WorldWideScience

Sample records for green petroleum coke

  1. Petroleum coke as energy source: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinelli, G.

    2008-01-01

    A previous review presented a critical evaluation of the use of petroleum coke as energy source. After some years, with reference to increased petroleum coke production, that paper is revised. In particular, the attention is now focused on world petroleum coke market trends and, in regard to petroleum coke used as fuel, on new Italian environment laws. [it

  2. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and...

  3. Health Effects of Petroleum Coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant quantities of fugitive dust from pet coke storage and handling operations present a health risk. EPA’s research suggests that petcoke does not pose a different health risk than similar-sized particulate matter (PM10).

  4. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  5. Demand outlook for sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshkarov, V.Ya.; Danil' yan, P.G.; Feotov, V.E.; Gimaev, R.N.; Koshkarova, M.E.; Sadykova, S.R.; Vodovichenko, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke fines in pyrometallurgical processes and also in the chemical and coal-tar chemical industry is examined. Results of industrial tests on briquetting fines of petroleum coke with a petroleum binder are presented. The feasibility of using the obtained briquets in shaft furnace smelting of oxidized nickel ores, production of anode stock, and also in the chemical industry are demonstrated.

  6. PETROBRAS green petroleum coke used as partial replacement for coal injected mixtures in blast furnaces; Utilizacao do coque verde de petroleo da PETROBRAS em substituicao parcial ao carvao mineral das misturas injetadas em altos fornos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Agenor Medrado da; Medrado, Swami Botelho; Noblat, Sebastiao Jorge Xavier [Companhia Siderurgia Nacional. CSN. Gerencia Geral de Processos Siderurgicos. RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: ams@csn.com.br, swami@csn.com.br, s.noblat@csn.com.br; Carvalho Junior, Joao Andrade de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta. Departamento de Energia, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: joao@feg.unesp.br

    2010-04-15

    The PETROBRAS produced green petroleum coke (GPC) is a carbon rich fuel, virtually ash-free, with low sulfur content and is a fuel suitable to replace metallurgical coke in blast furnaces. The GPC was tested in a pulverized coal injection simulator built in the Volta Redonda research center. It presented a low burning efficiency due to low volatile material content and high substitution rate by the carbon content. The industrial-scale tests were carried out in blast furnaces with up to 50% PETROBRAS GPC in the coal blends, which has never been done before in the steel industry. The injected coal/CVP mixtures produced no negative side effects in the blast furnace grinding systems, pneumatic conveying or operating process. The mixture burning process inside the blast furnace, showed a decrease in fuel consumption, with a significant reduction in metallurgical coke consumption. The industrial-scale tests of the GPC mixtures did not reach the 70% maximum for lack of the GPC feedstock, it being necessary to continue with standard coal mixtures. (author)

  7. Solar thermochemical production of syngas from petroleum coke: feasibility study for injection of coke slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, A.; Romero, M.; Kritter F; Steinfeld A

    2006-01-01

    The steam-gasification of pet-coke using concentrated solar radiation is proposed as a viable alternative to solar hydrogen production. Pet-coke is major solid byproduct from the processing of heavy and extra-heavy oils using delay-coking technology. This report summarizes the major accomplishments to develop a cheap and efficient feeding of petroleum coke by coke water slurries without the need of a carrier gas. The samples were Delayed coke of different grain sizes, in particular from 1,8 to 200 mm (as received). In order to analyse the flow properties of the slurries, some tests were conducted to measure the viscosity of the samples. Then, the pet-coke water slurries were injected into the reactor to study the gasification process. In these experiments, some operational parameters were: molar ratio from 2 to 3 (water/coke), temperature up to 1000 C, residence times from 5 to 9 s. In those conditions, the coke is converted primarily to CO, H 2 , CO 2 and small amounts of methane. Concentration of outlet gases of about 30-50 of H 2 ; 15-20 of CO, 10-15 CO 2 , 1-2% CH 4 were obtained with X coke ∼ 65 to 85%. (authors)

  8. Bio-coke as an alternative to petroleum coke and metallurgical coke; Bio-cokes als alternatief voor petroleumcokes en metallurgische cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.J.; Van Lieshout, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Sevenster, M.N. [Sevenster Environmental Consultancy, Australian Capital Territory ACT (Australia)

    2012-11-15

    In the framework of elaborating the Dutch Roadmap Chemistry 2030), CE Delft has conducted an exploratory study for the Association of the Dutch Chemical Industry (VNCI) on the options of replacing (petroleum) coke in the chemical sector by biocokes. Coke is used as a reducing agent and/or raw material in four companies in the Dutch chemical industry (Tronox, ESD-SIC, Thermphos, Aluchemie). Replacing coke at these four companies can potentially yield a direct CO2 reduction of expectedly several hundreds of kilotons per year. For a first exploration of the options of bio-coke, CE Delft first conducted a desk study to get information on the quality and production costs for bio-coke. Subsequently, CE Delft had contact with the four chemical companies and a made a number of company visits. Moreover, the technical, economic and organizational capabilities, constraints and requirements with regard to a possible (partial) switch to biocokes have been explored. Based on the information available so far it can be concluded that biocokes seems to be a technically and economically interesting innovation. For implementation to finally take place, it is necessary to gain better insight in the technical and economic potential [Dutch] In verband met de uitwerking van de Routekaart Chemie 2030 heeft CE Delft voor VNCI een verkenning uitgevoerd naar de mogelijkheden voor vervanging van (petroleum)cokes in de chemische sector door biocokes. Cokes wordt gebruikt als reductiemiddel en/of grondstof bij een viertal bedrijven in de Nederlandse chemie (Tronox, ESD-SIC, Thermphos, Aluchemie). Het vervangen van cokes bij deze vier bedrijven kan in potentie een directe CO2-reductie van naar verwachting enkele honderden kilotonnen/jaar opleveren. Voor een eerste verkenning van de mogelijkheden van bio-cokes heeft CE Delft eerst een bureaustudie uitgevoerd naar informatie over kwaliteit van en productiekosten voor bio-cokes. Vervolgens heeft CE Delft contact gehad met de vier chemische

  9. Study of variation grain size in desulfurization process of calcined petroleum coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintowantoro, Sungging; Setiawan, Muhammad Arif; Abdul, Fakhreza

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia is a country with abundant natural resources, such as mineral mining and petroleum. In petroleum processing, crude oil can be processed into a source of fuel energy such as gasoline, diesel, oil, petroleum coke, and others. One of crude oil potentials in Indonesia is petroleum coke. Petroleum coke is a product from oil refining process. Sulfur reducing process in calcined petroleum cokes can be done by desulfurization process. The industries which have potential to become petroleum coke processing consumers are industries of aluminum smelting (anode, graphite block, carbon mortar), iron riser, calcined coke, foundry coke, etc. Sulfur reducing process in calcined petroleum coke can be done by thermal desulfurization process with alkaline substance NaOH. Desulfurization of petroleum coke process can be done in two ways, which are thermal desulfurization and hydrodesulphurization. This study aims to determine the effect of various grain size on sulfur, carbon, and chemical bond which contained by calcined petroleum coke. The raw material use calcined petroleum coke with 0.653% sulfur content. The grain size that used in this research is 50 mesh, then varied to 20 mesh and 100 mesh for each desulfurization process. Desulfurization are tested by ICP, UV-VIS, and FTIR to determine levels of sulfur, carbon, chemical bonding and sulfur dissolved water which contained in the residual washing of calcined petroleum coke. From various grain size that mentioned before, the optimal value is on 100 mesh grain size, where the sulfur content in petroleum coke is 0.24% and carbon content reaches the highest level of 97.8%. Meanwhile for grain size 100 mesh in the desulfurization process is enough to break the chemical bonds of organic sulfur in petroleum coke.

  10. 46 CFR 148.04-17 - Petroleum coke, calcined, at 130 °F or above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, calcined, at 130 °F or above. 148.04-17...-17 Petroleum coke, calcined, at 130 °F or above. (a) The requirements of this part do not apply to bulk shipments of petroleum coke, calcined, on any vessel when the material is less than 130 °F. (b...

  11. Geochemical characteristics of oil sands fluid petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, Jake A.; Lindsay, Matthew B.J.; Chen, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The geochemical characteristics of fluid petroleum coke from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of northern Alberta, Canada were investigated. Continuous core samples were collected to 8 m below surface at several locations (n = 12) from three coke deposits at an active oil sands mine. Bulk elemental analyses revealed the coke composition was dominated by C (84.2 ± 2.3 wt%) and S (6.99 ± 0.26 wt%). Silicon (9210 ± 3000 mg kg"−"1), Al (5980 ± 1200 mg kg"−"1), Fe (4760 ± 1200 mg kg"−"1), and Ti (1380 ± 430 mg kg"−"1) were present in lesser amounts. Vanadium (1280 ± 120 mg kg"−"1) and Ni (230 ± 80 mg kg"−"1) exhibited the highest concentrations among potentially-hazardous minor and trace elements. Sequential extractions revealed potential for release of these metals under field-relevant conditions. Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of Si and Ti oxides, organically-complexed V and hydrated Ni sulfate, and provided information about the asphaltenic carbon matrix. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the V and Ni K-edges revealed that these metals were largely hosted in porphyrins and similar organic complexes throughout coke grains. Minor differences among measured V and Ni K-edge spectra were largely attributed to slight variations in local coordination of V(IV) and Ni(II) within these organic compounds. However, linear combination fits were improved by including reference spectra for inorganic phases with octahedrally-coordinated V(III) and Ni(II). Sulfur and Fe K-edge XANES confirmed that thiophenic coordination and pyritic-ilmenitic coordination are predominant, respectively. These results provide new information on the geochemical and mineralogical composition of oil sands fluid petroleum coke and improve understanding of potential controls on associated water chemistry. - Highlights: • Oil sands fluid petroleum coke contains wide range of major, minor and

  12. Characterization of norm sources in petroleum coke calcining processes - 16314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Ian S.; Halter, Donald A.; Fruchtnicht, Erich H.; Arno, Matthew G.; Haumann, Donald F

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum coke, or 'petcoke', is a waste by-product of the oil refining industry. The majority of petcoke consumption is in energy applications; catalyst coke is used as refinery fuel, anode coke for electricity conduction, and marketable coke for heating cement kilns. Roskill has predicted that long-term growth in petroleum coke production will be maintained, and may continue to increase slightly through 2012. Petcoke must first be calcined to drive off any undesirable petroleum by-products that would shorten the coke product life cycle. As an example, the calcining process can take place in large, rotary kilns heated to maximum temperatures as high as approximately 1400-1540 deg. C. The kilns and combustion/settling chambers, as well as some cooler units, are insulated with refractory bricks and other, interstitial materials, e.g., castable refractory materials, to improve the efficiency of the calcining process. The bricks are typically made of 70-85-percent bauxite, and are slowly worn away by the calcining process; bricks used to line the combustion chambers wear away, as well, but at a slower rate. It has been recognized that the refractory materials contain slight amounts of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from the uranium- and thorium-decay series. Similarly, low levels of NORM could be present in the petcoke feed stock given the nature of its origin. Neither the petcoke nor the refractory bricks represent appreciable sources of radiation or radioactive waste. However, some of the demolished bricks that have been removed from service because of the aforementioned wearing process have caused portal alarms to activate at municipal disposal facilities. This has lead to the current investigation into whether there is a NORM concentrating mechanism facilitated by the presence of the slightly radioactive feed stock in the presence of the slightly radioactive refractory materials, at calcining-zone temperatures. Research conducted to date has been

  13. The influence of calcination on the physical and chemical properties of petroleum and mixed cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, K; Syrek, H

    1980-01-01

    Freshly prepared petroleum and coal-petroleum cokes, before utilization for the production of various materials, are subjected to calcining--thermal treatment in a neutral or reducing atmosphere without the admission of air at less than or equal to 1400/sup 0/. During calcining, stabilization of the physical and chemical properties of the cokes takes place. The properties of the obtained coke depend chiefly on the calcining time and temperature. During calcining, volatile substances are removed almost completely from the coke; the coke density is increased, and its structure is put in order; the electrical conductivity is improved; the mechanical strength is increased; and the reactivity of the coke is decreased. Laboratory studies were conducted on calcining mixed coal-petroleum cokes of two grades at 1200, 1250, and 1300/sup 0/ for 2-6 h. In the calcining products the content of volatile substances, the ash content, S content, and density were determined. It was ascertained that calcining of mixed coal-petroleum cokes goes analogously to calcining of pure petroleum cokes. Raising the temperature and increasing the time of calcining has a substantial effect on improvement of coke physical and chemical properties. For high-quality coke, calcining is to be carried out at greater than or equal to 1300/sup 0/ for 4-6 h, for ordinary coke at > 1200/sup 0/ and greater than or equal to 4 h. The results are regarded as starting data for an industrial study of the calcining process.

  14. Nickel and vanadium extraction from the Syrian petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; Alibrahim, M.

    2007-01-01

    Syrian petroleum coke samples were characterized and submitted for salt-roasting treatment in electric furnace to evaluate the convenience of this procedure for the extraction of the vanadium, nickel and sulfur from coke. Both solution and solid residue remaining after salt roasting were separated by filtration and were analyzed for vanadium, nickel and sulfur. The solution was analyzed by UV-Visible spectroscopy for vanadium and nickel and gravimetrically for sulfur. The solid residue and the untreated samples of petroleum coke were analyzed by XRF spectrometry. Results showed that more than 90% of sulfur and 60% of vanadium could be extracted by salt roasting treatment. An alternative procedure has been suggested, in which, more than 80% of sulfur and small percentage of vanadium can be leached by 0.75 M of Na 2 CO 3 solution at 70-80 Co. Vanadium was selectively extracted by DEHPA/TBP from the loaded leached solution. The extraction procedure flowsheet was also suggested. (authors)

  15. An additive for a petroleum coke and water suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiguti, K.; Igarasi, T.; Isimura, Y.; Kharaguti, S.; Tsudzina, T.

    1983-03-04

    The patent covers an additive for a petroleum coke and watersuspension which contains soap of an aliphatic acid (AM) and or a salt of a maleic acid copolymer (SMK). The aliphatic acid soap is a salt of an alkaline earth metal of C6 to C22 aliphatic acid, an ammonium salt or a salt of a lower amine. The maleic acid copolymer is a salt (sodium, NH4) of a lower amine of a maleic anhydride copolymer with a copolymerizing vinyl additive. Capric acid, lauric acid, palmatic acid, aleic and other acids may be used as the aliphatic acid, while methylamine, trimethylamine, diethanolamine, morpholine and so on may be used as the lower amine salt. Ethylene, vinylchloride, methyl(meta)acrylate and so on are used as the polymerizing vinyl compound. The molar ratio of the maleic anhydride to the polymerizing vinyl compound is in a range from 1 to 1 to 1 to 10 (preferably 1 to 1 to 1 to 3). The maleic acid copolymer has a mean molecular mass within 1,000 to 5,000. The additive with the optimal composition contains a solvent, a thickener, an anticorrosion substance, anticoagulants, surfacants (PAV) and so on. A highly concentrated suspension of oil coke and water with a 50 to 75 percent concentration of powder form petroleum coke may be produced using the patented additive. Such a suspension is characterized by low viscosity, high stability and forms no foam during processing.

  16. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by gasification of petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullayeva, S.H.; Musayeva, N.N.; Jabbarov, R.B.; Abdullayeva, S.H.; Musayeva, N.N.; Jabbarov, R.B.; Matsuda, T.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by using petroleum coke (PC) as carbon source. Different positions of the PC in the reactor chamber and some other factors markedly increase quantity of the synthesized CNTs and lead to changing of their characteristics such as crystallinity, diameter, straight and etc. confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies.The thickness of the Fe catalyst deposited on Si and SiO 2 substrates strongly influence to the quality, quantity and uniformity of the grown CNTs. Wet-coated thin films of FeCl 2 works well as catalyst, which can be profitable for mass production of CNTs

  17. Calcinating petroleum coke in a furnace with a rotating hearth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmetov, M M; Ezhov, B M; Galeeva, Z G; Goriunov, V S; Karpinskaia, N N; Zaitseva, S A

    1980-01-01

    A scheme is described for an industrial device with a bottom furnace for calcinating coke from slow coking. The consumption and operational indicators of the process during the calcination of standard and needle cokes are given, together with data on the quality of dry and calcinated cokes under different conditions. The basic drawbacks in the operation of the device are described, and measures are proposed for increasing its operational effectiveness.

  18. Process for the preparation of isotropic petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegler, W.H.; Huyser, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a process for preparing isotropic coke from oil residue charge. It includes blowing air into the residue until it reaches a softening temperature of around 49 to 116 deg C, the deferred coking of the residue having undergone blowing at a temperature of around 247 to 640 deg C, at a pressure between around 1.38x10 5 and 1.72x10 6 Pa, and the recovery of isotropic coke with a thermal expansion coefficient ratio under 1.5 approximately. The isotropic coke is used for preparing hexagonal graphite bars for nuclear reactor moderators [fr

  19. Clean utilization of high sulphur petroleum coke by circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragos, L.; Flueraru, C.; Girjoaba, M.

    1996-01-01

    The economic and environmental problems caused by inefficient utilization of residual high-sulphur petroleum coke resulted from oil cracking in Romania is discussed. A special research programme applying CFBC technology has been carried out in the Institute for Power Equipment, Bucharest. The results from both laboratory facilities and pilot plant are presented. The main operating conditions and parameters are pointed out. Data on quality and composition of petroleum coke, combustion efficiency, temperature range in different zones and flue gas composition at distinct operating loads are given. The results obtained will be used for innovative design of CFBC boilers based on petroleum coke. A project for implementing a CFBC boiler in one of the Romanian oil refineries is being developed. An analysis of technical and economic advantages of these boilers for energy generation is presented

  20. Incorporation of petroleum coke into red ceramic; Incorporacao de coque de petroleo em ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, L.A. de; Monteiro, S.N.; Sanchez, R.; Vieira, C.M.F. [Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados - LAMAV, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro - UENF, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: sanchez@uenf.br, vieira@uenf.br

    2011-04-15

    This work has as its objective the evaluation of the effect of incorporation of petroleum coke in the physical and mechanical properties of red ceramic. Compositions were prepared with 0%, 1%, 2% and 4 wt.% of petroleum coke incorporated into a kaolinitic clayey body. Rectangular specimens were formed by extrusion to fire at 850 deg C and 1050 deg C. The determined physical and mechanical properties were flexural rupture strength and water absorption. The microstructure of the fired ceramics was evaluated by optical microscopy. The results show that the petroleum coke waste can significantly contribute to reduce the energy consumption during the firing stage. However, incorporations must be done in amounts around 1 wt.% to avoid deleterious effect on the water absorption of the ceramic. (author)

  1. Modified sequential extraction for biochar and petroleum coke: Metal release potential and its environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, Konstantin; Alam, Md Samrat; Hubmann, Magdalena; Ok, Yong Sik; Konhauser, Kurt O; Alessi, Daniel S

    2017-07-01

    A modified Community Bureau of Reference (CBR) sequential extraction method was tested to assess the composition of untreated pyrogenic carbon (biochar) and oil sands petroleum coke. Wood biochar samples were found to contain lower concentrations of metals, but had higher fractions of easily mobilized alkaline earth and transition metals. Sewage sludge biochar was determined to be less recalcitrant and had higher total metal concentrations, with most of the metals found in the more resilient extraction fractions (oxidizable, residual). Petroleum coke was the most stable material, with a similar metal distribution pattern as the sewage sludge biochar. The applied sequential extraction method represents a suitable technique to recover metals from these materials, and is a valuable tool in understanding the metal retaining and leaching capability of various biochar types and carbonaceous petroleum coke samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. KCBX Petroleum Coke Storage Pile Sampling Logbook and Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    This documentation of KCBX's petcoke sampling locations and methods demonstrates adherence to the pet coke sampling plan previously submitted and approved by EPA, at both North Terminal and South Terminal stockpiles.

  3. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kozlov, Aleksandr [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel

  4. Coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, M J

    1925-07-02

    Coke is obtained from coal, lignite, peat, or wood by heating the material in a retort and distilling off the volatiles by the passage of superheated steam or hot vapors, the hot porous residue being treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and the temperature being so maintained the latter is cracked and carbon deposited on the coke. The vapors or light oils are condensed and the incondensable gases are used as fuel.

  5. Reuse and activation of petroleum coke to remove metals in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    In the investigation I am reused the coke generated in the refinancing of the petroleum. It was proposed to activate al coke with characteristics of a carbon activated commercial and subsequently to use it to remove silver and present mercury in water. The carbon activated produced and the carbon activated commercial, LQ1000, they were characterized with the norms ASTM, indicate of iodine, area superficial al blue of methylene and indicate of blue of methylene and the results were compared. Likewise in the process of adsorption, the process of adsorption itself model with the equations of Freundlich and Langmuir. The activation of the coke I am planned through a design of experiments four factorial. The 16 coals produced were submitted al process of adsorption silver and mercury by duplicate. The study I report al coke activated as better adsorbent than the LQ1000 and with a smaller cost of fabrication but with a smaller one area superficial that the commercial one. The results obtained permit to produce carbon activated from the coke but economic to compete with the commercial coals activate

  6. Nitrogen conversion during rapid pyrolysis of coal and petroleum coke in a high-frequency furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Shuai; Zhou, Zhi-jie; Li, Jun; Wang, Fu-chen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Use a high-frequency furnace to study N-conversion during rapid pyrolysis of coal. ► Scarcely reported N-conversion during rapid pyrolysis of petroleum coke was studied. ► Both of NH 3 and HCN can be formed directly from coal during rapid pyrolysis. ► NH 3 –N yields are higher than HCN–N yields in most conditions. ► NH 3 –N yields of petroleum coke increase with temperature and no HCN detected. -- Abstract: Rapid pyrolysis of three typical Chinese coals, lignite from Inner Mongolia, bituminous from Shenfu coalfield, and anthracite from Guizhou, as well as a petroleum coke were carried out in a drop-style high-frequency furnace. The reactor was induction coil heated and had a very small high-temperature zone, which could restrain secondary conversions of nitrogen products. The effects of temperature and coal rank on conversions of fuel-N to primary nitrogen products (char-N, HCN–N, NH 3 –N and (tar + N 2 )–N) have been investigated. The results showed that, the increasing temperature reduced the yields of char-N and promoted the conversion of fuel-N to N 2 . Char-N yields increased, while volatile-N yields decreased as the coal rank increased. In most of the conditions, NH 3 –N yields were higher than HCN–N yields during rapid pyrolysis of coal. In the case of petroleum coke, NH 3 –N yields increased gradually with the increasing temperature, but no HCN was detected. We argue that NH 3 –N can be formed directly through the primary pyrolysis without secondary reactions. Although volatile-N yields of lignite were higher than those of bituminous, yields of (HCN + NH 3 )–N in volatile-N of lignite were lower than those of bituminous. While the (HCN + NH 3 )–N yields of anthracite were the lowest of the three coals. Both of the (HCN + NH 3 )–N yields and (HCN + NH 3 )–N proportions in volatile-N of petroleum coke were lower than the three coals.

  7. Formation of nitrogen-containing compounds during slow pyrolysis and oxidation of petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Ohtsuka, Y. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The petroleum coke from a fluid coking process was pyrolyzed in helium and oxidized in 1% and 4% O{sub 2} and in air, with the aim to determine N-containing compounds such as HCN, NH{sub 3}, NO, and N{sub 2}O. The experiments were performed with and without limestone. NO was the major product during all oxidation runs. N{sub 2}O was formed only in air. In this case, N{sub 2}O formation was delayed when compared with that of NO. The addition of limestone decreased formation of HCN and increased that of NH{sub 3}, whereas NO formation was least affected. 36 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Source Test Report for the 205 Delayed Coking Unit Drum 205-1201 and Drum 205-1202 Depressurization Vents (Marathon Petroleum Company LLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2010 Source Test was performed during the atmospheric depressurization step of the delayed coking process prior to the removal of petroleum coke from the coke drum. The 205 DCU was operated under a variety of conditions during the 2010 Source Test.

  9. Substitutes for metallurgical coke in pyrometallurgical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshkarov, V.Ya.

    1982-08-01

    A briquetting process using sulphurous petroleum coke and a bituminous binder is described. The characteristics of briquettes made of petroleum coke, blends of coal and petroleum coke, and coal and metallurgical coke are compared. The prospect of replacing 25 to 50% of the metallurgical coke used in lime kilns with non-calcined petroleum coke briquettes is described. (4 refs.)

  10. Investigation on the fates of vanadium and nickel during co-gasification of petroleum coke with biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiazhou; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Bing; Zhao, Jiantao; Fang, Yitian

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the volatilization behaviors and mineral transformation of vanadium and nickel during co-gasification of petroleum coke with biomass. Moreover, the evolution of occurrence modes of vanadium and nickel was also determined by the method of sequential chemical extraction. The results show that the volatilities of vanadium and nickel in petroleum coke have a certain level of growth with an increase in the temperature. With the addition of biomass, their volatilities both show an obvious decrease. Organic matter and stable forms are the dominant chemical forms of vanadium and nickel. After gasification, organic-bound vanadium and nickel decompose completely and convert into other chemical forms. The crystalline phases of vanadium trioxide, coulsonite, nickel sulfide, and elemental nickel are clearly present in petroleum coke and biomass gasification ashes. When the addition of biomass reaches 60 wt%, the diffraction peaks of orthovanadate are found while that of vanadium trioxide disappear. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fly ashes from coal and petroleum coke combustion: current and innovative potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aixa; Navia, Rodrigo; Moreno, Natalia

    2009-12-01

    Coal fly ashes (CFA) are generated in large amounts worldwide. Current combustion technologies allow the burning of fuels with high sulfur content such as petroleum coke, generating non-CFA, such as petroleum coke fly ash (PCFA), mainly from fluidized bed combustion processes. The disposal of CFA and PCFA fly ashes can have severe impacts in the environment such as a potential groundwater contamination by the leaching of heavy metals and/or particulate matter emissions; making it necessary to treat or reuse them. At present CFA are utilized in several applications fields such as cement and concrete production, agriculture and soil stabilization. However, their reuse is restricted by the quality parameters of the end-product or requirements defined by the production process. Therefore, secondary material markets can use a limited amount of CFA, which implies the necessity of new markets for the unused CFA. Some potential future utilization options reviewed herein are zeolite synthesis and valuable metals extraction. In comparison to CFA, PCFA are characterized by a high Ca content, suggesting a possible use as neutralizers of acid wastewaters from mining operations, opening a new potential application area for PCFA that could solve contamination problems in emergent and mining countries such as Chile. However, this potential application may be limited by PCFA heavy metals leaching, mainly V and Ni, which are present in PCFA in high concentrations.

  12. Ash fusion characteristics during co-gasification of biomass and petroleum coke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qing-An; Li, Jiazhou; Guo, Shuai; Li, Guang; Zhao, Jiantao; Fang, Yitian

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the effect of biomass ash on petroleum coke ash fusibility was investigated at a reducing atmosphere. Some analytical methods, such as ash fusion temperatures (AFTs) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FactSage and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were applied to determine the characteristics of ash fusion and transformation of mineral matters. The results indicated that AFTs were closely associated with ash mineral compositions. It was found that the formations of high melting point calcium silicate, vanadium trioxide and coulsonite resulted in the high AFTs of Yanqing petroleum coke (YQ). When blending with certain proportional pine sawdust (PS), corn stalk (CS), the AFTs of mixture could be decreased significantly. For PS addition, the formations of low-melting point calcium vanadium oxide should be responsible for the reduction of AFTs, whereas for CS addition the reason was ascribed to the formation of low-melting point leucite and the disappearance of high-melting V 2 O 3 . Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Impact of co-combustion of petroleum coke and coal on fly ash quality: Case study of a Western Kentucky power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hower, James C.; Thomas, Gerald A.; Mardon, Sarah M.; Trimble, Alan S.

    2005-01-01

    Petroleum coke has been used as a supplement or replacement for coal in pulverized-fuel combustion. At a 444-MW western Kentucky power station, the combustion of nearly 60% petroleum coke with moderate- to high-sulfur Illinois Basin coal produces fly ash with nearly 50% uncombusted petroleum coke and large amounts of V and Ni when compared to fly ash from strictly pulverized coal burns. Partitioning of the V and Ni, known from other studies to be concentrated in petroleum coke, was noted. However, the distribution of V and Ni does not directly correspond to the amount of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash. Vanadium and Ni are preferentially associated with the finer, higher surface area fly ash fractions captured at lower flue gas temperatures. The presence of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash doubles the amount of ash to be disposed, makes the fly ash unmarketable because of the high C content, and would lead to higher than typical (compared to other fly ashes in the region) concentrations of V and Ni in the fly ash even if the petroleum coke C could be beneficiated from the fly ash. Further studies of co-combustion ashes are necessary in order to understand their behavior in disposal

  14. Petroleum Coke in the Urban Environment: A Review of Potential Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Caruso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum coke, or petcoke, is a granular coal-like industrial by-product that is separated during the refinement of heavy crude oil. Recently, the processing of material from Canadian oil sands in U.S. refineries has led to the appearance of large petcoke piles adjacent to urban communities in Detroit and Chicago. The purpose of this literature review is to assess what is known about the effects of petcoke exposure on human health. Toxicological studies in animals indicate that dermal or inhalation petcoke exposure does not lead to a significant risk for cancer development or reproductive and developmental effects. However, pulmonary inflammation was observed in long-term inhalation exposure studies. Epidemiological studies in coke oven workers have shown increased risk for cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but these studies are confounded by multiple industrial exposures, most notably to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are generated during petcoke production. The main threat to urban populations in the vicinity of petcoke piles is most likely fugitive dust emissions in the form of fine particulate matter. More research is required to determine whether petcoke fine particulate matter causes or exacerbates disease, either alone or in conjunction with other environmental contaminants.

  15. STUDY ON REDUCING AND MELTING BEHAVIOR OF MILL SCALE/PETROLEUM COKE BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Deves Flores

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-reducing tests were carried out under isothermal and non-isothermal condition in a muffle furnace, aiming to assess the reduction and melting of a self-reducing blend of mill scale and petroleum coke (85-15% in weight. The products obtained were analyzed by mass loss and wet analysis. Further investigations for the products from the non-isothermal condition were done by X-ray diffraction, nude eye inspection and carbon analyzer. It was observed that mass loss fraction and metallization degree are directly related and both increase with time and temperature. In the non-isothermal maximum mass loss was achieved in 8 minutes, reaching metallization degrees above 90%. It was observed that the reduction of iron oxide occurs mainly in solid state and the smelting of the samples is directly related to the iron carburization process. Thus, the use of self-reducing mixtures shows a possible way to recycle mill scale.

  16. Synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity of biomass-petroleum coke blended char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; Gong, Yan; Ding, Lu; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-06-01

    In this work, effects of gasification temperature (900°C-1100°C) and blended ratio (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) on reactivity of petroleum coke and biomass co-gasification were studied in TGA. Quantification analysis of active AAEM transformation and in situ investigation of morphological structure variations in gasification were conducted respectively using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and heating stage microscope to explore synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity. The results indicated that char gasification reactivity was enhanced with increasing biomass proportion and gasification temperature. Synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity was presented after complete generation of biomass ash, and gradually weakened with increasing temperature from 1000°C to 1100°C after reaching the most significant value at 1000°C. This phenomenon was well related with the appearance of molten biomass ash rich in glassy state potassium and the weakest inhibition effect on active potassium transformation during co-gasification at the temperature higher than 1000°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of the salmonella mutagenicity assay and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workplaces exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monarca, S; Pasquini, R; Sforzolini, G S; Fagioli, F; Viola, V

    1982-02-01

    Workplaces of an Italian carbon electrode factory, exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke, were studied using a coupled chemical and biological approach to evaluate occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic hazards. Analytical procedures for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity tests were performed on pitch and coke and airborne particulate matter of the working environment, after fractionating by sequential Soxhlet extractions with four organic solvents of increasing polarity (benzene, chloroform, methanol and acetone). The results showed: (a) the presence of extraordinarily high PAH (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) contents in the benzene extracts of petroleum pitch (3.6 wt% of total PAH) and of airborne particulate samples (up to 0.35 wt% of total PAH), in correlation with very high indirect mutagenic responses of benzene extracts; (b) very high indirect mutagenic responses in the other extracts of the airborne particulate samples; (c) the production during the processing at high temperatures of directly acting mutagens which were absent in the starting materials and their release in the air of workplaces. The comparison of chemical analytical and mutagenicity data has proved to be an interesting approach for better defining the relative health hazards due to occupational exposure to potentially mutagenic/carcinogenic petroleum products.

  18. Development of a cost-effective CO2 adsorbent from petroleum coke via KOH activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunji; Choi, Seung Wan; Hong, Seok-Min; Shin, Sangcheol; Lee, Ki Bong

    2018-01-01

    The capture of CO2 via adsorption is considered an effective technology for decreasing global warming issues; hence, adsorbents for CO2 capture have been actively developed. Taking into account cost-effectiveness and environmental concerns, the development of CO2 adsorbents from waste materials is attracting considerable attention. In this study, petroleum coke (PC), which is the carbon residue remaining after heavy oil upgrading, was used to produce high-value-added porous carbon for CO2 capture. Porous carbon materials were prepared by KOH activation using different weight ratios of KOH/PC (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1) and activation temperatures (600, 700, and 800 °C). The specific surface area and total pore volume of resulting porous carbon materials increased with KOH amount, reaching up to 2433 m2/g and 1.11 cm3/g, respectively. The sample prepared under moderate conditions with a KOH/PC weight ratio of 2:1 and activation temperature of 700 °C exhibited the highest CO2 adsorption uptake of 3.68 mmol/g at 25 °C and 1 bar. Interestingly, CO2 adsorption uptake was linearly correlated with the volume of micropores less than 0.8 nm, indicating that narrow micropore volume is crucial for CO2 adsorption. The prepared porous carbon materials also exhibited good selectivity for CO2 over N2, rapid adsorption, facile regeneration, and stable adsorption-desorption cyclic performance, demonstrating potential as a candidate for CO2 capture.

  19. Synergistic effects and kinetics thermal behaviour of petroleum coke/biomass blends during H2O co-gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edreis, Elbager M.A.; Luo, Guangqian; Li, Aijun; Xu, Chaofen; Yao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sugar cane bagasse and blends gasification presented two stages at all H 2 O values. • Petroleum coke showed only one char gasification stage at (>700 °C) at 75% H 2 O. • Significant interactions are existed in the both reaction stages of samples. • Higher H 2 O concentration and PC content lead to higher kinetic parameter values. • All the models are successfully utilized to predict the experimental data. - Abstract: This study investigates the possible synergistic interactions between the Sudanese lower sulphur petroleum coke (PC) and sugar cane bagasse (SCB) during H 2 O co-gasification with three concentration values (25%, 50% and 75% v/v) using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) at 20 °C/min. The kinetic thermal behaviour, and effects of both H 2 O concentration and fuel blending ratio were investigated. The results show that, significant interactions existed in both reaction stages of samples, and become less when PC content and H 2 O concentration are 50%. Petroleum coke showed only one char gasification stage at (>700 °C) at 75% H 2 O. Some kinetics models like homogeneous and shrinking core models were studied by the Coats–Redfern method in order to observe the optimum reaction mechanism for the H 2 O gasification of samples, describe the best reactive behaviour and determine the kinetic parameters. The results showed that, the co-gasification behaviour and kinetic parameters have a significantly influenced by increasing both H 2 O concentration and PC content. The boundary controlled reaction model (R2) shows the lowest values of activation energy (E) for all samples and H 2 O concentrations. Finally, all the models are successfully utilized to predict the experimental data under all H 2 O concentration values

  20. The effect of ash elements in petroleum coke on hearth furnace heat recovery system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmetov, M M

    1981-01-01

    Difficulties encountered in the operation of the heat recovery system of a calcination plant at Krasnovodsk Refinery caused by ash element deposits blocking the fire box are described. Deposits and coke ash composition are given. The main cause of blocking was found to be the removal of sea water salt elements which get on the coke surface when the retarded coking plant is discharged with a water-jet borer. Switching over to fresh water and air-blasting of heat recovery pipes decreased blocking considerably.

  1. Effects of operating conditions on compositional characteristics and reaction kinetics of liquid derived by delayed coking of nigerian petroleum residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Bello

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal upgrading of Nigerian petroleum residue was studied at relatively low pressure in a delayed coking reactor system. In this work, the intent was to investigate the effects of process variables such as reaction temperature (200(0C to 600(0C, reaction time (0 to 120min, additive concentration loading and additive-to-residue ratio on the amounts and quality of organic liquid product (OLP. The liquid products derived from the delayed coking process were characterized by means of instrumental analysis of gas-liquid chromatography. Results obtained from the analyses of the OLP revealed an upward trend of the conversion process and the selectivity of the aromatic compounds with additive-to-residue ratio (ARR and increase in temperature. This led to maximum yield of 37.2% achieved with ARR of 5 compared to 31% achieved with ordinary thermal conversion. The selectivity for aromatic hydrocarbons was maximum at 83.1wt% the selectivity towards aromatics and aliphatic hydrocarbons were highest for methanol-potassium hydroxide and methanol respectively. In all additive system cases, maximum OLP was produced at an optimum reaction temperature of 370(0C in the delayed coking reactor and at higher residence time. The gaseous product consisted of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and C1 - C6 hydrocarbons, which amounted to about 20 to 30 wt% of liquid distillate. The information obtained in this study show that the organic liquid products are amenable to characterization procedure and provided the basis for the identification of processes for upgrading Nigerian petroleum residue and such other starting materials such as bitumen or fossil fuel coal liquids.

  2. Application of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workplaces exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monarca, S; Pasquini, R; Sforzolini, G S; Viola, V; Fagioli, F

    1982-02-01

    Workplaces of an Italian carbon electrode factory, exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke, were studied using a coupled chemical and biological approach to evaluate occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic hazards. Analytical procedures for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity tests were performed on both industrial ingredients and airborne particulate matter of the working environment, after fractionating by sequential Soxhlet extractions with four organic solvents of increasing polarity. The results showed: the presence of extraordinarily high PAH contents in the benzene extracts of petroleum pitch and of airborne particulate samples, in correlation with very high indirect (after metabolic activation) mutagenic responses of benzene extracts with strain TA98; very high indirect mutagenic responses in the other extracts of the airborne particulate samples; the production during the processing at high temperatures of directly acting mutaggens which were absent in the starting materials and their release in the air of workplaces. The comparison of chemical analytical and mutagenicity data has proved to be an interesting approach for better defining the relative health hazards due to occupational exposure to potentially mutagenic/carcinogenic petroleum products.

  3. Electrical Resistivity Measurement of Petroleum Coke Powder by Means of Four-Probe Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouget, G.; Majidi, B.; Picard, D.; Gauvin, G.; Ziegler, D.; Mashreghi, J.; Alamdari, H.

