WorldWideScience

Sample records for green peach aphids

  1. Response of Green Peach Aphids and Other Arthropods to Garlic Intercropped with Tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, R.; You, M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Vasseur, L.

    2011-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is an insect pest that causes extensive damage to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in China. Field trials were conducted in 2008 and 2009 at Longyan in the Fujian Province (China) to evaluate the effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a deterrent to

  2. Disruption of Ethylene Responses by Turnip mosaic virus Mediates Suppression of Plant Defense against the Green Peach Aphid Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Clare L; De Alwis, Manori; Bak, Aurélie; Dong, Haili; Whitham, Steven A; Jander, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Plants employ diverse responses mediated by phytohormones to defend themselves against pathogens and herbivores. Adapted pathogens and herbivores often manipulate these responses to their benefit. Previously, we demonstrated that Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) infection suppresses callose deposition, an important plant defense induced in response to feeding by its aphid vector, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), and increases aphid fecundity compared with uninfected control plants. Further, we determined that production of a single TuMV protein, Nuclear Inclusion a-Protease (NIa-Pro) domain, was responsible for changes in host plant physiology and increased green peach aphid reproduction. To characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we examined the role of three phytohormone signaling pathways, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene (ET), in TuMV-infected Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), with or without aphid herbivory. Experiments with Arabidopsis mutants ethylene insensitive2 and ethylene response1, and chemical inhibitors of ET synthesis and perception (aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine and 1-methylcyclopropene, respectively), show that the ET signaling pathway is required for TuMV-mediated suppression of Arabidopsis resistance to the green peach aphid. Additionally, transgenic expression of NIa-Pro in Arabidopsis alters ET responses and suppresses aphid-induced callose formation in an ET-dependent manner. Thus, disruption of ET responses in plants is an additional function of NIa-Pro, a highly conserved potyvirus protein. Virus-induced changes in ET responses may mediate vector-plant interactions more broadly and thus represent a conserved mechanism for increasing transmission by insect vectors across generations. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Effect Of Intercropping System On Green Peach Aphid Dinamics On Organic Farming Of Potato In Karo Highland

    OpenAIRE

    Lamria Sidauruk; Darma Bakti; Retna Astuti Kuswardani; Chairani Hanum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae Sulzer on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as conventional farming semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of potato mon...

  4. METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF RAFFINOSE-FAMILY OLIGOSACCHARIDES IN THE PHLOEM REVEALS ALTERATIONS IN CARBON PARTITIONING AND ENHANCES RESISTANCE TO GREEN PEACH APHID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te eCao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants employ energized loading strategies to accumulate osmotically-active solutes into the phloem of source organs to accentuate the hydrostatic pressure gradients that drive the flow of water, nutrients and signals from source to sinks. Proton-coupled symport of sugars from the apoplasm into the phloem symplasm is the best studied phloem-loading mechanism. As an alternative, numerous species use a polymer trapping mechanism to load through symplasm: sucrose enters the phloem through specialized plasmodesmata and is converted to raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFOs which accumulate because of their larger size. In this study, metabolic engineering was used to generate RFOs at the inception of the translocation stream of Arabidopsis thaliana, which loads from the apoplasm and transports predominantly sucrose, and the fate of the sugars throughout the plant determined. Three genes, GALACTINOL SYNTHASE, RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE and STACHYOSE SYNTHASE, were expressed from promoters specific to the companion cells of minor veins. Two transgenic lines homozygous for all three genes (GRS63 and GRS47 were selected for further analysis. Three-week-old plants of both lines had RFO levels approaching 50% of total soluble sugar. RFOs were also identified in exudates from excised leaves of transgenic plants whereas levels were negligible in exudates from wild type (WT leaves. Differences in starch accumulation between WT and GRS63 and GRS47 lines were not observed. Similarly, there were no differences in vegetative growth between WT and engineered plants, but the latter flowered slightly earlier. Finally, since the sugar composition of the translocation stream appeared altered, we tested for an impact on green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer feeding. When given a choice between WT and transgenic plants, green peach aphids preferred settling on the WT plants. Furthermore, green peach aphid fecundity was lower on the transgenic plants compared to the WT

  5. Transgenerational shifts in reproduction hormesis in green peach aphid exposed to low concentrations of imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali-Mohan Ayyanath

    Full Text Available Hormesis is a biphasic phenomenon that in toxicology is characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. It has been observed in a wide range of organisms in response to many chemical stressors, including insects exposed to pesticides, with potential repercussions for agriculture and pest management. To address questions related to the nature of the dose-response and potential consequences on biological fitness, we examined transgenerational hormesis in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, when exposed to sublethal concentrations of the insecticide imidacloprid. A hormetic response in the form of increased reproduction was consistently observed and a model previously developed to test for hormesis adequately fit some of our data. However, the nature of the dose-response differed within and across generations depending upon the duration and mode of exposure. Decreased reproduction in intermediate generations confirmed that fitness tradeoffs were a consequence of the hormetic response. However, recovery to levels of reproduction equal to that of controls in subsequent generations and significantly greater total reproduction after four generations suggested that biological fitness was increased by exposure to low concentrations of the insecticide, even when insects were continuously exposed to the stressor. This was especially evident in a greenhouse experiment where the instantaneous rate of population increase almost doubled and total aphid production more than quadrupled when aphids were exposed to potato plants systemically treated with low amounts of imidacloprid. Our results show that although fitness tradeoffs do occur with hormetic responses, this does not necessarily compromise overall biological fitness.

  6. Trade-Off Between Fitness Gain and Cost Determines Profitability of a Peach Aphid Parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Diwas; He, Xiong Z; Wang, Qiao

    2016-08-01

    Aphidius colemani (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is commercially produced and utilized for biological control of peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on greenhouse crops in many countries. To provide knowledge for the evaluation of parasitoid-host interactions and development of effective mass rearing programs, we investigated how and why host age or size affected fitness gain in A. colemani We show that the parasitoid was significantly more likely to encounter larger hosts and that an encounter almost always triggered an attack attempt. However, the attack attempt did not proportionally translate into oviposition because larger aphids had greater ability to defend themselves and the parasitoid spent more time in handling larger aphids. The host age at parasitization had no effect on emergence rates and sex ratio of parasitoid progeny, suggesting that pupae and larvae have similar survival rate in hosts of different ages and/or the parasitoid females do not adjust sex allocation based on host size. When parasitizing mid-aged hosts, the parasitoid gained maximum fitness for their progeny in developmental period, body size, and parasitism. Taking all findings together, we suggest that parasitizing mid-aged green peach aphid nymphs is most profitable for A. colemani. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Experimental test of an eco-evolutionary dynamic feedback loop between evolution and population density in the green peach aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Reznick, David N; Daniel Hare, J

    2013-05-01

    An eco-evolutionary feedback loop is defined as the reciprocal impacts of ecology on evolutionary dynamics and evolution on ecological dynamics on contemporary timescales. We experimentally tested for an eco-evolutionary feedback loop in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, by manipulating initial densities and evolution. We found strong evidence that initial aphid density alters the rate and direction of evolution, as measured by changes in genotype frequencies through time. We also found that evolution of aphids within only 16 days, or approximately three generations, alters the rate of population growth and predicts density compared to nonevolving controls. The impact of evolution on population dynamics also depended on density. In one evolution treatment, evolution accelerated population growth by up to 10.3% at high initial density or reduced it by up to 6.4% at low initial density. The impact of evolution on population growth was as strong as or stronger than that caused by a threefold change in intraspecific density. We found that, taken together, ecological condition, here intraspecific density, alters evolutionary dynamics, which in turn alter concurrent population growth rate (ecological dynamics) in an eco-evolutionary feedback loop. Our results suggest that ignoring evolution in studies predicting population dynamics might lead us to over- or underestimate population density and that we cannot predict the evolutionary outcome within aphid populations without considering population size.

  8. Aphid Transmission of the Ontario Isolate of Plum Pox Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, D Thomas; Vickers, Patricia M; Bittner, Lori A; Stobbs, Lorne W; Foottit, Robert G

    2015-10-01

    Utilization of timed virus acquisition access probes in studies of plum pox virus (PPV) transmission by aphids demonstrated that endemic species transmitted the virus readily from plum, Prunus domestica (L.) Batsch; peach, P. persica (L.); or dwarf flowering almond, P. glandulosa Thunberg., to peach seedlings. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), was shown to be the most efficient vector. Acquisition of virus by green peach aphids from infected peach leaves resulted in 18-28% infected peach seedlings, while aphids previously fed on infected leaves of plum transferred virus to 36% of peach seedlings. Although the spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola (Patch), was a less efficient vector than M. persicae it is perhaps more important for the spread of PPV due to its greater abundance and occurrence earlier in the season when peach trees are thought to be more susceptible to infection. Virus transmission rates varied depending on the virus source and healthy test plant species. In contrast to many previous studies, aphid inoculation of the experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana Domin occurred at a low rate, never exceeding 4%. Acquisition of PPV by M. persicae from infected peach fruit was greatly reduced compared with acquisition from leaves. The results of this research indicate that the Ontario isolate of PPV-D is readily transmissible by aphids to peach and natural spread of the virus needs to be considered in future management or eradication programs. © Her Majesty in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Changes in the free amino acid composition of Capsicum annuum (pepper) leaves in response to Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) infestation. A comparison with water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio-Ortiz, Victoria; Sellés-Marchart, Susana; Zubcoff-Vallejo, José; Jander, Georg; Casas, José L

    2018-01-01

    Amino acids play a central role in aphid-plant interactions. They are essential components of plant primary metabolism, function as precursors for the synthesis of defense-related specialized metabolites, and are major growth-limiting nutrients for aphids. To quantify changes in the free amino acid content of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) leaves in response to green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) feeding, plants were infested with a low (20 aphids/plant) or a high (200 aphids/plant) aphid density in time-course experiments ranging from 3 hours to 7 days. A parallel experiment was conducted with pepper plants that had been subjected to water stress. Factor Analysis of Mixed Data revealed a significant interaction of time x density in the free amino acid response of aphid-infested leaves. At low aphid density, M. persicae did not trigger a strong response in pepper leaves. Conversely, at high density, a large increase in total free amino acid content was observed and specific amino acids peaked at different times post-infestation. Comparing aphid-infested with water-stressed plants, most of the observed differences were quantitative. In particular, proline and hydroxyproline accumulated dramatically in response to water stress, but not in response to aphid infestation. Some additional differences and commonalities between the two stress treatments are discussed.

  10. Effect Of Intercropping System On Green Peach Aphid Dinamics On Organic Farming Of Potato In Karo Highland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamria Sidauruk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae Sulzer on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as conventional farming semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of potato monoculture potato with cabbage potato with mustard potato with celery potato with cabbage and mustard potato with cabbage and celery potato with mustard and celery potato with cabbage mustard and celery. Research carried out for two planting season. The first at May-August and the second at September-December. The results showed that M. persicae was consistently at different densities in different intercropping system on potato. The aphid was first recorded at three week until planting. The kind of intercroppingculture plants significantly reduced the number of aphid at two planting season. Intercropping system decrease population of M. persicae at potato. At 9 weeks after planting the decreased are respectively at intercropping potato with mustard 3.97 aphidleaf potato with cabbage and mustard 4.43 aphidleaf and potato with celery 4.45 aphidleaf. At 11 weeks after planting the decreased are respectively at intercropping potato with mustard 2.99 aphid per leaf potato with cabbage 3.10 aphidleaf and potato with cabbage and mustard 3.60 aphidleaf. At 7 weeks after planting the highest population of natural enemies Braconid wasp was found on intercropping potato with cabbage2.62 braconid waspplant and at 9 weeks was found on intercropping potato with cabbage mustard and celery 2.38 braconid waspplant. The highest population of Coccinellidae found on intercropping potato with cabbage mustard and celery 1.80plant at 11 weeks after planting.

  11. Responses of Russian Wheat Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) to Aphid Alarm Pheromone

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, P. A.; Pickett, J. A.; Vandenberg, J. D.

    2017-01-01

    In a series of laboratory tests, Russian wheat aphids, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), responded to synthetic aphid alarm pheromone, (E)-β-farnesene, by removing stylets and leaving feeding sites or by crawling out of test arenas. Late instars and adults were more responsive than early instars. In dose-response assays, EC50 estimates ranged from 0.94 to 8.95 mg/ml among 3 experiments. In arenas, D. noxia also responded to the proximity of cornicle-damaged nymphs of either the green peach aphid, ...

  12. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  13. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinildes Silva-Filho

    Full Text Available Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  14. A peptide that binds the pea aphid gut impedes entry of Pea enation mosaic virus into the aphid hemocoel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sijun; Sivakumar, S.; Sparks, Wendy O.; Miller, W. Allen; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-01-01

    Development of ways to block virus transmission by aphids could lead to novel and broad-spectrum means of controlling plant viruses. Viruses in the Luteoviridae enhanced are obligately transmitted by aphids in a persistent manner that requires virion accumulation in the aphid hemocoel. To enter the hemocoel, the virion must bind and traverse the aphid gut epithelium. By screening a phage display library, we identified a 12-residue gut binding peptide (GBP3.1) that binds to the midgut and hindgut of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Binding was confirmed by labeling the aphid gut with a GBP3.1-green fluorescent protein fusion. GBP3.1 reduced uptake of Pea enation mosaic virus (Luteoviridae) from the pea aphid gut into the hemocoel. GBP3.1 also bound to the gut epithelia of the green peach aphid and the soybean aphid. These results suggest a novel strategy for inhibiting plant virus transmission by at least three major aphid pest species.

  15. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Myzus persicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures t...

  16. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the Columbia Basin and Northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mathew L; Rondon, Silvia I; Walenta, Darrin L; Zeb, Qamar; Murphy, Alexzandra F

    2017-08-01

    Aphid species, such as the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, are routinely considered the most important pests of potatoes. Potato aphid, green peach aphid, and more recently, other aphids such as the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. have been identified as vectors of multiple plant pathogenic viruses in potatoes. Since 2006, an area-wide trapping network consisting of ∼60 sites was developed through collaboration between researchers, extension faculty, and stakeholders, to monitor aphid populations in the Columbia Basin of Oregon (Umatilla and Morrow counties) and in northeastern Oregon (Union and Baker counties). Over a 9-yr period (2006 to 2014), aphid specimens were collected weekly using yellow bucket traps and specimens were then identified and counted to determine population levels during the growing season (May-September). Thus, aphid population data were compiled and subjected to spatial and temporal distribution analysis. Weather data, obtained from an established network of weather stations located in the monitoring areas, were used in a nonparametric multiplicative regression analysis to determine which abiotic variables may impact aphid populations. Weather conditions were characterized using confidence intervals (CIs) established based on weather data from 1999 to 2005 for each environmental variable. Aphid populations were found to have a heterogeneous distribution in most years; a few sites had high aphid populations while low numbers were observed at most sites; aphids were also found to correlate with several abiotic variables, namely, elevation, previous season temperature, and previous season dew point. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Parasitization of commercially available parasitoid species against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, G; Skovgård, H; Enkegaard, A

    2014-12-01

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), is an economically important pest of lettuce worldwide. Little documentation exists for the control efficacy of aphid parasitoids against N. ribisnigri. This laboratory study evaluated three commercially available parasitoid species: Aphidius colemani (Viereck), Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson), and Aphelinus abdominalis (Dalman) for their mortality impact on N. ribisnigri. The green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was included as a reference aphid. The study showed that A. abdominalis successfully parasitized 39 and 13% of the offered N. ribisnigri and M. persicae, respectively, within a 24-h exposure period. In contrast, none of the lettuce aphids exposed to Ap. colemani or L. testaceipes were successfully parasitized, whereas 60 and 3.5% of M. persicae, respectively, were successfully parasitized within a 6-h exposure period. Lettuce aphid mortality due to incomplete parasitization was 26 and 31% when exposed to Ap. colemani and L. testaceipes, respectively, with corresponding values for M. persicae being 5 and 10%, respectively. Mortality as a result of incomplete parasitization when aphids were exposed to A. abdominalis was low for both aphid species. The total mortality inflicted by A. abdominalis within a 24-h exposure period was 51% for the lettuce aphids and significantly less (19%) for green peach aphids. In contrast, Ap. colemani inflicted a higher mortality in M. persicae (65%) compared with N. ribisnigri (26%) within a 6-h exposure period. L. testaceipes caused a greater mortality in N. ribisnigri as compared with M. persicae. This study concludes that A. abdominalis has the potential to be used against N. ribisnigri in inoculative biocontrol programs as compared with the other parasitoid species based on successful parasitization.

  18. Arabidopsis thaliana - Myzus persicae interaction: shaping the understanding of plant defense against phloem-feeding aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe eLouis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem provides a unique niche for several organisms. Aphids are a large group of Hemipteran insects that utilize stylets present in their mouthparts to pierce sieve elements and drink large volumes of phloem sap. In addition, many aphids also vector viral diseases. Myzus persicae, commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA, is an important pest of a large variety of plants that includes Arabidopsis thaliana. This review summarizes recent studies that have exploited the compatible interaction between Arabidopsis and GPA to understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms utilized by plants to control aphid infestation, as well as genes and mechanisms that contribute to susceptibility. In addition, recent efforts to identify aphid-delivered elicitors of plant defenses and novel aphid salivary components that facilitate infestation are also discussed.

  19. Microsatellite marker analysis of peach-potato aphids (Myzus persicae, Homoptera: Aphididae) from Scottish suction traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, G; Highet, F; Kasprowicz, L; Pickup, J; Neilson, R; Fenton, B

    2006-12-01

    The peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important vector of plant viruses. A network of suction traps collects aerial samples of this aphid in order to monitor and help predict its spatial distribution and likely impact on virus transmission in crops. A suction trap catch is thought to be a good representation of the total aphid pool. Sensitive molecular markers have been developed that determine the genetic composition of the M. persicae population. In Scotland, UK, these were applied to field collections revealing a limited number of clones. Molecular markers are less successful when applied to specimens that have been preserved in an ethanol-based trap fluid designed to preserve morphology. An assessment of different DNA extraction and PCR techniques is presented and the most efficient are used to analyse M. persicae specimens caught in the Dundee suction trap in 2001, a year when exceptionally high numbers were caught. The results reveal that the majority of the M. persicae caught belonged to two highly insecticide resistant clones. In addition, it was possible to compare the relative frequencies of genotypes caught in the trap with those collected at insecticide treated and untreated field sites in the vicinity. These results indicate that, in addition to suction trap data, the ability to sample field sites provides valuable early warning data which have implications for pest control and virus management strategies.

  20. The Potato Aphid Salivary Effector Me47 Is a Glutathione-S-Transferase Involved in Modifying Plant Responses to Aphid Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, Graeme J; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2016-01-01

    Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however, the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculated that these proteins function in a manner analagous to secreted effectors from phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes. Here, we describe a novel aphid effector (Me47) which was identified from the potato aphid salivary secretome as a putative glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Expression of Me47 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced reproductive performance of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Similarly, delivery of Me47 into leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by Pseudomonas spp. enhanced potato aphid fecundity. In contrast, delivery of Me47 into Arabidopsis thaliana reduced GPA reproductive performance, indicating that Me47 impacts the outcome of plant-aphid interactions differently depending on the host species. Delivery of Me47 by the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens revealed that Me47 protein or activity triggers defense gene transcriptional upregulation in tomato but not Arabidopsis. Recombinant Me47 was purified and demonstrated to have GST activity against two specific isothiocyanates (ITCs), compounds implicated in herbivore defense. Whilst GSTs have previously been associated with development of aphid resistance to synthetic insecticides, the findings described here highlight a novel function as both an elicitor and suppressor of plant defense when delivered into host tissues.

  1. The Nerium oleander aphid Aphis nerii is tolerant to a local isolate of Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovsky, Aviv; Luria, Neta

    2013-04-01

    In a survey that was conducted during the year 2011, a local strain of Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) was identified and isolated from a wild population of Aphis nerii aphids living on Nerium oleander plants located in northern Israel. The new strain was tentatively named (ALPV-An). RNA extracted from the viral particles allowed the amplification and determination of the complete genome sequence. The virus genome is comprised of 9835 nucleotides. In a BLAST search analysis, the ALPV-An sequence showed 89 % nucleotide sequence identity with the whole genome of a South African ALPV and 96 and 94 % amino acid sequence identity with the ORF1 and ORF2 of that strain, respectively. In preliminary experiments, spray-applied, purified ALPV virions were highly pathogenic to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae; 95 % mortality was recorded 4 days post-infection. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of ALPV for use as a biologic agent for some aphid control. Surprisingly, no visible ALPV pathogenic effects, such as morphological changes or paralysis, were observed in the A. nerii aphids infected with ALPV-An. The absence of clear ALPV symptoms in A. nerii led to the formulation of two hypotheses, which were partially examined in this study. The first hypothesis suggest that A. nerii is resistant or tolerant of ALPV, while the second hypothesis propose that ALPV-An may be a mild strain of ALPV. Currently, our results is in favor with the first hypothesis since ALPV-An is cryptic in A. nerii aphids and can be lethal for M. persicae aphids.

  2. Infestation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) alters cellular redox status and is influenced by ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchev, Pavel I; Fenton, Brian; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    The peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) is a major pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) but the molecular characterization of this interaction particularly with regard to oxidants and antioxidants remains to be undertaken. Aphid colonies reared on potato leaves containing high ascorbate were twice the size of those grown on leaves with low ascorbate. Infestation-dependent decreases in the abundance of key transcripts such as chloroplastic FeSOD, peroxisomal catalase 2, PR1 and JAZ1 preceded detectable leaf H(2)O(2) or polyphenol accumulation. The leaf glutathione pool was increased 48 h after infestation, but the amount of ascorbate was unchanged. The ascorbate/dehydroacorbate (DHA) ratio was lower at 48 h but the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was unchanged. While DHA reductase and GSSG reductase activities were unaffected by aphid feeding, non-specific peroxidase activities were enhanced 48 h following aphid infestation. Brown ethanol-insoluble deposits were observed close to leaf veins following aphid infestation. Taken together, the results demonstrate that high ascorbate favours aphid colony expansion and that perturbations in the leaf antioxidant system are intrinsic to the potato leaf response to aphids. Moreover, these changes together with the induction of hormone-related transcripts precede the deposition of defence-associated oxidized polyphenols along the stylet track. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The potato aphid salivary effector Me47 is a glutathione-S-transferase involved in modifying plant responses to aphid infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme James Kettles

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculated that these proteins function in a manner analagous to secreted effectors from phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes. Here we describe a novel aphid effector (Me47 which was identified from the potato aphid salivary secretome as a putative glutathione-S-transferase (GST. Expression of Me47 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced reproductive performance of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae. Similarly, delivery of Me47 into leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum by Pseudomonas spp. enhanced potato aphid fecundity. In contrast, delivery of Me47 into Arabidopsis thaliana reduced GPA reproductive performance, indicating that Me47 impacts the outcome of plant-aphid interactions differently depending on the host species. Delivery of Me47 by the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens revealed that Me47 protein or activity triggers defense gene transcriptional upregulation in tomato but not Arabidopsis. Recombinant Me47 was purified and demonstrated to have GST activity against two specific isothiocyanates (ITCs, compounds implicated in herbivore defense. Whilst GSTs have previously been associated with development of aphid resistance to synthetic insecticides, the findings described here highlight a novel function as both an elicitor and suppressor of plant defense when delivered into host tissues.

  4. Harpin-induced expression and transgenic overexpression of the phloem protein gene AtPP2-A1 in Arabidopsis repress phloem feeding of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of plants with HrpNEa, a protein of harpin group produced by Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria, induces plant resistance to insect herbivores, including the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, a generalist phloem-feeding insect. Under attacks by phloem-feeding insects, plants defend themselves using the phloem-based defense mechanism, which is supposed to involve the phloem protein 2 (PP2, one of the most abundant proteins in the phloem sap. The purpose of this study was to obtain genetic evidence for the function of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis PP2-encoding gene AtPP2-A1 in resistance to M. persicae when the plant was treated with HrpNEa and after the plant was transformed with AtPP2-A1. Results The electrical penetration graph technique was used to visualize the phloem-feeding activities of apterous agamic M. persicae females on leaves of Arabidopsis plants treated with HrpNEa and an inactive protein control, respectively. A repression of phloem feeding was induced by HrpNEa in wild-type (WT Arabidopsis but not in atpp2-a1/E/142, the plant mutant that had a defect in the AtPP2-A1 gene, the most HrpNEa-responsive of 30 AtPP2 genes. In WT rather than atpp2-a1/E/142, the deterrent effect of HrpNEa treatment on the phloem-feeding activity accompanied an enhancement of AtPP2-A1 expression. In PP2OETAt (AtPP2-A1-overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants, abundant amounts of the AtPP2-A1 gene transcript were detected in different organs, including leaves, stems, calyces, and petals. All these organs had a deterrent effect on the phloem-feeding activity compared with the same organs of the transgenic control plant. When a large-scale aphid population was monitored for 24 hours, there was a significant decrease in the number of aphids that colonized leaves of HrpNEa-treated WT and PP2OETAt plants, respectively, compared with control plants. Conclusions The repression in phloem-feeding activities of

  5. Harpin-induced expression and transgenic overexpression of the phloem protein gene AtPP2-A1 in Arabidopsis repress phloem feeding of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunling; Shi, Haojie; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xiaomeng; Lü, Beibei; Zhang, Shuping; Liang, Yuan; Liu, Ruoxue; Qian, Jun; Sun, Weiwei; You, Zhenzhen; Dong, Hansong

    2011-01-13

    Treatment of plants with HrpNEa, a protein of harpin group produced by Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria, induces plant resistance to insect herbivores, including the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, a generalist phloem-feeding insect. Under attacks by phloem-feeding insects, plants defend themselves using the phloem-based defense mechanism, which is supposed to involve the phloem protein 2 (PP2), one of the most abundant proteins in the phloem sap. The purpose of this study was to obtain genetic evidence for the function of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) PP2-encoding gene AtPP2-A1 in resistance to M. persicae when the plant was treated with HrpNEa and after the plant was transformed with AtPP2-A1. The electrical penetration graph technique was used to visualize the phloem-feeding activities of apterous agamic M. persicae females on leaves of Arabidopsis plants treated with HrpNEa and an inactive protein control, respectively. A repression of phloem feeding was induced by HrpNEa in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis but not in atpp2-a1/E/142, the plant mutant that had a defect in the AtPP2-A1 gene, the most HrpNEa-responsive of 30 AtPP2 genes. In WT rather than atpp2-a1/E/142, the deterrent effect of HrpNEa treatment on the phloem-feeding activity accompanied an enhancement of AtPP2-A1 expression. In PP2OETAt (AtPP2-A1-overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana) plants, abundant amounts of the AtPP2-A1 gene transcript were detected in different organs, including leaves, stems, calyces, and petals. All these organs had a deterrent effect on the phloem-feeding activity compared with the same organs of the transgenic control plant. When a large-scale aphid population was monitored for 24 hours, there was a significant decrease in the number of aphids that colonized leaves of HrpNEa-treated WT and PP2OETAt plants, respectively, compared with control plants. The repression in phloem-feeding activities of M. persicae as a result of AtPP2-A1 overexpression, and

  6. Hairy nightshade as a potential Potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) inoculum source in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Alvarez, J M

    2008-09-01

    Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, is a solanaceous weed found abundantly in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems. It serves as a reservoir for one of the important potato viruses, Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus), and its most important vector, the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Laboratory research indicated an increased green peach aphid settling and performance on S. sarrachoides than on potato. It also revealed that green peach aphids transmitted PLRV more efficiently from S. sarrachoides to potato than from potato to potato. To test the efficiency of S. sarrachoides as an inoculum source in the field, a two season (2004 and 2005) trial was conducted at Kimberly, Idaho. Two inoculum sources, PLRV-infected potato and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides, were compared in this trial. Green peach aphid density and temporal and spatial PLRV spread were monitored at weekly intervals. Higher densities of green peach aphids were observed on plots with S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources (PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato) than on plots without S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources. PLRV infection in plots with PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides was similar to or slightly higher than in plots with PLRV-infected potato as an inoculum source. Temporal and spatial PLRV spread was similar in plots with either inoculum source. Thus, S. sarrachoides is as efficient as or a better PLRV inoculum source than potato.

  7. The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: Preference between Lettuce Aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ? 1? C and 70 ? 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar...

  8. The evolution of insecticide resistance in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Puinean, Alin M; Zimmer, Christoph T; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M; Foster, Stephen P; Gutbrod, Oliver; Nauen, Ralf; Slater, Russell; Williamson, Martin S

    2014-08-01

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae is a globally distributed crop pest with a host range of over 400 species including many economically important crop plants. The intensive use of insecticides to control this species over many years has led to populations that are now resistant to several classes of insecticide. Work spanning over 40 years has shown that M. persicae has a remarkable ability to evolve mechanisms that avoid or overcome the toxic effect of insecticides with at least seven independent mechanisms of resistance described in this species to date. The array of novel resistance mechanisms, including several 'first examples', that have evolved in this species represents an important case study for the evolution of insecticide resistance and also rapid adaptive change in insects more generally. In this review we summarise the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance in M. persicae and the insights study of this topic has provided on how resistance evolves, the selectivity of insecticides, and the link between resistance and host plant adaptation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Ecological effects of aphid abundance, genotypic variation, and contemporary evolution on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-07-01

    Genetic variation and contemporary evolution within populations can shape the strength and nature of species interactions, but the relative importance of these forces compared to other ecological factors is unclear. We conducted a field experiment testing the effects of genotypic variation, abundance, and presence/absence of green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) on the growth, leaf nitrogen, and carbon of two plant species (Brassica napus and Solanum nigrum). Aphid genotype affected B. napus but not S. nigrum biomass explaining 20 and 7% of the total variation, respectively. Averaging across both plant species, the presence/absence of aphids had a 1.6× larger effect size (Cohen's d) than aphid genotype, and aphid abundance had the strongest negative effects on plant biomass explaining 29% of the total variation. On B. napus, aphid genotypes had different effects on leaf nitrogen depending on their abundance. Aphids did not influence leaf nitrogen in S. nigrum nor leaf carbon in either species. We conducted a second experiment in the field to test whether contemporary evolution could affect plant performance. Aphid populations evolved in as little as five generations, but the rate and direction of this evolution did not consistently vary between plant species. On one host species (B. napus), faster evolving populations had greater negative effects on host plant biomass, with aphid evolutionary rate explaining 23% of the variation in host plant biomass. Together, these results show that genetic variation and evolution in an insect herbivore can play important roles in shaping host plant ecology.

  10. AtWRKY22 promotes susceptibility to aphids and modulates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Karen J; Wiegers, Gerrie L; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; van Haarst, Jan C; Kruijer, Willem; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2016-05-01

    Aphids induce many transcriptional perturbations in their host plants, but the signalling cascades responsible and the effects on plant resistance are largely unknown. Through a genome-wide association (GWA) mapping study in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified WRKY22 as a candidate gene associated with feeding behaviour of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae The transcription factor WRKY22 is known to be involved in pathogen-triggered immunity, and WRKY22 gene expression has been shown to be induced by aphids. Assessment of aphid population development and feeding behaviour on knockout mutants and overexpression lines showed that WRKY22 increases susceptibility to M. persicae via a mesophyll-located mechanism. mRNA sequencing analysis of aphid-infested wrky22 knockout plants revealed the up-regulation of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) signalling and down-regulation of genes involved in plant growth and cell-wall loosening. In addition, mechanostimulation of knockout plants by clip cages up-regulated jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes, resulting in substantial negative JA-SA crosstalk. Based on this and previous studies, WRKY22 is considered to modulate the interplay between the SA and JA pathways in response to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stimuli. Its induction by aphids and its role in suppressing SA and JA signalling make WRKY22 a potential target for aphids to manipulate host plant defences. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. The green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: preference between lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3(rd) instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar C. carnea larvae readily preyed upon both thrips and aphids, with thrips mortality varying between 40 and 90%, and aphid mortality between 52 and 98%. Chrysoperla carnea had a significant preference for N. ribisnigri at two ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips), but no preference for either prey at the other ratios. There was no significant linear relationship between preference index and prey ratio, but a significant intercept of the linear regression indicated an overall preference of C. carnea for aphids with a value of 0.651 ± 0.054. The possible implications of these findings for control of N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis by C. carnea are discussed.

  12. Aphid (Myzus persicae) feeding on the parasitic plant dodder (Cuscuta australis) activates defense responses in both the parasite and soybean host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Juan; Song, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Schuman, Meredith C; Sun, Guiling; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Song, Dunlun; Wu, Jianqiang

    2018-06-01

    Dodders (Cuscuta spp.) are shoot holoparasites, whose haustoria penetrate host tissues to enable fusion between the parasite and host vascular systems, allowing Cuscuta to extract water, nutrients and other molecules from hosts. Aphids are piercing-sucking herbivores that use specialized stylets to feed on phloem sap. Aphids are known to feed on Cuscuta, but how Cuscuta and its host plant respond to aphids attacking the parasite was unknown. Phytohormone quantification, transcriptomic analysis and bioassays were performed to determine the responses of Cuscuta australis and its soybean (Glycine max) hosts to the feeding of green peach aphid (GPA; Myzus persicae) on C. australis. Decreased salicylic acid levels and 172 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found in GPA-attacked C. australis, and the soybean hosts exhibited increased jasmonic acid contents and 1015 DEGs, including > 100 transcription factor genes. Importantly, GPA feeding on C. australis increased the resistance of the soybean host to subsequent feeding by the leafworm Spodoptera litura and soybean aphid Aphis glycines, resulting in 21% decreased leafworm mass and 41% reduced aphid survival rate. These data strongly suggest that GPA feeding on Cuscuta induces a systemic signal, which is translocated to hosts and activates defense against herbivores. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) [Chapter XXIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann M. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Elatobium abietinum Walker is a spruce-feeding aphid that in Europe is referred to as the green spruce aphid (Day et al., 1998a) (Fig. 1). However, in North America E. abietinum is known simply as the spruce aphid, while the common name "green spruce aphid" refers to a different species, Cinara fornacula Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (http://www.entsoc.org/...

  14. Entomopathogenic Fungi as Dual Control Agents against Both the Pest Myzus persicae and Phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hwi-Geon; Kim, Dong-Jun; Gwak, Won-Seok; Shin, Tae-Young; Woo, Soo-Dong

    2017-09-01

    The green peach aphid ( Myzus persicae ), a plant pest, and gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea , affect vegetables and fruit crops all over the world. To control this aphid and mold, farmers typically rely on the use of chemical insecticides or fungicides. However, intensive use of these chemicals over many years has led to the development of resistance. To overcome this problem, there is a need to develop alternative control methods to suppress populations of this plant pest and pathogen. Recently, potential roles have been demonstrated for entomopathogenic fungi in endophytism, phytopathogen antagonism, plant growth promotion, and rhizosphere colonization. Here, the antifungal activities of selected fungi with high virulence against green peach aphids were tested to explore their potential for the dual control of B. cinerea and M. persicae . Antifungal activities against B. cinerea were evaluated by dual culture assays using both aerial conidia and cultural filtrates of entomopathogenic fungi. Two fungal isolates, Beauveria bassiana SD15 and Metarhizium anisopliae SD3, were identified as having both virulence against aphids and antifungal activity. The virulence of these isolates against aphids was further tested using cultural filtrates, blastospores, and aerial conidia. The most virulence was observed in the simultaneous treatment with blastospores and cultural filtrate. These results suggest that the two fungal isolates selected in this study could be used effectively for the dual control of green peach aphids and gray mold for crop protection.

