa cells. An IC50 value of the extract was 570 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: a significant antiangiogenic activity was observed against VEGF-induced neovascularization and antiproliferative activity by MTT assay. In this study, it could be attributed that the activity may be

  19. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a Melissa officinalis leaf extract with antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro de Jesús Ruíz-Baltazar

    Full Text Available The exceptional properties of the silver nanoparticles offer several applications in the biomedicine field. The development of antibiotics which are clinically useful against bacteria and drug resistant microorganisms, it is one of the main approaches of silver nanoparticles. However, it is necessary to develop environmentally friendly methods for their synthesis. In this sense, the main objective of this work is focused on to propose a simplified and efficient green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with proven antibacterial properties. The green synthesis route is based on the use of the Melissa officinalis as reducing agent of the silver ions in aqueous solution at room temperature. Complementary, the antibacterial activity of the silver nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was confirmed. The silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–vis, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. The observed results suggested that using Melissa officinalis, it is possible to performed silver nanoparticles with controlled characteristics and with significant inhibitory activity against the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Keywords: Green synthesis, Nanoparticles, Antibacterial effect

  20. Study of Pre and Post Supplementation Green Tea Extracts to MDA Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Goenawan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High intensity exercise (HI induces oxidative stress. Running for 2400 meters is one of the simple exercise form which can be counted as HI. During HI, increase of oxygen consumption happened in muscle cell resulted in an increase of oxidant level. The aim of the study was to measure the effects of Indonesian green tea supplementation, before and after HI to the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARSMalonyldialdehyde (MDA. The subjects of study were 42 male students from Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran (FMUP and Faculty of Physical Exercise, Indonesia University of Education (FPOK-UPI. The subjects were divided into trained and untrained subject. Subjects were divided into groups using Astrand Harvard step test. The purpose of this test was measuring the level of VO2 max. Blood samples for MDA level were collected at 3 hours before and after high intensity aerobic exercise. Oxidative stress was induced by 2400 meters run. The result showed that green tea supplement-ation was effective to decrease MDA plasma level especially after exercise. Green tea could serve as natural antioxidant resources, which potentially can be used as potential sport supplemental drink.

  1. THE EFFECT OF GREEN TEA EXTRACT - EPIGALLOCATECHIN GALLATE (EGCG ON PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kádasi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to elucidate the potential effect of green tea substance on basic ovarian functions. For this purpose, we examined the action of green tea bioactive molecule, epigallocatechin gallate (given at doses 0, 1, 10, 100 μg/mL, on cultured porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions - proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenesis. Accumulation of PCNA (marker of proliferation, BAX (marker of apoptosis and the release of steroid hormones (progesterone and testosterone were analysed by immunocytochemistry and RIA respectively. It was observed that epigallocatechin gallate addition decreased the percentage of proliferative (PCNA-positive cells at all used doses (1, 10 and 100 μg/mL. The percentage of apoptotic (BAX-positive cells was increased at the highest used dose (100 μg/mL, but not a lower doses. Epigallocatechin gallate stimulated progesterone release (at 10 μg/mL but not at 1 and 100 μg/mL and diminished testosterone release (at 1 μg/mL but not at 10 and 100 μg/mL by porcine granulosa cells. Our results suggest a direct effect of epigallocatechin gallate on proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenesis in porcine ovaries. Taken together, these data suggest that green tea molecule epigallocatechin gallate can negatively affect reproductive (ovarian functions – suppress ovarian cell proliferation, promote their apoptosis and alter release of steroid hormones.

  2. Eco-friendly and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Strychnos potatorum Linn.F. and their bactericidal activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kagithoju, Srikanth; Godishala, Vikram; Nanna, Rama Swamy

    2014-01-01

    Inspired green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is evolving as an important branch of nanotechnology. Traditionally these are manufactured by wet chemical methods which require toxic and flammable chemicals. We report for the first time an economic and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Strychnos potatorum aqueous leaf extract from 3 mM silver nitrate solution. Nanoparticles thus formed are confirmed and characterized by using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, SEM and...

  3. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  4. Extract of Camellia sinensis as Green Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Aqueous Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouda, Abd Elaziz S.; Mekkia, Dina; Badr, Abeer H.

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel used in water station in 35 ppm aluminum sulfate and 10 ppm chloride solution by Camellia sinensis leaves extract was studied using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques at 30 .deg. C. Results show that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration of the extract and decreases with increasing temperature. Inhibitive effect was afforded by adsorption of the extract's components which was found to accord with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Inhibition mechanism is deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency and was further corroborated by the values of activation parameters obtained from the experimental data

  5. Extract of Camellia sinensis as Green Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Aqueous Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouda, Abd Elaziz S. [El-Mansoura Univ., El-Mansoura (Egypt); Mekkia, Dina; Badr, Abeer H. [Water and wastewater company, Dakahlia (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel used in water station in 35 ppm aluminum sulfate and 10 ppm chloride solution by Camellia sinensis leaves extract was studied using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques at 30 .deg. C. Results show that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration of the extract and decreases with increasing temperature. Inhibitive effect was afforded by adsorption of the extract's components which was found to accord with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Inhibition mechanism is deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency and was further corroborated by the values of activation parameters obtained from the experimental data.

  6. Molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of malachite green from seawater and seafood coupled with high-performance liquid chromatographic determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Ziru; Wang Jiangtao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The malachite green molecularly imprinted polymer (MG-MIP) was prepared. ► The characteristics and regeneration property of MIP were studied. ► An off-line method for MG was developed using MIP as solid-phase extraction. ► The MG concentrations from seawater and seafood samples were determined. - Abstract: In this paper, a highly selective sample cleanup procedure combining molecular imprinting technique (MIT) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the isolation of malachite green in seawater and seafood samples. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared using malachite green as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking monomer. The imprinted polymer and non-imprinted polymer were characterized by scanning electron microscope and static adsorption experiments. The MIP showed a high adsorption capacity and was used as selective sorbent for the SPE of malachite green. An off-line molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diodearray detection for the analysis of malachite green in seawater and seafood samples was also established. Finally, five samples were determined. The results showed that malachite green concentration in one seawater sample was at 1.30 μg L −1 and the RSD (n = 3) was 4.15%.

  7. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  8. Study on tea leaves extract as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, A. B.; Suryanto; Haider, F. I.

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitor from extraction of plant has been considered as the most preferable and most chosen technique to prevent corrosion of metal in acidic medium because of the environmental friendly factor. In this study, black tea leaves extraction was tested as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 0.1M of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor. The efficiency and effectiveness of black tea as corrosion inhibitor was tested by using corrosion weight loss measurement experiment was carried out with varies parameters which with different concentration of black tea extract solution. The extraction of black tea solution was done by using aqueous solvent method. The FT-IR result shows that black tea extract containing compounds such as catechin, caffeine and tannins that act as anti-corrosive reagents and responsible to enhance the effectiveness of black tea extract as corrosion inhibitor by forming the hydrophobic thin film through absorption process. As a result of weight loss measurement, it shows that loss in weight of mild steel reduces as the concentration of inhibitor increases. The surface analysis was done on the mild steel samples by using SEM.

  9. High-throughput screening of vitamins and natural antioxidants in nutraceuticals from green tea extracts by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Chang, James; Zhang, Feng

    2015-08-07

    A new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 52 vitamins and natural antioxidants in nutraceutical products obtained from green tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts. The automated extraction procedure was achieved in a simple disposable pipet extraction. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The method was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in European SANCO/12571/2013 Guideline 2013 and Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The extraction recoveries were in a range of 84.9-112.7%, with coefficient of variation 0.99. This validated method has been successfully applied on screening of vitamins and natural antioxidants in 136 different commercial nutraceutical products from green tea extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ANTIOXIDATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEVERAGES MADE FROM A MIXTURE OF LEMONGRASS EXTRACT AND GREEN TEA [Studi Karakteristik Antioksidan Minuman Campuran Ekstrak Serai dan Teh Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremia Manuel Halim*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combination of lemongrass extract and green tea infusion is expected to produce functional beverage that has potential antioxidant activity as compared to individual materials. This research was aimed to investigate the appropriate solvent type and extraction methods to produce lemongrass extract with highest antioxidant activity and also to investigate the antioxidant characteristic of beverages prepared from a mixture of lemongrass extract and green tea. Lemongrass were subjected to extraction under reflux and maceration using three type of solvents (distilled water, ethanol, and ethyl acetate. The resulting extracts were assessed for their total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. Extraction under reflux and using ethanol as solvent resulted in extract with best antioxidant activity (IC50=158.70±47.88 mg/L for reflux method and 103.73±8.03 mg/L for ethanol. This extract was combined with green tea with several ratios (lemongrass extract to green tea [w/w] = 1:3; 1:2; 1:1; 2:1; 3:1. Four level of stevia were used in the beverages (0, 200, 400, 600 ppm. Beverages made with lomogass: tea ratio of 1:3 and 1:1 (w/w and 600 ppm stevia turned out to be beverages with the highest antioxidant activity (IC50=271.83±44.48 mg/L and 287.15±36.25 mg/L for ratio 1:3 and 1:1 [w/w] consecutively, 301.59±80.89 mg/L for stevia level 600 ppm. Hedonic testing on beverages revealed that beverage made from lemongrass: tea ratio 1:1 [w/w] ratio with addition of stevia at 600 ppm is the most preferred based on colour, aroma, and overall acceptance.

  11. Determination of carcinogenic herbicides in milk samples using green non-ionic silicone surfactant of cloud point extraction and spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, N I; Zain, N N M; Raoov, M; Mohamad, S

    2018-04-01

    A new cloud point methodology was successfully used for the extraction of carcinogenic pesticides in milk samples as a prior step to their determination by spectrophotometry. In this work, non-ionic silicone surfactant, also known as 3-(3-hydroxypropyl-heptatrimethylxyloxane), was chosen as a green extraction solvent because of its structure and properties. The effect of different parameters, such as the type of surfactant, concentration and volume of surfactant, pH, salt, temperature, incubation time and water content on the cloud point extraction of carcinogenic pesticides such as atrazine and propazine, was studied in detail and a set of optimum conditions was established. A good correlation coefficient ( R 2 ) in the range of 0.991-0.997 for all calibration curves was obtained. The limit of detection was 1.06 µg l -1 (atrazine) and 1.22 µg l -1 (propazine), and the limit of quantitation was 3.54 µg l -1 (atrazine) and 4.07 µg l -1 (propazine). Satisfactory recoveries in the range of 81-108% were determined in milk samples at 5 and 1000 µg l -1 , respectively, with low relative standard deviation, n  = 3 of 0.301-7.45% in milk matrices. The proposed method is very convenient, rapid, cost-effective and environmentally friendly for food analysis.

  12. Green Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Aqueous Urginea Indica Bulbs Extract and Their Catalytic Activity Towards 4-NP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manigandan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, green method is described for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by reaction of the aqueous solution of Urginea indica (U. I. bulbs extract and AgNO3. In this process, colloidal metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag0 Nps were of a particular interest due to its haunting physicochemical properties. The formation of Ag0 Nps nanoparticles was proved by the significant color change during the preparation. The formation process and color variations by the impact of pH and concentration of extract were analyzed by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Functional groups present in the extract and Ag0 NPs was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The crystal structure, lattice parameter and crystallite size of synthesized silver NPs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the sample showed the formation of nanoparticles with cubic silver structure. Elemental composition and morphology of the metallic silver was widely investigated by FESEM-EDX.

  13. A new green chemistry method based on plant extracts to synthesize gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Castillo, Milka Odemariz

    Extraordinary chemical and physical properties exhibited by nanomaterials, as compared to their bulk counterparts, have made the area of nanotechnology a growing realm in the past three decades. It is the nanoscale size (from 1 to 100 nm) and the morphologies of nanomaterials that provide several properties and applications not possible for the same material in the bulk. Magnetic and optical properties, as well as surface reactivity are highly dependent on the size and morphology of the nanomaterial. Diverse nanomaterials are being widely used in molecular diagnostics as well as in medicine, electronic and optical devices. Among the most studied nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles are of special interest due to their multifunctional capabilities. For instance, spherical gold nanoparticles measuring 15-20 nm in diameter have been studied due to their insulin binding properties. Also, thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles between 5 and 30 nm are used in the detection of DNA. Thus, harnessing the shape and size of gold nanoparticles plays an important role in science and technology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles via the reduction of gold salts, using citrate or other reducing agents, has been widely studied. In recent years, algae, fungi, bacteria, and living plants have been used to reduce trivalent gold (Au3+) to its zero oxidation state (Au 0) forming gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. In addition, plant biomasses have also been studied for their gold-reducing power and nanoparticle formation. Although there is information about the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles by biologically based materials; to our knowledge, the study of the use of alfalfa extracts has not been reported. This innovation represents a significant improvement; that is an environmentally friendly method that does not use toxic chemicals. Also, the problem of extracting the formed gold nanoparticles from biomaterials is addressed in this research but still remains to be

  14. Green Synthesis of Magnetite (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles Using Seaweed ( Kappaphycus alvarezii) Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Yen Pin; Shameli, Kamyar; Miyake, Mikio; Kuwano, Noriyuki; Bt Ahmad Khairudin, Nurul Bahiyah; Bt Mohamad, Shaza Eva; Lee, Kar Xin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid, and eco-friendly green method was introduced to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) successfully. Seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii ( K. alvarezii) was employed as a green reducing and stabilizing agents. The synthesized Fe3O4-NPs were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The X-ray diffraction planes at (220), (311), (400), (422), (511), (440), and (533) were corresponding to the standard Fe3O4 patterns, which showed the high purity and crystallinity of Fe3O4-NPs had been synthesized. Based on FT-IR analysis, two characteristic absorption peaks were observed at 556 and 423 cm-1, which proved the existence of Fe3O4 in the prepared nanoparticles. TEM image displayed the synthesized Fe3O4-NPs were mostly in spherical shape with an average size of 14.7 nm.

  15. New procedure for extraction of algal lipids from wet biomass: a green clean and scalable process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejoye Tanzi, Celine; Abert Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2013-04-01

    A new procedure, called Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction Process (SDEP), for lipid extraction from wet microalgae (Nannochloropsis oculata and Dunaliella salina) was reported. This method does not require a pre-drying of the biomass and employs alternative solvents such as d-limonene, α-pinene and p-cymene. This procedure has been compared with Soxhlet extraction (Sox) and Bligh & Dyer method (B&D). For N. oculata, results showed that SDEP-cymene provided similar lipid yields to B&D (21.45% and 23.78%), while SDEP-limonene and pinene provided lower yields (18.73% and 18.75% respectively). For D. salina, SDEP-pinene provided the maximum lipid yield (3.29%) compared to the other solvents, which is quite close to B&D result (4.03%). No significant differences in terms of distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition have been obtained for different techniques. Evaluation of energy consumption indicates a substantial saving in the extraction cost by SDEP compared to the conventional extraction technique, Soxhlet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elumalai, K. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002 (India); Velmurugan, S., E-mail: drvelmurganphy@gmail.com [Department of Engineering Physics (FEAT), Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002 (India)

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Phenolic acid and flavonoid compounds play a major role in bioreduction reaction confirmed by FT-IR. • PL spectrum identified peaks were located in the range of the blue-violet spectrum. • XRD pattern confirmed ZnO hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure). • The result of (AFM) images depicted polycrystalline with porous nature of ZnO NPs. • Antimicrobial activities of green synthesized ZnO NPs were more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. - Abstract: The synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications in the development of novel technologies. Especially, biologically synthesized nanomaterial has become an important branch of nanotechnology. The present work, described the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (L.) and its antimicrobial activities. The nanoparticles was obtain characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. In this study we also investigated antimicrobial activity of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The results depicted concentration of ZnO NPs was increased (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) and also increase in antimicrobial activities was due to the increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration from the surface of ZnO. However, green synthesized ZnO NPs was more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. Finally concluded the zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity with both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and yeast at micromolar concentration.

  17. Room temperature ionic liquids for actinide extraction: a 'green' approach?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of actinides is one of the key issues in the remediation of high level radioactive wastes emanating from the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Effective actinide extraction makes the waste benign and ready for disposal as vitrified waste blocks in deep geological repositories. However, conventional solvent extraction methods, though being routinely used for actinide separations, have several disadvantages, which include large VOC (volatile organic compounds) inventory and generation of huge volumes of secondary wastes. Growing concern for the environment has led to the increasing interest in room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) as an alternative to molecular diluents in myriad applications including synthesis, catalysis, separation and electrochemistry. Out of these, application of RTILs to separation science has increased enormously as can be seen from the rapid rise in the number of publications in this area in the last decade, due to their unique characteristics of high thermal stability and low volatility

  18. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia absinthium aqueous extract--A comprehensive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D; Norman, David; Brennan, Mary; Ali, Gul Shad

    2016-01-01

    Unlike chemical synthesis, biological synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining tremendous interest, and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources due to their ample availability and wide array of reducing metabolites. In this project, we investigated the reducing potential of aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium L. for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Optimal synthesis of AgNPs with desirable physical and biological properties was investigated using ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). To determine their appropriate concentrations for AgNP synthesis, two-fold dilutions of silver nitrate (20 to 0.62 mM) and aqueous plant extract (100 to 0.79 mg ml(-1)) were reacted. The results showed that silver nitrate (2mM) and plant extract (10 mg ml(-1)) mixed in different ratios significantly affected size, stability and yield of AgNPs. Extract to AgNO3 ratio of 6:4v/v resulted in the highest conversion efficiency of AgNO3 to AgNPs, with the particles in average size range of less than 100 nm. Furthermore, the direct imaging of synthesized AgNPs by TEM revealed polydispersed particles in the size range of 5 to 20 nm. Similarly, nanoparticles with the characteristic peak of silver were observed with EDX. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the differential behavior of plant extract and AgNO3 to synthesize biologically stable AgNPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia absinthium aqueous extract — A comprehensive study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D.; Norman, David; Brennan, Mary; Ali, Gul Shad

    2016-01-01

    Unlike chemical synthesis, biological synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining tremendous interest, and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources due to their ample availability and wide array of reducing metabolites. In this project, we investigated the reducing potential of aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium L. for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Optimal synthesis of AgNPs with desirable physical and biological properties was investigated using ultra violet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). To determine their appropriate concentrations for AgNP synthesis, two-fold dilutions of silver nitrate (20 to 0.62 mM) and aqueous plant extract (100 to 0.79 mg ml"−"1) were reacted. The results showed that silver nitrate (2 mM) and plant extract (10 mg ml"−"1) mixed in different ratios significantly affected size, stability and yield of AgNPs. Extract to AgNO_3 ratio of 6:4 v/v resulted in the highest conversion efficiency of AgNO_3 to AgNPs, with the particles in average size range of less than 100 nm. Furthermore, the direct imaging of synthesized AgNPs by TEM revealed polydispersed particles in the size range of 5 to 20 nm. Similarly, nanoparticles with the characteristic peak of silver were observed with EDX. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the differential behavior of plant extract and AgNO_3 to synthesize biologically stable AgNPs. - Graphical abstract: Aqueous extract from Artemisia absinthium when used in appropriate ratio (shown in Eppendorf tubes and microtiter plate) is highly active in reducing elemental silver to colloidal silver nanoparticles in the 5–20 nm size range (shown in TEM image, bottom left panel; DLS histogram, upper left panel; EDX analysis, bottom right panel). - Highlights: • Artemisia absinthium extract provides excellent reducing potential for biosynthesis of silver

  20. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia absinthium aqueous extract — A comprehensive study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mohammad [Mid-Florida Research and Education Center and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2725 Binion Rd., Apopka, FL 32703 (United States); Kim, Bosung [Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Belfield, Kevin D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); College of Science and Liberal Arts, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Norman, David; Brennan, Mary [Mid-Florida Research and Education Center and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2725 Binion Rd., Apopka, FL 32703 (United States); Ali, Gul Shad, E-mail: gsali@ufl.edu [Mid-Florida Research and Education Center and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2725 Binion Rd., Apopka, FL 32703 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Unlike chemical synthesis, biological synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining tremendous interest, and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources due to their ample availability and wide array of reducing metabolites. In this project, we investigated the reducing potential of aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium L. for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Optimal synthesis of AgNPs with desirable physical and biological properties was investigated using ultra violet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). To determine their appropriate concentrations for AgNP synthesis, two-fold dilutions of silver nitrate (20 to 0.62 mM) and aqueous plant extract (100 to 0.79 mg ml{sup −1}) were reacted. The results showed that silver nitrate (2 mM) and plant extract (10 mg ml{sup −1}) mixed in different ratios significantly affected size, stability and yield of AgNPs. Extract to AgNO{sub 3} ratio of 6:4 v/v resulted in the highest conversion efficiency of AgNO{sub 3} to AgNPs, with the particles in average size range of less than 100 nm. Furthermore, the direct imaging of synthesized AgNPs by TEM revealed polydispersed particles in the size range of 5 to 20 nm. Similarly, nanoparticles with the characteristic peak of silver were observed with EDX. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the differential behavior of plant extract and AgNO{sub 3} to synthesize biologically stable AgNPs. - Graphical abstract: Aqueous extract from Artemisia absinthium when used in appropriate ratio (shown in Eppendorf tubes and microtiter plate) is highly active in reducing elemental silver to colloidal silver nanoparticles in the 5–20 nm size range (shown in TEM image, bottom left panel; DLS histogram, upper left panel; EDX analysis, bottom right panel). - Highlights: • Artemisia absinthium extract provides excellent reducing potential for

  1. Opuntia ficus-indica Extract as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in 1 M HCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Flores-De los Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (Nopal as green corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution has been investigated by using weight loss tests, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis were performed. The inhibitor concentrations used ranged from 0 to 300 ppm at 25, 40, and 60°C. Results indicated the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract concentration and decreases with the temperature, and the inhibitor acted as a cathodic-type inhibitor which is physically absorbed onto the steel surface. In fact, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating monolayer adsorption. The presence of heteroatoms such as C, N, and O and OH groups were responsible for the corrosion inhibition.

  2. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids based on the bio-refinery concept using sunflower oil as an alternative solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Sylvie; Tomao, Valérie; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    A green, inexpensive and easy-to-use method for carotenoids extraction from fresh carrots assisted by ultrasound was designed in this work. Sunflower oil was applied as a substitute to organic solvents in this green ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE): a process which is in line with green extraction and bio-refinery concepts. The processing procedure of this original UAE was first compared with conventional solvent extraction (CSE) using hexane as solvent. Moreover, the UAE optimal conditions for the subsequent comparison were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and ultra performance liquid chromatography--diode array detector--mass spectroscopy (UPLC-DAD-MS). The results showed that the UAE using sunflower as solvent has obtained its highest β-carotene yield (334.75 mg/l) in 20 min only, while CSE using hexane as solvent obtained a similar yield (321.35 mg/l) in 60 min. The green UAE performed under optimal extraction conditions (carrot to oil ratio of 2:10, ultrasonic intensity of 22.5 W cm(-2), temperature of 40 °C and sonication time of 20 min) gave the best yield of β-carotene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical properties of Gelidium corneum-gelatin blend films containing grapefruit seed extract or green tea extract and its application in the packaging of pork loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y-H; Lim, G-O; Song, K B

    2009-01-01

    Edible Gelidium corneum-gelatin (GCG) blend films containing grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) or green tea extract (GTE) were manufactured, and the quality of pork loins packed with the film during storage was determined. Tensile strength (TS) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films containing GFSE or GTE were better than those of the control. The film's antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes increased with increasing antimicrobial concentration, resulting in a decrease in the populations of bacteria by 0.77 to 2.08 and 0.91 to 3.30 log CFU/g, respectively. Pork loin samples were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. The samples packed with the GCG film containing GFSE (0.08%) or GTE (2.80%) had a decrease in the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes of 0.69 to 1.11 and 1.05 to 1.14 log CFU/g, respectively, compared to the control after 4 d of storage. The results showed that the quality of pork loins during storage could be improved by packaging them with the GCG film containing GFSE or GTE.

  4. Biological application of green silver nanoparticle synthesized from leaf extract of Rauvolfi serpentina Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Panja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs from the leaf extract of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth and examination of their various biological activities. Methods: An ecofriendly, easy, one step, non-toxic and inexpensive approach is used, where aqueous plant extract acts as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent of AgNPs. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Results: Surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles was observed at 427 nm in UV-vis spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy result confirms that the plant extract acts as the reducing as well as the capping agent of the AgNPs. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are spherical in shape and approximately 7–10 nm in size, whereas the crystalline nature with face-centered cubic structure of the AgNPs was detected by X-ray diffraction analysis. Presence of silver in the AgNPs is 31.43% by weight, as confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs have antimicrobial activities against human pathogenic microorganisms. It also shows larvicidal activity and cytotoxicity against HeLa, MCF-7 cell lines. Conclusions: Synthesized spherical shaped AgNPs from the leaf extract of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth have antimicrobial and larvicidal activities as well as cytotoxicity against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines.

  5. Normal and Reversed-Phase Thin Layer Chromatography of Green Leaf Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjursnes, Birte Johanne; Kvittingen, Lise; Schmid, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Introductory experiments of chromatography are often conducted by separating colored samples, such as inks, dyes, and plant extracts, using filter paper, chalk, or thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates with various solvent systems. Many simple experiments have been reported. The relationship between normal chromatography and reversed-phase…

  6. Fucoxanthin and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Co-Extraction by a Green Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Delbrut

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available By their autotrophic nature and their molecular richness, microalgae are serious assets in the context of current environmental and societal challenges. Some species produce both omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and xanthophylls, two molecular families widely studied for their bioactivities in the fields of nutrition and cosmetics. Whereas most studies separately deal with the two families, synergies could be exploited with extracts containing both PUFAs and xanthophylls. The purpose of our work was to determine cost effective and eco-friendly parameters for their co-extraction. The effect of several parameters (solvent, solvent/biomass ratio, temperature, duration were studied, using two microalgal species, the non-calcifying Haptophyta Tisochrysis lutea, and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, that presents a silicified frustule. Analyses of PUFAs and fucoxanthin (Fx, the main xanthophyll, allowed to compare kinetics and extraction yields between experimental protocols. Co-extraction yields achieved using 96% ethanol as solvent were 100% for Fx and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in one hour from T. lutea biomass, and respectively 95% and 89% for Fx and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA in eight hours from P. tricornutum. These conditions are compatible with industrial applications.