    2017-10-01

    Carbon anodes used in Hall-Héroult electrolysis cells are involved in both electrical and chemical processes of the cell. Electrical resistivity of anodes depends on electrical properties of its constituents, of which carbon coke aggregates are the most prevalent. Electrical resistivity of coke aggregates is usually characterized according to the ISO 10143 standardized test method, which consists of measuring the voltage drop in the bed of particles between two electrically conducing plungers through which the current is also applied. Estimation of the electrical resistivity of coke particles from the resistivity of particle bed is a challenging task and needs consideration of the contribution of the interparticle void fraction and the particle/particle contact resistances. In this work, the bed resistivity was normalized by subtracting the interparticle void fraction. Then, the contact size was obtained from discrete element method simulation and the contact resistance was calculated using Holm's theory. Finally, the resistivity of the coke particles was obtained from the bed resistivity.

  4. Comparison of 3 MeV C+ Ion-Irradiation Effects between The Nuclear Graphites made of Pitch and Petroleum Cokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Se-Hwan, Chi; Gen-Chan, Kim; Jong-Hwa, Chang

    2006-01-01

    Currently, all the commercially available nuclear graphite grades are being made from two different cokes, i.e., petroleum coke or coal-tar pitch coke, and a coal-tar pitch binder. Of these, since the coke composes most of the graphite volume, i.e., > 70 %, it is understood that a physical, chemical, thermal, and mechanical property as well as an irradiation-induced property change will be strongly dependent on the type of coke. To obtain first-hand information on the effects of the coke type, i.e., petroleum or pitch, on the irradiation sensitivity of graphite, specimens made of IG-110 of petroleum coke and IG-430 of pitch coke were irradiated up to ∼ 19 dpa by 3 MeV C + at room temperature, and the irradiation-induced changes in the hardness, Young's modulus, Raman spectrum, and oxidation properties were characterized. Results of the TEM show that the size and density of the Mrozowski cracks appeared to be far larger and higher in the IG-110 than the IG-430. Results of the hardness test revealed a slightly higher increase in the IG-430 than the IG-110 by around 10 dpa, and the Raman spectrum measurement showed a higher (FWHM) D /(FWHM) G value for IG-430 for 0.02 ∼ 0.25 dpa. Both the hardness and Raman measurement may imply a higher irradiation sensitivity of the IG-430 than the IG-110. Results of the Young's modulus measurements showed a large data scattering, which prevented us from estimating the differences between the grades. Oxidation experiments using a TG-DTA under a flow of dry air/He = 2.5 % (flow rate: 40 CC/min) at 750 and 1000 deg C show that the IG-110 of the petroleum coke exhibits a far higher oxidation rate than the IG-430. The discrepancy between the oxidation rate of the two grades increased with an increase in the oxidation temperature and the dose. Oxidized surface pore area was larger for IG-110. Judging from the results obtained from the present experimental conditions, the irradiation sensitivity appeared to be dependent on the degree

  5. Preparation of activated petroleum coke for removal of naphthenic acids model compounds: Box-Behnken design optimization of KOH activation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niasar, Hojatallah Seyedy; Li, Hanning; Das, Sreejon; Kasanneni, Tirumala Venkateswara Rao; Ray, Madhumita B; Xu, Chunbao Charles

    2018-04-01

    This study employed Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology to optimize activation parameters for the production of activated petroleum coke (APC) adsorbent from petroleum coke (PC) to achieve highest adsorption capacity for three model naphthenic acids. Activated petroleum coke (APC) adsorbent with a BET surface area of 1726 m 2 /g and total pore volume of 0.85 cc/g was produced at the optimum activation conditions (KOH/coke mass ratio) of 3.0, activation temperature 790 °C, and activation time 3.47 h). Effects of the activation parameters on the adsorption pefromances (adsortion capaciy and kinetics) were investigated. With the APC obtained at the optimum activation condition, the maximum adsorption capacity of 451, 362, and 320 (mg/g) was achieved for 2-naphthoic acid, diphenylacetic acid and cyclohexanepentanoic acid (CP), respectively. Although, generally APC adsorbents with a higher specific surface area and pore volume provide better adsorption capacity, the textural properties (surface areas and pore volume) are not the only parameters determining the APC adsorbents' adsorption capacity. Other parameters such as surface functionalities play effective roles on the adsorption capacity of the produced APC adsorbents for NAs. The KOH activation process, in particular the acid washing step, distinctly reduced the sulfur and metals contents in the raw PC, decreasing the leaching potential of metals from APC adsorbents during adsorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Making coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodehouse-Temple, C G

    1929-07-12

    Semi-coke is produced by mixing low-value absorbent solid carbonaceous material such as coal dust, slack, gas-works coke, lignite, torbanite, raphilite, cannel, or shale with not more than 20% of a carbonaceous binding material such as petroleum distillation residue, tarry residues, pitch bitumen, Trinidad asphalt, Manjak or the substance known under the registered Trade Mark Gilsonite and subjecting the mixture without briquetting to a temperature not exceeding 550/sup 0/C. According to the first Provisional Specification, the mixture may if desired be briquetted before being heated and the second constituent may be present to the extent of 30%.

  7. Electrochemical improvement of low-temperature petroleum cokes by chemical oxidation with H2O2 for their use as anodes in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concheso, A.; Santamaria, R.; Menendez, R.; Jimenez-Mateos, J.M.; Alcantara, R.; Lavela, P.; Tirado, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical performance of non-graphitized petroleum cokes has been improved by mild oxidation using hydrogen peroxide, a procedure used for the first time in these materials. For this purpose, various carbonisation temperatures and H 2 O 2 treatments were tested. For low sulfur content cokes, the aqueous oxidative treatment significantly increases the capacity values above 372 mAh/g during the first cycles. In contrast, cokes with a sulfur content of ca. 5%, did not shown a real improvement. The former results have been interpreted in terms of an effective oxidation of the particles surface, which removes unorganized carbon, where lithium can be irreversibly trapped. Moreover, a stable and less resistive passivating layer grows during the first discharge of lithium, as revealed by impedance spectroscopy. Therefore, chemical procedures, as mild oxidation, open an interesting field of research for the improvement of disordered carbons as anode materials in lithium ion batteries

  8. Pace studying worldwide coke production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Pace Consultants Inc., Houston, has started a multiclient study of world-wide petroleum coke production, examining environmental initiatives and eventually forecasting prices of fuel grade coke. Pace expects coker expansions, increased operating severity, and reduced cycle times to boost coke supply to more than 50 million metric tons/year in 2000, compared with 39.7 million metric tons in 1992. Increased supply and tightened environmental rules in countries consuming large amounts of petroleum coke will be the main factors affecting coke markets. The paper discusses coke quality and the Japanese market

  9. Environmental Benefit Assessment for the Carbonation Process of Petroleum Coke Fly Ash in a Rotating Packed Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Si-Lu; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Li, Ye-Mei; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2017-09-19

    A high-gravity carbonation process was deployed at a petrochemical plant using petroleum coke fly ash and blowdown wastewater to simultaneously mineralized CO 2 and remove nitrogen oxides and particulate matters from the flue gas. With a high-gravity carbonation process, the CO 2 removal efficiency was found to be 95.6%, corresponding to a capture capacity of 600 kg CO 2 per day, at a gas flow rate of 1.47 m 3 /min under ambient temperature and pressure. Moreover, the removal efficiency of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters was 99.1% and 83.2%, respectively. After carbonation, the reacted fly ash was further utilized as supplementary cementitious materials in the blended cement mortar. The results indicated that cement with carbonated fly ash exhibited superior compressive strength (38.1 ± 2.5 MPa at 28 days in 5% substitution ratio) compared to the cement with fresh fly ash. Furthermore, the environmental benefits for the high-gravity carbonation process using fly ash were critically assessed. The energy consumption of the entire high-gravity carbonation ranged from 80 to 169 kWh/t-CO 2 (0.29-0.61 GJ/t-CO 2 ). Compared with the scenarios of business-as-usual and conventional carbon capture and storage plant, the economic benefit from the high-gravity carbonation process was approximately 90 and 74 USD per ton of CO 2 fixation, respectively.

  10. Self-cementitious properties of fly ashes from CFBC boilers co-firing coal and high-sulphur petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Guanghong; Li Qin; Zhai Jianping; Li Feihu

    2007-01-01

    Self-cementitious properties of fly ash from circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler co-firing coal and high-sulphur petroleum coke (CPFA) were investigated. CPFA was self-cementitious which was affected by its fineness and chemical compositions, especially the contents of SO 3 and free lime (f-CaO). Higher contents of SO 3 and f-CaO were beneficial to self-cementitious strength; the self-cementitious strength increases with a decrease of its 45 μm sieve residue. The expansive ratio of CPFA hardened paste was high because of generation of ettringite (AFt), which was influenced by its water to binder ratio (W/A), curing style and grinding of the ash. The paste cured in water had the highest expansive ratio, and grinding of CPFA was beneficial to its volume stability. The hydration products of CPFA detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were portlandite, gypsum, AFt and hydrated calcium silicate (C-S-H)

  11. Kinetic study and synergistic interactions on catalytic CO2 gasification of Sudanese lower sulphur petroleum coke and sugar cane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbager M.A. Edreis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of iron chloride (FeCl3 on the CO2 gasification kinetics of lower sulphur petroleum coke (PC and sugar cane bagasse (SCB via thermogravimetric analyser (TGA were investigated. The FeCl3 loading effects on the thermal behaviour and reactivity of CO2 gasification of PC were studied. The possible synergistic interaction between the PC and SCB was also examined. Then the homogeneous model or first order chemical reaction (O1 and shrinking core models (SCM or phase boundary controlled reactions (R2 and R3 were employed through Coats–Redfern method in order to detect the optimum mechanisms for the catalytic CO2 gasification, describe the best reaction behaviour and determine the kinetic parameters. The results showed that the thermal behaviour of PC is significantly affected by the FeCl3 loading. Among various catalyst loadings, the addition of 7 wt% FeCl3 to PC leads to improve the PC reactivity up to 39% and decrease the activation energy up to 22%. On the other hand, for char gasification stage of SCB and blend, the addition 5 wt% FeCl3 improved their reactivities to 18.7% and 29.8% and decreased the activation energies to 10% and 17%, respectively. The synergistic interaction between the fuel blend was observed in both reaction stages of the blend and became more significant in the pyrolysis stage. For all samples model R2 shows the lowest values of activation energy (E and the highest reaction rates constant (k. Finally, model R2 was the most suitable to describe the reactions of non-catalytic and catalytic CO2 gasification.

  12. Major growth in coke production takes place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    U.S. petroleum coke production has increased 64% during the 10-year period from 1980 to 1990. This dramatic rise makes it timely to discuss the history and future of U.S. coking capacity, production, and processing. The article covers the properties and uses of the various grades of petroleum coke, as well as pricing and market trends

  13. Power, cement industries shape coke future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The production of petroleum coke by U.S. refineries is expected to continue to increase in the coming years. Process and market trends also indicate the likelihood of further increases in fuel-grade coke production. In this article, the properties and uses of the various grades of petroleum coke, as well as pricing and market trends, will be discussed

  14. Refinaria do Nordeste: petroleum coke handling system; Refinaria do Nordeste: desafios do sistema de movimentacao de coque verde de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Luiz G. de; Cabral, Jose Mauro B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Ipojuca, PE (Brazil). Refinaria do Nordeste (RNEST); Lucredi, Hedewandro A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Paulinia, SP (Brazil). Refinaria de Paulinia (REPLAN); Barros, Francisco Carlos da C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The Delayed Coking Units - DCU - are adequate to the scheme for processing heavy oils where the market of fuel oil or asphalt is low or not profitable. The DCU's are conversion units that produce, in addition to the gas and liquid distilled products, the petcoke. The petcoke, depending on the characteristics, is used in various applications like as in the aluminum, iron, thermoelectric and cement industries. The petcoke is solid and its logistics is quite different from most of the products handled by PETROBRAS; therefore, this product has been a constant challenge in relation to the market requirements. Due to the importance of the DCU at Refinaria do Nordeste, and the petcoke production capacity, the coke handling system was projected in order to ensure the refinery operational continuity. The project permits the expedition and loading of 10,000 tons of petcoke within a period of 12 hours of work for cargo vessel. In the development of the processing project of Refinaria do Nordeste efforts were made to optimize the Delayed Coking Unit for the production of distilled products and the quality of the coke. The DCU operating conditions were projected so as to produce petcoke with quality adequate to the iron and aluminum industry. (author)

  15. Dale Coke: Coke Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Dale Coke grew up on an apricot orchard in California’s Santa Clara Valley. In 1976 he bought ten acres of farmland near Watsonville in Santa Cruz County but continued to work repairing fuel injection systems rather than farming at his new home. In 1981, a struggle with cancer inspired him to rethink his life and become an organic farmer. His neighbor, who had grown strawberries using pesticides and chemical fertilizers, asserted that strawberries could not be grown organically. Coke set out ...

  16. International petroleum investment and policies: green, privatising, and moving eastward?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelde, T.W.; Ndi, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    Some of the issues currently shaping transnational investment in the petroleum industry are examined. These include; the re-defining of the role of the state in petroleum development strategy; the evolution of contractual practice; the introduction of more liberal investment legislation; the restructuring of state petroleum enterprises with a view to commercialisation, corporatisation or privatisation; the increasing significance of petroleum production in emerging nations; and heightened international awareness of the environmental impacts of energy development. The discussion includes an analysis of the implications of these issues for developing countries in terms of inward foreign investment, some reflections on the development versus environment debate and some consideration of the influence of current trends on the future of the international petroleum industry. (UK)

  17. Producing metallurgic coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  18. Coke gasification costs, economics, and commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, F.C.; Falsetti, J.S.; Wilson, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The disposition of petroleum coke remains a problem for modern high conversion refineries. Market uncertainty and the price for coke can prevent the implementation of otherwise attractive projects. The commercially proven Texaco Gasification Process remains an excellent option for clean, cost effective coke disposition as demonstrated by the new coke gasification units coming on-line and under design. Previous papers, have discussed the coke market and general economics of coke gasification. This paper updates the current market situation and economics, and provide more details on cost and performance based on recent studies for commercial plants

  19. Comparison of 3 MeV C+ ion-irradiation effects between the nuclear graphites made of pitch and petroleum cokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Se-Hwan; Kim, Gen-Chan

    2008-01-01

    Three million electron volt C + irradiation effects on the microstructure (crystallinity, crystal size), mechanical properties (hardness, Young's modulus) and oxidation of IG-110 (petroleum coke) and IG-430 (pitch coke) nuclear graphites were compared based on the materials characteristics (degree of graphitization (DOG), density, porosity, type of coke, Mrozowski cracks) of the grades and the ion-irradiation conditions. The specimens were irradiated up to ∼19 dpa at room temperature. Differences in the as-received microstructure were examined by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The ion-induced changes in the microstructure, mechanical properties and oxidation characteristics were examined by the Raman spectroscopy, microhardness and Young's modulus measurements, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results of the as-received microstructure condition show that the DOG of the grades appeared the same at 0.837. The size of Mrozowski cracks appeared larger in the IG-110 of the higher open and total porosity than the IG-430. After an irradiation, the changes in the crystallinity and the crystallite size, both estimated by the Raman spectrum parameters, appeared large for the IG-430 and the IG-110, respectively. The hardness had increased after an irradiation, but, the hardness increasing behaviors were reversed at around 14 dpa. Thus, the IG-430 showed a higher increase before 14 dpa, but the IG-110 showed a higher increase after 14 dpa. No-clear differences in the increase of the Young's modulus were observed between the grades mainly due to a scattering in the measurements results. The IG-110 showed a higher oxidation rate than the IG-430 both before and after an irradiation. Besides the density and porosity, a possible contribution of the well-developed Mrozowski cracks in the IG-110 was noted for the observation. All the comparisons show that, even when the differences between the

  20. Comparison of 3 MeV C + ion-irradiation effects between the nuclear graphites made of pitch and petroleum cokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Se-Hwan; Kim, Gen-Chan

    2008-10-01

    Three million electron volt C + irradiation effects on the microstructure (crystallinity, crystal size), mechanical properties (hardness, Young's modulus) and oxidation of IG-110 (petroleum coke) and IG-430 (pitch coke) nuclear graphites were compared based on the materials characteristics (degree of graphitization (DOG), density, porosity, type of coke, Mrozowski cracks) of the grades and the ion-irradiation conditions. The specimens were irradiated up to ˜19 dpa at room temperature. Differences in the as-received microstructure were examined by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The ion-induced changes in the microstructure, mechanical properties and oxidation characteristics were examined by the Raman spectroscopy, microhardness and Young's modulus measurements, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results of the as-received microstructure condition show that the DOG of the grades appeared the same at 0.837. The size of Mrozowski cracks appeared larger in the IG-110 of the higher open and total porosity than the IG-430. After an irradiation, the changes in the crystallinity and the crystallite size, both estimated by the Raman spectrum parameters, appeared large for the IG-430 and the IG-110, respectively. The hardness had increased after an irradiation, but, the hardness increasing behaviors were reversed at around 14 dpa. Thus, the IG-430 showed a higher increase before 14 dpa, but the IG-110 showed a higher increase after 14 dpa. No-clear differences in the increase of the Young's modulus were observed between the grades mainly due to a scattering in the measurements results. The IG-110 showed a higher oxidation rate than the IG-430 both before and after an irradiation. Besides the density and porosity, a possible contribution of the well-developed Mrozowski cracks in the IG-110 was noted for the observation. All the comparisons show that, even when the differences between the

  1. Study of technical and financial pre-feasibility for the handling and sale, as fuel in cement industries, of petroleum coke produced at a petroleum refinery located in Moin, Limon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrales Suarez, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    A study of the technical and financial pre-feasibility is realized for the handling, conditioning and sale as fuel in cement industries of petroleum coke, that is produced in the project of extension and modernization of the refinery of RECOPE in Moin, Limon. Daily production has been of 570 metric tons. The market study has determined a demand of approximately 120 000 metric tons in the country and in the region. The total production of coke has been possible place it at national and regional level, due to lack of another producer. The coke is recommended to crush it to decrease the size of the particles for the conditioning, handling and to facilitate their manipulation. Conveyor belts are used for handling on the inside of the refinery. The coke is transported in trucks type tanker on the exterior of the refinery. The moisture content is reduced by dryer vibratory of fluidized bed to 5% of moisture to guarantee a product better quality. The product is stored under roof in ventilated facilities and with appropriate systems of security to minimize the risk of an accident. The fixed capital investment to develop the project has been of USD 3,1 millions and working capital of USD 14,4 millions. The financial evaluation is realized considering two financing models of 70% and without financing. The net present value (NPV) has been of USD -13,0 millions and the desirability index of -6,6 for the model with financing. The model without financing has obtained a NPV of USD -1,9 millions and a desirability index of -1,2. The financial profitability of the project has been very sensitive to the sales price of the coke, to the coke volume of production, to the growth percentage of the sale price and the cost of the raw material for the two models considered. The financial risk analysis is realized by the Monte Carlo method, whereupon is obtained a probability of approximately 34% in that the internal rate of return (IRR) has been higher than the cut rate and of 36% in that

  2. Research and development in production of special coke types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefedov, P.Ya.; Unterberger, O.G.; Strakhov, V.M. (Vostochnyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Uglekhimicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1991-03-01

    Discusses methods for increasing quality of foundry coke and quality of special coke types used in non-ferrous metallurgy. Types of coal from various coal basins for production of foundry coke, types of petroleum and coal-derived additives improving caking and coking properties of the standard coal mixtures and effects of partial coal charge briquetting are discussed. Three types of partial coal charge briquetting are comparatively evaluated: continuous coking of the briquetted mixtures of weakly caking lean coal types, anthracites and coking coal mixed with thermosoftening binders; continuous coking of identical mixtures briquetted with non-thermosoftening binders; coking coke dust mixed with thermoreactive binders and briquetted at 200-300 C. Coking conditions, the final coking temperature, binder consumption rates, dimensions of coal briquets, ash content, sulfur content and coke mechanical properties (compression strength and wear) are comparatively evaluated.

  3. Effect of Pore Structure and Chemistry on the Performance of Activated Oil Sands Petroleum Coke Electrodes for use in Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Jocelyn Ellen

    Electrical energy storage is a limiting barrier to widespread usage and commercialization of sustainable and renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, as well as integration of electric vehicles. Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are a promising energy storage technology that offers the benefits of high power density, long cycle life, rapid charging rates, and moderate energy density. The energy storage mechanism of EDLCs is physical ion adsorption on the surface of porous carbon electrodes. This thesis is an investigation of three different sections relating to EDLCs: 1) techniques to properly characterize novel porous carbon electrode materials, 2) investigation of activated oil sands petroleum coke (APC) as the electrode material for EDLCs, and 3) a systematic study of the effects of porous carbon structure and chemistry on EDLC performance. In the first section, it was shown that variations in operating conditions and testing techniques can lead to discrepancies in measured and reported capacitance. Therefore, it was concluded that a standardized approach is necessary in order to properly compare different porous carbon electrodes. In the second section, APC was investigated as a novel electrode material for EDLCs. PetCoke is a carbon dense material that can be activated with potassium hydroxide to generate high surface area porous carbon materials. These materials show promising electrochemical performance in EDLCs, with capacitance values up to 400 Fg-1 in 4M potassium hydroxide aqueous electrolytes, depending on the operating conditions. Additionally, the power density of these materials is comparable to that of other carbon nanomaterials, which are more costly and challenging to produce. Finally, the third section investigates the relationship between measured capacitance, and carbon macrostructure, meso-structure, microstructure, and oxygen content. In each of these studies, the desired parameter was varied, while all others

  4. Coking of residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.R.; Zhao, Y.X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; McKnight, C.A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Komar, D.A.; Carruthers, J.D. [Cytec Industries Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the major causes of deactivation of Ni/Mo and Co/Mo sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum and bitumen fractions is coke deposition. The composition and amount of coke deposited on residue hydroprocessing catalysts depends on the composition of the liquid phase of the reactor. In the Athabasca bitumen, the high molecular weight components encourage coke deposition at temperatures of 430 to 440 degrees C and at pressures of 10 to 20 MPa hydrogen pressure. A study was conducted to determine which components in the heavy residual oil fraction were responsible for coking of catalysts. Seven samples of Athabasca vacuum residue were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction with pentane before being placed in the reactor. Carbon content and hydrodesulfurization activity was measured. It was concluded that the deposition of coke depended on the presence of asphaltenes and not on other compositional variables such as content of nitrogen, aromatic carbon or vanadium.

  5. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here are briefly summarized 1)the OPEC decisions and their consequences concerning the production of petroleum in the world 2)some news about the petroleum industry in Chad and in Iraq 3)some news about the new pipelines constructed or to be constructed in the world 4)some news about the LPG industry (start of a LPG extraction unit in Argentina, legislation in France for LPG vehicles) 4)and some news about the petroleum distribution in France. (O.M.)

  6. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here are gathered the results of the year 1999 concerning the petroleum industry in France ('UFIP' data), the market quotations of crude oil, the prices of fuels in France and in Portugal and some news about the petroleum industry in Algeria (privatization, exploration-offshore, repurchase), in Iraq (exports, contracts with foreign companies), in Russian Federation (petroleum pipelines and oil ports constructions) and in Chad (production sharing, offshore sites discoveries). (O.M.)

  7. Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)

    2008-02-15

    The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

  8. Effect of hexagonal boron nitride and calcined petroleum coke on friction and wear behavior of phenolic resin-based friction composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Gewen; Yan Fengyuan

    2006-01-01

    Calcined petroleum coke (CPC) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) were used as the friction modifiers to improve the friction and wear properties of phenolic resin-based friction composites. Thus, the composites with different relative amounts of CPC and h-BN as the friction modifiers were prepared by compression molding. The hardness and bending strength of the friction composites were measured. The friction and wear behaviors of the composites sliding against cast iron at various temperatures were evaluated using a pin-on-disc test rig. The worn surfaces and wear debris of the friction composites were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the hybrid of the two friction modifiers was effective to significantly decrease the wear rate and stabilize the friction coefficient of the friction composites at various temperatures by forming a uniform lubricating and/or transferred film on the rubbing surfaces. The uniform and durable transfer films were also able to effectively diminish the direct contact between the friction composite and the cast iron counterpart and hence prevent severe wear of the latter as well. The effectiveness of the hybrid of CPC and h-BN in improving the friction and wear behavior of the phenolic resin-based friction modifiers could be attributed to the complementary action of the 'low temperature' lubricity of CPC and the 'high temperature' lubricity of h-BN. The optimum ratio of the two friction modifiers CPC and h-BN in the friction composites was suggested to be 1:1, and the corresponding friction composite showed the best friction-reducing and antiwear abilities

  9. Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  10. Coke retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S; MacDonald, J D

    1916-07-15

    To charge vertical coke retorts while preventing escape of gases the coal is fed by a revolving drum to an archimedean screw at the base of the retort, the coke being discharged at the top through a water seal. The feed pockets of the drum which revolves between plates, deliver coal from the hopper to the revolving screw. The coke is forced under the hood to the water seal and is removed by rake conveyor, the gases escaping through the pipe to the main.

  11. Hydrogen and energy recovery by gasification of petroleum coke from heavy crude refining; Recuperacion de hidrogeno y energia mediante gasificacion de coques de petroleo provenientes de refinacion de crudos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua-Rodriguez, J.C [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Jimenez-Garcia, G. [Instituto Tecnologico del Valle de Morelia, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Maya-Yescas, R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmayay@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    Heavy oils exhibit high yields to bottom-of barrel products (low commercial value); depending on the metals content and on carbon residue the upgrading of bottoms could follow either hydroprocessing or carbon rejection. In particular the Mexican Maya, which is the most refined crude in Mexico, is upgraded by carbon rejection via delayed coking of vacuum residue. In order to obtain acceptable economic profit, it is necessary to transform that carbon (mainly petroleum coke) into useful higher added value products. Coke gasification could be used to obtain hydrogen and/or energy (preferable electrical), via the reaction of coke molecules with oxygen, carbon dioxide and water. Departing from the empiric formulas of five petroleum cokes, a kinetic scheme that consists of three linearly independent stoichiometric equations was recently developed; by including the enthalpy of each reaction and considering the gasification reactor as adiabatic, it is possible to predict product stream composition and high pressure steam that could be generated by the process. [Spanish] Los crudos pesados exhiben rendimientos altos a productos de-fondo-de-barril (de bajo valor comercial); dependiendo del contenido de metales y del residuo carbonoso, la mejora de fondos puede llevarse a cabo por hidrotratamiento o rechazo de carbon. En particular el crudo Maya, que es el mas refinado en Mexico, se mejora via rechazo de carbon por coquizacion retardada del residuo de vacio. A fin de obtener ganancias aceptables, es necesario transformar ese carbon (coque de petroleo, principalmente) en producto util de alto valor agregado. La gasificacion de coque puede usarse para obtener hidrogeno y/o energia (electrica de preferencia), via la reaccion de moleculas de coque con oxigeno, dioxido de carbono y agua. Recientemente se desarrollo un esquema cinetico que consiste de tres reacciones linealmente independientes, partiendo de las formulas empiricas de cinco coques de petroleo; incluyendo la entalpia

  12. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chautard, S.

    2008-01-01

    While petroleum has become an indispensable product in our everyday life, it is more and more question of an oil shortage. This book makes a status of the real situation. Starting from the industrial revolution and the history of oil exploitation, it explains the main present day stakes: the depletion of reserves, the environmental aspects and the search for alternative energy solutions. (J.S.)

  13. Coke production in large coke ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravskii, A.A.; Sytenko, I.V.; Zhupraner, Z.S.; Vasil' ev, Yu.S.; Karpukhin, E.A.; Pliner, G.E.; Rud' , A.I.; Bulyga, N.I. (NPO Koksokhimiya (USSR))

    1990-08-01

    Analyzes operation of the No 9 battery with coke ovens with a volume of 41.6 m{sup 3}. Factors that influence coke oven operation and coke quality are analyzed. The following problems are evaluated: composition of coal mixtures (G, Zh, K, OS, GZh coal types), methods for coal mixture preparation (crushing degree, selective crushing), temperature distribution in a coke oven and effects of heating system, coke shrinkage during coking and factors that influence shrinkage, optimizing pressure used for coke pushing, chemical, mechanical and physical properties of coke. Regression equations used for forecasting coke properties are derived: the M10 coke wear index, M25 coke strength index, ash content etc. Recommendations for optimum coking conditions are made. 6 refs.

  14. Petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugg, W G

    1967-07-01

    This discussion of the Canadian petroleum industry for the year 1966 includes production statistics and operating procedures, reserve estimates, exploration and development, transportation, refining, and marketing. Most sectors of the Canadian industry had an excellent year in 1966, featured by continued exploration and development successes in the Rainbow Lake-Zama Lake region of northwestern Alberta and a record value of production that exceeded $900 million for all liquid hydrocarbons. Production of crude oil and natural gas liquids exceeded one million bopd. Crude oil producers supplied 58% of the total crude oil requirements for Canadian refineries. Oil reserves increased due primarily to the application of secondary recovery and the discovery of new reserves. Total pipeline construction decreased, and there was a small increase in refinery capacity.

  15. Evaluation of coke microstructure and its effects on graphite fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotourehchian, S.; Ahmadi, S.

    2001-01-01

    A variety of applications for cokes (metallurgy, petroleum, etc.) have been defined in parallel to the new industrial technology growth. Coke is rich in carbon and has the main role in manufacturing carbonaceous materials such as graphite, steel, silicon carbide, titanium carbide, etc. Among the most important applications of different variety of cokes is their usage for different graphite fabrications. The crystalline structure of graphite (hexagonal with sp 2 hybrid) is based upon the microstructure of coke and it causes anisotropy in properties of produced graphite. Thus, the study of macrostructure and anisotropy degree of cokes is of importance. There are several theoretical and experimental methods to determine the Coke's microstructure and anisotropy. Numerous tests have been conducted on different variety of cokes based on the used method. Here, it is attempted to introduce an applied method to determine the microstructure and anisotropy degree of cokes based upon the kind of application

  16. A hydraulic device for unloading coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretinin, M.V.; Abizgildin, U.M.; Kirillov, T.S.; Makarov, M.I.; Prokopov, O.I.; Solov' ev, A.M.

    1979-07-15

    A hydraulic device for unloading petroleum coke from slow carbonization chambers is characterized by an arrangement whereby in order to increase the output of large size coke by controlling the increment of the cutting line of the coke, the mechanism used to move the rod in the hydraulic cutter is built in the form of a rod rotation rotor; a gear wheel is mounted on the immobile section of this rotor, and on the mobile section a multi-stage regulator is installed. The drive gear of the regulator is engaged with the gear wheel, while the driven gear is connected to the rack, which is fastened to the rod.

  17. The coke dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, P E; Lewis, J A

    1989-08-01

    Coke-making capacity reductions and the current status of coke oven batteries in the USA are surveyed, as well as prior forecasts of the steel and coke markets. The future position is then analysed and it is concluded that the US coke supply situation should improve up to 1995, but that there could be major domestic coke production deficits in the period 1996-2000; critical decisions will soon have to be made about replacement of coking capacity.

  18. Crystallinity and shape of crushed calcined coke particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecioru, M.; Petrescu, M.; Georgeoni, P.

    1993-01-01

    The particle eccentricity is a very important property of the petroleum coke in determining the anisotropy of the properties of the final graphite and it affects the manner in which its properties change in the specific applications. (orig.)

  19. Crystallinity and shape of crushed calcined coke particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecioru, M. (DACIA Synthetic Diamonds Factory, Bucharest (Romania)); Petrescu, M. (DACIA Synthetic Diamonds Factory, Bucharest (Romania) Polytechnic Inst., Bucharest (Romania)); Georgeoni, P. (DACIA Synthetic Diamonds Factory, Bucharest (Romania))

    1993-11-01

    The particle eccentricity is a very important property of the petroleum coke in determining the anisotropy of the properties of the final graphite and it affects the manner in which its properties change in the specific applications. (orig.).

  20. Green petroleum, green coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Z, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    The author refers to the differences every bigger day between the rich countries and the poor countries where every morning we receive the citizens of the world the news of a new coalition of big companies to form an even bigger one to diminish the costs and the number of competitors in the planet, under the watchword of being able to sell more, to consume more; Equally, it grows the environmental deterioration unceasingly, in good part explained by the voracious consumption and the wastes of the most opulent societies while in the other side of the world the poverty forces to extract of the ecosystems until the last encouragement of life. These and other topics are treated in the paper

  1. Alternative coke production from unconventional feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, D.; Eatough, C.N.; Heaton, J.S.; Eatough, S.R.; Miller, A.B. [Combustion Resources, Provo, UT (US)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation reports on US Department of Energy and company sponsored research and development to develop a technology and process for making metallurgical-quality coke from alternate feedstocks, including by-product and waste carbonaceous materials. The basic patent-pending process blends and presses these carbon-containing materials into briquettes of specified size. This product is referred to as CR Clean Coke because pollutant emission levels are carefully controlled to low levels with little or no vagrant emissions during processing. A wide range of feedstock materials has been investigated in over 600 tests for run-of-mine and waste coal fines of various rank with blends of coal tars and pitches, coal and biomass chars, met-coke breeze or petroleum coke. For various coal/pet-coke/tar feedstocks, CR has produced uniform-sized briquettes in commercial-scale briquettes in three nominal sizes: one inch, two inch, and three inch. These products have been successfully qualified according to stringent requirements for conventional met-coke use in a blast furnace. Several formulation have met and frequently exceeded these established met-coke specifications. One specific product containing coal, tar and pet-coke was selected as a base formulation for which preliminary process design and cost estimates have been completed for construction and operation of a demonstration plant capable of producing 120,000 tons per year of CR Clean Coke. Plant design elements and blast furnace test plans are presented. Tailoring of CR Clean Coke products to other prospective end users including foundry, sugar, soda ash, and ferrometals industries presents additional opportunities. The text is accompanied by 30 slides/overheads. 14 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Coking processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollason, A

    1913-09-01

    In the production of light hydrocarbon oils from coals, cannels, or shales which are high in oxygen, from 3 to 5% of limestone or other suitable carbonate is added to the coking-charge. The carbonate added is proportionate to the oxygen contained in the coal etc. The charge is slowly heated up to a temperature of about 500/sup 0/C., water is driven off between 85 and 105/sup 0/C., and carbon dioxide is evolved at a low temperature and retards the evolution of combustible gases until a temperature between 130 and 175/sup 0/C., is reached. Upon formation of the endothermic hydrocarbons, the temperature of the charge becomes lowered, a large volume of light oils of the benzol series is produced, and an increased yield of ammonia is obtained, leaving the carbon in graphitic form.

  3. Fine art of coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, S.

    1984-01-01

    The art and science of coking are discussed. Coke is the solid carbon made from the heavy, viscous residue left after the more useful products such as gasoline and diesel fuel have been refined out of the crude oil. Fuel grade coke can be a substitute for steam coal in many applications. Low-sulfur fuel coke is used in blast furnaces for steelmaking. The operations of Conoco's refineries for producing coke is described.

  4. Fatigue behaviour of coke drum materials under thermal-mechanical cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke drums are vertical pressure vessels used in the delayed coking process in petroleum refineries. Significant temperature variation during the delayed coking process causes damage in coke drums in the form of bulging and cracking. There were some studies on the fatigue life estimation for the coke drums, but most of them were based on strain-fatigue life curves at constant temperatures, which do not consider simultaneous cyclic temperature and mechanical loading conditions. In this study, a fatigue testing system is successfully developed to allow performing thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF test similar to the coke drum loading condition. Two commonly used base and one clad materials of coke drums are then experimentally investigated. In addition, a comparative study between isothermal and TMF lives of these materials is conducted. The experimental findings lead to better understanding of the damage mechanisms occurring in coke drums and more accurate prediction of fatigue life of coke drum materials.

  5. Fiscal 1996 international research cooperation project. Feasibility study of finding out the seeds of international joint research (technology for effective use of saturated hydrocarbon, technology for reducing excess of aromatic hydrocarbon, high-grade treatment technology of petroleum coke); 1996 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa (howa tanka suiso no yuko riyo gijutsu, hokozoku tanka suiso no yojo taisaku gijutsu, sekiyu cokes no kodo shori gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This project is aimed at internationally cooperating in the R and D of industrial technology and improving industrial technology of Japan. For it, the following three technologies were investigated: (1) technology for effective use of saturated hydrocarbon, (2) technology for reducing excess of aromatic hydrocarbon, (3) high-grade treatment technology of petroleum coke. In (1), surveys were conducted of technologies of effective use of natural gas and effective use of C4 saturated hydrocarbon. Surveyed were a method for producing synthesis gas from natural gas, a technology to liquefy natural gas into fuel following the synthesis gas production process, a technology to liquefy natural gas into fuel without the synthesis gas production process, and the trend of effective use of C4 saturated hydrocarbon. In (2), surveys were made of process to reduce production of aromatic hydrocarbon as much as possible, process to effectively separate aromatic hydrocarbon, and process to convert excess aromatic hydrocarbon into polymer, etc. In (3), surveys were conducted on petroleum coke and pitch in terms of production methods, the supply/demand situation, property characteristics, usability to new fields, etc. 170 refs., 114 figs., 65 tabs.

  6. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international research cooperation project for a feasibility survey for finding out seeds of the international joint research. Effective use technology of saturated hydrocarbon (technology against the surplus aromatic hydrocarbon/technology of high grade treatment of petroleum coke); 1997 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo (kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa). Howa tanka suiso no yuko riyo gijutsu / hokozoku tanka suiso no yojo taisaku gijutsu / sekiyu cokes no kodo shori gijutsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of the effective international research cooperation, the paper surveyed in fiscal 1997 the effective use technology of saturated hydrocarbon, technology against the surplus aromatic hydrocarbon and technology of high grade treatment of petroleum coke. In the survey of the effective use technology of saturated hydrocarbon, trends of FT synthesis technology and DME synthesis technology were studied as trends of technology to produce synthetic gas, and a project was proposed for technical development of using natural gas as liquid fuel in Japan. In the survey of technology against the surplus aromatic hydrocarbon, studied were the benzene law regulation and the supply/demand trend of aromatic hydrocarbon, process to reduce production of aromatic hydrocarbon as much as possible, process to reduce aromatics of the produced petroleum products, and process to effectively use aromatic hydrocarbon as chemical raw material. In the survey of high grade treatment of petroleum coke, studied were a possibility of using HS petroleum coke in the DIOS method, iron bath gasification, and copper bath gasification technology. 108 refs., 146 figs., 103 tabs.

  7. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... 69 KB) "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." ©istock.com/ Marjot Stacey is ...

  8. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  9. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-06-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration.

  10. Hot testing of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balon, I D

    1976-07-01

    Earlier investigations failed to take full account of the factors affecting coke behavior within the blast furnace. An apparatus was accordingly developed for testing coke, based on a cyclone furnace where the sample could be held in a flow of hot oxidizing gases, simulating conditions in the blast furnace hearth. The results are said to be suitable for comprehensive assessment of the coke, including abrasive strength and its rate of gasification in a flow of carbon dioxide. Coke of size 6-10 mm tested at 1,100/sup 0/C in an atmosphere of oxidizing gases close to those obtaining in the blast furnace hearth, indicated that destruction and total gasification of the coke occurs after 5 minutes for a weak coke and 8 minutes for strong coke, depending on the physico-chemical and physico-mechanical properties of the particular coke. When samples were treated for a fixed period (3 minutes), the amount of coke remaining, and the percentage over 6 mm varied between 22 and 40 and between 4 and 7 percent respectively.