  15. CONTROLE QUÍMICO DO PULGÃO VERDE (Myzus persicae Sulzer, 1776 E DA VAQUINHA (Diabrotica speciosa Germ., 1824 NA CULTURA DO TOMATE RASTEIRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE GREEN PEACH APHID (Myzus persicae, SULZER AND TOMATO LEAF BEETLE (Diabrotica speciosa, GERMAR IN TOMATO PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Couto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O efeito de cinco inseticidas aplicados no tomateiro (Lycopersicum sculentum Mill, visando ao controle do pulgão verde, Myzus persicae SULZER e de vaquinha, Diabrotica speciosa GERM, foi testado em um experimento realizado na área experimental do Departamento de Horticultura da Escota de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no período de maio a setembro de 1994. Os tratamentos foram aplicados via pulverização e constaram de Bulldock 125 SC (dosagem de 100 ml/ 100 1 de água; Bulldock 50 CE (25 e 30 ml/100 l de água; Tamaron BR (100 ml/ 100 l de água; Orthene 750 BR (100 ml/ l00 1 de água e Folidol 600 (100 ml/l00 1 de água; e ainda uma testemunha (sem inseticida. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que todos os tratamentos foram eficientes no controle de M. persicae até sete dias após a aplicação. Aos 14 dias após a aplicação, o Bulldock 50 CE na dosagem de 25 ml/ 100 l de água e o Folidol 600 a 100 ml/ 100 l de água não apresentaram eficiência satisfatória. Com relação à D. speciosa, todos esses produtos foram igualmente eficientes até sete dias após aplicação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Myzus persicae; diabrotica speciosa; tomateiro; controle químico.

    A trial to control the green peach aphid myzus persicae and tomato leaf beetle Diabrotica speciosa was carried out in Goi

  16. Control of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer) in organic apple production

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Slobodan; Marčić Dejan; Ružičić Lazar

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of different methods for controlling populations of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer) in organic apple orchard was compared over three consecutive years. The following three control methods were tested: a) predator activity (Coccinela septempunctata), b) predator activity (C. septempunctata) + selective spraying of trees with infestation level exceeding 10% with a botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S), and c) predator activity (C. septempun...

  17. Use of electrical penetration graphs (EPG) and quantitative PCR to evaluate the relationship between feeding behaviour and Pandora neoaphidis infection levels in green peach aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Ye, Sudan; Hu, Huajun; Xue, Chengmei; Yu, Xiaoping

    2018-01-01

    A real-time qPCR method was developed, validated, and used to quantity the fungal pathogen, P. neoaphidis, within aphids at different times during infection; colonization rate fitted the Gompertz model well (R 2  = 0.9356). Feeding behaviour of P. neoaphidis-infected and uninfected M. persicae were investigated, for the first time, using DC-electrical penetration graphs (DC-EPG) that characterized the waveforms made during different aphid stylet probing periods corresponding to epidermis penetration, salivation and ingestion. In the 6 h following the 12-h incubation period (to achieve infection), there were significant differences in the number of events of Np (non-probing) and C (stylet pathway) between infected and uninfected aphids. However, the difference between total duration of Np and C were not significantly different between infected and uninfected aphids. There were no significant differences in the number of events or total duration of E1 (phloem salivation) or E2 (phloem ingestion) between infected and uninfected aphids. There were significant differences in mean number of events and total duration of the pd waveform (intracellular punctures) in infected and uninfected aphids. In the 16 h prior to death, the same differences in behaviour were observed but they were even more obvious. Furthermore, the total duration time of E2 was significantly greater in uninfected aphids than infected aphids, a change that had not been observed in the first 6 h observation period. In conclusion, qPCR quantification demonstrated 'molecular' colonization levels throughout infection, and EPG data analysis during the two periods (during early infection and then during late infection just prior to death) demonstrated the actual physical effects of fungal infection on feeding behaviour of M. persicae; this has the potential to decrease the aphid's capacity of transmission and dispersal. These studies increase our understanding of the interaction between P

  18. Two-sex Life Table of Oenopia conglobata cantaminata (Mentries Feed on Myzus persicae (Sulzer and Agonoscena pistacia Burkhardt and Lauterer under Laboratory Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mokhtari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aphids are very successful insects of the superfamily Aphidoidea with the highest number of species are found in temperate regions. One of the most important aphid, is Myzus persicae, known as the green peach aphid or the peach-potato aphid, is a small green aphid. It is the most significant aphid pest of peach trees, causing decreased growth, shriveling of the leaves and the death of various tissues. It is also hazardous because it acts as a vector for the transport of plant viruses, such as potato virus Y and potato leafroll virus to members of the nightshade/potato family Solanaceae, and various mosaic viruses to many other food crops. The green peach aphid is found worldwide, although it is less tolerant of colder climates and overwinters through its eggs, laid in trees of the genus Prunus. The aphid also benefits from the presence of greenhouses in these areas The common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psylloidea, is now the most destructive insect pest of cultivated pistachio trees (Pistacia vera Linnaeus in Iran This pest occurs throughout the pistachio plantation region of the country and causes severe reductions in pistachio yields. these pests are controlled almost exclusively by pesticides; however, environmental contamination and resistance by A. pistaciae and M.persica to insecticides has lead to considerable efforts to understand the potential of biocontrol agents for the common pistachio psylla and green peach aphid control. Coccinellids have been widely used in biological control for over a century and are considered to be important natural enemies of pest species, especially whitefly, aphids, mealy bugs, scales and mites. Lady beetles belong to the order beetles (Coleoptera are the Coccinellidae family. To achieve a successful biological control program, it is necessary to characterize the growth, stage structure, fecundity, and predation rate of the pest’s predators

  19. IPM of specialty crops and community gardens in north Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pests post serious challenges to specialty crops (vegetables, fruits and nut crops) and community gardens in North Florida. The major vegetable pests include silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii; the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae; southeastern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula; brown s...

  20. Resting spore formation of aphid-pathogenic fungus Pandora nouryi depends on the concentration of infective inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Hong; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2008-07-01

    Resting spore formation of some aphid-pathogenic Entomophthorales is important for the seasonal pattern of their prevalence and survival but this process is poorly understood. To explore the possible mechanism involved in the process, Pandora nouryi (obligate aphid pathogen) interacted with green peach aphid Myzus persicae on cabbage leaves under favourable conditions. Host nymphs showered with primary conidia of an isolate (LC(50): 0.9-6.7 conidia mm(-2) 4-7 days post shower) from air captures in the low-latitude plateau of China produced resting spores (azygospores), primary conidia or both spore types. Surprisingly, the proportion of mycosed cadavers forming resting spores (P(CFRS)) increased sharply within the concentrations (C) of 28-240 conidia mm(-2), retained high levels at 240-1760, but was zero or extremely low at 0.3-16. The P(CFRS)-C relationship fit well the logistic equation P(CFRS) = 0.6774/[1 + exp(3.1229-0.0270C)] (r(2) = 0.975). This clarified for the first time the dependence of in vivo resting spore formation of P. nouryi upon the concentration of infective inoculum. A hypothesis is thus proposed that some sort of biochemical signals may exist in the host-pathogen interaction so that the fungal pathogen perceives the signals for prompt response to forthcoming host-density changes by either producing conidia for infecting available hosts or forming resting spores for surviving host absence in situ.

  1. Interplay of Plasma Membrane and Vacuolar Ion Channels, Together with BAK1, Elicits Rapid Cytosolic Calcium Elevations in Arabidopsis during Aphid Feeding[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Thomas R.; Avramova, Marieta; Canham, James; Higgins, Peter; Bilkey, Natasha; Mugford, Sam T.; Pitino, Marco; Toyota, Masatsugu

    2017-01-01

    A transient rise in cytosolic calcium ion concentration is one of the main signals used by plants in perception of their environment. The role of calcium in the detection of abiotic stress is well documented; however, its role during biotic interactions remains unclear. Here, we use a fluorescent calcium biosensor (GCaMP3) in combination with the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) as a tool to study Arabidopsis thaliana calcium dynamics in vivo and in real time during a live biotic interaction. We demonstrate rapid and highly localized plant calcium elevations around the feeding sites of M. persicae, and by monitoring aphid feeding behavior electrophysiologically, we demonstrate that these elevations correlate with aphid probing of epidermal and mesophyll cells. Furthermore, we dissect the molecular mechanisms involved, showing that interplay between the plant defense coreceptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1), the plasma membrane ion channels GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR-LIKE 3.3 and 3.6 (GLR3.3 and GLR3.6), and the vacuolar ion channel TWO-PORE CHANNEL1 (TPC1) mediate these calcium elevations. Consequently, we identify a link between plant perception of biotic threats by BAK1, cellular calcium entry mediated by GLRs, and intracellular calcium release by TPC1 during a biologically relevant interaction. PMID:28559475

  2. Peach Flower Monitoring Using Aerial Multispectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Horton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the tools for optimal crop production is regular monitoring and assessment of crops. During the growing season of fruit trees, the bloom period has increased photosynthetic rates that correlate with the fruiting process. This paper presents the development of an image processing algorithm to detect peach blossoms on trees. Aerial images of peach (Prunus persica trees were acquired from both experimental and commercial peach orchards in the southwestern part of Idaho using an off-the-shelf unmanned aerial system (UAS, equipped with a multispectral camera (near-infrared, green, blue. The image processing algorithm included contrast stretching of the three bands to enhance the image and thresholding segmentation method to detect the peach blossoms. Initial results showed that the image processing algorithm could detect peach blossoms with an average detection rate of 84.3% and demonstrated good potential as a monitoring tool for orchard management.

  3. Glucosinolates from Host Plants Influence Growth of the Parasitic Plant Cuscuta gronovii and Its Susceptibility to Aphid Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason D; Woldemariam, Melkamu G; Mescher, Mark C; Jander, Georg; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2016-09-01

    Parasitic plants acquire diverse secondary metabolites from their hosts, including defense compounds that target insect herbivores. However, the ecological implications of this phenomenon, including the potential enhancement of parasite defenses, remain largely unexplored. We studied the translocation of glucosinolates from the brassicaceous host plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) into parasitic dodder vines (Convolvulaceae; Cuscuta gronovii) and its effects on the parasite itself and on dodder-aphid interactions. Aliphatic and indole glucosinolates reached concentrations in parasite tissues higher than those observed in corresponding host tissues. Dodder growth was enhanced on cyp79B2 cyp79B3 hosts (without indole glucosinolates) but inhibited on atr1D hosts (with elevated indole glucosinolates) relative to wild-type hosts, which responded to parasitism with localized elevation of indole and aliphatic glucosinolates. These findings implicate indole glucosinolates in defense against parasitic plants. Rates of settling and survival on dodder vines by pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) were reduced significantly when dodder parasitized glucosinolate-producing hosts (wild type and atr1D) compared with glucosinolate-free hosts (cyp79B2 cyp79B3 myb28 myb29). However, settling and survival of green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) were not affected. M. persicae population growth was actually reduced on dodder parasitizing glucosinolate-free hosts compared with wild-type or atr1D hosts, even though stems of the former contain less glucosinolates and more amino acids. Strikingly, this effect was reversed when the aphids fed directly upon Arabidopsis, which indicates an interactive effect of parasite and host genotype on M. persicae that stems from host effects on dodder. Thus, our findings indicate that glucosinolates may have both direct and indirect effects on dodder-feeding herbivores. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. A review on the complexity of insect-plant interactions under varying levels of resources and host resistance: the case of Myzus persicae-Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdugo, JA.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insect-plant interactions are affected directly or indirectly by stress factors. The effect of environmental resource availability on insect-plant interactions is here reviewed. Subsequently, the analysis focuses on aphid-host plant interactions, particularly in the system composed by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and its primary host plant Prunus persica. Literature. Plant defenses arise in two ways: resistance and tolerance, both are affected by abiotic factors. The information gathered from studies (n = 29 on plant-aphid interactions addressing the reduction in water availability on plant resistance, showed that in 41,4% of the studies, drought stress elicits lower resistance, while 34.5%, 20.1% and 3.4%, showed higher, no change and conditional effects on plant resistance, respectively. Conclusions. Water stress elicits mixed effects on plant resistance to aphids. However, the literature review also suggests that cultural practices play a role in the fate of the peach-aphid interactions, whereas the development of predictive models aimed to assist crop-pest management systems still requires more basic information. Aphid responses to plant defenses under stressed conditions are still largely unexplored.

  5. The use of ion beam to overcome interspecific hybrid inviability in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masayoshi [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshi

    1997-03-01

    In order to overcome sexual incompatibility between distantly related species in Nicotiana, the crosses with {sup 4}He{sup 2+} beam-irradiated pollen were carried out, and survival hybrids were obtained. They were resistant to tobacco mosaic virus and green peach aphid. (author)

  6. Glucosinolates from Host Plants Influence Growth of the Parasitic Plant Cuscuta gronovii and Its Susceptibility to Aphid Feeding1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic plants acquire diverse secondary metabolites from their hosts, including defense compounds that target insect herbivores. However, the ecological implications of this phenomenon, including the potential enhancement of parasite defenses, remain largely unexplored. We studied the translocation of glucosinolates from the brassicaceous host plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) into parasitic dodder vines (Convolvulaceae; Cuscuta gronovii) and its effects on the parasite itself and on dodder-aphid interactions. Aliphatic and indole glucosinolates reached concentrations in parasite tissues higher than those observed in corresponding host tissues. Dodder growth was enhanced on cyp79B2 cyp79B3 hosts (without indole glucosinolates) but inhibited on atr1D hosts (with elevated indole glucosinolates) relative to wild-type hosts, which responded to parasitism with localized elevation of indole and aliphatic glucosinolates. These findings implicate indole glucosinolates in defense against parasitic plants. Rates of settling and survival on dodder vines by pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) were reduced significantly when dodder parasitized glucosinolate-producing hosts (wild type and atr1D) compared with glucosinolate-free hosts (cyp79B2 cyp79B3 myb28 myb29). However, settling and survival of green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) were not affected. M. persicae population growth was actually reduced on dodder parasitizing glucosinolate-free hosts compared with wild-type or atr1D hosts, even though stems of the former contain less glucosinolates and more amino acids. Strikingly, this effect was reversed when the aphids fed directly upon Arabidopsis, which indicates an interactive effect of parasite and host genotype on M. persicae that stems from host effects on dodder. Thus, our findings indicate that glucosinolates may have both direct and indirect effects on dodder-feeding herbivores. PMID:27482077

  7. Control of Green Apple Aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer in Organic Apple Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Milenković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different methods for controlling populations of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer in organic apple orchard was compared over three consecutive years. The following three control methods were tested: a predator activity (Coccinela septempunctata, b predator activity (C. septempunctata + selective spraying of trees with infestation level exceeding 10% with a botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S, and c predator activity (C. septempunctata + total spraying of all orchard trees with the botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S. In terms of maintaining a biological balance within an orchard, the combination of natural regulation by C. septempunctata and selective spraying of individual trees with NeemAzal T/S proved to be the most efficient method.

  8. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plant transcription factors and insect defence si. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a harpin protein and affect resistance to the green peach aphid in Arabidopsis. HUNLIN. PIN. RUOXUE LIŲ, BEIBEI LÜ, XIAOMENG WANG, CHUNLING ZHANG, SHUPING ZHANG, JUN QIAN, LEI CHEN,.

  9. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011 from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids.

  10. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, James D.; Karar, Haider; Abbas, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids. PMID:26466738

  11. Expression of an (E-β-farnesene synthase gene from Asian peppermint in tobacco affected aphid infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiudao Yu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are major agricultural pests that cause significant yield losses in crop plants each year. (E-β-farnesene (EβF is the main or only component of an alarm pheromone involved in chemical communication within aphid species and particularly in the avoidance of predation. EβF also occurs in the essential oil of some plant species, and is catalyzed by EβF synthase. By using oligonucleotide primers designed from the known sequence of an EβF synthase gene from black peppermint (Mentha × piperita, two cDNA sequences, MaβFS1 and MaβFS2, were isolated from Asian peppermint (Mentha asiatica. Expression pattern analysis showed that the MaβFS1 gene exhibited higher expression in flowers than in roots, stems and leaves at the transcriptional level. Overexpression of MaβFS1 in tobacco plants resulted in emission of pure EβF ranging from 2.62 to 4.85 ng d− 1 g− 1 of fresh tissue. Tritrophic interactions involving peach aphids (Myzus persicae, and predatory lacewing (Chrysopa septempunctata larvae demonstrated that transgenic tobacco expressing MaβFS1 had lower aphid infestation. This result suggested that the EβF synthase gene from Asian peppermint could be a good candidate for genetic engineering of agriculturally important crop plants.

  12. Induction of Systemic Resistance against Aphids by Endophytic Bacillus velezensis YC7010 via Expressing PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Md Harun-Or-; Khan, Ajmal; Hossain, Mohammad T; Chung, Young R

    2017-01-01

    Aphids are the most destructive insect pests. They suck the sap and transmit plant viruses, causing widespread yield loss of many crops. A multifunctional endophytic bacterial strain Bacillus velezensis YC7010 has been found to induce systemic resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens of rice. However, its activity against insects attack and underlying cellular and molecular defense mechanisms are not elucidated yet. Here, we show that root drenching of Arabidopsis seedlings with B. velezensis YC7010 can induce systemic resistance against green peach aphid (GPA), Myzus persicae . Treatment of bacterial suspension of B. velezensis YC7010 at 2 × 10 7 CFU/ml to Arabidopsis rhizosphere induced higher accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, cell death, and callose deposition in leaves compared to untreated plants at 6 days after infestation of GPA. Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and abscisic acid were not required to confer defense against GPA in Arabidopsis plants treated by B. velezensis YC7010. Bacterial treatment with B. velezensis YC7010 significantly reduced settling, feeding and reproduction of GPA on Arabidopsis leaves via strongly expressing senescence-promoting gene PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 ( PAD4 ) while suppressing BOTRYTIS-INDUCED KINASE1 ( BIK1 ). These results indicate that B. velezensis YC7010-induced systemic resistance to the GPA is a hypersensitive response mainly dependent on higher expression of PAD4 with suppression of BIK1 , resulting in more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, cell death, and callose deposition in Arabidopsis .

  13. Induction of Systemic Resistance against Aphids by Endophytic Bacillus velezensis YC7010 via Expressing PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Md. Harun-Or-; Khan, Ajmal; Hossain, Mohammad T.; Chung, Young R.

    2017-01-01

    Aphids are the most destructive insect pests. They suck the sap and transmit plant viruses, causing widespread yield loss of many crops. A multifunctional endophytic bacterial strain Bacillus velezensis YC7010 has been found to induce systemic resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens of rice. However, its activity against insects attack and underlying cellular and molecular defense mechanisms are not elucidated yet. Here, we show that root drenching of Arabidopsis seedlings with B. velezensis YC7010 can induce systemic resistance against green peach aphid (GPA), Myzus persicae. Treatment of bacterial suspension of B. velezensis YC7010 at 2 × 107 CFU/ml to Arabidopsis rhizosphere induced higher accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, cell death, and callose deposition in leaves compared to untreated plants at 6 days after infestation of GPA. Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and abscisic acid were not required to confer defense against GPA in Arabidopsis plants treated by B. velezensis YC7010. Bacterial treatment with B. velezensis YC7010 significantly reduced settling, feeding and reproduction of GPA on Arabidopsis leaves via strongly expressing senescence-promoting gene PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) while suppressing BOTRYTIS-INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1). These results indicate that B. velezensis YC7010-induced systemic resistance to the GPA is a hypersensitive response mainly dependent on higher expression of PAD4 with suppression of BIK1, resulting in more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, cell death, and callose deposition in Arabidopsis. PMID:28261260

  14. Shallot aphids, Myzus ascalonicus, in strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The parasitization capacity of 3 parasitoids and the predation capacity of 3 predators towards the shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster (Homoptera: Aphididae), on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) cv. Honeoye, were examined in laboratory experiments. In Petri dish...... other parasitoid-induced causes. However, the host feeding rate was reduced to only 1.2 ± 0.8%, and no significant parasitization mortality was observed on strawberry plants, suggesting that host plants interfered with A. abdominalis activity. This parasitoid does not, therefore, seem to be suited...... to either inoculative or inundative biocontrol of shallot aphids in strawberry. The three predators studied were the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopi-dae), the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza...

  15. Do Aphids Alter Leaf Surface Temperature Patterns During Early Infestation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cahon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthropods at the surface of plants live in particular microclimatic conditions that can differ from atmospheric conditions. The temperature of plant leaves can deviate from air temperature, and leaf temperature influences the eco-physiology of small insects. The activity of insects feeding on leaf tissues, may, however, induce changes in leaf surface temperatures, but this effect was only rarely demonstrated. Using thermography analysis of leaf surfaces under controlled environmental conditions, we quantified the impact of presence of apple green aphids on the temperature distribution of apple leaves during early infestation. Aphids induced a slight change in leaf surface temperature patterns after only three days of infestation, mostly due to the effect of aphids on the maximal temperature that can be found at the leaf surface. Aphids may induce stomatal closure, leading to a lower transpiration rate. This effect was local since aphids modified the configuration of the temperature distribution over leaf surfaces. Aphids were positioned at temperatures near the maximal leaf surface temperatures, thus potentially experiencing the thermal changes. The feedback effect of feeding activity by insects on their host plant can be important and should be quantified to better predict the response of phytophagous insects to environmental changes.

  16. Survey of aphid population in a yellow passion fruit crop and its relationship on the spread Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in a subtropical region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcêz, Renata Maia; Chaves, Alexandre Levi Rodrigues; Eiras, Marcelo; Meletti, Laura Maria Molina; de Azevedo Filho, Joaquim Adelino; da Silva, Leonardo Assis; Colariccio, Addolorata

    2015-01-01

    Passion fruit woodiness may be caused by Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and is currently the major passion fruit disease in Brazil. To assess the virus-vector-host interactions, a newly introduced golden passion fruit plantation located in eastern region of São Paulo State, Brazil, was monitored. Dissemination of CABMV was determined analyzing golden passion fruit plants monthly for 18 months by PTA-ELISA. Seasonality and aphid fauna diversity was determined by identification of the captured species using yellow sticky, yellow water-pan and green tile traps. Population composition of the aphid species was determined using the descriptive index of occurrence, dominance and general classification and overlap of species in the R program. Analyses of species grouping afforded to recognize 14 aphid species. The genus Aphis represented 55.42 % of the species captured. Aphid species formed two distinct clusters, one of which was characterized by the diversity of polyphagous species that presented high potential to spread CABMV. The low abundance and diversity of aphid species did not interfere negatively in the CABMV epidemiology. The genus Aphis, particularly Aphis fabae/solanella and A. gossypii, was crucial in the spread of CABMV in passion fruit orchards in the eastern State of São Paulo.

  17. Aphid alarm pheromone as a cue for ants to locate aphid partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François J Verheggen

    Full Text Available The mutualistic relationships that occur between myrmecophilous aphids and ants are based on the rich food supply that honeydew represents for ants and on the protection they provide against aphid natural enemies. While aphid predators and parasitoids actively forage for oviposition sites by using aphid semiochemicals, scouts of aphid-tending ant species would also benefit from locating honeydew resources by orienting toward aphid pheromone sources. The present study aims to provide additional information on the use of Aphis fabae alarm pheromone, i.e. (E-β-farnesene (EβF, by ant scouts. The perception and behavioral impact of EβF on Lasius niger were investigated using electroantennography and two bio-assays measuring their attraction and orientation towards aphid semiochemicals. Pronounced electrical depolarizations were observed from L. niger scout antennae to stimulations of A. fabae alarm pheromone, while other sesquiterpenes elicited weak or no responses. L. niger scouts were significantly attracted toward EβF in a four-arm olfactometer, as well as in an two-choice bioassay. These laboratory results suggest for the first time that low amounts of aphid alarm pheromone can be used by L. niger scouts as a cue indicating the presence of aphid colonies and could therefore mediate the aphid-ant partnership in the field.

  18. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Ant Larval Demand Reduces Aphid Colony Growth Rates in an Ant-Aphid Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Cook

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ants often form mutualistic interactions with aphids, soliciting honeydew in return for protective services. Under certain circumstances, however, ants will prey upon aphids. In addition, in the presence of ants aphids may increase the quantity or quality of honeydew produced, which is costly. Through these mechanisms, ant attendance can reduce aphid colony growth rates. However, it is unknown whether demand from within the ant colony can affect the ant-aphid interaction. In a factorial experiment, we tested whether the presence of larvae in Lasius niger ant colonies affected the growth rate of Aphis fabae colonies. Other explanatory variables tested were the origin of ant colonies (two separate colonies were used and previous diet (sugar only or sugar and protein. We found that the presence of larvae in the ant colony significantly reduced the growth rate of aphid colonies. Previous diet and colony origin did not affect aphid colony growth rates. Our results suggest that ant colonies balance the flow of two separate resources from aphid colonies- renewable sugars or a protein-rich meal, depending on demand from ant larvae within the nest. Aphid payoffs from the ant-aphid interaction may change on a seasonal basis, as the demand from larvae within the ant colony waxes and wanes.

  20. Ants defend aphids against lethal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Charlotte; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Hajek, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    Social insects defend their own colonies and some species also protect their mutualist partners. In mutualisms with aphids, ants typically feed on honeydew produced by aphids and, in turn guard and shelter aphid colonies from insect natural enemies. Here we report that Formica podzolica ants tending milkweed aphids, Aphis asclepiadis, protect aphid colonies from lethal fungal infections caused by an obligate aphid pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis. In field experiments, bodies of fungal-killed aphids were quickly removed from ant-tended aphid colonies. Ant workers were also able to detect infective conidia on the cuticle of living aphids and responded by either removing or grooming these aphids. Our results extend the long-standing view of ants as mutualists and protectors of aphids by demonstrating focused sanitizing and quarantining behaviour that may lead to reduced disease transmission in aphid colonies. PMID:19923138

  1. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, M; Matisová, J; Hricovský, I; Kúdela, O

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from orchards of western Slovakia was investigated. PPV was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach GF 305. The herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. The transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue clearing along the veins and small chlorotic spots (isolate BOR-3). With exception of BOR-3, the PPV isolates transmitted from peach caused local chlorotic spots on Chenopodium foetidum. The character of symptoms changed when a sap from PPV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana was used as virus inoculum. From N. benthamiana, the PPV isolates could be transmitted to Pisum sativum, cv. Colmo (light green mosaic), N. clevelandii and N. clevelandii x N. glutinosa hybrid (latent infection or chlorotic spots).

  2. PRODUCT NEEM AZAL T/S - BROAD-SPECTRUM PHYPOPESTICIDE FOR CONTROL OF PESTS ON VEGETABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinelina Yankova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments for determination of the effectiveness of product Neem Azal T/S (a. i. azadirachtin were conducted at a concentration of 0,3% against some major pests in vegetable crops grown in greenhouses at the Maritsa Vegetable Crops research Institute, Plovdiv during the period 2010-2016. It was established very good insecticidal and acaricidal action of phytopesticide against: cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glov.; green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulz.; western flower trips (Frankliniella occidentalis Perg.; cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hubn.; tomato borer (Tuta absoluta Meyrick and two-spotted spider mite (Tetranichus urticae Koch.. This product is a successful alternative to using chemical insecticides and acaricides.

  3. Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Hogg, David B; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Methyl salicylate, an herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to attract natural enemies and affect herbivore behavior. In this study, methyl salicylate was examined for its attractiveness to natural enemies of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and for its direct effects on soybean aphid population growth rates. Methyl salicylate lures were deployed in plots within organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields. Sticky card traps adjacent to and 1.5 m from the lure measured the relative abundance of natural enemies, and soybean aphid populations were monitored within treated and untreated plots. In addition, exclusion cage studies were conducted to determine methyl salicylate's effect on soybean aphid population growth rates in the absence of natural enemies. Significantly greater numbers of syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were caught on traps adjacent to the methyl salicylate lure, but no differences in abundance were found at traps 1.5 m from the lure. Furthermore, abundance of soybean aphids was significantly lower in methyl salicylate-treated plots. In exclusion cage studies, soybean aphid numbers were significantly reduced on treated soybean plants when all plants were open to natural enemies. When plants were caged, however, soybean aphid numbers and population growth rates did not differ between treated and untreated plants suggesting no effect of methyl salicylate on soybean aphid reproduction and implicating the role of natural enemies in depressing aphid populations. Although aphid populations were reduced locally around methyl salicylate lures, larger scale studies are needed to assess the technology at the whole-field scale.

  4. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhmedi, A; Haubruge, E; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species and the differential pesticide application (treated plot and control). Insects were visually observed every week during all the cultivation season. Two main families of aphidophagous predators were found in all field crops and nettle, the Coccinellidae and Syrphidae. The diversity of the aphidophagous predators was shown to be higher on nettle than in field crops, particularly the Chrysopidae, the Anthocoridae and the Miridae. However, a striking difference of ladybird abundance was observed according to the aphid host plant. In one side, Coccinella septempunctata was much more abundant on Acyrthosiphon pisum infested green pea than on the other host plant species. At the opposite, higher occurrence of Harmonia axyridis was observed on the aphid infested nettle plants than on the crop plants. In particular, none of H. axyridis was found in wheat crop. Also, more than only a significant positive correlation between predator and aphid abundance, specialised relations between particular aphid species and some so-called generalist predators was determined in the fields. Finally, intraguild interactions between the aphidophagous predators was assessed and shown that only a significant negative correlation between Episyrphus balteatus and H. axyridis related to the nettle aphid, Micrlophium carnosum, was observed. The relative distribution of the ladybirds, namely C. septempunctata and H. axyridis according to the host plant, nettle strips and crop plots was discussed in relation to

  5. Volatile communication in plant-aphid interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-01

    Volatile communication plays an important role in mediating the interactions between plants, aphids, and other organisms in the environment. In response to aphid infestation, many plants initiate indirect defenses through the release of volatiles that attract ladybugs, parasitoid wasps, and other aphid-consuming predators. Aphid-induced volatile release in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana requires the jasmonate signaling pathway. Volatile release is also induced by infection with aphid-transmitted viruses. Consistent with mathematical models of optimal transmission, viruses that are acquired rapidly by aphids induce volatile release to attract migratory aphids, but discourage long-term aphid feeding. Although the ecology of these interactions is well-studied, further research is needed to identify the molecular basis of aphid-induced and virus-induced changes in plant volatile release. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of vineyard peach selections on vigour and initial yield in peach and nectarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zec Gordan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings (progenies of eight selected vineyard peach genotypes obtained by self and open pollination were examined in this study during three consecutive years. Two progenies from unselected vineyard peach genotypes with different geographic origin were used as a standard. Peach cv. Autumn Glo and nectarine cv. Stark Red Gold were grafted on F1 generation of eight vineyard peach selections and two standard progenies. Analysis of variance indicated statistically significant differences in vigour and fruit productivity between fruit trees grafted on different progenies of vineyard peach selections. A high correlation was found between rootstock vigour and fruit production of grafted cultivars. In addition, the principal component analysis made it possible to establish similar groups of rootstocks, depending on its influence to vigour, productivity and indexes of efficiency of grafted peach and nectarine cultivar. The most promising rootstocks for those two cultivars were PSK and 7S because grafted AG and SRG have high fruit weight, initial yields and very satisfactory rootstock, scion and canopy efficiency. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063

  7. Abscisic acid deficiency increases defence responses against Myzus persicae in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillwig, Melissa S; Chiozza, Mariana; Casteel, Clare L; Lau, Siau Ting; Hohenstein, Jessica; Hernández, Enrique; Jander, Georg; MacIntosh, Gustavo C

    2016-02-01

    Comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) gene expression induced by Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) feeding, aphid saliva infiltration and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment showed a significant positive correlation. In particular, ABA-regulated genes are over-represented among genes that are induced by M. persicae saliva infiltration into Arabidopsis leaves. This suggests that the induction of ABA-related gene expression could be an important component of the Arabidopsis-aphid interaction. Consistent with this hypothesis, M. persicae populations induced ABA production in wild-type plants. Furthermore, aphid populations were smaller on Arabidopsis aba1-1 mutants, which cannot synthesize ABA, and showed a significant preference for wild-type plants compared with the mutant. Total free amino acids, which play an important role in aphid nutrition, were not altered in the aba1-1 mutant line, but the levels of isoleucine (Ile) and tryptophan (Trp) were differentially affected by aphids in wild-type and mutant plants. Recently, indole glucosinolates have been shown to promote aphid resistance in Arabidopsis. In this study, 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate was more abundant in the aba1-1 mutant than in wild-type Arabidopsis, suggesting that the induction of ABA signals that decrease the accumulation of defence compounds may be beneficial for aphids. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  8. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  9. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    OpenAIRE

    Alhmedi, A.; Haubruge, Eric; Bodson, Bernard; Francis, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species a...

  10. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis

  11. Spatial Distribution and Sampling Plans With Fixed Level of Precision for Citrus Aphids (Hom., Aphididae) on Two Orange Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafeshani, Farzaneh Alizadeh; Rajabpour, Ali; Aghajanzadeh, Sirous; Gholamian, Esmaeil; Farkhari, Mohammad

    2018-04-02

    Aphis spiraecola Patch, Aphis gossypii Glover, and Toxoptera aurantii Boyer de Fonscolombe are three important aphid pests of citrus orchards. In this study, spatial distributions of the aphids on two orange species, Satsuma mandarin and Thomson navel, were evaluated using Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness. In addition, a fixed-precision sequential sampling plant was developed for each species on the host plant by Green's model at precision levels of 0.25 and 0.1. The results revealed that spatial distribution parameters and therefore the sampling plan were significantly different according to aphid and host plant species. Taylor's power law provides a better fit for the data than Iwao's patchiness regression. Except T. aurantii on Thomson navel orange, spatial distribution patterns of the aphids were aggregative on both citrus. T. aurantii had regular dispersion pattern on Thomson navel orange. Optimum sample size of the aphids varied from 30-2061 and 1-1622 shoots on Satsuma mandarin and Thomson navel orange based on aphid species and desired precision level. Calculated stop lines of the aphid species on Satsuma mandarin and Thomson navel orange ranged from 0.48 to 19 and 0.19 to 80.4 aphids per 24 shoots according to aphid species and desired precision level. The performance of the sampling plan was validated by resampling analysis using resampling for validation of sampling plans (RVSP) software. This sampling program is useful for IPM program of the aphids in citrus orchards.

  12. Plant immunity in plant–aphid interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouannet, Maëlle; Rodriguez, Patricia A.; Lenoir, Camille J. G.; MacLeod, Ruari; Escudero-Martinez, Carmen; Bos, Jorunn I.B.

    2014-01-01

    Aphids are economically important pests that cause extensive feeding damage and transmit viruses. While some species have a broad host range and cause damage to a variety of crops, others are restricted to only closely related plant species. While probing and feeding aphids secrete saliva, containing effectors, into their hosts to manipulate host cell processes and promote infestation. Aphid effector discovery studies pointed out parallels between infection and infestation strategies of plant pathogens and aphids. Interestingly, resistance to some aphid species is known to involve plant resistance proteins with a typical NB-LRR domain structure. Whether these resistance proteins indeed recognize aphid effectors to trigger ETI remains to be elucidated. In addition, it was recently shown that unknown aphid derived elicitors can initiate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and callose deposition and that these responses were dependent on BAK1 (BRASSINOSTERIOD INSENSITIVE 1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1) which is a key component of the plant immune system. In addition, BAK-1 contributes to non-host resistance to aphids pointing to another parallel between plant-pathogen and – aphid interactions. Understanding the role of plant immunity and non-host resistance to aphids is essential to generate durable and sustainable aphid control strategies. Although insect behavior plays a role in host selection and non-host resistance, an important observation is that aphids interact with non-host plants by probing the leaf surface, but are unable to feed or establish colonization. Therefore, we hypothesize that aphids interact with non-host plants at the molecular level, but are potentially not successful in suppressing plant defenses and/or releasing nutrients. PMID:25520727

  13. Wide dispersal of aphid-pathogenic Entomophthorales among aphids relies upon migratory alates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ming-Guang; Chen, Chun; Chen, Bin

    2004-05-01

    Entomophthoralean mycoses are of general importance in the natural control of aphids, but mechanisms involved in their dissemination are poorly understood. Despite several possible means of fungal survival, the dispersal of the mycoses in aphids has never been related to the flight of their migratory alates that are able to locate suitable host plants. In this study, aphid-pathogenic fungi proved to be widely disseminated among various aphids by their alates through migratory flight based on the following findings. First, up to 36.6% of the 7139 migratory alates (including nine species of vegetable or cereal aphids) trapped from air > 30 m above the ground in three provinces of China were found bearing eight species of fungal pathogens. Of those, six were aphid-specific Entomophthorales dominated in individual cases by Pandora neoaphidis, which occurs globally but has no resting spores discovered to date. Secondly, infected alates were confirmed to be able to fly for hours, to initiate colonies on plants after flight and to transmit fungal infection to their offspring in a laboratory experiment, in which 238 Sitobion avenae alates were individually flown in a computer-monitoring flight mill system after exposure to a spore shower of P. neoaphidis and then allowed to colonize host plants.