  7. Saponins and the in vitro bioactivities of different solvent extracts of some tropical green and red seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Parameswaran Kailas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the saponins content and the corresponding sequential extracts prepared using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone, of some seaweed species [consisting of red Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera and green Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha antennina (C. antennina seaweeds], obtained from the southwest coast of India. Methods: The fractions were collected during the extraction of saponins and the saponins were chemically investigated for the saponification and iodine value. The antioxidant activities were estimated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, UV-vis ferrous tartrate and KMnO4 titration methods against four standards. The antimicrobial activities were estimated against four pathogenic organisms. Bioactive fractions except saponins, were further investigated through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Statistical correlations were done to identify the correlation pattern between the activity and constituents. Results: The seaweed extracts exhibited appreciable biochemical activities. In general, the Chlorophyta had rich resource of saponins. C. antennina showed high content of saponins. Antioxidant activities were seen to be high when the saponins and fatty acid fractions were screened. C. antennina, Enteromorpha prolifera, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera exhibited commendable antioxidant activities. Antibacterial activity was exhibited the highest in the extracts of Ulva fasciata. Selective antimicrobial inhibition was observed throughout. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer investigation showed appreciable contents of ω-3, ω-5, ω-6, ω-7, ω-8, ω-9 and rare ω-11 fatty acids along with other saturated fatty acids. Conclusions: The correlation studies underlined the relation between the biochemical compositions and activities. These seaweeds

  8. [Fe₃O₄-β-Cyclodextrin Polymer Nano Composites Solid-Phase Extraction-UV-Vis Spectrophotometry for Separation Analysis Malachite Green].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Ping, Wen-hui; Zhu, Xia-shi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, carboxymethyl-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin polymer modified magnetic particles Fe₃O₄ (CM-HP-β-CD- CP-MNPs) were prepared and applied to magnetic solid phase extraction of malachite green combined with UV-Visible spectrom- etry detection. The synthesized magnetic particles were characterized by element analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectra and transmission electron microscopy. Several variables affecting the extraction and desorption of malachite green such as pH, the amount of adsorbent, the type and volume of eluent, extraction and desorption time, and temperature were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, malachite green could be adsorbed by CM-HP-β-CDCP-MNPs (RE% = 92), and elution by C₂H₅OH (EE% = 90). the preconcentration factor of the proposed method was approximately 7.5, the CM-HP-β-CDCP-MNPs could be used repeatedly for 5 times and offered better recovery. The linear range and detection limit (DL) were found to be 0.08~8.00 µg · mL⁻¹ and 5.6 ng · mL⁻¹ respectively. This technique had been successfully applied to the determination of malachite green in real samples. The inclusion interaction of CM-HP--CDCP-MNPs with malachite green was studied through FTIR.

  9. Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles via complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatimah, Is, E-mail: isfatimah@uii.ac.id; Yudha, Septian P.; Mutiara, Nur Afisa Lintang [Chemistry Department, Islamic University of Indonesia Kampus Terpadu UII, Jl. Kaliurang Km 14, Sleman, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles(NPs) were conducted via Zn(II) complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract as template. Curcuma longa extract has the ability to form zinc ions complex with curcumin as ligating agent. Study on synthesis was conducted by monitoring thermal degradation of the material. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by employing x-ray diffraction, surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) studies. From the XRD analysis it is denoted that ZnO in hexagonal wurtzite phase was formed and particle size was varied as varied temperature. The data are also confirmed by TEM analysis which shows the particle sie at the range 20-80nm. The NPs exhibited excelent photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation and also significant antibacterial activity for Eschericia coli. The activity in methylene blue degradation was also confirmed from fast chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction.

  10. Interaction of Green Polymer Blend of Modified Sodium Alginate and Carboxylmethyl Cellulose Encapsulation of Turmeric Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa-Ad Riyajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric extract (tmr loaded nanoparticles were prepared by crosslinking modified carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC and modified sodium alginate (SA with calcium ions, in a high pressure homogenizer. The FTIR spectra of CMC and SA were affected by blending due to hydrogen bonding. The negative zeta potential increased in magnitude with CMC content. The smallest nanoparticles were produced with a 10 : 5 SA/CMC blend. Also the release rates of the extract loading were measured, with model fits indicating that the loading level affected the release rate through nanoparticle structure. The 10 : 5 SA/CMC blend loading with tmr and pure tmr showed a good % growth inhibition of colon cancer cells which indicate that tmr in the presence of curcumin in tmr retains its anticancer activity even after being loaded into SA/CMC blend matrix.

  11. Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles via complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatimah, Is; Yudha, Septian P.; Mutiara, Nur Afisa Lintang

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles(NPs) were conducted via Zn(II) complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract as template. Curcuma longa extract has the ability to form zinc ions complex with curcumin as ligating agent. Study on synthesis was conducted by monitoring thermal degradation of the material. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by employing x-ray diffraction, surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) studies. From the XRD analysis it is denoted that ZnO in hexagonal wurtzite phase was formed and particle size was varied as varied temperature. The data are also confirmed by TEM analysis which shows the particle sie at the range 20-80nm. The NPs exhibited excelent photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation and also significant antibacterial activity for Eschericia coli. The activity in methylene blue degradation was also confirmed from fast chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction

  12. Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles via complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Is; Yudha, Septian P.; Mutiara, Nur Afisa Lintang

    2016-02-01

    Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles(NPs) were conducted via Zn(II) complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract as template. Curcuma longa extract has the ability to form zinc ions complex with curcumin as ligating agent. Study on synthesis was conducted by monitoring thermal degradation of the material. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by employing x-ray diffraction, surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) studies. From the XRD analysis it is denoted that ZnO in hexagonal wurtzite phase was formed and particle size was varied as varied temperature. The data are also confirmed by TEM analysis which shows the particle sie at the range 20-80nm. The NPs exhibited excelent photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation and also significant antibacterial activity for Eschericia coli. The activity in methylene blue degradation was also confirmed from fast chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction.

  13. Determination of phosphate in soil extracts in the field: A green chemistry enzymatic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    First, the soil sample is extracted with deionized water and filtered. Next, an aliquot of the soil extract (0.5 mL is transferred to a disposable cuvette, containing 0.5 mL of reaction mixture [200 mM HEPES, pH 7.6, 20 mM MgCl2, with 80 nmol 2-amino-6-mercapto-7-methylpurine ribonucleoside (MESG and 1 unit of recombinant purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP; EC 2.4.2.1], mixed, and incubated for 10 min at field temperature. Absorbance of the completed reaction is measured at 360 nm in open-source, portable photometer linked by bluetooth to a smartphone. The phosphate and phosphorus content of the soil is determined by comparison of its absorbance at 360 nm to a previously prepared standard phosphate curve, which is stored in the smartphone app.

  14. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using carambola fruit extract and their antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane Gavade, S J; Nikam, G H; Dhabbe, R S; Sabale, S R; Tamhankar, B V; Mulik, G N

    2015-01-01

    In this study well defined silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using carambola fruit extract. After exposing the silver ions to the fruit extract, the rapid reduction of silver ions led to the formation of stable AgNPs in solution due to the reducing and stabilizing properties of carambola fruit juice. The synthesized NPs were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction pattern. The as-synthesized AgNPs were phase pure and well crystalline with a face-centered cubic structure. The AgNPs were characterized by TEM to determine their size and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized AgNPs was investigated against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by agar well diffusion method. This newly developed method is eco-friendly and could prove a better substitute for the current physical and chemical methods for the synthesis of AgNPs. (paper)

  15. A Rapid and Reproducible Genomic DNA Extraction Protocol for Sequence-Based Identification of Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and Green Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Farkhondeh Saba; Moslem Papizadeh; Javad Khansha; Mahshid Sedghi; Mehrnoosh Rasooli; Mohammad Ali Amoozegar; Mohammad Reza Soudi; Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh Fazeli

    2016-01-01

    Background:  Sequence-based identification of various microorganisms including Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and green algae necessitates an efficient and reproducible genome extraction procedure though which a pure template DNA is yielded and it can be used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Considering the fact that DNA extraction from these microorganisms is time consuming and laborious, we developed and standardized a safe, rapid and inexpensive miniprep protocol. Me...

  16. "In situ" extraction of essential oils by use of Dean-Stark glassware and a Vigreux column inside a microwave oven: a procedure for teaching green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Perino-Issartier, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Fernandez, Xavier

    2012-08-01

    One of the principal objectives of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry in colleges, high schools, and academic laboratories. This paper describes simple glassware that illustrates the phenomenon of extraction in a conventional microwave oven as energy source and a process for green analytical chemistry. Simple glassware comprising a Dean-Stark apparatus (for extraction of aromatic plant material and recovery of essential oils and distilled water) and a Vigreux column (as an air-cooled condenser inside the microwave oven) was designed as an in-situ extraction vessel inside a microwave oven. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for extraction of essential oils from 30 g fresh orange peel, a by-product in the production of orange juice. Every laboratory throughout the world can use this equipment. The microwave power is 100 W and the irradiation time 15 min. The method is performed at atmospheric pressure without added solvent or water and furnishes essential oils similar to those obtained by conventional hydro or steam distillation. By use of GC-MS, 22 compounds in orange peel were separated and identified; the main compounds were limonene (72.1%), β-pinene (8.4%), and γ-terpinene (6.9%). This procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, does not require any special microwave equipment, and enables the students to learn the skills of extraction, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. They are also exposed to a dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable, and green extraction of an essential oil, and are introduced to successful sustainable and green analytical chemistry.

  17. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Stevia rebaudiana leaf extracts: Characterization and their stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Babak; Mohammadzadeh, M; Babakhani, B

    2015-07-01

    Various methods invented and developed for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles that increases daily consumed. According to this method, including potential environmental pollution problems and the complexity of the synthesis, in this study, the feasibility of using the leaves extract of Stevia rebaudiana (SR) for the reduction of gold ions to nanoparticles form have been studied. Stevia leaves were used to prepare the aqueous extract for this study. Gold nanoparticles were characterized with different techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Transmission electron microscopy experiments showed that these nanoparticles are spherical and uniformly distributed and its size is from 5 to 20 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that gold nanoparticles were functionalized with biomolecules that have primary amine group (NH2), carbonyl group, OH groups and other stabilizing functional groups. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face centered cubic structure of gold nanoparticles with size of 17 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) implies the right of forming gold nanoparticles. The results, confirm that gold nanoparticles have synthesized by the leaves extract of S. rebaudiana (SR). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María de la Luz; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents. PMID:25383680

  19. The Influence of Ethanolic Extract of Brazilian Green Propolis Gel on Hygiene and Oral Microbiota in Patients after Mandible Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielska, Iwona; Puszczewicz, Zbigniew; Mertas, Anna; Niedzielski, Damian; Różanowski, Bartosz; Baron, Stefan; Konopka, Tomasz; Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Paluch, Jarosław; Markowski, Jarosław; Orzechowska-Wylęgała, Bogusława; Król, Wojciech; Morawiec, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of proper oral hygiene by dental plaque elimination is one of the most important factors affecting the healing process in postoperative oral wounds. Propolis is a substance produced by bees. Ethanolic extract of propolis has bactericidal, fungicidal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties. Moreover, it can scavenge free radicals. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the efficacy of a gel containing 3% of ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEP-B) when used for maintaining oral hygiene in patients with postoperative oral mucosal wounds. The hygiene was assessed using API, OHI, and SBI followed by microbiological examinations. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of those who used a gel containing EEP-B for oral hygiene, and group 2 consisted of those who used a gel without EEP-B. Although improved oral hygiene was noted in both groups, the improvement was markedly greater in the group using gel containing EEP-B. Summing up the results of microbiological examinations, EEP-B has beneficial effect on mouth microflora in postoperative period. Propolis preparations used for oral hygiene allow eliminating microorganisms of pathogenic character and physiological flora microorganisms considered as being opportunistic, with no harmful influence on physiological microflora in oral ecosystem.

  20. One-step green synthesis and characterization of leaf extract-mediated biocompatible silver and gold nanoparticles from Memecylon umbellatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kantha D; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Hari, Shanmugasundaram

    2013-01-01

    In this experiment, green-synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were produced rapidly by treating silver and gold ions with an extract of Memecylon umbellatum leaf. The reaction process was simple and easy to handle, and was monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The effect of the phytochemicals present in M. umbellatum, including saponins, phenolic compounds, phytosterols, and quinones, on formation of stable silver and gold nanoparticles was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The results indicate that the saponins, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds present in the plant extract play a major role in formation of silver and gold nanoparticles in their respective ions in solution. The characteristics of the nanoparticles formed suggest application of silver and gold nanoparticles as chemical sensors in the future. Given the simple and eco-friendly approach for synthesis, these nanoparticles could easily be commercialized for large-scale production. PMID:23569372

  1. The Influence of Ethanolic Extract of Brazilian Green Propolis Gel on Hygiene and Oral Microbiota in Patients after Mandible Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Niedzielska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of proper oral hygiene by dental plaque elimination is one of the most important factors affecting the healing process in postoperative oral wounds. Propolis is a substance produced by bees. Ethanolic extract of propolis has bactericidal, fungicidal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties. Moreover, it can scavenge free radicals. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the efficacy of a gel containing 3% of ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEP-B when used for maintaining oral hygiene in patients with postoperative oral mucosal wounds. The hygiene was assessed using API, OHI, and SBI followed by microbiological examinations. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of those who used a gel containing EEP-B for oral hygiene, and group 2 consisted of those who used a gel without EEP-B. Although improved oral hygiene was noted in both groups, the improvement was markedly greater in the group using gel containing EEP-B. Summing up the results of microbiological examinations, EEP-B has beneficial effect on mouth microflora in postoperative period. Propolis preparations used for oral hygiene allow eliminating microorganisms of pathogenic character and physiological flora microorganisms considered as being opportunistic, with no harmful influence on physiological microflora in oral ecosystem.

  2. Combining Pickering Emulsion Polymerization with Molecular Imprinting to Prepare Polymer Microspheres for Selective Solid-Phase Extraction of Malachite Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Liang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malachite green (MG is currently posing a carcinogenic threat to the safety of human lives; therefore, it is highly desirable to develop an effective method for fast trace detection of MG. Herein, for the first time, this paper presents a systematic study on polymer microspheres, being prepared by combined Pickering emulsion polymerization and molecular imprinting, to detect and purify MG. The microspheres, molecularly imprinted with MG, show enhanced adsorption selectivity to MG, despite a somewhat lowered adsorption capacity, as compared to the counterpart without molecular imprinting. Structural features and adsorption performance of these microspheres are elucidated by different characterizations and kinetic and thermodynamic analyses. The surface of the molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres (M-PMs exhibits regular pores of uniform pore size distribution, endowing M-PMs with impressive adsorption selectivity to MG. In contrast, the microspheres without molecular imprinting show a larger average particle diameter and an uneven porous surface (with roughness and a large pore size, causing a lower adsorption selectivity to MG despite a higher adsorption capacity. Various adsorption conditions are investigated, such as pH and initial concentration of the solution with MG, for optimizing the adsorption performance of M-PMs in selectively tackling MG. The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics are deeply discussed and analyzed, so as to provide a full picture of the adsorption behaviors of the polymer microspheres with and without the molecular imprinting. Significantly, M-PMs show promising solid-phase extraction column applications for recovering MG in a continuous extraction manner.

  3. Properties and Antioxidant Action of Actives Cassava Starch Films Incorporated with Green Tea and Palm Oil Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Kátya Karine Nery Carneiro Lins; Conceição, Anderson Carlos de Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Juliana Caribé Pires; Assis, Denilson de Jesus; Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Druzian, Janice Izabel

    2014-01-01

    There is an interest in the development of an antioxidant packaging fully biodegradable to increase the shelf life of food products. An active film from cassava starch bio-based, incorporated with aqueous green tea extract and oil palm colorant was developed packaging. The effects of additives on the film properties were determined by measuring mechanical, barrier and thermal properties using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack butter (maintained for 45 days) under accelerated oxidation conditions. The antioxidant action of the active films was evaluated by analyzing the peroxide index, total carotenoids, and total polyphenol. The same analysis also evaluated unpacked butter, packed in films without additives and butter packed in LDPE films, as controls. The results suggested that incorporation of the antioxidants extracts tensile strength and water vapor barrier properties (15 times lower) compared to control without additives. A lower peroxide index (231.57%), which was significantly different from that of the control (pstarch films totally biodegradable and the use of these materials in active packaging of the fatty products. PMID:25251437

  4. Heterocyclic aromatic amine content in chicken burgers and chicken nuggets sold in fast food restaurants and effects of green tea extract and microwave thawing on their formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in chicken burgers (CBs) and chicken nuggets (CNs) purchased from fast food restaurants and the effects of green tea extract addition (GTE) to the covering material as wel...

  5. Extracting the Green's function from the correlation of coda waves: A derivation based on stationary phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snieder, Roel

    2004-01-01

    The Green's function of waves that propagate between two receivers can be found by cross-correlating multiply scattered waves recorded at these receivers. This technique obviates the need for a source at one of these locations, and is therefore called ''passive imaging.'' This principle has been explained by assuming that the normal modes of the system are uncorrelated and that all carry the same amount of energy (equipartitioning). Here I present an alternative derivation of passive imaging of the ballistic wave that is not based on normal modes. The derivation is valid for scalar waves in three dimensions, and for elastic surface waves. Passive imaging of the ballistic wave is based on the destructive interference of waves radiated from scatterers away from the receiver line, and the constructive interference of waves radiated from secondary sources near the receiver line. The derivation presented here shows that the global requirement of the equipartitioning of normal modes can be relaxed to the local requirement that the scattered waves propagate on average isotropically near the receivers

  6. Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Ghassan Mohammad; Mohammed, Wasnaa Hatif; Marzoog, Thorria Radam; Al-Amiery, Ahmed Abdul Amir; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana (E. chapmaniana) and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria, yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line. Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h. A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed. Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line (HL-60). UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50° and 44.76°. The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. It has been demonstrated that the extract of E. chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles.

  7. Green synthesis,antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghassan; Mohammad; Sulaiman; Wasnaa; Hatif; Mohammed; Thorria; Radam; Marzoog; Ahmed; Abdul; Amir; Al-Amiery; Abdul; Amir; H.Kadhum; Abu; Bakar; Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana(E.chapmaniana)and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria,yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia(HL-60)cell line.Methods:Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h.A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed.Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed.Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide,a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line(HL-60).Results:UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm.X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50°and 44.76°.The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusions:It has been demonstrated that the extract of E.chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution.Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles.

  8. Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghassan Mohammad Sulaiman; Wasnaa Hatif Mohammed; Thorria Radam Marzoog; Ahmed Abdul Amir Al-Amiery; Abdul Amir H Kadhum; Abu Bakar Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana (E. chapmaniana) and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria, yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line.Methods:Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h. A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed. Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line (HL-60). Results: UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50 ° and 44.76 °. The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: It has been demonstrated that the extract of E. chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles.

  9. Hot ethanol extraction: economic feasibility of a new and green process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new extraction process using ethanol at a temperature above boiling point is assessed from an economic point of view. The study was based on an assessment of the main operating costs adjusted by Lang’s factor. Operating costs were assessed based on energy consumption calculated using a model of the process developed from experimental results, and for a hypothetical unit with a 160 000 t/year rapeseed crushing capacity. The processing cost was estimated at 47.4 € per ton of processed seed. Amortization represented 35% of this cost, energy 32% and manpower 10%. Uncertainty about investment is the main factor that could lead to significant error in this cost, but this uncertainty could be offset by an adjustment of the amortization duration, most of the equipment being durable. Profit generated by the process relies principally on a better valuation of the meal: higher value comes from higher protein content and quality on the market for GM-free high protein feedstuffs. Oil quality is also improved by a lower oleic acidity, low phospholipid content and pigment concentration. This gain was estimated at 2.5% of the crude oil value. Unlike the conventional hexane process, hot ethanol extraction produces molasses in small proportions. Molasses value was set at 70% of corn price. The process profitability appears sufficiently positive to justify further research to test the hypothesis underlying our model. The main uncertainty lies in the performance of the process in real conditions of counter-flow extraction and solvent regeneration.

  10. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and its antimicrobial potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Jerushka S.; Babu Naidu Krishna, Suresh; Pillay, Karen; Sershen; Govender, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    In this study we report on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera using sunlight irradiation as primary source of energy, and its antimicrobial potential. Silver nanoparticle formation was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance at 450 nm and 440 nm, respectively for both fresh and freeze-dried leaf samples. Crystanality of AgNPs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. FTIR spectroscopic analysis suggested that flavones, terpenoids and polysaccharides predominate and are primarily responsible for the reduction and subsequent capping of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction analysis also demonstrated that the size range of AgNPs from both samples exhibited average diameters of 9 and 11 nm, respectively. Silver nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity on both bacterial and fungal strains. The biosynthesised nanoparticle preparations from M. oleifera leaf extracts exhibit potential for application as broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents.

  11. Green synthesis of Fe nanoparticles using eucalyptus leaf extracts for treatment of eutrophic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ting; Jin, Xiaoying; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were firstly synthesized through a one-step room-temperature biosynthetic route using eucalyptus leaf extracts (EL-Fe NPs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) confirmed the successful synthesis of the spheroidal iron nanoparticles. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) indicated that some polyphenols are bound to the surfaces of EL-Fe NPs as a capping/stabilizing agent. Reactivity of EL-Fe NPs was evaluated for the treatment of swine wastewater and results indicated that 71.7% of total N and 84.5% of COD were removed, respectively. This demonstrated the tremendous potential of EL-Fe NPs for in situ remediation of eutrophic wastewater. - Highlights: •Fe NPs were firstly synthesized through a one-step using eucalyptus leaf extracts. •Fe NPs was evaluated by remediating swine wastewater. •71.7% of total N and 84.5% of COD was removed. •Fe NPs for in situ remediation of eutrophic wastewater

  12. Green synthesis of Fe nanoparticles using eucalyptus leaf extracts for treatment of eutrophic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ting; Jin, Xiaoying [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, Fujian (China); Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: Zuliang.chen@unisa.edu.au [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, Fujian (China); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were firstly synthesized through a one-step room-temperature biosynthetic route using eucalyptus leaf extracts (EL-Fe NPs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) confirmed the successful synthesis of the spheroidal iron nanoparticles. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) indicated that some polyphenols are bound to the surfaces of EL-Fe NPs as a capping/stabilizing agent. Reactivity of EL-Fe NPs was evaluated for the treatment of swine wastewater and results indicated that 71.7% of total N and 84.5% of COD were removed, respectively. This demonstrated the tremendous potential of EL-Fe NPs for in situ remediation of eutrophic wastewater. - Highlights: •Fe NPs were firstly synthesized through a one-step using eucalyptus leaf extracts. •Fe NPs was evaluated by remediating swine wastewater. •71.7% of total N and 84.5% of COD was removed. •Fe NPs for in situ remediation of eutrophic wastewater.

  13. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Dillenia indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Arghya; Gadewar, Manoj; Sharma, Pragya; Deka, Manab; Bora, Utpal

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report a novel method of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) synthesis using aqueous fruit extract of Dillenia indica. The phytochemicals present in the fruit extract act as an effective reducing and capping agent to synthesize AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized by spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. TEM studies revealed the particles of various sizes and mainly spherical in shape. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images confirmed the crystallinity of the particles. The XRD patterns showed peaks at (111), (200), (220) which exhibited preferential orientation of the AuNPs as face-centered cubic crystal. FTIR measurements confirmed the coating of phenolic compounds on the AuNPs indicating a possible role of biomolecules for the capping and efficient stabilization of the AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs did not show any form of cytotoxicity in the normal fibroblast cell line L929.

  14. Combined Enzymatic and Mechanical Cell Disruption and Lipid Extraction of Green Alga Neochloris oleoabundans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongqin; Li, Yanqun; Hu, Xueqiong; Su, Weimin; Zhong, Min

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biodiesel is one of the most promising renewable fuels. The wet technique for lipids extraction has advantages over the dry method, such as energy-saving and shorter procedure. The cell disruption is a key factor in wet oil extraction to facilitate the intracellular oil release. Ultrasonication, high-pressure homogenization, enzymatic hydrolysis and the combination of enzymatic hydrolysis with high-pressure homogenization and ultrasonication were employed in this study to disrupt the cells of the microalga Neochloris oleoabundans. The cell disruption degree was investigated. The cell morphology before and after disruption was assessed with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The energy requirements and the operation cost for wet cell disruption were also estimated. The highest disruption degree, up to 95.41%, assessed by accounting method was achieved by the combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization. A lipid recovery of 92.6% was also obtained by the combined process. The combined process was found to be more efficient and economical compared with the individual process. PMID:25853267

  15. Butea monosperma bark extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Characterization and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanuka Pattanayak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with an environmentally benign process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Butea monosperma bark extract which is used both as a reducing as well as capping agent at room temperature. The reaction mixture turned brownish yellow after about 24 h and an intense surface plasmon resonance (SPR band at around 424 nm clearly indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform-Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the nanoparticles were capped with compounds present in the plant extract. Formation of crystalline fcc silver nanoparticles is analysed by XRD data and the SAED pattern obtained also confirms the crystalline behaviour of the Ag nanoparticles. The size and morphology of these nanoparticles were studied using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM which showed that the nanoparticles had an average dimension of ∼35 nm. A larger DLS data of ∼98 nm shows the presence of the stabilizer on the nanoparticles surface. The bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles revealed potent antibacterial activity against human bacteria of both Gram types. In addition these biologically synthesized nanoparticles also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on human myeloid leukemia cell line, KG-1A with IC50 value of 11.47 μg/mL.