  11. Biomonitoring of Mercury Contamination at Petroleum Production Platforms in the Gulf of Thailand using Transplanted Green Mussel, Perna viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatree Ritthong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of mercury contamination was conducted using transplanted green mussels (Perna viridis. Mussels were first exposed to HgCl2 at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 nmol/L for 8 weeks at laboratory conditions. The result showed that Hg level in the water decreased rapidly, while Hg in mussels increased coincidentally with the applied doses. After 8 weeks the Hg, levels in tissue were a thousand-fold higher than that in the water. Mussels were then transplanted to 3 petroleum production platforms for field study. The result revealed that survival and growth rates of transplanted mussels at all 3 stations were in close to each other but significantly lower than that from the reference site. Hg concentrations in the tissues of transplanted mussels ranged from less than 0.010 to 0.173 µg/g, and Hg concentrations in mussel tissues from all stations were significantly increased within 2 months, while Hg levels in mussel tissues from reference site were not changed. Hg levels of transplanted mussels increased with increasing depths of the water. The transplanted mussels showed no signs of any physical anomalies, indicating that transplanted mussels could be maintained for up to 3 months in an un-natural habitat, such as petroleum production platforms, where food is much less abundant.

  12. Utilization of HSC-ROSE residue as coking aid for the production of high quality coke from brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlmann, D.; Limmer, H.; Naundorf, W.; Hood, R.L.; Washimi, K. (VEB Petrolchemisches Kombinat, Schwedt (German Democratic Republic))

    1989-04-01

    Evaluates suitability of HSC-ROSE petroleum pitch as binder for production of brown coal coke. This pitch has been available in the GDR since installation in 1988 of a 750 kt/a HSC (high conversion soaker cracking) plant, which processes 360 C visbreaker residue from Soviet crude oil, and the building of a ROSE (residue oil supercritical reaction) plant. Laboratory as well as semi-industrial experiments were carried out at the Freiberg Academy, GDR on pulverizing, briquetting and coking various brown coal types with HSC-ROSE pitch. Briquetting and coking results are shown in tables. Experiments showed that the resulting coke has 124% higher compression strength and 100% higher abrasion strength than regular brown coal coke without HSC-ROSE binder. The high quality coke is adequate for use as metallurgical blast furnace coke. An economic assessment of modifying an existing brown coal coking plant to process 2 Mt/a brown coal with 10% pitch binder is made. Required investment amounts to 54 million US dollars, estimated annual profits based on 1987 prices are 19.5 million US dollars. 4 refs.

  13. The greening of black gold. Towards international environmental alignment in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Wateringen, S.L.

    2005-06-24

    The aim of this research is to expand the knowledge on the integration of environmental issues in the organisation and management of multinational corporations (MNCs). The present study analyses the characteristics and determining factors of the environmental strategy and the organisation of environmental management (structure) in the petroleum industry, driven by the following general question: (1) Which factors influence the relationship between environmental strategy and environmental structure in a multinational corporation? Sub-questions have been formulated to enable this analysis for the international petroleum industry: Q1: How can external contextual characteristics be classified in such a way that a relationship with environmental strategy and environmental structure can be studied?; Q2: How can internal characteristics of MNCs be characterised, in such a way that a relationship with environmental strategy and environmental structure can be studied?; and Q3: How can environmental strategy and structure of large MNCs be characterised, in such a way that influencing factors can be identified? To these ends, the research project has adjusted the strategic alignment model for environmental issues in MNCs. It is introduced as the 'International Environmental Alignment Framework'. As further discussed in Chapter 3, strategic alignment examines the cooperative and/or conflicting relationship between strategy and structure with the aim of improving efficiency and performance. Building on the concepts of strategic fit and functional integration, this model assumes that decisions need to be coordinated to achieve value. The International Environmental Alignment Framework copied the distinction between an internal, functional domain and an external, strategic domain. This allows for the inclusion of company, sector and country variables. Furthermore, the framework distinguishes three different orders of alignment (simple consistency, mutual reinforcement

  14. Mineral matter reactions in cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. French; R. Sakurovs; M. Grigore [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    Some cokes appear to be particularly susceptible to weakening in the blast furnace. A mechanism which has been postulated to explain this is silica reduction by coke. Thus this project was initiated to ascertain the behaviour of quartz and silicates in coke with an emphasis on the role of the clay minerals. It is now possible to obtain quantitative mineralogical data and, the case of coal, to also obtain quantitative data on mineral grain size, shape and association through the use of automated electron beam image analysis techniques. This new ability can allow relationships between the amount of minerals in a coke and its reactivity to be established for the first time. Samples of five Australian coking coals were selected based upon quartz and clay mineral contents, mineral grain size and association. Samples were also provided by BlueScope Steel of coal, feed coke, and tuyere coke samples from the bosh, deadman and raceway regions of the blast furnace. The analytical work program conducted was as follows: Preparation of cokes by CSIRO; Petrography of starting coals and cokes; QEMSCAN of coals; LTA and XRD of starting coals and cokes; Coke reactivity tests (NSC and small scale); Petrography, LTA and XRD of reacted cokes; Petrographic and XRD examination of heat treated cokes. This study indicates that the NSC reactivity test does not adequately reflect the behaviour of coke in the lower part of the blast furnace. Further investigation of the behaviour of coke in the lower part of the blast furnace is required.

  15. Potential of carbon dioxide storage from petroleum industries in the Gulf of Thailand for green production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawangphai, M.; Maneeintr, K.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, climate change and global warming are the global concern because of an increase in the huge amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. This gas comes from energy activities and industries like petroleum industries. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the practical technology to reduce and storage CO2. In Thailand, one of the main potential sites for storage is the Gulf of Thailand. However, the research on this issue is very rare in Thailand. Consequently, this work is aiming on the potential study of CO2 geological storage in formations in the Gulf of Thailand by using simulation. The CO2 storage capacity, pressure buildup and plume migration have been estimated. Also, this study has been simulated with various conditions. CO2 injection is used from 1,000-4,000 tons per day with the depth from 2,200-2,330 meters and the results are studied for 50 years as a monitoring period. The results present that with the formation characteristics, CO2 storage in this area has potential. Moreover, pressure buildup and plume migration are illustrated for the period of 50 years. As a fundamental knowledge, this study can contribute to CO2 storage in an offshore area in Thailand.

  16. Green fuels, growth engines after petroleum; Les carburants verts, moteurs de la croissance apres le petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mili, Dino

    2010-09-15

    The contribution of the new fuels to a greener environment is important and immediate. Thanks to clean novel technologies and to commercial plant projects in development, companies like Enerkem contribute to satisfy increasing global demand for clean energy. They stimulate local economies by creating jobs in an industry that offers real growth potential. Green fuels will gradually allow us to let go of non sustainable energy sources like oil to adopt a way of life based on sustainable development. They will also allow a shift towards a green economy. [French] La contribution des nouveaux carburants a un environnement plus vert est importante et immediate. Grace a des technologies propres novatrices et a des projets d'sines commerciales en developpement, des entreprises comme Enerkem contribuent a satisfaire a la demande mondiale croissante en energie propre. Elles stimulent les economies locales par la creation d'emplois dans une industrie qui offre un veritable potentiel de croissance. Les carburants verts permettront graduellement de nous affranchir des sources d'energie non renouvelables comme le petrole pour adopter un mode de vie base sur le developpement durable. Ils permettront aussi un virage vers une economie verte.

  17. Investigation of ethyl lactate as a green solvent for desorption of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian Ahmadkalaei, Seyedeh Pegah; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Abdul Talib, Suhaimi

    2016-11-01

    Treatment of oil-contaminated soil is a major environmental concern worldwide. The aim of this study is to examine the applicability of a green solvent, ethyl lactate (EL), in desorption of diesel aliphatic fraction within total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in contaminated soil and to determine the associated desorption kinetics. Batch desorption experiments were carried out on artificially contaminated soil at different EL solvent percentages (%). In analysing the diesel range of TPH, TPH was divided into three fractions and the effect of solvent extraction on each fraction was examined. The experimental results demonstrated that EL has a high and fast desorbing power. Pseudo-second order rate equation described the experimental desorption kinetics data well with correlation coefficient values, R 2 , between 0.9219 and 0.9999. The effects of EL percentage, initial contamination level of soil and liquid to solid ratio (L/S (v/w)) on initial desorption rate have also been evaluated. The effective desorption performance of ethyl lactate shows its potential as a removal agent for remediation of TPH-contaminated soil worldwide.

  18. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Feasibility study of the effective utilization of by-product high-sulfur concentration petroleum coke at Fujian Petrochemical Co. Ltd., Fujian Province, China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku sekiyu kako shudan koji fukusei ren'yu kako yugen koji Fujian koio nodo sekiyu cokes no yuko riyo ni kansuru F/S chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of conserving energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas emission, an investigational study was conducted for the project on the effective utilization of high-sulfur petroleum coke at Fujian Petrochemical Co., Fujian Province, China. In the project, IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) power generation facilities are introduced to the refinery of Fujian Petrochemical Co. By gasifying the residues produced from the refinery as raw material, the gas clean the same as natural gas is produced and is used as power generation use fuel. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount was 94,300 toe/y, and was 1,414,500 toe in cumulative amount during 15 years. Further, the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 291,600 t-CO2/y, and was 4,374,000 t-CO2 in cumulative amount during 15 years. The construction cost of the project is approximately 29.7 billion yen. The annual profit to be obtained from the project is approximately 8.66 billion yen, which is indicated by difference between before and after the implementation of the project. The calculated years required for return of investment were 3.4. (NEDO)

  19. Coking oven for continuous coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vabrousek, R

    1979-07-15

    The coking oven has a vertical rectangular chamber with lateral heating walls to which heat exchangers are attached. The roof from the face of the chamber is a hermetic chute, whose vertical walls are connected to the lateral walls of the chamber and which has the feed conveyor with an unloading and evening device; to the upper wall of which a hermetic loading funnel for coal is attached and a lead-off for gas. The bottom of the chamber consists of segmented locks that are taken up by the hermetic chute. The chute's vertical walls are connected to the vertical walls of the chamber and its horizontal wall has a hermetic unloading funnel with a conveyor for coke removal. Height and width of the chamber are similar to standard chambers; their length reaches 100 to 200 m and longer. Length depends on coke preparation time and speed with which the unloading device can transfer coal. For normal operation, the conveyor belt must function properly in conjunction with the unloading device and segmented locks that form the bottom of the chamber.

  20. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  1. 80. special meeting on coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    There were 12 papers presented at the special meeting on coke. These have the following headings: relationship between coal properties and optical anisotropic textures of coke; development of optical texture of chemically modified low rank coal; relationship between fluid and swelling properties of Akabira coal; estimation of coal fluidity; present state and future of robotics; on the thermal stress during the carbonisation process of coals; development of estimation model for coke porosity distribution in the coke oven using X-ray CT; carbonization reaction of coke oven; relationship between qualities of coke and width of coke oven; development of carbonization model in coke ovens - estimation of growing clearance between heating wall and charge; development of automatic transparency analyzer for activated sludge process.

  2. Coke detection in furnaces tubes by radiographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, I.S. dos

    1987-01-01

    The coke detection technique by radiographic examinations allows to quantify the coke in furnace coils of Petroleum refineries and petrochemical industries. The paper describes how was determined the radiographic parameters, the wall apparent thickness calculation, the distance source-film, the position of the source and films, the chosen of films and the calculation of exposure time, aiming to obtain high producticity and good quality image. This technique is being used and improved for more than two years with good results. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Coke quality requirements in POSCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.; Yi, J.; Wang, H. [POSCO (Republic of Korea). Cokemaking Dept.

    2001-07-01

    The 26 overheads describes coke quality requirements in POSCO, Republic of Korea. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop new coal and to prompt technical development in order to produce high quality coke. To improve coke quality. Posco had applied DMAIC (define, measurement, analysis, improvement, control) technique which is part of Six-Sigma activity.

  4. Cooperation with COMECON members in coke chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medricky. Z

    1987-05-01

    Discusses activities of the coking industry division of the standing committee for iron metallurgy of the COMECON. The following cooperation fields are analyzed: raw material basis for coking industry, coal charge preparation and methods for reducing proportion of coking coal in a coal charge (heat treatments, formed coke processes, partial briquetting, pelletizing, increasing coking temperature, packing etc.), coking technology, coke quenching, screening, chemical processing of coal gas, environmental protection in the coking industry, environmental effects of coking, pitch coke production, methods for increasing labor productivity. Research programs coordinated by member countries are reviewed. Programs in which Czechoslovakia participates are discussed.

  5. Record coking coal settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, C.

    2005-02-01

    The US$100/tonne psychological barrier in coking coal prices has been well and truly smashed. The article examines developments in coal pricing. It includes quotes from many senior executives in the coal industry as collected at McCloskey's Australian Coal.04 conference held in Sydney, 18-19 November 2004. 2 photos.

  6. High coking value pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  7. A study of the performance of a reclamation soil cover placed over an oilsands coke deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, D.S.; Barbour, S.L. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Qualizza, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Coke is a solid, carbonaceous residue that forms during the cracking of high-boiling point distillates and is one of the by-products of petroleum extraction from oilsands. Coke is known as a possible future energy source and therefore, must be stored within the reclaimed landscape in a form that allows it to be recovered. In addition, it also could be used as a low-density capping material over soft tailings. This paper presented the results of a study that examined the effects of coke in the environment. The study involved construction of two small instrumented watersheds at Syncrude Canada's Mildred Lake Settling Basin. Preliminary field data, highlighting the moisture dynamics within the covers and the underlying coke were discussed. Sand tailings underlie the hydraulically placed coke deposit. Overlying the coke were two different reclamation soil covers constructed of a peat/mineral mix over glacial or glacial lacustrine soils. Placing the finer textured soil cover over coarser grained coke produced a textural or capillary break which enhanced moisture storage for plant use while minimizing deep percolation of infiltrating water. The site has been instrumented with a meteorological station; automated soil stations to monitor suction, water content and temperature through the cover profile; lysimeters to collect net percolation; access tubes for water content monitoring; gas sampling points at depth in the coke; and standpipe piezometers to monitor water chemistry and total head in the coke at depth. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  8. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos' kova; N.I. Shkol' naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  9. Programmed heating of coke ovens for increased coke size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, D.R.; Mahoney, M.R. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Large, uniform sized coke is desirable for blast furnace use. It has previously been shown that the coke oven flue temperature in the first few hours of coking is a key determinant of coke size. In this paper, the authors present a new programmed heating approach, which is called pulsed heating, aiming to increase coke mean size at a given average flue temperature. The approach takes into account the charging sequence in coke oven batteries and the authors demonstrate how existing operating practice can be modified in batteries with suitable heating systems to achieve the desired heating programme. A mathematical model of fissure formation provides a prediction of the increase in coke mean size using pulsed heating, compared with standard heating. Pilot scale experiments have also been performed to validate the modelling approach. The results of the modelling indicate that the mean coke size can be increased by several millimetres in some cases, although results from the pilot scale show that pulsed heating increases coke size, but by a smaller amount than that predicted by the model. The potential advantages and limitations of pulsed heating are discussed, as well as opportunities for further investigation of the approach.

  10. Materials for making coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, L

    1936-08-19

    In the preparation of carbonized fuel briquettes, material such as bituminous, lignitic, or anthracitic coal, slack, waste or shale is treated with an electropositive solution such as hydrochloric acid or an acidic chloride to bring ash-forming constituents into colloidal form. The mixture is pressed with a colloid precipitating electro-negative solution such as sodium hydroxide, and moulded, the product being heated in the absence of air and coked. In an example bituminous coal is ground and then masticated with dilute hydrochloric acid. Some dilute manganese chloride is added followed by a solution of sodium hydroxide which precipitates the metals and silica as colloidal gels while the mixture is thoroughly agitated. The plastic mass is briquetted and dried at about 125/sup 0/C and then coked in vertical ovens at 700/sup 0/C. Chlorides recovered with the distillate gases may be utilized as solvent instead of hydrochloric acid. If the coal contains a large amount of sulfur acidified manganese chloride including a large proportion of iron is used as colloid forming material, the oxides of manganese and iron subsequently precipitated forming stable compounds with the non-volatile sulfur on coking or combustion.

  11. World coking coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed conditions in world coking coal markets. There is increased demand from Asia for metallurgical coal imports. World iron production was up 22 percent in first 7 months of 2010. Supply is up in Australia, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Russia, and Mongolia, but the unexpected surge in supply caused prices to drop following a robust start to the year. Coking coal exports are up for the United States and Australia, but a delay in expanded production is expected until 2014. There is increased demand from Brazil, India, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan as well as new plants in Thailand, Indonesia, and Brazil. Unexpectedly, Australia is backing out of the Chinese market but increasing exports to Japan and South Korea. India is seeing flat performance in iron production and imports, and the United States has surged back into Asia. A considerable increase is expected in the seaborne import requirement by 2020. Prices are expected to fall and then rise. This presentation also discussed whether coking coal index pricing is impossible or inevitable. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. Fatigue life estimation on coke drum due to cycle optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, Andrey Stephan; Ambarita, Himsar; Kawai, Hideki; Daimaruya, Masashi

    2018-04-01

    In the last decade, due to the increasing demand of petroleum product, the necessity for converting the heavy oil are increasing. Thus, demand for installing coke drum in whole world will be increase. The coke drum undergoes the cyclic high temperature and suddenly cooling but in fact is not designed to withstand that kind of cycle, thus the operational life of coke drum is much shorter in comparison to other equipment in oil refinery. Various factors determine in order to improve reliability and minimize the down time, and it is found that the cycle optimization due to cycle, temperature, and pressure have an important role. From this research it is found that the fatigue life of the short cycle is decrease by a half compare to the normal cycle. It also found that in the preheating stage, the stress peak is far exceed the yield strength of coke drum material and fall into plastic deformation. This is happened because of the temperature leap in the preheating stage that cause thermal shock in the upper part of the skirt of the coke drum.

  13. Production of rubbly culm coke from lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigs, H B [Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke A.G., Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Kohleverarbeitung; Kurtz, R [Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke A.G., Frechen (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Verkokung und Chemie

    1977-08-01

    The article deals with the coke supply of the iron and steel industry, the design, function, and special features of the open-hearth, and describes the coking properties and applications of the culm coke produced from lignite.

  14. Production of fine coke from brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigs, H B

    1977-08-01

    The coke supply of the iron and steel industry, the design, function, and special features of the open-hearth are described, including coking properties and applications of the culm coke produced from brown coal. (In German)

  15. Using GIS in ecological management: green assessment of the impacts of petroleum activities in the state of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merem, Edmund; Robinson, Bennetta; Wesley, Joan M; Yerramilli, Sudha; Twumasi, Yaw A

    2010-05-01

    Geo-information technologies are valuable tools for ecological assessment in stressed environments. Visualizing natural features prone to disasters from the oil sector spatially not only helps in focusing the scope of environmental management with records of changes in affected areas, but it also furnishes information on the pace at which resource extraction affects nature. Notwithstanding the recourse to ecosystem protection, geo-spatial analysis of the impacts remains sketchy. This paper uses GIS and descriptive statistics to assess the ecological impacts of petroleum extraction activities in Texas. While the focus ranges from issues to mitigation strategies, the results point to growth in indicators of ecosystem decline.

  16. PROSPECTS FOR COKE BREEZE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Mihnovets

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches give grounds to believe in the possibility of receiving briquettes from coke waste mixed with peat dry coal and their use for smelting iron in the cupola or as a household fuel.

  17. Differences in the irradiation effects of IG-110 and IG-430 nuclear graphites : effects of coke difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Se Hwan; Kim, Gen Chan; Kim, Eung Seon; Hong, Jin Ki; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2005-01-01

    In the high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), graphite acts as a moderator and reflector as well as a major structural component that may provide channels for the fuel and coolant gas, channels for control and shut down, and thermal and neutron shielding. During a reactor operation, many of the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of these graphite components are significantly modified as a function of the temperature, environment, and an irradiation. On the other hand, currently, all the nuclear graphites are being manufactured from two types of cokes, i.e., petroleum and coal-tar pitch coke, and it has been understood that the type of coke plays the most critical role determining the properties of a specific graphite grade. To investigate the effects of coke types on the irradiation response of a graphite, two graphites of different cokes were irradiated by 3 MeV C+ ions and the differences in the response of ion-irradiation were investigated

  18. Studies in Petroleum Composition the Distribution of Nitrogen Species, Metals and Coke Precursors During High Vacuum Distillation of Petroleum Étude de composition du pétrole Répartition des espèces azotées, des métaux et des précurseurs du coke pendant la distillation sous vide poussé du pétrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long R. B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Application of separation techniques to residua and other heavy feedstocks raises the issue of the most appropriate distillation cut-point for the maximum yield of useful (gas-oil type liquids. This publication addresses this specific issue and describes the influence of deepdistillation (to 1289°F+ on the composition and quality of the volatiles/nonvolatiles from a 950°F+ residuum. The techniques employed to estimate the composition/quality of the 950-1289°F and 1289°F+ fractions are deasphalting and clay-adsorption separation of each whole fraction. The data show that further distillation of the 950°F+ residuum can recover essentially all of the saturate content of the feed in the overhead product at 1289°F atmos. equiv. cut point. However, appreciable amounts of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing polar compounds are also taken overhead leading to a carbon residue value for the distillate of 8. 2 wt%. The metals and the coke precursors in the distillate lie mainly in the polar fraction along with the nitrogen compounds. However, at these high molecular weights the distillate also shows coke precursors in the saturate fraction and more extensively in the aromatic fraction. Distillation is an impurity (carbon precursors, heteroatoms, metals concentrating process. As the cut-point increases, the impurity content of the distillate increases but to a lesser extent than that of the corresponding residuum. L'application des techniques de séparation aux résidus et autres matières lourdes conduit à s'interroger sur le point de coupe de distillation adéquat qui va permettre d'obtenir le rendement maximum en liquides utiles (type gazole. Il faut reconnaître que la distillation est un processus de concentration des impuretés (produits de tête, hétéroatomes, métaux. Lorsque le point de coupe s'élève, le contenu en impuretés du distillat augmente, mais il augmente moins que celui du résidu correspondant. La présente publication

  19. Developing new technology of coal coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkin, L.I.; Nefedov, P.Ya.

    1981-03-01

    This paper characterizes types of coke (grain size, compression strength, abrasion, porosity) used by: blast furnaces, shaft furnaces, ferroalloys and phosphorus production, and ore agglomeration. Development of formed metallurgical coke production on the basis of technologies worked out by the Eastern Research Scientific Institute for Coal Chemistry is analyzed. The following phases in the investigations are stressed: optimization of coal blends (increasing proportion of coals with poor caking properties, pressing briquets, carbonization, temperature distribution and temperature control, using heat emitted by hot coke for coal preheating (heat consumption of coking is reduced to 200 kcal/kg). On the basis of technology developed and tested by VUKhIN formed coke consisting of 60% G6 coal and 40% 2SS coal has been produced. Using the coke in blast furnaces increases furnace capacity by 5% and reduces coke consumption in a furnace by 2.6%. It is suggested that wide use of the proposed technology of formed metallurgical coke production in the Kuzbass (using coals with poor caking properties from surface mines) would increase coke production of the region to 50 Mt for a year. technology of producing formed foundry coke from: 80 to 86% anthracites, semianthracites and coals with poor caking properties, 5 to 10% coking coal, and 8% binder is evaluated. Formed foundry coke produced from the blend reduces coke consumption in a foundry by 25 to 30% and increases cast iron temperature by 20 to 50/sup 0/C. Technologies of producing coke for phosphorus industry by continuous coking of coals difficult to coke in vertical coke ovens and production of coke for ore agglomeration are also discussed. (In Russian)

  20. The mechanism of coking pressure generation I: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and plastic coal layer permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiji Nomura; Merrick Mahoney; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; Sid McGuire [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment and Process Technology Center

    2010-07-15

    One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and restrain the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure tends to lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanism of coking pressure generation, the permeability of the plastic coal layer and the coking pressure for the same single coal and the same blended coal were measured and the relationship between them was investigated. Then the 'inert' (pressure modifier) effect of organic additives such as high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze was studied. The coking pressure peak for box charging with more uniform bulk density distribution was higher than that for top charging. It was found that the coking pressure peaks measured at different institutions (NSC and BHPBilliton) by box charging are nearly the same. The addition of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze to a low volatile matter, high coking pressure coal greatly increased the plastic layer permeability in laboratory experiments and correspondingly decreased the coking pressure. It was found that, high volatile matter coking coal decreases the coking pressure more than semi-anthracite at the same plastic coal layer permeability, which indicates that the coking pressure depends not only on plastic coal layer permeability but also on other factors. Coking pressure is also affected by the contraction behavior of the coke layer near the oven walls and a large contraction decreases the coal bulk density in the oven center and hence the internal gas pressure in the plastic layer. The effect of contraction on coking pressure needs to be investigated further. 33 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Behavior of coke in large blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N

    1978-01-01

    Three blast furnaces were quenched in operation and the contents were examined; the temperature distribution was also measured, using Tempil pellets. The furnaces examined included a low productivity one, which was examined to see what was wrong. Changes in the quality of coke as it descends in the furnace, and coke behavior in the raceway and hearth are reported. The functions required of coke, and the effects of poor coke quality, are explained, together with the coke quality required in large blast furnaces. A theoretical study of the role of coke in large blast furnaces is included.

  2. Relationship between coal and coke microstructure and the high temperature properties of coke. [Temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuyuguchi, K; Yamaji, M; Sugimoto, Y

    1980-02-01

    This paper considers the relationship of the properties of coke and parent coal with the high temperature properties, including reactivity, of coke. Aspects considered include coke texture and grade, and the optical reflectivity of coal and coke. (8 refs.) (In Japanese)

  3. The mechanism of coking pressure generation II: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and contraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrick Mahoney; Seiji Nomura; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; David R. Jenkins; Sid McGuire [BHP Billiton Technology, Shortland, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and limit the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure can lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Following on from a previous paper on plastic layer permeability we have studied the effect of contraction of semi-coke on coking pressure and the effect of organic additives on contraction. A link between contraction (or simulated contraction) outside the plastic layer and coking pressure was demonstrated. The interaction between this contraction, local bulk density around the plastic layer and the dependence of the permeability of the plastic layer on bulk density was discussed as possible mechanisms for the generation of coking pressure. The effect of blending either a high volatile matter coal or one of two semi-anthracites with low volatile matter, high coking pressure coals on the coking pressure of the binary blends has been explained using this mechanism. 25 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. A XANES Study of Sulfur Speciation and Reactivity in Cokes for Anodes Used in Aluminum Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrsengene, Gøril; Wells, Hannah C.; Rørvik, Stein; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Haverkamp, Richard G.; Svensson, Ann Mari

    2018-06-01

    Availability of anode raw materials in the growing aluminum industry results in a wider range of petroleum cokes being used to produce carbon anodes. The boundary between anode grade cokes and what previously was considered non-anode grades are no longer as distinct as before, leading to introduction of cokes with higher sulfur and higher trace metal impurity content in anode manufacturing. In this work, the chemical nature of sulfur in five industrial cokes, ranging from 1.42 to 5.54 wt pct S, was investigated with K-edge XANES, while the reactivity of the cokes towards CO2 was measured by a standard mass loss test. XANES identified most of the sulfur as organic sulfur compounds. In addition, a significant amount is identified (16 to 53 pct) as S-S bound sulfur. A strong inverse correlation is observed between CO2-reactivity and S-S bound sulfur in the cokes, indicating that the reduction in reactivity is more dependent on the amount of this type of sulfur compound rather than the total amount of sulfur or the amount of organic sulfur.

  5. Trends in the automation of coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

  6. The effect of calcination conditions on the graphitizability of novel synthetic and coal-derived cokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Barbara Ellen

    The effects of calcination heating rate and ultimate calcination temperature upon calcined coke and subsequent graphitic material microstructures were studied for materials prepared from three different precursors. The pitch precursors used were Mitsubishi AR pitch (a synthetic, 100% mesophase pitch), the NMP-extracted portion of a raw coal, and the NMP-extracted fraction of a coal liquefaction residue obtained from an HTI pilot plant. These materials were all green-coked under identical conditions. Optical microscopy confirmed that the Mitsubishi coke was very anisotropic and the HTI coke was nearly as anisotropic. The coke produced from the direct coal extract was very isotropic. Crystalline development during calcination heating was verified by high-temperature x-ray diffraction. Experiments were performed to ascertain the effects of varying calcination heating rate and ultimate temperature. It was determined that calcined coke crystallite size increased with increasing temperature for all three materials but was found to be independent of heating rate. The graphene interplanar spacing decreased with increasing temperature for the isotropic NMP-extract material but increased with increasing temperature for the anisotropic materials---Mitsubishi and HTI cokes. Graphene interplanar spacing was also found to be independent of heating rate. Calcined coke real densities were, likewise, found to be independent of heating rate. The anisotropic cokes (Mitsubishi and HTI) exhibited increasing real density with increasing calcination temperature. The NMP-extract coke increased in density up to 1050°C and then suffered a dramatic reduction in real density when heated to 1250°C. This is indicative of puffing. Since there was no corresponding disruption in the crystalline structure, the puffing phenomena was determined to be intercrystalline rather than intracrystalline. After the calcined cokes were graphitized (under identical conditions), the microstructures were re

  7. Coke from partially briquetted preheated coal mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitskii, A.N.; Sklyar, M.G.; Toryanik, Eh.I.; Bronshtein, A.P.

    1988-07-01

    Analyzes effects of partial coal charge briquetting on coking and on quality of coke for metallurgy. Effects of mixing hot coal briquets on temperature and moisture of coal were investigated on an experimental scale in a coking plant. Coal with a moisture content of 12% was used. Coking mixture consisted of 30% briquets and 70% crushed coal. Fifteen minutes after briquet mixing with coal, the mean coal charge temperature increased to 100-105 C and moisture content was lower than 2-5%. Results of laboratory investigations were verified by tests on a commercial scale. Experiments showed briquetting of weakly caking or non-caking coal charge components to be an efficient way of preventing coke quality decline. Adding 15-20% briquets consisting of weakly caking coal did not influence coke quality. Mixing hot coal briquets reduced moisture content in crushed coal, increased its temperature and reduced coking time.

  8. Crude petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Crude petroleum statistics by country of production, export values and import values from 1983 to 1988 are given. Table A.1 of the Annex includes free market prices and price indices for crude petroleum based on average of Dubai, United Kingdom Brent and Alaska N Slope crude prices (price expressed in dollars/barrel). The data sources are: Crude petroleum United Nations Statistical Office; OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin, and Petroleum Economist. For trade the sources of data are: National trade statistics; United Nations international trade statistics; International Moneytary Fund (IMF); Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC); UNCTAD secretariat estimates. Tabs

  9. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  10. Fissure formation in coke. 2: Effect of heating rate, shrinkage and coke strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; M.R. Mahoney [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Mathematical and Information Sciences

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the effects of the heating rate, coke shrinkage and coke breakage strength upon the fissure pattern developed in a coke oven charge during carbonisation. This is done principally using a mechanistic model of the formation of fissures, which considers them to be an array of equally spaced fissures, whose depth follows a 'period doubling' pattern based upon the time history of the fissures. The model results are compared with pilot scale coke oven experiments. The results show that the effect of heating rate on the fissure pattern is different to the effect of coke shrinkage, while the effect of coke breakage strength on the pattern is less pronounced. The results can be seen in both the shape and size of resulting coke lumps after stabilisation. The approach gives the opportunity to consider means of controlling the carbonisation process in order to tune the size of the coke lumps produced. 7 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. The world coke market. Problems and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Outlooks to the world coke market are considered with regard to supply and demand as well as the current state of capacities for its production in some countries of Asia, Western and Eastern Europe, USA. In experts opinion increase of coke import from China, increase in service life of currently operating coke furnaces, as well as more extensive use of PCI coal mixture are among the most feasible opportunities for its Western consumers [ru

  12. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  13. Production of blast furnace coke from soft brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, G.; Wundes, H.; Schkommodau, F.; Zinke, H.-G. (VEB Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    Reviews experimental production and utilization of high quality brown coal coke in the GDR during 1985 and 1986. The technology of briquetting and coking brown coal dust is described; the superior parameters of produced coke quality are listed in comparison to those of regular industrial coke made from brown and black coal. Dust emission from high quality brown coal coke was suppressed by coke surface treatment with dispersion foam. About 4,200 t of this coke were employed in black coal coke substitution tests in a blast furnace. Substitution rate was 11%, blast furnace operation was positive, a substitution factor of 0.7 t black coal coke per 1 t of brown coal coke was calculated. Technology development of high quality brown coal coke production is regarded as complete; blast furnace coke utilization, however, requires further study. 8 refs.

  14. Coal and coke applied to metallurgy. Vol. 2. Carvao e coque aplicados a metalurgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, H.

    1983-01-01

    Papers include: coking; control of pollution from coking plants; handling and storage of coal; preparation of coal for coking; politics of the supply of coal; coke for blast furnaces; selective preparation and briquetting of coal for coking; cooling and drying of coke; preheating of coal for coking; formed coke.

  15. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  16. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    The 'AFTP' conference on 'petroleum prices' organized by Total last March, tries to explain the different aspects of the crisis we undergo for July 2007 and its consequential effects on the petroleum markets (supply, demand evolvements, impacts on reserves, prices, refining...). (O.M.)

  17. Production of conductive coke for cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogollon, E.G.; Henao, L.E.; Pacheco, L.A.; Ortiz, J.L.; Diaz, J.J. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Departamento de Quimica

    1999-07-01

    The reduction of resistivity of coke by means of the cocarbonization of mixtures of coking coals was studied using coal tar as an additive. Optimum temperature and blending conditions for decreased resistivity were investigated. The effect of particle size on the dependency of coal rank was investigated. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  19. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  20. Coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, D; Simpson, A

    1917-03-08

    Oil is obtained from bituminous shales and the like by downward distillation at such restricted temperature that the volatile products only are obtained without liberation of the so-called fixed carbon, the distilled vapors being treated in a de-sulfurizing reaction chamber subsequent to being condensed into oil.

  1. Genesis of natural cokes: Some Indian examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok K.; Sharma, Mamta [Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad, PIN-828108 (India); Singh, Mahendra P. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, PIN-221005 (India)

    2008-06-13

    In Indian coalfields huge amounts of natural coke have been produced due to magmatic intrusions. Jharia Coalfield in eastern part of India alone contains approximately 2000 Mt of baked coking coal as a consequence of these intrusions in the form of discordant and concordant bodies. This paper is an effort to investigate the effect of carbonization in two intrusion affected coal seams of Ena (seam XIII) and Alkusa (seam XIV) collieries of Jharia Coalfield. Natural coke is derived from coking coal under in-situ conditions due to intense magmatic induced heat and overburden pressure. Natural coke is characterized by the presence of low volatile matter and high ash contents and organic constituents showing isotropy and anisotropy. Through physical, petrographic and chemical properties of natural coke or 'jhama' as determined by various methods it has been established that the reactives in the unaltered coals (vitrinite, liptinite, pseudovitrinite, reactive semifusinite, etc.) are < 25.0 vol.%, moisture < 2.5%, volatile matter < 15.0% and hydrogen < 4.0%. The temperatures attained in the coal seams have been deciphered using some standard models, which indicate that a temperature {proportional_to} 1000 C was attained. This produced huge amount of anisotropic and deposited carbons. An attempt has been made to understand the factors that influence the genesis of natural coke and heat altered maceral products in coals in Indian coalfields. (author)

  2. The influence of microporosity on resistance and carboxyreactivity of cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medek, J.; Weishauptova, Z. [Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics

    1997-12-31

    Large sample collection of metallurgical cokes from Ostrava-Karvina coking plants, were used for correlation of the resistivity of the coke matter (carbon solid phase plus micropores) and carboxyreactivity of cokes with the value of microporosity. It results, from this correlation, that the characteristic values of the two mentioned quantities appartain to the solid phase of all metallurgical cokes studied, while the individual values of these quantities are caused by the different microporosity of the coke matter. The microporosity as a structure characteristic is a consequence of the discontinuity of the coke solid phase and can be quantitatively expressed as the degree of solid phase dispersion. (orig.)

  3. Experimental and numerical investigations of coke descending behavior in a coke dry quenching cooling shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yanhui; Zhang Xinxin; Yu Quan; Shi Zhongyin; Liu Zhicheng; Zhang Hu; Liu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    A viscous flow model based on the Navier-Stokes equation is developed to describe coke descending behavior in the 1/7-scaled-down experimental setup of an actual 75 t/h cooling shaft. It is found that the internal friction due to cokes viscosity significantly influences the descending behavior of cokes in the lower part of the shaft, while the external wall friction dominates the sluggish flow of the cokes in the shaft. An asymptotic friction coefficient expression is proposed for granular mixtures flowing along the shaft wall modified from normal wall tress, and the concept of bulk solid viscosity is introduced to describe the internal friction between coke particles. The results simulated by the present model are compared with those by the potential flow and the kinematic model without friction. The viscous flow model is quite good to simulate the bulk coke flow as the physically important frictions are engaged

  4. The coke drum thermal kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldescu, Maria M.; Romero, Sim; Larson, Mel [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The coke drum thermal kinetic dynamics fundamentally affect the coker unit yields as well as the coke product properties and unit reliability. In the drum the thermal cracking and polymerization or condensation reactions take place in a semi-batch environment. Understanding the fundamentals of the foaming kinetics that occur in the coke drums is key to avoiding a foam-over that could result in a unit shutdown for several months. Although the most dynamic changes with time occur during drum filling, other dynamics of the coker process will be discussed as well. KBC has contributed towards uncovering and modelling the complexities of heavy oil thermal dynamics. (author)

  5. Cancer mortality among coke oven workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Redmond, C K

    1983-01-01

    The OSHA standard for coke oven emissions, which went into effect in January 1977, sets a permissible exposure limit to coke oven emissions of 150 micrograms/m3 benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter (BSFTPM). Review of the epidemiologic evidence for the standard indicates an excess relative risk for lung cancer as high as 16-fold in topside coke oven workers with 15 years of exposure or more. There is also evidence for a consistent dose-response relationship in lung cancer mort...

  6. Scientific and technical problems in the production of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glushchenko, I M

    1979-05-01

    This paper lists several scientific and technological problems facing the producers of coke in the future. The demand for coke on the world market is steadily increasing despite the efforts of metallurgists to find non-coke methods of ore smelting. The major problems are held to be the gap between very successful results of research and the lack of their application to industry, unsatisfactory coke oven construction, problems in quenching and imperfections in the formed coke process. (In Russian)

  7. Operation car for horizontal coke ovens. Bedienungswagen fuer waagrechte Verkokungsoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwasnik, H J; Piduch, H G

    1981-07-30

    An operation car which is driveable on the coke side of a coke oven battery is described. The operation car is equipped with a door lifter, a door and frame cleaner, a coke guiding grid and a collection hood for emissions developed on coke pushing. The car has a portal construction and it is driveable on both sides of the path of the coke receiving car. The operation has a considerable lower weight than usual cars. (HGOE).