  14. AphID (Lucid key) http://AphID.AphidNet.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    This peer-reviewed web site concentrates on the 66 adult alate and apterous aphids that are the world's most cosmopolitan and polyphagous species. The site includes fact sheets about the various aphids species, a glossary of terms helpful to the student, hundreds of photographs and illustrations, a...

  15. Uso de cuatro extractos organicos para el control del pulgon verde (Myzus persicae Sulz) (ING)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Navas, Hernán; Blanco, Fabio A.

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of leaves and stems of Neurolaena lobata; leaves, stems and fruits of Momordica charantia, wood of Quassia amara and seeds of Annona muricata, were tested regarding their effectiveness for control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). In a first stage, groups of 10 individuals of M. persicae were placed inside petri dishes together with a small and slight piece of synthetic cloth soaked with either substance extracted. Several concentrations were used. After two hours; more than 50%...

  16. Transcriptomic and Functional Analyses Reveal That PpGLK1 Regulates Chloroplast Development in Peach (Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach is an ideal species for fruit tree research because of its small, fully sequenced genome. Chloroplast development is dependent on the tight cooperation between the nuclear and plastid genomes, and is regulated by GLK transcription factors. In this work, the pigment content was monitored and the chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion during the fruit ripening was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Localization and expression analyses showed that PpGLK1 was located in the nucleus and expressed mainly in the leaves and fruit skin. A transcriptome analysis showed that PpGLK1 and its target genes were significantly differentially expressed in ripening peach fruit skin. PpGLK1 silencing affected chlorophyll accumulation in peach leaves and fruits. Overexpression of PpGLK1 rescued the phenotypes of the Arabidopsis Atglk1Atglk2 double mutant and the tomato uniform ripening mutant. The results of a yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that PpGLK1 is autoactivated and that PpGLK1 (301-542 a.a. interacted with PpARF5. Together, our results indicate that PpGLK1 regulates chloroplast development in green tissues in peach. Therefore, it may be a promising target gene for improving the production and quality of peach by genetic engineering and breeding approaches.

  17. Root-lesion nematodes suppress cabbage aphid population development by reducing aphid daily reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Gera eHol

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies have shown that belowground feeding herbivores can affect the performance of aboveground herbivores in different ways. Often the critical life-history parameters underlying the observed performance effects remain unexplored. In order to better understand the cause for the observed effects on aboveground herbivores, these ecological mechanisms must be better understood. In this study we combined empirical experiments with a modelling approach to analyse the effect of two root feeding endoparasitic nematodes with different feeding strategies on the population growth of the aboveground feeding specialist aphid Brevicoryne brassicae on Brassica nigra. The aim was to test whether emerging differences in life history characteristics (days until reproduction, daily reproduction would be sufficient to explain observed differences in aphid population development on plants with and without two species of nematodes. Aphid numbers were lower on plants with Pratylenchus penetrans in comparison to aphid numbers on plants with Meloidogyne spp. A dedicated experiment showed that aphid daily reproduction was lower on plants with P. penetrans (3.08 offspring per female per day in comparison to both uninfested plants and plants with Meloidogyne spp. (3.50 offspring per female per day. The species-specific reduction of aphid reproduction appeared independent of changes in amino acids, soluble sugars or the glucosinolate sinigrin in the phloem. An individual-based model revealed that relatively small differences in reproduction rate per female were sufficient to yield a similar difference in aphid populations as was found in the empirical experiments.

  18. The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae...

  19. Systemic Propagation of a Fluorescent Infectious Clone of a Polerovirus Following Inoculation by Agrobacteria and Aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissinot, Sylvaine; Pichon, Elodie; Sorin, Céline; Piccini, Céline; Scheidecker, Danièle; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2017-06-29

    A fluorescent viral clone of the polerovirus Turnip yellows virus (TuYV) was engineered by introducing the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) sequence into the non-structural domain sequence of the readthrough protein, a minor capsid protein. The resulting recombinant virus, referred to as TuYV-RT GFP , was infectious in several plant species when delivered by agroinoculation and invaded efficiently non-inoculated leaves. As expected for poleroviruses, which infect only phloem cells, the fluorescence emitted by TuYV-RT GFP was restricted to the vasculature of infected plants. In addition, TuYV-RT GFP was aphid transmissible and enabled the observation of the initial sites of infection in the phloem after aphid probing in epidermal cells. The aphid-transmitted virus moved efficiently to leaves distant from the inoculation sites and importantly retained the EGFP sequence in the viral genome. This work reports on the first engineered member in the Luteoviridae family that can be visualized by fluorescence emission in systemic leaves of different plant species after agroinoculation or aphid transmission.

  20. Variability of vineyard peach tree characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zec Gordan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vineyard peach seedlings are the most important rootstock for peach in Serbia and abroad. High variability is a characteristic of the vineyard peach planting material that is used as rootstock in nursery production. Through work of many years, vineyard peach genotypes with qualitative traits were selected and collected. Seedlings that are progeny of the nine selected genotypes and resulted from self and open pollination were examined. The vineyard peach seedlings resulted from uncontrolled pollination and with different geographical origin served as reference. A goal of research was to get vineyard peach genotypes that would give more uniform generative progeny with qualitative traits. This paper presents the results of two-year research of morphological traits of more than 500 vineyard seedlings. Based on the results, positive genotypes were selected for further inbreeding. Further, the seedlings of the selection 6 have the lowest coefficients of variation for trunk thickness, tree height and number of branches, which points to the self-pollination as a good method for getting more uniform progeny. .

  1. Plant-aphid interactions: molecular and ecological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, Fiona L

    2007-08-01

    Many aphids are major agricultural pests because of their unparalleled reproductive capacity and their ability to manipulate host plant physiology. Aphid population growth and its impact on plant fitness are strongly influenced by interactions with other organisms, including plant pathogens, endophytes, aphid endosymbionts, predators, parasitoids, ants, and other herbivores. Numerous molecular and genomic resources have recently been developed to identify sources of aphid resistance in plants, as well as potentially novel targets for control in aphids. Moreover, the same model systems that are used to explore direct molecular interactions between plants and aphids can be utilized to study the ecological context in which they occur.

  2. Escherichia coli K-12 pathogenicity in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, reveals reduced antibacterial defense in aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altincicek, Boran; Ter Braak, Bas; Laughton, Alice M; Udekwu, Klas I; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2011-10-01

    To better understand the molecular basis underlying aphid immune tolerance to beneficial bacteria and immune defense to pathogenic bacteria, we characterized how the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum responds to Escherichia coli K-12 infections. E. coli bacteria, usually cleared in the hemolymph of other insect species, were capable of growing exponentially and killing aphids within a few days. Red fluorescence protein expressing E. coli K-12 laboratory strain multiplied in the aphid hemolymph as well as in the digestive tract, resulting in death of infected aphids. Selected gene deletion mutants of the E. coli K-12 predicted to have reduced virulence during systemic infections showed no difference in either replication or killing rate when compared to the wild type E. coli strain. Of note, however, the XL1-Blue E. coli K-12 strain exhibited a significant lag phase before multiplying and killing aphids. This bacterial strain has recently been shown to be more sensitive to oxidative stress than other E. coli K-12 strains, revealing a potential role for reactive oxygen species-mediated defenses in the otherwise reduced aphid immune system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aphid egg protection by ants: a novel aspect of the mutualism between the tree-feeding aphid Stomaphis hirukawai and its attendant ant Lasius productus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji; Yashiro, Toshihisa

    2006-10-01

    Aphids often form mutualistic associations with ants, in which the aphids provide the ants with honeydew and the ants defend the aphids from predators. In this paper, we report aphid egg protection by ants as a novel aspect of the deeply interdependent relationship between a tree-feeding aphid and its attendant ant. The ant Lasius productus harbours oviparous females, males, and eggs of the hinoki cypress-feeding aphid Stomaphis hirukawai in its nests in winter. We investigated the behaviour of ants kept with aphid eggs in petri dishes to examine whether the ants recognise the aphid eggs and tend them or only provide a refuge for the aphids. Workers carried almost all of the aphid eggs into the nest within 24 h. The ants indiscriminately tended aphid eggs collected from their own colonies and those from other ant colonies. The ants cleaned the eggs and piled them up in the nest, and egg tending by ants dramatically increased aphid egg survival rates. Starving the ants showed no significant effect on aphid egg survivorship. Without ants, aphid eggs were rapidly killed by fungi. These results suggested that grooming by the ants protected the aphid eggs, at least, against pathogenic fungi. This hygienic service afforded by the ants seems indispensable for egg survival of these aphids in an environment rich in potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

  4. Direct and indirect impacts of infestation of tomato plant by Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ling Tan

    Full Text Available The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect. The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition.

  5. Prey Acceptability and Preference of Oenopia conglobata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, a Candidate for Biological Control in Urban Green Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Lumbierres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oenopia conglobata is one of the most common ladybird species in urban green areas of the Mediterranean region. We have obtained data about its prey acceptability and prey preferences. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated the acceptability of seven aphid and one psyllid species as prey for this coccinellid: the aphids Chaitophorus populeti, Aphis gossypii, Aphis craccivora Monelliopsis caryae, Eucallipterus tiliae, Aphis nerii (on white poplar, pomegranate, false acacia, black walnut, lime, and oleander, respectively, and the psyllid Acizzia jamatonica on Persian silk tree. These species are abundant in urban green areas in the Mediterranean region. In addition, we tested the acceptability of Rhopalosiphum padi on barley, an aphid species easily reared in the laboratory. We also tested preferences of the predator in cafeteria experiments with three aphid species and one aphid and the psyllid. Adults and larvae of the coccinellid accepted all of the preys offered, except A. nerii, with a clear preference for M. caryae. The predator also showed preference for M. caryae when it was offered in a cafeteria experiment with other aphid species or with the psyllid. The aphid R. padi obtained a good acceptability and could be used for rearing O. conglobata in the laboratory.

  6. A one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of four viruses that infect peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Zhao, Z; Jiang, D; Wu, Z; Li, S

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) assay was developed to enable the simultaneous detection and differentiation of four viruses that infect peach, namely Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus (APCLSV). In this study, four pairs of primers, one specific for each virus, were designed; the corresponding PCR products were 632, 439, 346 and 282 bp in length for ACLSV, CGRMV, PNRSV and APCLSV, respectively, and the fragments could be distinguished clearly by agarose gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity and specificity of the method were tested using individual RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the identity of the RT-PCR amplification products was also confirmed by DNA sequencing. The results of RT-PCR and ELISA, along with batch detection using samples collected from peach orchards, revealed that this rapid and simple technique is an effective way to identify the four viruses simultaneously. The mRT-PCR assay described in this study was developed for the simultaneous detection of four peach viruses from infected peach samples is reliable and sensitive. In contrast to conventional uniplex RT-PCR, mRT-PCR is more efficient, reducing costs, time and handling when testing large numbers of samples. This rapid and simple method is useful for large-scale surveys of viruses that infect peach. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteigne, Marie-Eve; Brodeur, Jacques; Jenni, Sylvie; Boivin, Guy

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of partial plant resistance on the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a major pest of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and one of its parasitoids, Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Aphids were reared on susceptible (L. sativa variety Estival; S) or partially resistant (Lactuca serriola L. PI 491093; PR) lettuce, and next parasitized by A. ervi females. Fitness proxies were measured for both aphids and parasitoids. Developmental time to adult stage took longer for alate and apterous aphids (an average of 3.5 and 1.5 additional days, respectively) on PR than on S lettuce, and fecundity of alate aphids reared on PR lettuce was reduced by 37.8% relative to those reared on S lettuce. Size (tibia length) and weight of aphids reared on PR lettuce were lower than for aphids reared on S lettuce from the third and second instar onward, respectively. Parasitism of aphids reared on PR plants resulted in lower parasitoid offspring emergence (-49.9%), lower adult female (-30.3%) and male (-27.5%) weight, smaller adult female (-17.5%) and male (-11.9%) size, and lower female fecundity (37.8% fewer eggs) than when parasitoids developed from aphids reared on S plants. Our results demonstrate that partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects both the second and third trophic levels. Host plant resistance in cultivated lettuce may therefore create an ecological sink for aphid parasitoids.

  8. Activity of aphids associated with lettuce and broccoli in Spain and their efficiency as vectors of Lettuce mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebreda, M; Moreno, A; Pérez, N; Palacios, I; Seco-Fernández, V; Fereres, A

    2004-03-01

    This research sought to identify the aphid virus vector species associated with lettuce and broccoli crops in Spain, and to determine their population dynamics and ability to transmit Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). Green tile traps and Moericke yellow water-pan traps were used to monitor aphid flights during the spring and autumn growing seasons of 2001. Aphid species feeding on lettuce were counted weekly. The transmission efficiencies of LMV were determined for the aphid species caught most frequently. The Moericke traps generally caught more aphid species than the tile trap, but the latter was the most suitable to estimate flight activity of species involved in virus spread. Spring aphid catches indicated that the main aphid species landing on lettuce in the regions of Madrid and Murcia was Hyperomyzus lactucae, but Brachycaudus helichrysi was also abundant in both regions. In broccoli in the Navarra region, the most abundant species in spring were Aphis fabae, B. helichrysi and H. lactucae. In autumn-sown crops, the main species landing on lettuce in the Madrid region were Hyadaphis coriandri and Aphis spiraecola. In Murcia, A. spiraecola and Myzus persicae were the most abundant, while in Navarra, Therioaphis trifolii, and various Aphis spp. were the most numerous landing on broccoli. The main aphid species colonising lettuce was Nasonovia ribisnigri, but other less abundant colonising species were Aulacorthum solani and Macrosiphum euphorbiae. The most efficient vectors of LMV were M. persicae, Aphis gossypii and M. euphorbiae, while A. fabae and H. lactucae transmitted with low efficiency, and Rhopalosiphum padi and N. ribisnigri did not transmit. Occurrence of LMV epidemics in central Spain in relation to aphid flights and the role of weeds as virus reservoirs is discussed.

  9. Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid (hemiptera: aphididae) to pecan foliage promotes aphid settling and nymphal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2009-04-01

    The nature of the interaction between the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the chlorosis it causes to foliage of its pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch)] host is poorly understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted on the settling behavior of the black pecan aphid, when provided chlorotic pecan leaf discs resulting from previous black pecan aphid feeding and nonchlorotic leaf discs, under a normal photoperiod and constant dark. Additionally, aphid development from the first instar to the adult stage was examined when nymphs were either allowed to feed on the same leaf disc or moved daily to a new, nondamaged, same age leaf disc. After 24 h, a significantly higher percentage of black pecan aphids settled on chlorotic than on nonchlorotic leaf discs, regardless of photoperiod. When starting from the first instar, nymphs that were prevented from inducing leaf chlorosis by moving daily to new, same-age leaf discs took approximately 5 d longer to complete development, had a shorter body length, and had higher mortality than when aphids remained on the same leaf disc. These results show that black pecan aphid-induced leaf chlorosis plays an important role in the interaction of the black pecan aphid with its pecan host.

  10. For the Aphid fauna in the territory of Yenisei river basin. Communication 1. Aphids on coniferous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gurov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on new and previously not well-known data on insufficiently studied fauna of aphids living on coniferous trees in Central Siberia of the basin of Yenisei river. This region is the extensive transect of latitudinal geographic zones from semi-desert in the South to the arctic deserts in the North. That is why this region is very peculiar. This is the reason for insufficient study of regional entomological fauna. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphidoideaare a very taxonomically and ecologically heterogeneous group of insects. The aphids living on conifer trees are notstudied completely on the territory of Yenisei basin. Due to this, the studying of not well-known and economicallyimportant aphids is actual. For example, the insufficient study of regional aphids is confirmed by the fact, that duringthree weeks only of the work for INTAS-94-0930 Project two new aphid species were found and described on thisterritory. Also, the new species of family Mindaridae, which was described in Mongolia in 1980, was found in Siberiafor the first time. These finds indicate the real possibility to describe an interesting conifer aphid complex in the absolutely unstudied forested territory between Angara and Lower Tunguska rivers. Geographical location, dates ofcollection and feeding preferences of different species are described. A general review of Yenisei basin Siberian aphidfauna is suggested for the first time ever.

  11. Comparative Study between Ethanolic and β-Cyclodextrin Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Peach Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada El Darra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach byproducts are often regarded as food waste despite their high content in health-promoting components. Amongst the latter, polyphenols are bioactive molecules with significant health benefits. The present study investigated an eco-friendly and cost-effective method using a GRAS food additive, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD, for the recovery of polyphenols from peach pomace. β-CD assisted extraction of polyphenols was compared to that of conventional solvent (ethanol extraction at the same concentrations (10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, 30 mg/mL, 40 mg/mL, and 50 mg/mL in terms of quality (antiradical activity and quantity. The extract obtained by 50 mg/mL β-CD assisted extraction showed the highest polyphenol (0.72 mg GAE/g DM and flavonoid (0.35 mg catechin/g of DM concentrations as maximal antiradical activity (6.82% and a noted antibacterial activity. Our results showed the competitiveness of β-CD assisted extraction to recover a high quantity and quality of polyphenols from peach pomace suggesting β-CD as a green alternative method for phenolic extraction.

  12. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Wu, Sasa; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2017-01-01

    Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm), violet (420 nm), blue (470 nm), or green (515 nm). We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates), and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants) over control plants. PMID:29190278

  13. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Rechner

    Full Text Available Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm, violet (420 nm, blue (470 nm, or green (515 nm. We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates, and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants over control plants.

  14. Biology and Population Dynamics of Mercetaspis halli (Green on Almond and Peach Trees in Saman Region, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kianpour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pest and disease problem with the extension of fruit orchards, becomes a serious and restricted factor for orchard growers. Most of the scale insect of cold region fruit trees in Iran belongto family Diaspididae. One of the most important pests in the fruit orchards of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province are scale insects. Hall scale, Mercetaspis halli (Green (Hemiptera: Diaspididae , which is armoured scale, is known as a primarily pest of stone fruits. They are the most prevalent pests on trees mostly on Almond and Nectarine . In Iran, this pest is reported in the regions such as Khorasan, Marcazi, Semnan on Cherry, Almond and Apricot trees . Rajabi also reported the pest in Tehran, Esfahan, Yazd, Kermanshah, Fars and Kerman province on apricot, peach, cherry trees . Moghaddam in 2004 reported the pest distribution in Fars, Isfahan, Kerman, Sistan and Baluchestan on almond, peach and pistacia. Monthly abundance monitoring of M. halli, which was conducted by Berlinger et al in 1996 , indicated that adult population had three generations per year. From the ecological and biological aspects, no enough information is available in Iran about M. halli scale. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate aspects of the biology and ecology and seasonal changes of M. halli on Almond and peach trees to clarify the effectiveness of nonchemical management strategy. Materials and Methods: A field study carried out by weekly sampling of different growth stages of M. halli (egg, nymph, male and female on twigs in two the Almond and the Peach orchards in Saman restrict in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province. Different growth stages of armoured scales (egg, nymph, male and female were counted and its population seasonal changes were studied. The population density was determined and compared on different twigs with different ages. The period for ovoviviparously and emergence of 1st and 2nd nymphal instars and matured insects were estimated

  15. Aphid reproductive investment in response to mortality risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Aphids are striking in their prodigious reproductive capacity and reliance on microbial endosymbionts, which provision their hosts with necessary amino acids and provide protection against parasites and heat stress. Perhaps as a result of this bacterial dependence, aphids have limited immune function that may leave them vulnerable to bacterial pathogens. An alternative, non-immunological response that may be available to infected aphids is to increase reproduction, thereby ameliorating fitness loss from infection. Such a response would reduce the need to mount a potentially energetically costly immune response, and would parallel that of other hosts that alter life-history traits when there is a risk of infection. Here we examined whether pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) respond to immunological challenges by increasing reproduction. As a comparison to the response to the internal cue of risk elicited by immunological challenge, we also exposed pea aphids to an external cue of risk - the aphid alarm pheromone (E)-β-farnesene (EBF), which is released in the presence of predators. For each challenge, we also examined whether the presence of symbionts modified the host response, as maintaining host fitness in the face of challenge would benefit both the host and its dependent bacteria. Results We found that aphids stabbed abdominally with a sterile needle had reduced fecundity relative to control aphids but that aphids stabbed with a needle bearing heat-killed bacteria had reproduction intermediate, and statistically indistinguishable, to the aphids stabbed with a sterile needle and the controls. Aphids with different species of facultative symbiotic bacteria had different reproductive patterns overall, but symbionts in general did not alter aphid reproduction in response to bacterial exposure. However, in response to exposure to alarm pheromone, aphids with Hamiltonella defensa or Serratia symbiotica symbiotic infections increased reproduction but those

  16. Facultative symbiont infections affect aphid reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Simon

    Full Text Available Some bacterial symbionts alter their hosts reproduction through various mechanisms that enhance their transmission in the host population. In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum harbors several facultative symbionts influencing several aspects of host ecology. Aphids reproduce by cyclical parthenogenesis whereby clonal and sexual reproduction alternate within the annual life cycle. Many species, including the pea aphid, also show variation in their reproductive mode at the population level, with some lineages reproducing by cyclical parthenogenesis and others by permanent parthenogenesis. While the role of facultative symbionts has been well studied during the parthenogenetic phase of their aphid hosts, very little is known on their possible influence during the sexual phase. Here we investigated whether facultative symbionts modulate the capacity to produce sexual forms in various genetic backgrounds of the pea aphid with controlled symbiont composition and also in different aphid genotypes from natural populations with previously characterized infection status and reproductive mode. We found that most facultative symbionts exhibited detrimental effects on their hosts fitness under sex-inducing conditions in comparison with the reference lines. We also showed that the loss of sexual phase in permanently parthenogenetic lineages of A. pisum was not explained by facultative symbionts. Finally, we demonstrated that Spiroplasma infection annihilated the production of males in the host progeny by inducing a male-killing phenotype, an unexpected result for organisms such as aphids that reproduce primarily through clonal reproduction.

  17. Facultative symbiont infections affect aphid reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jean-Christophe; Boutin, Sébastien; Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Koga, Ryuichi; Le Gallic, Jean-François; Frantz, Adrien; Outreman, Yannick; Fukatsu, Takema

    2011-01-01

    Some bacterial symbionts alter their hosts reproduction through various mechanisms that enhance their transmission in the host population. In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum harbors several facultative symbionts influencing several aspects of host ecology. Aphids reproduce by cyclical parthenogenesis whereby clonal and sexual reproduction alternate within the annual life cycle. Many species, including the pea aphid, also show variation in their reproductive mode at the population level, with some lineages reproducing by cyclical parthenogenesis and others by permanent parthenogenesis. While the role of facultative symbionts has been well studied during the parthenogenetic phase of their aphid hosts, very little is known on their possible influence during the sexual phase. Here we investigated whether facultative symbionts modulate the capacity to produce sexual forms in various genetic backgrounds of the pea aphid with controlled symbiont composition and also in different aphid genotypes from natural populations with previously characterized infection status and reproductive mode. We found that most facultative symbionts exhibited detrimental effects on their hosts fitness under sex-inducing conditions in comparison with the reference lines. We also showed that the loss of sexual phase in permanently parthenogenetic lineages of A. pisum was not explained by facultative symbionts. Finally, we demonstrated that Spiroplasma infection annihilated the production of males in the host progeny by inducing a male-killing phenotype, an unexpected result for organisms such as aphids that reproduce primarily through clonal reproduction.

  18. Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh responses to a generalist sucking pest (Myzus persicae Sulzer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, D-H; Bauwens, J; Delaplace, P; Mazzucchelli, G; Lognay, G; Francis, F

    2015-11-01

    Herbivorous insects can cause severe cellular changes to plant foliage following infestations, depending on feeding behaviour. Here, a proteomic study was conducted to investigate the influence of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) as a polyphagous pest on the defence response of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh after aphid colony establishment on the host plant (3 days). Analysis of about 574 protein spots on 2-DE gels revealed 31 differentially expressed protein spots. Twenty out of these 31 differential proteins were selected for analysis by mass spectrometry. In 12 of the 20 analysed spots, we identified seven and nine proteins using MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS, respectively. Of the analysed spots, 25% contain two proteins. Different metabolic pathways were modulated in Arabidopsis leaves according to aphid feeding: most corresponded to carbohydrate, amino acid and energy metabolism, photosynthesis, defence response and translation. This paper has established a survey of early alterations induced in the proteome of Arabidopsis by M. persicae aphids. It provides valuable insights into the complex responses of plants to biological stress, particularly for herbivorous insects with sucking feeding behaviour. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wari, David; Yamashita, Jun; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Toyoshima, Shingo; Sonoda, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    A population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites was conducted on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchards having different pesticide practices. The phytoseiid mite species composition on peach leaves and wild plants, as estimated using quantitative sequencing, changed during the survey period. Moreover, it varied among study sites. The phytoseiid mite species compositions were similar between peach leaves and some wild plants, such as Veronica persica, Paederia foetida, Persicaria longiseta, and Oxalis corniculata with larger quantities of phytoseiid mites, especially after mid-summer. A PCR-based method to detect the ribosomal ITS sequences of Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus mori from phytoseiid mites was developed. Results showed that Euseius sojaensis (specialized pollen feeder/generalist predator) uses both spider mites as prey in the field.

  20. Consumer peach preferences and purchasing behavior: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Kathleen M; Primrose, Rachel; Crassweller, Robert; Hayes, John E; Marini, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Stokes) are grown in several regions throughout the USA, are eaten fresh, and used as ingredients in value-added processed products. An Internet survey was conducted to investigate Mid-Atlantic consumers' fresh and processed peach purchasing behaviors, and whether packaging certain numbers of peaches together, providing information about nutritional content, and other factors would increase purchases. Additionally, laboratory-based sensory testing was used to better understand peel color, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor preferences for cultivars commonly grown in the Mid-Atlantic region. Irrespective of fresh peach consumption frequency, certain value-added products were of interest. For some products, interest in purchasing was higher than reported purchasing behavior. Preference for certain fresh peach characteristics, such as peel color, differed between less frequent fresh peach consumers and those who consumed fresh peaches more often. Of the four peach cultivars included in the sensory test, most were liked; however, there were some cultivar differences pertaining to color, texture, sweetness, tartness, and flavor liking. Potential marketing strategies can be developed based on frequency of fresh peach consumption and household demographics. Data can be used to select peaches that best appeal to consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Do aphid colonies amplify their emission of alarm pheromone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Eduardo; Kunert, Grit; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2008-09-01

    When aphids are attacked by natural enemies, they emit alarm pheromone to alert conspecifics. For most aphids tested, (E)-beta-farnesene (EBF) is the main, or only, constituent of the alarm pheromone. In response to alarm pheromone, alerted aphids drop off the plant, walk away, or attempt to elude predators. However, under natural conditions, EBF concentration might be low due to the low amounts emitted, to rapid air movement, or to oxidative degradation. To ensure that conspecifics are warned, aphids might conceivably amplify the alarm signal by emitting EBF in response to EBF emitted by other aphids. To examine whether such amplification occurs, we synthesized deuterated EBF (DEBF), which allowed us to differentiate between applied and aphid-derived chemical. Colonies of Acyrthosiphon pisum were treated with DEBF, and headspace volatiles were collected and analyzed for evidence of aphid-derived EBF. No aphid-derived EBF was detected, suggesting that amplification of the alarm signal does not occur. We discuss the disadvantages of alarm signal reinforcement.

  2. Atmospheric fluoride levels in some Ontario peach orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drowley, W B; Rayner, A C; Jephcott, C M

    1963-10-01

    As a result of suture injury to peaches, a survey was taken to determine monthly atmospheric fluoride levels in the soft fruit-growing area of the Niagara Peninsula of Ontario. Although the injury was confined to a few orchards, it was found necessary to locate stations for fluoride sampling over a wide area. The limed-paper candle method was used for fluoride collection. Unwashed and washed peach leaves were analyzed for fluoride content. Fluoride was separated from all samples by the Willard-Winter distillation procedure and estimated colorimetrically. It was found that a general background level of atmospheric fluoride existed in the whole surveyed area and that the levels were highest in and near the area of peach injury. The fluoride content of peach leaves was also highest in this area. The coincidence of high fluoride levels and suture injury to peaches suggests that atmospheric fluoride was the causal agent. When lime sprays were applied to peach trees in the damaged area, a reduction in the incidence of suture injury was observed.

  3. Ants farm subterranean aphids mostly in single clone groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Kronauer, Daniel Jan Christoph; Pen, Ido

    2012-01-01

    mutualisms have been studied in sufficient genetic detail to address these issues, so we decided to characterize symbiont diversity in the complex mutualism between multiple root aphid species and Lasius flavus ants. After showing elsewhere that three of these aphid species have low dispersal and mostly...... if not exclusively asexual reproduction, we here investigate aphid diversity within and between ant nest mounds. Results The three focal species (Geoica utricularia, Forda marginata and Tetraneura ulmi) had considerable clonal diversity at the population level. Yet more than half of the ant mounds contained just....... The ants appear to eat most of the early instar aphids, so that adult aphids are unlikely to face limited phloem resources and scramble competition with other aphids. We suggest that such culling of carbohydrate-providing symbionts for protein ingestion may maintain maximal host yield per aphid while also...

  4. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.

  5. PeachVar-DB: A Curated Collection of Genetic Variations for the Interactive Analysis of Peach Genome Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Flati, Tiziano; Gioiosa, Silvia; Tagliaferri, Ilario; Ciacciulli, Angelo; Gao, Zhongshan; Gattolin, Stefano; Geuna, Filippo; Maggi, Francesco; Bottoni, Paolo; Rossini, Laura; Bassi, Daniele; Castrignanò, Tiziana; Chillemi, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to species of agricultural interest has the potential to accelerate the understanding and exploration of genetic resources. The storage, availability and maintenance of huge quantities of NGS-generated data remains a major challenge. The PeachVar-DB portal, available at http://hpc-bioinformatics.cineca.it/peach, is an open-source catalog of genetic variants present in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and wild-related species of Prunus genera, annotated from 146 samples publicly released on the Sequence Read Archive (SRA). We designed a user-friendly web-based interface of the database, providing search tools to retrieve single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and InDel variants, along with useful statistics and information. PeachVar-DB results are linked to the Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR) and the Phytozome database to allow easy access to other external useful plant-oriented resources. In order to extend the genetic diversity covered by the PeachVar-DB further, and to allow increasingly powerful comparative analysis, we will progressively integrate newly released data. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Commercial scale irradiation for insect disinfestation preserves peach quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Heather; McCulloch, Mary; Caporaso, Fred; Winborne, Ian; Oubichon, Michon; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation is approved as a generic quarantine treatment by the US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Due to the effectiveness of irradiation in controlling insects on commodities, there is a growing need to understand the effects of low dose irradiation on fruit quality. The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of peaches (Prunus persica) to irradiation, and secondly, to determine the effect of commercial scale treatment on shelf-life, overall quality and consumer liking. Six varieties of peaches were irradiated in small batches at 0.29, 0.49, 0.69 and 0.90 kGy to observe the sensitivity of peaches at different dose levels. Changes in quality were evaluated by 8 trained panelists using descriptive analysis. Sensory characteristics (color, smoothness, aroma, touch firmness, mouth firmness, graininess, overall flavor and off-flavor) were evaluated at 2–4 day intervals and untreated samples served as control. To simulate commercial treatment, peaches were irradiated in pallet quantities at a target dose level of 0.4 kGy. The average absorbed dose was 0.66 kGy with an average dose uniformity ratio of 1.57. Commercially treated peaches were evaluated by 40–80 untrained consumers for acceptability routinely throughout the shelf life. Titratable acidity, Brix, texture and weight loss were also monitored for both commercial and small scale irradiated peaches. There was no dose effect on TA, Brix and weight loss due to irradiation. Peaches irradiated at 0.69 and 0.90 kGy were darker in flesh color, more juicy and less firm as determined by the trained panel and analytical pressure tests. Commercial scale irradiation did not adversely affect shelf life but was seen to enhance ripening. This, however, was perceived as a positive change by consumers. Overall, consumers rated the acceptability of irradiated peaches higher than untreated peaches. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed models to find

  7. Gas exchanges in peach palms as a function of the spad chlorophyll meter readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Sant'anna Tucci

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The close relationship between the chlorophyll-meters readings and the total chlorophyll and nitrogen contents in leaves, has allowed their evaluation both in annual and perennial species. Besides, some physiological events such as the CO2 assimilation have also been estimated by chlorophyll meters. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the gas exchanges of peach palms as a function of the chlorophyll SPAD-Meter readings. Three year-old peach palms from Yurimaguas, Peru were studied in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, spaced 2 x 1 m in area under a natural gradient of organic matter which allowed four plots to be considered, according to the peach palms leaves colors, from light yellow to dark green. The SPAD readings and the stomatal frequency of leaflets were evaluated. The photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD, μmol m-2 s-1, the leaf temperature (Tleaf, ºC, the CO2 assimilation (A, μmol m-2 s-1, the stomatal conductance (g s, mol m-2 s-1, the transpiration (E, mmol m-2 s-1 and the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, μmol mol-1 were evaluated with a portable infrared gas analyzer (LCA-4, ADC BioScientific Ltd., Great Amwell, U.K.. A linear increase in the CO2 assimilation as a function of the SPAD readings (y = -0.34 + 0.19x, R² = 0.99, indicates that they can be a rapid and cheap complementary method to evaluate in peach palms some important physiological events, such as CO2 assimilation.

  8. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Mineral Oil on Potato Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Andrew; Alyokhin, Andrei

    2018-05-28

    Mineral oil is a product used to reduce Potato Virus Y transmission in potato fields. However, there is little information available about other effects that oil may have on insect pests of potato. To better understand how mineral oil affects potato pests, we performed a series of experiments testing the effects of oil on mortality, behavior, and development of potato aphids, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), green peach aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). All three species showed negative behavioral responses to oil-treated potato foliage. Oil treatment also increased aphid mortality. Colorado potato beetle mortality was not affected, but developing on oil-treated potato plants resulted in prolonged development and smaller adults. Additionally, oil acted synergistically with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae); Colorado potato beetle larvae were killed more rapidly when sprayed with both products compared with when sprayed with B. bassiana alone. Based on these results, mineral oil has the potential for expanded use in potato IPM programs.

  9. Effect of an alternate weed host, hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, on the biology of the two most important potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) vectors, Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Aphididae: Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Alvarez, Juan M; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Novy, Richard G

    2008-04-01

    Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides (Sendtner), is a ubiquitous weed in potato agro-ecosystems and nonagricultural lands of southeastern Idaho and the Pacific Northwest. This weed increases the complexity of the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polervirus)-potato pathosystem by serving as aphid and virus reservoir. Previous field studies showed higher densities of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), the two most important vectors of PLRV, on S. sarrachoides compared with potato plants in the same fields. Some of the S. sarrachoides plants sampled in these surveys tested positive for PLRV. Viral infections can alter the physiology of plant hosts and aphid performance on such plants. To understand better the potential effects of S. sarrachoides on the PLRV-potato-aphid pathosystem, the life histories of M. persicae and M. euphorbiae were compared on virus-free and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato. Individual nymphs of each aphid species were held in clip cages on plants from each treatment to monitor their development, survival, and reproductive output. Nymphal survival for both aphids across plant species was higher on S. sarrachoides than on potato, and, within plant species, it was higher on PLRV-infected plants than on noninfected plants. With a few exceptions, similar patterns occurred for fecundity, reproductive periods, adult longevity, and intrinsic rate of increase. The enhanced performance of aphids on S. sarrachoides and on PLRV-infected plants could alter the vector population dynamics and thus the PLRV-disease epidemiology in fields infested with this weed.