  16. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Prosopis juliflora bark extract: reaction optimization, antimicrobial and catalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Geeta; Kumari, R Mankamna; Gupta, Nidhi; Kumar, Ajeet; Chandra, Ramesh; Nimesh, Surendra

    2017-07-18

    In the present study, silver nanoparticles (PJB-AgNPs) have been biosynthesized employing Prosopis juliflora bark extract. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was monitored on UV-vis spectrophotometer. The size, charge and polydispersity index (PDI) of PJB-AgNPs were determined using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Different parameters dictating the size of PJB-AgNPs were explored. Nanoparticles biosynthesis optimization studies suggested efficient synthesis of highly dispersed PJB-AgNPs at 25 °C when 9.5 ml of 1 mM AgNO 3 was reduced with 0.5 ml of bark extract for 40 min. Characterization of PJB-AgNPs by SEM showed spherical-shaped nanoparticles with a size range ∼10-50 nm along with a hydrodynamic diameter of ∼55 nm as evaluated by DLS. Further, characterizations were done by FTIR and EDS to evaluate the functional groups and purity of PJB-AgNPs. The antibacterial potential of PJB-AgNPs was tested against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The PJB-AgNPs remarkably exhibited anticancer activity against A549 cell line as evidenced by Alamar blue assay. The dye degradation activity was also evaluated against 4-nitrophenol that has carcinogenic effect. The results thus obtained suggest application of PJB-AgNPs as antimicrobial, anticancer and catalytic agents.

  17. Combined Enzymatic and Mechanical Cell Disruption and Lipid Extraction of Green Alga Neochloris oleoabundans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqin Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biodiesel is one of the most promising renewable fuels. The wet technique for lipids extraction has advantages over the dry method, such as energy-saving and shorter procedure. The cell disruption is a key factor in wet oil extraction to facilitate the intracellular oil release. Ultrasonication, high-pressure homogenization, enzymatic hydrolysis and the combination of enzymatic hydrolysis with high-pressure homogenization and ultrasonication were employed in this study to disrupt the cells of the microalga Neochloris oleoabundans. The cell disruption degree was investigated. The cell morphology before and after disruption was assessed with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The energy requirements and the operation cost for wet cell disruption were also estimated. The highest disruption degree, up to 95.41%, assessed by accounting method was achieved by the combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization. A lipid recovery of 92.6% was also obtained by the combined process. The combined process was found to be more efficient and economical compared with the individual process.

  18. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Meguro

    Full Text Available Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  19. Sensitivity of salad greens (Lactuca sativa L. and Eruca sativa Mill. exposed to crude extracts of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC. Bittencourt-Oliveira

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of crude extracts of the microcystin-producing (MC+ cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa on seed germination and initial development of lettuce and arugula, at concentrations between 0.5 μg.L–1 and 100 μg.L–1 of MC-LR equivalent, and compared it to crude extracts of the same species without the toxin (MC–. Crude extracts of the cyanobacteria with MC (+ and without MC (– caused different effects on seed germination and initial development of the salad green seedlings, lettuce being more sensitive to both extracts when compared to arugula. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+ caused more evident effects on seed germination and initial development of both species of salad greens than MC–. Concentrations of 75 μg.L–1 and 100 μg.L–1 of MC–LR equivalent induced a greater occurrence of abnormal seedlings in lettuce, due to necrosis of the radicle and shortening of this organ in normal seedlings, as well as the reduction in total chlorophyll content and increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD. The MC– extract caused no harmful effects to seed germination and initial development of seedlings of arugula. However, in lettuce, it caused elevation of POD enzyme activity, decrease in seed germination at concentrations of 75 μg.L–1 (MC-75 and 100 μg.L–1 (MC-100, and shortening of the radicle length, suggesting that other compounds present in the cyanobacteria extracts contributed to this result. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC– may contain other compounds, besides the cyanotoxins, capable of causing inhibitory or stimulatory effects on seed germination and initial development of salad green seedlings. Arugula was more sensitive to the crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+ and (MC– and to other possible compounds produced by the cyanobacteria.

  20. Green synthesis and antibacterial activity screening of silver nanoparticles reduced by papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esplana, Camille S.; Cabling, Mercedes Q.

    2013-01-01

    The field of nano technology is the most active area of research in modern material sciences. Though there are many chemical, as well as physical methods, green synthesis is the most emerging method of synthesis. This study aimed to describe a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was prepared by adding Carica papaya L. leaves extract to 1mM silver nitrate solution. The color change in reaction mixture (pale yellow to dark brown color was observed during the incubation period , due to excitation of surface plasmon vibrations in silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles formed in the reaction media has absorbance peak at 280 nm, broadening of peak indicates that the particles are poly dispersed. SEM analysis described the morphology and the size of the particles. XRD confirmed the crystalline structure of the nanoparticles. The presence of the elemental silver was observed in the graph obtained from EDX analysis, which also supports the XRD results. The biomass of plants produces their nano materials by a process called bio mineralization. The tests cultures included in the study were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Results showed that the maximum inhibitory effect using 1mM silver nitrates against the microbes were obtained. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticles synthesis (author)

  1. Effect of Green Tea Extract/Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid Complex in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Cheor Bae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is associated with the rapid spread of obesity. Obesity induces insulin resistance, resulting in β-cell dysfunction and thus T2DM. Green tea extract (GTE has been known to prevent obesity and T2DM, but this effect is still being debated. Our previous results suggested that circulating green tea gallated catechins (GCs hinders postprandial blood glucose lowering, regardless of reducing glucose and cholesterol absorption when GCs are present in the intestinal lumen. This study aimed to compare the effect of GTE with that of GTE coadministered with poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA, which is likely to inhibit the intestinal absorption of GCs.MethodsThe db/db mice and age-matched nondiabetic mice were provided with normal chow diet containing GTE (1%, γ-PGA (0.1%, or GTE+γ-PGA (1%:0.1% for 4 weeks.ResultsIn nondiabetic mice, none of the drugs showed any effects after 4 weeks. In db/db mice, however, weight gain and body fat gain were significantly reduced in the GTE+γ-PGA group compared to nondrug-treated db/db control mice without the corresponding changes in food intake and appetite. Glucose intolerance was also ameliorated in the GTE+γ-PGA group. Histopathological analyses showed that GTE+γ-PGA-treated db/db mice had a significantly reduced incidence of fatty liver and decreased pancreatic islet size. Neither GTE nor γ-PGA treatment showed any significant results.ConclusionThese results suggest that GTE+γ-PGA treatment than GTE or γ-PGA alone may be a useful tool for preventing both obesity and obesity-induced T2DM.

  2. Purification of simulated waste water using green synthesized silver nanoparticles of Piliostigma thonningii aqueous leave extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, K. O.; Ihebunna, O.

    2017-12-01

    Synthesis of nanoparticles from various biological systems has been reported, but among all such systems, biosynthesis of nanoparticles from plants is considered the most suitable method. The use of plant material not only makes the process eco-friendly, but also the abundance makes it more economical. The aim of this study was to biologically synthesize silver nanoparticle using Piliostigma thonningii aqueous leaf extract and applied in the purification of laboratory stimulated waste with optimization using the different conditions of silver nanoparticle production such as time, temperature, pH, concentration of silver nitrate and volume of the aqueous extract. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, nanosizer, energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The time intervals for the reaction with aqueous silver nitrate solution shows an increase in the absorbance with time and became constant giving a maximum absorbance at 415 nm at 60 min of incubation. The pH of 6.5, temperature 65 °C, 1.25 mM of silver nitrate and 5 ml of plant extract was the best condition with maximum absorbance. The results from nanosizer, UV-vis and TEM suggested the biosynthesis silver nanoparticle to be spherical ranging from 50 nm to 114 nm. The EDX confirmed the elemental synthesis of silver at 2.60 keV and FTIR suggested the capping agent to be hydroxyl (OH) group with -C=C stretching vibrations. The synthesized silver nanoparticle also shows heavy metal removal activity in laboratory simulated waste water. The safety toxicity studies show no significant difference between the orally administered silver nanoparticles treated water group and control group, while the histopathological studies show well preserved hepatic architecture for the orally administered silver nanoparticle treated waste water group when compared with the control

  3. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Ricinus communis var. carmencita leaf extract and its antibacterial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Sunita; Sett, Arghya; Bora, Utpal

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we report synthesis of silver nanoparticles (RcAgNPs) from silver nitrate solution using methanolic leaf extract of Ricinus communis var. carmencita. The polyphenols present in the leaves reduce Ag++ ions to Ag0 followed by a color change. Silver nanoparticle formation was ensured by surface plasmon resonance between 400 nm to 500 nm. Crystallinity of the synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed by UHRTEM, SAED and XRD analysis. The capping of phytochemicals and thermal stability of RcAgNPs were assessed by FTIR spectra and TGA analysis, respectively. It also showed antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative strains. RcAgNPs were non-toxic against normal cell line (mouse fibroblast cell line L929) at lower concentrations (80 µg ml-1).

  4. Encapsulation of Aloe Vera extract into natural Tragacanth Gum as a novel green wound healing product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz

    2016-12-01

    Application of natural materials in wound healing is an interest topic due to effective treatment with no side effects. In this paper, Aloe Vera extract was encapsulated into Tragacanth Gum through a sonochemical microemulsion process to prepare a wound healing product. FESEM/EDX and FT-IR proved the successfully formation of the nanocapsules with spherical shape by cross-linking aluminum ions with Tragacanth Gum. The therapeutic characteristics of the prepared wound healing product were investigated using antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and wound healing assays. Relative high antimicrobial activities with the microbial reduction of 84, 91 and 80% against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans, a cell viability of 98% against human fibroblast cells and a good wound healing activity with considerable migration rate of fibroblast cells are the important advantages of the new formed wound healing product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Elucidation of the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 1.0 M HCl by Catechin Monomers from Commercial Green Tea Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofrizal, S.; Rahim, Afidah A.; Saad, Bahruddin; Bothi Raja, P.; Shah, Affaizza M.; Yahya, S.

    2012-04-01

    The inhibitive action of commercial green tea extracts on mild steel (MS) in a 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed conclusively that of the eight catechin monomers and caffeine found in the original extracts, only four components were responsible for the inhibition of MS. The decreasing adsorption capacity of monomers on MS is related to the stereochemistry of molecules and the number of phenolic groups, and it is as follows: epigallocatechin gallate > epicatechin gallate > epigallocatechin > epicatechin. Adsorption of green tea extract constituent was found to follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the calculated Gibb's free energy values indicated the physisorption of inhibitor over MS surface. Physisorption was supported well by the potential zero charge (PZC) and molecular surface energy-level calculations.

  6. Molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of malachite green from seawater and seafood coupled with high-performance liquid chromatographic determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ziru; Wang, Jiangtao

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a highly selective sample cleanup procedure combining molecular imprinting technique (MIT) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the isolation of malachite green in seawater and seafood samples. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared using malachite green as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking monomer. The imprinted polymer and non-imprinted polymer were characterized by scanning electron microscope and static adsorption experiments. The MIP showed a high adsorption capacity and was used as selective sorbent for the SPE of malachite green. An off-line molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diodearray detection for the analysis of malachite green in seawater and seafood samples was also established. Finally, five samples were determined. The results showed that malachite green concentration in one seawater sample was at 1.30 μg L⁻¹ and the RSD (n=3) was 4.15%. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Brazilian Green Propolis on Activated J774A.1 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Szliszka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEP-B on LPS + IFN-γ or PMA stimulated J774A.1 macrophages. The identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in green propolis extract were performed using HPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS methods. The cell viability was evaluated by MTT and LDH assays. The radical scavenging ability was determined using DPPH• and ABTS•+. ROS and RNS generation was analyzed by chemiluminescence. NO concentration was detected by the Griess reaction. The release of various cytokines by activated J774A.1 cells was measured in the culture supernatants using a multiplex bead array system based on xMAP technology. Artepillin C, kaempferide, and their derivatives were the main phenolics found in green propolis. At the tested concentrations, the EEP-B did not decrease the cell viability and did not cause the cytotoxicity. EEP-B exerted strong antioxidant activity and significantly inhibited the production of ROS, RNS, NO, cytokine IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-13, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES in stimulated J774A.1 macrophages. Our findings provide new insights for understanding the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of Brazilian green propolis extract and support its application in complementary and alternative medicine.

  8. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Examining the Effects of Green Tea Extract on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamekhi, Z; Amani, R; Habibagahi, Z; Namjoyan, F; Ghadiri, Ata; Saki Malehi, A

    2017-07-01

    Antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory benefit of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in autoimmune disease has been proven in recent studies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of green tea on disease activity and quality of life in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. A randomized controlled trial on subjects with lupus was conducted, and 68 patients in the age range of 39.1 ± 10.3 years and body mass index of 25.7 ± 5.21 kg/m 2 completed the 12-week study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (1000 mg green tea extract, two capsules/day) and control (1000 mg of starch, two capsules/day). Main outcome measure, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity, was assessed by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index at the first and after 3 months of intervention. In addition, patient's quality of life was evaluated by short form of quality-of-life questionnaire at baseline and after 3 months. Green tea extract supplementation significantly reduced disease activity in lupus patients (p tea extracts for 12 weeks improves the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity as well as some aspects of quality of life. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Nanoliposomal carriers for improvement the bioavailability of high - valued phenolic compounds of pistachio green hull extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Zahra; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Maherani, Behnoush

    2017-04-01

    In present study, nanoliposomes were prepared by thin hydration method with different concentrations of phenolic compounds (500, 750 and 1000ppm) of pure extract and lecithin (1, 2 and 3%w/w) and characterized by considering the particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE) and morphology. The results showed that nanoliposome (90.39-103.78nm) had negative surface charge varied from -51.5±0.9 to -40.2±0.2mV with a narrow size distribution (PDI≈0.069-0.123). Nanoliposomes composed of 1% lecithin with 1000ppm of phenolic compounds had the highest EE (52.93%). The FTIR analysis indicated the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar zone of phospholipid and the OH groups of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds also increased phase transition temperature (Tc) of nanoliposomes (2.01-7.24°C). Moreover, nanoliposomes had considerable stability during storage. Consequently, liposome is an efficient carrier for protection and improving PGHE biofunctional actives in foodstuffs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extraction of hydrocarbons from freshwater green microalgae (Botryococcus sp.) biomass after phycoremediation of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Paran; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed; Matias-Peralta, Hazel; Mohamed, Radin Maya Saphira Radin; Latiff, Ab Aziz Abdul; Parjo, Umi Kalthsom

    2017-07-03

    This study was undertaken to analyze the efficiency of Botryococcus sp. in the phycoremediation of domestic wastewater and to determine the variety of hydrocarbons derived from microalgal oil after phycoremediation. The study showed a significant (p chemical oxygen demand, 69.1% biochemical oxygen demand, 59.9% total nitrogen, 54.5% total organic carbon, and 36.8% phosphate. The average dry weight biomass produce was 0.1 g/L of wastewater. In addition, the dry weight biomass of Botryococcus sp. was found to contain 72.5% of crude oil. The composition analysis using Gas Chromatogram - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) found that phthalic acid, 2-ethylhexyltridecyl ester (C 29 H 48 O 4 ), contributed the highest percentage (71.6%) of the total hydrocarbon compounds to the extracted algae oil. The result of the study suggests that Botryococcus sp. can be used for effective phycoremediation, as well as to provide a sustainable hydrocarbon source as a value-added chemical for the bio-based plastic industry.

  11. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus maxima peel extract and their catalytic/antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun-Gang; Huo, Can; Gui, Bing; Cao, Wei-Ping

    2017-08-01

    The peel of Citrus maxima ( C. maxima ) is the primary byproducts during the process of fruit or juice in food industries, and it was always considered as biomass waste for further treatments. In this study, the authors reported a simple and eco-friendly method to synthesise gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using C. maxima peel extract as reducing and capping agents. The synthesised AuNPs were characterised by UV-visible spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-visible spectrum of the AuNPs colloid showed a characteristic peak at 540 nm. The peaks of XRD analysis at (2 θ ) 38.30°, 44.28°, 64.62°, 77.57° and 81.75° were assigned to (111), (200), (220), (311) and (222) planes of the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice of gold. The TEM images showed that AuNPs were nearly spherical in shape with the size of 8-25 nm. The FTIR spectrum revealed that some bioactive compounds capped the surface of synthesised AuNPs. The biosynthesised AuNPs performed strong catalytic activity in degradation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol and good antibacterial activity against both gram negative ( Escherichia coli ) and gram positive ( Staphylococcus aureus ) bacterium. The synthesis procedure was proved simple, cost effective and environment friendly.

  12. Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract of Garcinia mangostana Fruit Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Xin Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs is performed by the reduction of aqueous gold metal ions in contact with the aqueous peel extract of plant, Garcinia mangostana (G. mangostana. An absorption peak of the gold nanoparticles is observed at the range of 540–550 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy. All the diffraction peaks at 2θ = 38.48°, 44.85°, 66.05°, and 78.00° that index to (111, (200, (220, and (311 planes confirm the successful synthesis of Au-NPs. Mostly spherical shape particles with size range of 32.96 ± 5.25 nm are measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. From the FTIR results, the peaks obtained are closely related to phenols, flavonoids, benzophenones, and anthocyanins which suggest that they may act as the reducing agent. This method is environmentally safe without the usage of synthetic materials which is highly potential in biomedical applications.

  13. Green synthesis of stabilized spherical shaped gold nanoparticles using novel aqueous Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tausif; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi; Irfan, Muhammad; Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Anwaar Asghar, Hafiz Muhammad; Bhattacharjee, Sekhar

    2018-05-01

    In the last decade, development of bioinspired protocols to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using plants and their extracts have been dealt by researchers due to their low cost, renewability and non-toxic features. A simple, cheap and ecofriendly method is reported to synthesize stabilized AuNPs of size 35-75 nm at room temperature using aqueous Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) leaves extract without addition of any external agent. Oil palm leaves mediated AuNPs were characterized using FTIR, UV-vis spectrophotometer, EDAX, XPS, FESEM, TEM, DLS and TGA. FTIR spectra results revealed contribution of phenolic, carboxylic, amines and amides in reduction of trivalent gold ions and stabilization of formed gold atoms. Reaction solution color change and UV-vis spectra confirmed reduction of gold ions to generate gold atoms. Reaction mechanism explained the role of phenolic compounds in reduction reaction using FTIR and UV-vis spectra results. EDAX and XPS results further validated the formation of metallic gold particles through bioreduction of gold ions. Crystal structure of metallic gold particles was confirmed through XRD peaks indexing to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. TEM and FESEM particles size measurements exhibited the formation of nanostructured AuNPs. Synthesis of well scattered and spherical shaped AuNPs was revealed through FESEM and TEM images. The excellent stability of AuNPs was shown through high negative zeta potential value (-14.7 ± 4.68 mV) and uniform dispersion in aqueous media. Our results disclosed the excellent potential of Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) leaves as reducing and stabilizing agents in green synthesis of well scattered spherical shaped AuNPs, which can be employed as strong candidates in medical drug delivery and industrial applications.

  14. Large Scale Screening of Southern African Plant Extracts for the Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Microtitre-Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M. Elbagory

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs involves a variety of chemical and physical methods. These methods use toxic and environmentally harmful chemicals. Consequently, the synthesis of AuNPs using green chemistry has been under investigation to develop eco-friendly nanoparticles. One approach to achieve this is the use of plant-derived phytochemicals that are capable of reducing gold ions to produce AuNPs. The aim of this study was to implement a facile microtitre-plate method to screen a large number of aqueous plant extracts to determine the optimum concentration (OC for the bio-synthesis of the AuNPs. Several AuNPs of different sizes and shapes were successfully synthesized and characterized from 17 South African plants. The characterization was done using Ultra Violet-Visible Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. We also studied the effects of temperature on the synthesis of the AuNPs and showed that changes in temperatures affect the size and dispersity of the generated AuNPs. We also evaluated the stability of the synthesized AuNPs and showed that some of them are stable in biological buffer solutions.

  15. Green synthesis of cobalt (II, III) oxide nanoparticles using Moringa Oleifera natural extract as high electrochemical electrode for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinise, N.; Mayedwa, N.; Fuku, X. G.; Mongwaketsi, N.; Maaza, M.

    2018-05-01

    The research work involved the development of a better, inexpensive, reliable, easily and accurate way for the fabrication of Cobalt (II, III) oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles through a green synthetic method using Moringa Oleifera extract. The electrochemical activity, crystalline structure, morphology, isothermal behaviour and optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles were studied using various characterization techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the formation of Co3O4 nanoparticles. The pseudo-capacitor behaviour of spinel Co3O4 nanoparticles on Nickel foam electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3M KOH solution. The CV curve revealed a pairs of redox peaks, indicating the pseudo-capacitive characteristics of the Ni/Co3O4 electrode. EIS results showed a small semicircle and Warburg impedance, indicating that the electrochemical process on the surface electrode is kinetically and diffusion controlled. The charge-discharge results indicating that the specific capacitance Ni/Co3O4 electrode is approximately 1060 F/g at a discharge current density of at 2 A/g.

  16. Effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea in reducing the formation of acrylamide during the bread baking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengjie; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Zhou, Weibiao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yutao; Lu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    This is the first study to investigate the extent of reduction in acrylamide formation during baking with the addition of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea, and to determine whether EGCG influences the texture and colour attributes of bread, or interacts with other ingredients. EGCG powders were added to white bread formulations at the concentrations of 3.3, 6.6 and 9.9g·kg -1 . The amount of acrylamide in the bread was analysed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. EGCG addition significantly reduced the acrylamide formation by 37% compared to the control and decreased the moisture content of the bread by 6%. It did not affect its texture attribute, but increased the lightness and the yellowness and decreased the redness of bread crust (with contrasting results in crumb). It also decreased granule size and porosity. In conclusion, EGCG fortification is a feasible method to decrease acrylamide formation in baked bread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymers for extraction of malachite green from fish samples prior to its determination by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lu; Chen, Xiao-mei; Zhang, Hong-yuan; Lin, Yi-dong; Lin, Zheng-zhong; Huang, Zhi-yong; Lai, Zhu-zhi

    2015-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) particles for malachite green (MG) were prepared by emulsion polymerization using methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, and a combination of Span-80 and Tween-80 as an emulsifier. The MIP particles were characterized by SEM micrographs and FT-IR spectra. Their binding capacity for MG was evaluated based on kinetic and isothermal adsorption experiments and compared to non-imprinted polymer particles. Analytical figures of merit include an adsorption equilibrium time of 15 min, an adsorption capacity of 1.9 mg∙g -1 in acetonitrile-water (20:80), and an imprinting factor of 1.85. The MIP particles were successfully applied to the extraction of MG from fish samples spiked with MG and the other interfering substances prior to its determination of MG by HPLC. Spiked samples gave recoveries of MG that ranged from 86 to 104 %, much higher than that of the other interfering substance. (author)

  18. Microwave assisted facile green synthesis of silver and gold nanocatalysts using the leaf extract of Aerva lanata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Siby; Mathew, Beena

    2015-02-01

    Herein, we report a simple microwave assisted method for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by the reduction of aqueous metal salt solutions using leaf extract of the medicinal plant Aerva lanata. UV-vis., FTIR, XRD, and HR-TEM studies were conducted to assure the formation of nanoparticles. XRD studies clearly confirmed the crystalline nature of the synthesized nanoparticles. From the HR-TEM images, the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were found to be more or less spherical and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were observed to be of different morphology with an average diameter of 18.62 nm for silver and 17.97 nm for gold nanoparticles. In order to evaluate the effect of microwave heating upon rate of formation, the synthesis was also conducted under ambient condition without the assistance of microwave radiation and the former method was found to be much faster than the later. The synthesized nanoparticles were used as nanocatalysts in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by NaBH4.

  19. Eco-friendly and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Strychnos potatorum Linn.F. and their bactericidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagithoju, Srikanth; Godishala, Vikram; Nanna, Rama Swamy

    2015-10-01

    Inspired green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is evolving as an important branch of nanotechnology. Traditionally these are manufactured by wet chemical methods which require toxic and flammable chemicals. We report for the first time an economic and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Strychnos potatorum aqueous leaf extract from 3 mM silver nitrate solution. Nanoparticles thus formed are confirmed and characterized by using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, SEM and XRD measurements. The XRD and SEM analysis showed the average particle size of nanoparticles as 28 nm as well as revealed their (mixed, i.e., cubic and hexagonal) structure. Further, these green synthesized nanoparticles showed bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant human pathogenic bacteria.

  20. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI-FRAKSI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle Linn TERHADAP PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Fractionated Green Sirih (Piper betle Linn Extract Against Food Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggy T. Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of green sirih (Piper betle Linn extract by chromatography colom using the mixture of several solvents i.e. chloroform, ethanol and acetic acid (4:1:1 resulted in 17 fractions. All fractions showed antibacterial activities but only 2 fractions (fraction 3 and fraction 4 showed the highest inhibition towards the six tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Among the tested bacteria, all fractions of green sirih extracts showed the most effective inhibition against, Salmonella Typhimurium with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 10 mm to 26 mm. Identification using GC-MS found that fraction 3 and fraction 4 contained chavicol; dodecanoic acid, myristic, palmitic and oleic acid.

  1. Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spherical magnetic nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini seed extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prasad, C.H.; Venkateswarlu, P.; Jyothi, N.V.V., E-mail: nvvjyothi01@gmail.com

    2014-09-15

    A novel and bio-inspired Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spherical magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) were synthesized using Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) seed extract, which is a non-toxic ecofriendly fruit waste material. S. cumini seed extract acts as a green solvent, reducing and capping agent in which sodium acetate acts as electrostatic stabilizing agent. The green synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FTIR spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption and desorption analysis techniques. The XRD study divulged that the synthesized SMNPs have inverse spinel cubic structure. The hysteresis loop of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles shows an excellent ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization value of 13.6 emu/g.