  8. New and revised standards for coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.A. Kotsyuba; M.I. Alpatov; Y.G. Shapoval [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    The need for new and revised standards for coke production in Ukraine and Russia is outlined. Such standards should address improvements in plant operation, working conditions, environmental protection, energy conservation, fire and explosion safety, and economic indices.

  9. Using helical compressors for coke gas condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalov, V E; Rezunenko, Yu I; Lelyanov, N V; Zarnitzkii, G Eh; Gordienko, A A; Derebenko, I F; Venzhega, A G; Leonov, N P; Gorokhov, N N

    1982-08-01

    Coke oven gas compression is discussed. Presently used multilevel piston compressors are criticized. The paper recommends using helical machines which combine advantages of using volume condensing compressors and compact high-efficiency centrifugal machines. Two kinds of helical compressors are evaluated: dry and oil-filled; their productivities and coke oven gas chemical composition are analyzed. Experiments using helical compressors were undertaken at the Yasinovskii plant. Flowsheet of the installation is shown. Performance results are given in a table. For all operating conditions content of insolubles in oil compounds is found to be lower than the acceptable value (0.08%). Compressor productivity measurements with variable manifold pressure are evaluated. Figures obtained show that efficient condensation of raw coke oven gas is possible. Increasing oil-filled compressor productivity is recommended by decreasing amount of oil injected and simultaneously increasing rotation speed. The dry helical compressor with water seal is found to be most promising for raw coke oven gas condensation. (10 refs.)

  10. Gasification of oil sand coke: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-08-01

    The production of synthetic crude from the tar sands in Western Canada has been steadily increasing. Most of the delayed coke produced by Suncor is combusted on site, whereas all fluid coke produced by Syncrude is stockpiled.The database on the chemical and physical properties of the oil sand coke, including the composition and fusion properties of the mineral matter, has been established. The reactivity of the coke was determined by oxygen chemisorption, fixed bed and fluid bed bench scale gasification and pilot plant gasification. The reactivity of the oil sand coke for gasification is rather low and comparable to high rank coals, such as anthracite. Slurrability tests revealed that a solid concentration in water, approaching 70 wt%, can be achieved. Gasification is the front runner among clean technologies for the conversion of carbonaceous solids to useful products. Several commercial gasifiers are available to cover the wide range of severity. Because of the low reactivity of oil sands coke, high severity conditions are required to achieve high gasification conversion. Such conditions can be attained in entrained bed gasifiers. Gasifiers employing both dry and slurry feeding systems are suitable. A high efficiency, low SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions, as well as a low solid waste production are among the key advantages of the gasification technology compared with thecompeting technologies. Commercial gasification of oil sands coke is delayed because of the availability of natural gas on the site of the upgrading plants. Potential for the transportation of the oil sand coke to USA for electricity generation using the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology was evaluated. 27 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Advanced coking process control at Rautaruukki Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritamaki, O.; Luhtaniemi, H. [Rautaruukki Engineering (Finland)

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the latest development of the Coking Process Management System (CPMS) at Raahe Steel. The latest third generation system is based on the previous system with the addition of fuzzy logic controllers. (The previous second generation system was based simultaneous feed forward and feedback control.) The system development has resulted in balanced coke oven battery heating, decreased variation in process regulation between shifts and increase of process information for operators. The economic results are very satisfactory. 7 figs.

  12. Polish scenery of coking industry activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, H.

    1994-01-01

    The cooking industry in Poland and the world depends on conditions of iron and steel industry. Nowadays it is observed depression of this industry. On the other hand it is occurred a strong public pressure to reduce pollution by coking works. It is known that modernizing enterprises need a great deal of funds, but they are necessary, in order to keep coking industry on market. (author). 2 tabs

  13. Method of determining coking temperature of coke. [Experimental method of determining final coking temperature using a small sample and calibration graph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel' nichuk, A.Yu.; Bondarenko, A.K.; Fialkov, B.S.; Khegay, L.U.; Khvan, L.A.; Muzyzhuk, V.D.; Zakharov, A.G.; Zelenskiy, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    The coking temperature of coke should be determined from the magnitude of the ionization current of the medium during heating (3/sup 0//min) of a coke sample (2 g, fraction < 0.2 mm) in an oxidation medium with air supply (1 1/min). The coking temperature is determined from the maximum magnitude of current using a graduated graph constructed during analysis of coke samples obtained with different final coking temperatures. The discrepancy between the established coking temperature and that defined from the proposed method is 8-19/sup 0/, and that defined from electrical resistance of coke is 26-43/sup 0/. In addition to high accuracy, this method reduces the time outlays for making the analysis.

  14. Special analyses reveal coke-deposit structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX) have been used to obtain information that clarifies the three mechanisms of coke formation in ethylene furnaces, and to analyze the metal condition at the exit of furnace. The results can be used to examine furnace operations and develop improved ethylene plant practices. In this first of four articles on the analyses of coke and metal samples, the coking mechanisms and coke deposits in a section of tube from an actual ethylene furnace (Furnace A) from a plant on the Texas Gulf Coast are discussed. The second articles in the series will analyze the condition of the tube metal in the same furnace. To show how coke deposition and metal condition dependent on the operating parameters of an ethylene furnace, the third article in the series will show the coke deposition in a Texas Gulf Coast furnace tube (Furnace B) that operated at shorter residence time. The fourth article discusses the metal condition in that furnace. Some recommendations, based on the analyses and findings, are offered in the fourth article that could help extend the life of ethylene furnace tubes, and also improve overall ethylene plant operations

  15. Hydrotreating catalyst deactivation by coke from SRC-II oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kumata, F.; Massoth, F.E.

    1988-10-01

    Samples of a CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst were partially deactivated with SRC-II feed in an autoclave reactor to give coked samples of 5 to 18% C. The coked catalysts were analyzed for surface area, pore volume, coronene adsorption and diffusivity, and their catalytic activity determined for hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and C-N hydrogenolysis (CNH) using model compounds. All of the above measurements decreased with increase in coke content. Property data indicate that some pores are blocked by coke and diffusivity results show narrowing of pore mouths with increasing coke content. Catalyst deactivation versus coke level was identical for HDS and HDO, but less for CNH. A simple model of coke deactivation was developed to relate activity to coke content. Coke is envisioned as forming wedge-like deposits in the catalyst pores. 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  18. Results of tuyere coke sampling with regard to application of appropriate coke strength after reaction (CSR for a blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiau J-S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising pulverized coal injection (PCI will decrease coke rate, but increase the residence time of coke and abrasion in the blast furnace (BF. Thus, insufficient coke strength will generate more coke fines in the lower BF and result in lower permeability and production of hot metal (HM. For understanding the behavior of coke at various HM productivities, a tuyere coke sampler was used to collect the coke samples for measuring the coke strength. Firstly, the difference of sampled coke under the conditions of various HM productivities was explored. Secondly, the BF operating conditions and causes of generating more coke fines was correlated by testing the coke reaction rate after reaction. Finally, according to the above analysis results, the relative regression equations had been obtained for sampling coke properties, BF operation conditions and BF permeability. Furthermore, the coke strength after reaction (CSR quantitative target and its online system at various blast conditions were set to provide some reference for coke and HM production.

  19. Increasing efficiency of reconstruction and technological development of coking enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenfel' d, M.S.; Martynenko, V.M.; Tytyuk, Yu.A.; Ivanov, V.V.; Svyatogorov, A.A.; Kolomiets, A.F. (NIISP, Voroshilovgrad (USSR))

    1989-07-01

    Discusses problems associated with reconstruction of coking plants in the USSR. Planning coking plant reconstruction is analyzed. Duration of individual stages of plant reconstruction is considered. A method developed by the Giprokoks research institute for calculating reconstruction time considering duration of individual stages of coke oven battery repair is analyzed: construction of storage facilities, transport of materials and equipment, safety requirements, coke oven cooling, dismantling, construction of coke oven walls, installation of machines and equipment. Advantages of using the methods for analysis of coke oven battery reconstruction and optimization of repair time are discussed.

  20. Ways of improving preparatory stage and reconstruction of coking plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenfel' d, M.S.; Martynenko, V.M.; Svyatogorov, A.A.; Kvitkin, I.A.; Zhurba, A.I.; Gurtovnik, P.F.

    1987-06-01

    Discusses economic and technological aspects of coking plant reconstruction and modernization in the USSR. Effects of standardized technologies on plant reconstruction are analyzed. A standardized planning procedure jointly developed by research institutes in the USSR for plant modernization or reconstruction is discussed: selecting the optimum reconstruction and repair time, sequence of operations without stoppage of a coke oven battery, coke oven cooling, repair of coke oven liners, heating systems, coke oven equipment, drying, initial heating, testing battery equipment. The procedure is aimed at reducing coke losses and eliminating delays during reconstruction operations. A graphic method for modelling plant reconstruction is discussed.

  1. Coking coal consumption of POSCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, B.C.

    1991-01-01

    Pohang Iron and Steel Company Limited (POSCO) was established in 1968. Molten iron was first produced in July 1973 after a 3 year construction period. The long awaited start up of Korea's first integrated steel works provided the momentum for the fast growth of our steel industry. In 1973, the first year of operation, POSCO purchased 770,000 tons of coal from the United States and Australia. The import tonnage was more than doubled in 1976 when we completed the second stage of Pohang Works and has continued to increase reaching 13.1 million tons last year. POSCO's coal consumption will increase one more time next year as the fourth stage of Kwangyang works starts to operate a new blast furnace with an annual molten iron production capacity of 2.8 million tons. Even though the new blast furnace will have the same capacity as the other 3 in Kwangyang, the additional coking coal requirement will be much smaller than the tonnages we needed for the other stages of the works. This paper reports that this is due to the increased use of pulverized coal

  2. 77 FR 15123 - Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... submitted by ABC Coke, Erie Coke, Tonawanda Coke Corporation, and Walter Coke Co. to be individually... Analyst... Cynthia Foreso (205-3348). Attorney Charles St. Charles (205-2782). Supervisory Investigator...

  3. Coke fouling monitoring by electrical resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Mari, Livia Assis; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jose [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial (CPGEI)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental method to simulate the growth of the coke fouling that occurs in the oil processing is proposed relating the thickness of the encrusted coke to its electrical resistivity. The authors suggest the use of the fouling electrical resistivity as a transducer element for determining its thickness. The sensor is basically two electrodes in an electrically isolated device where the inlay can happen in order to compose a purely resistive transducer. Such devices can be easily constructed in a simple and robust form with features capable to face the high temperatures and pressures found in relevant industrial processes. For validation, however, it is needed a relationship between the electrical resistivity and the fouling thickness, information not yet found in the literature. The present work experimentally simulates the growth of a layer of coke on an electrically insulating surface, equipped with electrodes at two extremities to measure the electrical resistivity during thermal cracking essays. The method is realized with a series of consecutive runs. The results correlate the mass of coke deposited and its electrical resistivity, and it can be used to validate the coke depositions monitoring employing the resistivity as a control parameter. (author)

  4. Eight-term cyclic phosphites as coke deposit inhibitors and a method for producing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vershinin, P.V.; Chebotareva, E.G.; Kadyrova, V.Kh.; Kirpichnikov, P.A.; Pozdnev, V.V.; Vershinin, Yu.P.; Zharkova, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that a eight-term cyclic phosphite formula be used where R = methyl, R' = tertiary-butyl or alpha-methylcyclohexyl, R'' = tertiary-butyl, R''' = hydrogen, methyl, tertiary-butyle, bromine, X = methylene and sulfur as coke deposit inhibitors in the pyrolysis of petroleum raw materials. A method for producing the eight-term cyclic phosphite formula is proposed where a cyclic chlorophosphite formula interacts with a phenol formula in a medium of polar aprotic solvent using a base at 80-100 degrees.

  5. Petroleum apocalypse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochet, Y.

    2005-09-01

    Oil prices are increasing while current explanations for this phenomenon are no longer satisfactory. The cheap petroleum era is ending and this problem can seriously convulse our lifestyles. Transports, agriculture, plastics, clothes, medicines: petroleum is everywhere. This is why the rise of hydrocarbons price will not be a simple economic shock but the end of the world like the one we know. However, it is still possible to postpone this event to a later date and to limit its effects by the implementation of a new oil sobriety era. This implies to already organize the decay of materials and energy consumption, together with keeping solidarity, democracy and peace up. In this condition only the transition will be less painful. (J.S.)

  6. Fissure formation in coke. 3: Coke size distribution and statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; D.E. Shaw; M.R. Mahoney [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Mathematical and Information Sciences

    2010-07-15

    A model of coke stabilization, based on a fundamental model of fissuring during carbonisation is used to demonstrate the applicability of the fissuring model to actual coke size distributions. The results indicate that the degree of stabilization is important in determining the size distribution. A modified form of the Weibull distribution is shown to provide a better representation of the whole coke size distribution compared to the Rosin-Rammler distribution, which is generally only fitted to the lump coke. A statistical analysis of a large number of experiments in a pilot scale coke oven shows reasonably good prediction of the coke mean size, based on parameters related to blend rank, amount of low rank coal, fluidity and ash. However, the prediction of measures of the spread of the size distribution is more problematic. The fissuring model, the size distribution representation and the statistical analysis together provide a comprehensive capability for understanding and predicting the mean size and distribution of coke lumps produced during carbonisation. 12 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Closed-cycle process of coke-cooling water in delayed coking unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, P.; Bai, Z.S.; Yang, Q.; Ma, J.; Wang, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Synthesized processes are commonly used to treat coke-cooling wastewater. These include cold coke-cut water, diluting coke-cooling water, adding chemical deodorization into oily water, high-speed centrifugal separation, de-oiling and deodorization by coke adsorption, and open nature cooling. However, because of water and volatile evaporation loss, it is not suitable to process high-sulphur heavy oil using open treatments. This paper proposed a closed-cycling process in order to solve the wastewater treatment problem. The process is based on the characteristics of coke-cooling water, such as rapid parametric variation, oil-water-coke emulsification and steam-water mixing. The paper discussed the material characteristics and general idea of the study. The process of closed-cycle separation and utilization process of coke-cooling water was presented along with a process flow diagram. Several applications were presented, including a picture of hydrocyclones for pollution separation and a picture of equipments of pollution separation and components regeneration. The results showed good effect had been achieved since the coke-cooling water system was put into production in 2004. The recycling ratios for the components of the coke-cooling water were 100 per cent, and air quality in the operating area reached the requirements of the national operating site circumstance and the health standards. Calibration results of the demonstration unit were presented. It was concluded that since the devices went into operation, the function of production has been normal and stable. The operation was simple, flexible, adjustable and reliable, with significant economic efficiency and environmental benefits. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Mean-term forecast of coke production in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukhmylova, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    The causes of decrease in consumption of metallurgical coke in the world in the ninetieth and at the present time are analyzed. Reduction of reliable coke supply sources to the world market is noted. The data on the coke import and export in the world in 1990-1994 are presented and corresponding forecasts for 2000 and 2005 are given

  9. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

    2003-02-07

    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  10. Blast-furnace coke production in high capacity coke oven batteries from the viewpoint of domestic raw material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, W

    1977-05-01

    The problem is treated in a complex manner taking into account such technological improvements as: oiling, drying, charge preheating, dry quenching of coke as well as mechanical processing of coke which taken together will give blast furnace coke of the highest quality from domestic coals.

  11. Basic characteristics of new shape formed coke in burden distribution; Shingata seikei cokes no sonyu bunpu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichida, M; Yamamoto, T; Komaki, I; Oda, H; Matsunaga, S; Matsuzaki, S; Deno, T; Konno, N [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    Basic characteristics in burden distribution and charging pattern of new shape formed coke developed in order to improve the properties of small size and low void fraction that pillow-type formed coke h s were conducted by 1/3 scale charging model and mathematical model of blast furnace. Basic characteristics, those are, inclination angle, coke-collapse and trajectory of new shape formed coke are almost the same as those of conventional coke. In the case of wall charging of new shape formed coke, until 60% of total charged coke, new shape formed coke is able to be charged without it`s rolling to the center. It is possible to apply RABIT model to new shape formed coke charging without it`s major modification. In the case of new shape formed coke wall charging, the fluctuation in furnace is supposed to be smaller than that in the case of pillow-type formed coke wall charging. Moreover, it`s center charging is supposed to be applied to actual blast furnace. More accurate estimation of in-furnace phenomena by mathematical model considering coke reactivity, is a subject to be worked out in future. 11 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Emission and source characterization of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Q.S.; Wang, X.M.; Sheng, G.Y.; Fu, J.M. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry

    2005-09-15

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from indigenous and industrial coking processes are studied in Shanxi province. They are sampled on the top of coke ovens and in the chimneys using stainless steel canister and determined by GC/MSD after preconcentration with liquid nitrogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene are the main components among MAHs emitted from coking processes. Benzene and the total MAHs concentrations were as high as 3421.0 microg/m3 and 4 865.9 microg/m3 in the air from indigenous coking, 548.7 microg/m3 and 1 054.8 microg/m3 in the oventop air from industrial coking, and 1 376.4 microg/m3 and 1 819.4 microg/m3 in stack gas from industrial coking, respectively. The MAHs concentrations vary greatly during the indigenous coking process, which in the prophase (from firing to 10 days) is obviously higher than in the anaphase (10 days to quenching the coke). In industrial coking the MAHs in the oventop air are highest when charging the coal and next when transferring the hot coke, but in stack gas they are highest when charging coal and lowest when transferring the coke. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in industrial coking samples show good linearity, indicating that MAHs in industrial coking might come predominantly from coal pyrolysis; but BTEX distribute dispersedly in indigenous coking samples, indicating that its emission might be affected by many factors. In all samples BTEX ratios especially high B/E ratio, is unique among MAHs sources, and might be helpful to characterize pollution from coking.

  13. [Emission and source characterization of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from coke production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Xin-Ming; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2005-09-01

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from indigenous and industrial coking processes are studied in Shanxi province. They are sampled on the top of coke ovens and in the chimneys using stainless steel canister and determined by GC/MSD after preconcentration with liquid nitrogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene are the main components among MAHs emitted from coking processes. Benzene and the total MAHs concentrations were as high as 3421.0 microg/m3 and 4 865.9 microg/m3 in the air from indigenous coking, 548.7 microg/m3 and 1 054.8 microg/m3 in the oventop air from industrial coking, and 1 376.4 microg/m3 and 1 819.4 microg/m3 in stack gas from industrial coking, respectively. The MAHs concentrations vary greatly during the indigenous coking process, which in the prophase (from firing to 10 days) is obviously higher than in the anaphase (10 days to quenching the coke). In industrial coking the MAHs in the oventop air are highest when charging the coal and next when transferring the hot coke, but in stack gas they are highest when charging coal and lowest when transferring the coke. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in industrial coking samples show good linearity, indicating that MAHs in industrial coking might come predominantly from coal pyrolysis; but BTEX distribute dispersedly in indigenous coking samples, indicating that its emission might be affected by many factors. In all samples BTEX ratios especially high B/E ratio, is unique among MAHs sources, and might be helpful to characterize pollution from coking.

  14. Petroleum. [Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    An introductory chapter of world wide petroleum history is followed by a comprehensive record of the petroliferous basins of Venezuela. Exploration, productivity, production statistics, reserves, geologic structures, and the distribution of oil and gas fields are described separately for the Maracaibo-Falcon basin, Apure-Barinas basin, E. Venezuela basin, and Tuy-Cariaco basin. The descriptions include geographic distribution, geomorphologic outline of the basins, lithology and thickness of sediments, structural development, present structural conditions in which oil and gas fields occur, and their distribution in the basins. Economic factors are discussed in an appendix. 145 references.

  15. Energy use in petroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, V.O.

    1976-09-01

    Refining petroleum accounts for about 4 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States and about 15 percent of all industrial consumption. The kinds of energy used and the manner in which energy is used are discussed on a process-by-process basis. Emphasis is placed on existing processes to identify and quantify process and equipment substitutions which might significantly conserve energy. General industry and process information is given and estimates of potential savings are made. A few research and development opportunities are identified and nontechnical factors are discussed. Nearly one-half the energy consumed by refineries is obtained from by-product refinery gas and coke, and about one-third is supplied by natural gas. On a regional basis, refineries were found to vary by a factor of two in the amount of energy used to refine a unit of crude oil. Refineries in regions traditionally abundant in inexpensive natural gas were found to use relatively more natural gas and energy. About 36 percent of the energy used by petroleum refineries is consumed in the distillation units to separate the refinery streams into their basic components. Including energy for manufacturing hydrogen, about 24 percent of the total is used for cracking of the heavier components. Most of the remainder is used for reforming, hydrogen treating, and alkylation, distributed about 11, 17, and 6 percent respectively. Potential energy savings discussed in this report total 61 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/yr based on 1974 capacities, a figure which represents about 20 percent of the energy consumed to refine petroleum.

  16. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  17. 77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... Publication 4326 (May 2012), entitled Foundry Coke from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review...

  18. Water protection in coke-plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  19. Alternative method for assessing coking coal plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzuy Nguyen; Susan Woodhouse; Merrick Mahoney [University of Adelaide (Australia). BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre

    2008-07-15

    Traditional plasticity measurements for coal have a number of limitations associated with the reproducibility of the tests and their use in predicting coking behaviour. This report reviews alternative rheological methods for characterising the plastic behaviour of coking coals. It reviews the application of more fundamental rheological measurements to the coal system as well as reviewing applications of rheology to other physical systems. These systems may act as potential models for the application of fundamental rheological measurements to cokemaking. The systems considered were polymer melts, coal ash melts, lava, bread making and ice cream. These systems were chosen because they exhibit some physically equivalent processes to the processes occurring during cokemaking, eg, the generation of bubbles within a softened system that then resolidifies. A number of recommendations were made; the steady and oscillatory shear squeeze flow techniques be further investigated to determine if the measured rheology characteristics are related to transformations within the coke oven and the characteristics of resultant coke; modification of Gieseler plastometers for more fundamental rheology measurements not be attempted.

  20. The impact of liquid-liquid-vapour phase behaviour on coke formation from model coke precusors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Shaw, J.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-08-01

    Catalysts used in the hydroprocessing of heavy feedstocks deactivate due to coke deposition. Although the mechanism for coke formation is not fully understood, condensation reactions of polynuclear aromatic compounds present in the feeds are a key aspect. The effect of coke deposition on catalyst performance is typically modelled using accelerated aging agents comprising model coke precursors. Mixtures employed in such studies polynuclear aromatic compounds such as anthracene as the coke precursor, and long chain alkanes such as hexadecane as a diluent. We show in this paper that binary and pseudo binary mixtures of polynuclear aromatic compounds and n-alkanes present TYPE II, TYPE IV, or TYPE III phase behaviour according to the van Konynenburg and Scott (1980) phase projection nomenclature, Incubation periods and the apparent autocatalytic effects associated with coke deposition in such systems are explained through a combination of high temperature phase equilibrium experiments and computations with the model systems n-alkane + anthracene + hydrogen, n-alkane + pyrene + hydrogen, and n-alkane + dibenzo[a,k]chrysene + hydrogen. (au)

  1. Petroleum industry in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a detailed outlook of the petroleum industry in the world and more particularly in France in 2005: evolution of crude oil prices; petroleum exploration and production in the world and in France; the French para-petroleum and petroleum industry; the oil supplies; the refining activities; the evolution of products quality and the substitution fuels; the domestic transports, the storage and consumption of petroleum products; the fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  2. Young employees of the coking industry for technological progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladyzhinskii, V.M.; Shul' ga, I.V.

    1986-11-01

    A conference is reported on technology development in the Soviet coking industry held on December 9-10, 1985 at the Khar'kov Scientific-Research Coal-Chemistry Institute. Representatives of leading research institutes and coking plants delivered 25 papers on the following topics: increasing flotation efficiency by means of new flotation reagents, drum feeders for charging cars, new design of coke oven doors, mathematical models of coal transport to coke ovens, some characteristics of packing coal mixtures in coke ovens, heat treatments of coal mixtures at the Khar'kov experimental coking plant, investigating properties of long-flame and gas coal from the Donbaas used for manufacturing formed coke, modernization of the IGI-DMeTI method for determining properties of coal mixtures for formed coke processes, basic problems associated with environmental protection in formed coke processes, specific problems of coal gasification at 900-1050 C and its effects on coking, evaluating properties of formed coke produced from black coal from the Western Donbass for metallurgy, mixing hot briquets with coal slurries during partial briquetting of the coal charge.

  3. Upgrading oil sands bitumen with FLUID COKING and FLEXICOKING technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamienski, P.; Phillips, G. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Fairfax, VA (United States); McKnight, C.; Rumball, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described EMRE's Fluid Coking and Flexicoking technologies that are well suited for upgrading Alberta's heavy crudes and oil sands bitumen into pipelineable crudes or synthetic crudes, which can be further processed into transportation fuels. The Fluid Coking technology uses a fluidized bed reactor that thermally converts the heavy oils into light gases, liquids and coke. The metals and much of the sulphur are concentrated in the coke. Combustion of the coke provides process heat and the remaining coke is sold or stored on site for later recovery. Syncrude Canada currently operates 3 Fluid Coking units in northern Alberta. Flexicoking extends fluid coking by integrating air gasification to produce a carbon monoxide/hydrogen rich fuel gas that helps meet fuel and energy requirements of bitumen recovery and upgrading. The yields of light gas and liquids are similar to those of the Fluid Coking process. The partial combustion of coke provides the process heat for the thermal conversion and gasification steps. The remaining coke is gasified and desulphurized using Flexsorb technology. At present, there are 5 Flexicoking units in operation around the world. Interest in the technology is growing, particularly in locations with large demand for clean fuel or electricity. It is also suitable for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations in Alberta. This presentation outlined the operating principles of the Flexicoking integrated gasification system and compared it with more expensive oxygen gasification processes. tabs., figs.

  4. Gasification reactivities of cokes derived from Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1985-10-01

    Gasification reactivities of cokes obtained from Athabasca bitumen by delayed coking and fluid coking were compared in fixed and fluidized bed systems. In both systems the C + O/sub 2/ reaction accounted for the most of converted carbon. The C + H/sub 2/O reaction proceeded to a smaller extent. The bulk reactivity of the fluid coke was higher than that of delayed coke, when comparing -20 to +60 mesh particles in fluidized bed and -14 to +20 mesh particles in fixed bed, respectively. However, the reactivity of the delayed coke expressed per unit of surface area was markedly higher than that of the fluid coke. 9 figs., 7 tabs., 6 refs. (A.V.)

  5. Analysis of industrial coke samples by activation with cyclotron protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M.A.; Lee, M.M.; Spicer, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    A Melbourne Petrochemical Company was experiencing excessive coke formation in its ''cracking furnaces'', which was causing unnecessary stoppage of production and wastage of energy due to additional insulation. In order to investigate the possible causes of this excessive coke formation, we analyzed various coke samples and other coke-like materials obtained from these furnaces by activation with cyclotron-protons. Our results showed that, out of the two suspected coke promoters As and Sb whose small concentration in feed would produce greatly accelerated coke formation, As could not be detected in any of the eight samples investigated, while Sb was present in only one sample. However, we did observe Ca, Cr and Fe in all the samples, with surprisingly high concentrations in some of them. It has, therefore, been suggested that Ca, and perhaps Cr and Fe, but not As or Sb, could have been responsible for the excessive coke formation in the ''cracking furnaces''

  6. Fluid coking : a competitive option for heavy feed processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D.G.; Feinberg, A.S.; McCaffrey, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Fluid coking is a proven thermal conversion process for converting heavy hydrocarbon feeds to lighter products. Fluid coking was commercialized by Exxon over 40 years ago. A total of 13 units have been built with over 330 years of cumulative operating experience. Fluid coking can process many different feeds at once and is usually insensitive to feed contaminants such as sulfur, nitrogen and metals. New developments in coke utilization and flue gas desulfurization/departiculation have prompted new economic studies. Fluid coking is competitive and is the most attractive option compared to delayed coking, particularly for very heavy feed stocks such as deasphalter bottoms. Viewgraphs describe the fluid coking process, its advantages, utilization, and commercial viability. 7 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Petroleum geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The book is compiled from a series of e-learning modules. GeoCLASS is an e-learning system with contents from petroleum geophysics. It is the result of collaboration between professors at the University of Bergen and the University of Oslo, and its material has been used as curriculum in master program courses at these universities for several years. Using a unique feature to GeoCLASS, these advanced scientific topics are presented on multiple levels. The introductions open the door to this vast pool of knowledge, accessible even for high school students. Enter the door, and you enter the modules. Various levels of content are presented, and the more advanced levels can be shielded from the regular user, and only accessed by those with particular interest. The chapters in the book are: Elastic waves; Survey planning; Seismic acquisition; Basic seismic signal theory and processing; Seismic imaging; Seismic attributes; Rock physics; Reservoir monitoring. (AG)

  8. Petroleum 2006. Statistical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    This document gathers in 5 parts, the main existing statistical data about petroleum industry in France and in the rest of the world, together with an insight on other energy sources: 1 - petroleum in the French economy (petroleum and other energies, petroleum and transports, petroleum and energy in the industry, the residential and tertiary sectors, environment: 42 pages); 2 - the French petroleum industry (exploration, production, foreign trade, transports, refining, storage, petrochemistry: 66 pages); 3 - the French market of petroleum products (evolution of sales by product and detail by region for the past year: 38 pages); 4 - prices and taxes of petroleum products (world prices and rates for crude and refined products, evolution of fret rates, retail prices and French taxes: 28 pages); 5 - petroleum in the world (world energy production and consumption, detailed petroleum activity by main areas and for the main countries: 112 pages). (J.S.)

  9. Coking coal of Checua Lenguazaque area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arboleda Otalora, Carlos Ariel

    1987-06-01

    In this report a summary of the main characteristics of the coal of the area of Checua-Samaca is presented. Using the main works carried out on this area, the most important geologic, physical-chemical, technological and petrographic aspects are compiled that are considered essential to carry out a technical evaluation of these coal and all the analyses they take to conclude that in this area, bituminous coal are presented with very good coking properties, on the other hand, it is demonstrated by the use that is given to the coal extracted by the small existent mining. However, keeping in mind the demands of the international market of the coking coal, it becomes necessary to improve the existent geologic information to be able to make reliable stratigraphic correlations

  10. South Bank Coke Ovens heating performance improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, A.J. [South Bank Coke Ovens (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The coke oven batteries at South Bank Coke Ovens had a history of refractory failure, overheating, and poor environmental performance despite repeated attempts to solve the problem. The fundamental design was poor, but previous upgrade attempts had a history of short term improvements followed by renewed decline, suggesting that the problem may not merely with the equipment. An audit of the area showed multiple morale, equipment and communications problems, although a significant proportion of the workforce were interested in improving the situation. A group of those interested in performance improvements was called together and objectives agreed upon. Communications were upgraded and problem walls analysed for their particular weaknesses. A team approach was used for maintenance, leading to slowly improving pushing emission factors. Temperature control equipment ensured better environmental performance and lower electricity consumption. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Figures on petroleum 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This table taken out from the 1981 annual report 1981 contains an introductory remark on the reorganization of mineral oil statistics up to January 82. It is followed by the tables ranged as follows: refinery capacity and production, crude oil supply, GDR-coverings, import of petroleum products, petroleum consumption, export of petroleum products, transport, oil storage tanks, motor vehicle stock, taxes and tariffs, petroleum export trade, energy consumption and world petroleum numbers. In parts the tables contain comparative figures back to 1950.

  12. Characterisation of coking activity during supercritical hydrocarbon pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Bernard, Stephane [Laboratoire Energetique, Explosion, Structure, UPRES-EA 1205, 63, avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France); Bouchez, Marc [MBDA France, 8, rue Le Brix, 18000 Bourges (France)

    2008-12-15

    The active cooling of the Supersonic Combustion Ramjet engine, for hypersonic flight purpose, is ensured thanks to fuel, n-dodecane for the present study. The endothermic fuel pyrolysis, starting above 800 K, could generate an unwanted coke formation. Experimental tests up to 1125 K and between 1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking activity. 316L stainless steel, low carbon steel and titanium reactors have been considered. A witness of the coke formation, based on its thermal insulation and pressure loss effects, has been found. A correlation between methane production and coke deposit was found. The coke has been studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The porosity, the density and the permeability of the coke have been estimated. (author)

  13. Impact on surface water quality due to coke oven effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, M.K.; Roy, S.

    1994-01-01

    Large quantities of water are used for the quenching of hot coke and also for washing the gas produced from the coke ovens. Liquid effluents thus generated are highly polluted and are being discharged into the river Damodar without proper treatment. Four coke plants of Bharat Coking Coal Ltd.(BCCL) have been surveyed for characterization and to assess the impact on surface water quality. About 175-200 kilolitres of waste water is being generated per day by each of the coke plants. The concentration of CO, BOD, COD, TSS, phenol and cyanide in each of the coke plants were found to exceed the limits specified by pollution control board. Ammonia, oil and grease and TDS were found to be 19.33 mg/l, 7.81 mg/l, 1027.75 mg/l respectively. Types of samples collected, sampling frequencies, sample preservation and the results obtained have been discussed. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  14. Dependence of microhardness of coke on carbon content and final coking temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloc, M.; Dvorak, P.

    1995-12-31

    At present time is important the coke-quality, tested by various methods again. The new methods of evaluation of coke quality as e.g. CSR, CRI, ACRI etc. demonstrate, that the mechanical stability parameters are in connection of microstructure of coke mass. The purpose of present paper is to investigate the dependence of microhardness on the carbon content and the final carbonisation temperature in the coal-coke series. The samples prepared experimentally in more series from different coal blends from 20{degrees}C to 1100{degrees}C were investigated both mega- and microscopically. The tests of microhardness are based on the use of the Hanemann microhardness tester. Principally this method consists in impressing the diamond pyramid into the surface of the sample. The data on the pressure applied are subtracted on the scale of load. An important factor influencing the results is the choice of the points from which the sample is to be withdrawn. The choice is dependent on the aim to be achieved. For the determination of an average microhardness it is sufficient to take sample from the middle part of the coke block representing the half width of the coking chamber. The choice of the point is also of great importance. In strong and homogeneous walls, sharply bounded, impressions can be found with a distinct diagonal cross. In thin walls the impressions are distinguished by distinct boundaries, the middle part, however, not being distinct as the pyramidal point did not penetrate the wall. Impressions providing accurate values are those distinctly bounded by a distinct diagonal cross. The walls not having been chosen correctly, the errors reveal themselves as the scattering of the points in the diagrams of microhardness.

  15. Coke breakage behaviour in relation to its structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, T J; Horton, A E; Tucker, J

    1980-06-14

    The relationship between coke macrostructure and volumetric (coarse) breakage behaviour, and the manner in which both features are affected by the coal charge composition are discussed. Coke pieces which are extensively fissured fail spontaneously after only a few revolutions in the drum; coke pieces which are less fissured require an extended treatment in the drum and finally fail in a manner consistent with that of fatigue crack growth induced by repeated impact. This heterogeneity in breakage behaviour was demonstrated in terms of an abrupt change in gradient of the Weibull distribution function for the coke. Heterogeneity may be removed by fully stabilising the coke or by the use of a more energetic test method. The role of fatigue crack growth in coke breakage was studied by cutting fissures of defined depth in full stabilised coke and assessing the rate of crack growth as a function of fissure depth and fracture toughness. The form of the results was consistent with that given by the Paris-Erdogan law and the rate of crack growth (for a given stress intensity level) was shown to increase with reducing coke toughness. Explanations are suggested to account for the role of blend additives in modifying the fissured properties and fracture toughness of coke made from high-volatile coal.

  16. Briquetting and coking behavior of Bobov-Dol coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naundorf, W.

    1987-01-01

    Hard Bulgarian glance brown coal (23.2% ash content, 16% coal moisture 2.39% sulfur) was studied for its general suitability for partial black coal coke substitution in coking plants and for the possibility of producing pyrolysis briquets for coking purposes. Laboratory briquetting variants include coal briquetting without binders, with sulfite lye as binder, briquetting after partial demineralization by wet classification, briquetting of different screening fractions (0 to 4 mm), briquetting as a mixture with type 35 caking black coal as well as mixed with type 34 less caking black coal under addition of black coal tar, pitch or bitumen. Coking of the briquets produced was carried at with and without charge compacting. Graphs and tables provide briquetting and coking results. It is concluded that high strength coke can be produced from this brown coal, but it can only be used commercially as heating coke due to its high ash and sulfur content. Briquetting and coking of partially demineralized brown coal in a mixture with black coal and binders resulted in suitable metallurgical coke. Maximum percentage of brown coal in the briquetting mixture was 30%. 4 refs.

  17. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  18. Full scale treatment of phenolic coke coking waste water under unsteady conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschka, Jan [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland); Morel, Jacek; Mierzwinski, Stanislaw; Januszek, Ryszard [Coke Plant Przyjazn, Dabrowa Gornicza (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Phenolic waste water from the largest coke coking plant in Poland is treated at a full technical scale. From the very beginning it became evident that very high qualitative variations in short and long periods were to be expected. For this purpose, the biological treatment plant based on activated sludge is protected through preliminary physical-chemical treatment and the results are secured by a final chemical stage of treatment. Nevertheless, improvements in the performance of the treatment plant have been found necessary to introduce. In this work, the experience gained over the last five years is described and developed improvements were presented. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Full scale treatment of phenolic coke coking waste water under unsteady conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschka, Jan [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland); Morel, Jacek; Mierzwinski, Stanislaw; Januszek, Ryszard [Coke Plant Przyjazn, Dabrowa Gornicza (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Phenolic waste water from the largest coke coking plant in Poland is treated at a full technical scale. From the very beginning it became evident that very high qualitative variations in short and long periods were to be expected. For this purpose, the biological treatment plant based on activated sludge is protected through preliminary physical-chemical treatment and the results are secured by a final chemical stage of treatment. Nevertheless, improvements in the performance of the treatment plant have been found necessary to introduce. In this work, the experience gained over the last five years is described and developed improvements were presented. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. EPA Administrative Order on Consent (AOC) with ERP Compliant Coke, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Administrative Order on Consent with ERP Compliant Coke was effective August 2016. The Walter Coke facility located in North Birmingham was purchased by ERP Compliant Coke, LLC in February 2016 out of bankruptcy proceedings.