  10. Improvement of wheat for resistance to Russian Wheat Aphid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, M.; Malinga, J.N.; Wanyama, J.; Karanja, L.; Njau, P.; Leo, T.; Alomba, E.

    2001-01-01

    Breeding for resistance against Russian wheat aphid in Kenya is reported. Results of six of the lines were found to have high to moderate resistance to Russian wheat aphid. Popular lines were susceptible in the greenhouse when subjected to aphid pressure but showed moderate susceptibility when screened under field conditions, indicating that in years or location with low aphid pressure farmers may still get a crop. However in areas of high aphid pressure or bad years they may lose their crop. Consequently, developing resistant/torerant varieties is urgent

  11. How the use of nitrogen fertiliser may switch plant suitability for aphids: the case of Miscanthus, a promising biomass crop, and the aphid pest Rhopalosiphum maidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Florent; Chesnais, Quentin; Catterou, Manuella; Rambaud, Caroline; Doury, Géraldine; Ameline, Arnaud

    2017-08-01

    The use of nitrogen fertiliser in agrosystems can alter plant nitrogen and consequently improve nutrient availability for herbivores, potentially leading to better performance for herbivores and higher pest pressure in the field. We compared, in laboratory conditions, the effects of nitrogen fertilisation on a promising biomass crop, Miscanthus × giganteus, and its parents M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. The plant-mediated effects were compared on the second trophic level, the green corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis. Results showed that the biomass and leaf C:N ratio of M. sinensis plants treated with nitrogen fertiliser were significantly greater than those of non-treated plants. As regards M. × giganteus and M. sacchariflorus, the only reported change was a significantly smaller leaf C:N ratio for treated M. sacchariflorus compared with non-treated plants. Surprisingly, nitrogen fertilisation had opposite effects on plant-herbivore interactions. Following nitrogen treatments, M. sinensis was less suitable in terms of intrinsic rate of increase for R. maidis, the feeding behaviour of which was negatively affected, while M. sacchariflorus and M. × giganteus exhibited greater suitability in terms of aphid weight. Nitrogen fertilisation had contrasting effects on the three species of Miscanthus plants. These effects cascaded up to the second trophic level, R. maidis aphid pests, either through a modification of their weight or demographic parameters. The implications of these results were discussed in the context of agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Uso de poda verde, plásticos refletivos, antitranspirante e potássio na produção de pêssegos Using green pruning, reflective plastics, antitranspirant and potassium in peach production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Trevisan

    2006-10-01

    as foliar application and vegetative pruning, provided intense red coloration of the peaches epidermis. The use of 1,600 g of KCl in the soil, combined with green pruning, resulted in higher average weight, larger diameter and low titratable acidity. Soil cover with raffia plastic under plant canopy, combined with green pruning, resulted in higher soluble solids content in the fruits. These practics during preharvest influence positively the final quality of cultivar Maciel peaches.

  13. New genus and species of the extinct aphid family Szelegiewicziidae and their implications for aphid evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegierek, Piotr; Zyła, Dagmara Maria; Homan, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    of the extinct groups. The extinct aphid family Szelegiewicziidae is supposed to be one of the oviparous lineages in aphid evolution. New material from the rock fossil deposits of Shar Teg (Upper Jurassic of Mongolia), Baissa (Lower Cretaceous of Siberia-Russia), and Burmese amber (Upper Cretaceous of Myanmar...

  14. Role of the aphid species and their feeding locations in parasitization behavior of Aphelinus abdominalis, a parasitoid of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Skovgård, Henrik; Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Steenberg, Tove; Enkegaard, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Aphid species feeding on lettuce occupy distinct feeding sites: the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri prefers to feed on heart leaves, whereas the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae feeds only on outer leaves. The aphid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis, known to be able to regulate M. euphorbiae on many crops, has recently been indicated as a promising biocontrol candidate also for use against N. ribisnigri, a major pest of lettuce. This study therefore examined A. abdominalis parasitization preference between N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae and its ability to parasitize aphids feeding on different parts of lettuce plants. In addition, life history traits of A. abdominalis on these aphid species were investigated. In no-choice laboratory experiments on leaf discs and 24 h exposure, A. abdominalis successfully parasitized 54% and 60% of the offered N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae, respectively, with no significant difference. In the corresponding choice experiment, however, A. abdominalis had a tendency for a significantly higher preference for M. euphorbiae (38%) compared to N. ribisnigri (30%). Growth chamber experiments on whole plants demonstrated that A. abdominalis was able to parasitize aphids, regardless of their feeding locations on lettuce plants. However, aphid feeding behavior had a significant effect on the parasitization rate. A. abdominalis parasitized significantly higher percentages of M. euphorbiae or N. ribisnigri when aphids were exposed separately to parasitoids on whole lettuce plants as compared with N. ribisnigri exposed only on heart leaf. A significant preference of A. abdominalis for M. euphorbiae compared to N. ribisnigri was also observed in the growth chamber choice experiment. A high percentage of adult emergence (> 84%) and female-biased sex ratio (> 83%) were found irrespective of the aphid species. PMID:28854232

  15. Role of the aphid species and their feeding locations in parasitization behavior of Aphelinus abdominalis, a parasitoid of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Skovgård, Henrik; Reddy, Gadi V P; Steenberg, Tove; Enkegaard, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Aphid species feeding on lettuce occupy distinct feeding sites: the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri prefers to feed on heart leaves, whereas the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae feeds only on outer leaves. The aphid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis, known to be able to regulate M. euphorbiae on many crops, has recently been indicated as a promising biocontrol candidate also for use against N. ribisnigri, a major pest of lettuce. This study therefore examined A. abdominalis parasitization preference between N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae and its ability to parasitize aphids feeding on different parts of lettuce plants. In addition, life history traits of A. abdominalis on these aphid species were investigated. In no-choice laboratory experiments on leaf discs and 24 h exposure, A. abdominalis successfully parasitized 54% and 60% of the offered N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae, respectively, with no significant difference. In the corresponding choice experiment, however, A. abdominalis had a tendency for a significantly higher preference for M. euphorbiae (38%) compared to N. ribisnigri (30%). Growth chamber experiments on whole plants demonstrated that A. abdominalis was able to parasitize aphids, regardless of their feeding locations on lettuce plants. However, aphid feeding behavior had a significant effect on the parasitization rate. A. abdominalis parasitized significantly higher percentages of M. euphorbiae or N. ribisnigri when aphids were exposed separately to parasitoids on whole lettuce plants as compared with N. ribisnigri exposed only on heart leaf. A significant preference of A. abdominalis for M. euphorbiae compared to N. ribisnigri was also observed in the growth chamber choice experiment. A high percentage of adult emergence (> 84%) and female-biased sex ratio (> 83%) were found irrespective of the aphid species.

  16. Role of the aphid species and their feeding locations in parasitization behavior of Aphelinus abdominalis, a parasitoid of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Shrestha

    Full Text Available Aphid species feeding on lettuce occupy distinct feeding sites: the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri prefers to feed on heart leaves, whereas the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae feeds only on outer leaves. The aphid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis, known to be able to regulate M. euphorbiae on many crops, has recently been indicated as a promising biocontrol candidate also for use against N. ribisnigri, a major pest of lettuce. This study therefore examined A. abdominalis parasitization preference between N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae and its ability to parasitize aphids feeding on different parts of lettuce plants. In addition, life history traits of A. abdominalis on these aphid species were investigated. In no-choice laboratory experiments on leaf discs and 24 h exposure, A. abdominalis successfully parasitized 54% and 60% of the offered N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae, respectively, with no significant difference. In the corresponding choice experiment, however, A. abdominalis had a tendency for a significantly higher preference for M. euphorbiae (38% compared to N. ribisnigri (30%. Growth chamber experiments on whole plants demonstrated that A. abdominalis was able to parasitize aphids, regardless of their feeding locations on lettuce plants. However, aphid feeding behavior had a significant effect on the parasitization rate. A. abdominalis parasitized significantly higher percentages of M. euphorbiae or N. ribisnigri when aphids were exposed separately to parasitoids on whole lettuce plants as compared with N. ribisnigri exposed only on heart leaf. A significant preference of A. abdominalis for M. euphorbiae compared to N. ribisnigri was also observed in the growth chamber choice experiment. A high percentage of adult emergence (> 84% and female-biased sex ratio (> 83% were found irrespective of the aphid species.

  17. Role of the aphid species and their feeding locations in parasitization behavior of Aphelinus abdominalis, a parasitoid of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Govinda; Skovg?rd, Henrik; Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Steenberg, Tove; Enkegaard, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Aphid species feeding on lettuce occupy distinct feeding sites: the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri prefers to feed on heart leaves, whereas the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae feeds only on outer leaves. The aphid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis, known to be able to regulate M. euphorbiae on many crops, has recently been indicated as a promising biocontrol candidate also for use against N. ribisnigri, a major pest of lettuce. This study therefore examined A. abdominalis parasitizatio...

  18. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacka, D; Jesionkowska, K; Kruczyńska, D; Stehr, R; Schoorl, F; Buehler, A; Egger, S; Codarin, S; Hilaire, C; Höller, I; Guerra, W; Liverani, A; Donati, F; Sansavini, S; Martinelli, A; Petiot, C; Carbó, J; Echeverria, G; Iglesias, I; Bonany, J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers' preferences towards new varieties, and the data is based on the self-reported declarations of respondents, male and female, between 15 and 70 years old. 4271 consumers from 7 European countries were invited to supply information about their apple consumption habits, whereas 499 respondents from 5 countries answered questions relating to frequency of peach and nectarine consumption. In both, the apple and the peach surveys, data analysis of declared intake showed significant differences between nationalities. The highest apple consumption was in Poland, where over 55% declared a consumption of more than 5 apples per week. In comparison, Italian consumers most often indicated eating 3-5 apples per week (39.3%). The lowest apple consumption was in the Netherlands and Spain. In the case of peaches, the highest consumption was indicated in France where 48% of respondents declared a peach consumption of 3-5 per week with 40% eating more than 5 fruits per week. The lowest peach intake was declared in Germany. Irrespective of country women were shown to eat more apples that men. Furthermore, the group of older people (61-70 years) consume apples more often than the adult group (36-60), while within the youngest group of consumers (16-35) eating apples was not at all popular. As with apples females declared a higher peach consumption, and again significantly lower fruit consumption by the youngest group (16-35) was indicated. Although the availability of fruit at the market remains a prime factor in determining apple and peach consumption, our survey confirmed the trends of declining this popular fruit intake by the younger generation, as well as the persistent tendency of lower frequency of fruit consumption among men than women

  19. Physicochemical, antioxidant, and sensorial properties of peach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation of varieties of processed peach products could be a good option to supply in lean season. Objective of the study was to assess the quality characteristics of peach snacks prepared from 11 different cultivars. We investigated the physicochemical (soluble solid, titratable acidity, hardness and dry yield), antioxidant ...

  20. Field and laboratory evaluations of soybean lines against soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S; Prischmann, Deirdre A; Dashiell, Kenton E

    2012-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.). Merr., that significantly reduces yield in northern production areas of North America. Insecticides are widely used to control soybean aphid outbreaks, but efforts are underway to develop host plant resistance as an effective alternative management strategy. Here, previously identified resistant lines were evaluated in laboratory tests against field-collected populations of soybean aphid and in field-plot tests over 2 yr in South Dakota. Six lines previously identified with resistance to soybean aphid--Jackson, Dowling, K1639, Cobb, Palmetto and Sennari--were resistant in this study, but relatively high aphid counts on Tie-feng 8 in field plots contrasted with its previously reported resistance. Bhart-PI 165989 showed resistance in one of two laboratory tests, but it had relatively large aphid infestations in both years of field tests. Intermediate levels of soybean aphid occurred in field plots on lines previously shown to have strong (Sugao Zairai, PI 230977, and D75-10169) or moderate resistance to soybean aphid (G93-9223, Bragg, Braxton, and Tracy-M). Sugao Zairai also failed to have a significant proportion of resistant plants in two laboratory tests against aphids field-collected in 2008, but it was resistant in laboratory tests with aphids collected in 2002, 2005, and 2006. Overall, results showed that lines with Rag (i.e., Jackson) or Rag1 gene (i.e., Dowling) had low aphid numbers, whereas lines with Rag2 (i.e., Sugao Zairai, Sennari) had mixed results. Collectively, responses of soybean aphid populations in laboratory and field tests in 2008 resembled a virulence pattern reported previously for biotype 3 soybean aphids, but virulence in soybean aphid populations was variable and dynamic over years of the study. These results, coupled with previous reports of biotypes virulent to Rag1, suggest that deployment of lines with a single aphid

  1. The Potato Aphid Salivary Effector Me47 Is a Glutathione-S-Transferase Involved in Modifying Plant Responses to Aphid Infestation

    OpenAIRE

    Kettles, Graeme J.; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2016-01-01

    Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however, the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculate...

  2. Terpenoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis attacked by caterpillars and aphids: effects of aphid density on the attraction of a caterpillar parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Anneke; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Cappai, Francesco; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A

    2017-12-01

    One of the responses of plants to insect attack is the production of volatile organic compounds that mediate indirect defence of plants by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivores. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) include terpenoids that play key roles in the attraction of natural enemies. Crosstalk between phytohormonal signalling pathways is well known to affect the regulation of plant defences, including the emission of HIPVs. Thus, simultaneous feeding on the same plant by caterpillars and aphids, can affect the attraction of parasitoids by the plant compared to single insect attack. The role of aphid density in the regulation of HIPV emission by plants under dual attack has not been studied previously. Here, we investigated the attraction of Diadegma semiclausum, a parasitoid of the Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, to volatiles emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana plants, simultaneously attacked by host caterpillars, and by the non-host aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Our study shows that the effect of aphid infestation on parasitoid attraction is influenced by the density of the aphids. Biosynthesis and emission of (E,E)-α-farnesene could be linked to the observed preference of D. semiclausum parasitoids for the HIPV blend emitted by plants dually infested by caterpillars and aphids at a high density compared to dually infested plants with a low aphid density. Parasitoids such as D. semiclausum are important enemies of herbivorous insects and a better understanding of how plants express indirect defence mechanisms in response to multiple insect attack will provide important knowledge on plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions under multiple stress conditions.

  3. Stem nematode counteracts plant resistance of aphids in alfalfa, Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ricardo A; Spears, Lori R

    2014-10-01

    Plants are exploited by a diverse community of insect herbivores and phytopathogens that interact indirectly through plant-mediated interactions. Generally, plants are thought to respond to insects and pathogens through different defensive signaling pathways. As plants are selected for resistance to one phytophagous organism type (insect vs. pathogen) in managed systems, it is not clear how this selection may affect community interactions. This study examined the effect of nematode-resistant varieties on aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) suppression, and then determined how infection by the stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci, mediated ecological effects on aphids and on plant defense proteins. Four alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties were selected with resistance to nematodes only (+,-), aphids only (-,+), nematodes and aphids (+,+), and susceptibility to nematodes and aphids (-,-). Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to isolate the effect of nematode infection and aphid abundance on each variety. We found that varieties resistant to nematode, regardless of aphid resistance, had the lowest aphid counts, suggesting possible cross-resistance. Aphid abundance, however, increased when plants were exposed to nematodes. Resistant varieties were associated with elevated saponins but these compounds were not affected by insect or pathogen feeding. Concentrations of peroxidases and trypsin inhibitors, however, were increased in nematode resistant varieties when exposed to nematodes and aphids, respectively. The patterns of plant defense were variable, and a combination of resistance traits and changes in nutrient availability may drive positive interactions between nematodes and aphids aboveground.

  4. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations promote ant tending of aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Jenni M M; Nooten, Sabine S; Cook, James M; Ryalls, James M W; Barton, Craig V M; Johnson, Scott N

    2018-04-27

    Animal mutualisms, which involve beneficial interactions between individuals of different species, are common in nature. Insect-insect mutualism, for example, is widely regarded as a keystone ecological interaction. Some mutualisms are anticipated to be modified by climate change, but the focus has largely been on plant-microbe and plant-animal mutualisms rather than those between animals. Ant-aphid mutualisms, whereby ants tend aphids to harvest their honeydew excretions and, in return, provide protection for the aphids, are widespread. The mutualism is heavily influenced by the quality and quantity of honeydew produced by aphids, which is directly affected by host plant quality. As predicted increases in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO 2 ) are widely reported to affect plant nutritional chemistry, this may also alter honeydew quality and hence the nature of ant-aphid mutualisms. Using glasshouse chambers and field-based open-top chambers, we determined the effect of eCO 2 on the growth and nutritional quality (foliar amino acids) of lucerne (Medicago sativa). We determined how cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora) populations and honeydew production were impacted when feeding on such plants and how this affected the tending behaviour of ants (Iridomyrmex sp.). eCO 2 stimulated plant growth but decreased concentrations of foliar amino acids by 29% and 14% on aphid-infested plants and aphid-free plants, respectively. Despite the deterioration in host plant quality under eCO 2 , aphids maintained performance and populations were unchanged by eCO 2 . Aphids induced higher concentrations of amino acids (glutamine, asparagine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid) important for endosymbiont-mediated synthesis of essential amino acids. Aphids feeding under eCO 2 also produced over three times more honeydew than aphids feeding under ambient CO 2 , suggesting they were imbibing more phloem sap at eCO 2 . The frequency of ant tending of aphids more than doubled in

  5. Loss of aphid transmissibility of plum pox virus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenova, I.; Lohuis, H.; Peters, D.

    2002-01-01

    The aphid transmissibility of seven Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates and the amino acid sequences of their coat proteins were analysed Two aphid transmissible isolates PPV-A and PPV-P contained the DAG amino triplet, while DAL or NAG replaced this triplet in the coat proteins of non-aphid transmissible

  6. Proteomic investigation of aphid honeydew reveals an unexpected diversity of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sabri

    Full Text Available Aphids feed on the phloem sap of plants, and are the most common honeydew-producing insects. While aphid honeydew is primarily considered to comprise sugars and amino acids, its protein diversity has yet to be documented. Here, we report on the investigation of the honeydew proteome from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Using a two-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis (2D-Dige approach, more than 140 spots were isolated, demonstrating that aphid honeydew also represents a diverse source of proteins. About 66% of the isolated spots were identified through mass spectrometry analysis, revealing that the protein diversity of aphid honeydew originates from several organisms (i.e. the host aphid and its microbiota, including endosymbiotic bacteria and gut flora. Interestingly, our experiments also allowed to identify some proteins like chaperonin, GroEL and Dnak chaperones, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu, and flagellin that might act as mediators in the plant-aphid interaction. In addition to providing the first aphid honeydew proteome analysis, we propose to reconsider the importance of this substance, mainly acknowledged to be a waste product, from the aphid ecology perspective.

  7. Parasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kerry M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings indicate that several insect lineages receive protection against particular natural enemies through infection with heritable symbionts, but little is yet known about whether enemies are able to discriminate and respond to symbiont-based defense. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, receives protection against the parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, when infected with the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its associated bacteriophage APSE (Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont. Internally developing parasitoid wasps, such as A. ervi, use maternal and embryonic factors to create an environment suitable for developing wasps. If more than one parasitoid egg is deposited into a single aphid host (superparasitism, then additional complements of these factors may contribute to the successful development of the single parasitoid that emerges. Results We performed experiments to determine if superparasitism is a tactic allowing wasps to overcome symbiont-mediated defense. We found that the deposition of two eggs into symbiont-protected aphids significantly increased rates of successful parasitism relative to singly parasitized aphids. We then conducted behavioral assays to determine whether A. ervi selectively superparasitizes H. defensa-infected aphids. In choice tests, we found that A. ervi tends to deposit a single egg in uninfected aphids, but two or more eggs in H. defensa-infected aphids, indicating that oviposition choices may be largely determined by infection status. Finally, we identified differences in the quantity of the trans-β-farnesene, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, between H. defensa-infected and uninfected aphids, which may form the basis for discrimination. Conclusions Here we show that the parasitic wasp A. ervi discriminates among symbiont-infected and uninfected aphids, and changes its oviposition behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of overcoming symbiont

  8. Fungicide efficacy in peach rusty spot control in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Dolovac Nenad; Miletić Novica; Aleksić Goran; Savić Dušan; Živković Svetlana; Trkulja Nenad; Bulajić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry) caused significant yield losses in Serbia. Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. Ho...

  9. A highly infective plant-associated bacterium influences reproductive rates in pea aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Tory A; Clark, Kelley J; Baltrus, David A

    2016-02-01

    Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, have the potential to increase reproduction as a defence against pathogens, though how frequently this occurs or how infection with live pathogens influences this response is not well understood. Here we determine the minimum infective dose of an environmentally common bacterium and possible aphid pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, to determine the likelihood of pathogenic effects to pea aphids. Additionally, we used P. syringae infection to investigate how live pathogens may alter reproductive rates. We found that oral bacterial exposure decreased subsequent survival of aphids in a dose-dependent manner and we estimate that ingestion of less than 10 bacterial cells is sufficient to increase aphid mortality. Pathogen dose was positively related to aphid reproduction. Aphids exposed to low bacterial doses showed decreased, although statistically indistinguishable, fecundity compared to controls. Aphids exposed to high doses reproduced significantly more than low dose treatments and also more, but not significantly so, than controls. These results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that pea aphids may use fecundity compensation as a response to pathogens. Consequently, even low levels of exposure to a common plant-associated bacterium may therefore have significant effects on pea aphid survival and reproduction.

  10. A highly infective plant-associated bacterium influences reproductive rates in pea aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Tory A.; Clark, Kelley J.; Baltrus, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, have the potential to increase reproduction as a defence against pathogens, though how frequently this occurs or how infection with live pathogens influences this response is not well understood. Here we determine the minimum infective dose of an environmentally common bacterium and possible aphid pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, to determine the likelihood of pathogenic effects to pea aphids. Additionally, we used P. syringae infection to investigate how live pathogens may alter reproductive rates. We found that oral bacterial exposure decreased subsequent survival of aphids in a dose-dependent manner and we estimate that ingestion of less than 10 bacterial cells is sufficient to increase aphid mortality. Pathogen dose was positively related to aphid reproduction. Aphids exposed to low bacterial doses showed decreased, although statistically indistinguishable, fecundity compared to controls. Aphids exposed to high doses reproduced significantly more than low dose treatments and also more, but not significantly so, than controls. These results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that pea aphids may use fecundity compensation as a response to pathogens. Consequently, even low levels of exposure to a common plant-associated bacterium may therefore have significant effects on pea aphid survival and reproduction. PMID:26998321

  11. Altruistic defence behaviours in aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodeur Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic anti-predatory behaviours pose an evolutionary problem because they are costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipients. Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward kin. The altruistic nature of anti-predatory behaviours is often difficult to establish because the actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial animals. Non-eusocial parthenogenetically reproducing aphids form colonies of clone-mates, which are ideal to test the altruistic nature of anti-predatory defence behaviours. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by natural enemies such as parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts neighbours (clone-mates of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the actor. However, contact with cornicle secretions also hampers an attacker and could provide direct fitness to the actor. Results We tested the hypothesis that cornicle secretions are altruistic by assessing direct and indirect fitness consequences of smearing cornicle secretions onto an attacker, and by manipulating the number of clone-mates that could benefit from the behaviour. We observed parasitoids, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, foraging singly in patches of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae of varied patch size (2, 6, and 12 aphids. Aphids that smeared parasitoids did not benefit from a reduced probability of parasitism, or increase the parasitoids' handling time. Smeared parasitoids, however, spent proportionately more time grooming and less time foraging, which resulted in a decreased host-encounter and oviposition rate within the host patch. In addition, individual smearing rate increased with the number of clone-mates in the colony. Conclusions Cornicle secretions of aphids were altruistic against parasitoids, as they provided no direct fitness benefits to secretion

  12. Evolutionary ecology of the interactions between aphids and their parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ralec, Anne; Anselme, Caroline; Outreman, Yannick; Poirié, Marylène; van Baaren, Joan; Le Lann, Cécile; van Alphen, Jacques J-M

    2010-01-01

    Many organisms, including entomopathogenous fungi, predators or parasites, use aphids as ressources. Parasites of aphids are mostly endoparasitoid insects, i.e. insects which lay eggs inside the body of an other insect which will die as a result of their development. In this article, we review the consequences of the numerous pecularities of aphid biology and ecology for their endoparasitoids, notably the Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). We first examine the various mechanisms used by aphids for defence against these enemies. We then explore the strategies used by aphidiine parasitoids to exploit their aphid hosts. Finally, we consider the responses of both aphids and parasitoids to ecological constraints induced by seasonal cycles and to environmental variations linked to host plants and climate. The fundamental and applied interest of studying these organisms is discussed. Copyright 2010 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Aphid facultative symbionts reduce survival of the predatory lady beetle Hippodamia convergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-essential facultative endosymbionts can provide their hosts with protection from parasites, pathogens, and predators. For example, two facultative bacterial symbionts of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), Serratia symbiotica and Hamiltonella defensa, protect their hosts from parasitism by two species of parasitoid wasp. Previous studies have not explored whether facultative symbionts also play a defensive role against predation in this system. We tested whether feeding on aphids harboring different facultative symbionts affected the fitness of an aphid predator, the lady beetle Hippodamia convergens. Results While these aphid faculative symbionts did not deter lady beetle feeding, they did decrease survival of lady beetle larvae. Lady beetle larvae fed a diet of aphids with facultative symbionts had significantly reduced survival from egg hatching to pupation and therefore had reduced survival to adult emergence. Additionally, lady beetle adults fed aphids with facultative symbionts were significantly heavier than those fed facultative symbiont-free aphids, though development time was not significantly different. Conclusions Aphids reproduce clonally and are often found in large groups. Thus, aphid symbionts, by reducing the fitness of the aphid predator H. convergens, may indirectly defend their hosts’ clonal descendants against predation. These findings highlight the often far-reaching effects that symbionts can have in ecological systems. PMID:24555501

  14. Morphological and genetic perspectives of peach fruit responses to spring frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring frost is one of the most unpredictable cropping factors in many peach production areas. A severe spring frost can wipe out an entire peach crop whereas a mild spring frost may naturally help thinning as is common practice in commercial peach production. The extent of frost damage depends on t...

  15. Inoculation methods and aggressiveness of five Fusarium species against peach palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Miguel Jarek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fusarium wilt is a major disease which affects peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.var gasipaes Henderson. This study aimed to evaluate inoculation methods and aggressiveness of isolates of five Fusarium species on peach palm. Fusarium proliferatum can infect the leaves, stem, and roots of peach palm. F. proliferatum, F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC, F. verticillioides, F. solani species complex (FSSC, and Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFSC are pathogenic to peach palm. The use of Fusarium-colonized ground corn for root inoculation was effective and reduced the level of damage to plants.

  16. Multiple cues for winged morph production in an aphid metacommunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehrparvar

    Full Text Available Environmental factors can lead individuals down different developmental pathways giving rise to distinct phenotypes (phenotypic plasticity. The production of winged or unwinged morphs in aphids is an example of two alternative developmental pathways. Dispersal is paramount in aphids that often have a metapopulation structure, where local subpopulations frequently go extinct, such as the specialized aphids on tansy (Tanacetum vulgare. We conducted various experiments to further understand the cues involved in the production of winged dispersal morphs by the two dominant species of the tansy aphid metacommunity, Metopeurum fuscoviride and Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria. We found that the ant-tended M. fuscoviride produced winged individuals predominantly at the beginning of the season while the untended M. tanacetaria produced winged individuals throughout the season. Winged mothers of both species produced winged offspring, although in both species winged offspring were mainly produced by unwinged females. Crowding and the presence of predators, effects already known to influence wing production in other aphid species, increased the percentage of winged offspring in M. tanacetaria, but not in M. fuscoviride. We find there are also other factors (i.e. temporal effects inducing the production of winged offspring for natural aphid populations. Our results show that the responses of each aphid species are due to multiple wing induction cues.

  17. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Md Abdur; Busatto, Nicola; Trainotti, Livio

    2014-11-01

    MYB10.1 and MYB10.3, with bHLH3, are the likely regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach fruit. MYB10.1/2/3 forms a cluster on the same genomic fragment where the Anther color ( Ag ) trait is located. Anthocyanins are bioactive compounds responsible for the pigmentation of many plant parts such as leaves, flowers, fruits and roots, and have potential benefits to human health. In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], peel color is a key determinant for fruit quality and is regulated by flavonoids including anthocyanins. The R2R3 MYB transcription factors (TFs) control the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes with the help of co-activators belonging to the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and WD40 repeat families. In the peach genome six MYB10-like and three bHLH-like TFs were identified as candidates to be the regulators of the anthocyanin accumulation, which, in yellow flesh fruits, is highest in the peel, abundant in the part of the mesocarp surrounding the stone and lowest in the mesocarp. The expression of MYB10.1 and MYB10.3 correlates with anthocyanin levels of different peach parts. They also have positive correlation with the expression of key structural genes of the anthocyanin pathway, such as CHS, F3H, and UFGT. Functions of peach MYB10s were tested in tobacco and shown to activate key genes in the anthocyanin pathway when bHLHs were co-expressed as partners. Overexpression of MYB10.1/bHLH3 and MYB10.3/bHLH3 activated anthocyanin production by up-regulating NtCHS, NtDFR and NtUFGT while other combinations were not, or much less, effective. As three MYB10 genes are localized in a genomic region where the Ag trait, responsible for anther pigmentation, is localized, it is proposed they are key determinant to introduce new peach cultivars with higher antioxidant level and pigmented fruit.

  18. Social aggregation in pea aphids: experiment and random walk modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Nilsen

    Full Text Available From bird flocks to fish schools and ungulate herds to insect swarms, social biological aggregations are found across the natural world. An ongoing challenge in the mathematical modeling of aggregations is to strengthen the connection between models and biological data by quantifying the rules that individuals follow. We model aggregation of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Specifically, we conduct experiments to track the motion of aphids walking in a featureless circular arena in order to deduce individual-level rules. We observe that each aphid transitions stochastically between a moving and a stationary state. Moving aphids follow a correlated random walk. The probabilities of motion state transitions, as well as the random walk parameters, depend strongly on distance to an aphid's nearest neighbor. For large nearest neighbor distances, when an aphid is essentially isolated, its motion is ballistic with aphids moving faster, turning less, and being less likely to stop. In contrast, for short nearest neighbor distances, aphids move more slowly, turn more, and are more likely to become stationary; this behavior constitutes an aggregation mechanism. From the experimental data, we estimate the state transition probabilities and correlated random walk parameters as a function of nearest neighbor distance. With the individual-level model established, we assess whether it reproduces the macroscopic patterns of movement at the group level. To do so, we consider three distributions, namely distance to nearest neighbor, angle to nearest neighbor, and percentage of population moving at any given time. For each of these three distributions, we compare our experimental data to the output of numerical simulations of our nearest neighbor model, and of a control model in which aphids do not interact socially. Our stochastic, social nearest neighbor model reproduces salient features of the experimental data that are not captured by the control.

  19. Aphid Identification and Counting Based on Smartphone and Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suo Xuesong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exact enumeration of aphids before the aphids outbreak can provide basis for precision spray. This paper designs counting software that can be run on smartphones for real-time enumeration of aphids. As a first step of the method used in this paper, images of the yellow sticky board that is aiming to catch insects are segmented from complex background by using GrabCut method; then the images will be normalized by perspective transformation method. The second step is the pretreatment on the images; images of aphids will be segmented by using OSTU threshold method after the effect of random illumination is eliminated by single image difference method. The last step of the method is aphids’ recognition and counting according to area feature of aphids after extracting contours of aphids by contour detection method. At last, the result of the experiment proves that the effect of random illumination can be effectively eliminated by using single image difference method. The counting accuracy in greenhouse is above 95%, while it can reach 92.5% outside. Thus, it can be seen that the counting software designed in this paper can realize exact enumeration of aphids under complicated illumination which can be used widely. The design method proposed in this paper can provide basis for precision spray according to its effective detection insects.

  20. Indian Bt cotton varieties do not affect the performance of cotton aphids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora C Lawo

    Full Text Available Cotton varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are grown worldwide for the management of pest Lepidoptera. To prevent non-target pest outbreaks and to retain the biological control function provided by predators and parasitoids, the potential risk that Bt crops may pose to non-target arthropods is addressed prior to their commercialization. Aphids play an important role in agricultural systems since they serve as prey or host to a number of predators and parasitoids and their honeydew is an important energy source for several arthropods. To explore possible indirect effects of Bt crops we here examined the impact of Bt cotton on aphids and their honeydew. In climate chambers we assessed the performance of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae when grown on three Indian Bt (Cry1Ac cotton varieties (MECH 12, MECH 162, MECH 184 and their non-transformed near isolines. Furthermore, we examined whether aphids pick up the Bt protein and analyzed the sugar composition of aphid honeydew to evaluate its suitability for honeydew-feeders. Plant transformation did not have any influence on aphid performance. However, some variation was observed among the three cotton varieties which might partly be explained by the variation in trichome density. None of the aphid samples contained Bt protein. As a consequence, natural enemies that feed on aphids are not exposed to the Cry protein. A significant difference in the sugar composition of aphid honeydew was detected among cotton varieties as well as between transformed and non-transformed plants. However, it is questionable if this variation is of ecological relevance, especially as honeydew is not the only sugar source parasitoids feed on in cotton fields. Our study allows the conclusion that Bt cotton poses a negligible risk for aphid antagonists and that aphids should remain under natural control in Bt cotton fields.

  1. Influence of microwave radiation on the post harvest decay and quality of peach fruits in cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarpajoun, E.; Nikkhah, SH.

    2009-01-01

    This research has been carried out in Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resources research center to study the effect of microwave radiation on storage time and control of peach fruit rot. Peach cultivars (Alberta, Red, White and Green of Mashad) were harvested in the first and second decades of June, July and September, sorted and stored at 4°C for 12 hours. Then fruits were treated with a Microwave with the Frequency at 2450 MHZ and two intensities, low (200 w) and high (800 w) for 30, 60 and 120 seconds, the treated and control fruits were laid on in plastic trays, packed in perforated polyethylene bags and stored in cold storage (0°C and 90-95% relative humidity) for 2 months. The qualitative tests including fruit rot, total soluble solids, titrable acidity, weight loss, firmness and color were assayed after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Sensory attributes were measured after 60 days storage. The experimental design was factorial in frame of completely randomized design. Multiple range test (Duncan) were used to compare the means. The results showed that treating the fruit with microwave decreased the fruit rot and increased pH, flesh firmness and total soluble solids of treated peach. Microwave radiation with the 800w for 60 seconds maintained the qualitative characteristics of fruits. Panel test confirmed these results. (author)

  2. Influences of pea morphology and interacting factors on pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, N; Cuddington, K

    2009-08-01

    It has been claimed that plant architecture can alter aphid reproductive rates, but the mechanism driving this effect has not been identified. We studied interactions between plant architecture, aphid density, environmental conditions, and nutrient availability on the reproduction of pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] using four near-isogenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) that differ in morphology. Manipulations of aphid density (1, 5, and 10 adults per plant) allowed us to examine any effects of plant morphology on crowding and consequently reproduction. Pea morphology per se did not alter pea aphid crowding, as measured by mean nearest neighbor distance, and there was no effect on reproduction. In addition, reproduction increased with increasing adult density, indicating positive density dependence. In a separate experiment, peas were fertilized to determine whether differences between nutrient availability of the four different morphologies might drive any observed differences in aphid reproduction. Although plant nitrogen content was altered by fertilization treatments, this did not have an impact on aphid reproduction. Greenhouse experiments, however, suggested that pea morphology can interact with environmental conditions to reduce aphid reproduction under some conditions. We conclude that plant morphology only influences aphid reproduction when environmental conditions are less than optimal.