  2. Novel green synthetic strategy to prepare ZnO nanocrystals using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) peel extract and its antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Nathanael, A Joseph; Sundrarajan, M; Hong, S I

    2014-08-01

    In the present investigation, we report a sustainable novel green synthetic strategy to synthesis zinc oxide nanocrystals. This is the first report on sustainable biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals employing Nephelium lappaceum L., peel extract as a natural ligation agent. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals was carried out via zinc-ellagate complex formation using rambutan peel wastes. The successful formation of zinc oxide nanocrystals was confirmed employing standard characterisation studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of ZnO nanocrystals with rambutan peel extract was also proposed. The prepared ZnO nanocrystals were coated on the cotton fabric and their antibacterial activity were analyzed. ZnO nanocrystals coated cotton showed good antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), gram positive bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Depuration Study of Heavy Metal Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) in Green Mussels Perna viridis through Continues-discontinues and Acid Extraction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiawan; Bakri, Ridla; Cahaya Dani, Intan; Handayani, Sri; Ade Kurnia Putri, Rizki; Tamala, Riska

    2018-01-01

    Green mussel or Perna viridis is filter feeder, which is very susceptible to heavy metals. It takes an effort to release heavy metal contents on the green shell, one of method that can be used to release heavy metal from green shell is depuration proccess. In this research, the depuration process was conducted by continues method of depuration, discontinues method by using various kind of water and acid extraction. The optimum time of continues depuration method is 1.5 hours, with circulation speed 250 L/h and result of Pb metal content decreased is equal to 30.048% and 29.748% for Cu. In the discontinues method, the optimum result was reached at 100oC by using PAM water as the media at 3 h immersion period with decrease of Pb metal content 35.001% and Cu metal content 39.015%. In the acid extraction method, the optimum condition was achieved by 11% acetic acid solvent with decreasing of Pb and Cu levels are 88.224% and 76.298%. For the determination of protein content, the decrease of protein content obtained by treatment with 11% acetic acid extract showed decrease of protein content 36.656% with Kjeldahl method.

  4. Effect of Gelatin-Based Edible Coatings Incorporated with Aloe vera and Black and Green Tea Extracts on the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Radi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gelatin coating incorporated with Aloe vera gel (50,100% and green and black tea extracts (5,10% on physicochemical, microbial, and sensorial properties of fresh-cut oranges at 4°C for 17 days. Significant differences in terms of quality parameters were observed between the control and coated fresh-cut oranges. The highest variation of quality parameters was observed in control, while the least variations were observed in coated slices with 100% Aloe vera and 10% green tea extract. The weight loss was increased with time, but the coating treatment especially with 100% Aloe vera had significant effect on the prevention of weight loss. Also, Aloe vera coated samples obtained the highest score in sensory evaluation. Coating with gelatin incorporated with Aloe vera and green tea extracts successfully retarded the microbial growth and therefore extended the shelf life of fresh-cut oranges during cold storage.

  5. Characterization, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from Psidium guajava L. leaf aqueous extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wu, Yanan; Xie, Jia; Wu, Sheng; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2018-05-01

    The green synthesis of nanoparticles has become increasingly promising due to their potential applications in nanomedicine and materials science. In this study, silver nanoparticles (P-AgNPs) were synthesized from aqueous extracts of P. guajava L. leaf. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometry at 438 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and zetasizer analyses showed that the average sizes of the P-AgNPs were 20-35 nm, 25 nm, and 25-35 nm, respectively. Element mapping analyses of the P-AgNPs were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. Moreover, FTIR spectra of the synthesized P-AgNPs showed the presence of phyto constituents as capping agents. Zeta potential measurements (-20.17 mV) showed that the synthesized P-AgNPs had reasonably good stability. The in vitro antioxidant properties of the P-AgNPs were evaluated using two different methods. A highly efficient radical scavenging activity of P-AgNPs possessing IC 50 values of 52.53 ± 0.31 μg/mL (DPPH) and 55.10 ± 0.29 μg/mL (ABTS + ) were confirmed. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, antimicrobial activity assays of the P-AgNPs showed significant inhibition against selected bacteria, S. cerevisiae, A. niger and R. oryzae, especially against Alcaligenes faecalis and Escherichia coli. The present study revealed that the low-cost and environmentally friendly synthesis of P-AgNPs can be widely used in biomedicine, water treatment or purification, and nanobiotechnology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Green tea extracts ameliorate high-fat diet-induced muscle atrophy in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Shintaro; Ishino, Mayu; Kitazawa, Hidefumi; Yoto, Ai; Shimba, Yuki; Mochizuki, Yusuke; Unno, Keiko; Meguro, Shinichi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Miura, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    Muscle atrophy (loss of skeletal muscle mass) causes progressive deterioration of skeletal function. Recently, excessive intake of fats was suggested to induce insulin resistance, followed by muscle atrophy. Green tea extracts (GTEs), which contain polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate, have beneficial effects on obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, but their effects against muscle atrophy are still unclear. Here, we found that GTEs prevented high-fat (HF) diet-induced muscle weight loss in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8), a murine model of senescence. SAMP8 mice were fed a control diet, an HF diet, or HF with 0.5% GTEs (HFGT) diet for 4 months. The HF diet induced muscle weight loss with aging (measured as quadriceps muscle weight), whereas GTEs prevented this loss. In HF diet-fed mice, blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations increased in comparison with the control group, and these mice had insulin resistance as determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). In these mice, serum concentrations of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), which is known to induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, were elevated, and insulin signaling in muscle, as determined by the phosphorylation levels of Akt and p70 S6 kinases, tended to be decreased. In HFGT diet-fed mice, these signs of insulin resistance and elevation of serum LECT2 were not observed. Although our study did not directly show the effect of serum LECT2 on muscle weight, insulin resistance examined using HOMA-IR indicated an intervention effect of serum LECT2 on muscle weight, as revealed by partial correlation analysis. Accordingly, GTEs might have beneficial effects on age-related and HF diet-induced muscle weight loss, which correlates with insulin resistance and is accompanied by a change in serum LECT2.

  7. Green tea extract suppresses adiposity and affects the expression of lipid metabolism genes in diet-induced obese zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasumura Takahiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral fat accumulation is one of the most important predictors of mortality in obese populations. Administration of green tea extract (GTE can reduce body fat and reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases in mammals. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of GTE on adiposity in diet-induced obese (DIO zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish at 3.5 to 4.5 months post-fertilization were allocated to four groups: non-DIO, DIO, DIO + 0.0025%GTE, and DIO + 0.0050%GTE. The non-DIO group was fed freshly hatched Artemia once daily (5 mg cysts/fish daily for 40 days. Zebrafish in the three DIO groups were fed freshly hatched Artemia three times daily (60 mg cysts/fish daily. Zebrafish in the DIO + 0.0025%GTE and DIO + 0.0050%GTE groups were exposed to GTE after the start of feeding three times daily for 40 days. Results Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography analysis showed that GTE exposure significantly decreased the volume of visceral but not subcutaneous fat tissue in DIO zebrafish. GTE exposure increased hepatic expression of the lipid catabolism genes ACOX1 (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl, ACADM (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, c-4 to c-12 straight chain, and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. GTE exposure also significantly decreased the visceral fat expression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3b which inhibits leptin signaling. Conclusions The present results are consistent with those seen in mammals treated with GTE, supporting the validity of studying the effects of GTE in DIO zebrafish. Our results suggest that GTE exerts beneficial effects on adiposity, possibly by altering the expression of lipid catabolism genes and SOCS3.

  8. In vitro vascular effects produced by crude aqueous extract of green marine algae, Cladophora patentiramea (Mont.) Kützing, in aorta from normotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yee-Ling; Mok, Shiueh-Lian

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the antihypertensive activity of aqueous extracts obtained from Malaysian coastal seaweeds and to determine the pharmacological mechanisms of the extracts on rat aorta in vitro. The antihypertensive activity of 11 species of seaweeds (5 brown, 1 red and 5 green algae) were tested by cumulative addition of the extracts to phenylephrine (PE)-precontracted Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) aortic rings in in vitro isometric contraction studies. Mechanisms for vasorelaxant effect were investigated in the presence of various antagonists. Of the 11 species tested, 2 showed a vasorelaxant effect. Further investigation of the mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of green alga, Cladophora patentiramea (AECP),showed that the vascular relaxant effect was endothelium- and concentration-dependent. A maximum relaxation of 45.8 +/- 4.6% (n = 8, p < 0.001) was obtained at 0.1 mg/ml of extract, after which the response was found to reduce in a concentration-dependent manner to 15.7 +/- 4.9% (n = 8, p < 0.001) at the highest extract concentration tested. Pretreatment of endothelium-intact aortic rings with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM), (1)H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) and methylene blue (100 microM) resulted in a complete blockade of AECP-induced vasorelaxation. However, the relaxant effects of the extract were not blocked by atropine (1 microM), indomethacin (10 microM) and glibenclamide (10 microM), although the maximum relaxant responses were enhanced in the presence of glibenclamide. Our data showed that the in vitro vascular relaxant effect of AECPwas mediated through endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, and was not associated with the release of vasodilator prostaglandins, activation of muscarinic receptors, or ATP-sensitive potassium channels opening. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Graphene oxide membrane as an efficient extraction and ionization substrate for spray-mass spectrometric analysis of malachite green and its metabolite in fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shih-Chun; Fan, Shen; Lien, Chia-Wen; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Wang, Yi-Sheng; Chu, Han-Wei; Huang, Chih-Ching; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2018-03-20

    A graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet-modified N + -nylon membrane (GOM) has been prepared and used as an extraction and spray-ionization substrate for robust mass spectrometric detection of malachite green (MG), a highly toxic disinfectant in liquid samples and fish meat. The GOM is prepared by self-deposition of GO thin film onto an N + -nylon membrane, which has been used for efficient extraction of MG in aquaculture water samples or homogenized fish meat samples. Having a dissociation constant of 2.17 × 10 -9  M -1 , the GOM allows extraction of approximately 98% of 100 nM MG. Coupling of the GOM-spray with an ion-trap mass spectrometer allows quantitation of MG in aquaculture freshwater and seawater samples down to nanomolar levels. Furthermore, the system possesses high selectivity and sensitivity for the quantitation of MG and its metabolite (leucomalachite green) in fish meat samples. With easy extraction and efficient spray ionization properties of GOM, this membrane spray-mass spectrometry technique is relatively simple and fast in comparison to the traditional LC-MS/MS methods for the quantitation of MG and its metabolite in aquaculture products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of Micro-cloud point extraction for spectrophotometric determination of Malachite green, Crystal violet and Rhodamine B in aqueous samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Elham; Kaykhaii, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    A novel, green, simple and fast method was developed for spectrophotometric determination of Malachite green, Crystal violet, and Rhodamine B in water samples based on Micro-cloud Point extraction (MCPE) at room temperature. This is the first report on the application of MCPE on dyes. In this method, to reach the cloud point at room temperature, the MCPE procedure was carried out in brine using Triton X-114 as a non-ionic surfactant. The factors influencing the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized condition, calibration curves were found to be linear in the concentration range of 0.06-0.60 mg/L, 0.10-0.80 mg/L, and 0.03-0.30 mg/L with the enrichment factors of 29.26, 85.47 and 28.36, respectively for Malachite green, Crystal violet, and Rhodamine B. Limit of detections were between 2.2 and 5.1 μg/L.

  11. Effect of steeping temperature on antioxidant and inhibitory activities of green tea extracts against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and intestinal glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyuan; Ai, Zeyi; Qu, Fengfeng; Chen, Yuqiong; Ni, Dejiang

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of steeping temperature on the biological activities of green tea, including the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities, and glucose uptake inhibitory activity in Caco-2 cells. Results showed that, with increasing extraction temperature, the polyphenol content increased, which contributed to enhance antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Green tea steeped at 100°C showed the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities with EC 50 or IC 50 values of 6.15μg/mL, 0.09mg/mL, and 6.31mg/mL, respectively. However, the inhibitory potential on glucose uptake did not show an upward trend with increasing extraction temperature. Green tea steeped at 60°C had significantly stronger glucose uptake inhibitory activity (ptea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2θ value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30 ± 5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel

  13. Green tea extract does not affect exogenous glucose appearance but reduces insulinemia with glucose ingestion in exercise recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian J; McGlory, Chris; MacInnis, Martin J; Allison, Mary K; Phillips, Stuart M; Gibala, Martin J

    2016-12-01

    We reported that supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) lowered the glycemic response to an oral glucose load following exercise, but via an unknown mechanism (Martin BJ, MacInnis MJ, Gillen JB, Skelly LE, Gibala MJ. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 41: 1057-1063, 2016. Here we examined the effect of supplementation with GTE on plasma glucose kinetics on ingestion of a glucose beverage during exercise recovery. Eleven healthy, sedentary men (21 ± 2 yr old; body mass index = 23 ± 4 kg/m 2 , peak O 2 uptake = 38 ± 7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; means ± SD) ingested GTE (350 mg) or placebo (PLA) thrice daily for 7 days in a double-blind, crossover design. In the fasted state, a primed constant infusion of [U- 13 C 6 ]glucose was started, and 1 h later, subjects performed a graded exercise test (25 W/3 min) on a cycle ergometer. Immediately postexercise, subjects ingested a 75-g glucose beverage containing 2 g of [6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose, and blood samples were collected every 10 min for 3 h of recovery. The rate of carbohydrate oxidation was lower during exercise after GTE vs. PLA (1.26 ± 0.34 vs. 1.48 ± 0.51 g/min, P = 0.04). Glucose area under the curve (AUC) was not different between treatments after drink ingestion (GTE = 1,067 ± 133 vs. PLA = 1,052 ± 91 mM/180 min, P = 0.91). Insulin AUC was lower after GTE vs. PLA (5,673 ± 2,153 vs. 7,039 ± 2,588 µIU/180 min, P = 0.05), despite similar rates of glucose appearance (GTE = 0.42 ± 0.16 vs. PLA = 0.43 ± 0.13 g/min, P = 0.74) and disappearance (GTE = 0.43 ± 0.14 vs. PLA = 0.44 ± 0.14 g/min, P = 0.57). We conclude that short-term GTE supplementation did not affect glucose kinetics following ingestion of an oral glucose load postexercise; however, GTE was associated with attenuated insulinemia. These findings suggest GTE lowers the insulin required for a given glucose load during postexercise recovery, which warrants further mechanistic studies in humans. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. The plights of African resources patenting through the lenses of the World Trade Organisation: an assessment of South Africa's rooibos tea's labyrith journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusan, Lere

    2014-01-01

    Just as developing states are blessed with natural resources capable of transforming their economies into a positive direction, the imposed World Trade Organisation's (WTO) mores continue to relegate them to the status of underdevelopment. The consequences of this on investment, trade and finance in Third World States (TWSs), especially Africa, are disarticulation of the economy, exploitation, disinvestment, unemployment, political instability and unavailability of relevant technology to move TWSs forward, among others. This gives rise to the politics behind Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) patenting (a medicinal plant found only in South Africa) by various multinational corporations (MNCs). This study adopted political economy approach with emphasis on both primary and secondary sources of data collection using content analysis. There is need to adhere strictly to the issues of intellectual property rights (IPRs), geographical indications (GIs), prior informed consent (PIC), and access and sharing benefits (ASB). These have not been observed by the western states because of their economic of neo-imperialism to the disadvantage of developing states. This paper recommends that there is need for a regional regime such as African Regional Intellectual Property Organisation (ARIPO), on indigenous knowledge (IK) to patent the continental biodiversity resources.

  15. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Warren R.; Siu, William H.L.; Jack, Ralph W.; Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Lam, Paul K.S.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2005-01-01

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel

  16. Extractability of radiocesium from processed green tea leaves with hot water. The first emergent tea leaves harvested after the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Ishii, N.

    2012-01-01

    In some tea tree planting areas within 300 km from the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), it was found that newly emerged tea plant leaves for green tea contained two radiocesium species (cesium-134 and cesium-137). In this study, using processed green tea leaves for drinking, extraction ratios of radiocesium under several brew conditions were observed. When 90 deg C water was used, 50-70% of radiocesium was extracted into the water, while 54-60% of radiocesium was extracted with 60 deg C water. A part of radiocesium would be removed from leaves if the leaves were washed with 20 and 60 deg C water before brewing, and the efficiencies were 11 and 32%, respectively. Newly emerged camellia leaves were used to simulate the radiocesium removal ratio from raw tea leaves by washing and boiling; radioactivity concentration was decreased to 60% of the original concentration with washing and 10 min boiling. From these results, it was found that almost half of the radiocesium would not be removed from raw or processed tea leaves. The values obtained in the present study could be used for internal radiation dose estimation from tea leaves. (author)

  17. Effect of green tea extract on bonding durability of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to caries-affected dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina CARVALHO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Green tea extract has been advocated as a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP inhibitor; however, its effect on bond durability to caries-affected dentin has never been reported. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two MMP inhibitors (2% chlorhexidine and 2% green tea extract, applied after acid etching, on bond durability of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to caries-affected dentin. Material and Methods Occlusal enamel was removed from third molars to expose the dentin surface, and the molars were submitted to a caries induction protocol for 15 days. After removal of infected dentin, specimens were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid (15 seconds and randomly divided into three groups, according to the type of dentin pretreatment (n=10: NT: no treatment; GT: 2% green tea extract; CLX: 2% chlorhexidine. The etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions, and composite resin restorations were built on the dentin. After 24 hours, at 37°C, the resin-tooth blocks were sectioned perpendicularly to the adhesive interface in the form of sticks (0.8 mm2 of adhesive area and randomly subdivided into two groups according to when they were to be submitted to microtensile bond strength (μTBS testing: immediately or 6 months after storage in distilled water. Data were reported in MPa and submitted to two-way ANOVA for completely randomized blocks, followed by Tukey’s test (α=0.05. Results After 24 hours, there was no significant difference in the μTBS of the groups. After 6 months, the GT group had significantly higher μTBS values. Conclusion It was concluded that the application of 2% green tea extract was able to increase bond durability of the etch-and-rinse system to dentin. Neither the application of chlorhexidine nor non-treatment (NT - control had any effect on bond strength after water storage.

  18. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinson JA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Joe A Vinson1, Bryan R Burnham3, Mysore V Nagendran31Chemistry Department, 2Psychology Department, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA, USA; 3Health Sciences Clinic, Bangalore, IndiaBackground: Adult weight gain and obesity have become worldwide problems. Issues of cost and potential side effects of prescription weight loss drugs have led overweight and obese adults to try nutraceuticals that may aid weight loss. One promising nutraceutical is green coffee extract, which contains high concentrations of chlorogenic acids hat are known to have health benefits and to influence glucose and fat metabolism. A 22-week crossover study was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of a commercial green coffee extract product GCA™ at reducing weight and body mass in 16 overweight adults.Methods: Subjects received high-dose GCA (1050 mg, low-dose GCA (700 mg, or placebo in separate six-week treatment periods followed by two-week washout periods to reduce any influence of preceding treatment. Treatments were counterbalanced between subjects. Primary measurements were body weight, body mass index, and percent body fat. Heart rate and blood pressure were also measured.Results: Significant reductions were observed in body weight (-8.04 ± 2.31 kg, body mass index (-2.92 ± 0.85 kg/m2, and percent body fat (-4.44% ± 2.00%, as well as a small decrease in heart rate (-2.56 ± 2.85 beats per minute, but with no significant changes to diet over the course of the study. Importantly, the decreases occurred when subjects were taking GCA. Body mass index for six subjects shifted from preobesity to the normal weight range (<25.00 kg/m2.Conclusion: The results are consistent with human and animal studies and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of green coffee extract in weight loss. The results suggest that GCA may be an effective nutraceutical in reducing weight in preobese adults, and may be an inexpensive means of preventing obesity in overweight adults

  19. Inhibitory activity of phenolic-rich pistachio green hull extract-enriched pasta on key type 2 diabetes relevant enzymes and glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalegani, Sajjad; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Amini Sarteshnizi, Roghayeh

    2018-03-01

    Phenolic compounds as agro-industrial by-products have been associated with health benefits since they exhibit high antioxidant activity and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, polyphenol-rich extract from pistachio green hull (PGH) was evaluated for antioxidant activity and its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity in vitro. The effect of PGH extract powder on in vitro starch digestibility was also evaluated. The results showed that PGH had stronger antioxidant activity than Trolox. The inhibitory effect of PGH extract against α-amylase from porcine pancreas was dose dependent and the IC 50 value was ~174μgGAE/mL. The crude PGH extract was eight times more potent on baker yeast α-glucosidase activity (IC 50 ~6μgGAE/mL) when compared to acarbose, whereas the IC 50 value of PGH extract against rat intestinal maltase activity obtained ~2.6mgGAE/mL. The non-tannin fraction of PGH extract was more effective against α-glucosidase than tannin fraction whereas the α-amylase inhibitor was concentrated in the tannin fraction. In vitro starch digestibility and glycemic index (GI) of pasta sample supplemented with PGH extract powder (1.5%) was significantly lower than the control pasta. The IC 50 value of PGH extract obtained from cooked pasta against α-amylase and α-glucosidase was increased. These results have important implications for the processing of PGH for food industry application and therefore could comply with glucose control diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ulva fasciata (Green Seaweed) Extract and Evaluation of Its Cytoprotective and Antigenotoxic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, Idania; Olguín, Sitlali; Santes, Rebeca; Herrera, José A; Pérez, Carlos L; Mangas, Raisa; Hernández, Yasnay; Fernández, Gisselle; Hernández, Ivones; Hernández-Ojeda, Sandra; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; Valencia-Olvera, Ana; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological properties of Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract were examined. Five components were identified in one fraction prepared from the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and palmitic acid and its ethyl ester accounted for 76% of the total identified components. Furthermore, we assessed the extract's antioxidant properties by using the DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation assays and found that the extract had a moderate scavenging effect. In an experiment involving preexposition and coexposition of the extract (1-500 µg/mL) and benzo[a]pyrene (BP), the extract was found to be nontoxic to C9 cells in culture and to inhibit the cytotoxicity induced by BP. As BP is biotransformed by CYP1A and CYP2B subfamilies, we explored the possible interaction of the extract with these enzymes. The extract (25-50 µg/mL) inhibited CYP1A1 activity in rat liver microsomes. Analysis of the inhibition kinetics revealed a mixed-type inhibitory effect on CYP1A1 supersome. The effects of the extract on BP-induced DNA damage and hepatic CYP activity in mice were also investigated. Micronuclei induction by BP and liver CYP1A1/2 activities significantly decreased in animals treated with the extract. The results suggest that Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract inhibits BP bioactivation and it may be a potential chemopreventive agent.

  1. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Green Pepper and Parsley on the Toxicity Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats

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    E Adibfard

    2014-02-01

    Background & aim: Green pepper and parsley have high antioxidant properties due to flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of green pepper and parsley on the toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of eight. The first group (negative control received olive oil, the second group receiving tetrachloride carbon and olive oil in equal proportions. The third and fourth groups (treatment groups were treated with the tetrachloride carbon and olive oil equally and then exposed to extract of parsley and green pepper to the amount of 200 mg/kg separately. The fifth and six groups were treated with tetrachloride carbon and olive oil equally, and then separately exposed to 400 mg/kg of parsley and green pepper extract. The amount of total phenol and flavonoid samples and antioxidant activities were assessed by different methods. The collected data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA tests followed by Tukey test. Results: Intraperitoneal injection of 202, 191 and 183 In.U/L of carbon tetrachloride to positive control increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, respectively. The injection of carbon tetrachloride increased total bilirubin at the rate of4.8 mg/dl and also decreased protein and albumin at rate of 5.1 and 2.6 g/dl.Mqdartvtal respectively 1/5 and 6/2 g, was dL ( p <0.001. In the groups treated with the extract the activity of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in the third to sixth groups were 121, 115 and 109, 130, 121 and 121, 112 109 and 98, 118, 114, and 119 respectively. The values of bilirubin, total protein and albumin, in the III group were: 3/8, 5/5 and 2/8, Group IV: 3/9, 5/3and 2/7, the V: 3/6, 5/8 and 3/1, the VI: 3/8, 5/6 and 3, respectively. Finaly, the amount

  2. Evaluation of the effects of Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S. Green (Oleaceae) leaf methanol extract against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabeoku, George J; Bamuamba, Kapinga

    2010-03-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S. Green is widely used in South Africa by traditional medicine practitioners to treat diarrhoea. However, little is known scientifically about this South African species in the treatment of diarrhoea. The main aim of the study therefore was to investigate the antidiarrhoeal effect of the leaf methanol extract of the plant species in mice. The antidiarrhoeal activity of the leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana was studied using a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal test. The antipropulsive activity of the plant extract was also investigated using the charcoal meal transit test. Standard methods were used to investigate the acute toxicity and effect of O. europaea subsp. africana on castor oil-induced intraluminal fluid accumulation. Leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana and loperamide, a standard antidiarrhoeal drug, significantly reduced the number of diarrhoeal episodes induced by castor oil, significantly decreased the stool mass, significantly delayed the onset of the diarrhoea and protected the animals against castor oil-induced diarrhoea. Both O. europaea subsp. africana and loperamide significantly decreased the gastrointestinal transit of charcoal meal and castor oil-induced intraluminal fluid accumulation in mice. The LD50 value was found to be 3475 mg/kg (p.o.). The results obtained suggest that the leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana has an antidiarrhoeal property and that, given orally, it may be non-toxic and/or safe in mice.