  1. Statistical assessment of coal charge effect on metallurgical coke quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Pustějovská

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies coke quality. Blast furnace technique has been interested in iron ore charge; meanwhile coke was not studied because, in previous conditions, it seemed to be good enough. Nowadays, requirements for blast furnace coke has risen, especially, requirements for coke reactivity. The level of reactivity parameter is determined primarily by the composition and properties of coal mixtures for coking. The paper deals with a statistical analysis of the tightness and characteristics of the relationship between selected properties of coal mixture and coke reactivity. Software Statgraphic using both simple linear regression and multiple linear regressions was used for the calculations. Obtained regression equations provide a statistically significant prediction of the reactivity of coke, or its strength after reduction of CO2, and, thus, their subsequent management by change in composition and properties of coal mixture. There were determined indexes CSR/CRI for coke. Fifty – four results were acquired in the experimental parts where correlation between index CRI and coal components were studied. For linear regression the determinant was 55.0204%, between parameters CRI – Inertinit 21.5873%. For regression between CRI and coal components it was 31.03%. For multiple linear regression between CRI and 3 feedstock components determinant was 34.0691%. The final correlation has shown the decrease in final coke reactivity for higher ash, higher content of volatile combustible in coal increases the total coke reactivity and higher amount of inertinit in coal increases the reactivity. Generally, coke quality is significantly affected by coal processing, carbonization and maceral content of coal mixture.

  2. The Bricoke process for producing metallurgical coke in conventional ovens from blends containing a high percentage of non-coking coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, R; Munnix, K; Dellieu, J

    1980-06-01

    The article discusses the following aspects:- description of the BRICOKE process; trials in pilot plant, showing the influence of the different parameters on the coke quality and delimiting the range of the suitable non-coking coals; industrial scale trials of long term with 33% of non-coking coal briquettes in the charge; influence on the coking process as well as on the blast furnace working and increase of the output of usual coke-oven by the BRICOKE process. (11 refs.)

  3. Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

  4. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  5. Japanese coke plant follows US lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Nippon Steel has acquired the first licence for a US Steel/Firma Carl Still process for cleaning coke oven flushing liquor. The process is installed at 3 US Steel preheated coal batteries and is now being used at Nippon Steel's Muroran works. The process is important to the re-use of the water for quenching and is a vital first step in making the liquor harmless to the environment. It is particularly useful in plants using preheated coal where there is likely to be carry over of fine coal particles.

  6. The petroleum industry in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 edition of the petroleum industry activities presents results and data concerning the crude oil prices evolution, the petroleum exploration and production in france and in the world, the para-petroleum industry, the hydrocarbons supplies, the refining, the quality evolution of the substitution products and fuels, the internal transports of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage, the petroleum products consumption, the petroleum products prices and taxation, the petroleum products distribution. (A.L.B.)

  7. Possibilities of using pulverized non coking coals in ironmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijk, Olle; Mathiesen, Mihkel; Eketorp, Sven

    1977-08-01

    The use of pulverized coal in iron making suggests solutions to the mounting problems created by the increasing scarcity of coking coals, and other fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas. The unavailability of coke can be met with two principally different measures. Blast furnace coke rates can be decreased by substituting injected pulverized coal or other carbon containing fuels for part of the coke burden, and the coke itself may be substituted by formed coke. A more radical solution is to abandon the blast furnace process, and instead produce the raw iron in processes not requiring coke. Two such processes are discussed in the paper, the Inred process, developed by Boliden Kemi AB, Sweden, and the smelting reduction process by means of injection, currently being developed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Both processes have potential advantages over the coke oven/sintering plant/blast furnace-complex especially concerning energy requirements and structure, but also in economical terms. The injection process seems to present a further advantage in the possibility of gasifying coal in the process, thus yielding a synthesis gas for methanol production in addition to the raw iron.

  8. Fluid coking of heavy hydrocarbons and apparatus therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-07-11

    A process for the conversion of hydrocarbon oils comprises injecting a plurality of streams of oil into an enlarged coking vessel containing a mass of finely divided solids, thereby, preventing agglutination of the solids, circulating the solids through an external heating zone and back to the coking vessel to maintain the vessel at a coking temperature between 850 and 1,200/sup 0/F, passing gaseous material upwardly through the coking vessel at a superficial velocity of between 0.1 and 5.0 feet per second, controlled to maintain the body of solids in a dense turbulent fluidized state, maintaining the oil within coking the vessel for a period sufficient to convert into vapors and coke, withdrawing vapors from the top of the vessel through an outlet, separating high-boiling ends from vapors, returning at least a portion of the high-boiling ends to the coking vessel for further cracking and withdrawing excess of coke formed in the process.

  9. Coke degradation by surface breakage in a modified tumble drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litster, J D

    1987-01-01

    The surface breakage rate constant for three Australian battery cokes was measured in a specially modified tumble drum using a previously developed technique. The effect of experimental test parameters - coke size, sample mass, drum speed, lifter height and lifter number - on the surface breakage rate constant was examined. The motion of coke particles within a tumble drum was filmed in a simulation experiment with a 0.31 m diameter drum. Particles were raised on the lifters, fell and collided with the bottom of the drum. These collisions were the main source of fines (minus 1 mm) production rather than true abrasion as depicted by a rubbing, rolling action. Hence the term 'surface breakage' is more appropriate than 'abrasion' to describe the breakage process. By measuring the volume of coke carried by each lifter and the height of fall of the coke, the effect of drum speed, sample mass, lifter height and number on the rate of surface breakage was successfully explained. The surface breakage rate constant was found to be proportional to particle size to the power 0.33 for the three cokes studied. A normalized surface breakage rate constant was derived which allowed comparison of cokes with different size distributions. This parameter characterises the coke surface breakage resistance.

  10. Combustion kinetics of the coke on deactivated dehydrogenation catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Sha; He, Songbo; Li, XianRu; Li, Jingqiu; Bi, Wenjun; Sun, Chenglin

    2015-01-01

    The coke combustion kinetics on the deactivated catalysts for long chain paraffin dehydrogenation was studied by the thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG–DTG) technique. The amount and H/C mole ratio of the coke were determined by the TG and elemental analysis. And the

  11. Study on the Inference Factors of Huangling Coking Coal Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meili; Yang, Zongyi; Fan, Jinwen

    2018-01-01

    In order to reasonably and efficiently utilize Huangling coking coal resource, coal particle, heating rate, holding time, pyrolysis temperature and others factors were dicussed for the influence of those factor on Huangling coking coal pyrolysis products. Several kinds of coal blending for coking experiments were carried out with different kinds of coal such as Huangling coking coal, Xida coal with high ash low sufur, Xinghuo fat coal with hign sulfur, Zhongxingyi coking coal with high sulfur, Hucun lean coal, mixed meager and lean coal. The results shown that the optimal coal particle size distribution was 0.5~1.5mm, the optimal heating rate was 8°C/min, the optimal holding time was 15min, the optimal pyrolysis temperature was 800°C for Huangling coking coal pyrolysis, the tar yield increased from 4.7% to 11.2%. The maximum tar yield of coal blending for coking under the best single factor experiment condition was 10.65% when the proportio of Huangling coking coal was 52%.

  12. The world petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2005-01-01

    This study proposes a global vision of the petroleum industry, a precise and well argued state of the art of the petroleum markets. It defines the strategical challenges which the petroleum companies are exposed and allows to anticipate the sector evolutions. It details the key acts of the last three years, the financial performances of the companies. (A.L.B.)

  13. Coke formation on hydrodesulphurization catalysts. [Including effects of different promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternan, M.; Furimsky, E.; Parsons, B.I.

    1979-02-01

    The extent of coke formation was measured on a number of different hydrodesulfurization catalysts, primarily as a function of the catalyst chemical composition. Variations in the concentration of MoO/sub 3/ on the alumina, the type of catalyst promoter, the promoter/MoO/sub 3/ ratio, the presulfiding material and the reaction temperature were made. Increases in the reaction rate caused by either changes in the catalyst composition or by moderate changes in the reaction temperature were compared to the catalyst coke content. It was suggested that two types of coke were present on the catalyst, a reactive coke which is subsequently converted to reaction products and an unreactive coke which blocks catalytic sites.

  14. A new method for manufacturing ICEM form coke and its coking in slanted furnaces. Part II. Obtaining ICEM form coke in slanted furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbu, I; Coposescu, V; Kost, J; Manolescu, A; Michailidis, N; Solceriu, R; Stoicoi, A

    1978-01-01

    An engineering scheme of the process is given, together with the characteristics of the chamber furnaces with an inclined hearth and the quality of the coke obtained in the industrial assembly at a gas factory. The assembly consists of 56 chamber furnaces with a volume up to 10 cubic meters. The height of the chambers is 4000 mm on one side and 4295 mm on the other with a length of 7500 mm and a width of 360-480 mm. The heating temperature is 1200/sup 0/, and the coking time is 22-24 hours. The annual production of the batteries for metallurgical coke is 90 thousand tons, and the average strength of the coke is M40-66.0; M10-15.51.

  15. Green chemistry education in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-06-01

    The Middle East once dominated the age of alchemy, and today it is experiencing a resurgence by transforming the age of petroleum chemicals into a greener science through Estidama. This green conversion is taking place through green chemical research and education. This report examines and reviews the understudied subject of green chemical education in the Middle East through the lens of context and history.

  16. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadauria, S.; Sengar, R.M.S.; Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S.

    1992-01-01

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae

  17. Furnace coking simulations in a laboratory apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, Paul [Champion Technologies Inc (United States)], email: paul.eaton@champ-tech.com; Newman, Bruce [ConocoPhillips (United States)], email: Bruce.A.Newman@conocophillips.com; Gray, Murray; Kubis, Alan; Derakhshesh, Marzie; Holt, Chris; Mitlin, David [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This work deals with simulating fouling behavior of crude oil in a delayed coker furnace. Fouling on different heated metal probes was investigated; these were mainly stainless steel, iron, or mild steel probes. Heat transfer theory was used to calculate the system fouling factor, and this parameter was recorded as a function of time to model in-situ fouling intensity. Physical and chemical properties such as buildup thickness and composition were investigated using different measuring techniques, most important of which were extractive-iron-nickel ion chromatography, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). Changes in surface layers of the metallic probe during coke formation along with microstructures of the coke were examined using a focused-ion beam (FIB). It was shown that the iron probe exhibited more buildups on its surface than stainless steels, and fouling of mild steel came in between. As for oils with different concentrations, fouling of diluted atmospheric tower bottom (ATB) was greater than that of undiluted ATP.

  18. Evaluation of pitches and cokes from solvent-extracted coal materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHenry, E.R.

    1996-12-01

    Three initial coal-extracted (C-E) samples were received from the West Virginia University (WVU) Chemical Engineering Department. Two samples had been hydrogenated to obtain pitches that satisfy Theological requirements. One of the hydrogenated (HC-E) samples had been extracted by toluene to remove ash and higher molecular weight aromatic compounds. We were unable to measure the softening point and viscosity of the non-hydro treated solid extract sample, Positive characteristics in the HC-E materials were softening points of 113-119{degrees}C, low sulfur and ash. The oxygen and nitrogen content of the HC-E samples may limit future usage in premium carbon and graphite products. Coking values were similar to petroleum pitches. Laboratory anode testing indicates that in combination with standard coal-tar pitch, the HC-E material can be used as a binder pitch.

  19. 'green' petroleum, the take-off time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, A.

    2005-01-01

    Replacing gasoline by a synthetic fuel coming from beet root, wheat or colza is no longer a dream. With the rise of crude oil prices, the bio-fuels are reaching the competitiveness threshold. They would help the farmers to stay on their land by giving an answer to the energy problem. France is investing in this energy source and several bio-fuel production plants have been built for the production of bio-diesel (Diester) and ethanol. However, oil companies express their reserve with respect to ethanol because refineries already produce too much gasoline and not enough diesel fuels. Short paper. (J.S.)

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  1. Petroleum fiscality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    This document presents the different taxes imposed to petroleum products in France: domestic tax on petroleum products (TIPP) and added value tax (TVA). A comparison is made with the fiscality into effect in other European countries for some petroleum products. Then, the fiscality is detailed for the different petroleum products and automotive fuels with its regional modulations. Finally, the fiscal measures adopted in 2007 are detailed. They concern the transposition of the European directive 2003-96/CE into French right and some fiscal regime changes given to some economical sectors particularly penalized by the rise of petroleum energy prices in 2007. (J.S.)

  2. Petroleum industry 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector's companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  3. Preparation and characterization of bi-metallic nanoparticle catalyst having better anti-coking properties using reverse micelle technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Thomas

    Energy needs are rising on an exponential basis. The mammoth energy sources like coal, natural gas and petroleum are the cause of pollution. The large outcry for an alternate energy source which is environmentally friendly and energy efficient is heard during the past few years. This is where “Clean-Fuel” like hydrogen gained its ground. Hydrogen is mainly produced by steam methane reforming (SMR). An alternate sustainable process which can reduce the cost as well as eliminate the waste products is Tri-reforming. In both these reforming processes nickel is used as catalyst. However as the process goes on the catalyst gets deactivated due to coking on the catalytic surface. This goal of this thesis work was to develop a bi-metallic catalyst which has better anti-coking properties compared to the conventional nickel catalyst. Tin was used to dope nickel. It was found that Ni3Sn complex around a core of Ni is coking resistant compared to pure nickel catalyst. Reverse micelle synthesis of catalyst preparation was used to control the size and shape of catalytic particles. These studies will benefit researches on hydrogen production and catalyst manufactures who work on different bi-metallic combinations.

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  6. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  7. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  8. Assessment of alternative management techniques of tank bottom petroleum sludge in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Jamrah, Ahmad; Yaghi, Basma; Taha, Ramzi

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated several options for environmentally acceptable management techniques of tank bottom oily sludge. In particular, we tested the applicability of managing the sludge by three options: (1) as a fuel supplement; (2) in solidification; (3) as a road material. Environmental testing included determination of heavy metals concentration; toxic organics concentration and radiological properties. The assessment of tank bottom sludge as a fuel supplement included various properties such as proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and energy content. Solidified sludge mixtures and road application sludge mixtures were subjected to leaching using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Tank bottom sludge was characterized as having higher concentrations of lead, zinc, and mercury, but lower concentrations of nickel, copper and chromium in comparison with values reported in the literature. Natural occurring radioactive minerals (NORM) activity values obtained on different sludge samples were very low or negligible compared to a NORM standard value of 100 Bq/g. The fuel assessment results indicate that the heating values, the carbon content and the ash content of the sludge samples are comparable with bituminous coal, sewage sludge, meat and bone meal and petroleum coke/coal mixture, but lower than those in car tyres and petroleum coke. The nitrogen content is lower than those fuels mentioned above, while the sulfur content seems comparable with bituminous coal, petroleum coke and a petroleum coke/coal mixture. The apparent lack of leachability of metals from solidification and road material sludge applications suggests that toxic metals and organics introduced to these applications are not readily attacked by weak acid solutions and would not be expected to migrate or dissolved into the water. Thus, in-terms of trace metals and organics, the suggested sludge applications would not be considered hazardous as defined by the TCLP leaching procedure

  9. Influence of rubber granulate in the coal blend on important process parameters of the coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Winter; K. Pilz; A. Gahleitner; G. Woisetschlaeger; Monika Friedl [Voestalpine Stahl GmbH (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The talk is outlined in a series of 14 slides/overheads. It discusses the use of scrapped tires in coking plant and traces the amount of zinc present in every product of the coking plant, blast furnaces and sintering plant - coke, coke breeze, sinter and waste water produced.

  10. Effect of nut coke on the performance of the ironmaking blast furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Q.

    2013-01-01

    The blast furnace consumes a large amount of high quality metallurgy coke (size 35-80 mm) in addition to ore in the form of pellets and sinter. This coke is the coarse fraction, derived from the coke plant. The fine fraction (8 -35 mm), arise after sieving, named nut coke, can’t be directly used in

  11. The petroleum industry in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information on the petroleum industry for the year 2005. It discusses the world gas and petroleum markets, the world and french petroleum exploration and production, the petroleum and byproducts industry in France, the hydrocarbons supplying, the refining in France, the evolution of the products and fuels substitution quality, the internal transports of petroleum products, the storage consumption and taxes of petroleum products, the prices and distribution of the petroleum products. (A.L.B.)

  12. The reaction of Polish market to last year's changes on international coke and steel market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czornik, G.; Gabriel, D. [Polski Koks S.A. (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    The presentation, outlined in 16 slides/overheads, discussed the following: Poland's position in the world market; the Polish coking industry and the world coke and steel industry; the reaction of Polish coke plants; the effect of the increase in coke prices; ownership changes in Poland's coking industry scenarios for the future; the role of Polski Koks in Poland's coking industry; and sales and exports of coke by Polski Koks.

  13. Coking industry of China (conclusion of visit to People's Republic of China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklyar, M.G. (NPO Koksokhimiya (USSR))

    1990-12-01

    Presents a report on the coking industry in China, in particular, research programs on coking. The report was prepared by Soviet specialists who visited China in March 1990 within the framework of an exchange program. The following aspects are discussed: characteristics of iron metallurgy and the coking industry in China, research institutes that specialize in problems of iron metallurgy and coking, main research programs of Chinese research institutes (development of a 12-category classification of black coal from China, coal preparation prior to coking including selective crushing, formed coke processes, quality of the products of bituminous coal coking, coal gasification and hydrogenation), installations used for research programs in China (delayed coking of black coal, hydrogenation of long-flame coal, coal briquetting), characteristics of selected coking plants in China, training for specialists in the coking industry in China.

  14. Surface structure and oxidation reactivity of oil sand coke particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbridge, C.; Palmer, A.D.; Ng, S.H.; Furimsky, E.

    1987-05-01

    Fractions of particles of varying mean diameter were isolated from coke obtained from the fluid coking of Athabasca bitumen. Correlations were established between the rate of oxygen sorption and the apparent surface area as measured by carbon dioxide adsorption. The rate of oxygen sorption, r/sub o/, could be related to particle radius, R, by r/sub o/ varying with R/sup D/ T over a range of particle size where D is the fractal dimension of the coke. The existence of such correlations may be related to the iterative processes which form the particles. 14 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Numerical analysis of macro-crack formation behavior within the lump coke; Cokes sonai kiretsu shinten kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H; Sato, H; Miura, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-03-15

    The thermal stress analysis within lump coke was studied in order to investigate macro-crack formation and deformation behavior which strongly influence heat and mass transfer in a coke oven chamber. The dilatation of plastic layer, heating rate dependence of thermophysical and mechanical properties of coal/coke, creep in the plastic and semi-coke layers, macro-crack propagation and radiative heat transfer within the macro-crack were considered in an analytical model. The macro-crack propagation was determined from the estimated crack tip stress intensity factor, K{sub I}, at the macro-crack tip compared with the plane strain fracture toughness, K{sub IC}, through the unsteady-state calculation. Calculated results on crack formation and deformation behavior of lump coke were in good agreement with experimental observations in a laboratory-scale oven chamber. The analytical model could predict micro-crack formation within the lump coke normal to the heated wall and the coke surface close to the heated wall. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  19. Effects of heat treatments of coal on coke destruction under blast furnace conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-09-01

    This paper discusses results of investigations on effects of chemical reactions in a blast furnace on coke disintegration and destruction. The investigations were carried out by the VUKhIN Institute branch in Kuznetsk. Effects of silicates and carbonates of sodium, potassium and zinc on mechanical coke properties were investigated under laboratory conditions. Coke samples were placed in a reactor and were treated by vapors of metal compounds. Coke produced from a coal mixture with conventional moisture content and from preheated coal mixture was used. Coal properties are given in a table. Design of laboratory equipment used for tests is shown in 2 schemes. Heat treatments influenced coke porosity and its structural strength. Proportion of large pores accessible to sodium and potassium in coke from preheated coal was 4.5 times lower than in coke from a conventional mixture. Adsorption of sodium and potassium on coke from preheated charge was lower (from 0.22% to 0.24%) than on coke from a conventional mixture (from 2.5% to 2.9%). Adsorption of alkali metals on coke reduced its structural strength and increased coke oxidation rate by carbon dioxide. Use of heat treatments of coal for coking reduced adsorption of alkali metals on coke in a blast furnace, increased coke structural strength and reduced coke oxidation rate by carbon dioxide. (16 refs.) (In Russian)

  20. Petroleum industry in CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillaud, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on petroleum and natural gas industry in USSR and in Eastern Europe: crude oil and gas production, petroleum and natural gas deposits, exports, fuel consumption, pipelines network (total length, compressor or pump stations), petroleum refineries. This paper describes also air pollution (carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide) and Environmental effects of coal and lignite using in fossil power plants in Eastern Europe. 17 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Petroleum and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, N.; Train, E.; Chagnoux, H.; Heinzle, P.; Daubresse, M.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Fradin, J.

    2000-01-01

    7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)

  2. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  3. Scientific research in the area of coking and coking by-products (based on material from the All-Union Coordinating Conference)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydkevich, M.I.; Tselik, M.P.; Belkina, T.V.

    1985-06-01

    Subjects covered in the all-union coordinating conference on coking and chemical by-products of coking, which took place on 13-15 July 1984, are discussed. One hundred forty eight on-going and new research themes accepted as research projects for 1985-86 were discussed. Areas of research include coals from the eastern deposits and Pechora basin as raw materials for coking; coals from the southern deposits as coking raw materials; technology of coal preparation for coking; technology for producing blast furnace coke and methods of assessing its quality; technology for producing other kinds of coke and carbon graphite materials; methods for extraction processing and producing chemical products from coking.

  4. Petroleum and geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaigneau, P.

    2004-01-01

    Todays, petroleum companies consider that despite the constant increase of petroleum consumption, petroleum will remain the main energy source for at least 40 years. However, after the Iraq conflict, new regional situations are changing. China, for instance, with its growing up demand, will change the physiognomy of the oil market. In parallel, from Indonesia to Africa, petroleum and religion interfere and explain the new conflict areas. As for the US strategy, which is not limited to the energy paradigm, it largely integrates energy in the main lines of its diplomacy, from the 'Wide Middle East' to the 'Sahel initiative', and in its position with respect to Venezuela

  5. Baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, H.D.

    1981-09-01

    For a better assessment of the baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure as in modern coal beneficiation processes, the determination of the swelling index and the dilatation curve are investigated.

  6. Coke briquets for metallurgy based on a thermoreactive binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjutjunnikov, J.B.; Florinskij, V.N.; Orechov, V.N.; Nefedov, P.J.; Sasmurin, V.I.; Kirenskij, V.N. (Khar' kovskii Inzhenerno-Ehkonomicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1992-02-01

    Describes a process for production of briquets for metallurgy with binder and coke fines or anthracite. The suggested binder is waste phenol resin from the production of phenol (cumene method). Resin properties are given. Possible reaction mechanisms yielding solidified matter are discussed. The production process requires 10-15% binder and applies charge heating up to 200 C over 30 min. Catalytic amounts of sodium hydroxide or sulfuric acid were also employed. The production process is shown in a flowsheet. Properties of produced briquets are tabulated. The briquets were used in a 8 t/h cupola furnace and their performance was compared to that of KL-1 coke. Performance was found to be comparable; the cost of coke briquets was less than that of heating coke. 2 refs.

  7. Prediction of coking dynamics for wet coal charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardaś Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional transient mathematical model describing thermal and flow phenomena during coal coking in an oven chamber was studied in the paper. It also accounts for heat conduction in the ceramic oven wall when assuming a constant temperature at the heating channel side. The model was solved numerically using partly implicit methods for gas flow and heat transfer problems. The histories of temperature, gas evolution and internal pressure were presented and analysed. The theoretical predictions of temperature change in the centre plane of the coke oven were compared with industrialscale measurements. Both, the experimental data and obtained numerical results show that moisture content determines the coking process dynamics, lagging the temperature increase above the water steam evaporation temperature and in consequence the total coking time. The phenomenon of internal pressure generation in the context of overlapping effects of simultaneously occurring coal transitions - devolatilisation and coal permeability decrease under plastic stage - was also discussed.

  8. Variation in mineral composition of coal during enrichment and coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Ulanovskii; A.N. Likhenko [Ukrkoks Coke Producers' Association, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2009-06-15

    The parameters I{sub b} and B{sub b} used in developing an optimal coking-batch composition are determined from data on the chemical composition of the ash in Donetsk Basin and other coal. It is found that, when the ash content is reduced in deeper enrichment of coal with an increased content of fine pyrite, there will be accompanying increase in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and decrease in the SiO{sub 2} content of the ash in lighter fractions. This increases I{sub b}. In other words, reducing the ash content of the coal is an unpromising means of increasing CRI and CSR of the coke produced. Three ash-containing elements (silicon, aluminum, and iron) are experimentally proven to transfer from coal to coke. Specific behavior of calcium, magnesium, alkali metals, and sulfur during coking.

  9. Remediation and demolition of coke by-products plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiffler, M A; Gould, W C

    1992-08-01

    The programme undertaken by ICF Kaiser Engineers and LTV Steel Co. to clean up and demolish four closed coking plants is described, including PCB removal, asbestos abatement, pipe removal and cleaning, tank cleaning, demolition and soil bioremediation. Costs are discussed.

  10. Content of nitrogen in waste petroleum carbon for steel industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, R.O; Jimenez, A.F; Szieber, C.W; Banchik, A.D

    2004-01-01

    Steel industries use refined carbon as an alloy for steel production. This alloy is produced from waste carbon from the distillation of the petroleum. The refined carbon, called recarburizer, is obtained by calcination at high temperature. Under these thermal conditions the organic molecules decompose and a fraction of the N 2 , S and H 2 , volatile material and moisture are released; while the carbon tends to develop a crystalline structure similar to graphite's. The right combination of calcinations temperature and time in the furnace can optimize the quality of the resulting product. The content of S and N 2 has to be minimized for the use of calcined carbon in the steel industry. Nitrogen content should be reduced by two orders of magnitude, from 1% - 2% down to hundreds of ppm by weight. This work describes the activities undertaken to obtain calcined coke from petroleum from crude oil carbon that satisfies the requirements of the Mercosur standard 02:00-169 (Pending) for use as a carborizer in steels industries. To satisfy the requirements of the Mercosur standards NM 236:00 IRAM-IAS-NM so that graphite is used as a carburizer a content of 300 ppm maximum weight of nitrogen has to be obtained. So the first stage in this development is to define a production process for supplying calcined coke in the range of nitrogen concentrations required by the Mercosur standards (CW)

  11. New formulae for the manufacture of formed coke of the ICEM type and carbonization of this type of coke in oblique ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbu, I.; Georgescu, I.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents the industrial experiences between 1971 and 1976 which led to the elaboration of new formulae for the manufacture of ICEM type coke briquettes, plus the results of coking the latter in a vertical oven. The possibility of using this type of coke in the chemical industry and in metallurgy instead of ordinary coke was simultaneously examined but this proved unsuccessful. Gives a detailed report of all the tests carried out by the State undertaking, Victoria-Galan.

  12. Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

  13. Assessment of thermal efficiency of heat recovery coke making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, H. P.; Saxena, V. K.; Haldar, S. K.; Sriramoju, S. K.

    2017-08-01

    The heat recovery stamp charge coke making process is quite complicated due to the evolved volatile matter during coking, is partially combusted in oven crown and sole flue in a controlled manner to provide heat for producing metallurgical coke. Therefore, the control and efficient utilization of heat in the oven crown, and sole flue is difficult, which directly affects the operational efficiency. Considering the complexity and importance of thermal efficiency, evolution of different gases, combustion of gasses in oven crown and sole flue, and heating process of coke oven has been studied. A nonlinear regression methodology was used to predict temperature profile of different depth of coal cake during the coking. It was observed that the predicted temperature profile is in good agreement with the actual temperature profile (R2 = 0.98) and is validated with the actual temperature profile of other ovens. A complete study is being done to calculate the material balance, heat balance, and heat losses. This gives an overall understanding of heat flow which affects the heat penetration into the coal cake. The study confirms that 60% heat was utilized during coking.

  14. Coking coal outlook from a coal producer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrasher, E.

    2008-01-01

    Australian mine production is recovering from massive flooding while Canadian coal shipments are limited by mine and rail capacity. Polish, Czech, and Russian coking coal shipments have been reduced and United States coking coal shipments are reaching their maximum capacity. On the demand side, the Chinese government has increased export taxes on metallurgical coal, coking coal, and thermal coal. Customers seem to be purchasing in waves and steel prices are declining. This presentation addressed the global outlook for coal as well as the challenges ahead in terms of supply and demand. Supply challenges include regulatory uncertainty; environmental permitting; labor; and geology of remaining reserves. Demand challenges include global economic uncertainty; foreign exchange values; the effect of customers making direct investments in mining operations; and freight rates. Consolidation of the coal industry continued and several examples were provided. The presentation also discussed other topics such as coking coal production issues; delayed mining permits and environmental issues; coking coal contract negotiations; and stock values of coking coal producers in the United States. It was concluded that consolidation will continue throughout the natural resource sector. tabs., figs

  15. Fissure formation in coke. 1: The mechanism of fissuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; M.R. Mahoney; J.C. Keating [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Pilot scale coke oven experiments, in which carbonisation has been arrested after 2 and 4 h, have been used to identify key aspects of the initial formation and propagation of fissuring in coke. The experiments show that the primary fissure network is formed within the first few hours of coking and the fissures propagate towards the centre of the oven as coking progresses. They also show that some of the initially formed fissures stop propagating, thus increasing the effective fissure spacing as coking continues. A model for the propagation of regular crack arrays has been used to identify the cause of the initial formation of the fissure network, evaluate the fissure spacing and explain the fissure coarsening effect. The coarsening is shown to be due to an instability, in the form of every second fissure stopping. The formation of lateral fissures is shown to be due to tensile stress formation near the tips of stopped fissures and also to increased shrinkage due to a maximum in the coke contraction coefficient at around 700{sup o}C. 45 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Investigating combined influence of petrology and technological parameters on strength of porous coke body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinel' t, V.M.; Shkoller, M.B.; Stankevich, A.S.; Korchuganova, G.S.

    1983-09-01

    The VUKhIN branch in Kuznetsk investigated effects of coal petrology and coking conditions on structural strength of coke in blast furnaces. Structural strength of coke produced from black coal from the Kuzbass as well as structural strength of coke partially gasified by carbon dioxide under conditions similar to those in blast furnaces was investigated. Fourteen samples of coal mixtures from the Kuzbass were used. Regression analysis was applied. Equations for forecasting coke properties on the basis of coal petrology and selected parameters characterizing coking were derived. Analyses showed that coke structural strength was decisively influenced by coefficients which characterized the average reflectivity of vitrinite in a coal mixture and its average density. After partial coke gasification by carbon dioxide effects of coefficients which characterized coal mixture nonhomogeneity (fluctuations of vitrinite reflectivity) and coal mixture density increased. Increasing coal density partially compensated negative effects of fluctuations of vitrinite reflectivity on coke structural strength. (10 refs.) (In Russian)

  17. Scientific Council of the State Committee for Science and Technology on the problem 'New processes in the coking industry', Coke-Chemistry Section of the Scientific-Technical Council of the Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy of the USSR and of the Central Administration of the Scientific-Technical Branch of Ferrous Metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukvareva, O.F.

    1986-12-01

    A report is presented on 3 conferences on the development of the Soviet coking industry held in February and April 1986. Papers delivered at the conferences and selected recommendations for development of equipment for coking, coking systems, optimization of coal mixtures for coking, environmental protection and research programs on coking are reviewed. The following problems were discussed: modernization of coke oven design, selecting the optimum size of coke ovens, prospects for dry coke quenching in the USSR, evaluation of operation of systems for dry coke quenching, utilization of waste heat from coke quenching for heat treatment of coal mixtures for coking, research programs on coking in the 12th five-year plan (1986-1990), partial briquetting of coal mixtures for coking and selecting optimum binders for partial briqetting, formed coke processes, economic analysis of formed coke processes, fire-resistant bricks and elements for coke oven construction, new coking technologies, pollution control in coking plants.

  18. Financing petroleum agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, C.J.V.

    1994-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical type of financing agreements which are currently used to finance North Sea petroleum projects whether they are in the cause of development or have been developed and are producing. It deals with the agreements which are entered into to finance borrowings for petroleum projects on a non-resource or limited resource basis. (UK)

  19. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  20. Petroleum systems of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Noble, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia contains many Tertiary basins, several of which have proven to be very prolific producers of oil and gas. The geology and petroleum systems of these productive basins are reviewed, summarized and updated according to the most recent developments. We have linked the recognized petroleum

  1. Petroleum and international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2002-01-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  3. Enrichment of reactive macerals in coal: its characterization and utilization in coke making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Debjani; Kopparthi, P.; Dash, P. S.; Saxena, V. K.; Chandra, S.

    2018-01-01

    Macerals in coal are of different types: reactive and inert. These macerals are differ in their physical and chemical properties. Column flotation method has been used to separate the reactive macerals in a non-coking coal. The enriched coal is then characterized in order to understand the changes in the coking potential by different techniques. It is then used in making of metallurgical coke by proper blending with other coals. Enriched coal enhance the properties of metallurgical coke. This shows a path of utilization of non-coking coal in metallurgical coke making.

  4. Pyrolisator Coal to be Cokes (Coal Cokes Casting Metal Industry Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukamto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolisis of coal is partial combustion to reduce total moisture, volatile matter and sulfur contens and increase the calorific value of coal. The results of pyrolysis of coal is coke. At the laboratory level studies, pyrolisis done in batch using different calorie, namely 5800, 6000, 6300 kcal/kg and a time of 15-60 minutes and the temperature 400-800°C. Maximum results obtained total moisture (0.44%, fixed carbon (89%, volatile matter (2.4%, sulfur content (undetected and ash (7.2%. Then applied to the scale miniplant with continuous processes using multitube pyrolisator which are designed to operate in the temperature range 400-800°C and a flow rate of 240-730 kg/h, obtained coal cokes that meets industry quality standards, namely TM (0.42%, FC (90.40%, VM (2.16%, S (not detected, Ash (6.8% incalori 6300 kcal/h, a flow rate of 240 kg / h and temperatures between 600-700°C

  5. Petroleum question. Die Oelfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mommer, B

    1983-01-01

    The author analyses the development of the world petroleum market and its pricing factors to the present on the basis of the theory of ground rent, in which the part played by absolute ground rent, differential rent, and free and national state property in the capitalist mode of production is determined. His investigation of economic policy traces the absorbing history of the petroleum production and policy of the United States of America, which for so long governed the world market, the development of Venezuela into a petroleum country (whose true history is here revealed for the first time), the penetration of the middle East by the international petroleum leaseholders' capital and their cartel, the formation of the OPEC, and finally the 'victory' of the lather over the petroleum combines in the international petroleum crisis of 1970-1973. The book closes with a survey at the start of the 80s and an outlook into the foreseeable future. What is really hidden behind the quarrels about prices, profit, taxes, royalties, franchise agreements, production quotas, nationalization and so forth and behind the economic, political, and even moral arguments of the parties concerned turns out to be the fight of the petroleum ground proprietors for the ground rent - but to win a victory in this fight means ultimately to face its limitations, too. Blindness to the economic and political importance of ground rent, right from the theoretical approach, also created a major cause of the false diagnoses and forecasts on the petroleum market western economic scientists were misled into, and thus of the surprise effect that came in the form of the petroleum crisis of the early 1970s.

  6. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  7. Petroleum investment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1994-01-01

    There is no specific petroleum legislation as such in place in Kazakhstan and tax legislation is unsophisticated. Regulation of operations is subject to generally applicable legislation. A brief account of the difficulties which exist for both sides in renegotiating a contract is given. Since the competence to enter into contracts with foreign companies has not been fully defined, the first problem when applying for petroleum rights is the identification of a negotiating partner. A summary of terms and conditions and a list of the main laws applicable to petroleum operations are included. (UK)

  8. Petroleum: the new deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, St.; Kan, E.

    2008-01-01

    The drop of oil prices imposes a revision of development and investment strategies of petroleum and para-petroleum companies, while technologies under study try to optimize the exploration and production costs. Following the financial and economical crises, the petroleum industry is preparing its restructuring: new profitability threshold of projects, slowing down of the activity, expected surge of mergers. Despite the crisis, the R and D for the exploitation of tar sands still goes on while on the offshore side, R and D has never been so active to take up the challenge of extreme deep sea conditions. (J.S.)

  9. Petroleum marketing annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. (VC)

  10. Utilization coke dust as fuel in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Utilization of coke dust available from coal carbonization plants, as a fuel in the cement industry has been undertaken and discussed in this research paper. The parameters studied include physical and chemical evaluation of the coke dust and its economic feasibility/ suitability as fuel for the cement plants. Detailed studies have been carried out on the above referred parameters. In addition a comparative study has been done to access its suitability in comparison to other fuels especially imported coal. It has been found that the coke dust contained about 66% fixed carbon, 29% ash, 4% volatile matter, 1% moisture and 0.48% sulphur. It gross calorific value was found to be 5292 Kcal/kg. The detailed analysis of coke dust ash was also performed to determine as to how its constituents will compare with the cement constituents. Keeping in view the experimental results/ data generated on the coke dust, it has been concluded that it can be quite a good substitute for imported coal. In doing so a substantial financial saving can be achieved which ranges 40-45%. (author)

  11. Petroleum refining and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the methods which may be developed in petroleum refineries or during petroleum products using for air pollution abatement: petroleum products desulfurization, lead elimination in gasoline and catalytic converters to reduce sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases. Investments and costs estimation to adapt petroleum refineries for environment protection is also given. 1 ref., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Figures of the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The statistic tables give informations about: Reserves and production of petroleum and natural gas, supply of crude petroleum in the Federal Republic of Germany, pipelines, tanker ships, petroleum refineries, petroleum consumption, storage and distribution, automobiles, prices, taxis and energy consumption. The data compilations are primarily given for the Federal Republic of Germany.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  14. Utilization of formed coke from HBNPC in the Dunkerque blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Scour, C; Capelani, R

    1978-01-01

    Recalls the aspects involved in the manufacture of formed coke together with the coke characteristics. Describes the features of blast-furnaces No. 1 and No. 2 at Dunkerque. The blend used for producing the ovoids is composed of 70 to 80% non-coking coal and the ovoids are carbonized at 900 C. The first stage of the tests was carried out with 25% formed coke and the second stage with 22%. The formed coke was charged separately. The results were as follows: the coke rate was comparable and the permeability identical; there was no change in the behaviour of the furnace chamber and no problems were experienced at the hearth stage. The replacement of 30% of the conventional coke by HBNPC formed coke seemed a practical proposition.

  15. Petroleum marketing annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  16. Apparatus for extracting petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coogan, J

    1921-01-18

    An apparatus for extracting petroleum from petroleum bearing sand or shale is described comprising a container for liquids, the container being divided into a plurality of compartments, an agitator mounted within the container and below the liquid level and having its forward end opening into one of the compartments, means for delivering sand or shale to the forward end of the agitator, means for subjecting the sand or shale to the action of a solvent for the petroleum while the sand or shale is being agitated and is submerged, the first-mentioned compartment being adapted to receive the extracted petroleum and means for removing the treated sand or shale from adjacent the rear end of the agitator.

  17. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  18. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  19. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  20. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  1. Microstructures and microtextures of natural cokes: A case study of heat-affected coking coals from the Jharia coalfield, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok K. [Central Fuel Research Institute, CSIR, Dhanbad-828108 (India); Singh, Mahendra P. [Department of Geology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Sharma, Mamta; Srivastava, Sunil K.