  3. Spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis trifolii (Monell) (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Pest on alfalfa in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić, Ivana; Radonjić, Anđa; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera

    2017-01-01

    Spotted alfalfa aphid Therioaphis trifolii (Monell) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) is one of the most important alfalfa pest on the world. Also, it is the most abundant alfalfa aphid in Serbia. This aphid cause damage to alfalfa directly by feeding and indirectly by vectoring plant-pathogenic viruses. Some notes of morphology, host plants, damage, biology, vector role and distribution of spotted alfalfa aphid are given. Abundance of this aphid on alfalfa, influence of climates changes on its abundanc...

  4. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  5. Whitefly and aphid inducible promoters from Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aphids, whitefly, inducible promoter, sap sucking insects, biotic stress. Whitefly and aphid ..... pathway related genes in cotton plants (Dubey et al. 2013). ... and coordination of work, data analysis and interpretation, and revised the article.

  6. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kanobe

    Full Text Available The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of "metabolic hijacking" by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor.

  7. Bacteria may contribute to distant species recognition in ant-aphid mutualistic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Christophe Y; Detrain, Claire; Thonart, Philippe; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J; Lognay, Georges C

    2017-04-01

    Mutualistic interactions between ant and aphid species have been the subject of considerable historical and contemporary investigations, the primary benefits being cleaning and protection for the aphids and carbohydrate-rich honeydew for the ants. Questions remained, however, as to the volatile semiochemical factor influencing this relationship. A recent study highlighted the role of bacterial honeydew volatile compounds in ant attraction. Here, ant's ability to distantly discriminate 2 aphid species was investigated based on bacterial honeydew semiochemicals emissions using a two-way olfactometer. Both the mutualistic aphid Aphis fabae L. and the nonmyrmecophilous aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris were found to be attractive for the ant Lasius niger L. The level of attraction was similar in both assays (control vs. one of the aphid species). However, when given a choice between these 2 aphid species, ants showed a significant preference for Aphis fabae. Honeydew volatiles, mostly from bacterial origins, are known to be a key element in ant attraction. Using the same olfactometry protocol, the relative attractiveness of volatiles emitted by honeydews collected from each aphid species and by bacteria isolated from each honeydew was investigated. Again, ants significantly preferred volatiles released by Aphis fabae honeydew and bacteria. This information suggests that microbial honeydew volatiles enable ants to distantly discriminate aphid species. These results strengthen the interest of studying the occurrence and potential impact of microorganisms in insect symbioses. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Individual sugar and acid composition within southeastern peach germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    eaches grown in the southeast are valued for their acidic, sweet flavor. A complex mixture of various sugars and acids at different ratios play a key role in determining these unique peach flavor attributes. To understand the flavor profile of fresh market peaches, individual sugar and acid compone...

  9. THE ROLE OF BACTERIAL SYMBIONTS IN AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF BLACK BEAN APHIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingGan; De-ChengDing; Xue-xiaMiao

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the role of bacterial symbionts ( Buchnera spp. ) in the black bean aphids ( Aphis craccivora Koch), the aphids were treated with the antibiotic, rifampicin, to eliminate their intracellular symbiotic bacteria. Analysis of protein and amino acid concentration in 7-day-old of aposymbiotic aphids showed that the total protein content per mg fresh weight was significantly reduced by 29 %, but free amino acid titers were increased by 17% . The ratio of the essential amino acids was in general only around 20% essential amino acids in phloem sap of broad bean, whereas it was 44% and 37% in symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphids, respectively,suggesting that the composition of the free amino acids was unbalanced. For example, the essential amino acid,threonine represented 21. 6% of essential amino acids in symbiotic aphids, but it was only 16.7% in aposymbiotic aphids. Likewise, two nonessential amino acids, tyrosine and serine, represented 8.9% and 5.6% of total amino acids in symbiontic aphids, respectively, but they enhanced to 21.1% and 13.6% in aposymbiotic aphids. It seems likely that the elevated free amino acid concentration in aposymbiotic aphids was caused by the limited protein anabolism as the result of the unbalanced amino acid composition.

  10. [Effects of Beauveria bassiana on Myzus persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xu-mei; Song, Jin-xin; Fan, Mei-zhen; Li, Zeng-zhi

    2011-09-01

    A Beauveria bassiana strain Bb21 was isolated from naturally infected green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The effects of the strain on M. persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Bb21 had strong pathogenicity to M. persicae, with the LD50 of 97 conidia x mm(-2) (45-191, 95% confidence interval), but was less pathogenic to the second instar nymph of C. carnea, with the LD50 of 1089 conidia x mm(-2). The LD50 for C. carnea was 10.2 times higher than that for M. persicae. The pathogenicity of Bb21 to H. axyridis was very weak, with a low infection rate of 13% even at a high concentration 5 x 10(8) conidia x mL(-1). The Bb21 at low conidia concentration had less effect on the developmental period and fecundity of the two predaceous natural enemies. However, when applied at the high concentration 5 x 10(8) spores x mL(-1), Bb21 shortened the larval stage of H. axyridis averagely by 1.4 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 33% and 14%, respectively, and shortened the larval stage of C. carnea averagely by 0.7 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 24% and 11%, respectively. Since the LD50 for green peach aphid was much lower than that for the two predaceous natural enemies, and had very low effect on the adult emergence rate and fecundity of the two predators at the concentration recommended for field spray, Bb21 could be applied as a biocontrol agent of M. persicae in the integrated management of pernicious organisms.

  11. Cereal aphid colony turnover and persistence in winter wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linton Winder

    Full Text Available An understanding of spatial and temporal processes in agricultural ecosystems provides a basis for rational decision-making with regards to the management and husbandry of crops, supporting the implementation of integrated farming strategies. In this study we investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of aphid pests (Sitobion avenae and Metopolophium dirhodum within winter wheat fields. Using an intensive sampling programme we investigated distributions at both the small (single shoot and large (field scales. Within two fields, a grid with 82 locations was established (area 120 m by 168 m. At each location, 25 shoots were individually marked and aphid counts by observation conducted on 21 and 22 occasions as the crop matured, resulting in 43,050 and 45,100 counts being conducted in the two fields respectively. We quantified field scale spatial distributions, demonstrating that spatial pattern generally emerged, with temporal stability being both species- and field- dependent. We then measured turnover of colonies at the small (individual shoot and large (field scales by comparing consecutive pairs of sampling occasions. Four turnover categories were defined: Empty (no aphids recorded on either occasion; Colonised (aphids recorded on the second occasion but not the first; Extinction (aphids recorded on the first occasion but not the second; Stable (aphids recorded on both occasions. At the field scale, population stability soon established, but, at the small scale there was a consistently high proportion of unoccupied shoots with considerable colonisation and extinction and low stability. The redistribution of aphids within the crop at the local scale is a vulnerability which could be used to disrupt population development--by mediating exposure to ground-active natural enemies and by incurring a metabolic cost caused by the physiological demands to re-establish on a nearby host plant.

  12. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This training video provides provides an overview of general aphid morphology by using a compound microscope. The narrator discusses and highlights structures on the aphid that are important to make a species identification....

  13. EFFICACY OF IMIDACLOPRID (CONFIDOR 200 SL AGAINST APHIDS INFESTING WHEAT CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Joshi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid (Confidor 200 SL was evaluated either alone or with a fungicide (Tilt 0.01% against wheat aphids. There were seven different treatments, including an untreated control. All the treatments were replicated three times in a similar field environment. Population of wheat aphids was recorded on randomly selected five plants in each plot at different intervals, both before and after the spraying. Confidor 200 SL @ 400 ml/ha treatment was found most effective against wheat aphids. However, mixing of Confidor 200 SL @ 100 ml/ha with Tilt @ 0.01 %, was found significantly least effective for wheat aphids control.

  14. New genus and species of the extinct aphid family Szelegiewicziidae and their implications for aphid evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegierek, Piotr; Żyła, Dagmara; Homan, Agnieszka; Cai, Chenyang; Huang, Diying

    2017-10-24

    Recently, we are witnessing an increased appreciation for the importance of the fossil record in phylogenetics and testing various evolutionary hypotheses. However, this approach brings many challenges, especially for such a complex group as aphids and requires a thorough morphological analysis of the extinct groups. The extinct aphid family Szelegiewicziidae is supposed to be one of the oviparous lineages in aphid evolution. New material from the rock fossil deposits of Shar Teg (Upper Jurassic of Mongolia), Baissa (Lower Cretaceous of Siberia-Russia), and Burmese amber (Upper Cretaceous of Myanmar) allowed us to undertake a more detailed examination of the morphological features and carry out an analysis of the taxonomical composition and evolution of the family. This led us to the conclusion that evolution of the body plan and wing structure was similar in different, often not closely related groups, probably as a result of convergence. Additionally, we present a description of a new genus and two species (Tinaphis mongolica Żyła &Wegierek, sp. nov., and Feroorbis burmensis Wegierek & Huang, gen. et sp. nov.) that belong to this family.

  15. New genus and species of the extinct aphid family Szelegiewicziidae and their implications for aphid evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegierek, Piotr; Żyła, Dagmara; Homan, Agnieszka; Cai, Chenyang; Huang, Diying

    2017-12-01

    Recently, we are witnessing an increased appreciation for the importance of the fossil record in phylogenetics and testing various evolutionary hypotheses. However, this approach brings many challenges, especially for such a complex group as aphids and requires a thorough morphological analysis of the extinct groups. The extinct aphid family Szelegiewicziidae is supposed to be one of the oviparous lineages in aphid evolution. New material from the rock fossil deposits of Shar Teg (Upper Jurassic of Mongolia), Baissa (Lower Cretaceous of Siberia-Russia), and Burmese amber (Upper Cretaceous of Myanmar) allowed us to undertake a more detailed examination of the morphological features and carry out an analysis of the taxonomical composition and evolution of the family. This led us to the conclusion that evolution of the body plan and wing structure was similar in different, often not closely related groups, probably as a result of convergence. Additionally, we present a description of a new genus and two species ( Tinaphis mongolica Żyła &Wegierek, sp. nov., and Feroorbis burmensis Wegierek & Huang, gen. et sp. nov.) that belong to this family.

  16. Fungicide Efficacy in Peach Rusty Spot Control in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Dolovac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry caused significant yield losses in Serbia.Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. However, because of specific environmental conditions in Serbia, recommended protection method using repeated fungicide treatments, starting from petal fall, did not prove to be efficient and the rate of infection in some susceptible peach cultivars reached 100%. In 2003 and 2004 a field trial was conducted in order to test the efficacy of fungicides (a.i. kresoxim-methyl, flusilazole and sulfur for the efficient control of Rusty Spot epidemics. The trial was carried out under conditions of natural infection on the peach cv. Summerset at the locality of Bela Crkva, Serbia. In the ntreated control plots,high disease incidence was recorded with the percentage of affected fruit surface ranging from 33.5% in the first, up to the 35.4% in the second year of the trail. Among fungicides included in the trial, kresoxim-methyl proved to be the most efficient (90.25% in the first and 91.12% in the second year of the trial, flusilazole exhibited lower efficacy (87.28% and 80.61%, respectively while sulfur was the least efficient 82.33% and 80.30%, respectively. Determination of the most efficient fungicide for the peach rusty spot control in Serbia provides basic nformation for further investigations which will include optimization of treatment terms, as well as additional agro-technical control measures.

  17. Aphid Infestation Increases Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Mycotoxins in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulic, Jassy; Ajigboye, Olubukola; Swarup, Ranjan; Bruce, Toby

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium langsethiae is a fungal pathogen of cereal crops that is an increasing problem in northern Europe, but much of its epidemiology is poorly understood. The species produces the mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2, which are highly toxic. It was hypothesized that grain aphids, Sitobion avenae, may transmit F. langsethiae inoculum between wheat plants, and a series of transmission experiments and volatile chemical analyses was performed to test this. Manual translocation of aphids from inoculated to uninfected hosts resulted in pathogen DNA accumulation in hosts. However, the free movement of wingless aphids from infected to healthy plants did not. The addition of winged aphids reared on F. langsethiae-inoculated wheat seedlings to wheat plants also did not achieve successful pathogen transfer. While our data suggested that aphid transmission of the pathogen was not very efficient, we observed an increase in disease when aphids were present. After seedling inoculation, an increase in pathogen DNA accumulation in seedling leaves was observed upon treatment with aphids. Furthermore, the presence of aphids on wheat plants with F. langsethiae-inoculated ears not only led to a rise in the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in infected grain but also to an increase in the concentrations of T-2 and HT-2 toxins, with more than 3-fold higher toxin levels than diseased plants without aphids. This work highlights that aphids increase the susceptibility of wheat host plants to F. langsethiae and that aphid infestation is a risk factor for accumulating increased levels of T-2 and HT-2 in wheat products. IMPORTANCE Fusarium langsethiae is shown here to cause increased contamination levels of grain with toxins produced by fungus when aphids share the host plant. This effect has also recently been demonstrated with Fusarium graminearum, yet the two fungal species show stark differences in their effect on aphid populations. In both cases, aphids improve the ability of the pathogens to

  18. Differential divergences of obligately insect-pathogenic Entomophthora species from fly and aphid hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen; López Lastra, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    Three DNA regions (ITS 1, LSU rRNA and GPD) of isolates from the insect-pathogenic fungus genus Entomophthora originating from different fly (Diptera) and aphid (Hemiptera) host taxa were sequenced. The results documented a large genetic diversity among the fly-pathogenic Entomophthora and only minor differences among aphid-pathogenic Entomophthora. The evolutionary time of divergence of the fly and the aphid host taxa included cannot account for this difference. The host-driven divergence of Entomophthora, therefore, has been much greater in flies than in aphids. Host-range differences or a recent host shift to aphid are possible explanations.

  19. Genetic dissection of Sharka disease tolerance in peach (P. persica L. Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Rossini, Laura; Geuna, Filippo; Palmisano, Francesco; Minafra, Angelantonio; Castrignanò, Tiziana; Gattolin, Stefano; Ciacciulli, Angelo; Babini, Anna Rosa; Liverani, Alessandro; Bassi, Daniele

    2017-11-03

    Plum pox virus (PPV), agent of Sharka disease, is the most important quarantine pathogen of peach (P. persica L. Batsch). Extensive evaluation of peach germplasm has highlighted the lack of resistant sources, while suggesting the presence of a quantitative disease resistance, expressed as reduction in the intensity of symptoms. Unravelling the genetic architecture of peach response to PPV infection is essential for pyramiding resistant genes and for developing more tolerant varieties. For this purpose, a genome-wide association (GWA) approach was applied in a panel of accessions phenotyped for virus susceptibility and genotyped with the IPSC peach 9 K SNP Array, and coupled with an high-coverage resequencing of the tolerant accession 'Kamarat'. Genome-wide association identified three highly significant associated loci on chromosome 2 and 3, accounting for most of the reduction in PPV-M susceptibility within the analysed peach population. The exploration of associated intervals through whole-genome comparison of the tolerant accession 'Kamarat' and other susceptible accessions, including the PPV-resistant wild-related species P. davidiana, allow the identification of allelic variants in promising candidate genes, including an RTM2-like gene already characterized in A. thaliana. The present study is the first effort to identify genetic factors involved in Sharka disease in peach germplasm through a GWA approach. We provide evidence of the presence of quantitative resistant loci in a collection of peach accessions, identifying major loci and highly informative SNPs that could be useful for marker assisted selection. These results could serve as reference bases for future research aimed at the comprehension of genetic mechanism regulating the complex peach-PPV interaction.

  20. Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bächtold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants. In this study, we examined the interactions between myrmecophilous aphids, their ant-guards and a predatory syrphid species, Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Larvae of this predator were found in the colonies of three aphid species: Aphis gossypii, A. spiraecola and Toxoptera sp., which were tended by eight ant species, especially Camponotus. Hoverfly larvae managed to infiltrate the aphid colonies and consume nymphs. Predator larvae exhibited inconspicuous movements and were not detected by ants which were commonly observed touching and antennating the larvae they come into contact. These results suggest that behavioral and chemical cues are involved in the infiltration and on the successful predation of syrphids upon aphids.

  1. Plant genetic variation mediates an indirect ecological effect between belowground earthworms and aboveground aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Braun, Julia; Decker, Emilia; Hans, Sarah; Wagner, Agnes; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Zytynska, Sharon E

    2014-10-21

    Interactions between aboveground and belowground terrestrial communities are often mediated by plants, with soil organisms interacting via the roots and aboveground organisms via the shoots and leaves. Many studies now show that plant genetics can drive changes in the structure of both above and belowground communities; however, the role of plant genetic variation in mediating aboveground-belowground interactions is still unclear. We used an earthworm-plant-aphid model system with two aphid species (Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum) to test the effect of host-plant (Vicia faba) genetic variation on the indirect interaction between the belowground earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the aboveground aphid populations. Our data shows that host-plant variety mediated an indirect ecological effect of earthworms on generalist black bean aphids (A. fabae), with earthworms increasing aphid growth rate in three plant varieties but decreasing it in another variety. We found no effect of earthworms on the second aphid species, the pea aphid (A. pisum), and no effect of competition between the aphid species. Plant biomass was increased when earthworms were present, and decreased when A. pisum was feeding on the plant (mediated by plant variety). Although A. fabae aphids were influenced by the plants and worms, they did not, in turn, alter plant biomass. Previous work has shown inconsistent effects of earthworms on aphids, but we suggest these differences could be explained by plant genetic variation and variation among aphid species. This study demonstrates that the outcome of belowground-aboveground interactions can be mediated by genetic variation in the host-plant, but depends on the identity of the species involved.

  2. Inheritance patterns of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of pea aphid biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccoud, Jean; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; de la Huerta, Manon; Cosson, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Herbivorous insects frequently harbor bacterial symbionts that affect their ecology and evolution. Aphids host the obligatory endosymbiont Buchnera, which is required for reproduction, together with facultative symbionts whose frequencies vary across aphid populations. These maternally transmitted secondary symbionts have been particularly studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which harbors at least 8 distinct bacterial species (not counting Buchnera) having environmentally dependent effects on host fitness. In particular, these symbiont species are associated with pea aphid populations feeding on specific plants. Although they are maternally inherited, these bacteria are occasionally transferred across insect lineages. One mechanism of such nonmaternal transfer is paternal transmission to the progeny during sexual reproduction. To date, transmission of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of aphids has been investigated in only a handful of aphid lineages and 3 symbiont species. To better characterize this process, we investigated inheritance patterns of 7 symbiont species during sexual reproduction of pea aphids through a crossing experiment involving 49 clones belonging to 9 host-specialized biotypes, and 117 crosses. Symbiont species in the progeny were detected with diagnostic qualitative PCR at the fundatrix stage hatching from eggs and in later parthenogenetic generations. We found no confirmed case of paternal transmission of symbionts to the progeny, and we observed that maternal transmission of a particular symbiont species (Serratia symbiotica) was quite inefficient. We discuss these observations in respect to the ecology of the pea aphid. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. The Effects of Aphid Traits on Parasitoid Host Use and Specialist Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagic, Vesna; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Fründ, Jochen; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G.; Athanassiou, Christos G.; Starý, Petr; Tomanović, Željko

    2016-01-01

    Specialization is a central concept in ecology and one of the fundamental properties of parasitoids. Highly specialized parasitoids tend to be more efficient in host-use compared to generalized parasitoids, presumably owing to the trade-off between host range and host-use efficiency. However, it remains unknown how parasitoid host specificity and host-use depends on host traits related to susceptibility to parasitoid attack. To address this question, we used data from a 13-year survey of interactions among 142 aphid and 75 parasitoid species in nine European countries. We found that only aphid traits related to local resource characteristics seem to influence the trade-off between host-range and efficiency: more specialized parasitoids had an apparent advantage (higher abundance on shared hosts) on aphids with sparse colonies, ant-attendance and without concealment, and this was more evident when host relatedness was included in calculation of parasitoid specificity. More traits influenced average assemblage specialization, which was highest in aphids that are monophagous, monoecious, large, highly mobile (easily drop from a plant), without myrmecophily, habitat specialists, inhabit non-agricultural habitats and have sparse colonies. Differences in aphid wax production did not influence parasitoid host specificity and host-use. Our study is the first step in identifying host traits important for aphid parasitoid host specificity and host-use and improves our understanding of bottom-up effects of aphid traits on aphid-parasitoid food web structure. PMID:27309729

  4. A Genetic Survey of Pyrethroid Insecticide Resistance in Aphids in New Brunswick, Canada, with Particular Emphasis on Aphids as Vectors of Potato virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Tyler D B; Arju, Irin; Poirier, René; Singh, Mathuresh

    2018-05-28

    Aphids are viral vectors in potatoes, most importantly of Potato virus Y (PVY), and insecticides are frequently used to reduce viral spread during the crop season. Aphids collected from the potato belt of New Brunswick, Canada, in 2015 and 2016 were surveyed for known and novel mutations in the Na-channel (para) gene, coding for the target of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. Specific genetic mutations known to confer resistance (kdr and skdr) were found in great abundance in Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), which rose from 76% in 2015 to 96% in 2016. Aphids other than M. persicae showed lower frequency of resistance. In 2015, 3% of individuals contained the resistance mutation skdr, rising to 13% in 2016 (of 45 species). Several novel resistance mutations or mutations not before reported in aphids were identified in this gene target. One of these mutations, I936V, is known to confer pyrethroid resistance in another unrelated insect, and three others occur immediately adjacent and prompt similar chemical shifts in the primary protein structure, to previously characterized mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance. Most novel mutations were found in species other than M. persicae or others currently tracked individually by the provincial aphid monitoring program, which were determined by cytochrome C oxidase I (cox1) sequencing. Through our cox1 DNA barcoding survey, at least 45 species of aphids were discovered in NB potato fields in 2015 and 2016, many of which are known carriers of PVY.

  5. Estimation of the number of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus that visit adult citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín, Carlos; Olmos, Antonio; Teresa Gorris, María; Bertolini, Edson; Carmen Martínez, M; Carbonell, Emilio A; Hermoso de Mendoza, Alfonso; Cambra, Mariano

    2004-03-01

    Aphid species were counted on citrus trees in orchards in Valencia, Spain, in the spring and autumn of 1997, 1998 and 1999. Moericke yellow water traps, the 'sticky shoot' method and counts of established colonies were used in extensive surveys in which 29,502 aphids were recorded and identified. Aphis spiraecola and Aphis gossypii were the most abundant aphid species. The numbers of aphid species landing on mature trees of grapefruit, sweet orange, lemon and clementine and satsuma mandarins, were estimated by counting the numbers of young shoots/tree and aphids trapped on sticky shoots. The proportions of the different aphid species captured were: A. gossypii (53%), A. spiraecola (32%), Toxoptera aurantii (11%), Myzus persicae (1%), Aphis craccivora (1%) and other species (2%). Clementine was the most visited species with 266,700 aphids landing/tree in spring 2000, followed by lemon (147,000), sweet orange (129,150), grapefruit (103,200), and satsuma (92,400). The numbers and relative percentages of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were assessed by nested RT-PCR in single closed tubes and analysed by extraction of RNA-CTV targets from trapped aphids. An average of 37,190 CTV-carrying aphids visited each tree in spring 2000 (29 per shoot). The percentage detection of viral RNA in the aphid species that landed were 27% for A. gossypii, 23% for A. spiraecola and 19% for T. aurantii. This high incidence of aphids carrying CTV is consistent with the high prevalence and rapid spread of CTV in sweet orange, clementine, and satsuma mandarins in recent years in the region. The infection rate was proportional to the number of aphids landing/tree.

  6. A bottom-up model to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season peaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, E.; Albisu, L.M.

    2015-07-01

    Peaches are consumed in Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Nowadays there are few areas in Europe that produce peaches with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), and the Calanda area is one of them. The aim of this work is to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season PDO Calanda peaches in the city of Zaragoza, Spain, by a bottom-up model. The bottom-up model proves greater amount of information than top-down models. In this approach it is estimated one utility function per consumer. Thus, it is not necessary to make assumptions about preference distributions and correlations across respondents. It was observed that preference distributions were neither normal nor independently distributed. If those preferences were estimated by top-down models, conclusions would be biased. This paper also explores a new way to describe preferences through individual utility functions. Results show that the largest behavioural group gathered origin sensitive consumers. Their utility increased if the peaches were produced in the Calanda area and, especially, when peaches had the PDO Calanda brand. In sequence, the second most valuable attribute for consumers was the price. Peach size and packaging were not so important on purchase choice decision. Nevertheless, it is advisable to avoid trading smallest size peaches (weighting around 160 g/fruit). Traders also have to be careful by using active packaging. It was found that a group of consumers disliked this kind of product, probably, because they perceived it as less natural. (Author)

  7. The genetics of indirect ecological effects - plant parasites and aphid herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Rowntree

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When parasitic plants and aphid herbivores share a host, both direct and indirect ecological effects (IEEs can influence evolutionary processes. We used a hemiparasitic plant (Rhinanthus minor, a grass host (Hordeum vulgare and a cereal aphid (Sitobion avenae to investigate the genetics of IEEs between the aphid and the parasitic plant, and looked to see how these might affect or be influenced by the genetic diversity of the host plants. Survival of R. minor depended on the parasite’s population of origin, the genotypes of the aphids sharing the host and the genetic diversity in the host plant community. Hence the indirect effects of the aphids on the parasitic plants depended on the genetic environment of the system. Here, we show that genetic variation can be important in determining the outcome of IEEs. Therefore, IEEs have the potential to influence evolutionary processes and the continuity of species interactions over time.

  8. The resistance of lettuce to the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, van M.

    1995-01-01

    The resistance of lettuce to the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri is based on a single, dominant gene, the Nr-gene. On the resistant plant aphids died within a few days, without any honeydew production. Transfer-experiments with a short stay on a resistant plant followed by a

  9. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [An example of research on biological control: Entomophthora fungi pathogenic for aphids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latgé, J P; Remaudière, G; Papierok, B

    1978-01-01

    The results obtained in 15 years of research on the Entomophthorales pathogen of aphids showed the importance of the action of these fungi in the regulation of natural aphid populations and their possible use in agriculture as a biological control agent. Recent ecological studies on natural populations of aphids established the seasonal variation of the different fungal species and the diverse degrees of specificity between the species or groups of species of aphid and the various species of Entomophthora. The study of populations dynamics of an aphid species on a cultivated plant permitted the determination of the way a certain number of biotic and abiotic factors, such as temperature, humidity, thresholds of the insect population and of the infecting fungus lead to an epizootic development. If the air propagation of the disease by conidia is understood for a long time, the role of the soil as a reservoir for the infecting fungus has been demonstrated recently. Under favourable climatic conditions, the use of industrially produced resistant resting spores would allow the regulation of aphid populations in nature.

  11. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  12. Yield response of brassica varieties/strains in relation to mustard aphid lipaphis erysimi (kalt.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.A.; Bukhari, S.A.H.; Tariq, H.

    2010-01-01

    Nine brassica varieties/advanced lines were tested to find out the varietal comparison against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (kalt.) in relation to aphid population, average number of branches/plant, average number of grains per pod and grain yield (kg/ha) during 2004-2006. Minimum aphid population was observed on promising cultivar P-20 during both years 2004-2005 and 2005-06 which were 3.l and 23 aphid/30 cm of apical inflorescence from randomly selected five plants respectively. This promising strain also proved significantly the highest yielder and gave 1633 kg. grains/ha (2004-05) and 8 17.5 kg grains/ha (2005-06) followed by SP-36 which showed aphid population 36 and 32.5 aphid/30 cm inflorescence having yield 1373 and 780 kg grains/ha during the both periods respectively under report. The other parameters viz. Average number of branches per plant and average no. of grains/pod remained nonsignificant as far as aphid effect is concerned. (author)

  13. Yield response of brassica varieties/strains in relation to mustard aphid lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.A.; Bukhari, S.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Nine brassica varieties/advanced lines were tested to find out the varietal comparison against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (kalt.) in relation to aphid population. average number of branches/plant, average number of grains per pod and grain yield (kg/ha) during 2004-2006. Minimum aphid population was observed on promising cultivar P-20 during both years 2004-2005-06 which were 2005-06 which were 31 and 23 aphid/30 cm of apical inflorescence from randomly selected five plants respectively. This promising strain also proved significantly the highest yielder and gave 1633 kg. grains/ha (2004,05) and 817.5 kg grains/ha (2005-06) followed by SP-36 which showed aphid population 36 and 32.5 aphid/30 cm inflorescence having yield 1373 and 780 kg grains/ha during the both periods respectively under report. The other parameters viz. Average number of branches per plant and average no. of grains/pod remained non significant as far as aphid effect is concerned. (author)

  14. Particle film affects black pecan aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Reilly, Charles C

    2002-08-01

    Three species of aphids attack pecan foliage, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, and cause economic damage. We tested a kaolin-based particle film against one of these aphid species, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis). Effect of particle film on host selection, adult mortality, and production of nymphs by M. caryaefoliae was tested on seedling pecans in the laboratory. Fewer M. caryaefoliae adults selected treated foliage compared with untreated foliage. A higher percentage of adults that did select treated foliage were recovered from upper leaf surfaces compared with the percentage of adults recovered from upper leaf surfaces of untreated leaves. Observations with a microscope revealed an accumulation of particle film on aphid body parts, especially on tarsi, and strongly suggests that aphid mobility was restricted. Adult mortality was higher on treated foliage and led to an overall decrease in production of nymphs on those seedlings. In addition, we measured spectral properties of treated seedling pecan foliage. Light reflectance by treated foliage was increased and absorptance decreased compared with control foliage whereas transmittance of light through control and particle film-treated leaves was similar. We did not detect any phytotoxic effect on pecan due to application of particle film.

  15. New aphid (Aphidoidea) records for the Netherlands (1984-2005)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piron, P.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Presented are 18 species.of aphids in combination with their food-plants found in The Netherlands from 1984 to 2005 not earlier described here. Among these are well-known species that are caught with the high suction trap andlor MOERICKE yellow water traps and aphids new for The Netherlands. The

  16. Variable isotopic compositions of host plant populations preclude assessment of aphid overwintering sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a pest of soybean in the northern Midwest whose migratory patterns have been difficult to quantify. Improved knowledge of soybean aphid overwintering sites could facilitate the development of control efforts with exponential impacts on aphid densities on a...

  17. Aphid secondary symbionts do not affect prey attractiveness to two species of predatory lady beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Kovacs

    Full Text Available Heritable symbionts have been found to mediate interactions between host species and their natural enemies in a variety of organisms. Aphids, their facultative symbionts, and their potential fitness effects have been particularly well-studied. For example, the aphid facultative symbiont Regiella can protect its host from infection from a fungal pathogen, and aphids with Hamiltonella are less likely to be parasitized by parasitic wasps. Recent work has also found there to be negative fitness effects for the larvae of two species of aphidophagous lady beetles that consumed aphids with facultative symbionts. In both species, larvae that consumed aphids with secondary symbionts were significantly less likely to survive to adulthood. In this study we tested whether adult Harmonia axyridis and Hippodamia convergens lady beetles avoided aphids with symbionts in a series of choice experiments. Adults of both lady beetle species were as likely to choose aphids with symbionts as those without, despite the potential negative fitness effects associated with consuming aphids with facultative symbionts. This may suggest that under natural conditions aphid secondary symbionts are not a significant source of selection for predatory lady beetles.

  18. Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, A. B. F.; Kronauer, D. J. C.; Pen, I.; Weissing, F. J.; Boomsma, J. J.

    Clonal organisms with occasional sex are important for our general understanding of the costs and benefits that maintain sexual reproduction. Cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are highly variable in their frequency of sexual reproduction. However, studies have mostly focused on free-living aphids

  19. The Synthesis and Characterization of Peach-Like ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalianfar, A.; Halim, S. A.; Navasery, M.; Din Fasih, Ud; Lim, K. P.; Chen, S. K.; Jahromi, Siamak Pilban; Zahedi, J. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Peach-like ZnO microstructures are synthesized using vapor phase transport on MgO (001) substrates with a copper oxide (60 nm) buffer layer. The structure and morphology of the product are investigated using an x-ray diffractometer (XRD) and a field-emission scanning electron microscope. The peaches have an average diameter of 3 μm and a wurtzite structure. To study the optical properties, photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy are employed. A strong UV emission at 380 nm in the PL spectra is observed, and a sharp and dominant peak at 437 cm −1 in the Raman spectrum can be assigned to the good crystallization of obtained product. In addition, the growth mechanism of the peach-like ZnO structure is tentatively investigated based on the EDX analysis and growth time

  20. Orally Delivered Scorpion Antimicrobial Peptides Exhibit Activity against Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and Its Bacterial Symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ramirez, Karen; Skaljac, Marisa; Grotmann, Jens; Kirfel, Phillipp; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2017-08-24

    Aphids are severe agricultural pests that damage crops by feeding on phloem sap and vectoring plant pathogens. Chemical insecticides provide an important aphid control strategy, but alternative and sustainable control measures are required to avoid rapidly emerging resistance, environmental contamination, and the risk to humans and beneficial organisms. Aphids are dependent on bacterial symbionts, which enable them to survive on phloem sap lacking essential nutrients, as well as conferring environmental stress tolerance and resistance to parasites. The evolution of aphids has been accompanied by the loss of many immunity-related genes, such as those encoding antibacterial peptides, which are prevalent in other insects, probably because any harm to the bacterial symbionts would inevitably affect the aphids themselves. This suggests that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could replace or at least complement conventional insecticides for aphid control. We fed the pea aphids ( Acyrthosiphon pisum ) with AMPs from the venom glands of scorpions. The AMPs reduced aphid survival, delayed their reproduction, displayed in vitro activity against aphid bacterial symbionts, and reduced the number of symbionts in vivo. Remarkably, we found that some of the scorpion AMPs compromised the aphid bacteriome, a specialized organ that harbours bacterial symbionts. Our data suggest that scorpion AMPs holds the potential to be developed as bio-insecticides, and are promising candidates for the engineering of aphid-resistant crops.

  1. Orally Delivered Scorpion Antimicrobial Peptides Exhibit Activity against Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum and Its Bacterial Symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Luna-Ramirez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are severe agricultural pests that damage crops by feeding on phloem sap and vectoring plant pathogens. Chemical insecticides provide an important aphid control strategy, but alternative and sustainable control measures are required to avoid rapidly emerging resistance, environmental contamination, and the risk to humans and beneficial organisms. Aphids are dependent on bacterial symbionts, which enable them to survive on phloem sap lacking essential nutrients, as well as conferring environmental stress tolerance and resistance to parasites. The evolution of aphids has been accompanied by the loss of many immunity-related genes, such as those encoding antibacterial peptides, which are prevalent in other insects, probably because any harm to the bacterial symbionts would inevitably affect the aphids themselves. This suggests that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs could replace or at least complement conventional insecticides for aphid control. We fed the pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum with AMPs from the venom glands of scorpions. The AMPs reduced aphid survival, delayed their reproduction, displayed in vitro activity against aphid bacterial symbionts, and reduced the number of symbionts in vivo. Remarkably, we found that some of the scorpion AMPs compromised the aphid bacteriome, a specialized organ that harbours bacterial symbionts. Our data suggest that scorpion AMPs holds the potential to be developed as bio-insecticides, and are promising candidates for the engineering of aphid-resistant crops.

  2. High-throughput phenotyping of plant resistance to aphids by automated video tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Karen J; Ten Broeke, Cindy Jm; Thoen, Manus Pm; Hanhart-van den Brink, Marianne; Wiegers, Gerrie L; Krips, Olga E; Noldus, Lucas Pjj; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2015-01-01

    Piercing-sucking insects are major vectors of plant viruses causing significant yield losses in crops. Functional genomics of plant resistance to these insects would greatly benefit from the availability of high-throughput, quantitative phenotyping methods. We have developed an automated video tracking platform that quantifies aphid feeding behaviour on leaf discs to assess the level of plant resistance. Through the analysis of aphid movement, the start and duration of plant penetrations by aphids were estimated. As a case study, video tracking confirmed the near-complete resistance of lettuce cultivar 'Corbana' against Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely), biotype Nr:0, and revealed quantitative resistance in Arabidopsis accession Co-2 against Myzus persicae (Sulzer). The video tracking platform was benchmarked against Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) recordings and aphid population development assays. The use of leaf discs instead of intact plants reduced the intensity of the resistance effect in video tracking, but sufficiently replicated experiments resulted in similar conclusions as EPG recordings and aphid population assays. One video tracking platform could screen 100 samples in parallel. Automated video tracking can be used to screen large plant populations for resistance to aphids and other piercing-sucking insects.