  3. Use of green chemistry methods in the extraction of dietary fibers from cactus rackets (Opuntia ficus indica): Structural and microstructural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh Rouhou, Marwa; Abdelmoumen, Souhir; Thomas, Sabu; Attia, Hamadi; Ghorbel, Dorra

    2018-05-23

    This work aims to compare the development of three green chemistry methods in the extraction of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) dietary fibers. The influence of extraction conditions (solvent nature: water, lemon juice and ethanol; extraction process: maceration and steam explosion; extraction time: 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 5 h) on the chemical and structural composition was studied. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy proved that all treatments do not affect the cellulose structure and could induce the reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin content. The steam treatment with lemon juice was the best treatment in term of quality of the fibers extracted. Through X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, it was demonstrated that this treatment contributed to the destruction of the amorphous phase with preservation of the crystalline phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the microstructure of the sample surface was uniform and contains arranged fibers. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) revealed fibers with 80 nm of diameter. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga): A Bioorganic Chemistry Practice Using Thin-layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J.; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R.; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together…

  5. Extractable substances (anionic surfactants) from membrane filters induce morphological changes in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Chlorophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.; Beekman, W.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of filtration of medium through different kinds of filters (glass fiber, mixed esters of cellulose and nitrocellulose) on the morphology in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was examined. Several compounds potentially released from membrane filters were further investigated, and among

  6. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ulva fasciata (Green Seaweed Extract and Evaluation of Its Cytoprotective and Antigenotoxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Rodeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological properties of Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract were examined. Five components were identified in one fraction prepared from the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and palmitic acid and its ethyl ester accounted for 76% of the total identified components. Furthermore, we assessed the extract’s antioxidant properties by using the DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation assays and found that the extract had a moderate scavenging effect. In an experiment involving preexposition and coexposition of the extract (1–500 µg/mL and benzo[a]pyrene (BP, the extract was found to be nontoxic to C9 cells in culture and to inhibit the cytotoxicity induced by BP. As BP is biotransformed by CYP1A and CYP2B subfamilies, we explored the possible interaction of the extract with these enzymes. The extract (25–50 µg/mL inhibited CYP1A1 activity in rat liver microsomes. Analysis of the inhibition kinetics revealed a mixed-type inhibitory effect on CYP1A1 supersome. The effects of the extract on BP-induced DNA damage and hepatic CYP activity in mice were also investigated. Micronuclei induction by BP and liver CYP1A1/2 activities significantly decreased in animals treated with the extract. The results suggest that Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract inhibits BP bioactivation and it may be a potential chemopreventive agent.

  7. Rapid and Green Analytical Method for the Determination of Quinoline Alkaloids from Cinchona succirubra Based on Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL Prior to High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Chemat

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Quinas contains several compounds, such as quinoline alkaloids, principally quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cichonidine. Identified from barks of Cinchona, quinine is still commonly used to treat human malaria. Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL is proposed for the extraction of quinoline alkaloids from bark of Cinchona succirubra. The process is performed in four steps, which ensures complete, rapid and accurate extraction of the samples. Optimal conditions for extraction were obtained using a response surface methodology reached from a central composite design. The MIEL extraction has been compared with a conventional technique soxhlet extraction. The extracts of quinoline alkaloids from C. succirubra obtained by these two different methods were compared by HPLC. The extracts obtained by MIEL in 32 min were quantitatively (yield and qualitatively (quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, cinchonidine similar to those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction in 3 hours. MIEL is a green technology that serves as a good alternative for the extraction of Cinchona alkaloids.

  8. Rapid and green analytical method for the determination of quinoline alkaloids from Cinchona succirubra based on Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) prior to high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Elomri, Abdelhakim; Blanckaert, Axelle; Seguin, Elisabeth; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Quinas contains several compounds, such as quinoline alkaloids, principally quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cichonidine. Identified from barks of Cinchona, quinine is still commonly used to treat human malaria. Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) is proposed for the extraction of quinoline alkaloids from bark of Cinchona succirubra. The process is performed in four steps, which ensures complete, rapid and accurate extraction of the samples. Optimal conditions for extraction were obtained using a response surface methodology reached from a central composite design. The MIEL extraction has been compared with a conventional technique soxhlet extraction. The extracts of quinoline alkaloids from C. succirubra obtained by these two different methods were compared by HPLC. The extracts obtained by MIEL in 32 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, cinchonidine) similar to those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction in 3 hours. MIEL is a green technology that serves as a good alternative for the extraction of Cinchona alkaloids.

  9. Fabrication, physicochemical characterization and preliminary efficacy evaluation of a W/O/W multiple emulsion loaded with 5% green tea extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Mahmood

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex multiple emulsions have an excellent ability to fill large volumes of functional cosmetic agents. This study was aimed to encapsulate large volume of green tea in classical multiple emulsion and to compare its stability with a multiple emulsion without green tea extract. Multiple emulsions were developed using Cetyl dimethicone copolyol as lipophilic emulsifier and classic polysorbate-80 as hydrophilic emulsifier. Multiple emulsions were evaluated for various physicochemical aspects like conductivity, pH, microscopic analysis, rheology and these characteristics were followed for a period of 30 days in different storage conditions. In vitro and in vivo skin protection tests were also performed for both kinds of multiple emulsions i.e. with active (MeA and without active (MeB. Both formulations showed comparable characteristics regarding various physicochemical characteristics in different storage conditions. Rheological analysis showed that formulations showed pseudo plastic behavior upon continuous shear stress. Results of in vitro and in vivo skin protection data have revealed that the active formulation has comparable skin protection effects to that of control formulation. It was presumed that stable multiple emulsions could be a promising choice for topical application of green tea but multiple emulsions presented in this study need improvement in the formula, concluded on the basis of pH, conductivity and apparent viscosity data.

  10. Analytical strategy coupled with response surface methodology to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from ternary mixtures of green, yellow, and red teas (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Daniel; Grevink, Raymond; Zielinski, Acácio A F; Nunes, Domingos S; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2014-10-22

    This work aimed at using a simplex-centroid design to model the effects of green, yellow, and red tea mixtures (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) on metal chelation activity, phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and instrumental taste profile. The regression models that described the extraction of flavan-3-ols, o-diphenols, total phenolic compounds (TPC), free radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), cupric ion reducing antioxidant activity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were significant, and data were fit satisfactorily (R(2) > 80%). A mixture of green and red teas had a synergism in CUPRAC and TPC, whereas a mixture of yellow and red teas had a positive effect on CUPRAC and DPPH. An optimization was performed to maximize the antioxidant activity and flavan-3-ol content and to render a tea with mild bitterness, and results showed that a mixture of 14.81% green, 56.86% yellow, and 28.33% red teas would be the most suitable combination of factors.

  11. Sunlight based irradiation strategy for rapid green synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract and their antibacterial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Lori; Arunachalam, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We report green synthetic route for the production crystalline silver nanoparticles using garlic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. → Synthesis has been achieved by exposing the solution mixture of [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] + and aqueous garlic extract under sunlight. → Role of light in the synthesis process has been investigated and is discussed in detail. → The antibacterial effect of the synthesized silver nanoparticles has been assessed against both Gram classes of bacteria. → Synthesized silver colloidal solutions were found to be stable for a very long period and retained their bactericidal potential. - Abstract: A green synthetic route for the production of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic extract is being reported for the first time. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by exposing a mixture of 0.1 M [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] + and diluted aqueous garlic extract under bright sunlight for 15 min. The garlic extract components served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while the sunlight acted as catalyst in the synthesis process. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrometry. The nanoparticles were found to be poly-dispersed in nature, spherical in shape and of 7.3 ± 4.4 nm in size. The FTIR analysis was suggestive of proteins as capping agents around the nanoparticles. The yield of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated to be approximately 80% by dry weight and 85% ICP-AES method. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains, as measured using well diffusion assay. Most importantly, the silver colloidal solutions thus synthesized were found to be stable for a very long period (more than a year) and retained

  12. Sunlight based irradiation strategy for rapid green synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract and their antibacterial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Lori [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Arunachalam, J., E-mail: aruncccm@rediffmail.com [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We report green synthetic route for the production crystalline silver nanoparticles using garlic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. {yields} Synthesis has been achieved by exposing the solution mixture of [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and aqueous garlic extract under sunlight. {yields} Role of light in the synthesis process has been investigated and is discussed in detail. {yields} The antibacterial effect of the synthesized silver nanoparticles has been assessed against both Gram classes of bacteria. {yields} Synthesized silver colloidal solutions were found to be stable for a very long period and retained their bactericidal potential. - Abstract: A green synthetic route for the production of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic extract is being reported for the first time. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by exposing a mixture of 0.1 M [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and diluted aqueous garlic extract under bright sunlight for 15 min. The garlic extract components served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while the sunlight acted as catalyst in the synthesis process. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrometry. The nanoparticles were found to be poly-dispersed in nature, spherical in shape and of 7.3 {+-} 4.4 nm in size. The FTIR analysis was suggestive of proteins as capping agents around the nanoparticles. The yield of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated to be approximately 80% by dry weight and 85% ICP-AES method. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains, as measured using well diffusion assay. Most importantly, the silver colloidal solutions thus synthesized were found to be stable for

  13. THE EFFECT OF GREEN TEA LEAF EXTRACT ON SPATIAL MEMORY FUNCTION AND SUPEROXYDE DISMUTASE ENZYME ACTIVITY IN MICE WITH D-GALACTOSE INDUCED DIMENTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainun Rahmasari Gumay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in pathogenesis of brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer. Green tea has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotective activity. Objectives: to determine the effect of green tea extract on spatial memory function and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity in mice with D-galactose induced dementia Methods: An experimental study using "post test only control group design". Twenty male BALB/c Mice aged 6-8 weeks were divided into 4 groups. Negative control group (NG was induced by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (150 mg/kg BW once daily for 6 weeks. GT-90, GT-270, GT-540 were induced by D-galactose and orally administered with 90, 270, and 540 mg/kg BW of green tea extract once daily for 6 weeks. The spatial memory functions were assessed using Morris water maze and SOD enzyme activities were evaluated using ELISA. One-way Anova and Kruskal-Wallis were used for statistical analysis.  Results: mean percentage of latency time in the GT-90 (35.29 (SD= 2.69%, GT-270 (35.28 (SD= 2.62%, and GT-540 (35.62 (SD=5.05% were significantly higher compared to that of NG (20.38 (SD = 3.21%, p <0.05. SOD enzyme activity in the GT-270 (0.78 (SD = 0.07 U/ml was significantly higher compared to that of NG (0.51 (SD = 0.01 U ml, p= 0.004. Conclusion: Green tea extract may improve spatial memory function and the activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme in mice with D-galactose induced dementia.

  14. Facile green synthesis of graphene-Au nanorod nanoassembly for on-line extraction and sensitive stripping analysis of methyl parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenxin; Liu, Wei; Li, Tianbao; Yue, Xiaoyue; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Wentao; Yu, Shaoxuan; Zhang, Daohong; Wang, Jianlong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration for the facile green fabrication of GN-AuNRs/GCE and its application for the extraction and electroanalysis of MP. - Highlights: • This paper described a facile green electrochemical approach to synthesize graphene-AuNRs nanocomposite. • The as-synthesized sensor shows low LOD and wide linear concentration range towards MP. • The sensor can be well used for the determination of MP in water and kiwi fruits samples. • This paper further enlarges the scope of facile green synthetic methods of GN-based hybrids. - Abstract: This paper described a facile green electrochemical approach to synthesize graphene-AuNRs nanocomposite (GN-AuNRs) onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for electrocatalytic analysis of methyl parathion (MP). This electrochemical synthesis of GN-AuNRs hybrid is environmentally friendly for not involving the chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and facile for just on the basis of electrostatic interaction between GO and AuNRs, as well as electrochemical reduction of GO-AuNRs to GN-AuNRs. Combined the high conductivity, large surface area, good adsorption capacity towards aromatic rings and high catalytic ability of graphene with the excellent electronic properties and adsorption capacity of AuNRs, the high sensitive methyl parathion sensor was fabricated with the GN-AuNRs nanocomposite. The limit of detection (LOD) of the proposed sensor was calculated to be 0.82 ng/mL, which was lower than many previously reported enzyme or nonenzyme-based sensors. In the meantime, the linear detection range of this sensor was from 10 to 500 ng/mL and 750 to 4000 ng/mL, which was also wider than many other enzyme or enzymeless sensors. Furthermore, the facile and green electrochemical reduction strategy provided here could also be used to construct more GN-based hybrids. And the GN-based hybrid might be a new and highly efficient SPE factor, which opens new opportunities for green, facile and sensitive analysis of

  15. Green synthesis of NiO nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera extract and their biomedical applications: Cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles against HT-29 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhilarasi, A Angel; Vijaya, J Judith; Kaviyarasu, K; Maaza, M; Ayeshamariam, A; Kennedy, L John

    2016-11-01

    Green protocols for the synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera plant extract has been reported in the present study as they are cost effective and ecofriendly, moreover this paper records that the nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles prepared from green method shows better cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity. The NiO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The formation of a pure nickel oxide phase was confirmed by XRD and FTIR. The synthesized NiO nanoparticles was single crystalline having face centered cubic phase and has two intense photoluminescence emissions at 305.46nm and 410nm. The formation of nano- and micro-structures was confirmed by HRTEM. The in-vitro cytotoxicity and cell viability of human cancer cell HT-29 (Colon Carcinoma cell lines) and antibacterial studies against various bacterial strains were studied with various concentrations of nickel oxide nanoparticles prepared from Moringa oleifera plant extract. MTT assay measurements on cell viability and morphological studies proved that the synthesized NiO nanoparticles posses cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells and the various zones of inhibition (mm), obtained revealed the effective antibacterial activity of NiO nanoparticles against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous leaf extract of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) and their anticancer activity on human cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sonia; Kotteeswaran, Venkatesan

    2018-06-01

    Plants contain different important phytochemicals that can be used as a potential treatment for various ailments including cancer. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the extract of different plant parts has gained a wide range of engrossment among the researchers due to its unique optical and structural property. The aim of this study is green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the aqueous leaf extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum) and to investigate its anticancer activity on human cervical cancer cells (HeLa). The synthesis of silver nanoparticle was depicted by the colour change from golden yellowish to dark brownish, UV-visible spectral analysis gave a characteristic surface plasmon absorption peak at . Further morphological characterization was done by Zeta potential where the size analysis was depicted to be 46.1 nm and zeta potential as . Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) inferred 3 intense sharp peaks at , , , confirmed the presence of flavonoids and polyphenols. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis with energy diffraction spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles with size ranged from to . X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystallographic nature of silver. The cell proliferation activity of nanoparticles was tested by 3, ‑4, 5 dimethylthiazol-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay where the inhibitory concentration () was found at inhibiting of HeLa cell line. The anticancer activity of nanoparticles was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay where showed of cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the anticancer property of nanoparticles was confirmed by the DNA fragmentation assay.

  17. The effect of green tea and olive oil on the mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines extracted from common food consumed in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awney, Hala

    2011-05-01

    The effect of green tea (GT) and green tea with olive oil (GT+OL) as antioxidants on the formation and mutagenic activity of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) extracted from beef shawerma, grilled chicken and fried beef liver was examined. HCAs were extracted by blue rayon, analyzed as spiked and unspiked samples with high-performance liquid chromatography and its mutagenic response was assessed by Sallmonela typhimurium 100 in the Ames test. Surprisingly, GT and GT+OL augmented HCAs measured in beef shawerma and grilled chicken but total HCAs measured in GT+OL were less than GT treatment. Both treatments altered the HCA profile as imidazoquinoline type became the most abundant. In control and GT+OL fried beef liver no HCAs were detected, but Trp-P1 was detected in GT treatment. Generally, the mutagenic response of HCAs measured in GT+OL was less than GT in beef shawerma and grilled chicken. However, the mutagenic response of control and 2% GT+OL fried liver was negative. These data suggest that GT concentrations used in this study may induce free radical formation during the Millared reaction due to its pro-oxidative effect, which augmented the HCAs formed and its mutagenic response. In order to optimize both safety and quality of our diets, more need to be done to fully understand the risk of HCAs in food.

  18. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Achillea biebersteinii Flower Extract and Its Anti-Angiogenic Properties in the Rat Aortic Ring Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties which have attracted intensive research interest because of their important medical applications. In this study silver nanoparticles (Ab.Ag-NPs were synthesized for biomedical applications using a completely green biosynthetic method using Achillea biebersteinii flowers extract. The structure and properties of Ab.Ag-NPs were investigated using UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, zeta potential and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS. The UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peak at 460 nm, which indicates the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The average particle diameter as determined by TEM was found to be 12 ± 2 nm. The zeta potential analysis indicated that Ab.Ag-NPs have good stability EDX analysis also exhibits presentation of silver element. As angiogenesis is an important phenomenon and as growth factors imbalance in this process causes the acceleration of several diseases including cancer, the anti-angiogenic properties of Ab.Ag-NPs were evaluated using the rat aortic ring model. The results showed that Ab.Ag-NPs (200 μg/mL lead to a 50% reduction in the length and number of vessel-like structures. The synthesized silver nanoparticles from the Achillea biebersteinii flowers extract, which do not involve any harmful chemicals were well-dispersed and stabilized through this green method and showed potential therapeutic benefits against angiogenesis.

  19. Water-compatible dummy molecularly imprinted resin prepared in aqueous solution for green miniaturized solid-phase extraction of plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyu; Chang, Xiaochen; Wu, Xingyu; Yan, Hongyuan; Qiao, Fengxia

    2016-08-05

    A water-compatible dummy molecularly imprinted resin (MIR) was synthesized in water using melamine, urea, and formaldehyde as hydrophilic monomers of co-polycondensation. A triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) was used as porogen to dredge the network structure of MIR, and N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, which has similar shape and size to the target analytes, was the dummy template of molecular imprinting. The obtained MIR was used as the adsorbent in a green miniaturized solid-phase extraction (MIR⬜mini-SPE) of plant growth regulators, and there was no organic solvent used in the entire MIR⬜mini-SPE procedure. The calibration linearity of MIR⬜mini-SPE⬜HPLC method was obtained in a range 5⬜250ngmL(↙1) for IAA, IPA, IBA, and NAA with correlation coefficient (r) Ⱕ0.9998. Recoveries at three spike levels are in the range of 87.6⬜100.0% for coconut juice with relative standard deviations Ⱔ8.1%. The MIR⬜mini-SPE method possesses the advantages of environmental friendliness, simple operation, and high efficiency, so it is potential to apply the green pretreatment strategy to extraction of trace analytes in aqueous samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation for Vegetation Green-up Date Extracted from GIMMS NDVI and NDVI3g Using Variety of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Q.; Jiao, W.

    2017-12-01

    Phenology is a sensitive and critical feature of vegetation change that has regarded as a good indicator in climate change studies. So far, variety of remote sensing data sources and phenology extraction methods from satellite datasets have been developed to study the spatial-temporal dynamics of vegetation phenology. However, the differences between vegetation phenology results caused by the varies satellite datasets and phenology extraction methods are not clear, and the reliability for different phenology results extracted from remote sensing datasets is not verified and compared using the ground observation data. Based on three most popular remote sensing phenology extraction methods, this research calculated the Start of the growing season (SOS) for each pixels in the Northern Hemisphere for two kinds of long time series satellite datasets: GIMMS NDVIg (SOSg) and GIMMS NDVI3g (SOS3g). The three methods used in this research are: maximum increase method, dynamic threshold method and midpoint method. Then, this study used SOS calculated from NEE datasets (SOS_NEE) monitored by 48 eddy flux tower sites in global flux website to validate the reliability of six phenology results calculated from remote sensing datasets. Results showed that both SOSg and SOS3g extracted by maximum increase method are not correlated with ground observed phenology metrics. SOSg and SOS3g extracted by the dynamic threshold method and midpoint method are both correlated with SOS_NEE significantly. Compared with SOSg extracted by the dynamic threshold method, SOSg extracted by the midpoint method have a stronger correlation with SOS_NEE. And, the same to SOS3g. Additionally, SOSg showed stronger correlation with SOS_NEE than SOS3g extracted by the same method. SOS extracted by the midpoint method from GIMMS NDVIg datasets seemed to be the most reliable results when validated with SOS_NEE. These results can be used as reference for data and method selection in future's phenology study.

  1. Antimicrobial activities of tapioca starch/decolorized hsian-tsao leaf gum coatings containing green tea extracts in fruit-based salads, romaine hearts and pork slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po-En; Lai, Lih-Shiuh

    2010-04-30

    The antimicrobial activities of edible coatings based on a tapioca starch/decolorized hsian-tsao leaf gum (dHG) matrix with various green tea extracts (GTEs) were evaluated. Its effect on the shelf-life extension of fruit-based salads, romaine hearts, and pork slices were investigated as well. Three types of GTEs from hot water (80 degrees C) (W), 40% (E4) and 80% (E8) ethanol were prepared. It was found that all GTEs showed pronounced inhibition on Gram positive bacteria in agar media, including Staphylococcus aureus BCRC 10781, Bacillus cereus BCRC 11778 and Listeria monocytogenes BCRC 14848, but not on Gram negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli DH10beta and Salmonella enteria BCRC 10747. The antimicrobial activities increased with increasing GTEs concentration (1, 2 and 5%), but did not differentiate significantly in terms of the effect of extraction solvents. When various GTEs (1%) were added to an edible coating formulation based on 1.35% tapioca starch +0.15% dHG +0.225% glycerol, pronounced antimicrobial activity on Gram positive bacteria was also observed as evaluated by using cylinder diffusion and antimicrobial migration tests. It was believed that the active compounds in green tea extracts could leave the coating matrix and migrate to increase the non-growth area. When being sprayed on various real food models, all tapioca starch/dHG coatings containing GTEs could successfully reduce the aerobic counting and growth of yeasts/molds by 1 to 2 log cycles in fruit-based salads, as compared to the control sample. Furthermore, during refrigerated storage of romaine hearts and pork slices for 48h, tapioca starch/dHG coatings with E4 extracts demonstrated pronounced antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (4-6 log cycles reduction), followed by W extracts and E8 extracts in a decreasing order. Such results implied the high efficacy of antimicrobial migration of tapioca starch/dHG coatings containing GTEs and their application potentials on

  2. Characterization, antibacterial, total antioxidant, scavenging, reducing power and ion chelating activities of green synthesized silver, copper and titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Artemisia haussknechtii leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Mehran; Karimi, Naser

    2017-12-12

    Recently, major problem related to pathogenic bacteria is augmentation of antibiotic resistance which has been changed treatment and recovery of millions of infectious patients. The present study reports an eco-friendly, rapid and easy method for synthesis of silver (Ag), copper (Cu) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) using Artemisia haussknechtii leaf aqueous extract with antibacterial activities against multi-drug resistance (MDR) bacteria species. Three different concentrations (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 M) of AgNO 3 , CuSO 4 and TiO (OH) 2 were investigated for obtaining optimum NPs green synthesis. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content of leaf extract and total antioxidant activity (DPPH) assay were determined as radical scavenging methods. UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used due to NPs characterization. The size average of the Ag, Cu and TiO 2 NPs obtained were respectively 10.69 ± 5.55, 35.36 ± 44.4 and 92.58 ± 56.98 nm. In the case of antibacterial assay, disc diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, bacterial growth and morphology of four MDR species Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12258, Serratia marcescens ATTC13880 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were evaluated. Results of this study demonstrated that A. haussknechtii leaf extract with various groups of phytochemicals such as phenols and flavonoids had suitable ability in green synthesis of Ag, Cu and TiO 2 NPs. Also, Ag and Cu NPs had more antibacterial activities compared to TiO 2 NPs.

  3. Effect of Green Tea Extract as Antioxidant on Shear Bond Strength of Resin Composite to in-Office and Home-Bleached Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharafeddin F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Shear bond strength (SBS of home and office bleached enamel will be compromised by immediate application of composite restoration. Antioxidant agent may overcome this problem. Objectives: This in vitro study assessed the effect of green tea extract on shear bond strength of resin composite to in-office and home-bleached enamel. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 extracted intact human incisors were embedded in cylindrical acrylic resin blocks (2.5 ×1.5 cm, with the coronal portion above the cemento enamel junction out of the block. Then, after bleaching labial enamel surfaces of 20 teeth with 15% carbamide peroxide 6 hours a day for 5 days, they were randomly divided into two groups: A1 and A2 (n = 10, depending upon whether or not they are treated with antioxidant. Labial enamel surfaces of the remaining 20 teeth were bleached with 38% hydrogen peroxide before being randomly divided into groups B1 and B2 (n = 10, again depending on whether or not the antioxidant was used in their treatment . The experimental groups (A2,B2 were treated with 5% solution of green tea extract before resin composite restoration was done by a cylindrical Teflon mould (5×2 mm. Shear bond strength of the specimens was tested under a universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020. The SBS data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (p < 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between shear bond strength of the control group (A1 and treated group (A2 but there were statistically significant differences between the groups B1 and B2 (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Application of antioxidant did not increase the shear bond strength of home-bleached enamel to resin composite but its application increased the shear bond strength of in-office bleached enamel to resin composite.

  4. Baphia nitida Leaves Extract as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acidic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Njoku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibiting effect of Baphia nitida (BN leaves extract on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 and 2 M HCl was studied at different temperatures using gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results showed that the leaves extract is a good inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in both acid media and better performances were obtained in 2 M HCl solutions. Inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decreasing temperature. The addition of halides to the extract enhanced the inhibition efficiency due to synergistic effect which improved adsorption of cationic species present in the extract and was in the order KCl < KBr < KI suggesting possible role of radii of the halide ions. Thermodynamic parameters determined showed that the adsorption of BN on the metal surface is an exothermic and spontaneous process and that the adsorption was via a physisorption mechanism.

  5. An extractive studies on behavior of Th(IV) from malonate media by 2-octyl amino pyridine: a green approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kore, G.D.; Patil, S.A.; Zanje, S.B.; Ghule, A.V.; Kolekar, S.S.; Anuse, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction and separation of Th(IV) was studied using 2-octylamino pyridine (2-OAP) in xylene at 298K. The extraction behavior of Th(IV) was studied as a function of pH, acid concentration, concentration of extractants, diluents, stripping agent, shaking period, aqueous to organic phase ratio, species, interference of diverse cations and anions. The possible composition of extracted species in organic phase has been proposed by slope analysis method. The robustness of procedure was demonstrated by the average recoveries obtained (>99%) for Th(IV). The proposed method demonstrates the separation and determination of Th(IV) from binary and synthetic mixture and real samples such as Monazite and Gas mantles. (author)

  6. A Green Protocol for Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Volatile Oil Terpenes from Pterodon emarginatus Vogel. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana M. Vila Verde

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted extraction of volatile oils (MAE potentially offers a more efficient and bio-sustainable method than conventional extraction by Clevenger apparatus (CE. This study aimed to optimise the MAE of the volatile oil from Pterodon emarginatus fruits and characterise the volatile compounds. A 23 full-factorial central composite design and response surface methodology were used to evaluate the effects of time (min, moisture (% and microwave power (W on the extraction yield. The process optimisation was based on the desirability function approach. The reaction time and moisture conditions were standardised in these analyses. The volatile oil composition was analysed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS in order to compare techniques extractions influences. Microwave irradiation showed excellent performance for extraction of the volatile oil from Pterodon emarginatus and there were some advantages in compare to conventional method with respect to the time (14 times, energy (6 times, reagents amounts and waste formation. About chemical composition presents significant differences with the type of extraction. Caryophyllene (25.65% and trans-α-bisabolol (6.24% were identified as major components in MAE sample while caryophyllene (6.75% and γ-elemene (7.02% are the components with higher relative percentage in CE samples. The microwaves assisted process shown an increase of economic interested compounds present in volatile oil.