    2007-07-02

    In Jharia coalfield, nearly 1250 Mt of coking coal has been devolatilized due to igneous intrusives and {proportional_to} 1900 Mt due to mine fires. This paper is an effort to investigate the effect of carbonization in two intrusive affected coal seams of Ena (seam XIII) and Alkusa (seam XIV) collieries of this coalfield. Through petrographic studies by microscopy, characterization of normal and heat-affected coals was carried out. The microstructures and microtextures produced due to extraneous heat have been related to nature and extent of heat, location of heating source, and quality and quantity of natural coke produced. Based on the results of this study and earlier studies, an effort has been made to study the classification scheme for microtextures of natural cokes generated through in-situ carbonization of the coal seams. It has been observed that in case of such heat effects under overburden pressure, the anisotropy is much more pronounced as compared to laboratory-carbonized cokes. In the mildly carbonized coals (pre-plastic phase, < 300 C) the vitrinite attained higher reflectance than normal vitrinite, liptinite started disappearing, and inertinite remained unaffected. In the moderately affected coals (plastic phase, 300-500 C), mesophase spheres and fused natural cokes were generated from the reactives (vitrinite and liptinite maceral groups), the liptinites disappeared, and structurally, the inertinites remained almost unchanged with slight increase in the reflectance value. In the severely heat-affected coals (post plastic phase, > 500 C) the identified microtextures were mesophase spheres, different shapes and sizes of natural cokes, graphitic sphaeroliths, pyrolytic carbons, inerts with morpho-structural changes and slightly higher reflectance values, and altered and unaltered mineral matters. A gradual change in the heat-affected coals with increasing temperature was observed with respect to location of intrusive body. It has been concluded that

  2. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  3. Microporous Cokes Formed in Zeolite Catalysts Enable Efficient Solar Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianjian

    2017-03-13

    Cokes are inevitably generated during zeolite-catalyzed reactions as deleterious side products that deactivate the catalyst. In this study, we in-situ converted cokes into carbons within the confined microporous zeolite structures and evaluated their performances as absorbing materials for solar-driven water evaporation. With a properly chosen zeolite, the cokederived carbons possessed ordered interconnected pores and tunable compositions. We found that the porous structure and the oxygen content in as-prepared carbons had important influences on their energy conversion efficiencies. Among various investigated carbon materials, the carbon derived from the methanol-to-olefins reaction over zeolite Beta gave the highest conversion efficiency of 72% under simulated sunlight with equivalent solar intensity of 2 suns. This study not only demonstrates the great potential of traditionally useless cokes for solar thermal applications but also provides new insights into the design of carbon-based absorbing materials for efficient solar evaporation.

  4. Steam versus coking coal and the acid rain program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 initiated a tradable permit program for emissions of sulfur dioxide from coal-fired power plants. One effect of this policy was a large increase in the consumption of low-sulfur bituminous coal by coal-fired power plants. However, low-sulfur bituminous coal is also the ideal coking coal for steel production. The analysis presented here will attempt to determine how the market responded to the increased consumption of low-sulfur bituminous coal by the electricity generation sector. Was there a decrease in the quality and/or quantity of coking coal consumption or did extraction increase? Most evidence suggests that the market for coking coal was unaffected, even as the extraction and consumption of low-sulfur bituminous coal for electricity generation increased substantially.

  5. Influence of thermal charge preparation on coke comminution under blast-furnace operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-09-01

    Reactions of coke in the blast furnace are determined mainly by the nature of the coke itself which depends on the coal properties, its preparation and the coking conditions. In the blast furnace the coke reacts with alkali and alkaline earth metals in the burden. Preheated coal charges were found to absorb far less sodium and potassium carbonates than a conventional moist charge over an equivalent period, due to the smaller pore volume available.

  6. China's coke industry: Recent policies, technology shift, and implication for energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Hong; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Lijian; He, Kebin

    2012-01-01

    China is the largest coke producer in the world, accounting for over 60% of the world coke production, which makes the coke industry in China a significant coal consumer and air pollutant emitter. Recently, China has taken a series of measures to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions from the coke industry, including eliminating old and low energy-efficiency coking technologies, promoting advanced technologies, and strengthening energy and environmental requirements on coking processes. As a consequence, China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift, which was characterized by the elimination of old, inefficient, and polluting indigenous ovens and small machinery ones within 10 years. This study examines the policies and the prompt technology shift in China's coke industry, as well as the associated energy and environmental effects, and discusses the implications with respect to the development of the coke industry in China towards a more efficient and clean future. As China sets stricter requirements on energy efficiency and the ambient environment, a more significant change focusing on technologies of energy saving and emission reduction is urgently needed at present. Those mature technologies, including coke dry quenching, coke oven gas recycle, fine particle removal, etc., should be enforced in the near future. - Highlights: ► With 60% of world coke output, China's coke making has big energy/pollution issues. ► Actions were taken to improve energy and environmental performance of coke plants. ► China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift. ► Another shift, focusing on technologies of energy and emission saving, is needed. ► More measurement studies on coking emissions are needed given the importance.

  7. The coke formation during the pyrolysis of 1,2-dichloroethane - results of radiotracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopinke, F.D.; Zychlinski, W.; Rodewald, D.

    1990-01-01

    The formation of coke-like deposits during the pyrolysis of dichloroethane has been investigated by means of 14 C-labelled compounds. Starting from industrial feedstocks coke is formed from dichloroethane and its primary reaction products as well as from trace impurities with comparable rates. Chloroprene has been revealed as an effective coke precursor. The coke formation from industrial feedstocks can be reduced significantly by suitable purification methods. (author)

  8. Photolysis of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.

    1992-05-01

    A study was conducted to examine the chemical and physical changes that occur in oils as a result of photooxidation. A literature review of recent studies in petroleum photochemistry revealed reported effects of photo-induced reactions in petroleum, including changes in color, polymerization, solidification, increases in solubility and toxicity, and changes in interfacial properties. A list of products reported as a result of photolysis of petroleum is presented, including such compounds as aldehydes, ketones, esters, and lactones. The photoreactivity of various petroleum components is discussed and mechanisms of photooxidation of petroleum are suggested. In the experimental portion of the study, a variety of crude oils and petroleum products were used to determine how different oils are affected by photolysis, and to examine the importance of photolysis as a weathering process. Photooxidation products from several oils were isolated and identified, including aliphatic and aromatic acids, alcohols, and phenols. Some physical manifestations attributed to photolysis included yellowing, formation of precipitates or crusts, increases in density and viscosity with time, increases of asphaltene content in some oils, changes in pH of the surrounding water, and emulsification. 51 refs., 38 figs., 18 tabs

  9. Scientific Council on problems on new processes in the coking industry. [Effect on coke consumption of moisture, sulfur and ash; substitution possibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, B.S.

    1981-07-01

    This paper presents a report on the Coking Section of the Scientific Council held on November 20, 1980 in Moscow. The following problems were discussed: indexes characterizing blast furnace coke (for furnaces with a volume of 5580 M/sup 3/); replacing metallurgical coke with other types of fuels; use of brown coal; liners of coke ovens. Papers delivered during the session are summarized. Reducing moisture content in blast furnace coke permits its consumption to be reduced by 2%. Reducing sulfur content in blast furnace coke by 0.1% permits its consumption to be reduced from 10 to 15 kg for 1 t of pig iron. Increase in ash content of coke by 1% causes coke consumption increase ranging from 1.5 to 2.0%. About 10 Mmt of coke class with grains above 25 mm in USSR is used for purposes other than blast furnaces. Possibilities of substituting coke with lean coal are evaluated (particularly from Kuzbass). A method for briquetting a mixture of black and brown coal is proposed. Briquets are a suitable fuel in metallurgy. A new type of liner, which consists of at least 92% silicon dioxide, is described. Physical and mechanical properties of the liners are discussed.

  10. Dust emission from wet, low-emission coke quenching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosiński, Bogusław; Bobik, Bartłomiej; Konieczny, Tomasz; Cieślik, Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    Coke plants, which produce various types of coke (metallurgical, foundry or heating), at temperatures between 600 and 1200°C, with limited access to oxygen, are major emitters of particulates and gaseous pollutants to air, water and soils. Primarily, the process of wet quenching should be mentioned, as one of the most cumbersome. Atmospheric pollutants include particulates, tar substances, organic pollutants including B(a)P and many others. Pollutants are also formed from the decomposition of water used to quench coke (CO, phenol, HCN, H2S, NH3, cresol) and decomposition of hot coke in the first phase of quenching (CO, H2S, SO2) [1]. The development of the coke oven technology has resulted in the changes made to different types of technological installations, such as the use of baffles in quench towers, the removal of nitrogen oxides by selective NOx reduction, and the introduction of fabric filters for particulates removal. The BAT conclusions for coke plants [2] provide a methodology for the measurement of particulate emission from a wet, low-emission technology using Mohrhauer probes. The conclusions define the emission level for wet quenching process as 25 g/Mgcoke. The conducted research was aimed at verification of the presented method. For two of three quench towers (A and C) the requirements included in the BAT conclusions are not met and emissions amount to 87.34 and 61.35 g/Mgcoke respectively. The lowest particulates emission was recorded on the quench tower B and amounted to 22.5 g/Mgcoke, therefore not exceeding the requirements.

  11. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of the...

  12. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations or...

  13. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)

    1993-12-31

    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Study of phenol extraction from coke-chemical sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catana, E.; Mateescu, I.; Giurcaneanu, V.; Bota, T.

    1990-09-01

    The paper presents an experimental study of the phase equilibrium in the coke-chemical tarphenols-solvent system (NaOH) solution and (phenolate solution) implied in the extraction of the phenols from coke-chemical sources. The possibility of using the phenolate solution as an extraction agent, thus making possible the improvement of the specific consumption and also simplifying the problem of the corrosion and of the waste water at the same time is presented. The influence of the solvent tar mass ratio on the selectivity of the process is discussed, this criterion being considered for establishing the conditions of the extraction. 2 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  15. Application of flotational reagents obtained from coke-industry byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.I. Nikitin; I.N. Nikitin; N.I. Toporkova [Khar' kov Polytechnic Institute (Ukraine)

    2007-06-15

    Today, the operational efficiency of coal-preparation shops at coke plants largely depends on the flotation process, since flotation is the basic method of regenerating the slurry water in the water-slurry systems and the basic enrichment process for small-grain coal slurries. At The Coal-Chemistry Institute, attempts have been made to address the growing demand for readily available and relatively inexpensive flotational reagents. In particular, a list of promising coke-industry byproducts for use as flotational reagents has been compiled, and the possibility of reducing their toxicity has been established. In addition, various industrial byproducts and wastes have been investigated in terms of flotational activity.

  16. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Black out - The post-petroleum era has started

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enderlin, S.

    2009-01-01

    The predictable shortage of petroleum resources raises up some worrying questions: how can we get rid of petroleum? What will be our life without petroleum? Will we have enough energy tomorrow to keep the same way of life as today? With what new energy sources tomorrow's world will turn? The author has travelled the world from the Americas to Asia and from Europe to the Persian Gulf to find the leads of the after-petroleum era. From the Chinese coal to the US ethanol, from the nuclear comeback to the Scandinavian innovations, this inquiry makes the world tour of projects, ideas and solutions. First world energy consumer and squanderer, the US hold a prominent place in the energy revolution that Barack Obama election will speed up. In Europe, Germany, Spain and Denmark have taken a serious lead in the green energies race, while China has become recently the first world power of greenhouse gas emissions. (J.S.)

  18. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shu; Li, Xinrong; Yang, Yu; Coveney, Raymond M; Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Haitao; Shen, Weiran

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA, procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from approximately 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from approximately 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 +/- 2.87 ng/m3 on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m3, 41% of the entire population lives within this area.

  19. Petroleum residue upgrading with dispersed catalysts: Part 2. Effect of operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, N.; Del Bianco, A.; Del Piero, G. [ENITECNOLOGIE S.p.A, Via Maritano 26, 20097 San Donato Mil (Italy); Marchionna, M. [SNAMPROGETTI S.p.A, Via Maritano 26, 20097 San Donato Mil (Italy); Carniti, P. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dip. Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica, Via Celoria 20, Milan (Italy)

    2000-12-04

    The hydrotreatment of a petroleum residue in the presence of dispersed molybdenite was carried out within a wide range of operating conditions and catalyst loading. The effect of reaction severity as well as of molybdenum concentration on product distribution and quality was studied. Based on the experimental results, a simplified reaction scheme was proposed. The hydroprocessing of the residue was described in terms of the competition between two reactions: the direct conversion of the feedstock to distillate and coke, and the catalytic hydrogenation. Compared to thermal conditions, the presence of dispersed molybdenite controls very well coke formation; however, a trend of increasing formation of solids was observed at high catalyst concentrations. The overall upgrading of the feedstock requires significant amounts of molybdenum as well as relatively high hydrogen pressure.

  20. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  1. Development of reduced crude processing technology in delayed coking units; Desenvolvimento da tecnologia de processamento de residuo atmosferico em unidade de coqueamento retardado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gloria Maria Gomes; Bartros, Francisco Carlos da Costa; Goncalves, Natalie Jorge; Pala, Danielle Marins; Nadolni, Aline Voigt [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Delayed Coking Technology can be described as thermal cracking of low value refinery residual streams into high-value products. This process has been applied in petroleum refining schemes in order to upgrade heavy and ultra-heavy crude oils. The typical feedstock is vacuum residue (VR). When we have an increasing medium distillates demand and refining schemes which have gas oil and VR excess, the simultaneous conversion of these streams becomes economically attractive, due mainly to the increase of diesel production. Thus, the processing of atmospheric residue (AR) in Delayed Coking Units (DCU) has fueled great interest for PETROBRAS. This work presents the results of industrial and pilot plant tests with AR and VR showing the increasing of diesel yields and decreasing of coke yields processing AR as feedstock. When we process all the AR in the DCU with high recycle rate we observe an increasing of 25% on refinery diesel production related to conventional schemes. The refining scheme of the new PETROBRAS refinery at Northeast of Brazil is based on this technology. This refinery will process heavy oils maximizing diesel production with minimum investment. (author)

  2. Biodegradation of different petroleum hydrocarbons by free and immobilized microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tiantian; Pi, Yongrui; Bao, Mutai; Xu, Nana; Li, Yiming; Lu, Jinren

    2015-12-01

    The efficiencies of free and immobilized microbial consortia in the degradation of different types of petroleum hydrocarbons were investigated. In this study, the biodegradation rates of naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and crude oil reached about 80%, 30%, 56% and 48% under the optimum environmental conditions of free microbial consortia after 7 d. We evaluated five unique co-metabolic substances with petroleum hydrocarbons, α-lactose was the best co-metabolic substance among glucose, α-lactose, soluble starch, yeast powder and urea. The orthogonal biodegradation analysis results showed that semi-coke was the best immobilized carrier followed by walnut shell and activated carbon. Meanwhile, the significance of various factors that contribute to the biodegradation of semi-coke immobilized microbial consortia followed the order of: α-lactose > semi-coke > sodium alginate > CaCl2. Moreover, the degradation rate of the immobilized microbial consortium (47%) was higher than that of a free microbial consortium (26%) under environmental conditions such as the crude oil concentration of 3 g L(-1), NaCl concentration of 20 g L(-1), pH at 7.2-7.4 and temperature of 25 °C after 5 d. SEM and FTIR analyses revealed that the structure of semi-coke became more porous and easily adhered to the microbial consortium; the functional groups (e.g., hydroxy and phosphate) were identified in the microbial consortium and were changed by immobilization. This study demonstrated that the ability of microbial adaptation to the environment can be improved by immobilization which expands the application fields of microbial remediation.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  4. New process of co-coking of waste plastics and blend coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, H.; Yu, G.; Zhao, P. (and others) [Shougang Technical Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    2006-07-01

    To recycle and reuse waste plastics, as well as to get a new resource of coking, co-coking process of waste plastics and blend coal has been developed by Nippon Steel. However, the ratio of waste plastics in blend coal should be limited in the range of 1% to maintain the coke strength. This paper suggested a new process of co-coking of waste plastics and blend coal. The new process can add the waste plastics ratio up to 2-4%; when the waste plastics ratio is 2%, the coke strength after reaction with CO{sub 2} (CSR) increased 8%. 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  6. Practical aspects of coking in Cundinamarca y Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Manuel Romero-Balaguera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the excellent qualities of the studied coals from the coalfields in Cundinamarca and terms of the types of coking ovens, for excellent performance and quality that allows them to be very competitive.The international market is very demanding in terms of the quality of coke and CRI and CSR indexes, that is why coals laboratories were implemented and improved the system of sampling and analysis of laboratories for more agile and modern. Mixtures were made with the test methodology and empirical methods combining swelling index and rank cals were the theree main types: high, medium and low volatile. But with studies and techological change and enviromental control, process is managed, allowing the coke industry to serve as a development center for the promotion of industries in the central area of this country. In the study the whole process is presented beginning with the explotaitation of coking coals, the care that must be taken into account to mainttain good quality, transport and enviromental measures, the process of crushing and grinding to prepare the optimal mix and laboratory tests necessary to maintain quality control, the types of ovens in Boyacá Colombia, yields and advances in the se technologies, and finally, the system shutdown process. All of the above was addressed in order to add value to the product with the fulfillment of the international market standards.

  7. Refractory compounds for repairing coke-oven brickwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanganu, M.; Dragomir, C. (and others)

    1984-01-01

    A number of refractory compounds are presented, based on aluminium phosphate, phosphoric acid, sodium silicate and fire-clay and mullitic zirconium mastic, including their composition, properties and application (by impregnation, spray application or pouring), which are suitable for repairing various types of coke-oven brickwork. The results obtained are given.

  8. The development of coke smelting and the industrial revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Abraham Darby and the origins of the industrial revolution in Britain. Alan Macfarlane talks to John about the reasons for the area near Birmingham becoming the epi-centre of the industrial development, and the development of coke furnaces and iron smelting.

  9. Retort for coking peat, brown coal, bituminous shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1902-05-14

    The retort leads the gases and vapors into the coking chamber, between the inside heater and the outer heating shaft-wall. Over-lapping, double-faced acting rings are arranged, over which the charge in two or more separate vertical layers is transported.

  10. Continuous moisture measurement in metallurgical coke with automatic charge correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzke, H.; Mehlhose, D.

    1981-01-01

    A process control system has been developed for automatic batching of the coke amount necessary for metallurgical processes taking into account the moisture content. The measurement is performed with a neutron moisture gage consisting of an Am-Be neutron source and a BF 3 counter. The output information of the counter is used for computer-controlled batching

  11. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  12. modelling and modelling and simulation of coking in the riser

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    into the modeling of FCC riser by predicting catalyst coke content as a function of reaction by predicting ... understanding of the process, hence restricting scale up to within the ... MATLAB (R2009a) on a Compaq HP CQ61 laptop. The following ...

  13. On-line determination of moisture in coke on conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millen, M.J.; Rafter, P.T.; Sowerby, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    A fast neutron and γ-ray transmission technique is being developed for the on-line determination of moisture in coke on conveyor belts. Calculations show that the technique is capable of determining coke moisture to within 0.3 wt% for coke thicknesses down to 50 mm provided that count rates are measured to within 0.1% relative. Laboratory measurements on static and moving coke samples showed that coke moisture can be determined to within 0.25 and 0.45 wt% for crushed and lump coke, respectively. It is planned to carry out a long-term plant trial of the technique on lump coke feed to the No. 3 blast furnace at BHP, Newcastle, NSW, Australia. (author)

  14. New technological solutions in construction and operation of batteries with large coke ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volokita, G.I.; Bulyga, N.I.

    1988-11-01

    Describes design modifications to the No. 7 coke oven battery with 7.0 m high coke ovens in the Avdeevka coking plant. Temperature distribution in the large coke ovens was irregular due to the specific design of the heating system, distribution and dimensions of flue channels and thickness of flue channel walls. During coke battery reconstruction length of the peripheral flue channels was reduced by 70 mm, coke oven volume was reduced from 41.6 to 41.3 m/sup 3/. These design changes resulted in a more regular temperature distribution and reduced temperature difference between the coke oven center and zones close to the machine and pusher sides. Thickness of flue channel walls was reduced from 130 to 105 mm. Special reinforcing elements that guarantee more regular temperature distribution and increased wall service life were used.

  15. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  16. The importance of new delayed coking units in he fuel market; A importancia das novas unidade de coqueamento retardado no mercado de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Fabricia S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos 13; Seidl, Peter R.; Guimaraes, Maria Jose O.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The increase in production of heavier oils and the recent changes in the demand for petroleum derivatives requires modifications in refining schemes of Brazilian refineries, which were originally projected for processing light oils and production of mainly gasoline by fluid catalytic cracking units. This is necessary because forecasts indicate a larger increase in demand for diesel oil instead of gasoline. These same forecasts reveal an expressive reduction in the demand for fuel oil, which still is produced in large amounts in Brazilian refineries due to the quality of the oils from local fields that are processed. The current challenge for the local oil industry is to adapt the present refineries to produce more valuable derivatives from heavy oils. For this purpose, PETROBRAS is investing in the construction of conversion units with technology for processing heavier feeds, especially in the Delayed Coking process. This work has as an objective to identify the importance of the delayed coke units in the current scenario of the oil industry, highlighting the main investments in construction of new units and evaluating the impact of the existing units on the market for petroleum derivatives. (author)

  17. The business of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the Business of Petroleum Exploration. The following topics are included: Petroleum business; Economic aspects of the business; Managing business; and Legal, Political, Ethical and environment aspects of the business

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Isotope analysis in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.

    1982-01-01

    The study about isotopic analysis in petroleum exploration performed at Petrobras Research Center is showed. The results of the petroleum recuperation in same Brazilian basin and shelves are comented. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. The petroleum taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  3. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  4. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, BioAmber, developed an integrated technology to produce large, commercial quantities of succinic acid by bacterial fermentation, replacing petroleum-based feedstocks.

  5. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2014 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, Amyris, engineered yeast to make a chemical called farnesene, which is a building block hydrocarbon that can be converted into a renewable, drop-in replacement for petroleum diesel.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  7. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in early December 2013,combined with the historical development andthe latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOT- analysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factorssuch as the political environment and the marketsupply and demand, conducted a comprehensiveand profound analysis.

  8. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  9. Environmental pollution by petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, T

    1974-06-01

    Pollution causes, cases, and remedies at various stages of petroleum production and usage are reviewed. Petroleum extraction (off-shore drilling and Arctic drilling) can be accompanied by mishaps. In 1971, IMCO (an international safety committee) proposed the partitioning of oil tanker holds into smaller compartments to minimize spillage in case of disaster. Although the solubility of oil in waste water from refineries is reckoned by ppM, the total amount dissolved is not negligible. Petroleum storage and transport on land is complicated by problems of safety in terms of population density as well as by pollution problems. Petroleum end-products such as plastic trash and automobile exhausts contribute to pollution. The role of aldehydes and peroxides in photochemical smog formation must be investigated further. Proper treatment of pollution at each specific point of occurrence, rather than at the end of a production line is recommended. Pollutant concentration for treatment, rather than pollutant dilution for dispersal, should be considered. Technology for pollution abatement is available, but not always economically feasible.

  10. Petroleum industry in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book analyses the major facts and the numbers of 1992, in France and in foreign countries. Its purpose is to be as complete as possible and to present especially all the aspects on a national level: supply, domestic market, prices, exploration, production, stocks, petroleum refining, transports, retailing, financial data

  11. Petroleum: Price trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Pierru, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC), some political leaders and financiers have mainly attributed the price spike of oil in 2008 - followed by a just as spectacular drop in prices - to the speculative moves made by financial investors on the futures market instead of to market fundamentals

  12. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  13. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  14. Achievements and research programs of the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in the field of conventional coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslar, R.; Kaziszyn, I.; Zawistowksi, J.

    1986-11-01

    This paper describes research programs of the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze on black coal coking and coke use in metallurgy from 1955 to 1990. In 1955-1970 the programs concentrated on coal mixture composition (selective crushing), optimization of coking conditions, mechanical coke treatment. In 1971-1980 research concentrated on coal preparation prior to coking and new coking systems for the Katowice steel plant (heat treatments, design of large coke ovens). The following research programs were implemented in 1981-1985: partial coal charge briquetting, production of foundry coke, coal charge preheating, production of blast furnace coke from black coal from Dobiensko, reducing coke consumption of blast furnaces. In 1986-1990 the Institute will concentrate on the following research programs: coal preparation schemes and coking schemes for coking low-quality weakly caking coals, optimization of coke oven design (e.g. use of packed charge), reducing coke consumption in metallurgy and heating systems, reducing air pollution from coking.

  15. Electrical conductivity of the screening residuals of coke production in context of ferrochromium production in a submerged arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousu, Arto; Mattila, Olli [Lab. of Process Metallurgy, Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Coke is used as a reducing agent in the production of ferrochromium in a submerged arc furnace (SAF). Its good electrical conductivity compared to other input materials makes it a dominant current conductivity substance in the burden. The resistance of the coke has to be high enough to ensure the proper functionality of the furnace. Used cokes for submerged arc furnace production are relatively small in size compared to e.g. blast furnace (BF) cokes. A common practice is to use screening residual coke, which is too small for the BF, in SAF. The goal of this study was to show differences in the electrical properties of screening residual cokes compared to coke formed in different parts of the coke battery, in dependence of particle size. The resistances of different cokes were measured and XRD measurements were performed to define the crystallographic structure of the selected cokes. The results indicate that small coke particles have higher overall resistance, which is due to their internal properties. This small weakly carbonized coke is formed in the middle of the coking battery and is subject to changes in varying coking practices. Continuous quality control of screening residual coke is needed to use it in the SAF. (orig.)

  16. Petroleum product market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery production and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum products in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery production, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver products to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum products markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase production; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum product supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect product distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian production of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that production in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher

  17. Panorama 2001 energy and petroleum, the new international deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannesini, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    This document analyses the main events of the petroleum and gas industries, in year 2000. A great importance is given to the petroleum price which governs the industry activity. A second part deals with the impacts of exploration-production investments. The environmental impacts of the hydrocarbons consumption is also discussed with the analysis of the carbon dioxide emission and the associated climatic change. The green book on the energy supplying safety is presented and discussed as the forecasting scenario concerning the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  18. Water Pollution and Treatments Part I: Evaluation of Organic, Inorganic and Marine Products as Adsorbents For Petroleum Pollutants Present In Aqueous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.A.; El-Tamany, E.H.; El-Emary, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the present work is to perform a comparative laboratory study using an adsorption technique for oil removal from the waste water drained to sea from refineries, offshore and/or onshore petroleum installations. Different crushed adsorbent materials, namely, cotton fibers, charcoal, petroleum coke, agriculture wastes (such as, rice straws, wheat stems, milled dry leaves and lignin), inorganic adsorbents (such as sand, and bricks) and a marine Product (such as sponge) are included in this study. They were tested for oil recovery from laboratory prepared oily salt water samples. Two different Egyptian crude oils varying in their properties and several refined products (gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, diesel oil, fuel oil, lubricating oil) and skimmed oil were employed. Their adsorptive efficiencies were tested. Good results were obtained with sponge and cotton fibers. The used agricultural wastes show better adsorption compared with coke and inorganic adsorbents.

  19. Granulation of coke breeze fine for using in the sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke breeze is the main fuel used in the sintering process. The value of -3+1 mm. represents the most favorable particle size for coke breeze in the sintering process. About 20% of total coke fines (-0.5 mm are produced during different steps of preparation. Introducing these fines during the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus ,this study aims at investigating the production of granules resulting from these fines using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of an iron ore. The results showed that the granules having the highest mechanical properties were obtained with 14.5 wt % molasses addition. The sintering experiments were performed by using coke breeze in different shapes (-3+1 mm in size, coke breeze without sieving and coke breeze granules -3+1 mm. The reduction experiments, microscopic structure and X-ray analysis for the produced sinter were carried out. The results revealed that, all sinter properties (such as shatter test, productivity of sinter machine and blast furnace, reduction time and chemical composition for produced sinter by using coke breeze with size -3+1 mm and coke breeze granules were almost the same. The iron ore sinter which was produced by using coke breeze without sieving yielded low productivity for both sinter machine and blast furnace. Furthermore, using coke breeze without sieving in sintering of an iron ore decreases the vertical velocity of sinter machine and increases the reduction time.

  20. Quantification of mineral matter in commercial cokes and their parent coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurovs, Richard; French, David; Grigore, Mihaela [CRC for Coal in Sustainable Development, CSIRO Energy Technology, PO Box 330 Newcastle 2300 (Australia)

    2007-10-01

    The nature of mineral matter in coke is an important factor in determining the behaviour of coke in the blast furnace. However, there have been few quantitative determinations of the types of mineral matter in coke and the feed coal. Here we use a technique of quantitative X-ray diffraction - SIROQUANT trademark - to determine the nature and quantity of mineral matter in eleven cokes and their parent materials, using samples of coals and their cokes utilised commercially in blast furnaces around the world. In some of these coals a considerable proportion of the phosphorus was present as goyazite, an aluminium phosphate. In the cokes, most of the iron was incorporated into amorphous aluminosilicate material; metallic iron accounted for about 15% of the iron present, and a similar amount was present as sulfides. Potassium and sodium were largely present as amorphous aluminosilicate material. Most of the quartz in the coal was unaffected by the coking, but a small fraction was transformed into other minerals. Quartz is not completely inert during coking. The amount of the catalytic forms of iron in the coke - iron, iron oxides and iron sulfides - was not related to the amount of pyrite and siderite in the starting coal, indicating that estimation of catalytic iron requires investigation of the mineral matter in coke directly and cannot be estimated from the minerals in the coal. (author)

  1. Modelling of Coke Layer Collapse during Ore Charging in Ironmaking Blast Furnace by DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Yoichi; Mio, Hiroshi; Orimoto, Takashi; Nomura, Seiji

    2017-06-01

    A technical issue in an ironmaking blast furnace operation is to realize the optimum layer thickness and the radial distribution of burden (ore and coke) to enhance its efficiency and productivity. When ore particles are charged onto the already-embedded coke layer, the coke layer-collapse phenomenon occurs. The coke layer-collapse phenomenon has a significant effect on the distribution of ore and coke layer thickness in the radial direction. In this paper, the mechanical properties of coke packed bed under ore charging were investigated by the impact-loading test and the large-scale direct shear test. Experimental results show that the coke particle is broken by the impact force of ore charging, and the particle breakage leads to weaken of coke-layer strength. The expression of contact force for coke in Discrete Element Method (DEM) was modified based on the measured data, and it followed by the 1/3-scaled experiment on coke's collapse phenomena. Comparing a simulation by modified model to the 1/3-scaled experiment, they agreed well in the burden distribution.

  2. Identification of petroleum pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begak, O.Yu.; Syroezhko, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A possibility of preliminary identification of petroleum pollution sources was investigated on specimens of the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district six deposits and specimens of soil and water polluted by these petroleums. Investigations were conducted using IR Fourier spectroscopy and gamma spectrometry, as well as methods of chromato-mass spectrometry and capillary gas liquid chromatography. Every of studied samples of petroleum from different deposits have an individual radiation impression. Insignificant total content of radionuclides in samples is specific to the Khanty-Mansi petroleum region. Gamma spectrometry admits to identify potential source of petroleum pollution using radionuclides of uranium and thorium series [ru

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  7. Coaxial Sensors For Broad-Band Complex Permittivity Measurements of Petroleum Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folgeroe, K.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis verifies that dielectric spectroscopy and microwave permittivity measurements can be used to characterize petroleum liquids. It concentrates on developing sensors for three potential industrial applications: quality characterization of crude oil and petroleum fractions, monitoring of gas-hydrate formation in water-in-oil emulsions, and determination of water-content in thin liquid layers. The development of a permittivity measurement system for crude oil and petroleum fractions is described. As black oils have low dielectric constant and loss, the system must be very sensitive in order to measure the dielectric spectra and to distinguish oils of different permittivity. Such a system was achieved by combining impedance and scattering parameter measurements with appropriate permittivity calculation methods. The frequency range from 10 kHz to 6 GHz was found convenient for observing the main dispersion of the oils. All the oils had dielectric constants between 2.1 and 2.9 and dielectric loss below 0.01. The oils studied were samples of the feedstock for the cracker and coke processes at a petroleum refinery. This verifies that dielectric spectroscopy is a potential technique for on-line quality monitoring of the feedstock at petroleum refineries. Gas hydrates may cause major problems like clogging of pipelines. Dielectric spectroscopy is proposed as a means of monitoring the formation of gas hydrates in emulsions. It is found that open-ended coaxial probes fulfill the sensitivity requirements for such sensors. 312 refs., 87 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  9. Yugoslavian Petroleum Refinery development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocic, Ozren

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the analysis of the world petroleum industry development, being an important factor in planning the development of the Yugoslav petroleum industry and Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, as well. Then Yugoslav petroleum industry development is analysed, including the appropriate balances of crude oil production and crude oil products consumption. The way of realizing the basic targets are also proposed. Likewise, the analysis of the condition within West European refineries has been conducted, from the aspects of technology, energy consumption and environmental protection and the same analysis for Pancevo Petroleum Refinery has been presented, too. The analysis of the condition within the refineries in the European Union countries and comparing it with the condition within Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, makes it mainly possible to recognize the development programmes which should be realized in order that Pancevo Petroleum Refinery could reach the refining level of the EU countries. (Original)

  10. Problems of new processes in coking industry discussed at the Scientific Council of the GKNT and the Section of Coking Industry of the Scientific and Technological Council of the Ministry of Iron and Steel Industry of the USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolova, V.P.

    1983-03-01

    A report is given from the conference on new processes in the Soviet coking industry held in Moscow on 28-29 October 1982. The following papers were delivered: implementing research programs on new coking processes, new trends in coking plant design and construction in the 11th 5 year plan and in the time period until 1990, increasing efficiency of coking industry, research program of the Scientific Council in 1983. The report concentrates on new trends in coking plant design. Considering that the raw material basis of the Eastern regions of the USSR is poor in high quality coking coal the new coking processes and technologies should use weakly coking coal. The following schemes are discussed: heat treatments (especially useful in the case of black coal from the Kuzbass characterized by intensive fluctuations of petrology), selective crushing (schemes developed by the VUKhIN Institute), partial briquetting of coal mixtures (experiments carried out by the UKhIN in the Donbass in 1982). Other problems of coking such as development of new systems of smokeless fuel feeding to coke ovens, dry coke quenching, increasing capacity of coke chambers to 41.6 m/sup 3/, environmental protection in coking industry and production of special coke types from poor quality coal for metallurgy are also described.

  11. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  12. Urgent reconstruction and re-equipping of coking plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvitkin, I.A.; Martynenko, V.M.; Rozenfel' d, M.S.; Svyatogorov, A.A.; Shvartsman, I.G.

    1986-03-01

    This paper discusses the various options involved: complete or partial reconstruction of existing buildings and equipment or new construction with new equipment and new underground and surface communications. It explains that reconstruction work is divided into three phases: initial phase (clearance, dismantling, closing down coking batteries); basic phase (fitting heat-resistant materials, prestart-up assembly work); final phase (drying out, heating up, adjustments, start-up). A structured scheme for a typical initial phase is described and a method of calculating the durations of the various phases is discussed. Conclusion is that there is an urgent requirement for a document to be produced for the control of reconstruction work; it should contain standard durations and could serve as a standard for coking plant reconstruction work.

  13. Heat input control in coke ovens battery using artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Kannan, C.; Sistla, S.; Kumar, D. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2005-07-01

    Controlled heating is very essential for producing coke with certain desired properties. Controlled heating involves controlling the heat input into the battery dynamically depending on the various process parameters like current battery temperature, the set point of battery temperature, moisture in coal, ambient temperature, coal fineness, cake breakage etc. An artificial intelligence (AI) based heat input control has been developed in which currently some of the above mentioned process parameters are considered and used for calculating the pause time which is applied between reversal during the heating process. The AI based model currently considers 3 input variables, temperature deviation history, current deviation of the battery temperature from the target temperature and the actual heat input into the battery. Work is in progress to control the standard deviation of coke end temperature using this model. The new system which has been developed in-house has replaced Hoogovens supplied model. 7 figs.

  14. Benzole still reflux system - Dawes Lane Coke Ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardwick, J.

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes a project carried out at Dawes Lane coking plant (in Scunthorpe, UK) to access current performance of the batch reflux system with respect to the operation of personnel and to recommend a solution to eliminate naphthalene blockage and problems previously caused by the use of hot debenzolised oil (DBO) as make-up. A successful solution was found and implemented. The benzole product now being produced is within specification and regularly achieves the composition produced by the previous hot reflux system (83% benzole, 7% naphthalene) with an addition reduction in wash oil usage of 20%. Problems of naphthalene blockages in reflux pipework have been cured. The expenses on the project were small. The paper was presented at a COMA meeting at Monckton Coke Ovens on 19 May 2005. 6 figs.

  15. Composition and method for coke retardant during hydrocarbon processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for inhibiting the formation and deposition of filamentous coke on metallic surfaces in contact with a hydrocarbon having a temperature of 600 0 -1300 0 F which comprises adding to the hydrocarbon a sufficient amount for the purpose of a boron compound selected from the group of boron oxide compounds, boric acid and metal borides, with the proviso that when boric acid is used, it is substantially free of water

  16. Understanding the mechanisms behind coking pressure: Relationship to pore structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Duffy; M. Castro Diaz; Colin E. Snape; Karen M. Steel; Merrick R. Mahoney [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2007-09-15

    Three low volatile coals A, B and C with oven wall pressures of 100 kPa, 60 kPa and 20 kPa respectively were investigated using high-temperature rheometry, {sup 1}H NMR, thermogravimetric analysis and SEM, with the primary aim to better understand the mechanisms behind the coking pressure phenomenon. Rheometer plate displacement measurements ({Delta}L) have shown differences in the expansion and contraction behaviour of the three coals, which seem to correlate with changes in rheological properties; while SEM images have shown that the expansion process coincides with development of pore structure. It is considered that the point of maximum plate height ({Delta}L{sub max}) prior to contraction may be indicative of a cell opening or pore network forming process, based on analogies with other foam systems. Such a process may be considered important for coking pressure since it provides a potential mechanism for volatile escape, relieving internal gas pressure and inducing charge contraction. For coal C, which has the highest fluidity {delta}L{sub max} occurs quite early in the softening process and consequently a large degree of contraction is observed; while for the lower fluidity coal B, the process is delayed since pore development and consequently wall thinning progress at a slower rate. When {Delta}L{sub max} is attained, a lower degree of contraction is observed because the event occurs closer to resolidification where the increasing viscosity/elasticity can stabilise the expanded pore structure. For coal A which is relatively high fluidity, but also high coking pressure, a greater degree of swelling is observed prior to cell rupture, which may be due to greater fluid elasticity during the expansion process. This excessive expansion is considered to be a potential reason for its high coking pressure. 58 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Assessment of PAH-exposure among coke oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahakangas, K. [and others] [Oulu University, Oulu (Finland)

    1992-12-31

    Levels of BaP diol epoxide - DNA adducts in urine and blood were monitored for workers at the Raahe coking plant, Finland, and other relevant information was collected. All adduct values were low, but oven battery workers had slightly higher values than matched controls. Antibodies to these adducts increased somewhat after work at the plant started, no differences between smokers and non-smokers were found.