  3. Variable Isotopic Compositions of Host Plant Populations Preclude Assessment of Aphid Overwintering Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Crossley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is a pest of soybean in the northern Midwest whose migratory patterns have been difficult to quantify. Improved knowledge of soybean aphid overwintering sites could facilitate the development of control efforts with exponential impacts on aphid densities on a regional scale. In this preliminary study, we explored the utility of variation in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to distinguish soybean aphid overwintering origins. We compared variation in bulk 13C and 15N content in buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L. and soybean aphids in Wisconsin, among known overwintering locations in the northern Midwest. Specifically, we looked for associations between buckthorn and environmental variables that could aid in identifying overwintering habitats. We detected significant evidence of correlation between the bulk 13C and 15N signals of soybean aphids and buckthorn, despite high variability in stable isotope composition within and among buckthorn plants. Further, the 15N signal in buckthorn varied predictably with soil composition. However, lack of sufficient differentiation of geographic areas along axes of isotopic and environmental variation appears to preclude the use of carbon and nitrogen isotopic signals as effective predictors of likely aphid overwintering sites. These preliminary data suggest the need for future work that can further account for variability in 13C and 15N within/among buckthorn plants, and that explores the utility of other stable isotopes in assessing likely aphid overwintering sites.

  4. Burdock fructooligosaccharide enhances biocontrol of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa to postharvest decay of peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyin; Liu, Zhouyang; Xu, Baitian; Chen, Keping; Yang, Qiya; Zhang, Qiuyun

    2013-10-15

    The influence of adding burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) in the culture media on the efficacy of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in controlling postharvest decay of peaches and its possible mode of action were investigated. The antagonistic activity of R. mucilaginosa to Rhizopus decay and blue mold decay of peaches was greatly enhanced through cultivation in the nutrient yeast dextrose agar (NYDA) medium amended with BFO at the concentration of 0.32%, compared with that cultivated in NYDB without BFO. R. mucilaginosa at 1×10(8) cells/mL cultivation in the NYDB media did not reduce the natural decay incidence of peaches, compared with the control after 30 d at 4 °C followed by 7d at 20 °C. However, R. mucilaginosa cultivation in the NYDB media amended with BFO at the concentration of 0.32% reduced the natural decay incidence of peaches. The population of R. mucilaginosa harvested from NYDB amended with BFO at 0.32% increased rapidly in peach wounds compared to that harvested from NYDB without BFO no matter peaches were stored at 20 °C or 4 °C. The activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase of cell-free culture filtrate of R. mucilaginosa harvested from NYDB amended with BFO at 0.32% were higher than that at other concentrations and the control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trichoderma harzianum enhances tomato indirect defense against aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Mariangela; Cascone, Pasquale; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Colantuono, Chiara; Lorito, Matteo; Pennacchio, Francesco; Rao, Rosa; Woo, Sheridan Lois; Guerrieri, Emilio; Digilio, Maria Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Many fungal root symbionts of the genus Trichoderma are well-known for their beneficial effects on agronomic performance and protection against plant pathogens; moreover, they may enhance protection from insect pests, by triggering plant resistance mechanisms. Defense barriers against insects are induced by the activation of metabolic pathways involved in the production of defense-related plant compounds, either directly active against herbivore insects, or exerting an indirect effect, by increasing the attraction of herbivore natural enemies. In a model system composed of the tomato plant, the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae and the parasitoid Aphidius ervi, plant metabolic changes induced by Trichoderma harzianum and their effects on higher trophic levels have been assessed. T. harzianum T22 treatments induce a primed state that upon aphid attacks leads to an increased attraction of aphid parasitoids, mediated by the enhanced production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are known to induce Aphidius ervi flight. Transcriptome sequencing of T22-treated plants infested by aphids showed a remarkable upregulation of genes involved in terpenoids biosynthesis and salicylic acid pathway, which are consistent with the observed flight response of A. ervi and the VOC bouquet profile underlying this behavioral response. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Indirect effect of a transgenic wheat on aphids through enhanced powdery mildew resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone von Burg

    Full Text Available In agricultural ecosystems, arthropod herbivores and fungal pathogens are likely to colonise the same plant and may therefore affect each other directly or indirectly. The fungus that causes powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici and cereal aphids are important pests of wheat but interactions between them have seldom been investigated. We studied the effects of powdery mildew of wheat on two cereal aphid species, Metopolophium dirhodum and Rhopalosiphum padi. We hypothesized that aphid number and size will be smaller on powdery mildew-infected plants than on non-infected plants. In a first experiment we used six commercially available wheat varieties whereas in the second experiment we used a genetically modified (GM mildew-resistant wheat line and its non-transgenic sister line. Because the two lines differed only in the presence of the transgene and in powdery mildew resistance, experiment 2 avoided the confounding effect of variety. In both experiments, the number of M. dirhodum but not of R. padi was reduced by powdery mildew infection. Transgenic mildew-resistant lines therefore harboured bigger aphid populations than the non-transgenic lines. For both aphid species individual size was mostly influenced by aphid number. Our results indicate that plants that are protected from a particular pest (powdery mildew became more favourable for another pest (aphids.

  7. Redox Control of Aphid Resistance through Altered Cell Wall Composition and Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Brwa; McGowan, Jack; Pastok, Daria; Marcus, Sue E; Morris, Jenny A; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Hancock, Robert D; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-09-01

    The mechanisms underpinning plant perception of phloem-feeding insects, particularly aphids, remain poorly characterized. Therefore, the role of apoplastic redox state in controlling aphid infestation was explored using transgenic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) plants that have either high (PAO) or low (TAO) ascorbate oxidase (AO) activities relative to the wild type. Only a small number of leaf transcripts and metabolites were changed in response to genotype, and cell wall composition was largely unaffected. Aphid fecundity was decreased significantly in TAO plants compared with other lines. Leaf sugar levels were increased and maximum extractable AO activities were decreased in response to aphids in all genotypes. Transcripts encoding the Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog F, signaling components involved in ethylene and other hormone-mediated pathways, photosynthetic electron transport components, sugar, amino acid, and cell wall metabolism, were increased significantly in the TAO plants in response to aphid perception relative to other lines. The levels of galactosylated xyloglucan were decreased significantly in response to aphid feeding in all the lines, the effect being the least in the TAO plants. Similarly, all lines exhibited increases in tightly bound (1→4)-β-galactan. Taken together, these findings identify AO-dependent mechanisms that limit aphid infestation. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Indirect effect of a transgenic wheat on aphids through enhanced powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Burg, Simone; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In agricultural ecosystems, arthropod herbivores and fungal pathogens are likely to colonise the same plant and may therefore affect each other directly or indirectly. The fungus that causes powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici) and cereal aphids are important pests of wheat but interactions between them have seldom been investigated. We studied the effects of powdery mildew of wheat on two cereal aphid species, Metopolophium dirhodum and Rhopalosiphum padi. We hypothesized that aphid number and size will be smaller on powdery mildew-infected plants than on non-infected plants. In a first experiment we used six commercially available wheat varieties whereas in the second experiment we used a genetically modified (GM) mildew-resistant wheat line and its non-transgenic sister line. Because the two lines differed only in the presence of the transgene and in powdery mildew resistance, experiment 2 avoided the confounding effect of variety. In both experiments, the number of M. dirhodum but not of R. padi was reduced by powdery mildew infection. Transgenic mildew-resistant lines therefore harboured bigger aphid populations than the non-transgenic lines. For both aphid species individual size was mostly influenced by aphid number. Our results indicate that plants that are protected from a particular pest (powdery mildew) became more favourable for another pest (aphids).

  9. Carbon Monoxide Fumigation Improved the Quality, Nutrients, and Antioxidant Activities of Postharvest Peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Pei, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Peaches (Prunus persica cv. Yanhong) were fumigated with carbon monoxide (CO) at 0, 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L for 2 hours. The result showed that low concentration CO (0.5–10 μmol/L) might delay the decrease of firmness and titrable acid content, restrain the increase of decay incidence, and postpone the variation of soluble solids content, but treating peaches with high concentration CO (20 μmol/L) demonstrated adverse effects. Further research exhibited that exogenous CO could induce the phenylalnine ammonialyase activity, maintain nutrient contents such as Vitamin C, total flavonoid, and polyphenol, and enhance antioxidant activity according to reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Treating peaches with appropriate concentration CO was beneficial to the quality, nutrients, and antioxidant activity of postharvest peaches during storage time. Therefore, CO fumigation might probably become a novel method to preserve postharvest peach and other fruits in the future. PMID:26904651

  10. Evolutionary Genomics of Peach and Almond Domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Velasco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L. Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill. D. A. Webb] originated on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated ∼5000 yr ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and differ in a number of morphological and physiological traits. Here, we evaluated patterns of genome-wide diversity in both almond and peach to better understand the impacts of mating system, adaptation, and domestication on the evolution of these taxa. Almond has around seven times the genetic diversity of peach, and high genome-wide FST values support their status as separate species. We estimated a divergence time of ∼8 MYA (million years ago, coinciding with an active period of uplift in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and subsequent Asian climate change. We see no evidence of a bottleneck during domestication of either species, but identify a number of regions showing signatures of selection during domestication and a significant overlap in candidate regions between peach and almond. While we expected gene expression in fruit to overlap with candidate selected regions, instead we find enrichment for loci highly differentiated between the species, consistent with recent fossil evidence suggesting fruit divergence long preceded domestication. Taken together, this study tells us how closely related tree species evolve and are domesticated, the impact of these events on their genomes, and the utility of genomic information for long-lived species. Further exploration of this data will contribute to the genetic knowledge of these species and provide information regarding targets of selection for breeding application, and further the understanding of evolution in these species.

  11. Evolutionary Genomics of Peach and Almond Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Dianne; Hough, Josh; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2016-12-07

    The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill.) D. A. Webb] originated on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated ∼5000 yr ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and differ in a number of morphological and physiological traits. Here, we evaluated patterns of genome-wide diversity in both almond and peach to better understand the impacts of mating system, adaptation, and domestication on the evolution of these taxa. Almond has around seven times the genetic diversity of peach, and high genome-wide [Formula: see text] values support their status as separate species. We estimated a divergence time of ∼8 MYA (million years ago), coinciding with an active period of uplift in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and subsequent Asian climate change. We see no evidence of a bottleneck during domestication of either species, but identify a number of regions showing signatures of selection during domestication and a significant overlap in candidate regions between peach and almond. While we expected gene expression in fruit to overlap with candidate selected regions, instead we find enrichment for loci highly differentiated between the species, consistent with recent fossil evidence suggesting fruit divergence long preceded domestication. Taken together, this study tells us how closely related tree species evolve and are domesticated, the impact of these events on their genomes, and the utility of genomic information for long-lived species. Further exploration of this data will contribute to the genetic knowledge of these species and provide information regarding targets of selection for breeding application, and further the understanding of evolution in these species. Copyright © 2016 Velasco et al.

  12. Evolutionary Genomics of Peach and Almond Domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Dianne; Hough, Josh; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill.) D. A. Webb] originated on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated ∼5000 yr ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and differ in a number of morphological and physiological traits. Here, we evaluated patterns of genome-wide diversity in both almond and peach to better understand the impacts of mating system, adaptation, and domestication on the evolution of these taxa. Almond has around seven times the genetic diversity of peach, and high genome-wide FST values support their status as separate species. We estimated a divergence time of ∼8 MYA (million years ago), coinciding with an active period of uplift in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and subsequent Asian climate change. We see no evidence of a bottleneck during domestication of either species, but identify a number of regions showing signatures of selection during domestication and a significant overlap in candidate regions between peach and almond. While we expected gene expression in fruit to overlap with candidate selected regions, instead we find enrichment for loci highly differentiated between the species, consistent with recent fossil evidence suggesting fruit divergence long preceded domestication. Taken together, this study tells us how closely related tree species evolve and are domesticated, the impact of these events on their genomes, and the utility of genomic information for long-lived species. Further exploration of this data will contribute to the genetic knowledge of these species and provide information regarding targets of selection for breeding application, and further the understanding of evolution in these species. PMID:27707802

  13. Sugarcane Aphid in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Logan

    2018-01-01

    This article is intended for readers in the production agriculture industry who deal with grain sorghum throughout the growing season. This publication will discuss the impacts of the sugarcane aphid in various crops and the ways to manage and identify them as they continue to advance north.

  14. First survey on ecological host range of aphid pathogenic fungi (Phylum Entomophthoromycota) in Tunisia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben Fekih, Ibtissem; Boukhris-Bouhachem, Sonia; Allagui, Mohamed Bechir

    2015-01-01

    Summary. The natural occurrence of fungal pathogens of aphids and their ecological host range was investigated in Tunisia from 2009 to 2012. The survey focused on aphid infesting different crops and weeds and included 10 different aphid species. Samples were collected from eight agricultural crops...... (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) and Neozygites fresenii (Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae). The occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi depended on the sampling area, the bioclimatic zone, and aphid species. P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana were the predominant pathogens infecting a wide range of aphid species whereas...... sites belonging to three different bioclimatic zones. Four pathogens from the phylum Entomophthoromycota were found to occur naturally in Tunisian ecosystems: Pandora neoaphidis (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), Entomophthora planchoniana (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), Conidiobolus obscurus...

  15. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. grown in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi eEl-Jendoubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. ‘Orbis’ grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated and basal (untreated leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  16. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  17. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2010-11-01

    Black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), feeding elicits localized chlorotic injury to pecan foliage [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K Koch] and apparent acceleration of leaf senescence and defoliation. The ability of certain plant growth regulators (PGRs) (forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid and aviglycine) to prevent M. caryaefoliae from triggering pecan leaf chlorosis and senescence-like processes was evaluated on two dates in both 2006 and 2007. Treatments were applied to orchard foliage and used in laboratory leaf-disc bioassays to assess possible reduction in aphid-elicited chlorosis and concomitant effects on aphid mortality and development. Foliage pretreated with forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid prior to being challenged with aphids resulted in significantly less aphid-elicited chlorosis than did control or aviglycine-treated leaf discs. No PGR affected aphid mortality; however, development time was increased by forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid in 2006 and by aviglycine + gibberellic acid on one date in 2007. Certain PGRs possess the potential for usage on pecan to protect foliar canopies from M. caryaefoliae via changes in the susceptibility of the host leaf to senescence-like factors being introduced by feeding aphids. This protective effect on host foliage and the associated suppressive effect on development of feeding aphids might also be relevant to pest management programs on other aphid-crop systems in which aphid-elicited chlorosis and senescence-like processes can limit profitability. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Shelf life of peaches treated with 1-methylcyclopropene Vida útil de pêssegos tratados com 1-metilciclopropeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alfredo Kluge

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Peaches [Prunus persica (L. Bastch] present reduced post-harvest shelf life, partially, due to their high respiratory rate and fast ripening. These processes are related to ethylene production, as well as its action. Peaches, cv. Aurora-1, were picked at two different ripening stages (mature green and ripe and treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, the ethylene's competitive antagonist, at concentrations of 0, 100, 300 and 900 nL L-1 for 12 hours at 25ºC. After treatment, the fruits were stored at room temperature (25ºC for six days. Fruits treated with 1-MCP presented better firmness and less ground color loss than non-treated fruits. The 1-MCP antagonist reduced the development of fruit rot at the mature green stage, but not at the ripe one. The 1-MCP shows commercial application potential in the treatment of peaches in order to delay the ripening process and increase their shelf life.Pêssegos [Prunus persica (L. Bastch] apresentam reduzida vida útil pós-colheita devido, em parte, a sua alta taxa respiratória e amadurecimento rápido. Estes processos estão relacionados com a produção e a ação do etileno. Pêssegos cv. Aurora-1 foram colhidos em dois estádios de maturação (verde e maduro e tratados com o antagonista competitivo do etileno 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP nas concentrações de 0, 100, 300 e 900 nL L-1, durante 12 horas a 25ºC. Após o tratamentos os frutos foram armazenados em condições ambientais (25ºC durante seis dias. Os frutos tratados com 1-MCP apresentaram maior firmeza de polpa e menor perda de coloração de fundo se comparado com os frutos não tratados. O 1-MCP reduziu o desenvolvimento de podridões em frutos do estádio verde, mas não em frutos maduros. O 1-MCP apresenta potencial de aplicação comercial em pêssegos, visando retardar o amadurecimento e aumentar sua vida útil de prateleira.

  19. Expression of Pinellia pedatisecta Lectin Gene in Transgenic Wheat Enhances Resistance to Wheat Aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Duan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat aphids are major pests during the seed filling stage of wheat. Plant lectins are toxic to sap-sucking pests such as wheat aphids. In this study, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (ppa, a gene encoding mannose binding lectin, was cloned, and it shared 92.69% nucleotide similarity and 94% amino acid similarity with Pinellia ternata agglutinin (pta. The ppa gene, driven by the constitutive and phloem-specific ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene (rbcs promoter in pBAC-rbcs-ppa expression vector, was transferred into the wheat cultivar Baofeng104 (BF104 by particle bombardment transformation. Fifty-four T0 transgenic plants were generated. The inheritance and expression of the ppa gene were confirmed by PCR and RT-PCR analysis respectively, and seven homozygous transgenic lines were obtained. An aphid bioassay on detached leaf segments revealed that seven ppa transgenic wheat lines had lower aphid growth rates and higher inhibition rates than BF104. Furthermore, two-year aphid bioassays in isolated fields showed that aphid numbers per tiller of transgenic lines were significantly decreased, compared with wild type BF104. Therefore, ppa could be a strong biotechnological candidate to produce aphid-resistant wheat.

  20. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Aphids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...

  1. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  2. 21 CFR 145.170 - Canned peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.170 Canned peaches. (a... by a support through which it can freely move upward or downward. The lower end of the rod is a plane...

  3. A remarkable synergistic effect at the transcriptomic level in peach fruits doubly infected by prunus necrotic ringspot virus and peach latent mosaic viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Mari Carmen; Niehl, Annette; Rosales, Marlene; Fiore, Nicola; Zamorano, Alan; Granell, Antonio; Pallas, Vicente

    2013-05-28

    Microarray profiling is a powerful technique to investigate expression changes of large amounts of genes in response to specific environmental conditions. The majority of the studies investigating gene expression changes in virus-infected plants are limited to interactions between a virus and a model host plant, which usually is Arabidopsis thaliana or Nicotiana benthamiana. In the present work, we performed microarray profiling to explore changes in the expression profile of field-grown Prunus persica (peach) originating from Chile upon single and double infection with Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd), worldwide natural pathogens of peach trees. Upon single PLMVd or PNRSV infection, the number of statistically significant gene expression changes was relatively low. By contrast, doubly-infected fruits presented a high number of differentially regulated genes. Among these, down-regulated genes were prevalent. Functional categorization of the gene expression changes upon double PLMVd and PNRSV infection revealed protein modification and degradation as the functional category with the highest percentage of repressed genes whereas induced genes encoded mainly proteins related to phosphate, C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism and also protein modification. Overrepresentation analysis upon double infection with PLMVd and PNRSV revealed specific functional categories over- and underrepresented among the repressed genes indicating active counter-defense mechanisms of the pathogens during infection. Our results identify a novel synergistic effect of PLMVd and PNRSV on the transcriptome of peach fruits. We demonstrate that mixed infections, which occur frequently in field conditions, result in a more complex transcriptional response than that observed in single infections. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that the simultaneous infection of a viroid and a plant virus synergistically affect the host transcriptome in

  4. Aphids of the genus Diuraphis caught by Johnson suction trap in Poznań, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strażyński Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1973-2011 in Poznań, aphid catches were carried out using Johnson’s suction trap. Since then the suction trap located at the Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute in Poznań has continuously recorded the daily and seasonal dynamics of aphid flights. The collected results has been used to establish one of the largest databases of this type in Europe. The data also allow tracking changes in aphid biodiversity under the changing climatic conditions. Three aphid species of Diuraphis spp. were identified: D. muehlei (Börner, 1950 - in 1974, D. bromicola (Hille Ris Lambers, 1959 - in 1988, D. noxia (Kurdjumov, 1913 - in 2003 as a result of systematic and long-term aphid collections. The occurrence of D. noxia presents a particular risk to cereal crops in Poland. This expansive aphid species that originates from Asia and the Mediterranean is a vector of Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV, and has become one of the most important pest of wheat and barley in the world. Changes in climatic conditions that have been observed in recent years in Poland such as hot summer, long and warm autumn, mild winter seem to be optimal for occurrence and development of aphid species from warmer parts of Europe.

  5. Plant genotype shapes ant-aphid interactions: implications for community structure and indirect plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Kailen A; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2008-06-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms by which plant genotype shapes arthropod community structure. In a field experiment, we measured the effects of milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) genotype and ants on milkweed arthropods. Populations of the ant-tended aphid Aphis asclepiadis and the untended aphid Myzocallis asclepiadis varied eight- to 18-fold among milkweed genotypes, depending on aphid species and whether ants were present. There was no milkweed effect on predatory arthropods. Ants increased Aphis abundance 59%, decreased Myzocallis abundance 52%, and decreased predator abundance 56%. Milkweed genotype indirectly influenced ants via direct effects on Aphis and Myzocallis abundance. Milkweed genotype also modified ant-aphid interactions, influencing the number of ants attracted per Aphis and Myzocallis. While ant effects on Myzocallis were consistently negative, effects on Aphis ranged from antagonistic to mutualistic among milkweed genotypes. As a consequence of milkweed effects on ant-aphid interactions, ant abundance varied 13-fold among milkweed genotypes, and monarch caterpillar survival was negatively correlated with genetic variation in ant abundance. We speculate that heritable variation in milkweed phloem sap drives these effects on aphids, ants, and caterpillars. In summary, milkweed exerts genetic control over the interactions between aphids and an ant that provides defense against foliage-feeding caterpillars.

  6. Three odorant binding proteins may regulate the behavioural response of Chrysopa pallens to plant volatiles and the aphid alarm pheromone (E)-β-farnesene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z-Q; Zhang, S; Cai, X-M; Luo, J-Y; Dong, S-L; Cui, J-J; Chen, Z-M

    2017-06-01

    Artificial Chrysopa pallens release is a well-known method for suppressing aphids, but it is difficult to establish lacewing populations in the field. Understanding the functions of C. pallens odorant-binding proteins (CpalOBPs) and behavioural responses of C. pallens to plant volatiles and aphid alarm pheromone (E)-ß-farnesene has important implications for population establishment after lacewing release. Based on our previous study, five antennae-enriched CpalOBPs were selected. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these five CpalOBPs were Classic OBPs and separated into different clades. Of them, CpalOBP10 clustered in the same clade with aphid OBP7, which mediates the perception of green leaf volatiles and (E)-ß-farnesene. Ligand-binding assays showed 31 compounds, including plant-derived compounds, pest-induced volatiles and (E)-ß-farnesene, had high binding affinities for at least one of these five CpalOBPs. Of the 31 compounds, the pest-induced volatiles (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate and 2-hexyl-1-decanol, used in host location by the black bean aphid, elicited significant attractive behavioural responses from C. pallens. Conversely, (E)-ß-farnesene elicited strongly repellent behavioural responses. It is conceivable that C. pallens utilizes plant-derived compounds, pest-induced volatiles and (E)-ß-farnesene as foraging cues. Our studies provide new insights into the interrelationships amongst C. pallens, its prey and the host plants. Compounds that elicited significant behavioural responses from C. pallens were also identified. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. Genetic analysis identifies the region of origin of smuggled peach palm seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristo-Araújo, Michelly; Molles, David Bronze; Rodrigues, Doriane Picanço; Clement, Charles R

    2017-04-01

    Seeds of a plant, supposedly a palm tree known popularly as peach palm (Bactris gasipaes), were seized by the Federal Police in the state of Pará, Brazil, without documentation of legal origin to authorize transportation and marketing in Brazil. They were alleged to be from the western part of Amazonas, Brazil, near the frontier with Peru and Colombia, justifying the lack of documentation. The species was confirmed to be peach palm. To determine the likely place of origin, a genetic analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the seized seeds and representative populations of peach palm from all of Amazonia, maintained in the Peach palm Core Collection, at the National Research Institute for Amazonia, using nine microsatellite loci. Reynolds' coancestry analysis showed a strong relationship between the seeds and the Pampa Hermosa landrace, around Yurimaguas, Peru. The Structure program, used to infer the probability of an individual belonging to a given population, showed that most seeds grouped with populations close to Yurimaguas, Peru, corroborating the coancestry analysis. The Pampa Hermosa landrace is the main source of spineless peach palm seeds used in the Brazilian heart-of-palm agribusiness, which motivated the smugglers to attempt this biopiracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel acetylcholinesterase target site for malaria mosquito control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ping Pang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Current anticholinesterase pesticides were developed during World War II and are toxic to mammals because they target a catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterases (AChEs in insects and in mammals. A sequence analysis of AChEs from 73 species and a three-dimensional model of a malaria-carrying mosquito (Anopheles gambiae AChE (AgAChE reported here show that C286 and R339 of AgAChE are conserved at the opening of the active site of AChEs in 17 invertebrate and four insect species, respectively. Both residues are absent in the active site of AChEs of human, monkey, dog, cat, cattle, rabbit, rat, and mouse. The 17 invertebrates include house mosquito, Japanese encephalitis mosquito, African malaria mosquito, German cockroach, Florida lancelet, rice leaf beetle, African bollworm, beet armyworm, codling moth, diamondback moth, domestic silkworm, honey bee, oat or wheat aphid, the greenbug, melon or cotton aphid, green peach aphid, and English grain aphid. The four insects are house mosquito, Japanese encephalitis mosquito, African malaria mosquito, and German cockroach. The discovery of the two invertebrate-specific residues enables the development of effective and safer pesticides that target the residues present only in mosquito AChEs rather than the ubiquitous serine residue, thus potentially offering an effective control of mosquito-borne malaria. Anti-AgAChE pesticides can be designed to interact with R339 and subsequently covalently bond to C286. Such pesticides would be toxic to mosquitoes but not to mammals.

  9. Peroxiredoxin 1 protects the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum from oxidative stress induced by Micrococcus luteus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongdong; Lu, Zhiqiang

    2015-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are generated in organisms in response to infections caused by invading microbes. However, excessive ROSs will inflict oxidative damage on the host. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are antioxidative enzymes that may eliminate ROSs efficiently. In this study, ApPrx1 from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum was cloned, and its function was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In the presence of DTT, recombinant ApPrx1 protein from Escherichia coli showed antioxidative activity by eliminating H2O2 effectively. The H2O2 levels were significantly higher in Micrococcus luteus-infected aphids than in uninfected aphids, and ApPrx1 expression was remarkably up-regulated when the aphids were infected with M. luteus or injected with H2O2. When ApPrx1 expression was reduced by dsRNA injection, the survival of the aphids decreased significantly after M. luteus infection. Knockdown of ApPrx1 decreased M. luteus loads inside the aphids 48h post-infection. While under infection conditions, the H2O2 levels were much higher in ApPrx1 knockdown aphids than in dsGFP-injected aphids, indicating that the decreased survival of the aphids was caused by increased oxidative stress. Taken together, our results reveal that ApPrx1 plays a protective role in oxidative stress caused by bacterial infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The impacts of climate change and belowground herbivory on aphids via primary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryalls, James M. W.

    Global climate and atmospheric change (summarised as climate change for brevity) may alter patterns of crop damage by insect herbivores, but little is known about how multiple climate change factors, acting in tandem, shape such interactions. Crucially, the specific plant-mediated mechanisms underpinning these effects remain largely unknown. Moreover, research into the effects of climate change on leguminous plant species, which have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) via their association with root nodule-dwelling rhizobial bacteria, and their associated insect herbivores, is surprisingly scarce considering their increasing importance in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Using a model legume, lucerne, otherwise known as alfalfa, Medicago sativa (Fabaceae), and a model pest species, the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), this work addresses how predicted changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, temperature and rainfall patterns as well as interactions with other organisms, including the root-feeding weevil Sitona discoideus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), might shape legume-feeding aphid populations in the future. Recent literature on the impacts of climate change on aphids and the biology and trophic interactions of lucerne aphids specifically were synthesised in chapters one and two, respectively. These chapters highlighted the importance of the interactions between multiple abiotic and biotic variables in shaping aphid population dynamics. Empirical research chapters three to six, using up to five lucerne genotypes (i.e. cultivars) in glasshouse and field experiments, addressed how A. pisum responded to the isolated and combined effects of climate change and root herbivory. In particular, chapter three determined the effects of elevated temperatures (eT) and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) on root-feeding S. discoideus larvae and their interaction with A. pisum. Chapter four addressed whether the effects of eT, e

  11. Hyperspectral imaging detection of decayed honey peaches based on their chlorophyll content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Wang, Yihang; Xiao, Hui; Gu, Xinzhe; Pan, Leiqing; Tu, Kang

    2017-11-15

    Honey peach is a very common but highly perishable market fruit. When pathogens infect fruit, chlorophyll as one of the important components related to fruit quality, decreased significantly. Here, the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging to determine the chlorophyll content thus distinguishing diseased peaches was investigated. Three optimal wavelengths (617nm, 675nm, and 818nm) were selected according to chlorophyll content via successive projections algorithm. Partial least square regression models were established to determine chlorophyll content. Three band ratios were obtained using these optimal wavelengths, which improved spatial details, but also integrates the information of chemical composition from spectral characteristics. The band ratio values were suitable to classify the diseased peaches with 98.75% accuracy and clearly show the spatial distribution of diseased parts. This study provides a new perspective for the selection of optimal wavelengths of hyperspectral imaging via chlorophyll content, thus enabling the detection of fungal diseases in peaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ant tending influences soldier production in a social aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, A W; Foster, W A

    2000-09-22

    The aphid Pseudoregma sundanica (Van der Goot) (Homoptera: Aphididae) has two defence strategies. It is obligatorily tended by various species of ant and also produces sterile soldiers. We investigated how they allocate their investment in these two strategies. We measured the size, number of soldiers, number and species of tending ant, and number and species of predators in P. sundanica populations. We found that the level of ant tending correlated negatively with soldier investment in P. sundanica. The species of tending ant also influenced soldier investment. We excluded ants from aphid populations and recorded changes in population size and structure over four weeks. Ant exclusion led to population decline and extinction. At the same time, surviving populations showed a significant increase in soldier investment. The data demonstrate that social aphids can adjust their investment in soldiers in direct response to environmental change.

  13. Impact of glutathione on the allergenicity of the peach lipid transfer protein Pru p 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Casado, C; Tordesillas, L; Kinkel, J; Starkl, P; Cuesta-Herranz, J; Roth-Walter F; Díaz-Perales, A; Jensen-Jarolim, E

    2015-01-01

    The allergenic potential of proteins can be altered under various physicochemical conditions. Glutathione (GSH) is a reducing agent that is used as an antioxidant in food products. We aimed to characterize the natural folding of peach proteins and test the allergenicity of reduced and natural Pru p 3, the major peach allergen. Pru p 3 was purified from peach, and its conformation was analyzed by means of circular dichroism. Using a thiol fluorescent probe, reduced proteins were detected in fresh peach. GSH-reduced Pru p 3 was tested in vitro for T-cell proliferation and in vivo using skin prick testing. GSH-reduced Pru p 3 produced variable skin prick reactions in peach-allergic patients. The proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from allergic patients to reduced Pru p 3 tended to be less intense, whereas secretion of the cytokines IFN-γ, IL-5, and IL-10 was comparable. In a pool of sera from peach-allergic patients, reduction hardly impaired IgE-binding. Moreover, the stability of reduced Pru p 3 to gastrointestinal digestion was similar to that of the natural form. GSH can at least transiently reduce Pru p 3. We found that the effect of reduction on the allergenicity of Pru p 3 varied. Therefore, as an additive, GSH does not seem to eliminate the risk of reactions for peach-allergic patients.

  14. [Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the WRKY gene family in peach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan-bing; Ji, Zhi-rui; Chi, Fu-mei; Qiao, Zhuang; Xu, Cheng-nan; Zhang, Jun-xiang; Zhou, Zong-shan; Dong, Qing-long

    2016-03-01

    The WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators and play diverse regulatory roles in biotic and abiotic stresses, plant growth and development processes. In this study, the WRKY DNA-binding domain (Pfam Database number: PF03106) downloaded from Pfam protein families database was exploited to identify WRKY genes from the peach (Prunus persica 'Lovell') genome using HMMER 3.0. The obtained amino acid sequences were analyzed with DNAMAN 5.0, WebLogo 3, MEGA 5.1, MapInspect and MEME bioinformatics softwares. Totally 61 peach WRKY genes were found in the peach genome. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that peach WRKY genes were classified into three Groups: Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ. The WRKY N-terminal and C-terminal domains of Group Ⅰ (group I-N and group I-C) were monophyletic. The Group Ⅱ was sub-divided into five distinct clades (groupⅡ-a, Ⅱ-b, Ⅱ-c, Ⅱ-d and Ⅱ-e). Our domain analysis indicated that the WRKY regions contained a highly conserved heptapeptide stretch WRKYGQK at its N-terminus followed by a zinc-finger motif. The chromosome mapping analysis showed that peach WRKY genes were distributed with different densities over 8 chromosomes. The intron-exon structure analysis revealed that structures of the WRKY gene were highly conserved in the peach. The conserved motif analysis showed that the conserved motifs 1, 2 and 3, which specify the WRKY domain, were observed in all peach WRKY proteins, motif 5 as the unknown domain was observed in group Ⅱ-d, two WRKY domains were assigned to GroupⅠ. SqRT-PCR and qRT-PCR results indicated that 16 PpWRKY genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits at various expression levels. Our analysis thus identified the PpWRKY gene families, and future functional studies are needed to reveal its specific roles.

  15. Differential expression of superoxide dismutase genes in aphid-stressed maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid). Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9). However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4) or 24 h (sod9) post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants.

  16. Differential Expression of Superoxide Dismutase Genes in Aphid-Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid). Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9). However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4) or 24 h (sod9) post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants. PMID:24722734

  17. A magical biological insecticide extracted from seeds of Millettia pachyarpa to kill cabbage aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tianxing; Gong, Mingfu; Guan, Qinlan

    2018-04-01

    Millettia pachycarpa Benth is a perennial climbing shrub belonging to the genus Millettia, as it is widely used in traditional practices like agricultural pesticides, blood tonics, fish poison, and treatments for cancer and infertility. The crude extract of the seeds of M. pachycarpa had insecticidal activity on cabbage aphids. The conventional extract approach with three kinds of organic solvents: methanol, ethanol, and acetone was used for extracting of crude extract of seeds of M. pachycarpa. The leaf immersion method in a petri dish was used to measure contact activity on cabbage aphids. The field measurement method in a cabbage field was used to measure the control effect. The result indicated that the average mortality rate of cabbage aphids reached 91.3 percent under the action of crude extract of the seeds of M. pachycarpa, indicating that contacting activity against cabbage aphid was strong. After the crude extract was sprayed for 2 days, the proofread control effect of 1000 μg / mL ethanol crude extract against cabbage aphid was 85.0 percent. After 7 days of spraying, this number increased to 92.2 percent. The study concluded that crude extract of the seeds of M. pachyarpa extracted with methanol, ethanol, acetone had demonstrable contact activity against cabbage aphid and 1000 μg / mL ethanol crude extract had significant control effect against the larvae of cabbage aphid.