  7. RSM optimized Moringa oleifera peel extract for green synthesis of M. oleifera capped palladium nanoparticles with antibacterial and hemolytic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, T V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Rayalu, G Mokesh

    2016-09-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) are the very good catalytic agents in many coupling reactions, also these are very well biological agents against bacteria and fungus. M. oleifera capped Pd NPs were synthesized from microwave assisted methanolic extract of M. oleifera peel. To optimize the extraction process RSM (Response Surface Methodology) was applied. To get a good extraction yield BBD (Box-Behnken Design) was employed. The better optimized conditions for the extraction was found as 400W, 25mL of CH3OH at 65°C for 2min. We observed 61.66mg of extract yield from this method. Eco-friendly M. oleifera capped Pd NPs were synthesized using M. oleifera peel extract and confirmed using the different characterization techniques like UV- Vis spectroscopy, XRD, SEM and HR-TEM analysis. We found the size of the M. oleifera capped Pd NPs nanoparticles as 27±2nm and shape of the particles as spherical through the TEM analysis. M. oleifera capped Pd NPs exhibits good antibacterial activity against S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and E. coli (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains and we found the zone inhibition as 0.6 and 0.7mm. The synthesized M. oleifera capped Pd NPs are screened for hemolytic activity and it proved the M. oleifera capped Pd NPs are non-toxic on RBCs cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  9. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in

  10. A Rapid and Reproducible Genomic DNA Extraction Protocol for Sequence-Based Identification of Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and Green Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhondeh Saba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Sequence-based identification of various microorganisms including Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and green algae necessitates an efficient and reproducible genome extraction procedure though which a pure template DNA is yielded and it can be used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR. Considering the fact that DNA extraction from these microorganisms is time consuming and laborious, we developed and standardized a safe, rapid and inexpensive miniprep protocol. Methods:  According to our results, amplification of various genomic regions including SSU, LSU, ITS, β-tubulin, actin, RPB2, and EF-1 resulted in a reproducible and efficient DNA extraction from a wide range of microorganisms yielding adequate pure genomic material for reproducible PCR-amplifications. Results:   This method relies on a temporary shock of increased concentrations of detergent which can be applied concomitant with multiple freeze-thaws to yield sufficient amount of DNA for PCR amplification of multiple or single fragments(s of the genome. As an advantage, the recipe seems very flexible, thus, various optional steps can be included depending on the samples used.Conclusion:   Having the needed flexibility in each step, this protocol is applicable on a very wide range of samples. Hence, various steps can be included depending on the desired quantity and quality.

  11. A Rapid and Reproducible Genomic DNA Extraction Protocol for Sequence-Based Identification of Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and Green Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhondeh Saba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Sequence-based identification of various microorganisms including Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and green algae necessitates an efficient and reproducible genome extraction procedure though which a pure template DNA is yielded and it can be used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR. Considering the fact that DNA extraction from these microorganisms is time consuming and laborious, we developed and standardized a safe, rapid and inexpensive miniprep protocol. Methods:  According to our results, amplification of various genomic regions including SSU, LSU, ITS, β-tubulin, actin, RPB2, and EF-1 resulted in a reproducible and efficient DNA extraction from a wide range of microorganisms yielding adequate pure genomic material for reproducible PCR-amplifications. Results:   This method relies on a temporary shock of increased concentrations of detergent which can be applied concomitant with multiple freeze-thaws to yield sufficient amount of DNA for PCR amplification of multiple or single fragments(s of the genome. As an advantage, the recipe seems very flexible, thus, various optional steps can be included depending on the samples used.Conclusion:   Having the needed flexibility in each step, this protocol is applicable on a very wide range of samples. Hence, various steps can be included depending on the desired quantity and quality.

  12. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  13. Microwave-assisted green synthesis of superparamagnetic nanoparticles using fruit peel extracts: surface engineering, T2 relaxometry, and photodynamic treatment potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shazia Bano,1–3 Samina Nazir,2 Alia Nazir,1 Saeeda Munir,3 Tariq Mahmood,2 Muhammad Afzal,1 Farzana Latif Ansari,4 Kehkashan Mazhar3 1Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 2Nanosciences and Technology Department, National Centre for Physics, 3Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering (IBGE, 4Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have the potential to be used as multimodal imaging and cancer therapy agents due to their excellent magnetism and ability to generate reactive oxygen species when exposed to light. We report the synthesis of highly biocompatible SPIONs through a facile green approach using fruit peel extracts as the biogenic reductant. This green synthesis protocol involves the stabilization of SPIONs through coordination of different phytochemicals. The SPIONs were functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 and succinic acid and were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, diffused reflectance spectroscopy, fluorescence emission, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and magnetization analysis. The developed SPIONs were found to be stable, almost spherical with a size range of 17–25 nm. They exhibited excellent water dispersibility, colloidal stability, and relatively high R2 relaxivity (225 mM-1 s-1. Cell viability assay data revealed that PEGylation or carboxylation appears to significantly shield the surface of the particles but does not lead to improved cytocompatibility. A highly significant increase of reactive oxygen species in light-exposed samples was found to play an important role in the photokilling of human cervical epithelial malignant carcinoma (HeLa cells. The bio-SPIONs developed

  14. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  15. Extraction and Characterization of Natural Dye from Green Walnut Shells and Its Use in Dyeing Polyamide: Focus on Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirjalili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of dyes from walnut using Soxhlet apparatus has been studied. The color components extracted and isolated from walnut shells were characterized by column chromatography, thin layer chromatography (TLC, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, mass spectroscopy (MS, and infrared (IR techniques. Natural dye extract obtained from the walnut was used in dyeing polyamide fabrics with different mordants. The dyed fabrics were evaluated for antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli bacteria. As such, the relationship between antibacterial activity and dye concentration is investigated. Durability of antibacterial activity to laundering is also discussed. Results indicate that the polyamide dyed with walnut displayed excellent antibacterial activity in the presence of ferric sulfate, cupric sulfate, and potassium aluminum sulfate and exhibited good and durable fastness properties.

  16. Silver nanoparticles: green synthesis using Phoenix dactylifera fruit extract, characterization, and anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Anas Ejaz; Satardekar, Kshitij Vasant; Khan, Rummana Rehman; Tarte, Nanda Amit; Barve, Siddhivinayak Satyasandha

    2018-03-01

    Hydro-alcoholic (2:8 v/v) extract of the pulp of Phoenix dactylifera fruit pulp obtained using Soxhlet extraction (70 °C, 6 h) was found to contain alkaloids, sterols, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, proteins, and carbohydrates. An aqueous solution (20% v/v) of the extract led to the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from 0.01 M AgNO3 solution as confirmed by the surface plasmon resonance at 445 nm determined using UV-visible spectroscopy after 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be mostly spherical and complexed with phytochemicals from the extract. The size of AgNPs ranged from 12.2-140.2 nm with mean diameter of 47.0 nm as characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elemental composition of the AgNPs complexed with the phytochemicals was found to be 80.49% silver (Ag), 15.21% carbon (C), and 4.30% oxygen (O) on a weight basis by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Using the α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, an anti-oxidant activity of 89.15% for 1 µg L-1 ultrasonically homogenized ethanolic solution of complexed AgNPs was obtained (equivalent to 0.20 mg mL-1 gallic acid solution), while methanolic solution of plant extract possessed an EC50 value of 3.45% (v/v) (equivalent to 0.11 mg mL-1 gallic acid solution). The plant-nanosilver broth was also found to possess effective anti-microbial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 as assessed by the disc diffusion assay. However, the plant extract showed negligible anti-microbial activity.

  17. Chlorogenic acid complex (CGA7, standardized extract from green coffee beans exerts anticancer effects against cultured human colon cancer HCT-116 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gouthamchandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is commonly consumed beverage in the world and it has been suggested to have beneficial effect. Chlorogenic acids (CGAs are main ingredient of coffee beans which has been extensively used in nutraceuticals and medicine. Recently, various therapeutic effects of chlorogenic acids have been investigated. However, there are limited studies to investigate its anticancer properties. In the present study, we have used chlorogenic acid complex (CGA7 a decaffeinated water soluble green coffee bean extract to evaluate its cytotoxic effect on human and mouse cancer cell lines by using different approaches. From our results we found CGA7 treatment induces cell death in a dose and time dependent manner in different cancer cell lines. Further, CGA7 induced apoptosis was characterized by DNA fragmentation, PARP-1 cleavage, caspase-9 activation, and down regulation of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein and up regulation of pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Overall findings indicated that CGA7 complex a potent anticancer molecule found in green coffee beans could be a safe bioactive ingredient for prevention of cancer.

  18. Larvicidal activity of the methanol extract and fractions of the green fruits of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae against the vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer Matias Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The larvicidal activity of Solanum lycocarpum against Culex quinquefasciatus is unknown. Methods We evaluated the larvicidal activity of extracts of the green fruits of Solanum lycocarpum against third and fourth instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Results Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions showed the greatest larvicidal effect at 200mg/L (83.3% and 86.7%, respectively. The methanol and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanolic fractions demonstrated larvicidal effects against C. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 126.24, 75.13, 83.15, and 207.05mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Thus, when considering new drugs with larvicidal activity from natural products, S. lycocarpum fruits may be good candidate sources.

  19. Validation of the Antiproliferative Effects of Organic Extracts from the Green Husk of Juglans regia L. on PC-3 Human Prostate Cancer Cells by Assessment of Apoptosis-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Alshatwi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased use of plant-based cancer chemotherapy, exploring the antiproliferative effects of phytochemicals for anticancer drug design has gained considerable attention worldwide. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of walnut green husk extracts on cell proliferation and to determine the possible molecular mechanism of extract-induced cell death by quantifying the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspases-3, and Tp53. PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. In this study, we found that green husk extracts suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner by modulating expression of apoptosis-related genes. This involved DNA fragmentation (determined by TUNEL assay and significant changes in levels of mRNA and the expression of corresponding proteins. An increase in expressions of Bax, caspase-3, and tp53 genes and their corresponding proteins was detected using real-time PCR and western blot analysis in PC-3 cells treated with the green husk organic extracts. In contrast, Bcl2 expression was downregulated after exposure to the extracts. Our data suggest the presence of bioactive compound(s in walnut green husks that are capable of killing prostate carcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis and that the husks are a candidate source of anticancer drugs.

  20. A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blind, Two-Period Crossover Pharmacokinetic Trial Comparing Green Coffee Bean Extract-A Botanically Sourced Caffeine-With a Synthetic USP Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kayce; Knight, Katelin; Kalman, Douglas; Hewlings, Susan

    2018-04-16

    Coffee is a primary dietary source of the chlorogenic acids (CGAs) of phenolic compounds. Coffee contains caffeine and other phytonutrients, including CGAs. Caffeine on its own has been well characterized and descried pharmacokinetically in the literature, less so for CGAs. The purpose of this double-blind crossover study was to determine the comparative pharmacokinetics of CGAs with caffeine (natural extract) with synthetic caffeine (US Pharmacopeia [USP] standard). Sixteen healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to take 1 dose of product 1, 60 mg of botanically sourced caffeine from 480 mg of green coffee bean extract, or product 2, 60 mg of synthetic USP caffeine, with 5 days between. Blood analysis was done to determine the levels of CGA compounds, more specifically 3-, 4-, and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), and serum caffeine. The natural caffeine extract exhibited mean peak concentrations (C max ) of 3-CQA (11.4 ng/mL), 4-CQA (6.84 ng/mL), and 5-CQA (7.20 ng/mL). The mean systemic 4-hour exposure (AUC 0-4 h ) was 3-CQA (27.3 ng·h/mL), 4-CQA (16.1 ng·h/mL), and 5-CQA (15.7 ng·h/mL). The median t max was 3-CQA (1.00 hour), 4-CQA (1.00 hour), and 5-CQA (1.50 hours). The t max of caffeine was 0.75 hours (natural extract) and 0.63 hours (synthetic caffeine). C max and AUC 0-4 h of serum caffeine were statistically equivalent between products. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (GMRs) of C max and AUC 0-4 h of caffeine were 97.77% (natural extract) and 98.33% (synthetic caffeine). It would appear that CGA compounds from the natural caffeine extract are bioavailable, and 3-CGA may be the compound most absorbed. In addition, caffeine sourced from natural extract versus synthetic were statistically similar for pharmacokinetic parameters. There were no adverse events or safety concerns. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. Green for rarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raal, F.A.; Robinson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Green diamonds once recovered from Witwatersrand gold/uranium deposits, are now a thing of the past with the modernisation of extraction metallurgy methods. The green colouration has been shown to be due to radiation from uranium present in the ore

  2. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  3. Green dyeing process of modified cotton fibres using natural dyes extracted from Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaka, Noureddine; Mahfoudhi, Adel; Haddar, Wafa; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk; Mighri, Zine

    2017-01-01

    This research work involves an eco-friendly dyeing process of modified cotton with the aqueous extract of Tamarix aphylla leaves. During this process, the dyeing step was carried out on modified cotton by several cationising agents in order to improve its dyeability. The influence of the main dyeing conditions (dye bath pH, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, salt addition) on the performances of this dyeing process were studied. The dyeing performances of this process were appreciated by measuring the colour yield (K/S) and the fastness properties of the dyed samples. The effect of mordant type with different mordanting methods on dyeing quality was also studied. The results showed that mordanting gave deeper shades and enhanced fastness properties. In addition, environmental indicators (BOD 5 , COD and COD/BOD 5 ) were used to describe potential improvements in the biodegradability of the dyebath wastewater. Further, HPLC was used to identify the major phenolic compounds in the extracted dye.

  4. Characterization, antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antityrosinase activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Calophyllum tomentosum leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindappa, M.; Hemashekhar, B.; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Ravishankar Rai, V.; Ramachandra, Y. L.

    2018-06-01

    The current research study is to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extract of Calophyllum tomentosum (CtAgNPs) and evaluated the extract to know the effects of anti-bacterial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-tyrosinase activity. Using UV-vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) characterized the Calophyllum tomentosum mediated silver nanoparticles. The leaf extract of C. tomentosum yielded flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, terpenoids and coumarins. AgNPs formation was confirmed by UV-vis spectra at 438 nm. Crystalline structure with a face centered cubic (fcc) of AgNPs was observed in XRD. FTIR had shown that the phytochemicals were responsible for the reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The size and shape of the AgNPs were determined using SEM. From EDX study analysed the strong absorption property of AgNPs. The CtAgNPs have showed significant antibacterial activity on multi drug resistance bacteria. The CtAgNPs had shown strong antioxidant (DPPH, H2O2 scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging power, reducing power) activities. The CtAgNPs had strongly inhibited the α-glucosidase and DPPIV compared to α-amylase. The CtAgNPs exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity (albumin denaturation, membrane stabilization, heat haemolytic, protein inhibitory, lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase) and tyrosinase inhibitory activity. To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Calophyllum tomentosum leaves extract. Hence, to validate our results the in vivo studies at molecular level are needed to develop an antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory agent.

  5. Maple leaf (Acer sp.) extract mediated green process for the functionalization of ZnO powders with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandhan, Singaravelu; Schreiber, Makoto; Mason, Cynthia; Mohanty, Amar Kumar; Misra, Manjusri

    2014-01-01

    The functionalization of ZnO powders with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through a novel maple leaf extract mediated biological process was demonstrated. Maple leaf extract was found to be a very effective bioreduction agent for the reduction of silver ions. The reduction rate of Ag(+) into Ag(0) was found to be much faster than other previously reported bioreduction rates and was comparable to the reduction rates obtained through chemical means. The functionalization of ZnO particles with silver nanoparticles through maple leaf extract mediated bioreduction of silver was investigated through UV-visible spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that the ZnO particles were coated with silver nanoparticles 5-20 nm in diameter. The photocatalytic ability of the ZnO particles functionalized with silver nanoparticles was found to be significantly improved compared to the photocatalytic ability of the neat ZnO particles. The silver functionalized ZnO particles reached 90% degradation of the dye an hour before the neat ZnO particles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Green Tea Extract on Systemic Metabolic Homeostasis in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Determined via RNA-Seq Transcriptome Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (GT has various health effects, including anti-obesity properties. However, the multiple molecular mechanisms of the effects have not been fully determined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the anti-obesity effects of GT via the analysis of its metabolic and transcriptional responses based on RNA-seq profiles. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal, high-fat (60% energy as fat, or high-fat + 0.25% (w/w GT diet for 12 weeks. The GT extract ameliorated obesity, hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity (DIO mice. GT supplementation resulted in body weight gain reduction than mice fed high-fat through enhanced energy expenditure, and reduced adiposity. The transcriptome profiles of epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT suggested that GT augments transcriptional responses to the degradation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs, as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling, which suggests enhanced energy homeostasis. Our findings provide some significant insights into the effects of GT for the prevention of obesity and its comorbidities. We demonstrated that the GT extract contributed to the regulation of systemic metabolic homeostasis via transcriptional responses to not only lipid and glucose metabolism, but also amino acid metabolism via BCAA degradation in the adipose tissue of DIO mice.

  7. Characterization, antibacterial, and neurotoxic effect of Green synthesized nanosilver using Ziziphus spina Christi aqueous leaf extract collected from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ansary, Afaf; Warsy, Arjumand; Daghestani, Maha; Merghani, Nada M.; Al-Dbass, Abeer; Bukhari, Wadha; Al-Ojayan, Badryah; Ibrahim, Eiman M.; Al-Qahtani, Asma M.; Shafi Bhat, Ramesa

    2018-02-01

    The current study aims to synthesize silver nanoparticles using Ziziphus spina Christi (ZSC) or (Sidr) aqueous leaf extract collected from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using sidr leaves extract was successful. Production of silver nanoparticles was confirmed through UV-vis Spectrophotometer, particles size and zeta potential analysis, Infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning, and Transmission Electron Microscope (SEM and TEM). The UV-visible spectra showed that the absorption peak existed at 400 nm. SEM analysis showed that the synthesized AgNPs were spherical but in slightly aggregated form. TEM demonstrated different size range of 4-33 nm with an average size of 13. The element analysis profile showed silver signal together with oxygen, calcium, and potassium peaks which might be related to the plant structure. Biological effects of the synthesized AgNPs exhibit satisfactory inhibitory effect against ten tested microorganisms. It inhibited the growth of 5 gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, AgNPs demonstrated a synergistic effect on the neurotoxicity induced in rat pups with orally administered methyl mercury (MeHg). The present study showed that AgNPs prepared from ZSC might be a promising antimicrobial agent for successful treatment of bacterial infection in intensive care units (ICU) especially in case of antibiotic resistance.

  8. The Assessment of Oral Microflora Exposed to 3% Ethanolic Extract of Brazilian Green Propolis Preparation Used for Hygiene Maintenance following Minor Oral Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Morawiec

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a topically administered hygienic preparation containing a 3% ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEP-B on oral microflora spectrum changes in a group of patients who underwent common oral surgery procedures. Two gel samples were compared: the tested gel containing an active ingredient, that is, a 3% EEP-B (gel GA, and a placebo as the negative control (gel GC. The collection of microbiological material included 14 patients requiring surgical extraction of wisdom molars and short endosseous implant installation. Clinical examinations were carried out as follow-up, that is, baseline and after 5-6 weeks’ time. During the first and subsequent assessment, swabs were taken from the mucosal surface. The number of microorganism species was found to have increased following the application of GC gel over the period of 5-6 weeks. This mainly affected Gram-positive rods and bacilli as well as Gram-negative rods. Application of the GA gel enriched with 3% EEP-B caused a profound reduction in the amount of Neisseria spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. strains. Elimination of seven species of microorganisms was observed: Streptococcus acidominimus, Streptococcus oralis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Veillonella parvula, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

  9. An investigation of time-frequency domain phase-weighted stacking and its application to phase-velocity extraction from ambient noise's empirical Green's functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Niu, Fenglin; Yang, Yingjie; Xie, Jun

    2018-02-01

    The time-frequency domain phase-weighted stacking (tf-PWS) technique based on the S transform has been employed in stacking empirical Green's functions (EGFs) derived from ambient noise data, mainly due to its superior power in enhancing weak signals. Questions such as the induced waveform distortion and the feasibility of phase-velocity extraction are yet to be thoroughly explored. In this study, we investigate these issues by conducting extensive numerical tests with both synthetic data and USArray transportable array (TA) ambient noise data. We find that the errors in the measured phase velocities associated with waveform distortion caused by the tf-PWS depend largely on the way of how the inverse S transform (IST) is implemented. If frequency IST is employed in tf-PWS, the corresponding errors are generally less than 0.1 per cent, sufficiently small that the measured phase velocities can be safely used in regular surface wave tomography. On the other hand, if a time IST is used in tf-PWS, then the extracted phase velocities are systematically larger than those measured from linearly stacked ones, and the discrepancy can reach as much as ˜0.4 per cent at some periods. Therefore, if tf-PWS is used in stacking EGFs, then frequency IST is preferred to transform the stacked S spectra back to the time domain for the stacked EGFs.

  10. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using alcoholic flower extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis and in vitro investigation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogoi, Nayanmoni; Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar; Mahanta, Chandan; Bora, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic flower extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis, UVvisible spectra and TEM indicated the successful formation of silver nanoparticles. Crystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy analysis established the capping of the synthesized silver nanoparticles with phytochemicals naturally occurring in the ethanolic flower extract of N. arbortristis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against the pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli MTCC 443. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of the silver nanoparticles was tested on mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929) and found to be non-toxic, which thus proved their biocompatibility. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity assay carried out in this study open up an important perspective of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. - Highlights: • The present study depicts the green synthesis of AgNPs using Nyctanthes arbortristis. • AuNPs found to be biocompatible and can be used for biomedical applications. • The FTIR, TGA and DTA results showed that AgNPs are bounded by organic coating. • The synthesized AgNPs showed antibacterial activity on E. Coli MTCC 443. • We investigated the antioxidant activity for both EFE and AgNPs

  11. Evaluation of the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of a hydrophilic extract from the green seaweed Ulva sp. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violle, Nicolas; Rozan, Pascale; Demais, Hervé; Nyvall Collen, Pi; Bisson, Jean-François

    2018-05-01

    The green seaweed Ulva sp. contains a large amount of ulvans, a family of sulphated polysaccharides. The present study was designed to investigate in rats the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of a hydrophilic extract of Ulva sp. (MSP) containing about 45% of ulvans. After a 14-day administration of MSP at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day, 48 and 60 male adult Wistar rats were respectively tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the forced swimming test (FST). In the FST, MSP effects were compared to the reference antidepressant drug imipramine (IMI) (10 mg/kg/day). Acute and sub-chronic toxicities of the extract were also assessed in male and female rats following OECD guidelines. MSP treatment did not modify anxiety-related behaviour in the EPM. In contrast, MSP induced a dose-dependent reduction of immobility behaviour in the FST. At the highest tested dose of 40 mg/kg, MSP displayed a significant antidepressant-like effect similar to IMI. MSP did not modify the exploratory behaviour of rats in the open field test and did not produce any toxic effect. MSP may potentially represent a good adjunct or alternative to existing antidepressant therapeutics. Further studies are necessary to confirm the mechanism of action of MSP and its modulation of brain functioning.