  18. Combined XRD and Raman studies of coke types found in SAPO-34 after methanol and propene conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wragg, David S.; Grønvold, Arne; Voronov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    oligomerisation (PO) reactions. The coke caused by MTO leads to two distinct sets of HRPD peaks which can be indexed by two SAPO-34 unit cells with different lattice parameters and coke contents. We believe that these unit cells represent different zones of the catalyst filled with different coke types. PO coking...... does not lead to splitting of the diffraction peaks. Raman spectra show differences between the coke types produced by MTO and PO with the same overall trend of increasingly polyaromatic coke with increasing coke mass. The intensity of the monocyclic and polyaromatic peaks in the MTO Raman spectra...... correspond to the phase fractions of the two cell types used in the Rietveld refinement, suggesting a link between the two phases and the two coke types. The PO Raman spectra have a stronger polyaromatic band at low coke, suggesting that polyaromatics form faster. In situ powder XRD studies suggest...

  19. Petroleum Gases Market in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.; Ozyoruk, B.

    2007-01-01

    and Europe. Therefore, Turkey is widely called as 'The Energy Bridge between the East and the West'. Turkey's natural energy resources are quite diversified; hard coal, lignite, asphaltite, oil, natural gas, hydro, geothermal, wood, animal and plant wastes, solar and secondary energy resources such as coke and briquettes are produced and consumed. Although Turkey's oil and natural gas reserves are limited, coal reserves are quite abundant. Energy forecasts show that primary energy demand would be 117 million TOE in 2005 and 156 million TOE in 2010. Turkey has a large LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) consumption, which ranks third in Europe and within the top ten in the world. Turkey's LPG market structure depends largely on imports. At the end of 2005, the LPG consumption was around 3.7 billion tonnes and about 80 % of this, which amounts to 2.8 billion tonnes, has been provided through imports.(author)

  20. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  1. China's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A.; Katsuris, D.

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum and natural gas resources, industry organization, production, pipeline construction and other transportation issues, refining and business aspects of the Chinese petroleum and natural gas industries were reviewed. The need for large amounts of foreign capital and western technology to stem the deficit in domestic hydrocarbon supply were emphasized as being responsible for the creation in China of favourable conditions for foreign participation in oil and gas exploration, and for the growing confidence for Western investment in China. The most important considerations for successful participation in the economic development of China include: understanding the roles of networking, cultural affinity and reciprocity; hands-on management; finding an appropriate business partner, agent/distributor, or joint venture partner; and understanding local peculiarities and customs. 3 refs

  2. Geopolitics of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebille-Lopez, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The unexpected rise of oil prices since 2004 reveals some structural weaknesses of oil markets in front of the evolution of demand. It conceals considerable stakes, more political than strategic, like the securing of oil and petroleum product supplies of big consumers like the USA and China. This demand generates deep changes in the relations between the different actors, from Venezuela to Russia, from the Caspian sea to the Arab-Persian gulf, from the Mediterranean sea to the gulf of Guinea. Terrorists, who try to destabilize markets using threats on petroleum infrastructures, add-up a risk dimension to the uncertainties. The author proposes a world tour of the main production areas, along the 'oil roads' where the main strategic manoeuvres take place. He shades light on the main power stakes: pressure, tensions, threats and deals, alliances, ruptures and potential conflicts. The complex and multiple motivations are explained. (J.S.)

  3. Denitrification of coking wastewater with micro-electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yanli; Wang, Yanqiu; Shan, Mingjun; Shen, Xue; Su, Ying

    2011-06-01

    The denitrification for the coking wastewater was conducted by means of original battery principle with Fe-C micro-electrolysis. Fe-C serves as positive and negative electrodes, by which N02(-)-N and TN were reduced to nitrogen, and then the purpose of denitrifieation for coking wastewater was realized. The influences of pH value, carbon particle size, Fe/C ratio (mass ratio), reaction time and coagulation pH value on removal rate of N02(-)-N and TN were investigated. Coking wastewater originated from Jiamusi Coal Chemistry Engineering Company. The optimum conditions of treatment were as follows: the initial pH was 3.0, the dosage of Fe 73.5 g/L, reaction time 70 min, mass ratio of Fe/C ratio 1.0:1.3, coagulation pH 9.0 and sedimentation time 40 min. Under those conditions, nitrogen removal efficiencies of N02(-)-N and TN were beyond 50% and 45%, respectively. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of unit risk for coke oven emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moolgavkar, S.H.; Luebeck, E.G.; Anderson, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    In 1984, based on epidemiological data on cohorts of coke oven workers, USEPA estimated a unit risk for lung cancer associated with continuous exposure from birth to 1 microg/m 3 of coke oven emissions, of 6.2 x 10 -4 . This risk assessment was based on information on the cohorts available through 1966. Follow-up of these cohorts has now been extended to 1982 and, moreover, individual job histories, which were not available in 1984, have been constructed. In this study, lung cancer mortality in these cohorts of coke oven workers with extended follow-up was analyzed using standard techniques of survival analysis and a new approach based on the two stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis. The latter approach allows the explicit consideration of detailed patterns of exposure of each individual in the cohort. The analyses used the extended follow-up data through 1982 and the detailed job histories now available. Based on these analyses, the best estimate of unit risk is 1.5 x 10 -4 with 95% confidence interval = 1.2 x 10 -4 --1.8 x 10 -4

  5. Identification of causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    The potential causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity were investigated. Chronic 7-day toxicity tests were conducted to demonstrate that oil sands coke leachates (CL) are acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia). CLs were generated in a laboratory to perform toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests in order to investigate the causes of the CL toxicity. The coke was subjected to a 15-day batch leaching process at 5.5 and 9.5 pH values. The leachates were then filtered and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-day estimates for the C. dubia survival were 6.3 for a pH of 5.5 and 28.7 per cent for the 9.5 CLs. The addition of EDTA significantly improved survival and reproduction in a pH of 5.5 CL, but not in a pH of 9.5 CL. The toxicity of the pH 5.5 CL was removed with a cationic resin treatment. The toxicity of the 9.5 pH LC was removed using an anion resin treatment. Toxicity re-appeared when nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were added back to the resin-treated CLs. Results of the study suggested that Ni and V were acting as primary toxicants in the pH 5.5 CL, while V was the primary cause of toxicity in the pH 9.5 CL.

  6. Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, M K

    2002-03-01

    Naturally found coal is converted to coke which is suitable for metallurgical industries. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced contain a large amount of suspended solids, high COD, BOD, phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances which are causing serious pollution problem in the receiving water to which they are discharged. There are a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). Characteristics of the effluents have been evaluated. The present effluent treatment systems were found to be inadequate. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. Ammonia removal by synthetic zeolite, activated carbon for the removal of bacteria, viruses, refractory organics, etc. were utilized and the results are discussed. A scheme has been proposed for the complete physico-chemical treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse and safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations involved in the treatment system have been discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale at various sites.

  7. Factors affecting coke size and fissuring during cokemaking part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrick Mahoney; Jeff Keating; Susan Woodhouse [BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    This work addressed the mechanism of fissuring during metallurgical cokemaking and extends on a previous ACARP project. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanism by an integrated modelling work; experimental program. The work points to opportunities for controlling the carbonisation process to achieve required outcomes in terms of coke lump size and distribution. Key outcomes of the work included: A methodology for determination of the minimum spacing between fissures, and the time at which period doublings (i.e. every second fissure stopping) occur, has been developed and implemented. Implementation of the methodology allows the determination of the complete fissure pattern (at least those perpendicular to the oven walls) for a given coke oven/charge configuration. A plausible mechanistic explanation of the formation of lateral fissures (those that are parallel to the oven walls) has been developed. Knowledge of the fissure pattern, combined with the lateral fissuring explanation, enables the determination of typical size and shape of lumps after stabilisation of the coke.

  8. The combustion characteristics of refuse derived fuels using coke/waste tire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M.H. [Dep. of Mechanical Eng., Samcheok Nat' l Univ., Samcheok (Korea); Shin, D.Y. [Research Center for Advanced Mineral Aggregate Composite Products, Kangwon Nat' l Univ., Chuncheon (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    Today every nation faces serious problems of energy supply. Reasonable technologies to make use of coal (including coke) can not only help the mining-related economy which is showing a downward trend but also may fit in with the governmental energy policy. In this research, we aim to supply heating systems in factories, homes, and farms with a substitute fuel by developing coke/waste tire compound fuel with high efficiency for rational use of energy and for recycling of industrial products. A coke/waste boiler was used for this experiment, and different kinds of fuel were experimented including coke, waste tire, coke/waste A and coke/waste B. Four kinds of exhaust gas were also sampled by a gas analyzer, including CO, CO{sub 2}, NO and NO{sub 2} at different temperatures. (orig.)

  9. Consumption of fuels and energy in the coking industry and ways of reducing consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, Yu.S.; Tsel' ik, M.P.; Belkina, T.V. (Khar' kovskii Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Uglekhimicheski Institut (USSR))

    1989-08-01

    Coking plants in the USSR consume 4,000 million kWh electric energy, 100 million GJ heat energy and 35,000 million m{sup 3} gaseous fuels per year. Structure of energy consumption is the following: 68% gaseous fuels, 24% steam and 8% electric energy. Processes of coal preparation, crushing, mixing, coking and quenching are analyzed from the point of view of energy consumption. The following methods for reducing energy consumption are discussed: using the FM-25 flotation machines for flotation of coking coal slurries, briquetting the whole coal charge for coking, optimization of air supply rates for combustion of gases used for coke oven heating, use of control systems for coke oven heating considering coal charge density, waste heat utilization from quenching. 4 refs.

  10. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  11. Deodorizing petroleum oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, A

    1906-06-14

    A process of purifying and deodorizing petroleum oils, gasolines, ethers, benzines, shale oils, resins, and similar products, consisting essentially in passing the vapors of the liquids with a current of hydrogen or of gases high in hydrogen over divided metals, such as nickel, copper, cobalt, iron, platinum, etc., heated to a temperature between 100/sup 0/C and 350/sup 0/C, the vapors passing before entering the apparatus through a column of copper heated to above 350/sup 0/C.

  12. Characterization of catalytically hydrotreated coal liquid produced by solvolytic liquefaction in petroleum asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, I.; Oishi, T.; Korai, Y.; Fujitsu, H.; Takeshita, K.

    1983-03-01

    A hydrotreated coal liquid produced by solvolytic liquefaction of a feed originally consisting of 66% petroleum asphalt and 34% coal liquid was characterized. The hydrotreatment was carried out over a Co-Mo catalyst in order to upgrade moderately and selectively the coal-derived fraction. The present process was found very effective to depolymerize rather selectively the coal-derived fraction, originally benzene insoluble, to be soluble in benzene in the dominant presence of petroleum asphalt, while 20% of the asphalt was converted to be distillable with ..cap alpha..-methylnaphthalene (the hydrotreatment solvent). Structural analyses of the fractions before and after hydrotreatment were compared to reveal what kinds of chemical reactions had taken place during hydro treatment. The major reactions of the coal derived fraction are hydrodeoxygenation and hydrodealkylation, both of which are effective for depolymerization. No significant hydrogenation on aromatic rings was observed. Hydrotreated liquid was further pyrolyzed to obtain oils and cokes of high quality. (14 refs.)

  13. Automatic combustion control of the ArcelorMittal Tubarao coke oven batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Barbosa de Oliveira Mello; C.-H. Sampaio Dandrea; G.-H. Marietto Goncalves; A. Estevao Torres; N.-L. Biccas

    2008-05-15

    The objective of the automatic combustion control is to guarantee the operational stability of the coke batteries based on the control of the coking time and consequently, minimize the reduction of useful life of the ovens. This control is guided by a mathematical model whose inputs are process variables and raw materials parameters and outputs are combustion parameters. Therefore, this paper will present the evolution of the performance of the burning process, providing a stability of the coking time.

  14. Use of petroleum code as fuel in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Cement industry is a very energy intensive industry. Each ton of cement produced requires 60 to 130 kilograms of fuel oil or an equivalent fuelling amount also requires an average 110 kWh of electricity as well over 40% of total production cost is the energy requirements in the cement industry (i.2). Normally oil, gas or coal is fired in cement kilns as traditional fuels. However use of waste, both as alternative fuels and raw materials is now common practice in many cement companies. Many different types of wastes are burnt today in cement kilns like used tyres, rubber, paper waste, waste oils, waste wood, paper sludge, sewage, animal meal and animal remains (i,4). The choice of fuel for the purpose is normally based on price and availability considering different properties of the fuel as energy contents, ash contents, moisture and volatiles contents. Petcoke is not yet produced in any petroleum refinery in Pakistan but it is abundantly available in the market worldwide as it is obtained as a waste product during the refining processes. The purpose of the current research is to figure out the suitability of petroleum coke as a fuel for cement industry both on technical and economic basis. (author)

  15. Graphitization of Coke and Its Interaction with Slag in the Hearth of a Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Yanxiang; Barati, Mansoor; Liu, Zhengjian; Zhong, Jianbo; Su, Buxin; Wei, Mengfang; Wang, Guangwei; Yang, Tianjun

    2016-04-01

    Coke reaction behavior in the blast furnace hearth has yet to be fully understood due to limited access to the high temperature zone. The graphitization of coke and its interaction with slag in the hearth of blast furnace were investigated with samples obtained from the center of the deadman of a blast furnace during its overhaul period. All hearth coke samples from fines to lumps were confirmed to be highly graphitized, and the graphitization of coke in the high temperature zone was convinced to start from the coke surface and lead to the formation of coke fines. It will be essential to perform further comprehensive investigations on graphite formation and its evolution in a coke as well as its multi-effect on blast furnace performance. The porous hearth cokes were found to be filled up with final slag. Further research is required about the capability of coke to fill final slag and the attack of final slag on the hearth bottom refractories since this might be a new degradation mechanism of refractories located in the hearth bottom.

  16. Properties and potential of formed cokes derived from two Turkish lignites by carbonization of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktur, K.N.; Lawson, G.J.

    1984-09-01

    Two high-sulphur Turkish lignites were briquetted at room temperature under pressures of 113 or 212 MPa and the briquettes were carbonized to 1158-1173 K over special heating cycles. The lowerrank lignite gave a formed coke of superior mechanical strength, lower porosity and higher sulphur content than typical blast furnace cokes. The formed coke produced from the higher-rank lignite briquettes had slightly poorer mechanical strength, lower porosity and much higher ash and sulphur content than conventional cokes. The products were considered attractive for use in non-ferrous metallurgy.

  17. Raising lump coke formation capacity of semicoking briquets in the Deuben briquetting plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naundorf, W.; Trommer, D.; Schroeder, H.-W.; Dressler, H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes brown coal briquetting and coking experiments aimed at producing high quality lumpy coke suitable for heating, metallurgy and other industrial processes. The Deuben coking and gas plant produces low temperature carbonization briquets from coal with 13.2% ash content, 54.8% volatiles, 13.5% semicoking tar with the effect that coke produced from these briquets disintegrates completely into fines (0/15 mm grain size). The study centered on effects of briquetting and coking parameters including coal grain size, coal moisture, briquetting pressure, coking temperature, heating rate and application of sulfite liquor as binder. Graphs of briquetting and coking results are provided. The Deuben coal was shown to be suitable for producing lumpy coke (11.5 to over 20 MPa compression strength) from coal under the optimum briquetting parameters of 0/1 mm grain size, 11% coal moisture, briquetting temperature of 70 to 80 C and briquetting pressure over 120 MPa. Use of a binder was found to be advantageous but not necessary. The produced coke showed favorable combustion properties. 6 refs.

  18. Properties and potential of formed cokes derived from two Turkish lignites by carbonization of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktar, K.N.; Lawson, G.J.

    1984-09-01

    Two high-sulphur Turkish lignites were briquetted at room temperature under pressures of 113 or 212 MPa and the briquettes were carbonized to 1158-1173 K over special heating cycles. The lower-rank lignite gave a formed coke of superior mechanical strength, lower porosity and higher sulphur content than typical blast furnace cokes. The formed coke produced from the higher-rank lignite briquettes had slightly poorer mechanical strength, lower porosity and much higher ash yield and sulphur content than conventional cokes. The products were considered attractive for use in non-ferrous metallurgy. 38 references.

  19. Combined effects of petrographic and technological parameters on strength of porous coke substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinel' t, V.M.; Shkoller, M.B.; Stankevich, A.S.; Korchuganova, G.S.

    1983-09-01

    The proportion of coke in modern blast furnaces has been reduced and at the same time ore burdens have increased. The coke itself now derives from a much wider range of coals. Laboratory tests related to the structural strength of cokes were carried out with charges composed of 14 representative coals. Results showed that vitrinite reflectance and bulk density were the critical parameters, followed by petrographic composition. Increasing bulk density of the charge from 0.6 to 0.9 g/cm/sup 3/ produces coke with a structural strength which counteracts the effects of increasing diversity in both petrography and reflectance in any one charge.

  20. On-Line Fuel Deoxygenation for Coke Suppression ASME GT-2002-30071

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spadaccini, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Fuel deoxygenation is being developed as a means for suppressing autoxidative coke formation in aircraft fuel systems, thereby increasing the exploitable cooling capacity of the fuel, enabling major...

  1. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging; System zur Emissionsverringerung beim Fuellen von Koksoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef [ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions AG, Dortmund (Germany). Head of Oven Machine Dept., Coke Plant Technologies

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  2. Investigations on high temperature coking of lignite with the help of radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, H.G.; Luther, D.; Abendroth, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    The time characteristics and the varying flow characteristics of fine-grained briquettes during the high temperature coking of lignite according to Rammler and Bilkenroth were studied with the help of radionuclide technique. The process parameters (tsub(V), zsub(R), etc.) refer to the different zones of the coke furnace (bunker/dryer, coker/cooler). The different time charakteristics of the coke-grain fractions formed during the BHT-process enables a correlation of the retention time and the quality factors of the coke. The results obtained would enable a better operation of the individual furnaces in the plant and offer the basis for further process developments. (orig.) [de

  3. Carbon dioxide emission in hydrogen production technology from coke oven gas with life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmistrz Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of Carbon Footprint (CF for technology of hydrogen production from cleaned coke oven gas was performed. On the basis of real data and simulation calculations of the production process of hydrogen from coke gas, emission indicators of carbon dioxide (CF were calculated. These indicators are associated with net production of electricity and thermal energy and direct emission of carbon dioxide throughout a whole product life cycle. Product life cycle includes: coal extraction and its transportation to a coking plant, the process of coking coal, purification and reforming of coke oven gas, carbon capture and storage. The values were related to 1 Mg of coking blend and to 1 Mg of the hydrogen produced. The calculation is based on the configuration of hydrogen production from coke oven gas for coking technology available on a commercial scale that uses a technology of coke dry quenching (CDQ. The calculations were made using ChemCAD v.6.0.2 simulator for a steady state of technological process. The analysis of carbon footprint was conducted in accordance with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  6. 2005 yearly days of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant, R.; Susbielles, G.

    2005-01-01

    14 articles are gathered in this data sheet; they deal with the opening address of the 2005 petroleum days; the hydrocarbons: the evolutive resource; the para-petroleum engineers and the Europe; the speech of Mr Francois Loos; the Shell global scenarios to 2025; the evolution of the gas resource and its uses; the French para-petroleum industry; Bernard Bensaid, Corinne Sagary, Armelle Saniere, economic studies, IFP; the contribution of the innovation and of the technology in the diversification of the hydrocarbons supply; innovation and diversification of the petroleum resource: the point of view of Total; research, development and diversification of the petroleum resource; innovation in services companies; innovation in study and development and engineering; the closing address of the 2005 petroleum days. (O.M.)

  7. Rapid production of metallurgical coke by a pressurized hot-briquetting method. Netsukan kaatsu seikei ni yoru cokes no jinsoku seizo no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Hayashi, J.; Noguchi, N. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Research Laboratory of Carbonaceous Resources Conversion Technology); Hashimoto, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-09-20

    Rapid production of metallurgical coke from non- and slightly coking coals was studied by pressurized hot-briquetting method. Coal specimens were filled into the mold after pulverizing, and heated at a constant temperature rise rate up to caking temperature under loading pressure to obtain caked coal specimens. Such specimens were then carbonized in nitrogen gas at 800[degree]C. As a result, the coke obtained was superior in compressive strength as compared with commercial cokes, however, its CO2 reactivity was very high requiring heating up to 1,000[degree]C to decrease it, while the reactivity was strongly dependent on coal kind. The optimum processing conditions for slightly coking coal were as follows; loading pressure: 10 [times] 10[sup 5] Pa or more, temperature range under loading pressure: 300-450[degree]C, temperature rise rate: 2-100[degree]C/min, and caking temperature: nearly 500[degree]C. No coke could be produced from coking coals because no volatile matter could be removed from it in a short time under pressure. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Development of the super coke oven for productivity and environment enhancement toward the 21st century (SCOPE 21); Sekitan kodo tenkan cokes seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Nakashima, Y; Nishioka, K; Otsuka, J [The Japan Iron and Steel Federation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Serious shortage is predicted on cokes for blast furnaces in the first half of the 21st century. In order to deal flexibly with the fluid world market in the future, it is necessary to have a technology developed, by which coals from coking coal to non-coking dust coal can be used. The Japan Iron and Steel Federation and the Center for Coal Utilization, Japan are working on research and development of a new process with enhanced environmentality and economy (SCOPE 21) as a coke manufacturing process to respond to the requirements arisen from the above situation. The process is assessed basing on basic technological seeds such as rapid coal heating and high-speed carbonization and reformation of middle to low temperature cokes. The organizations are moving forward an eight-year development program which has started in fiscal 1994. This paper reports the summary of the development, and results of investigations and researches performed during fiscals 1994 and 1995. Rapid heating tests, middle to low temperature coke reformation tests, and tests for plug transportation of high-temperature coal have been performed. It has been verified, for example, that rapid coal heating can improve coke strength. The development work is being promoted toward grain size distribution and upscaling problems. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  10. Basic petroleum research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesjoe, Bjarne; Stiksrud, Helge

    2004-01-01

    An overview of projects in the field of basic petroleum research (PetroForsk) is presented. A brief presentation of some of the projects is included, as well as political comments on the value of these projects. The research program Basic Petroleum Research (PetroForsk) was established in 1998 and ended in 2004. The program has been part of the Research Council of Norway's long-term effort in petroleum research (ml)

  11. Indicators on the world petroleum markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents tendencies of the petroleum industry market. It analyses the petroleum demand and supply, the prices elaboration, the petroleum market and the OPEC objective, the third petroleum crisis of the year 2000 and gives some data concerning the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  12. Selling petroleum to the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscher, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes

  13. Reference data about petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains the different taxes existing in France for the petroleum products (domestic tax on petroleum products, added-value tax), the share of taxes in the retail price, the differences with other European countries, the French Government fiscal receipts and budget. Some information forms are attached to this document and concern: the formation of fuel prices (upstream, refining and transport-distribution margins), the evolution of annual average transport-distribution margins, some reference data about world petroleum markets (supply and demand, prices, market data), and some reference data about the role of oil companies on the petroleum market. (J.S.)

  14. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  15. Effects of Coke Calcination Level on Pore Structure in Carbon Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ning; Xue, Jilai; Lang, Guanghui; Bao, Chongai; Gao, Shoulei

    2016-02-01

    Effects of coke calcination levels on pore structure of carbon anodes have been investigated. Bench anodes were prepared by 3 types of cokes with 4 calcination temperatures (800°C, 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C). The cokes and anodes were characterized using hydrostatic method, air permeability determination, mercury porosimetry, image analysis and confocal microscopy (CSLM). The cokes with different calcination levels are almost the same in LC values (19-20 Å) and real density (1.967-1.985 g/cm3), while the anode containing coke calcined at 900°C has the lowest open porosity and air permeability. Pore size distribution (represented by Anode H sample) can be roughly divided into two ranges: small and medium pores in diameter of 10-400 μm and large pores of 400-580 μm. For the anode containing coke calcined at 800°C, a number of long, narrow pores in the pore size range of 400-580 μm are presented among cokes particles. Formation of these elongated pores may be attributed to coke shrinkages during the anode baking process, which may develop cracking in the anode under cell operations. More small or medium rounded pores with pore size range of 10-400 μm emerge in the anodes with coke calcination temperatures of 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C, which may be generated due to release of volatiles from the carbon anode during baking. For the anode containing coke calcined at 1100°C, it is found that many rounded pores often closely surround large coke particles, which have potential to form elongated, narrow pores.

  16. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la

  17. Petroleum abundance until when

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum demand goes on to increase. In front of this demand the non Opec supply increases because of new positive explorations, new technologies and a reduction of exploration-production prices. With 10% of worldwide reserves, OECD insures 30% of worldwide production. With 18% of reserves, the non-Opec world insures 48% of worldwide needs. But a return on Middle East where are 65% of reserves is inescapable but it can be all the more brutal since non Opec world consumes its own resources more quickly. 7 figs

  18. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  19. Green Soap: An Extraction and Saponification of Avocado Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutheimer, Susan; Caster, Jacqueline M.; Smith, Simone H.

    2015-01-01

    An introductory level green chemistry experiment is described that places a new twist on soap-making in lab. In this experiment, oil is extracted from an avocado, after which the oil is saponified to produce bars of green craft soap. Commonly used extraction solvents, such as petroleum ether, methylene chloride, and hexane, are replaced with safer…

  20. Energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll in blue-green, red and green algae and greening bean leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1969-01-01

    From fluorescence action spectra, fluorescence spectra and absorption spectra measured at room temperature and at 77 °K of light petroleum (b.p. 40–60°)-treated and normal chloroplasts, it is concluded that: 1. 1. In blue-green and red algae energy transfer from β-carotene to chlorophyll occurs

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  2. Effects of Two-stage Heat Treatment on Delayed Coke and Study of Their Surface Texture Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ui-Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Seon Ho; Lee, Byung-Rok; Peck, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Doo-Hwan

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, surface texture features and chemical properties of two types of cokes, made from coal tar by either 1-stage heat treatment or 2-stage heat treatment, were researched. The relationship between surface texture characteristics and the chemical properties was identified through molecular weight distribution, insolubility of coal tar, weight loss with temperature increase, coking yield, and polarized light microscope analysis. Rapidly cleared anisotropy texture in cokes was observed in accordance with the coking temperature rise. Quinoline insolubility and toluene insolubility of coal tar increased with a corresponding increases in coking temperature. In particular, the cokes produced by the 2-stage heat treatment (2S-C) showed surface structure of needle cokes at a temperature approximately 50°C lower than the 1-stage heat treatment (1S-C). Additionally, the coking yield of 2S-C increased by approximately 14% in comparison with 1S-C.

  3. Pulsed corona discharge for improving treatability of coking wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Preis, Sergei; Kornev, Iakov; Hu, Yun; Wei, Chao-Hai

    2018-02-01

    Coking wastewater (CW) contains toxic and macromolecular substances that inhibit biological treatment. The refractory compounds remaining in biologically treated coking wastewater (BTCW) provide chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color levels that make it unacceptable for reuse or disposal. Gas-phase pulsed corona discharge (PCD) utilizing mostly hydroxyl radicals and ozone as oxidants was applied to both raw coking wastewater (RCW) and BTCW wastewater as a supplemental treatment. The energy efficiency of COD, phenol, thiocyanate and cyanide degradation by PCD was the subject of the research. The cost-effective removal of intermediate oxidation products with addition of lime was also studied. The energy efficiency of oxidation was inversely proportional to the pulse repetition frequency: lower frequency allows more effective utilization of ozone at longer treatment times. Oxidative treatment of RCW showed the removal of phenol and thiocyanate at 800 pulses per second from 611 to 227mg/L and from 348 to 86mg/L, respectively, at 42kWh/m 3 delivered energy, with substantial improvement in the BOD 5 /COD ratio (from 0.14 to 0.43). The COD and color of BTCW were removed by 30% and 93%, respectively, at 20kWh/m 3 , showing energy efficiency for the PCD treatment exceeding that of conventional ozonation by a factor of 3-4. Application of lime appeared to be an effective supplement to the PCD treatment of RCW, degrading COD by about 28% at an energy input of 28kWh/m 3 and the lime dose of 3.0kg/m 3 . The improvement of RCW treatability is attributed to the degradation of toxic substances and fragmentation of macromolecular compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  5. Canadian petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, J.H.

    1969-12-01

    This study covers the following Canadian petroleum industry categories: (1) a brief history; (2) the demand for Alberta crude; (3) U.S. oil policies; (4) overseas exploration; (5) the national oil policy; (6) the Montreal pipeline and its targets; (7) a continental oil policy; and (8) the impact of Arctic reserves. It is noted that large potential benefits will improve from the Manhattan navigating the Northwest Passage. Without prejudging the analysis now applied to the information gathered on this voyage, the Manhattan has greatly contributed to the solution of the problem of access to the Arctic islands. The picture for natural gas is less fraught with uncertainties. Unlike oil, where domestic and international considerations may weigh in U.S. policy decision, Canadian natural gas is likely to be allowed to enjoy its full economic potential in bridging the foreseeable U.S. supply gap and, inasmuch as this potential is ultimately tied with that for crude oil markets, the anticipated U.S. needs for Canadian natural gas may be expected to enhance U.S. interest in the overall well-being of the Canadian petroleum industry.

  6. The future petroleum geologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in July 1985, AAPG President William L. Fisher appointed a select committee to determine the capabilities that will be required of petroleum geologists in the future. His charge to the committee was based on the profound changes and uncertainties that were beginning to be felt in the industry and would surely affect the employment of geologists and their professional practice. These changes are well known: the supply of oil had exceeded demand, the price of oil was unstable, many companies were threatened by debt and buy-outs, and corporate restructuring was underway to meet changing economic conditions. All contributed to great uncertainty about the need and requirements of geological employment and practice. Specifically, President Fisher charged the committee to distinguish those elements of recent times that are cyclic and those that are long-term in their effects; to characterize the state of the industry for the next 25 years; to predict the capabilities that the future petroleum geologist should posses to meet the challenges of the future; and most importantly, the define the role of AAPG and its commitments to the membership under these changing conditions

  7. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the western part of the Kunsan Basin: Palynomorphs including spores, pollen and organic-walled microfossils and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods were studied for the biostratigraphic work of Kachi-1 and IIH-1Xa wells. Based on available well data, the rifting probably began in the Cretaceous time had continued until Paleocene. It is considered that compressional force immediately after rifting event deformed sedimentary sections. During the period of Paleocene to middle Miocene, the sediments were deposited in stable environment without particular tectonic event. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (II): The Nakdong and Jinju formations contain abundant black shales, and thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the final stage of dry gas generation. These formations also contain thick sandstones which can act as a petroleum reservoir. However, reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor (porosity: < 5%; permeability: < 0.001 md). In these sandstones, secondary pores such as dissolution pores and micropores can act as a tight gas reservoir. (author). 56 refs., 24 tabs., 68 figs.

  8. Petroleum and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    060,

    1965-02-01

    Substantial increases in demand for Canadian petroleum and natural gas in both domestic and export markets resulted in another good year throughout the main sectors of the industry. In February, production averaged 850,000 bpd, or about 8% more than 1963 output of crude oil and natural gas liquids. Construction began on the first full scale plant for the extraction of oil from the Athabasca bituminous sands. In 1964, exploratory and development drilling in western Canada increased 10% from the previous year. A total of 15.5 million ft was drilled, the largest since the record drilling year of 1956. The main oil field development areas in Alberta were the House Mountain, Deer Mountain and Goose River Fields, and the Bantry-Taber heavy oil region in southeastern Alberta. Oil reserves were increased substantially by waterflood pressure maintenance projects in many of the older oil fields. The largest oil accumulation discovered in 1964 was the Syvia-Honda Field in the Devonian Gilwood sandstone in N.-central Alberta. Two graphs illustrate the crude petroleum in Canada in millions of barrels from 1940 to 1964, and natural gas in Canada in billions of cu ft from 1950 to 1964. The outlook for the industry in 1965 is good.

  9. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  10. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  11. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  12. Coke properties in relation to charge preparation techniques. [Selective crushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, O S

    1979-01-01

    Selective crushing is essential to obtain the required coke properties, so that in the coarse fractions there is a considerable reduction in the middlings and dirt normally difficult to crush. These are at the same time enriched with vitrinite so that there is an increase in the coal substance as such, reflected in improved caking capacity in the coarse size range. Various methods of selective crushing are employed, including air entrainment mills, fluidised bed systems. Other advantages claimed for selective crushing are the uniform pore distribution and air permeability and also the diminished breakage stress.

  13. Processing of coke oven gas. Primary gas cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, H [Otto (C.) und Co. G.m.b.H., Bochum (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-11-01

    The primary cooler is an indispensable part of all byproduct processing plants. Its purpose is to cool the raw gas from the coke oven battery and to remove the accompanying water vapor. The greater part of the cooling capacity is utilized for the condensation of water vapor and only a small capacity is needed for the gas cooling. Impurities in the gas, like naphthalene, tar and solid particles, necessitate a special design in view of the inclination to dirt accumulation. Standard types of direct and indirect primary gas coolers are described, with a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Dependence of coke properties on the method of charge preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, O S

    1979-04-01

    Selective crushing is essential to obtain the required coke properties, so that in the coarse fractions there is a considerable reduction in the middlings and dirt normally difficult to crush. These are at the same time enriched with vitrinite so that there is an increase in the coal substance as such, reflected in improved caking capacity in the coarse size range. Various methods of selective crushing are employed, including air entrainment mills, fluidised bed systems. Other advantages claimed for selective crushing are the uniform pore distribution and air permeability and also the diminished breakage stress.

  15. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. 63.305 Section 63.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for...

  16. Modelling and Simulation of Coking in the Riser of an Industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling and Simulation of Coking in the Riser of an Industrial Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Unit. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The yields of LCO, gasoline, gas and coke that were predicted by the model for industrial risers were ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas

  18. The para-petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The para-petroleum industry includes societies that realize studies and installations for the deposits exploitation. This document presents the situation of the para-petroleum industry in 2001, the world investment growth of the activity, the french societies financial results and an inventory of the main operations in the amalgamation domain. (A.L.B.)

  19. Petroleum Biotechnology. Developments and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R.; Quintero-Ramirez, R.

    2004-01-01

    This book deals with the field of petroleum biorefining and biological upgrade of petroleum; it presents a critical review as well as an integrated overview of the potential biochemical processes, bridging the gap between academia and industry. It addresses today's demanding production challenges, taking into account energy efficient and environmentally friendly processes, and also looks at the future possibility of implementing new refinery systems

  20. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Binderless briquetting of some selected South African prime coking, blend coking and weathered bituminous coals and the effect of coal properties on binderless briquetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangena, S.J. [Division of Mining Technology, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); du Cann, V.M. [Coal and Mineral Technologies (Pty) Ltd, SABS, PO Box 73656, Lynnwood Ridge, Pretoria, 0040 (South Africa)

    2007-07-02

    The binderless briquetting of some selected South African prime coking and blend coking coals, as well as the effects of weathering on the binderless briquetting of some inertinite-rich bituminous coals, were investigated in the laboratory. Selected properties of these coals were determined and the coals were briquetted at various moisture contents and pressures. Based on the results obtained in this study, binderless briquetting was found to be most successful in the cases of the fresh, vitrinite-rich coking and blend coking coals and satisfactory in the fresh inertinite-rich Witbank coals. However, the bonding process seemed to be adversely affected by weathering. The negative impact on bonding could be ameliorated to some extent by the presence of a significant kaolinite content when the percentage ash reports in the order of more than 15% (air-dry basis). It should, however, be noted that kaolinite may reduce the water resistance of the briquettes. (author)

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  3. The new challenges of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernelle, E.

    2006-02-01

    Petroleum in in the center of our civilization: abundant, easy to use and energy powerful, it is used almost everywhere: transports, lighting, space heating, plastics, fertilizers, cloth industry etc. The 'black-gold' is the object of all stakes, from richness to power. However, petroleum is also at the origin of many evils: pollution, corruption, violence. Today, petroleum is a source of worries: how long will it last? How long will we be able to stand its impacts on environment? This book shades light on all these questions and supplies some concrete elements about this energy source. Content: technological challenges of petroleum; producers: powers and risks; consumers' dependence; to learn more about petroleum. (J.S.)

  4. 76 FR 52350 - Coke Oven Emissions Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Standard provide protection for workers from the adverse health effects associated with exposure to coke...' exposure to coke oven emissions, monitor worker health, and provide workers with information about their exposures and the health effects of exposure to coke oven emissions. II. Special Issues for Comment OSHA has...

  5. Enhanced specific capacitance of modified needle cokes by controlling oxidation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sunhye; Kim, Ick-Jun; Choi, In-Sik; Soo Kim, Hyun; Tack Kim, Yu

    2010-01-01

    The electric double-layer performance of needle cokes can be affected by the morphology of structures. Hence, we introduce modified needle cokes by using simple oxidation treatment. The degree of graphitization with high specific capacitance is controlled by acid and heat treatment. The active sites of cokes are increased with increasing oxidation time. Dilute nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and sodium chlorate (NaClO 3 ) are used for the activation of cokes. In this case, the interlayer distance is dramatically increased from 3.5 to 8.9 A. The specific capacitances are 33 F g -1 and 30 F ml -1 , respectively, on a two-electrode system with a potential range of 0-2.5 V. The behaviors of double-layer capacitance are demonstrated by the charge-discharge process and the morphologies of modified needle cokes are analyzed by XRD, FE-SEM, BET and elemental analysis.

  6. Repair of walls of coke ovens with a volume of 41. 6 m/sup 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyatnitsa, V.A.; Bulyga, N.I.

    1988-11-01

    Discusses repair of coke oven walls and the heating system of a battery with coke ovens 7.0 m high in the Avdeevka plant. The following problems are evaluated: types of wall deformation and wear, distribution of wear zones, zones with maximum wear, coke oven repair without cooling and with cooling, repair of cracks in oven walls, effects of wall temperature (in schemes without cooling) on repair, behavior of walls in zones of temperature differences, sequence of repair operations, repair of heating channels, specific problems of wall repair at the machine side and at the pusher side of a coke oven battery, methods for reducing repair time, materials used for coke oven repair.

  7. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke; Molienda asistida con microondas de un coque metalurgico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  8. Delayed coking studies on Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindhakannan, J.; Khulbe, C. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    This poster highlighted the results of a study that quantified the delayed coking product yields of Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil. It also investigated the effect of operating pressure and feed rates on product yield and quality. The effect of pressure on conversion of sulphur and nitrogen was also examined. Experimental results revealed that the yield of liquid products decreases and the yields of coke and gases increase as the operating pressure increases. Sulphur and nitrogen conversions increase with increasing pressure. In this study, the yield and quality of delayed coking products were not influenced by the variation in feed rates. It was concluded that feed rate changes do not significantly affect the yield and quality of delayed coking products because the residual liquid and coke trapped in the coker drum reside there for a duration that approaches infinity, compared to much smaller average residence time for vapor-phase compounds. tabs., figs.