  18. Pest control of aphids depends on landscape complexity and natural enemy interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are a major concern in agricultural crops worldwide, and control by natural enemies is an essential component of the ecological intensification of agriculture. Although the complexity of agricultural landscapes is known to influence natural enemies of pests, few studies have measured the degree of pest control by different enemy guilds across gradients in landscape complexity. Here, we use multiple natural-enemy exclosures replicated in 18 fields across a gradient in landscape complexity to investigate (1) the strength of natural pest control across landscapes, measured as the difference between pest pressure in the presence and in the absence of natural enemies; (2) the differential contributions of natural enemy guilds to pest control, and the nature of their interactions across landscapes. We show that natural pest control of aphids increased up to six-fold from simple to complex landscapes. In the absence of pest control, aphid population growth was higher in complex than simple landscapes, but was reduced by natural enemies to similar growth rates across all landscapes. The effects of enemy guilds were landscape-dependent. Particularly in complex landscapes, total pest control was supplied by the combined contribution of flying insects and ground-dwellers. Birds had little overall impact on aphid control. Despite evidence for intraguild predation of flying insects by ground-dwellers and birds, the overall effect of enemy guilds on aphid control was complementary. Understanding pest control services at large spatial scales is critical to increase the success of ecological intensification schemes. Our results suggest that, where aphids are the main pest of concern, interactions between natural enemies are largely complementary and lead to a strongly positive effect of landscape complexity on pest control. Increasing the availability of seminatural habitats in agricultural landscapes may thus benefit not only natural enemies, but also the effectiveness of

  19. Aphid wing induction and ecological costs of alarm pheromone emission under field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Hatano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, (Homoptera: Aphididae releases the volatile sesquiterpene (E-beta-farnesene (EBF when attacked by a predator, triggering escape responses in the aphid colony. Recently, it was shown that this alarm pheromone also mediates the production of the winged dispersal morph under laboratory conditions. The present work tested the wing-inducing effect of EBF under field conditions. Aphid colonies were exposed to two treatments (control and EBF and tested in two different environmental conditions (field and laboratory. As in previous experiments aphids produced higher proportion of winged morphs among their offspring when exposed to EBF in the laboratory but even under field conditions the proportion of winged offspring was higher after EBF application (6.84+/-0.98% compared to the hexane control (1.54+/-0.25%. In the field, the proportion of adult aphids found on the plant at the end of the experiment was lower in the EBF treatment (58.1+/-5.5% than in the control (66.9+/-4.6%, in contrast to the climate chamber test where the numbers of adult aphids found on the plant at the end of the experiment were, in both treatments, similar to the numbers put on the plant initially. Our results show that the role of EBF in aphid wing induction is also apparent under field conditions and they may indicate a potential cost of EBF emission. They also emphasize the importance of investigating the ecological role of induced defences under field conditions.

  20. Novel male-biased expression in paralogs of the aphid slimfast nutrient amino acid transporter expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanson Lubov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major goal of molecular evolutionary biology is to understand the fate and consequences of duplicated genes. In this context, aphids are intriguing because the newly sequenced pea aphid genome harbors an extraordinary number of lineage-specific gene duplications relative to other insect genomes. Though many of their duplicated genes may be involved in their complex life cycle, duplications in nutrient amino acid transporters appear to be associated rather with their essential amino acid poor diet and the intracellular symbiosis aphids rely on to compensate for dietary deficits. Past work has shown that some duplicated amino acid transporters are highly expressed in the specialized cells housing the symbionts, including a paralog of an aphid-specific expansion homologous to the Drosophila gene slimfast. Previous data provide evidence that these bacteriocyte-expressed transporters mediate amino acid exchange between aphids and their symbionts. Results We report that some nutrient amino acid transporters show male-biased expression. Male-biased expression characterizes three paralogs in the aphid-specific slimfast expansion, and the male-biased expression is conserved across two aphid species for at least two paralogs. One of the male-biased paralogs has additionally experienced an accelerated rate of non-synonymous substitutions. Conclusions This is the first study to document male-biased slimfast expression. Our data suggest that the male-biased aphid slimfast paralogs diverged from their ancestral function to fill a functional role in males. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that members of the slimfast expansion are maintained in the aphid genome not only for the previously hypothesized role in mediating amino acid exchange between the symbiotic partners, but also for sex-specific roles.

  1. Exploring the nitrogen ingestion of aphids--a new method using electrical penetration graph and (15N labelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Kuhlmann

    Full Text Available Studying plant-aphid interactions is challenging as aphid feeding is a complex process hidden in the plant tissue. Here we propose a combination of two well established methods to study nutrient acquisition by aphids focusing on the uptake of isotopically labelled nitrogen ((15N. We combined the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG technique that allows detailed recording of aphid feeding behaviour and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS to precisely measure the uptake of nitrogen. Bird cherry-oat aphids Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Hemiptera, Aphididae fed for 24 h on barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L., cultivar Lina, Poaceae that were cultivated with a (15N enriched nutrient solution. The time aphids fed in the phloem was strongly positive correlated with their (15N uptake. All other single behavioural phases were not correlated with (15N enrichment in the aphids, which corroborates their classification as non-feeding EPG phases. In addition, phloem-feeding and (15N enrichment of aphids was divided into two groups. One group spent only short time in the phloem phase and was unsuccessful in nitrogen acquisition, while the other group displayed longer phloem-feeding phases and was successful in nitrogen acquisition. This suggests that several factors such as the right feeding site, time span of feeding and individual conditions play a role for the aphids to acquire nutrients successfully. The power of this combination of methods for studying plant-aphid interactions is discussed.

  2. Teores de carboidratos em pessegueiros submetidos a diferentes intensidades de poda verde em clima tropical Levels of carbohydrates in peaches submitted to different intensity of green pruning in tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rehder da Cunha Borba

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a partição de assimilados entre a copa e raízes de pessegueiro, duas intensidades de poda verde, após a colheita dos frutos, foram efetuadas em pessegueiros 'Ouromel-2', na região de Piracicaba-SP: poda leve e poda de renovação (poda drástica. Os teores de carboidratos nas raízes e parte aérea foram determinados em vários estágios fenológicos da planta ao longo do ciclo. Verificou-se que existe uma fase de consumo de carboidratos, que vai deste a poda de dormência (poda seca até a maturação dos frutos e uma fase de acúmulo, que vai desde a maturação dos frutos até a queda das folhas. Plantas que sofreram poda leve apresentaram, de maneira geral, maiores teores de carboidratos ao longo do ciclo do que plantas que sofreram poda de renovação, apresentando, assim, maior potencial de produção.With the objective to verify the photosynthate partitioning in roots and canopy of peache trees, two intensity of green pruning: light pruning and renovation pruning (heavy pruning. After fruit harvest were evaluated in 'Ouromel-2' peach in Piracicaba-SP. The carbohydrates levels of roots and canopy were evaluated in several phonological stages of the tree during the crop cycle. It was verified that there is a phase of consumption of carbohydrates, from dormant pruning to the ripening of fruits, and a phase of accumulation of carbohydrates, from the ripening of fruits to the falling of the leaves. In general, plants lightly pruned showed higher levels of carbohydrates during the crop cycle if compared to heavily pruned plants, showing then, higher potential of production.

  3. NDVI to Detect Sugarcane Aphid Injury to Grain Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain

  4. Agronomy of strip intercropping broccoli with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic broccoli growers in California typically control aphids by intercropping broccoli with strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.) which attracts hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) that are important predators of aphids. A three year study with transplanted organic broccoli in Salinas, ...

  5. First report of Pandora neoaphidis resting spore formation in vivo in aphid hosts under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomopathogenic fungus PANDORA NEOAPHIDIS is a recognized pathogen of aphids, causing natural epizootics in aphid populations, and interacts favorably with aphid predators and parasitoids. Survival of entomophthoralean fungi in periods of unsuitable weather conditions or lack of appropriate hos...

  6. Intake, digestibility and performance of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Alana Batista; Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; de Oliveira Silva, Herymá Giovane; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; de Jesus Pereira, Taiala Cristina; Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; das Graças Conceição Parada Costa Silva, Maria; Sousa, Larisse Borges; Sousa, Leandro Borges; de Oliveira Alencar, Daiane

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance, and plasma glucose concentration of ram lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal substituting maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85 % dry matter (DM)). Thirty Santa Inês rams with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. The substitution of the maize for the peach palm meal affected (P < 0.05) the intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap), total carbohydrates (TC), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and metabolizable energy (ME), which decreased linearly (P < 0.05); the intake of ether extract (EE), however, fit an increasing linear equation (P < 0.05). The apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, NDFap, and TC decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as the level of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The total weight gain and the average daily gain decreased by 0.09 and 0.001 kg with each level of substitution of the maize for peach palm meal, respectively. It is recommended to substitute 40 % of the maize for peach palm meal.

  7. Assessment of patch quality by aphidophagous ladybirds: laboratory study on the minimum density of aphids required for oviposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Das

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies indicate that there is a density of aphids below which ladybirds are unlikely to lay eggs. This is adaptive as theory indicates that a certain minimum population density of aphids is required if hatchling larvae are to survive. The responses of gravid females of the two spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, recorded over a period of an hour, to colonies of 5 and 50 pea aphids on bean plants and similar plants each previously infested with the same number of aphids for 48 hours were determined. Proportionally more of the ladybirds on plants with 50 aphids or that were previously infested with the same number of aphids for 48 hours laid eggs and larger clusters of eggs, and were less active than those on plants that were infested with or had previously been infested with five aphids. That is, gravid females showed similar oviposition and activity responses to aphid abundance and different levels of honeydew contamination. This indicates that honeydew contamination may be an important cue used by ladybirds when locating and assessing the abundance of prey in aphid colonies.

  8. Mutation scanning of peach floral genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde H Dayton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutation scanning technology has been used to develop crop species with improved traits. Modifications that improve screening throughput and sensitivity would facilitate the targeted mutation breeding of crops. Technical innovations for high-resolution melting (HRM analysis are enabling the clinic-based screening for human disease gene polymorphism. We examined the application of two HRM modifications, COLD-PCR and QMC-PCR, to the mutation scanning of genes in peach, Prunus persica. The targeted genes were the putative floral regulators PpAGAMOUS and PpTERMINAL FLOWER I. Results HRM analysis of PpAG and PpTFL1 coding regions in 36 peach cultivars found one polymorphic site in each gene. PpTFL1 and PpAG SNPs were used to examine approaches to increase HRM throughput. Cultivars with SNPs could be reliably detected in pools of twelve genotypes. COLD-PCR was found to increase the sensitivity of HRM analysis of pooled samples, but worked best with small amplicons. Examination of QMC-PCR demonstrated that primary PCR products for further analysis could be produced from variable levels of genomic DNA. Conclusions Natural SNPs in exons of target peach genes were discovered by HRM analysis of cultivars from a southeastern US breeding program. For detecting natural or induced SNPs in larger populations, HRM efficiency can be improved by increasing sample pooling and template production through approaches such as COLD-PCR and QMC-PCR. Technical advances developed to improve clinical diagnostics can play a role in the targeted mutation breeding of crops.

  9. Candidate gene database and transcript map for peach, a model species for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Renate; Lecouls, Anne-Claire; Callahan, Ann; Dandekar, Abhaya; Garay, Lilibeth; McCord, Per; Howad, Werner; Chan, Helen; Verde, Ignazio; Main, Doreen; Jung, Sook; Georgi, Laura; Forrest, Sam; Mook, Jennifer; Zhebentyayeva, Tatyana; Yu, Yeisoo; Kim, Hye Ran; Jesudurai, Christopher; Sosinski, Bryon; Arús, Pere; Baird, Vance; Parfitt, Dan; Reighard, Gregory; Scorza, Ralph; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Wing, Rod; Abbott, Albert Glenn

    2005-05-01

    Peach (Prunus persica) is a model species for the Rosaceae, which includes a number of economically important fruit tree species. To develop an extensive Prunus expressed sequence tag (EST) database for identifying and cloning the genes important to fruit and tree development, we generated 9,984 high-quality ESTs from a peach cDNA library of developing fruit mesocarp. After assembly and annotation, a putative peach unigene set consisting of 3,842 ESTs was defined. Gene ontology (GO) classification was assigned based on the annotation of the single "best hit" match against the Swiss-Prot database. No significant homology could be found in the GenBank nr databases for 24.3% of the sequences. Using core markers from the general Prunus genetic map, we anchored bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones on the genetic map, thereby providing a framework for the construction of a physical and transcript map. A transcript map was developed by hybridizing 1,236 ESTs from the putative peach unigene set and an additional 68 peach cDNA clones against the peach BAC library. Hybridizing ESTs to genetically anchored BACs immediately localized 11.2% of the ESTs on the genetic map. ESTs showed a clustering of expressed genes in defined regions of the linkage groups. [The data were built into a regularly updated Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR), available at (http://www.genome.clemson.edu/gdr/).].

  10. Effect of Particle Orientation during Thermal Processing of Canned Peach Halves: A CFD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adreas Dimou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to apply Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD to study the effect of particle orientation on fluid flow, temperature evolution, as well as microbial destruction, during thermal processing of still cans filled with peach halves in sugar syrup. A still metal can with four peach halves in 20% sugar syrup was heated at 100 °C for 20 min and thereafter cooled at 20 °C. Infinite heat transfer coefficient between heating medium and external can wall was considered. Peach halves were orderly placed inside the can with the empty space originally occupied by the kernel facing, in all peaches, either towards the top or the bottom of the can. In a third situation, the can was placed horizontally. Simulations revealed differences on particle temperature profiles, as well as process F values and critical point location, based on their orientation. At their critical points, peach halves with the kernel space facing towards the top of the can heated considerably slower and cooled faster than the peaches having their kernel space facing towards the bottom of the can. The horizontal can case exhibited intermediate cooling but the fastest heating rates and the highest F process values among the three cases examined. The results of this study could be used in designing of thermal processes with optimal product quality.

  11. Extraordinary proliferation of microorganisms in aposymbiotic pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabachi, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2003-03-01

    Aposymbiotic pea aphids, which were deprived of their intracellular symbiotic bacterium, Buchnera, exhibit growth retardation and no fecundity. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis revealed that these aposymbiotic aphids, when reared on broad bean plants, accumulated a large amount of histamine. To assess the possibility of extraordinary proliferation of microorganisms other than Buchnera, we enumerated eubacteria and fungi in aphids using the real-time quantitative PCR method that targets genes encoding small-subunit rRNAs. The result showed that these microorganisms were extremely abundant in the aposymbiotic aphids reared on plants. Microbial communities in aposymbiotic aphids were further profiled by phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit rDNAs. Of 172 nonchimeric sequences of fungal 18S rDNAs, 138 (80.2%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Among them, 21 clustered within a monophyletic group consisting of insect-pathogenic fungi and yeast-like symbionts of homopteran insects. Thirty-one (18.0%), two (1.2%), and one (0.6%) clones were clustered within the Basidiomycota, Zygomycota, and Oomycota, respectively. Of 167 nonchimeric sequences of eubacterial 16S rDNAs, 84 (50.3%) belonged to the gamma-subdivision of Proteobacteria to which most primary endosymbionts of insects and prolific histamine producers belong. Forty (24.0%), 25 (15.0%), 10 (6.0%), and five (3.0%) clones were clustered within alpha-Proteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group, Actinobacteria, and beta-Proteobacteria, respectively. Three had no phylogenetic association with known taxonomic divisions. None of the sequences studied in this study coincided exactly with those deposited in GenBank.

  12. Synthesis and biological activity of a new class of insecticides: the N-(5-aryl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelbarger, Joseph D; Parker, Marshall H; Yap, Maurice Ch; Buysse, Ann M; Babcock, Jonathan M; Hunter, Ricky; Adelfinskaya, Yelena; Samaritoni, Jack G; Garizi, Negar; Trullinger, Tony K

    2017-04-01

    Optimization studies on a high-throughput screening (HTS) hit led to the discovery of a series of N-(6-arylpyridazin-3-yl)amides with insecticidal activity. It was hypothesized that the isosteric replacement of the pyridazine ring with a 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring could lead to more potent biological activity and/or a broader sap-feeding pest spectrum. The resulting N-(5-aryl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)amides were explored as a new class of insecticides. Several methods for 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole synthesis were used for the preparation of key synthetic intermediates. Subsequent coupling to variously substituted carboxylic acid building blocks furnished the final targets, which were tested for insecticidal activity against susceptible strains of Aphis gossypii (Glover) (cotton aphid), Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (green peach aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (sweetpotato whitefly). Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on both the amide tail and the aryl A-ring of novel N-(5-aryl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)amides led to a new class of insecticidal molecules active against sap-feeding insect pests. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Genetics coupled to quantitative intact proteomics links heritable aphid and endosymbiont protein expression to circulative polerovirus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia, M; Tamborindeguy, C; Fish, T; Howe, K; Thannhauser, T W; Gray, S

    2011-03-01

    Yellow dwarf viruses in the family Luteoviridae, which are the causal agents of yellow dwarf disease in cereal crops, are each transmitted most efficiently by different species of aphids in a circulative manner that requires the virus to interact with a multitude of aphid proteins. Aphid proteins differentially expressed in F2 Schizaphis graminum genotypes segregating for the ability to transmit Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) were identified using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) coupled to either matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem mass spectrometry or online nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 50 protein spots, containing aphid proteins and proteins from the aphid's obligate and maternally inherited bacterial endosymbiont, Buchnera, were identified as differentially expressed between transmission-competent and refractive aphids. Surprisingly, in virus transmission-competent F2 genotypes, the isoelectric points of the Buchnera proteins did not match those in the maternal Buchnera proteome as expected, but instead they aligned with the Buchnera proteome of the transmission-competent paternal parent. Among the aphid proteins identified, many were involved in energy metabolism, membrane trafficking, lipid signaling, and the cytoskeleton. At least eight aphid proteins were expressed as heritable, isoelectric point isoform pairs, one derived from each parental lineage. In the F2 genotypes, the expression of aphid protein isoforms derived from the competent parental lineage aligned with the virus transmission phenotype with high precision. Thus, these isoforms are candidate biomarkers for CYDV-RPV transmission in S. graminum. Our combined genetic and DIGE approach also made it possible to predict where several of the proteins may be expressed in refractive aphids with different barriers to transmission. Twelve proteins were predicted to act in the hindgut of the aphid

  14. Aphid thermal tolerance is governed by a point mutation in bacterial symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E Dunbar

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis is a ubiquitous phenomenon generating biological complexity, affecting adaptation, and expanding ecological capabilities. However, symbionts, which can be subject to genetic limitations such as clonality and genomic degradation, also impose constraints on hosts. A model of obligate symbiosis is that between aphids and the bacterium Buchnera aphidicola, which supplies essential nutrients. We report a mutation in Buchnera of the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum that recurs in laboratory lines and occurs in field populations. This single nucleotide deletion affects a homopolymeric run within the heat-shock transcriptional promoter for ibpA, encoding a small heat-shock protein. This Buchnera mutation virtually eliminates the transcriptional response of ibpA to heat stress and lowers its expression even at cool or moderate temperatures. Furthermore, this symbiont mutation dramatically affects host fitness in a manner dependent on thermal environment. Following a short heat exposure as juveniles, aphids bearing short-allele symbionts produced few or no progeny and contained almost no Buchnera, in contrast to aphids bearing symbionts without the deletion. Conversely, under constant cool conditions, aphids containing symbionts with the short allele reproduced earlier and maintained higher reproductive rates. The short allele has appreciable frequencies in field populations (up to 20%, further supporting the view that lowering of ibpA expression improves host fitness under some conditions. This recurring Buchnera mutation governs thermal tolerance of aphid hosts. Other cases in which symbiont microevolution has a major effect on host ecological tolerance are likely to be widespread because of the high mutation rates of symbiotic bacteria and their crucial roles in host metabolism and development.

  15. Foliar aphid feeding recruits rhizosphere bacteria and primes plant immunity against pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boyoung; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2012-07-01

    Plants modulate defence signalling networks in response to different biotic stresses. The present study evaluated the effect of a phloem-sucking aphid on plant defence mechanisms in pepper (Capsicum annuum) during subsequent pathogen attacks on leaves and rhizosphere bacteria on roots. Plants were pretreated with aphids and/or the chemical trigger benzothiadiazol (BTH) 7 d before being challenged with two pathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria (Xav) as a compatible pathogen and X. axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag) as an incompatible (non-host) pathogen. Disease severity was noticeably lower in aphid- and BTH + aphid-treated plants than in controls. Although treatment with BTH or aphids alone did not affect the hypersensitive response (HR) against Xag strain 8ra, the combination treatment had a synergistic effect on the HR. The aphid population was reduced by BTH pretreatment and by combination treatment with BTH and bacterial pathogens in a synergistic manner. Analysis of the expression of the defence-related genes Capsicum annum pathogenesis-related gene 9 (CaPR9), chitinase 2 (CaCHI2), SAR8·2 and Lipoxygenase1 (CaLOX1) revealed that aphid infestation resulted in the priming of the systemic defence responses against compatible and incompatible pathogens. Conversely, pre-challenge with the compatible pathogen Xav on pepper leaves significantly reduced aphid numbers. Aphid infestation increased the population of the beneficial Bacillus subtilis GB03 but reduced that of the pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum SL1931. The expression of defence-related genes in the root and leaf after aphid feeding indicated that the above-ground aphid infestation elicited salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signalling throughout the whole plant. The findings of this study show that aphid feeding elicits plant resistance responses and attracts beneficial bacterial populations to help the plant cope with subsequent pathogen attacks.

  16. Unravelling mycorrhiza-induced wheat susceptibility to the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amma L.; Wellham, Peter A. D.; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I.; Gange, Alan C.

    2017-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are root symbionts that can increase or decrease aphid growth rates and reproduction, but the reason by which this happens is unknown. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of this interaction, we examined the effect of AM fungi on the English Grain aphid (Sitobion avenae) development, reproduction, attraction, settlement and feeding behaviour on two naturally susceptible varieties Triticum aestivum (L.) variety Solstice and T. monococcum MDR037, and two naturally resistant lines, T. monococcum MDR045 and MDR049. Mycorrhizal colonisation increased the attractiveness of T. aestivum var. Solstice to aphids, but there was no effect on aphid development on this variety. Using the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) technique, we found that mycorrhizal colonisation increased aphid phloem feeding on T. monococcum MDR037 and MDR045, colonisation also increased growth rate and reproductive success of S. avenae on these varieties. Mycorrhizas increased vascular bundle size, demonstrating that these fungi can influence plant anatomy. We discuss if and how this could be related to an enhanced success rate in phloem feeding in two varieties. Overall, we present and discuss how mycorrhizal fungi can affect the feeding behaviour of S. avenae in wheat, inducing susceptibility in a resistant variety.

  17. Sublethal and hormesis effects of imidacloprid on the soybean aphid Aphis glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanyan; Xiao, Da; Li, Jinyu; Chen, Zhou; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xiwu; Song, Dunlun

    2015-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a major pest in soybean crop. Current management of this pest relies mainly on insecticides applications, and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid has been proposed as an effective insecticide to control A. glycines in soybean field. Imidacloprid at lethal concentrations not only exerts acute toxicity to A. glycines, but also cause various biological changes when aphids are chronically exposed to lower concentrations. In this study, we assessed the effects of a low-lethal (0.20 mg L(-1)) and two sublethal (0.05 and 0.10 mg L(-1)) imidacloprid concentrations on various A. glycines life history traits. Aphid exposure to 0.20 mg L(-1) imidacloprid caused slower juvenile development, shorter reproductive period, and reduced adult longevity, fecundity and total lifespan. Stimulatory effects, i.e. hormesis, on reproduction and immature development duration were observed in aphids exposed to the lower sublethal imidacloprid concentrations. Consequently, the net reproduction rate (R 0) was significantly higher than in the control aphids. These findings stress the importance of the actual imidacloprid concentration in its toxicological properties on A. glycines. Therefore, our results would be useful for assessing the overall effects of imidacloprid on A. glycines and for optimizing integrated pest management programs targeting this pest.

  18. Unrelated facultative endosymbionts protect aphids against a fungal pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik, Piotr; van Asch, Margriet; Guo, Huifang; Ferrari, Julia; Godfray, H Charles J

    2013-02-01

    The importance of microbial facultative endosymbionts to insects is increasingly being recognized, but our understanding of how the fitness effects of infection are distributed across symbiont taxa is limited. In the pea aphid, some of the seven known species of facultative symbionts influence their host's resistance to natural enemies, including parasitoid wasps and a pathogenic fungus. Here we show that protection against this entomopathogen, Pandora neoaphidis, can be conferred by strains of four distantly related symbionts (in the genera Regiella, Rickettsia, Rickettsiella and Spiroplasma). They reduce mortality and also decrease fungal sporulation on dead aphids which may help protect nearby genetically identical insects. Pea aphids thus obtain protection from natural enemies through association with a wider range of microbial associates than has previously been thought. Providing resistance against natural enemies appears to be a particularly common way for facultative endosymbionts to increase in frequency within host populations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  19. The molecular basis of the interactions between luteoviruses and their aphid vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenhout, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Luteoviruses essentially replicate in the phloem tissue and are transmitted from plant to plant by aphids in a circulative, persistent manner. Virus particles are acquired when aphids feed on phloem sap. Particles are then transported from the midgut or hindgut into the haemolymph and from

  20. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Han

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1% and spiders (1.5%. The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma. Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation. The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  1. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of seasonal photoperiodism in the pea aphid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier J-P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aphid adaptation to harsh winter conditions is illustrated by an alternation of their reproductive mode. Aphids detect photoperiod shortening by sensing the length of the night and switch from viviparous parthenogenesis in spring and summer, to oviparous sexual reproduction in autumn. The photoperiodic signal is transduced from the head to the reproductive tract to change the fate of the future oocytes from mitotic diploid embryogenesis to haploid formation of gametes. This process takes place in three consecutive generations due to viviparous parthenogenesis. To understand the molecular basis of the switch in the reproductive mode, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches were used to detect significantly regulated transcripts and polypeptides in the heads of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Results The transcriptomic profiles of the heads of the first generation were slightly affected by photoperiod shortening. This suggests that trans-generation signalling between the grand-mothers and the viviparous embryos they contain is not essential. By analogy, many of the genes and some of the proteins regulated in the heads of the second generation are implicated in visual functions, photoreception and cuticle structure. The modification of the cuticle could be accompanied by a down-regulation of the N-β-alanyldopamine pathway and desclerotization. In Drosophila, modification of the insulin pathway could cause a decrease of juvenile hormones in short-day reared aphids. Conclusion This work led to the construction of hypotheses for photoperiodic regulation of the switch of the reproductive mode in aphids.

  2. Gene expression profiles responses to aphid feeding in chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaolong; Shao, Yafeng; Jiang, Jiafu; Ren, Liping; Chen, Fadi; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Chen, Sumei

    2014-12-02

    Chrysanthemum is an important ornamental plant all over the world. It is easily attacked by aphid, Macrosiphoniella sanbourni. The molecular mechanisms of plant defense responses to aphid are only partially understood. Here, we investigate the gene expression changes in response to aphid feeding in chrysanthemum leaf by RNA-Seq technology. Three libraries were generated from pooled leaf tissues of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'nannongxunzhang' that were collected at different time points with (Y) or without (CK) aphid infestations and mock puncture treatment (Z), and sequenced using an Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 platform. A total of 7,363,292, 7,215,860 and 7,319,841 clean reads were obtained in library CK, Y and Z, respectively. The proportion of clean reads was >97.29% in each library. Approximately 76.35% of the clean reads were mapped to a reference gene database including all known chrysanthemum unigene sequences. 1,157, 527 and 340 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the comparison of CK-VS-Y, CK-VS-Z and Z-VS-Y, respectively. These DEGs were involved in phytohormone signaling, cell wall biosynthesis, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway and transcription factor regulatory networks, and so on. Changes in gene expression induced by aphid feeding are shown to be multifaceted. There are various forms of crosstalk between different pathways those genes belonging to, which would allow plants to fine-tune its defense responses.

  3. Somatic Embryogenesis in Peach-Palm (Bactris gasipaes) Using Different Explant Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmacher, Douglas A; Heringer, Angelo Schuabb; Jiménez, Víctor M; Quoirin, Marguerite G G; Guerra, Miguel P

    2016-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a member of the family Arecaceae and is a multipurpose but underutilized species. Nowadays, fruit production for subsistence and local markets, and heart-of-palm production for local, national, and international markets are the most important uses of this plant. Conventional breeding programs in peach palm are long-term efforts due to the prolonged generation time, large plant size, difficulties with controlled pollination and other factors. Although it is a caespitose palm, its propagation is currently based on seeds, as off-shoots are difficult to root. Hence, tissue culture techniques are considered to be the most likely strategy for efficient clonal plantlet regeneration of this species. Among various techniques, somatic embryogenesis offers the advantages of potential automated large-scale production and putative genetic stability of the regenerated plantlets. The induction of somatic embryogenesis in peach palm can be achieved by using different explant sources including zygotic embryos, immature inflorescences and thin cell layers from the young leaves and shoot meristems. The choice of a particular explant depends on whether clonal propagation is desired or not, as well as on the plant conditions and availability of explants. Protocols to induce and express somatic embryogenesis from different peach palm explants, up to acclimatization of plantlets, are described in this chapter.

  4. A Non-Targeted Approach Unravels the Volatile Network in Peach Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gerardo; Besada, Cristina; Badenes, María Luisa; Monforte, Antonio José; Granell, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds represent an important part of the plant metabolome and are of particular agronomic and biological interest due to their contribution to fruit aroma and flavor and therefore to fruit quality. By using a non-targeted approach based on HS-SPME-GC-MS, the volatile-compound complement of peach fruit was described. A total of 110 volatile compounds (including alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, phenolics and terpenoids) were identified and quantified in peach fruit samples from different genetic backgrounds, locations, maturity stages and physiological responses. By using a combination of hierarchical cluster analysis and metabolomic correlation network analysis we found that previously known peach fruit volatiles are clustered according to their chemical nature or known biosynthetic pathways. Moreover, novel volatiles that had not yet been described in peach were identified and assigned to co-regulated groups. In addition, our analyses showed that most of the co-regulated groups showed good intergroup correlations that are therefore consistent with the existence of a higher level of regulation orchestrating volatile production under different conditions and/or developmental stages. In addition, this volatile network of interactions provides the ground information for future biochemical studies as well as a useful route map for breeding or biotechnological purposes. PMID:22761719

  5. Low dose UV and gamma radiation on storage rot and physicochemical changes in peaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.Y.; Lukombo, S.M.; Stevens, C.; Khan, V.A.; Wilson, C.L.; Pusey, P.L.; Chaultz, E.

    1993-01-01

    Peach fruit were irradiated with 7.5 x 10(4) ergs/mm(2) of UV (254nm) or 0.1 kGy gamma rays or a combination of both, then stored at 16C for 21 days. The results showed that both UV and gamma rays reduced storage rot and delayed ripening. UV treated peaches had lower sugar concentration, total phenols, anthocyanins and lower weight loss than the gamma treated peaches. The combination of UV and gamma showed no advantage over the use of UV or gamma alone

  6. First report of Pandora neoaphidis resting spore formation in vivo in aphid hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clara Scorsetti, Ana; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Lopez Lastra, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis is a recognized pathogen of aphids, causes natural epizootics in aphid populations, and interacts and competes with aphid predators and parasitoids. Survival of entomophthoralean fungi in periods of unsuitable weather conditions or lack of appropriat...

  7. Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, A.B.F.; Kronauer, Daniel Jan Christoph; Pen, I.

    2012-01-01

    viscosity is high and winged aphids rare, consistent with infrequent horizontal transmission between ant host colonies. The absence of the primary host shrub (Pistacia) may explain the absence of sex in three of the studied species, but elm trees (Ulmus) that are primary hosts of the fourth species (T...... above ground, whereas dispersal constraints and dependence on ant-tending may differentially affect the costs and benefits of sex in subterranean aphids. Here, we studied reproductive mode and dispersal in a community of root aphids that are obligately associated with the ant Lasius flavus. We assessed...... the genetic population structure of four species (Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi, Forda marginata and Forda formicaria) in a Dutch population and found that all species reproduce predominantly if not exclusively asexually, so that populations consist of multiple clonal lineages. We show that population...

  8. Trophic transfer of soil arsenate and associated toxic effects in a plant-aphid-parasitoid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. S.; Wee, J.; Lee, M.; Hong, J.; Cho, K.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial toxic effects of soil arsenic were studied using a model system consisting of soil which artificially treated with arsenic, Capsicum annum,Myzus persicae and Aphidus colemani. We investigated the transfer of arsenic in a soil-plant-aphid system and toxic effect of elevated arsenic through a plant-aphid-parasitoid system. To remove the effect of poor plant growth on aphid performance, test concentrations which have a no effect on health plant growth were selected. Arsenic concentration of growth medium, plant tissues (root, stem, leaf) aphids were measured to observe the arsenic transfer. Correlation matrix was made with arsenic in growth medium which extracted with three extractants (aquaregia, 0.01 M CaCl2 and deionized water), arsenic in plant tissues and plant performance. Toxic effects of elevated arsenic concentrations on each species were investigated at population level. Studied plant performances were dry weight of each tissue, elongation of roots and stems, area of leaves, chlorophyll content of leaves, protein content of leaves and sugar content of leaves. Mean development time, fecundity and honeydew excretion of the aphids and host choice capacity and parasitism success of the parasitoids were examined. In addition, enzyme activities of the plants and the aphids against reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by arsenic stress were also investigated. The results suggest that arsenic concentration in plant tissues and aphids were elevated with increased concentration of arsenic in soil. Decreased fecundity and honeydew excretion of aphids were observed and decreased eclosion rate of parasitoids were observed with increased arsenic treatment in growth medium. The results showed low concentration of arsenic in soil can transfer through food chain and can impact on higher trophic level species.

  9. Modulation of legume defense signaling pathways by native and non-native pea aphid clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sanchez-Arcos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum is a complex of at least 15 genetically different host races that are native to specific legume plants, but can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba. Despite much research it is still unclear why pea aphid host races (biotypes are able to colonize their native hosts while other host races are not. All aphids penetrate the plant and salivate into plant cells when they test plant suitability. Thus plants might react differently to the various pea aphid host races. To find out whether legume species vary in their defense responses to different pea aphid host races, we measured the amounts of salicylic acid (SA, the jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile, other jasmonate precursors and derivatives, and abscisic acid (ABA in four different species (Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, Pisum sativum, V. faba after infestation by native and non-native pea aphid clones of various host races. Additionally, we assessed the performance of the clones on the four plant species. On M. sativa and T. pratense, non-native clones that were barely able to survive or reproduce, triggered a strong SA and JA-Ile response, whereas infestation with native clones led to lower levels of both phytohormones. On P. sativum, non-native clones, which survived or reproduced to a certain extent, induced fluctuating SA and JA-Ile levels, whereas the native clone triggered only a weak SA and JA-Ile response. On the universal host V. faba all aphid clones triggered only low SA levels initially, but induced clone-specific patterns of SA and JA-Ile later on. The levels of the active JA-Ile conjugate and of the other JA-pathway metabolites measured showed in many cases similar patterns, suggesting that the reduction in JA signaling was due to an effect upstream of OPDA. ABA levels were downregulated in all aphid clone-plant combinations and were therefore probably not decisive factors for aphid-plant compatibility. Our results

  10. Phenotypic characterization of qualitative parameters and antioxidant contents in peach and nectarine fruit and changes after jam preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogoudi, Pavlina; Gerasopoulos, Dimitrios; Kafkaletou, Mina; Tsantili, Eleni

    2017-08-01

    Sugars and antioxidants in peaches contribute to fresh fruit quality and nutrition; however, information on widely grown cultivars and changes induced after peach jam preparation is limited. In the present study, colour, sugars and antioxidant parameters were determined in fruit and jam from 45 peach and nectarine cultivars. Pronounced varietal differences were found in sorbitol (42-fold range), total phenolics (TPs) and antioxidant capacities (10- to 19-fold range). Sorbitol levels were greater in non-melting peach, followed by nectarine, and lower values were found in melting peach cultivars. Late-harvested peach and nectarine cultivars tended to have a higher soluble solid content and antioxidant potential. Cultivars with relatively high antioxidant contents produced darker and redder jams, containing more antioxidants, than the jam or the fruit from the other cultivars. Jam-TPs were reduced by 48% compared to fruit-TPs, with greater reduction being noted in high antioxidant cultivars. The most favorable jam organoleptic characteristics were found in 'Morsiani 90', 'Amiga', 'Romea' and 'Alirosada', as well as in non-melting compared to melting peach cultivars. The best cultivars for each fruit flesh type and jam were identified. Peach jam could be an alternative substitute when fresh fruit is not available and when it is prepared with high antioxidant cultivars. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Relationships of Lower Invertebrates Aphid Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or even males for a single species of the about 4(XX) described thus far. Nonetheless, Professor ... the aphid armoury is dispersal, an adaptation related to total habitat quality and ... It also considers predator - prey interactions and the possible ...