  12. Green synthesis palladium nanoparticles mediated by white tea (Camellia sinensis extract with antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities toward the human leukemia (MOLT-4 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Susan Azizi,1 Mahnaz Mahdavi Shahri,2 Heshu Sulaiman Rahman,3–5 Raha Abdul Rahim,6 Abdullah Rasedee,5 Rosfarizan Mohamad1,7 1Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran; 3College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani Nwe, 4College of Health Science, Komar University of Science and Technology (KUST, Chaq-Chaq Qularaise, Sulaimani City, Iraq; 5Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 6Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, 7Laboratory of Biopolymer and Derivatives, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Among nanoparticles used for medical applications, palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs are among the least investigated. This study was undertaken to develop PdNPs by green synthesis using white tea (W.tea; Camellia sinensis extract to produce the Pd@W.tea NPs. The Pd@W.tea NPs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, and evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The Pd@W.tea NPs were spherical (size 6–18 nm and contained phenols and flavonoids acquired from the W.tea extract. Pd@W.tea NPs has good 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, OH, and NO-scavenging properties as well as antibacterial effects toward Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. MTT assay showed that Pd@W.tea NPs (IC50 =0.006 µM were more antiproliferative toward the human leukemia (MOLT-4 cells than the W.tea extract (IC50 =0.894 µM, doxorubicin (IC50 =2.133 µM, or cisplatin (IC50 =0.013 µM, whereas they were relatively innocuous for normal human fibroblast (HDF-a cells. The anticancer cell effects of Pd@W.tea NPs are mediated through the induction of apoptosis

  13. Androgenic and Estrogenic Response of Green Mussel Extracts from Singapore’s Coastal Environment Using a Human Cell-Based Bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, Stéphane; Gong, Yinhan; Chin, Hong Soon; Lee, Hian Kee; Leong, Yong Eu; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade, evidence of endocrine disruption in biota exposed to environmental pollutants has raised serious concern. Human cell-based bioassays have been developed to evaluate induced androgenic and estrogenic activities of chemical compounds. However, bioassays have been sparsely applied to environmental samples. In this study we present data on sex hormone activities in the green mussel, Perna viridis, in Singapore’s coastal waters. P. viridis is a common bioindicator of marine contamination, and this study is a follow-up to an earlier investigation that reported the presence of sex hormone activities in seawater samples from Singapore’s coastal environment. Specimens were collected from eight locations around the Singapore coastline and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals. Tissue extracts were then screened for activities on androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ER-α and ER-β) using a reporter gene bio-assay based on a HeLa human cell line. Mussel extracts alone did not exhibit AR activity, but in the presence of the reference androgenic hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT), activities were up to 340% higher than those observed for DHT alone. Peak activities were observed in locations adjacent to industrial and shipping activities. Estrogenic activities of the mussel extract both alone and in the presence of reference hormone were positive. Correlations were statistically investigated between sex hormone activities, levels of pollutants in the mussel tissues, and various biological parameters (specimen size, sex ratio, lipid and moisture content). Significant correlations exist between AR activities, in the presence of DHT, and total concentration of POPs (r = 0.725, p < 0.05). PMID:15531429

  14. Innovative "Green" and Novel Strategies for the Extraction of Bioactive Added Value Compounds from Citrus Wastes-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnik, Predrag; Bursać Kovačević, Danijela; Režek Jambrak, Anet; Barba, Francisco J; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Binello, Arianna; Lorenzo, Jose Manuel; Shpigelman, Avi

    2017-04-27

    Citrus is a major processed crop that results in large quantities of wastes and by-products rich in various bioactive compounds such as pectins, water soluble and insoluble antioxidants and essential oils. While some of those wastes are currently valorised by various technologies (yet most are discarded or used for feed), effective, non-toxic and profitable extraction strategies could further significantly promote the valorisation and provide both increased profits and high quality bioactives. The present review will describe and summarize the latest works concerning novel and greener methods for valorisation of citrus by-products. The outcomes and effectiveness of those technologies such as microwaves, ultrasound, pulsed electric fields and high pressure is compared both to conventional valorisation technologies and between the novel technologies themselves in order to highlight the advantages and potential scalability of these so-called "enabling technologies". In many cases the reported novel technologies can enable a valorisation extraction process that is "greener" compared to the conventional technique due to a lower energy consumption and reduced utilization of toxic solvents.

  15. Bark extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and antiproliferative response against osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Debasis; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Kumari, Manisha; Nayak, Bismita, E-mail: nayakb@nitrkl.ac.in

    2016-01-01

    In the current investigation we report the biosynthesis potentials of bark extracts of Ficus benghalensis and Azadirachta indica for production of silver nanoparticle without use of any external reducing or capping agent. The appearance of dark brown color indicated the complete nanoparticle synthesis which was further validated by absorbance peak by UV–vis spectroscopy. The morphology of the synthesized particles was characterized by Field emission- scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly illustrated the crystalline phase of the synthesized nanoparticles. ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the role of various functional groups in the nanoparticle synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticles showed promising antimicrobial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae) and Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. The synthesized nano Ag also showed antiproliferative activity against MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line in a dose dependent manner. Thus, these synthesized Ag nanoparticles can be used as a broad spectrum therapeutic agent against osteosarcoma and microorganisms. - Highlights: • Rapid, cost effective, benign synthesis of AgNPs using novel bark extracts • Color change and absorbance peak observed at 426 and 420 nm due to SPR phenomenon • Crystalline and spherical nanoparticles having average size of ~ 40 and ~ 50 nm each • Highly enhanced antimicrobial activity against human nosocomial strains • Demonstrated dose dependent toxicity towards osteosarcoma MG-63 cell lines.

  16. Bark extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and antiproliferative response against osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Debasis; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Kumari, Manisha; Nayak, Bismita

    2016-01-01

    In the current investigation we report the biosynthesis potentials of bark extracts of Ficus benghalensis and Azadirachta indica for production of silver nanoparticle without use of any external reducing or capping agent. The appearance of dark brown color indicated the complete nanoparticle synthesis which was further validated by absorbance peak by UV–vis spectroscopy. The morphology of the synthesized particles was characterized by Field emission- scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly illustrated the crystalline phase of the synthesized nanoparticles. ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the role of various functional groups in the nanoparticle synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticles showed promising antimicrobial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae) and Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. The synthesized nano Ag also showed antiproliferative activity against MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line in a dose dependent manner. Thus, these synthesized Ag nanoparticles can be used as a broad spectrum therapeutic agent against osteosarcoma and microorganisms. - Highlights: • Rapid, cost effective, benign synthesis of AgNPs using novel bark extracts • Color change and absorbance peak observed at 426 and 420 nm due to SPR phenomenon • Crystalline and spherical nanoparticles having average size of ~ 40 and ~ 50 nm each • Highly enhanced antimicrobial activity against human nosocomial strains • Demonstrated dose dependent toxicity towards osteosarcoma MG-63 cell lines

  17. Synthesis of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite through soft chemistry methods: A green chemistry approach using sesame seed extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingasu, Dana [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Mindru, Ioana, E-mail: imandru@yahoo.com [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Mocioiu, Oana Catalina; Preda, Silviu; Stanica, Nicolae; Patron, Luminita [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Ianculescu, Adelina; Oprea, Ovidiu [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 1-7 Polizu Street, 011061, Bucharest (Romania); Nita, Sultana; Paraschiv, Ileana [National Institute for Chemical Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 112 Calea Vitan, 031299, Bucharest (Romania); Popa, Marcela; Saviuc, Crina [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology, Microbiology Department, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest-ICUB, Life, Environmental and Earth Sciences Division, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania); Bleotu, Coralia [Stefan S. Nicolau Institute of Virology, Cellular and Molecular Pathology Department, 285 Mihai Bravu Avenue, Bucharest (Romania); Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology, Microbiology Department, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest-ICUB, Life, Environmental and Earth Sciences Division, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-10-01

    The nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were obtained through self-combustion and wet ferritization methods using aqueous extracts of sesame (Sesamum indicum L) seeds. The multimetallic complex compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-VIS spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Phase identification, morphological evolution and magnetic properties of the obtained cobalt ferrites were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), FTIR and magnetic measurements. FE-SEM investigations revealed the particle size of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} obtained by wet ferritization method ranged between 3 and 20.45 nm. Their antimicrobial, anti-biofilm and cytotoxic properties were evaluated. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were obtained by two chemical synthesis methods. • Sesame seed extract was used as gelling or chelating agent. • The morphological features of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were evaluated. • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibited good microbicidal and anti-biofilm features.

  18. Evaluation of anti-cholinesterase, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using from Millettia pinnata flower extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Gomathi, Thandapani; Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Devi Rajeswari, V; Kalpana, V N; Chung, Ill-Min

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of Ag-NPs using extracts from the medicinal plant, Millettia pinnata flower extract and investigate the effects of Ag-NPs on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), antibacterial and cytotoxicity activity. UV-Vis peak at 438 nm confirmed the Ag-NPs absorbance. The SEM analysis results confirmed the presence of spherical shaped Ag-NPs by a huge disparity in the particle size distribution with an average size of 49 ± 0.9 nm. TEM images revealed the formation of Ag-NPs with spherical shape and sizes in the range between 16 and 38 nm. The Ag-NPs showed an excellent inhibitory efficacy against AChE and BChE. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Escherichia coli (20.25 ± 0.91 mm). These nanoparticles showed the cytotoxic effects against brine shrimp (artemia saliana) nauplii with a LD 50 value of 33.92. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioavailability and activity of phytosome complexes from botanical polyphenols: the silymarin, curcumin, green tea, and grape seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Parris M

    2009-09-01

    Plant-derived polyphenols are increasingly receiving attention as dietary supplements for the homeostatic management of inflammation, to support detoxication, and for anticancer, weight loss, and other benefits. Their pro-homeostatic effects on genes, transcription factors, enzymes, and cell signaling pathways are being intensively explored, but the poor bioavailability of some polyphenols likely contributes to poor clinical trial outcomes. This review covers four polyphenol preparations with poor bioavailability and their complexation into phytosomes to bypass this problem. Silybin and the other silymarin flavonolignans from milk thistle conserve tissue glutathione, are liver-protective, and have anticancer potential. Curcumin and its related diphenolic curcuminoids have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties. The green tea flavan-3-ol catechins have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio- and neuro-protective effects, and anti-carcinogenic benefits, with fat oxidation effects coupled to weight loss. The complex grape seed proanthocyanidin mix (including catechin and epicatechin monomers and oligomers) counters oxidative stress and protects the circulatory system. For each of these preparations, conversion into phytosomes has improved efficacy without compromising safety. The phytosome technology creates intermolecular bonding between individual polyphenol molecules and one or more molecules of the phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC). Molecular imaging suggests that PC molecule(s) enwrap each polyphenol; upon oral intake the amphipathic PC molecules likely usher the polyphenol through the intestinal epithelial cell outer membrane, subsequently accessing the bloodstream. PC itself has proven clinical efficacy that contributes to phytosome in vivo actions. As a molecular delivery vehicle, phytosome technology substantially improves the clinical applicabilities of polyphenols and other poorly absorbed plant medicinals.

  20. A green deep eutectic solvent dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DES-DLLME) for the UHPLC-PDA determination of oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids in olive, soy, peanuts, corn, and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Vincenzo; Genovese, Salvatore; Carlucci, Maura; Tiecco, Matteo; Germani, Raimondo; Preziuso, Francesca; Epifano, Francesco; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro

    2018-04-15

    A green dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using deep eutectic solvent (DES) as the extracting solvent has been developed and applied for the simultaneous quantification of ferulic acid, umbelliferone, boropinic acid, 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin, 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA), and auraptene in some vegetable oils using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with photodiode array detection (PDA). All parameters in the extraction step, including selection and loading of both extracting and dispersing solvents, amount of both extractant and disperser solvent were investigated and optimized. PhAA/TMG DES achieved higher recovery and enrichment factor compared to other DESs. The validated method showed good linearity with correlation coefficients, r 2 >0.9990 for all the analytes. Furthermore, this is the first time that eco-friendly solvents are used for the extraction of oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids and the corresponding extract analyzed with ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Photo-catalyzed and phyto-mediated rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using herbal extract of Salvinia molesta and its antimicrobial efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Devendra Kumar; Hasan, Syed Hadi; Banik, Rathindra Mohan

    2016-02-01

    Current study presents an economic, ecofriendly and simple photo-catalytic green route for the swift biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) within 20s, devoid of any instrumental support or chemical reductant. Aqueous leaf-extract of an aquatic fern, Salvinia molesta (AES), was used as a bioreductant as well as a stabilizing agent. Rapid change in color of reaction mixture from yellowish green to reddish brown within 20s in direct sun light exposure was considered as the primary visual indication of AgNPs biosynthesis. The biosynthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy through the presence of a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band for AgNPs at λmax of 425 nm. The process parameters were optimized through one factor at a time approach. Optimal values of different process parameters for the current biosynthetic system were found as; 35 min of reaction time under sun light, 8.0mM AgNO3 concentration and 5.0% (v/v) AES inoculum dose. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that most of AgNPs were spherical in shape with average size distribution of 12.46 nm having face centered cubic (fcc) crystal lattice. IR analysis of AES and synthesized AgNPs indicated the involvement of both hydroxyl and amino groups in the biosynthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be an effective antibacterial agent against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. On the basis of results and facts, a probable mechanism has also been proposed to explore the possible route of biosynthesis of AgNPs through AES. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Photo-induced green synthesis and antimicrobial efficacy of poly (ɛ-caprolactone)/curcumin/grape leaf extract-silver hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M; El-Shibiny, Ayman; Salih, Ehab

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the photo-induced green synthesis and antimicrobial assessment of poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/curcumin/grape leaf extract-Ag hybrid nanoparticles (PCL/Cur/GLE-Ag NPs). PCL/Cur/GLE NPs were synthesized via emulsion-solvent evaporation in the presence of PVA as a capping agent, then used as active nano-supports for the green synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs on their surfaces. Both Cur and GLE were selected and incorporated into the PCL nano-supports due to their reported promising antimicrobial activity that would further enhance that of the synthesized AgNPs. The developed PCL/Cur/GLE NPs and PCL/Cur/GLE-Ag hybrid NPs were characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometry, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). HRTEM images showed that the PCL/Cur/GLE NPs are monodispersed and spherical with size of about 270nm, and the AgNPs were formed mainly on their surfaces with average size in the range 10-30nm. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be crystalline as shown by XRD patterns with fcc phase oriented along the (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. The antimicrobial characteristics of the newly developed NPs were investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in addition to two fungal strains. The results demonstrated that the PCL/Cur/GLE-Ag hybrid NPs have a potential antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacterial species and could be considered as an alternative antibacterial agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of Extractive Solvents on Lipid and Fatty Acids Content of Edible Freshwater Algal and Seaweed Products, the Green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C, red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D, and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I and n-hexane (solvent II. Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II to 18.02% (I by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs. Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%–65.49%, monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9; 2.79%–26.45%, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6; 0.71%–36.38%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3; 0.00%–21.29%, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6; 1.94%–17.36%, and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6; 0.00%–15.37%. The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29% was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42% was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  4. RETRACTED: Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Ashokkumar, S.

    2015-05-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor. The article contains the same image in two panels (Fig. 8A and B) which was previously published in "Facile, eco-friendly and template free photosynthesis of cauliflower like ZnO nanoparticles using leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) and its biological evolution of antibacterial and antifungal activities" by K. Elumalai et al. in Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 136 (2015) 1052-1057, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2014.09.129 despite being attributed to different nanoparticles. Furthermore, Figures 9C, D and E are the same, despite being indicated as analysis of different microorganisms. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this scientific misbehavior and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  5. A green chemistry approach for the synthesis and characterization of bioactive gold nanoparticles using Azolla microphylla methanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjiappan, Selvaraj; Chowdhury, Ranjana; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2014-06-01

    This article reports the environmentally benign synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using methanol extract of Azolla microphylla as the stabilizing and reducing agent. The GNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry and FTIR, and the morphological characteristics were analyzed by XRD, FESEM-EDX and HRTEM. The GNPs could be formed in very short time, even in less than 30 min. The nanoparticles measured by UV-spectrophotometer demonstrated a peak at 540 nm corresponding to surface plasmon resonance spectra, and the peaks showed by FTIR suggested the presence of organic biomolecules on the surface of the GNPs. XRD results confirmed the crystalline nature of the GNPs, and FESEM-EDX and HRTEM analyses had been performed in the size ranges of 17-40 nm and 1.25-17.5 nm respectively. The synthesized GNPs showed excellent antioxidant activity. This study shows the feasibility of using plant sources for the biosynthesis of GNPs.

  6. Ultrasound assisted green synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles using Prosopis juliflora leaf extract and their structural, optical and antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunachalam Thirunavukkarasu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs were prepared using ultrasound assisted leaf extract of Prosopis juliflora acting as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The synthesized CONPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis, particle size analyzer (PSA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. From the UV-Vis analysis, the optical band gap of the prepared CONPs (Eg = 3.62 eV was slightly increased as compared to the bulk ceria (Eg = 3.19 eV. The phytochemicals in the extract reduced the particle size to 3.7 nm ± 0.3 nm, as it is evident from the PSA. FT-IR results confirmed the Ce-O stretching bands by showing the peaks at 452 cm-1. The Raman spectrumshowed a characteristic peak shift for CONPs at 461.2 cm-1. XRD analysis revealed the cubic fluorite structure of the synthesizednanoparticles with the lattice constant, a of 5.415 Å and unit cell volume, V of 158.813 Å3. XPS signals were used to determine the concentration of Ce3+ and Ce4+ in the prepared CONPs and it was found that major amount of cerium exist in the Ce4+ state. HRTEM images showed spherical shaped particles with an average size of 15 nm. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the prepared CONPs was evaluated and their efficacies were compared with the conventional antibiotics using disc diffusion assay against a set of Gram positive (G+ bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia and Gram negative (G- bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris. The results suggested that CONPs showed antibacterial activity with significant variations due to the differences in the membrane structure and cell wall composition among the two groups tested.

  7. Comparative Study of Green Sub- and Supercritical Processes to Obtain Carnosic Acid and Carnosol-Enriched Rosemary Extracts with in Vitro Anti-Proliferative Activity on Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea del Pilar Sánchez-Camargo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, four green processes have been compared to evaluate their potential to obtain rosemary extracts with in vitro anti-proliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116. The processes, carried out under optimal conditions, were: (1 pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, using an hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent at lab-scale; (2 Single-step supercritical fluid extraction (SFE at pilot scale; (3 Intensified two-step sequential SFE at pilot scale; (4 Integrated PLE plus supercritical antisolvent fractionation (SAF at pilot scale. Although higher extraction yields were achieved by using PLE (38.46% dry weight, this extract provided the lowest anti-proliferative activity with no observed cytotoxic effects at the assayed concentrations. On the other hand, extracts obtained using the PLE + SAF process provided the most active rosemary extracts against both colon cancer cell lines, with LC50 ranging from 11.2 to 12.4 µg/mL and from 21.8 to 31.9 µg/mL for HCT116 and HT-29, respectively. In general, active rosemary extracts were characterized by containing carnosic acid (CA and carnosol (CS at concentrations above 263.7 and 33.9 mg/g extract, respectively. Some distinct compounds have been identified in the SAF extracts (rosmaridiphenol and safficinolide, suggesting their possible role as additional contributors to the observed strong anti-proliferative activity of CA and CS in SAF extracts.

  8. Bark extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and antiproliferative response against osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Debasis; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Kumari, Manisha; Nayak, Bismita

    2016-01-01

    In the current investigation we report the biosynthesis potentials of bark extracts of Ficus benghalensis and Azadirachta indica for production of silver nanoparticle without use of any external reducing or capping agent. The appearance of dark brown color indicated the complete nanoparticle synthesis which was further validated by absorbance peak by UV-vis spectroscopy. The morphology of the synthesized particles was characterized by Field emission- scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly illustrated the crystalline phase of the synthesized nanoparticles. ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the role of various functional groups in the nanoparticle synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticles showed promising antimicrobial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae) and Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. The synthesized nano Ag also showed antiproliferative activity against MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line in a dose dependent manner. Thus, these synthesized Ag nanoparticles can be used as a broad spectrum therapeutic agent against osteosarcoma and microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Polyalthia longifolia Leaf Extract along with D-Sorbitol: Study of Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaviya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract as reducing and capping agent along with D-sorbitol used to increase the stability of the nanoparticles has been reported. The reaction is carried out at two different concentrations (10−3 M and 10−4 M of silver nitrate, and the effect of temperature on the synthesis of AgNPs is investigated by stirring at room temperature (25°C and at 60°C. The UV-visible spectra of NPs showed a blue shift with increasing temperature at both concentrations. FT-IR analysis shows that the biomoites played an important role in the reduction of Ag+ ions and the growth of AgNPs. TEM results were utilized for the determination of the size and morphology of nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles are found to be highly toxic against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. A review on biogenic synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using plant extracts and microbes: A prospect towards green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Annu; Chaudhry, Saif Ali; Ikram, Saiqa

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology is emerging as an important area of research with its tremendous applications in all fields of science, engineering, medicine, pharmacy, etc. It involves the materials and their applications having one dimension in the range of 1-100nm. Generally, various techniques are used for syntheses of nanoparticles (NPs) viz. laser ablation, chemical reduction, milling, sputtering, etc. These conventional techniques e.g. chemical reduction method, in which various hazardous chemicals are used for the synthesis of NPs later become liable for innumerable health risks due to their toxicity and endangering serious concerns for environment, while other approaches are expensive, need high energy for the synthesis of NPs. However, biogenic synthesis method to produce NPs is eco-friendly and free of chemical contaminants for biological applications where purity is of concerns. In biological method, different biological entities such as extract, enzymes or proteins of a natural product are used to reduce and stabilised formation of NPs. The nature of these biological entities also influence the structure, shape, size and morphology of synthesized NPs. In this review, biogenic synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs, procedures of syntheses, mechanism of formation and their various applications have been discussed. Various entities such as proteins, enzymes, phytochemicals, etc. available in the natural reductants are responsible for synthesis of ZnO NPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: study of antioxidant and anticancer activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Mata, Rani; Bhagat, Ekta; Sadras, Sudha Rani

    2015-03-01

    The present study reports the biological synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract and their in vitro free radical scavenging efficacy as well as antiproliferative effect in Hep2 cells. The formation of silver (GYAgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GYAuNPs) was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The average size of synthesized GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs was found to be 33 and 26 nm, respectively, by DLS particle size analyzer. TEM analysis indicated spherical shape of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs and in EDX analysis they produced strong signal for silver and gold, respectively. Both GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs exhibited strong in vitro free radical quenching ability and their activity was comparable to that of GYLE. The cytotoxic effect of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs in Hep2 cells was examined by MTT assay in which GYAgNPs displayed an IC50 value of 121 µg ml-1, while GYAuNPs produced up to 38 % of inhibition at the maximum concentration of 250 µg ml-1 used in this study. Distinct morphological changes were observed in Hep2 cells following treatment with GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs at 24 h, and orange-colored apoptotic bodies were located by acridine orange and ethidium bromide double-staining technique. Also, there was increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species in treated cells as indicated by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining. Further, nuclear changes like chromatin condensation/fragmentation were also observed by propidium iodide and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dilactate staining methods. These findings support that the antiproliferative effects of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs in Hep2 cells are mediated through induction of apoptosis.

  12. Green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: study of antioxidant and anticancer activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Mata, Rani; Bhagat, Ekta; Sadras, Sudha Rani, E-mail: dr.ssrlab@gmail.com, E-mail: sadrassudha@gmail.com [Pondicherry University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Life Sciences (India)

    2015-03-15

    The present study reports the biological synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract and their in vitro free radical scavenging efficacy as well as antiproliferative effect in Hep2 cells. The formation of silver (GYAgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GYAuNPs) was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. The average size of synthesized GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs was found to be 33 and 26 nm, respectively, by DLS particle size analyzer. TEM analysis indicated spherical shape of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs and in EDX analysis they produced strong signal for silver and gold, respectively. Both GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs exhibited strong in vitro free radical quenching ability and their activity was comparable to that of GYLE. The cytotoxic effect of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs in Hep2 cells was examined by MTT assay in which GYAgNPs displayed an IC{sub 50} value of 121 µg ml{sup −1}, while GYAuNPs produced up to 38 % of inhibition at the maximum concentration of 250 µg ml{sup −1} used in this study. Distinct morphological changes were observed in Hep2 cells following treatment with GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs at 24 h, and orange-colored apoptotic bodies were located by acridine orange and ethidium bromide double-staining technique. Also, there was increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species in treated cells as indicated by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining. Further, nuclear changes like chromatin condensation/fragmentation were also observed by propidium iodide and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dilactate staining methods. These findings support that the antiproliferative effects of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs in Hep2 cells are mediated through induction of apoptosis.

  13. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  14. Green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: study of antioxidant and anticancer activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Mata, Rani; Bhagat, Ekta; Sadras, Sudha Rani

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the biological synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract and their in vitro free radical scavenging efficacy as well as antiproliferative effect in Hep2 cells. The formation of silver (GYAgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GYAuNPs) was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. The average size of synthesized GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs was found to be 33 and 26 nm, respectively, by DLS particle size analyzer. TEM analysis indicated spherical shape of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs and in EDX analysis they produced strong signal for silver and gold, respectively. Both GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs exhibited strong in vitro free radical quenching ability and their activity was comparable to that of GYLE. The cytotoxic effect of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs in Hep2 cells was examined by MTT assay in which GYAgNPs displayed an IC 50 value of 121 µg ml −1 , while GYAuNPs produced up to 38 % of inhibition at the maximum concentration of 250 µg ml −1 used in this study. Distinct morphological changes were observed in Hep2 cells following treatment with GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs at 24 h, and orange-colored apoptotic bodies were located by acridine orange and ethidium bromide double-staining technique. Also, there was increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species in treated cells as indicated by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining. Further, nuclear changes like chromatin condensation/fragmentation were also observed by propidium iodide and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dilactate staining methods. These findings support that the antiproliferative effects of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs in Hep2 cells are mediated through induction of apoptosis

  15. Comparison of biological activities of selenium and silver nanoparticles attached with bioactive phytoconstituents: green synthesized using Spermacoce hispida extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennila, Krishnan; Chitra, Loganathan; Balagurunathan, Rama; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2018-03-01

    Selenium and silver nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using Spermacoce hispida aqueous leaf extract (Sh-ALE). The optimum condition required for the synthesis of Sh-SeNPs was found to be 30 mM selenious acid solution to Sh-ALE at the ratio of 4:46, pH 9, incubated at 40 °C for 10 min. On the other hand, for Sh-AgNPs the optimum condition was found to be 1 mM AgNO3 to the Sh-ALE solution at the ratio of 4:46, pH 8, incubated at 40 °C for 10 min. SEM analysis revealed that both the Sh-AgNPs and Sh-SeNPs are predominantly rod-shaped. Sh-SeNPs and Sh-AgNPs were found to possess concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. However, Sh-SeNPs showed potent anti-inflammatory property, antibacterial property and anticancer activity against human cervical cancer cell in comparison to Sh-AgNPs. Phytochemical analysis, FTIR and GC-MS analysis showed that various flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds present in Sh-ALE catalysed the formation of NPs. Also, GC-MS analysis revealed that Sh-SeNPs are capped by synaptogenin B and derivatives of apigenin, quinoline and quinazoline. The advantage of attachment of such phytoconstituents on Sh-SeNPs for its potent biological activity in comparison to Sh-AgNPs is evident in in vitro conditions.