  9. Significance and development of the utilization of brown coal high temperature coke in the economy of the GDR for the period 1964 to 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, E.; Heschel, W.

    1979-01-01

    Brown coal high temperature coke production in GDR in the years since 1964 is described. In 1969 the second large brown coal high temperature coking plant, Schwarze Pumpe, went into operation, increasing the total brown coal high temperature coke production to 2 million tons annually. Utilization of the coke size classes in mm from 0-3.15, 3.15-20, 20-31.5, 31.5-45 and greater than 45 mm in the metallurgical, chemical, and energy industries as well as for household heating is shown with figures from 1964, 1970 and 1974. The increasing use of coke in households partly as briquet substitution is also shown (in 1970 42% of the coke was used in households). The substitution of black coal coke by brown coal coke in additional fields of industrial production was also further advanced. Coke production at the Schwarze Pumpe plant is scheduled to increase to 1.6 million tons by 1985 by means of the application of improved coking technologies. Investigations for future industrial solutions to the following coking problems are being conducted: processing coke fines (which make up 10 to 12% of the total produced coke) by briquetting with binders into formed coke, firing coke fines in blast furnaces and power plants, mixed briquetting of coke fines with limestone for carbide production and mixed briquetting of coke and ore fines for metallurgical purposes. (8 refs.) (In German)

  10. Crack coke in layer heat transfer analysis; Kiretsu no shinten wo tomonau kokusu sonai dennetsu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Hideyuki [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

    1999-03-05

    The research method heat transfer process by physical change of the coke by heat transfer from furnace wall in the retorting of coal seam filled in coke oven and flow of the gas is very complicated chamber oven style, and it does not become clear. For the purpose of the elucidation of in layer crack generation and progress mechanism, he is (1) The expansion of the softening cohesive layer. (2) Programming rate dependence of the heat. Mechanical property value on coal seam and semi- coke layer in the retorting. (3) The creep property of softening cohesive layer and semi- coke layer. (4) The setting of crack growth condition of stress intensity factor in crack tip and fracture property value of the coke by the comparison. (5) By considering the radiative heat transfer in the crack, coke in layer thermal stress analysis was carried out. The validity of these analytical result it was confirmed by the comparison with the experimental result of crack growth. Deformation behavior in the small dry distillation furnace, and crack growth mechanism in the coke layer became clear, and the prediction of the stress as micro-crack cause of generation of heating surface side coke surface and inside became possible. The numerical analysis method of the above crack growth mechanism greatly contributes to the prediction of dry distillation heating requirement and grain size of coke lump which is an index to the coke quality. Heat on material process which is accompanied by the solidification. Contraction from the softening and material migration phenomenon have been clarified by the creative research method, while this research is directly useful for energy saving of pig ironmaking process of becoming one of the ringleaders of the CO{sub 2} generation. (translated by NEDO)

  11. Petroleum software profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A profile of twenty-two software packages designed for petroleum exploration and production was provided. Some focussed on the oil and gas engineering industry, and others on mapping systems containing well history files and well data summaries. Still other programs provided accounting systems designed to address the complexities of the oil and gas industry. The software packages reviewed were developed by some of the best-known groups involved in software development for the oil and gas industry, including among others, Geoquest, the Can Tek Group, Applied Terravision Systems Inc., Neotechnology Consultants Ltd., (12) OGCI Software Inc., Oracle Energy, Production Revenue Information Systems Management, Virtual Computing Services Ltd., and geoLogic Systems Ltd

  12. Petroleum and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In re-examining the effect of energy price shocks on the economy, this article applies several tests to show that the apparent coincidence between price shocks and poor economic performance may be misleading. For example, whereas macroeconomic analysis graphs of employment and GNP clearly indicate an apparent correlation between the 1979 petroleum price hike and economic downturn in the USA, Great Britain and Germany, Japan's performance stayed fairly constant during that period. Additional sectoral analyses of the performances of the western economies show that the impacts of the '74 and '79 oil price shocks were not equally distributed across the different industrial sectors of the various nations. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the energy-economy relationship is required to reduce these ambiguities

  13. 1992 petroleum software directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed especially for the petroleum industry. Each program listing includes a description of the function, language and memory requirements, operating systems, special accessories required, compatibles and pricing information. A separate section lists the more than 600 companies that produce and sell the programs. Companies are listed alphabetically and include address, phone, fax and telex numbers as well as contact names for each location. Many company listings also include distributors. This book includes information on Accounting/Statistics, Design/Construction/Engineering Graphics, Drilling Engineering and Equipment, Economics/Financial Analysis, Engineering, Exploration, Land and Leasing, Maintenance and Repair/Quality Control/Monitoring, Manufacturing, Maps, Marketing, Pipelines/Shipping/Storage, Production Engineering and Recovery Methods, Synthetic/Alternate Resources and Fuels

  14. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  15. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  16. Petroleum Business in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublin-Green, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  4. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa, G.; Guerri, G.; Calatroni, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Optica Cuantica)

    1978-06-01

    The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of 1000 m. The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. Basic research is being carried out using a 10 MW TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela's main export article.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  7. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  8. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a...

  9. Ex-USSR: petroleum activities in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on economy and petroleum industry in ex-USSR: Primary energy production and consumption (coal, petroleum, natural gas, primary power), petroleum and natural gas reserves, drilling activity, exports and imports of petroleum products, refining capacity. 2 figs., 14 tabs

  10. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  11. The Release of Trace Elements in the Process of Coal Coking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Konieczyński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury.

  12. Nature of nitrogen specie in coke and their role in NOx formation during FCC catalyst regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babich, I.V.; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, L.

    2005-01-01

    NO x emission during the regeneration of coked fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts is an environmental problem. In order to follow the route to NO x formation and try to find ways to suppress it, a coked industrial FCC catalyst has been prepared using model N-containing compounds, e.g., pyridine, pyrrole, aniline and hexadecane-pyridine mixture. Nitrogen present in the FCC feed is incorporated as polyaromatic compounds in the coke deposited on the catalyst during cracking. Its functionality has been characterized using XPS. Nitrogen specie of different types, namely, pyridine, pyrrolic or quaternary-nitrogen (Q-N) have been discriminated. Decomposition of the coke during the catalyst regeneration (temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and isothermal oxidation) has been monitored by GC and MS measurements of the gaseous products formed. The pyrrolic- and pyridinic-type N specie, present more in the outer coke layers, are oxidized under conditions when still large amount of C or CO is available from coke to reduced NO x formed to N 2 . ''Q-N'' type species are present in the inner layer, strongly adsorbed on the acid sites on the catalyst. They are combusted last during regeneration. As most of the coke is already combusted at this point, lack of reductants (C, CO, etc.) results in the presence of NO x in the tail gas

  13. PROBLEMS WITH DETERMINATION OF FUGITIVE EMISSION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS FROM COKE OVEN BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Bigda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Coke oven battery is complex and multifaceted facility in terms of air pollutant emissions. As far as stack or quenching tower does not cause major difficulties of emission measurement, the fugitive emission measurement from sources such as battery top elements (charging holes, ascension pipes or oven doors is still complicated and not fully solved problem. This article presents the discussion concerning main problems and errors likely to be made in particular stages of procedure of fugitive emissions characterization from coke oven battery (selection of sampling points, sampling itself, measurement of air velocity over battery top and laboratory analyses. In addition, results of concentrations measurements of selected substances characteristic for the coking process (naphthalene, anthracene, 4 PAHs and TSP originating from fugitive sources of coke oven battery and subjected to reporting under the E-PRTR are presented. The measurements were carried out on coke oven battery top in points selected on the basis of the preceding detailed air convection velocity measurements over battery top. Results of the velocity measurements were compared with results of numerical modelling using CFD software. The presented material is an attempt to cross-sectional presentation of issues related to the quantitative evaluation of fugitive emission from coke oven battery, discussed on the example of PAHs emission as a group of substances characteristic for coking of coal.

  14. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  15. Distillation of tar and tar fractions in the presence of surface-active coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeppelt, A; Klaus, J

    1943-01-01

    The tar obtained by low-temperature carbonization of Upper Silesian gas coke and fractions from this tar were distilled in the presence of different grades of coke dust with varying surface activity; the coke had been activated by steam in the course of its production by low-temperature carbonization. The surface activity of the coke dusts was measured by determining the heat of wetting with C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Tar and coke dust, both anhydrous, were mixed in a kneading machine in such proportions that the capillaries of the dust were saturated and enough ''externally'' bound tar was present to permit briquetting. The briquets were distilled without cracking and with steam as heating medium. The yield and quality of the distillate depended on the magnitude of the internal surface of the coke dust used; a mixture of a very active coke from brown coal and tar yielded a distillate with Conradson carbon residue of 1.34 percent, asphalt content 6.1 percent and eta/sub 20/ 5.4/sup 0/ E. as compared with C residue of 10.95 percent, asphalt content 33.5 percent and eta/sub 20/ 123.6/sup 0/ E. of the distillate obtained in the absence of surface-active coke. Even higher-boiling fractions can be improved by this treatment, although it is preferable to use oils with an initial boiling point below 300/sup 0/. The ratio of oil to adsorbent is not critical, but better results were obtained with higher percentages of added coke dust. The process in its present form is not suited for the conversion of crude creosote to useful phenols.

  16. Effect of oxide film of heat resistant alloy on coke formation during naphtha pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiratori, Nobuo; Hosoya, Keizo

    2002-01-01

    The coking of cracking furnace tubes has been an important subject of ethylene plants. The coke formations rate on the heat resistant alloys of 20Cr-4.5Al-0.5Y 2 O 3 covered with Al 2 O 3 oxide film and 25Cr-35Ni covered with Cr 2 O 3 oxide film during the thermal cracking of naphtha was quantitatively evaluated at temperatures ranging from 810 to 930 .deg. C. The experimental results showed that the coke formation rate on 20Cr-4.5Al-0.5Y 2 O 3 was lower than that on 25Cr-35Ni because of the difference of a catalytic activity to coke formation, especially in the case of a pre-carburized condition. Namely, the Al 2 O 3 formed on 20Cr-4.5Al-0.5Y 2 O 3 was stable even after carburization treatment and inert for catalytic coke formation, while coke formation on 25Cr-35Ni was under the control of catalytic coke formation, and carburization of 25Cr-35Ni accelerated catalytic coke formation. The stability of Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 in a hydrocarbon with steam environment was thermodynamically calculated in 0.1mol of steam, 0.2mol of ethylene and 0.1mol of methane at 1,100 .deg. C. The simulation result shows that Al 2 O 3 is exceedingly stable while Cr 2 O 3 could be decomposed partially into chromium carbide. Therefore, it is concluded that Al 2 O 3 on 20Cr-4.5Al-0.5Y 2 O 3 is more stable than Cr 2 O 3 on 25Cr-35Ni, and 20Cr-4.5Al-0.5Y 2 O 3 is more resistant to coke formation and carburization than 25Cr-35Ni in a hydrocarbon with steam environment at high temperature

  17. Panorama of the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2004: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. (A.L.B.)

  18. Gasoline from Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, A.N.; Zhizhin, N.I.; Musaeva, Z.G.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of gasoline from petroleum of Kumkol deposit are investigated by chromatographic analysis. It is found, that gasoline is characterizing by increased content of iso-paraffin hydrocarbons. (author)

  19. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  20. Petroleum investment conditions in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Schreck, M.

    1996-01-01

    This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)

  1. Petroleum and Water Logistics Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-19

    petroleum office ( SAPO ). The combatant commander JPO coordinates all agree- ments concerning bulk fuel support between com- ponent commands and HNs. For the...commander of the unified command through the JPO. The uni- fied command may also establish SAPOs at the subunified command level to provide in-country or...gency situations. PWRS are usually stored in theater and are monitored by the appropriate combatant commander JPO/ SAPO . MEF Petroleum War Reserve

  2. Colombian petroleum - A good business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    A great interest exists for Colombia, a country in which the statistics of petroleum and gas production, have been shot to volumes record; where 15 new contracts are signed every year, arriving in December from 1997 to an effective figure record of 107, a country that see grow their exports of raw; a country that every time has more facilities of transport and commercialization of hydrocarbons and it receives to more companies interested in sharing the risk in petroleum search

  3. The increasing environmental challenge for the Canadian petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, J.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental challenge facing the Canadian petroleum industry involves the increasing public call for a clean environment and a more intense pressure on the technological and economic means to achieve such an environment. It is estimated that the potential economic impact on the petroleum industry of national environmental response strategies under Canada's Green Plan could amount to ca $17 billion over the next 15-20 years. Leading environmental issues of relevance to the petroleum industry are toxic contamination of groundwater and surface land, particulates in the air, ground-level emissions such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, acid rain, oil spill prevention, waste reduction, and greenhouse gas emissions. Increased environmental costs pose a problem for the petroleum industry since profitability is suffering, due to oversupply and low prices. It is suggested that more attention is needed in three areas of environmental policy development in Canada: determination of environmental priorities, reflecting response strategies that achieve the greatest reduction in risk at an affordable cost; increased understanding of the links between trade and the environment; and harnessing of market forces to achieve environmental goals

  4. Prediction of operating parameters range for ammonia removal unit in coke making by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Hari Prakash; Kumar, Rajesh; Bhattacharjee, Arunabh; Lingam, Ravi Kumar; Roy, Abhijit; Tiwary, Shambhu

    2018-02-01

    Coke oven gas treatment plants are well equipped with distributed control systems (DCS) and therefore recording the vast amount of operational data efficiently. Analyzing the stored information manually from historians is practically impossible. In this study, data mining technique was examined for lowering the ammonia concentration in clean coke oven gas. Results confirm that concentration of ammonia in clean coke oven gas depends on the average PCDC temperature; gas scrubber temperatures stripped liquor flow, stripped liquor concentration and stripped liquor temperature. The optimum operating ranges of the above dependent parameters using data mining technique for lowering the concentration of ammonia is described in this paper.

  5. Production of oil and coke from sludges containing organic pollutants; Gewinnung von Oel und Koks aus organisch belasteten Schlaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steger, M [Martin Steger GmbH, Eggenfelden (Germany); Meissner, W; Herold, R [Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH, Freilassing (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Since the mid-eighties, Messrs. Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH at Hammerau, Germany have been investigating sewage sludge pyrolysis. Laboratory experiments and semi-industrial investigations led to the construction of a combined sludge drying and conversion plant (``Aicher sludge recycling process``), in which the organic sludge fraction is converted into recyclable or combustible oils. Carbon is obtained as a by-product in solid form as conversion coke which can be utilized. Apart from sewage sludge, also industrial sludges with high organic fractions can be processed, e.g. sludges and sewage sludges from petroleum processing. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland beschaeftigt sich die Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH in Hammerau seit Mitte der Achtzigerjahre mit der Niedertemperaturkonvertierung (Pyrolyse) von Klaerschlamm. Versuche im Labor- und im halbtechnischen Massstab fuehrten zur Realisierung einer betriebstechnischen Anlage mit den Komponenten Schlammtrocknung und Konvertierung. Ziel des Aicher-Schlamm-Recycling-Verfahrens ist die Umwandlung der organischen Schlammfraktion in stofflich und energetisch verwertbare Oele. Bei der Umwandlung entsteht fixer Kohlenstoff, der im festen Rueckstand (Konversionskoks) angereichert wird. Neben dem gewonnenen Oel ist auch der produzierte Koks verwertbar. Einsatzstoffe fuer das Verfahren sind neben Klaerschlamm aus der kommunalen Abwasserreinigung vor allem industrielle Schlaemme mit hohen organischen Anteilen z.B. Schlaemme und Klaerschlaemme aus der Erdoelverarbeitung. (orig.)

  6. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Designing Greener Chemicals and Specific Environmental Benefit: Climate Change Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Newlight Technologies, developed a net carbon negative plastic made from methane-based GHG. It is cheaper than petroleum-based plastic; used to make cell phone cases, furniture, and other products.

  7. Carbohydrate Green Chemistry: C-Glycoside Ketones as Potential Chiral Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Green chemistry" methods to produce new chemicals from renewable agricultural feedstocks will decrease our dependence on imported petroleum feedstocks and lower the environmental impact of consumer products. Our current research focuses on development of new carbohydrate-based derivatives, "locked...

  8. Canadian retail petroleum markets study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1998-02-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada and to set a foundation for effective policy development. The downstream petroleum industry, which includes the petroleum refining and marketing sectors, faces a poor public image, competitive pressures from U.S. and offshore refiners, and a broad range of environmental challenges. In this study, 19 markets representing a wide range of conditions were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. A market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators was made in order to identify market and regional competitive differences as potential issues or opportunities within the industry. The study also included a pump price/margin model and provided a general overview of the retail gasoline sub-sector in terms of infrastructure. A review of prices, margins and demand patterns over the past several years was also undertaken to show the relationship between consumer demand patterns and pump price fluctuations. The study presented 22 findings which led to several conclusions and recommendations regarding the competitiveness of Canada's petroleum marketing sector. Two of the key conclusions were that taxation is a significant factor in the price of retail gasoline (about 50 per cent) and that government intervention into petroleum marketing is likely to be a poor alternative to market-based regulation. 18 tabs., 37 figs

  9. On-line determination of moisture in coal and coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Sowerby, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    The CSIRO Division of Mineral Engineering is developing various techniques for the on-line determination of moisture in coal and coke, and some instruments are now commercially available. These techniques permit accurate and rapid determination of moisture in materials directly on conveyor belts or in bins. The most promising techniques for direct on-belt measurement of moisture in coal are capacitance and microwave transmission. A non-contacting under-belt capacitance and gamma-ray backscatter technique has determined moisture in coal to better than 0.5 wt% in field tests. CSIRO is developing a fast neutron and gamma-ray transmission technique, which is proving very accurate in laboratory tests. This technique overcomes many of the limitations of thermal neutrons moisture gauges

  10. Hydrogen separation from coke oven gas using PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, M.: Tanibashi, N.; Nishida, S

    1983-01-01

    Twin column apparatus was used to study the adsorption characteristics of various components of coke oven gas at an adsorption pressure of 5 kg/cm/SUP/2G. The following results were obtained. Over 99.99% Of the H/sub 2/ could be separated, and for this a 5 angstrom zeolite was optimal. Since the break-through order is H/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, CH/SUB/4, CO there is a tendency for the product H/sub 2/ to be adulterated with O/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/. Although there was a large adsorption of CO/sub 2/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, desorption was difficult, even under reduced pressure and H/sub 2/ flushing. Hence, the industrial version of this apparatus will have to include activated carbon. 5 references.

  11. Technology for beneficiation of non-coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    This article outlines the need for efficient non-coking coal beneficiation plants in India to cope with mass production from opencast coal mines. The existing use of magnetite in heavy medium separation processes is expensive and not very efficient in respect to removing shales from opencast lump coals. Instead a new technique is proposed using a ROMJIG washing plant developed in the Federal Republic of Germany. This provides a very efficient, low cost washing system for the coals and allows the continued integration with the coal blending plants. This simplified technology allows for flexible working hours to meet demand and will allow new developments to continue including fuel slurry pipelines, automated testing of coals and new pulverized boiler fuels.

  12. Structural variations and physical properties of lignin coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.

    1986-01-01

    The studied lignin is a by-product of the process of ethanol production from eucaliptus. It was heat-treated under inert atmosphere conditions at increasing temperatures from 300 0 C up to 2600 0 C. This material has about 35 weight % of carbon yield and low ash content (0.70 w %). The structural variations were studied by wide-angle X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering and infra-red spectroscopy. The bulk and the ''real'' density of the samples have also been determined as a function of the heat treatment temperatures. These experimental results enabled us to establish a mechanism of structure variation based on the formation of a graphite-like and porous structure within the initially amorphous lignin matrix. It has been possible to specify the adequate heat treatment temperature based upon the lignin coke applications. (author) [pt

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  14. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  15. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  16. Iran's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebneyousef, M.H.; Bogart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that during the past several years Iran's potentials have been forgotten or ignored by the outside world mainly due to misconceptions, fears, and political concerns attributed to the religious overtone. The intention of the authors is to introduction to the new realities of regional, as well as global geopolitics and the main political and economic aspects of Iran's huge and growing petroleum industry. The fact of the matter is that in the rapidly changing world order the need for a true stability in the region and a global cooperation has been recognized by Iran. The country, with a population of 60 million, is now preparing itself for the major political and economic role thrust upon the nation by the socio-economic changes in the integrating Europe; the outcome of the Iran-Iraq and the Persian Gulf wars, including the likely instability of the autocratic governments of Arab states of the region; the breakup of the former Soviet Union; and market changes in the Far East

  17. The new coke oven battery heating control system at Rautaruukki Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmu, P.; Swanljung, J. [Rautaruukki Steel, Raahe (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    The heating control system of the coke oven batteries has been developed strongly during the existence of the coke oven plant. The first step of the heating control was a statistical model which had a good monitoring system. This was enough in those days due to bigger problems elsewhere. The second generation heating control system is designed for irregular coke oven battery operation. Coke production in Rautaruukki Steel is based on one coke-oven plant consisting of two batteries and a by-product plant. The whole coke production is cooled by three dry quenching units. The first coke-oven battery was taken into operation in October 1987 and the second in November 1992. Originally the plant was mainly designed and equipped by Ukrainian Giprokoks except Finnish CDQ-boilers, German ammonia recovery process and electric and automation designed by Rautaruukki. Before building of the second coke oven battery, there was a huge amount of development and modification work to do, to ensure the proper function of the coke production. For example all electronic and hydraulic systems of the Russian supplier were replaced by systems designed by Rautaruukki's own personnel. When the coke production capacity was doubled, the only design by Gibrokoks related to the battery and one additional dry quenching chamber. The expansion project itself was managed and executed by Rautaruukki. The expansion project consisted of: the second battery, third CDQ-unit, Desulphurization and Benzol plants for the by-product plant and upgrading of automation system. Battery and CDQ chamber refractory materials were Russian origin and all other main equipment were purchased by Rautaruukki from western and domestic manufacturers based on the operation difficulties and experience of coke oven battery No. 1. These modification practices made a good basis for later development in the field of coke oven battery automation. The hierarchy of the coke oven battery automation at Rautaruukki Steel consist

  18. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  19. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available , beetles and spiders); and the number of birds that nest in vegetated roofs (including kestrels, swallows, and wagtails). Objective The primary objective of a green roof is to create a living habitat in an otherwise barren environment, hence the use... the negative environmental impacts including plant and insect specie loss. Thus at a philosophical level green roofs support the notion “replace what you displace”. Key ecological issues that can be addressed through green roofs include: Negative effects...

  20. Oil market structures-strategies and performances of the actors of the international petroleum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djermaine, Rebai

    1999-01-01

    The rises of petroleum prices as revealed by the oil crises of the 1970's are the consequences of a beside market perverse game between artificial factors. The public management and the intervention of public authorities have contributed to the unbalancing of oil markets and to the confusion of the actor's strategies in the international petroleum system. The chronical decay of the petroleum prices indicate the slow and silent come back of the economical forces (laws). The management of an exhaustible asset like petroleum, raises lot of intriguing problems. This work aims at exploring the problems linked with this type of management where the decisions of the profession, of private and public companies and of the governments are closely interfering. The study is largely inspired of the meso-economical approach which consists in examining the markets structure and their determining factors, and the strategies and results of the actors of the world petroleum system. The examination of the structures/strategies/results sequence does not neglect the relations and feedbacks between each of these elements. The economical theory of oligopoly and cartel markets is also used to examine the way how prices are determined in petroleum markets. A critical presentation of the energy models allows to show how it is possible to understand, foresee and control the evolution of these prices and the possible supply/demand equilibrium. The study takes also into consideration the debates and controversies about the 'green tax' and its impact of petroleum supply and demand. (J.S.)

  1. Petroleum product deparaffination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynenko, A.G.; Dorodnova, V.S.; Korzhov, Yu.A.

    1980-12-23

    In the process for deparaffination of petroleum products (NP) by treatment of them with carbamide (KA) in the presence of an activator (AK) and solvent with subsequent separation of the forming paraffin-carbamide complex (PKC) the NP is mixed with the AK at a temperature of 5-40/sup 0/ in an NP:AK ratio of 1:0.01-0.03 with subsequent addition of portions of KA at a temperature of 5-20/sup 0/. The advantages of the process in comparison with the known one consists in the fact that the process of complex formation is realized practically without an induction period, and paraffin yield is increased by 27% on the potential with a simultaneous decrease in reagent consumption: KA by 20% and MeOH by 35%. Example -- 100 g of diesel fuel (a 200-360/sup 0/ fraction) is mixed with MeOH (1.3% on the feedstock), which in the obtained mixture is found in a liquid droplet state. To the mixture 40 g KA is added (2/3 of the total amount of KA to be added). The complex formation temperature is held at 35/sup 0/. To the PKC practically forming at once 260 g of solvent (an 85-120/sup 0/ gasoline fraction) and then 20 g KA are added. The temperature is held at 20/sup 0/. The forming suspension of the complex is distinguished by uniformity and the absence of coarse conglomerates. The paraffin yield amounts to 11.8% on the feedstock or 74% on the potential. The melting point of the paraffin is 22/sup 0/. In the described deparaffination scheme according to the proposed process complex formation is carried out in two steps; in a third step the suspension of KA and centrifuged paraffin is separated; the KA is returned to the complex formation reactor, and the centrifuged paraffin --- for solvent regeneration.

  2. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    On the basis of diverse microfossils such as foraminifers, ostracods, micromulluscs, fossil spores and pollen and calcareous nannofossils derived from 14 drill holes, the sediments are divided into two part, the upper marine part and the lower nonmarine one. Marine part is subdivided into 4 foraminiferal zones and 3 nannofossil zones of Plio-Pleistocene age. In the lower part ranging from Oligocene to Late Miocene 4 palynomoph assemblages are established, which reflect climatic changes fluctuating between subtropical and cool temperate. Some fine sediments occurring in the South Sea continental shelf are rich in organic matter to be hydrocarbon source rock. The organic matter is mainly compared to type 3. However, lower part of the Geobuk-1 and Okdom-1 shows more oil prone geochemical characteristics than other wells. The kerosene is mixture type 1 and type 3 organic matter. The main oil generation zone located between 2,500 m and 3,000 m and gas generation zone from 3,500 m to 4,000 m approximately. Hydrocarbon accumulation could be expected in the trap formed in the period earlier than 10 Ma. as the hydrocarbon started to be expelled at 10 Ma. according to the modeling. Approximately 13,000 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 14 wells and gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to investigate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of southern part of offshore Korea. The northeast-southwest trending Taiwan-Sinzi Uplift Belt separates the area into two regions with different tectonic features, northwestern and southwestern regions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, tilted fault block, fault, unconformity, and rollover structure exist. This project is consisted of two main subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the continental shelf basin of the south sea. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (1). (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Kunsan Basin : Kunsan Basin is mainly filled with Cretaceous and Tertiary clastic sediments, and divided into Southwest Sub-basin, Central Sub-basin and Northeast Sub-basin by uplifts and faults developed in the basin. Microfossils were studied for the biostratigraphic works of drill wells in the Kunsan Basin. The microfossils include organic-walled microfossils such as spores, pollen and nonmarine dinoflagellates and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods. The fossil assemblages of the Kunsan Basin reveal nonmarine environments ranging from alluvial fan to shallow lacustrine and climatic variation between subtropical and cool temperate temperature in the arid/humid alternating conditions. According to the paleontological data, the Kunsan Basin was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and expanded during Paleogene followed by regional erosion at the closing time of Paleogene on which Neogene sediments have been accumulated. The Paleogene strata show laterally irregular thickness in each Epoch due to migrating depocenter. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Hapcheon area (I) : The Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup consists of more than 9 Km sequences of sedimentary and volcanic rocks in Hapcheon-Changyong-Euiryong-Haman area and occupies the middle part of the Milyang subbasin. The Supergroup can be divided into three group; Sindong, Hayang and Yuchon groups in ascending order. Based on rock color, the Sindong Group can be subdivided into Nakdong, Hasandong and Jinju Formations. The Hayang Group can be subdivided into Chilgok, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong Formations. The Chilgok Formation includes basaltic lava and tuffs in the upper part. The Haman Formation has Kusandong tuff (keybed) in the uppermost part in the Changyong area, whereas the tuff is intercalated below the vocaniclastics in the Haman area. (author). 60 refs., 22 tabs., 61 figs.

  4. Oxygen-containing coke species in zeolite-catalyzed conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaohui; Dong, Xinglong; Liu, Xin; Han, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Zeolites are the most commonly used catalysts for methanol-to-hydrocarbon (MTH) conversion. Here, we identified two oxygen-containing compounds as coke species in zeolite catalysts after MTH reactions. We investigated the possible influences

  5. Analysis of gas-phase mercury sorption with coke and lignite dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marczak Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of mercury emission became a widely discussed topic. Its high impact is caused by its toxicity and ability to accumulate in living organisms, properties that justified the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA to classify mercury as hazardous pollutant. The problem of mercury emission is crucial for countries like Poland, where the most of the emission is caused by coaldepended energy sector. Current technology of mercury removal utilizes adsorption of mercury on the surface of activated carbon. Due to high price of activated carbon, this technological approach seems to be uneconomical and calls for cheaper alternative. One possible solution can be usage of other sorptive materials obtained from thermal processes like coke production. Example of such material is coke dust obtained from dry quenching of coke. The aim of this work was to analyse the sorption potential of lignite and coke dust and determine parameters influencing mercury behaviour during combustion.

  6. Combined effects of petrographic and technological parameters on strength of porous coke substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinel' t, V.M.; Shkoller, M.B.; Stankevich, A.S.; Korchuganova, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken to study the combined effects of the basic petrographic characteristics of Kuzbas coal blends and the technological carbonization parameters on the structural strength of the porous coke. Strength tests were carried out on the original coke and the products of partial gasification with carbon dioxide under conditions simulating those inside blast furnaces. Properties of the 14 samples of Kuzbas coals and composition of the four coal blends made from them are listed. It was concluded that the structural strength of coke was most strongly influenced by the average reflectance index and bulk density of the charge. Also, charge compaction can largely offset the adverse influence of petrographic heterogeneity on the strength of the coke. 10 references, 3 tables.

  7. Current developments at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.B. Kamenyuka; O.N. Surenskii; G.E. Kos' kova; V.V. Derevich; V.A. Gushchin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Approaches developed at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction are considered. Recommendations regarding furnace construction and reconstruction are made on the basis of Ukrainian and world experience.

  8. Selective coke combustion by oxygen pulsing during Mo/ZSM‐5‐catalyzed methane dehydroaromatization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosinov, N.; Coumans, F.J.A.G.; Uslamin, E.A.; Kapteijn, F.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-oxidative methane dehydroaromatization is a promising reaction to directly convert natural gas into aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Commercialization of this technology is hampered by rapid catalyst deactivation because of coking. A novel approach is presented involving selective oxidation

  9. A small-angle neutron scattering investigation of coke deposits on catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, D.R.; Hughes, R.; Allen, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to characterize a silica-alumina catalyst before and after coke deposition. The reaction used to deactivate the catalyst was the isomerization of xylenes. The results showed that, while most of the surface area in this type of catalyst resides in the ultrafine pores of diameters less than 1 nm occupying about 7% of the sample volume, there appears to be no coke deposition in these pores. The coke seems to coat the solid structures of 3.3-nm diameter which are of capillary shape. Such structures occupy about 6% of the sample volume. The coke was found to correspond to amonolayer of composition CH 0.3 with a density of 1660 kg/m 3

  10. Microsoft PowerPoint - Walter Coke Comm May 19 Karen correction presentation [Compatibility Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contains slides from a presentation to Collegeville, Harriman Park, and Fairmont neighborhoods in North Birmingham, Alabama updating the community on the environmental sampling and next steps on the Walter Coke cleanup site.

  11. Morphological classification of coke formed from the Castilla and Jazmin crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picon Hernandez, Hector Julio; Centeno Hurtado, Aristobulo; Pantoja Agreda, Edgar Francisco

    2008-01-01

    A morphological classification of cokes from the Castilla and Jazmin Colombian crude oils was completed. These heavy-nature crude oils, after being fractioned during the refining stages, were physicochemical characterized and submitted to the coking process. The conclusions of this work are based on the characterization of the feedstock chemical composition according to the type of aromatic carbon. UV visible spectrophotometry and the corresponding micrographs obtained by a Scan Electron Microscope (SEM), in amplification intervals from 100X to 5000X for the samples of formed cokes, were analyzed. Results of this work allowed the determination of the morphological classification intervals in function of the polyaromatic compound concentration ratio (tetraromatic/triaromatic, and diaromatic/triaromatic) of the different coked feedstock. Furthermore, high content of calcium and sulfur in the feedstock promotes morphologies of the associated - shot type

  12. Structural transformations in thermal treatment of carbon material based on Slantsy coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyumentsev, V.A.; Semenov, P.V.; Podkopaev, S.A.; Noneshneva, N.P.; Golovin, A.V. [Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    Structural transformations occurring in a carbon material based on high-sulfur Slantsy coke during isothermal treatment (1200-2400{degree}C) under normal pressure in a nitrogen atmosphere were studied.

  13. The impact of multiphase behaviour on coke deposition in heavy oil hydroprocessing catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui

    Coke deposition in heavy oil catalytic hydroprocessing remains a serious problem. The influence of multiphase behaviour on coke deposition is an important but unresolved question. A model heavy oil system (Athabasca vacuum bottoms (ABVB) + decane) and a commercial heavy oil hydrotreating catalyst (NiMo/gamma-Al 2O3) were employed to study the impact of multiphase behaviour on coke deposition. The model heavy oil mixture exhibits low-density liquid + vapour (L1V), high-density liquid + vapour (L2V), as well as low-density liquid + high-density liquid + vapour (L1L2V) phase behaviour at a typical hydroprocessing temperature (380°C). The L2 phase only arises for the ABVB composition range from 10 to 50 wt %. The phase behaviour undergoes transitions from V to L2V, to L1L2V, to L1V with increasing ABVB compositions at the pressure examined. The addition of hydrogen into the model heavy oil mixtures at a fixed mass ratio (0.0057:1) does not change the phase behaviour significantly, but shifts the phase regions and boundaries vertically from low pressure to high pressure. In the absence of hydrogen, the carbon content, surface area and pore volume losses for catalyst exposed to the L1 phase are greater than for the corresponding L2 phase despite a higher coke precursor concentration in L2 than in L1. By contrast, in the presence of hydrogen, the carbon content, surface area and pore volume losses for the catalyst exposed to the L2 phase are greater than for the corresponding L1 phase. The higher hydrogen concentration in L1 appears to reverse the observed results. In the presence of hydrogen, L2 was most closely associated with coke deposition, L1 less associated with coke deposition, and V least associated with coke deposition. Coke deposition is maximized in the phase regions where the L2 phase arises. This key result is inconsistent with expectation and coke deposition models where the extent of coke deposition, at otherwise fixed reaction conditions, is asserted to

  14. Green thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank Woolsey, III

    Many people around the world have observed green light apparently emanating from severe thunderstorms, but until recently there has been no scientific study of the phenomenon. Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm suggest that they are some kind of illusion. The existence of green thunderstorms has been objectively demonstrated by recording spectra of light from thunderstorms using a handheld spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 and the spring of 1996 numerous storms were observed and spectra of the light emanating from these storms were recorded. Observations were made both at the ground and aboard research aircraft. Furthermore, time series of spectra were recorded as the observed color of some storms changed from dark blue to a bluish-green. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the occurrence of green light in connection with severe storms. Fankhauser gave some observational support to the belief that green light from thunderstorms is possible and believed that the source of the light is from the blue sky penetrating thin regions in the clouds. Fraser believes that light from the setting sun, in combination with the process of scattering by atmospheric molecules, creates the green light associated with severe weather and the thunderstorm acts only as a black backdrop. Unfortunately, no cloud illuminated by the sun is black and the green airlight produced by the Fraser theory is in reality overwhelmed by light reflected by the cloud. Often the unusual coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflection of light from foliage on the ground. The quantitative measurements made during the observation period fail to support these assumptions. We have observed thunderstorms to be green over ground that was not green and we have observed blue thunderstorms over ground that was green

  15. [Evaluating work intensity in major and auxiliary occupations of by-product coke industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagulov, N K; Alpysbayeva, Zh T

    2015-01-01

    The article covers evaluation of work strain in major and auxiliary occupations of by-product coke industry. The study results conclude that occupational activity of by-product coke industry workers, under exposure to occupational hazards, affects the workers' performance. Major occupations workers demonstrate higher level of functional strain of CNS, poor concentration of attention and lower ability to switch over, decreased general performance, vs. the auxiliary occupations workers who demonstrated increased cardiovascular and neuro-muscular strain due to occupational activity.

  16. Catalytic effect of lignite ash on steam gasification of oil sand coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Palmer, A.

    1986-06-16

    Steam gasification of Suncor and Syncrude cokes was carried out in the presence of ash obtained after burning Onakawana lignite. Catalytic effects of the ash were evident at 930 C whereas at 830 C little effect was observed. These observations were attributed to the combined actions of Ca- and Fe-containing species in the ash, in which the former neutralized the sulfur in the cokes to prevent poisoning of Fe oxides. 5 tabs., 5 figs., 15 refs.

  17. Improvements in the construction and operation of coke and other ovens. [Patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, H

    1883-01-14

    Into a room above the coke, superheated steam is let in and collects the distillation products throughout the charge into a tube or channel driven into the wall of the retort. The retort walls can be made of a double iron jacket in which water circulates. For emptying the retort, a wedge-shaped plate is used, which is pushed under the coke, thereby the latter is lifted and in large measure moved out of the chamber.

  18. Gasification in petroleum refinery of 21. century; La gazeification dans la raffinerie du petrole du 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The worldwide trends in the crude oil supply indicate a continuous increase of the heavy crudes. The increase in the yield of distillation residues is complemented by an increase in their sulfur content. Additional distillates are produced by upgrading the residues. The upgrading step generates final residues, such as visbreaking tar, coke and asphalt which are produced by visbreaking, coking and de-asphalting, respectively. The final residues can be converted to usable products such as hydrogen, steam, electricity, ammonia and chemicals. For this purpose, gasification has emerged as the technology of choice because of its superior environmental performance when compared with the competing means for residue utilization. Also, refinery sludges can be co-gasified with the final residues and as such, be converted to usable products. If integrated with the petroleum refinery, gasification can diminish any environmental problems associated with residue and sludge disposal. The economic indicators of the refinery can improve as well. The trends in deregulation of the power market enable petroleum refineries to enter this lucrative market either alone or in a partnership with the utilities. The potential of co-production of chemicals and steam with electricity offers the flexibility to respond to market demands. Gasification technology is commercially proven. Among several types, entrained bed gasifiers are the gasifiers of choice. A number of commercial projects in Europe, Asia and United States use a gasifier employing either a slurry feeding system or a dry feeding system. (author)

  19. Exports of petroleum products, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m 3 /d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m 3 . Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Exports of petroleum products, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m 3 /d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m 3 to 7,700 m 3 /d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m 3 /d, compared to 18,400 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m 3 . 24 figs., 4 tabs