  16. Effects of green tea extract and α-tocopherol on the lipid oxidation rate of omega-3 oils, incorporated into table spreads, prepared using multiple emulsion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Sandra P O'; O'Beirne, David; Ní Eidhin, Deirdre; O'Kennedy, Brendan T

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of fat and water soluble antioxidants on the oxidative stability of omega (ω)-3 rich table spreads, produced using novel multiple emulsion technology. Table spreads were produced by dispersing an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion (500 g/kg 85 camelina/15 fish oil blend) in a hardstock/rapeseed oil blend, using sodium caseinate and polyglycerol polyricinoleate as emulsifiers. The O/W and oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O) emulsions contained either a water soluble antioxidant (green tea extract [GTE]), an oil soluble antioxidant (α-Tocopherol), or both. Spreads containing α-Tocopherol had the highest lipid hydroperoxide values, whereas spreads containing GTE had the lowest (P < 0.05), during storage at 5°C, while p-Anisidine values did not differ significantly. Particle size was generally unaffected by antioxidant type (P < 0.05). Double emulsion (O/W/O) structures were clearly seen in confocal images of the spreads. By the end of storage, none of the spreads had significantly different G' values. Firmness (Newtons) of all spreads generally increased during storage (P < 0.05). © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Green synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of Pandanus odoratissimus leaves for efficient bifunctional electro-catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajmi, Mohamed F.; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Hussain, Afzal; Ahamad, Tansir; Alhokbany, Norah; Amir, Samira; Ahmad, Tokeer; Alshehri, Saad M.

    2018-04-01

    Iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared at room temperature by one-step synthesis via green chemistry using aqueous extracts of Pandanus odoratissimus leaves. Fe3O4 NPs show uniform particle size distribution with an average diameter of 5.0 nm. BET surface area and average pore diameter of the nanoparticles were found to be 150 m2/g and 3.0 nm, respectively. FTIR, Raman, EDAX and XPS studies were also carried out to confirm the phase purity of the prepared materials. Electrochemical water splitting reactions have been carried out using Fe3O4 NPs as electrocatalysts in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte solution. Polarization studies confirm dual nature of Fe3O4 electro-catalysts in water electrolysis for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal low Tafel values of 295 and 126 mV/dec (± 2) for OER and ORR, respectively. The overpotential for water oxidation reaction was found to be 390 mV (± 5) at the current density of 1 mA/cm2 in 0.1 M KOH. Chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry experiments were conducted for stability tests of the electrodes.

  18. Quality improvement of a rice-substituted fried noodle by utilizing the protein-polyphenol interaction between a pea protein isolate and green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngwoon; Yoo, Sang-Ho

    2017-11-15

    The quality of rice-substituted fried noodles was improved by applying interaction between pea protein isolate (PPI) and green tea extract (GTE). Radical-scavenging activities of GTE were stably maintained when exposed to acidic pH, UV light, and fluorescent light, but decreased by approximately 65% when exposed to 80°C for 168h. The RVA profiles of noodle dough showed that peak viscosity and breakdown increased significantly but that setback and final viscosity remained unchanged with 20% rice flour replacement. PPI significantly decreased the viscosity parameters of rice-supplemented dough, and the addition of GTE recovered these values significantly. The cooking loss and viscoelasticity (R max ) of cooked rice-supplemented noodles were fully restored by combined treatment of PPI and GTE. GTE decreased the peroxide value of fried noodles by 14% after storage at 63°C for 16days. Therefore, PPI+GTE treatment has great potential for use in fried noodles owing to the reinforced network and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Prunus japonica (Rosaceae) leaf extract and their antibacterial, antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Arthanari; Peng, Mei Mei; Ganesh, Mani; Jayaprakash, Jayabalan; Mohankumar, Murugan; Jang, Hyun Tae

    2017-09-01

    Low cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) using Prunus japonica leaves extract as reducing agent by a simple method at room temperature. The biosynthesized nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by UV-Vis, tunneling electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In UV-Vis spectroscopy results, the λ max was observed at 441 nm. The AgNPs synthesized were spherical, hexagonal, and irregular in shapes. The EDAX and XRD spectrum confirmed the presence of silver ions and crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs. FTIR showed the functional groups such as C = O, N-H and C-N groups involved in the reduction of Ag +  to Ag. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was performed and it showed the percentage inhibition in concentration-dependent manner. The synthesized AgNPs showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus to different extents and the higher activity was observed in Proteus vulgaris.

  20. Green synthesis and characterization of gold and silver nanoparticles using Mussaenda glabrata leaf extract and their environmental applications to dye degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sijo; Joseph, Siby; Koshy, Ebey P; Mathew, Beena

    2017-07-01

    Plant-derived nanomaterials opened a green approach in solving the current environment issues. Present study focused on rapid microwave-assisted synthesis and applications of gold and silver nanoparticles mediated by aqueous leaf extract of Mussaenda glabrata. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, powder XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron (TEM), and atomic force microscopic techniques (AFM). FCC crystal structure of both nanoparticles was confirmed by peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes in XRD spectra and bright circular spots in SAED pattern. IC 50 values shown by gold and silver nanoparticles (44.1 ± 0.82 and 57.92 ± 1.33 μg/mL) reflected their high free radical scavenging potential. The synthesized gold and silver nanoparticles revealed their potency to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Anthropogenic pollutants rhodamine B and methyl orange were effectively degraded from aquatic environment and waste water sewages of dye industries using the prepared nanocatalysts. The catalytic capacities of the synthesized nanoparticles were also exploited in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Graphical abstract.

  1. Structural characterization of mesoporous magnetite nanoparticles synthesized using the leaf extract of Calliandra haematocephala and their photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirdeshpande, Karthikey Devadatta; Sridhar, Anushka; Cholkar, Kedar Mohan; Selvaraj, Raja

    2018-03-01

    A simple method for the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles using the leaf extract of Calliandra haematocephala has been developed. UV-Vis spectrum showed a characteristic strong absorption band. SEM image revealed the bead-like spherical nanoparticles. EDS showed the prominent peaks for elemental iron and oxygen. PXRD patterns confirmed the crystalline nature and the average crystallite size of 7.45 nm. In addition, the lattice parameter value was calculated to be 8.413 Å, close to Fe3O4 nanoparticles. BET analysis disclosed the total specific surface area of the nanoparticles as 63.89 m2/g and the mesoporous structure of the nanoparticles with a pore radius of 34.18 Å. FTIR studies showed the specific bands at 599.82 and 472.53 cm-1, typical for Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The photocatalytic efficacy of the nanoparticles was demonstrated against the degradation of malachite green dye under sunlight irradiation and the photocatalytic degradation constant was calculated as 0.0621 min-1.

  2. A novel green synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag core shell recyclable nanoparticles using Vitis vinifera stem extract and its enhanced antibacterial performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prathima, B. [Analytical and inorganic Division of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh (India); Anitha, K. [Department of Chemistry, S.K. University, Anantapur-515003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Jyothi, N.V.V., E-mail: nvvjyothi01@gmail.com [Analytical and inorganic Division of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2015-01-15

    We described a novel and eco-friendly method for preparing Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with high magnetism and potent antibacterial activity. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs were obtained using waste material of Vitis vinifera (grape) stem extract as the green solvent, reducing and capping agent. The result recorded from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectrum, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) supports the biosynthesis and characterization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the size of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag nanoparticles was measured below 50 nm; high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicates the core shell structure; and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) has revealed polycrystalline nature. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows the ferromagnetic nature of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 15.74 emu/g. Further, these biogenic nanoparticles were highly hazardous to microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of biogenic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs showed potent inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These nanoparticles may also be reusable because of its excellent ferromagnetic property.

  3. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9±0.8, 33.3±00.5, and 17.6±0.9 mg GAE/100 g, respectively (P<0.05. Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9±0.9 μmol Fe+2/g, P<0.05 and the DPPH assays (97.4±0.2%, 1000 μg/mL, P<0.05. Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities.

  4. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by waste tea extract and degradation of organic dye in the absence and presence of H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Weixia; Chen, Kui; Wang, Yong; Liu, Xiuhua; Lu, Minghua

    2017-11-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) had been successfully synthesized by using an aqueous extract of waste tea as a stabilizing and reducing agent. The green synthesized AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and zeta potential. The work focused on the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and ethyl violet (EV) in aqueous solution with AgNPs as catalyst in the absence and presence of H2O2. The AgNPs exhibit fast, efficient and stable catalytic activity in the degradation of cationic organic dyes, but it is no catalytic degradation of anionic organic dyes at room temperature. The kinetics of dyes degradation with AgNPs follows the pseudo-second-order model. Meanwhile, the AgNPs also show better antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. The formed highly catalytic active AgNPs can be used as catalyst in industries and water purification.

  5. Green Tea Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Deficits in Ischemic Rats via Its Active Component Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate by Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Jen Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke results in brain damage and behavioral deficits including memory impairment. Protective effects of green tea extract (GTex and its major functional polyphenol (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on memory were examined in cerebral ischemic rats. GTex and EGCG were administered 1 hr before middle cerebral artery ligation in rats. GTex, EGCG, and pentoxifylline (PTX significantly improved ishemic-induced memory impairment in a Morris water maze test. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were increased by long-term treatment with GTex and EGCG. Both compounds were also associated with reduced cerebral infraction breakdown of MDA and GSH in the hippocampus. In in vitro experiments, EGCG had anti-inflammatory effects in BV-2 microglia cells. EGCG inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced nitric oxide production and reduced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV-2 cells. GTex and its active polyphenol EGCG improved learning and memory deficits in a cerebral ischemia animal model and such protection may be due to the reduction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.

  6. Chronic Effects of a Wild Green Oat Extract Supplementation on Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narelle M. Berry

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Preliminary evaluation of a wild green oat extract (WGOE (Neuravena® ELFA®955, Frutarom, Switzerland revealed an acute cognitive benefit of supplementation. This study investigated whether regular daily WGOE supplementation would result in sustained cognitive improvements. Method: A 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial of WGOE supplementation (1500 mg/day versus placebo was undertaken in 37 healthy adults aged 67 ± 0.8 years (mean ± SEM. Cognitive assessments included the Stroop colour-word test, letter cancellation, the rule-shift task, a computerised multi-tasking test battery and the trail-making task. All assessments were conducted in Week 12 and repeated in Week 24 whilst subjects were fasted and at least 18 h after taking the last dose of supplement. Result: Chronic WGOE supplementation did not affect any measures of cognition. Conclusion: It appears that the cognitive benefit of acute WGOE supplementation does not persist with chronic treatment in older adults with normal cognition. It remains to be seen whether sustained effects of WGOE supplementation may be more evident in those with mild cognitive impairment.

  7. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  8. Extratos aquosos de plantas e o comportamento do ácaro verde da mandioca Aqueous plant extracts and the behavior of the cassava green mite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eneas de Carvalho Gonçalves

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Extratos de plantas são uma alternativa promissora no controle de ácaros fitófagos. Neste trabalho estudou-se a bioatividade de extratos aquosos de nim, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. e cravo-da-índia, Syzigium aromaticum L., na biologia do ácaro verde da mandioca, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar. Larvas recém-eclodidas foram individualizadas em discos de folhas de mandioca previamente imersos nos extratos e em água destilada, e mantidas nestas condições até atingir a fase adulta. Após a emergência, as fêmeas foram individualizadas em discos não tratados e acasaladas com machos coletados da criação estoque. As avaliações foram efetuadas a cada 12 h. As duas maiores concentrações de nim (1,0 e 0,75g do pó de sementes de nim 100 mL-1 de água deram os melhores resultados, causando 72,5 e 37,5% de mortalidade larval, respectivamente, e até 16% para os estágios seguintes. A mortalidade em todo estágio imaturo foi de 84,6 e 55%, respectivamente. A duração da fase deutocrisálida e teliocrisálida foi levemente afetada, porém significativamente maior para o nim a 1%. Os extratos não afetaram a fecundidade, a qual variou de 6,5 a 8,6 ovos/fêmea/dia. Embora os extratos usados não tenham afetado o período de incubação, nim a 1% reduziu significativamente a viabilidade dos ovos.The use of plant extracts is a promising alternative for the control of phytophagous mites. This study was carried out to test the bio-activity of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and clove, Syzigium aromaticum L., aqueous extracts on the behaviour of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar. Recently hatched larvae were individualized onto cassava leaf discs previously immersed in different concentrations of the extract and in distilled water, and maintained at these conditions until reaching maturity. The females were individualized onto untreated leaf discs right after emergency and mated with males from the rearing stock. The

  9. Green tea extract with polyethylene glycol-3350 reduces body weight and improves glucose tolerance in db/db and high-fat diet mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, Yong Woon; Kim, Sang Pyo; Cho, Ho-Chan; Ahn, Shinbyoung; Bae, Ki-Cheor; Im, Seung-Soon; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Song, Dae-Kyu

    2013-08-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) is regarded to be effective against obesity and type 2 diabetes, but definitive evidences have not been proven. Based on the assumption that the gallated catechins (GCs) in GTE attenuate intestinal glucose and lipid absorption, while enhancing insulin resistance when GCs are present in the circulation through inhibiting cellular glucose uptake in various tissues, this study attempted to block the intestinal absorption of GCs and prolong their residence time in the lumen. We then observed whether GTE containing the nonabsorbable GCs could ameliorate body weight (BW) gain and glucose intolerance in db/db and high-fat diet mice. Inhibition of the intestinal absorption of GCs was accomplished by co-administering the nontoxic polymer polyethylene glycol-3350 (PEG). C57BLKS/J db/db and high-fat diet C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 weeks with drugs as follows: GTE, PEG, GTE+PEG, voglibose, or pioglitazone. GTE mixed with meals did not have any ameliorating effects on BW gain and glucose intolerance. However, the administration of GTE plus PEG significantly reduced BW gain, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, without affecting food intake and appetite. The effect was comparable to the effects of an α-glucosidase inhibitor and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ/α agonist. These results indicate that prolonging the action of GCs of GTE in the intestinal lumen and blocking their entry into the circulation may allow GTE to be used as a prevention and treatment for both obesity and obesity-induced type 2 diabetes.

  10. Effects of rye bread enriched with green tea extract on weight maintenance and the characteristics of metabolic syndrome following weight loss: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerska, Joanna; Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether the incorporation of green tea extract enriched rye bread (GTRB) into the diet can improve weight loss (WL) maintenance and control of abnormalities linked to metabolic syndrome (MS). A total of 55 obese men and women (mean age: 53.0±7.0 years, body mass index: 35.0±5.5 kg m(-2)) were recruited. The study had a single-blind randomized study design and consisted of an 8-week WL phase with low-energy calorie diet, followed by a 12-week weight maintenance (WM) phase. During the WM phase, the subjects were randomized into two groups, receiving either the control rye bread (control group) or the GTRB (intervention group). The ingestion of 280 and 360 g GTRB provided daily totals of 123.2 and 158.4 mg caffeine, and 188.3 and 242.1 mg of epigallocatechin gallate, for women and men, respectively. After the WL phase, subjects lost 7.3±3.1 kg of their baseline body weight. GTRB intake did not significantly influence the maintenance of WL, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose concentrations. Although, it resulted in significant differences (mean difference [95% confidence interval]) between the treatment groups in the maintenance of waist circumference (-1.22 cm [-2.4, -0.02; P=.04]), the results were not clinically meaningful. Nevertheless, the ingestion of GTRB led to the maintenance of lower blood pressure (BP), also the proportion of subjects fulfilling the criteria of MS after the WM phase was lower in the intervention group than in the control group. Although GTRB consumption did not improve significantly the WL maintenance, it resulted in a better control of BP.

  11. Extraction/spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum(VI) with 4,6-di-t-butyl-3-methoxycatechol and Malachite Green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Mitsuko; Nishizaki, Youko; Motomizu, Shoji

    1988-10-01

    Mo(VI) forms an chelate anion with 4,6-di-t-butyl-3-methoxycatechol (DBMC) and the ion asscoiate between the chelate anion and Malachite Green (MG) is extracted into toluene in the pH range from 1.8 to 3.5. DBMC was synthesized according to our previous work. The standard procedure was as follows: transfer a sample solution /Mo (VI) < 4.8 /mu/g/ into a 25 ml test tube with stopper, and add 0.5 ml each of 5 x 10/sup -2/ M sulfuric acid and 1.0 x 10/sup -3/ M MG solution. If necessary, add masking agent solution (ascorbic acid and tartaric acid). After adding water to make up to 10 ml, add 5 ml of 1.5 x 10/sup -2/ M DBMC toluene solution, then shake for 30 min. Measure the absorbance of the organic phase at 635 nm. Apparent molar absorptivity was 8.0 x 10/sup 4/ l mol/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/ and the absorbance of the reagent blank was 0.01. The relative standard deviation of 10 measurements of 1.92 ..mu..g of Mo(VI) was 0.52 %. The present method was applied to steel samples with satisfactory results. The effect of W(VI) coexisting at concentrations over 1 x 10/sup -6/ M was corrected by the equations using apparent molar absorptivities of Mo(VI) and W(VI) obtained with or without the masking agent (2.5 x 10/sup -3/ M tartaric acid).

  12. Effect of Green Tea Extract Encapsulated Into Chitosan Nanoparticles on Hepatic Fibrosis Collagen Fibers Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy in Rat Hepatic Fibrosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, Abdel-Majeed A; Hanafy, Nomany A; Bharali, Dhruba J; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker A

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of Green Tea Extract (GTE) encapsulated into Chitosan Nanoparticles (CS-NPs) on hepatic fibrosis in rat model as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The bioactive compounds in GTE encapsulated into CS-NPs were determined using LC-MS/MS method. Additionally, the uptake of GTE-CS NPs in HepG2 cells showed enhanced uptake. In experimental fibrosis model, AFM was used as a high resolution microscopic tool to investigate collagen fibers as an indicator of hepatic fibrosis induced by treatment with CCl4. Paraffin sections of fibrotic liver tissues caused by CC4 treatment of rats and the effect of GTE-CS NPs treatment with or without CCl4 on hepatic fibrosis were examined. Liver tissues from the different groups of animals were de-waxed and processed as for normal H/E staining and Masson's trichrome staining to locate the proper area of ECM collagen in the CCl4 group versus collagen in liver tissues treated with the GTE-CS NPs with or without CCl4. Selected areas of paraffin sections were trimmed off and fixed flat on top of mica and inserted in the AFM stage. H/E staining, Masson's trichrome stained slides, and AFM images revealed that collagen fibers of 250 to 300 nm widths were abundant in the fibrotic liver samples while those of GTE-CS NPs were clear as in the control group. Data confirmed the hypothesis that GTE-CS NPs are effective in removing all the extracellular collagen caused by CCl4 in the hepatic fibrosis rat liver.

  13. Facile green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Ulva lactuca seaweed extract and evaluation of their photocatalytic, antibiofilm and insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwarya, Ramachandran; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Kalyani, Subramanian; Banumathi, Balan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Al-Anbr, Mohammed N; Khaled, Jamal M; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    The bioactivity of semiconductor nanocomplexes has been poorly studied in the field of pesticide science. In this research, the synthesis of zinc nanoparticles was accomplished through new effortless green chemistry process, using the Ulva lactuca seaweed extract as a reducing and capping agent. The production of U. lactuca-fabricated ZnO nanoparticles (Ul-ZnO Nps) was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The U. lactuca-fabricated ZnO NPs were tested for their photodegradative action against organic dyes, as well as for antibiofilm and larvicidal activities. The UV visible absorbance spectrum of Ul-ZnO NPs exhibited the absorbance band at 325nm and TEM highlighted average crystallite sizes of nanoparticles of 10-50nm. Methylene blue (MB) dye was efficiently corrupted under sunlight in presence of Ul-ZnO NPs. Excellent bactericidal activity was shown by the Ul-ZnO Nps on Gram positive (Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilis) and Gram negative (Escherichia coliand Proteus vulgaris) bacteria. High antibiofilm potential was noted under both dark and sunlight conditions. The impact of a single treatment with Ul-ZnO NPs on biofilm architecture was also analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) on both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Moreover, Ul-ZnO NPs led to 100% mortality of Aedes aegypti fourth instar larvae at the concentration of 50μg/ml within 24h. The effects of ZnO nanoparticle-based treatment on mosquito larval morphology and histology were monitored. Overall, based on our results, we believe that the synthesis of multifunctional Ul-ZnO Nps using widely available seaweed products can be promoted as a potential eco-friendly option to chemical methods currently used for nanosynthesis of antimicrobials and insecticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quercetin and Green Tea Extract Supplementation Downregulates Genes Related to Tissue Inflammatory Responses to a 12-Week High Fat-Diet in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin (Q and green tea extract (E are reported to counter insulin resistance and inflammation and favorably alter fat metabolism. We investigated whether a mixture of E + Q (EQ could synergistically influence metabolic and inflammation endpoints in a high-fat diet (HFD fed to mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 40 were put on HFD (fat = 60%kcal for 12 weeks and randomly assigned to Q (25 mg/kg of body weight (BW/day, E (3 mg of epigallocatechin gallate/kg BW/day, EQ, or control groups for four weeks. At 16 weeks, insulin sensitivity was measured via the glucose tolerance test (GTT, followed by area-under-the-curve (AUC estimations. Plasma cytokines and quercetin were also measured, along with whole genome transcriptome analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR on adipose, liver, and skeletal muscle tissues. Univariate analyses were conducted via analysis of variance (ANOVA, and whole-genome expression profiles were examined via gene set enrichment. At 16 weeks, plasma quercetin levels were higher in Q and EQ groups vs. the control and E groups (p < 0.05. Plasma cytokines were similar among groups (p > 0.05. AUC estimations for GTT was 14% lower for Q vs. E (p = 0.0311, but non-significant from control (p = 0.0809. Genes for cholesterol metabolism and immune and inflammatory response were downregulated in Q and EQ groups vs. control in adipose tissue and soleus muscle tissue. These data support an anti-inflammatory role for Q and EQ, a result best captured when measured with tissue gene downregulation in comparison to changes in plasma cytokine levels.

  15. and Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis Fabaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) increased the activity of pyruvate kinase in the liver when compared with the diabetic control group. Conclusion: ... include single ring phenolic acids and monomeric flavonoids ... antioxidant properties. The present ..... such as ALT indicates the concentration of .... Joubert E, Gelderblom WC, Louw A, de Beer D. South.

  16. Magnetic solid-phase extraction for determination of the total malachite green, gentian violet and leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet in aquaculture water by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Wei, Daqiao; Yang, Yaling

    2016-06-01

    In this study, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube nanoparticles were synthesized and used as the adsorbent for the sums of malachite green, gentian violet and leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet in aquaculture water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. This method was based on in situ reduction of chromic malachite green, gentian violet to colorless leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet with potassium borohydride, respectively. The obtained adsorbent combines the advantages of carbon nanotubes and Fe3 O4 nanoparticles in one material for separation and preconcentration of the reductive dyes in aqueous media. The structure and properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The main parameters affecting the adsorption recoveries were investigated and optimized, including reducing agent concentration, type and amount of sorbent, sample pH, and eluting conditions. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection in this method were 0.22 and 0.09 ng/mL for malachite green and gentian violet, respectively. Product recoveries ranged from 87.0 to 92.8% with relative standard deviations from 4.6 to 5.9%. The results indicate that the sorbent is a suitable material for the removal and concentration of triphenylmethane dyes from polluted environmental samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body...... between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and a reduction in body weight. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  18. Biofumigation for control of pale potato cyst nematodes: activity of brassica leaf extracts and green manures on Globodera pallida in vitro and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, James S; Lazzeri, Luca; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2011-07-27

    The effects of brassica green manures on Globodera pallida were assessed in vitro and in soil microcosms. Twelve of 22 brassica accessions significantly inhibited the motility of G. pallida infective juveniles in vitro. Green manures of selected brassicas were then incorporated into soil containing encysted eggs of G. pallida. Their effect on egg viability was estimated by quantifying nematode actin 1 mRNA by RT-qPCR. The leaf glucosinolate profiles of the plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Three Brassica juncea lines (Nemfix, Fumus, and ISCI99) containing high concentrations of 2-propenyl glucosinolate were the most effective, causing over 95% mortality of encysted eggs of G. pallida in polyethylene-covered soil. The toxic effects of green manures were greater in polyethylene-covered than in open soil. Toxicity in soil correlated with the concentration of isothiocyanate-producing glucosinolate but not total glucosinolate in green manures.

  19. Comparing the effect of aqueous extract of green tea and catechin on gonadotropins, β-estradiol, Progesterone, testosterone and ovarian follicle in polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Damoon Sadoughi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Compared with green tea, catechin has a more favorable effect on improving hormonal parameters, especially FSH hormone and increasing the number of ovarian follicles in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  20. Microwave Accelerated Green Synthesis of Stable Silver Nanoparticles with Eucalyptus globulus Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity on Clinical Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khursheed Ali

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid microwave assisted method of green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was developed using aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus globulus(ELE, and their antibacterial and antibiofilm potential investigated. With this aim, the aqueous solutions of ELE and AgNO3(1 mM were mixed (1:4 v/v, and microwave irradiated at 2450 Mhz, for 30 sec. The instant color change of the ELE-AgNO3 mixture from pale yellow to dark brown indicated ELE-AgNPs synthesis. The intensity of peak at 428 nm in UV-Vis spectra, due to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs, varied with the amount of ELE, AgNO3 concentration, pH and time of incubation. The biosynthesized ELE-AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDX, FTIR and TGA analyses. The size of ELE-AgNPs was determined to be in range of 1.9-4.3 nm and 5-25 nm, with and without microwave treatment, respectively. SEM exhibited the capping of AgNPs with the ELE constituents, and validated by FTIR analysis. The FTIR data revealed the presence of plant organic constituents and metabolites bound to ELE-AgNPs, which contributes for their stability. The antimicrobial activity of ELE-AgNPs was assessed by growth and biofilm inhibition of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA clinical bacterial isolates. The results demonstrated that S. aureus were more sensitive to ELE-AgNPs than E. coli and P. aeruginosa. MRSA exhibited higher sensitive than MSSA, whereas P. aeruginosa were more sensitive than E. coli to ELE-AgNPs treatment. Also, significant (83 ± 3% and 84 ± 5% biofilm inhibition was observed in case of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The results elucidated environmentally friendly, economical and quick method for production of colloidal bio-functionalized ELE-AgNPs, for effectual clinical applications, as broad