  12. Ecdysone signaling underlies the pea aphid transgenerational wing polyphenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellichirammal, Neetha Nanoth; Gupta, Purba; Hall, Tannice A; Brisson, Jennifer A

    2017-02-07

    The wing polyphenism of pea aphids is a compelling laboratory model with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity. In this polyphenism, environmental stressors such as high aphid density cause asexual, viviparous adult female aphids to alter the developmental fate of their embryos from wingless to winged morphs. This polyphenism is transgenerational, in that the pea aphid mother experiences the environmental signals, but it is her offspring that are affected. Previous research suggested that the steroid hormone ecdysone may play a role in this polyphenism. Here, we analyzed ecdysone-related gene expression patterns and found that they were consistent with a down-regulation of the ecdysone pathway being involved in the production of winged offspring. We therefore predicted that reduced ecdysone signaling would result in more winged offspring. Experimental injections of ecdysone or its analog resulted in a decreased production of winged offspring. Conversely, interfering with ecdysone signaling using an ecdysone receptor antagonist or knocking down the ecdysone receptor gene with RNAi resulted in an increased production of winged offspring. Our results are therefore consistent with the idea that ecdysone plays a causative role in the regulation of the proportion of winged offspring produced in response to crowding in this polyphenism. Our results also show that an environmentally regulated maternal hormone can mediate phenotype production in the next generation, as well as provide significant insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the functioning of transgenerational phenotypic plasticity.

  13. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  14. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Cerataphis brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the palm aphid, Cerataphis brasiliensis, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures...

  15. Genetics Coupled to Quantitative Intact Proteomics Links Heritable Aphid and Endosymbiont Protein Expression to Circulative Polerovirus Transmission▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia, M.; Tamborindeguy, C.; Fish, T.; Howe, K.; Thannhauser, T. W.; Gray, S.

    2011-01-01

    Yellow dwarf viruses in the family Luteoviridae, which are the causal agents of yellow dwarf disease in cereal crops, are each transmitted most efficiently by different species of aphids in a circulative manner that requires the virus to interact with a multitude of aphid proteins. Aphid proteins differentially expressed in F2 Schizaphis graminum genotypes segregating for the ability to transmit Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) were identified using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) coupled to either matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem mass spectrometry or online nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 50 protein spots, containing aphid proteins and proteins from the aphid's obligate and maternally inherited bacterial endosymbiont, Buchnera, were identified as differentially expressed between transmission-competent and refractive aphids. Surprisingly, in virus transmission-competent F2 genotypes, the isoelectric points of the Buchnera proteins did not match those in the maternal Buchnera proteome as expected, but instead they aligned with the Buchnera proteome of the transmission-competent paternal parent. Among the aphid proteins identified, many were involved in energy metabolism, membrane trafficking, lipid signaling, and the cytoskeleton. At least eight aphid proteins were expressed as heritable, isoelectric point isoform pairs, one derived from each parental lineage. In the F2 genotypes, the expression of aphid protein isoforms derived from the competent parental lineage aligned with the virus transmission phenotype with high precision. Thus, these isoforms are candidate biomarkers for CYDV-RPV transmission in S. graminum. Our combined genetic and DIGE approach also made it possible to predict where several of the proteins may be expressed in refractive aphids with different barriers to transmission. Twelve proteins were predicted to act in the hindgut of the aphid

  16. Effects of infrared radiation heating on peeling performance and quality attributes of clingstone peaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinity and wastewater disposal problems associated with the conventional wet-lye method for peeling clingstone peaches result in considerable negative environment impacts. This study investigated the efficacy of using infrared (IR) heating as an alternative method for peach peel removal without us...

  17. Foliar methyl salicylate emissions indicate prolonged aphid infestation on silver birch and black alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blande, James D; Korjus, Minna; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2010-03-01

    It is well documented that when plants are damaged by insects they respond by emitting a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While there have been numerous reports concerning VOCs induced by chewing herbivores, there are relatively few studies detailing the VOCs induced by aphid feeding. The effects of aphid feeding on VOCs emitted by boreal forest trees have been particularly neglected. Herbivore-induced VOCs have relevance to direct and indirect plant defence and atmospheric chemistry. In this study, we analysed the VOCs emitted by Betula pendula (Roth) and Alnus glutinosa (L.) (Gaertn.) infested by specialist aphid species under laboratory conditions. We also complemented this by collecting VOCs from leaf beetle-damaged saplings under field conditions. In addition to induction of some inducible terpenes, we detected substantial aphid-induced emissions of methyl salicylate (MeSA) in both B. pendula and A. glutinosa. MeSA emission intensity depended on the length of aphid infestation. Feeding by beetles induced emission of (E)-DMNT in both tree species and (E)-beta-ocimene in A. glutinosa but had no effect on MeSA emissions. MeSA has been shown to have aphid-repellent qualities and has been shown recently to have impact on formation of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere. We discuss our results in relation to these two phenomena.

  18. Evidence for an invasive aphid "superclone": extremely low genetic diversity in Oleander aphid (Aphis nerii populations in the southern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scott Harrison

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of genetic diversity in successful biological invasions is unclear. In animals, but not necessarily plants, increased genetic diversity is generally associated with successful colonization and establishment of novel habitats. The Oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, though native to the Mediterranean region, is an invasive pest species throughout much of the world. Feeding primarily on Oleander (Nerium oleander and Milkweed (Asclepias spp. under natural conditions, these plants are unlikely to support aphid populations year round in the southern US. The objective of this study was to describe the genetic variation within and among US populations of A. nerii, during extinction/recolonization events, to better understand the population ecology of this invasive species.We used five microsatellite markers to assess genetic diversity over a two year period within and among three aphid populations separated by small (100 km and large (3,700 km geographic distances on two host plant species. Here we provide evidence for A. nerii "superclones". Genotypic variation was absent in all populations (i.e., each population consisted of a single multilocus genotype (MLG or "clone" and the genetic composition of only one population completely changed across years. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or host races on different plant species.Aphis nerii is a well established invasive species despite having extremely low genetic diversity. As this aphid appears to be obligatorily asexual, it may share more similarities with clonally reproducing invasive plants, than with other animals. Patterns of temporal and geographic genetic variation, viewed in the context of its population dynamics, have important implications for the management of invasive pests and the evolutionary biology of asexual species.

  19. Coexistence of three specialist aphids on common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A; Mooney, K A; Agrawal, A A

    2008-08-01

    Coexistence of host-specific herbivores on plants is believed to be governed by interspecific interactions, but few empirical studies have systematically unraveled these dynamics. We investigated the role of several factors in promoting coexistence among the aphids Aphis nerii, Aphis asclepiadis, and Myzocallis asclepiadis that all specialize on common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca). Competitive exclusion is thought to occur when interspecific competition is stronger than intraspecific competition. Consequently, we investigated whether predators, mutualists, or resource quality affected the strength of intra- vs. interspecific competition among aphids in factorial manipulations of competition with exposure to predation, ants, and variable plant genotypes in three separate experiments. In the predation x competition experiment, predators reduced aphid per capita growth by 66%, but the strength of intra- and interspecific competition did not depend on predators. In the ants x competition experiment, ants reduced per capita growth of A. nerii and M. asclepiadis (neither of which were mutualists with ants) by approximately one-half. In so doing, ants ameliorated the negative effects of these competitors on ant-tended A. asclepiadis by two-thirds, representing a novel benefit of ant-aphid mutualism. Nevertheless, ants alone did not explain the persistence of competitively inferior A. asclepiadis as, even in the presence of ants, interspecific competition remained stronger than intraspecific competition. In the plant genotype x competition experiment, both A. asclepiadis and M. asclepiadis were competitively inferior to A. nerii, with the strength of interspecific competition exceeding that of intraspecific competition by 83% and 23%, respectively. Yet these effects differed among milkweed genotypes, and there were one or more plant genotypes for each aphid species where coexistence was predicted. A synthesis of our results shows that predators play little or no role in

  20. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Aphis gossypii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures that ca...

  1. Plant resistance in sorghums to the sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated ten sorghum lines that were near or in commercial release with the intent of identifying phenotypic expression of host-plant resistance to the sugarcane aphid. Two of the ten entries OL2042 and SP7715 expressed a high degree of resistance to the sugarcane aphid with damage ratings <3.0...

  2. Molecular systematics of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae): new insights from the long-wavelength opsin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rivas, Benjamín; Moya, Andrés; Martínez-Torres, David

    2004-01-01

    Viviparous aphids (Aphididae) constitute a monophyletic group within the Homoptera with more than 4000 extant species worldwide but higher diversity in temperate regions. Several aspects of their biology account for attention paid to this group of insects. Their plant-sap-sucking way of feeding with many species transmitting viruses to crop plants has important implications on crop management strategies. Cyclical parthenogenesis associated in many groups to host alternation and elaborate polyphenisms is of special interests for evolutionists. Finally, the ancient association of most aphid species with intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria (Buchnera sp.) has also received much attention from evolutionists interested in mechanisms involved in the symbiotic process. Knowing the phylogenetic relationships among major aphid taxa is of special interest to evolutionists interested in the above issues. However, until recently, molecular approaches to aphid phylogeny were absent and discussions on the evolution of aphid life-cycles and on evolutionary aspects of their symbiotic association with Buchnera were framed by morphology-based phylogenies. Recently, two reports using molecular approaches attempted to address the yet unresolved phylogeny of Aphididae with limited although somehow different conclusions. In the present report we study the utility of the long-wave opsin gene in resolving phylogenetic relationships among seven subfamilies within the Aphididae. Our results corroborate some previously proposed relationships and suggest a revision of some others. In particular, our data support grouping the analysed aphid species into three main clades, being the subfamily Lachninae one of them, which contradicts its generally accepted sistership relationship with the subfamily Aphidinae. Moreover, our data also suggest a basal position of Lachninae which has implications on current discussions about the ancestrality of conifer-feeding in modern aphids.

  3. The phytopathogen Dickeya dadantii (Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937) is a pathogen of the pea aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Anne-Marie; Duport, Gabrielle; Pagès, Sylvie; Condemine, Guy; Rahbé, Yvan

    2006-03-01

    Dickeya dadantii (Erwinia chrysanthemi) is a phytopathogenic bacterium causing soft rot diseases on many crops. The sequencing of its genome identified four genes encoding homologues of the Cyt family of insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, which are not present in the close relative Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum. The pathogenicity of D. dadantii was tested on the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the bacterium was shown to be highly virulent for this insect, either by septic injury or by oral infection. The lethal inoculum dose was calculated to be as low as 10 ingested bacterial cells. A D. dadantii mutant with the four cytotoxin genes deleted showed a reduced per os virulence for A. pisum, highlighting the potential role of at least one of these genes in pathogenicity. Since only one bacterial pathogen of aphids has been previously described (Erwinia aphidicola), other species from the same bacterial group were tested. The pathogenic trait for aphids was shown to be widespread, albeit variable, within the phytopathogens, with no link to phylogenetic positioning in the Enterobacteriaceae. Previously characterized gut symbionts from thrips (Erwinia/Pantoea group) were also highly pathogenic to the aphid, whereas the potent entomopathogen Photorhabdus luminescens was not. D. dadantii is not a generalist insect pathogen, since it has low pathogenicity for three other insect species (Drosophila melanogaster, Sitophilus oryzae, and Spodoptera littoralis). D. dadantii was one of the most virulent aphid pathogens in our screening, and it was active on most aphid instars, except for the first one, probably due to anatomical filtering. The observed difference in virulence toward apterous and winged aphids may have an ecological impact, and this deserves specific attention in future research.

  4. Monitoring of aphid flight activities in seed potato crops in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andja Vucetic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aphid flight activities in seed potato fields have been studied by the yellow water traps. It is a good method for monitoring aphids as vectors of viruses, but this study also showed it is a suitable method for insect-diversity research. During the four-year studies, over 11.500 specimens were collected and a total of 107 different taxa of aphids were identified. The most abundant species were polyphagous species, such as: Acyrthosiphon pisum (Haris, Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover and Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach. The results of the studies show that diversity of aphids in different regions of Serbia is similar regardless of the altitude and the diversity of terrain. At most sites it ranged from 2 to 3. The highest value was recorded in Begeč, locality in northern part of Serbia, in year 2008, and it was 2.92. The maximum values of the Shannon-Weaver diversity index at all sites were recorded in the first weeks of the monitoring of aphid flight activities. Morisita-Horn similarity index shows no significant differences between sites regardless of altitudes. The sites are grouped by year, not by similarity of relief. In spite of these results, the Chi-square analysis showed highly significant difference in vector frequencies among seasons and sites with more pronounced differences for PVY. As a consequence of differences in vector frequencies, the vector pressure index in some regions was different also. The number of vectors and vector pressure index vary depending on the altitude of localities. At localities at altitudes under 1000 m, they were high. The highest index was at Kotraža, locality in central part of Serbia, in 2007, when PVY index exceeded the value of 180, while for PLRV it was 60. At high altitudes on mountain Golija, above 1100 m, the number of aphids was low, as well as the vector pressure index which indicates that these regions are suitable for producing virus-free seed potato.

  5. Role of syrphid larvae and other predators in suppressing aphid infestations in organic lettuce on California's Central Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Chaney, William E; Bensen, Tiffany A

    2008-10-01

    Organic lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., growers on the Central Coast of California rely on conservation biological control to manage Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and other aphid pests of lettuce. In 2006, we carried out five replicated field trials to determine the importance of syrphid larvae in the suppression of N. ribisnigri and other aphids infesting organic romaine lettuce. We used Entrust, a spinosad-based insecticide approved for use on organic farms, to suppress syrphid larvae in aphid-infested romaine. Romaine treated with Entrust was unmarketable at harvest because of aphid infestation, whereas insecticide-free romaine was marketable. Syrphid larvae composed 85% or more of total predators in most trials, and they were the only predators consistently recovered from romaine that was infested with aphids early and largely aphid-free by harvest. The species mix of nonsyrphid predators varied from site to site. Applications of Entrust suppressed nonsyrphid predators in two trials, and so was an imperfect tool for selectively suppressing syrphid larvae. The relative importance of syrphid larvae and other predators in the conservation biological control of aphids in organic romaine is discussed. We conclude that syrphid larvae are primarily responsible for the suppression of aphids in organic romaine on California's Central Coast.

  6. Presence of the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, on strawberry in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cédola, Claudia; Grecob, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal abundance of the strawberry aphid complex under different agronomic practices in the outskirts of La Plata, Argentina was studied on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae). Aphid densities were low in strawberry fields in which insecticides and fungicides were used. In addition to Aphis gossypii, Aphis fabae, Mysus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), was recorded for the first time in this horticultural area. Life history and some demographic parameters were calculated for C. fragaefolii. The mean duration of nymphal stages was 10.44 days, the oviposition period was 11.8 days, and the mean number of nymph/female/day was 2.4 +/- 0.3. Demographic parameters analyzed included the net reproductive rate R(o) = 14.55 +/- 0.096 nymph/female, generation time T=16.91 +/- 0.035 days, and the intrinsic rate of increase r(m) = 0.158 +/- (0.004). No parasites were found associated with C. fragaefolli. The pathogenic fungus, Entomophthora planchoniana Cornu (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) was the main mortality factor. Although aphids are not the main pests in strawberry fields, C. fragaefolii can be a serious problem because it can transmit several virus diseases of strawberry. Greater knowledge of life history traits and mortality factors of this species is needed in order to design appropriate control strategies.

  7. Silage or fresh by-product of peach palm as roughage in the feeding of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade; de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate intake and apparent digestibility of agro-industrial by-product of peach palm in diets for lambs. Twenty castrated, crossbred Santa Ines lambs, with average age of 150 days and body weight of 22.4 ± 3.4 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design with four experimental diets composed of the following: fresh by-product of peach palm enriched with urea + ammonia sulfate (FU); fresh peach palm by-product + concentrate (FP); silage of peach palm by-product + concentrate (SP); and silage of peach palm by-product enriched with 15% of cornmeal + concentrate (SPC). Intake was recorded daily, and the digestibility coefficients were estimated with the internal marker indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF). Diet FU resulted in the lowest intake and digestibility of the nutrients evaluated. Animals receiving diet FP showed higher intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and digestible energy (DE) in relation to animals fed diets SP and SPC. Diets SP and SPC showed higher coefficients of digestibility of DM, OM, CP, and NDF than diet FP. Diet SP reduced the intakes of DM, OM, ether extract (EE), non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC), TDN, and DE and the digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, and NFC as compared with diet SPC. Feedlot lambs fed a diet with fresh peach palm by-product + concentrate (diet FP) have higher nutrient intake.

  8. Investigation into effects of ionizing radiations on physical-chemical properties of bulgarian sorts of peaches and grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, D.; Kalinov, V.; Nikolova, M.; Pavlova, E.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the degree and direction of those changes in physicochemical characteristics of irradiated peaches and grapes which determine their quality after irradiation and during storage. The following main conclusions are made: irradiation with doses of 200 to 300 krad does not cause significant alterations in the chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of peaches and grapes; irradiation has a direct effect on the consistancy of peaches and grapes, leading to their softening which is proportional to the radiation dose used; radiation treatment is advisable in the case of peaches and grapes in tended for short-term rather than long-term storage at low temperatures

  9. The desorption of caesium from Peach Bottom HTGR steam generator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, M.J.

    1979-03-01

    The work at Harwell on the Peach Bottom End-of-Life Program in co-operation with the General Atomic Company (U.S.A.) is described. Materials taken from the Economiser, Evaporator and Superheater Sections of the Peach Bottom Unit No. 1. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Heat Exchanger were placed in a reducing atmosphere comparable to the composition of an HTGR helium coolant gas, and the desorption of caesium isotopes measured under known conditions of flow, temperature and oxygen pressure. (author)

  10. Ants farm subterranean aphids mostly in single clone groups - an example of prudent husbandry for carbohydrates and proteins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivens Aniek BF

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutualistic interactions are wide-spread but the mechanisms underlying their evolutionary stability and ecological dynamics remain poorly understood. Cultivation mutualisms in which hosts consume symbionts occur in phylogenetically diverse groups, but often have symbiont monocultures for each host. This is consistent with the prediction that symbionts should avoid coexistence with other strains so that host services continue to benefit relatives, but it is less clear whether hosts should always favor monocultures and what mechanisms they might have to manipulate symbiont diversity. Few mutualisms have been studied in sufficient genetic detail to address these issues, so we decided to characterize symbiont diversity in the complex mutualism between multiple root aphid species and Lasius flavus ants. After showing elsewhere that three of these aphid species have low dispersal and mostly if not exclusively asexual reproduction, we here investigate aphid diversity within and between ant nest mounds. Results The three focal species (Geoica utricularia, Forda marginata and Tetraneura ulmi had considerable clonal diversity at the population level. Yet more than half of the ant mounds contained just a single aphid species, a significantly higher percentage than expected from a random distribution. Over 60% of these single-species mounds had a single aphid clone, and clones tended to persist across subsequent years. Whenever multiple species/clones co-occurred in the same mound, they were spatially separated with more than 95% of the aphid chambers containing individuals of a single clone. Conclusions L. flavus “husbandry” is characterized by low aphid “livestock” diversity per colony, especially at the nest-chamber level, but it lacks the exclusive monocultures known from other cultivation mutualisms. The ants appear to eat most of the early instar aphids, so that adult aphids are unlikely to face limited phloem resources and

  11. Difference in photosynthetic performance among three peach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) on greenhouse grown peach trees ('Qingfeng': Prunus persica L. Batsch, 'NJN76': Prunus persica L. Batsch and 'Maixiang': P. persica var. nectarine) were investigated. Difference in photosynthesis rate (Pn) and stoma morphology among cultivars were studied.

  12. Cucumber Plants Baited with Methyl Salicylate Accelerates Scymnus (Pullus) sodalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Visiting to Reduce Cotton Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y J; Hwang, S Y

    2017-10-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of many crops worldwide and a major cucumber plant pest in Taiwan. Because cotton aphids rapidly develop insecticide resistance and because of the insecticide residue problem, a safe and sustainable method is required to replace conventional chemical control methods. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), a herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to affect aphids' behavior and attract the natural enemies of aphids for reducing their population. Therefore, this study examined the direct effects of MeSA on cotton aphids' settling preference, population development, and attractiveness to natural enemies. The efficiency of using MeSA and the commercial insecticide pymetrozine for reducing the cotton aphid population in laboratory and outdoor cucumber plant pot was also examined. The results showed no difference in winged aphids' settling preference and population development between the MeSA and blank treatments. Cucumber plants infested with cotton aphids and baited with 0.1% or 10% MeSA contained significantly higher numbers of the natural enemy of cotton aphids, namely Scymnus (Pullus) sodalis (Weise) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and MeSA-treated cucumber plants contained a lower number of aphids. Significantly lower cotton aphid numbers were found on cucumber plants within a 10-m range of MeSA application. In addition, fruit yield showed no difference between the MeSA and pymetrozine treatments. According to our findings, 0.1% MeSA application can replace insecticides as a cotton aphid control tool. However, large-scale experiments are necessary to confirm its efficiency and related conservation biological control strategies before further use. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Impact of fertilization and granular insecticides on the incidence of tobacco aphid, myzus persicae (sulz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razaq, A.; Hussain, N.; Khalil, S.K.; Alamzeb

    1989-01-01

    Field studies were conducted on the control of tobacco aphid, Myzus persicase (Sulz) with four granular insecticides, viz, Furadan 3% G, Diazinon 5% g, Thiodan 5% g and Larsban 5% g, with and without NPK fertilization. The aphid population was significantly higher in the fertilized plots compared to the non-fertilized ones. All the four insecticides significantly reduced the aphids density compared to the check. Furada 3% gave best results for the control of this pest. (author)

  14. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events: Peach Bottom, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Ferrell, W.L.; Cathey, N.G.; Najafi, B.; Harper, F.T.

    1986-10-01

    This document contains the internal event initiated accident sequence analyses for Peach Bottom, Unit 2; one of the reference plants being examined as part of the NUREG-1150 effort by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-1150 will document the risk of a selected group of nuclear power plants. As part of that work, this report contains the overall core damage frequency estimate for Peach Bottom, Unit 2, and the accompanying plant damage state frequencies. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses provided additional insights regarding the dominant contributors to the Peach Bottom core damage frequency estimate. The mean core damage frequency at Peach Bottom was calculated to be 8.2E-6. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) were found to dominate the overall results. Anticipated Transient Without Scram accidents were also found to be non-negligible contributors. The numerical results are largely driven by common mode failure probability estimates and to some extent, human error. Because of significant data and analysis uncertainties in these two areas (important, for instance, to the most dominant scenario in this study), it is recommended that the results of the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses be considered before any actions are taken based on this analysis

  15. Modification of Cry4Aa toward Improved Toxin Processing in the Gut of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Rausch

    Full Text Available Aphids are sap-sucking insects (order: Hemiptera that cause extensive damage to a wide range of agricultural crops. Our goal was to optimize a naturally occurring insecticidal crystalline (Cry toxins produced by the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for use against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. On the basis that activation of the Cry4Aa toxin is a rate-limiting factor contributing to the relatively low aphicidal activity of this toxin, we introduced cathepsin L and cathepsin B cleavage sites into Cry4Aa for rapid activation in the aphid gut environment. Incubation of modified Cry4Aa and aphid proteases in vitro demonstrated enhanced processing of the toxin into the active form for some of the modified constructs relative to non-modified Cry4Aa. Aphids fed artificial diet with toxin at a final concentration of 125 μg/ml showed enhanced mortality after two days for one of the four modified constructs. Although only modest toxin improvement was achieved by use of this strategy, such specific toxin modifications designed to overcome factors that limit aphid toxicity could be applied toward managing aphid populations via transgenic plant resistance.

  16. Establishment of Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persad, A.B.; Hoy, M.A.; Ru Nguyen

    2007-01-01

    The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introduced as L. scutellaris Mackauer) was imported from Guam, evaluated in quarantine, mass reared, and released into citrus groves in Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Releases of 20,200, 12,100, and 1,260 adults of L. oregmae were made throughout Florida during 2000, 2001, and 2002, respectively. To determine if L. oregmae had successfully established, surveys were conducted throughout the state beginning in the summer of 2001 and continuing through the summer of 2003. Parasitism during 2001 and 2002 was evaluated by holding brown citrus aphids in the laboratory until parasitoid adults emerged. Lipolexis oregmae was found in 10 sites in 7 counties and 4 sites in 3 counties with parasitism rates ranging from 0.7 to 3.3% in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Laboratory tests indicated that high rates of mortality occurred if field-collected parasitized aphids were held in plastic bags, so a molecular assay was used that allowed immature L. oregmae to be detected within aphid hosts immediately after collection. The molecular assay was used in 2003 with the brown citrus aphids and with other aphid species collected from citrus, weeds, and vegetables near former release sites; immatures of L. oregmae were detected in black citrus aphids, cowpea aphids, spirea aphids, and melon aphids, as well as in the brown citrus aphid, in 4 of 8 counties sampled, with parasitism ranging from 2.0 to 12.9%, indicating that L. oregmae is established and widely distributed. Samples taken in Polk County during Oct 2005 indicated that L. oregmae has persisted. The ability of L. oregmae to parasitize other aphid species on citrus, and aphids on other host plants, enhances the ability of L. oregmae to persist when brown citrus aphid populations are low. (author) [es

  17. Resistance of Four Canola Genotypes Against Cabbage Aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. MousaviAnzabi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the prominent oil seed plants in Iran. This plant has good agricultural and food nourishment properties, such as resistant to drought, cold and salinity stresses and low level of cholesterol. Cabbage waxy aphid Brevicorynebrassicae (L. is the most important and cosmopolitan pest of cruciferous crops. This aphid is reduced 9 to 77% grain yields and up to 11% oil content. Developing environmental-friendly methods, such as deploying insect-resistant varieties to pest control was advised by scientists. Resistant varieties decrease production costs and can be integrated with other pest control policies in IPM programs. In a greenhouse experiment plants of cabbage, cauliflower wassusceptible host plant and broccoli, turnip, rapeseed, showed resistance to cabbage aphid. With the aim of identifying the existence of resistance resources, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of seven canola genotypes on biological parameters of cabbage aphid. Detected resistant variety could be used as a resistance source. Material and Methods: In order to resistancy evaluation of canola, genotypes contain “RGS”,“Hyola-308”,“Hyola-401” and “Sarigol” to cabbage aphid, two experiments was conducted under field and greenhouse conditions in Kahriz region of West Azerbaijan province in 2010.In this study infestation index and tolerance in Field conditions and antibiosis study in greenhouse conditions was evaluated.To study antibiosis, genotypes were planted in pots with 10 replications based on completely random design and cabbage aphid population intrinsic rate of increase (rm was calculated. As followed: (Lotka 1924: 1= other population parameters computed by Carey (1993 method. Field experiment contains10 replications wereperformed based on complete randomized blocks experimental designs that five of them were under natural infestation and five others, free of infestation (control. To

  18. Role of Melatonin in Cell-Wall Disassembly and Chilling Tolerance in Cold-Stored Peach Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shifeng; Bian, Kun; Shi, Liyu; Chung, Hsiao-Hang; Chen, Wei; Yang, Zhenfeng

    2018-06-06

    Melatonin reportedly increases chilling tolerance in postharvest peach fruit during cold storage, but information on its effects on cell-wall disassembly in chilling-injured peaches is limited. In this study, we investigated the role of cell-wall depolymerization in chilling-tolerance induction in melatonin-treated peaches. Treatment with 100 μM melatonin alleviated chilling symptoms (mealiness) characterized by a decrease in fruit firmness and increase in juice extractability in treated peaches during storage. The loss of neutral sugars, such as arabinose and galactose, in both the 1,2-cyclohexylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (CDTA)- and Na 2 CO 3 -soluble fractions was observed at 7 days in treated peaches, but the contents increased after 28 days of storage. Atomic-force-microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that the polysaccharide widths in the CDTA- and Na 2 CO 3 -soluble fractions in the treated fruit were mainly distributed in a shorter range, as compared with those in the control fruit. In addition, the expression profiles of a series of cell-wall-related genes showed that melatonin treatment maintained the balance between transcripts of PpPME and PpPG, which accompany the up-regulation of several other genes involved in cell-wall disassembly. Taken together, our results suggested that the reduced mealiness by melatonin was probably associated with its positive regulation of numerous cell-wall-modifying enzymes and proteins; thus, the depolymerization of the cell-wall polysaccharides in the peaches treated with melatonin was maintained, and the treated fruit could soften gradually during cold storage.

  19. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmei eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues, including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod. The majority of the phloem-feeding aphids carry Buchnera, an obligate symbiotic proteobacteria. Buchnera has a highly reduced genome size, but encode key enzymes in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is crucial for nutritional balance, development and reproduction in aphids. In this study, we investigated the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors, symbionts and starvation, on the wing dimorphism in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, a devastating insect pest of cereal crops (e.g., wheat worldwide. Elimination of Buchnera using the antibiotic rifampicin significantly reduced the formation of winged morphs, body mass and fecundity in S. avenae. Furthermore, the absence of this primary endosymbiont may disrupt the nutrient acquisition in aphids and alter transgenerational phenotypic expression. Similarly, both survival rate and the formation of winged morphs were substantially reduced after neonatal (< 24h old offspring were starved for a period of time. The combined results shed light on the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors on the phenotypic plasticity in aphids. A better understanding of the wing dimorphism in aphids will provide the theoretical basis for the prediction and integrated management of these phloem-feeding insect pests.

  20. New insights into the properties of pubescent surfaces: peach fruit as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Victoria; Khayet, Mohamed; Montero-Prado, Pablo; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Karabourniotis, George; Del Río, Víctor; Domínguez, Eva; Tacchini, Ignacio; Nerín, Cristina; Val, Jesús; Heredia, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    The surface of peach (Prunus persica 'Calrico') is covered by a dense indumentum, which may serve various protective purposes. With the aim of relating structure to function, the chemical composition, morphology, and hydrophobicity of the peach skin was assessed as a model for a pubescent plant surface. Distinct physicochemical features were observed for trichomes versus isolated cuticles. Peach cuticles were composed of 53% cutan, 27% waxes, 23% cutin, and 1% hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (mainly ferulic and p-coumaric acids). Trichomes were covered by a thin cuticular layer containing 15% waxes and 19% cutin and were filled by polysaccharide material (63%) containing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The surface free energy, polarity, and work of adhesion of intact and shaved peach surfaces were calculated from contact angle measurements of water, glycerol, and diiodomethane. The removal of the trichomes from the surface increased polarity from 3.8% (intact surface) to 23.6% and decreased the total surface free energy chiefly due to a decrease on its nonpolar component. The extraction of waxes and the removal of trichomes led to higher fruit dehydration rates. However, trichomes were found to have a higher water sorption capacity as compared with isolated cuticles. The results show that the peach surface is composed of two different materials that establish a polarity gradient: the trichome network, which has a higher surface free energy and a higher dispersive component, and the cuticle underneath, which has a lower surface free energy and higher surface polarity. The significance of the data concerning water-plant surface interactions is discussed within a physiological context.

  1. Decolorization of textile industry wastewater in solid state fermentation with Peach-Palm (Bactris gasipaes residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Chicatto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work we have assessed the decolorization of textile effluents throughout their treatment in a solid-state fermentation (SSF system. SSF assays were conducted with peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes residue using the white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum EF 31. The influence of the dye concentration and of the amounts of peach-palm residue and liquid phase on both the discoloration efficiency and enzyme production was studied. According to our results, independently of experimental conditions employed, laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme produced by G. lucidum. The highest laccase activity was obtained at very low effluent concentrations, suggesting the existence of an inhibitory effect of higher concentrations on fungal metabolism. The highest percentage of color removal was reached when 10 grams of peach palm residue was moistened with 60 mL of the final effluent. In control tests carried out with the synthetic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR decolorization efficiencies about 20% higher than that achieved with the industrial effluent were achieved. The adsorption of RBBR on peach-palm residue was also investigated. Equilibrium tests showed that the adsorption of this dye followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Hence, our experimental results indicate that peach-palm residue is suitable substrate for both laccase production and color removal in industrial effluents.

  2. Decolorization of textile industry wastewater in solid state fermentation with Peach-Palm (Bactris gasipaes) residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicatto, J A; Rainert, K T; Gonçalves, M J; Helm, C V; Altmajer-Vaz, D; Tavares, L B B

    2018-02-15

    In this work we have assessed the decolorization of textile effluents throughout their treatment in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system. SSF assays were conducted with peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) residue using the white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum EF 31. The influence of the dye concentration and of the amounts of peach-palm residue and liquid phase on both the discoloration efficiency and enzyme production was studied. According to our results, independently of experimental conditions employed, laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme produced by G. lucidum. The highest laccase activity was obtained at very low effluent concentrations, suggesting the existence of an inhibitory effect of higher concentrations on fungal metabolism. The highest percentage of color removal was reached when 10 grams of peach palm residue was moistened with 60 mL of the final effluent. In control tests carried out with the synthetic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) decolorization efficiencies about 20% higher than that achieved with the industrial effluent were achieved. The adsorption of RBBR on peach-palm residue was also investigated. Equilibrium tests showed that the adsorption of this dye followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Hence, our experimental results indicate that peach-palm residue is suitable substrate for both laccase production and color removal in industrial effluents.

  3. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso Ferreira Pinhancos de Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; Ruth, van Saskia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were

  4. The Endosymbiont Arsenophonus Is Widespread in Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines, but Does Not Provide Protection from Parasitoids or a Fungal Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Jason A.; Buckman, Karrie A.; Wu, Kongming; Heimpel, George E.; White, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Aphids commonly harbor bacterial facultative symbionts that have a variety of effects upon their aphid hosts, including defense against hymenopteran parasitoids and fungal pathogens. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is infected with the symbiont Arsenophonus sp., which has an unknown role in its aphid host. Our research goals were to document the infection frequency and diversity of the symbiont in field-collected soybean aphids, and to determine whether Arsenophonus is defending soybean aphid against natural enemies. We performed diagnostic PCR and sequenced four Arsenophonus genes in soybean aphids from their native and introduced range to estimate infection frequency and genetic diversity, and found that Arsenophonus infection is highly prevalent and genetically uniform. To evaluate the defensive role of Arsenophonus, we cured two aphid genotypes of their natural Arsenophonus infection through ampicillin microinjection, resulting in infected and uninfected isolines within the same genetic background. These isolines were subjected to parasitoid assays using a recently introduced biological control agent, Binodoxys communis [Braconidae], a naturally recruited parasitoid, Aphelinus certus [Aphelinidae], and a commercially available biological control agent, Aphidius colemani [Braconidae]. We also assayed the effect of the common aphid fungal pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudiere & Hennebert) Humber (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), on the same aphid isolines. We did not find differences in successful parasitism for any of the parasitoid species, nor did we find differences in P. neoaphidis infection between our treatments. Our conclusion is that Arsenophonus does not defend its soybean aphid host against these major parasitoid and fungal natural enemies. PMID:23614027

  5. Peach and apricot stone combustion in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaynak, B.; Atimtay, Aysel T. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Topal, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Gazi University, Ankara 06570 (Turkey)

    2005-07-25

    In this study, a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) of 102 mm inside diameter and 900 mm height was used to investigate the combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry. A lignite coal was also burned in the same combustor. The combustion characteristics of the wastes were compared with that of a lignite coal that is most widely used in Turkey. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. By changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity, and fuel feed rate), the variation of emissions of various pollutants was studied. Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. During the combustion tests, it was observed that the volatile matter from peach and apricot stones quickly volatilizes and mostly burn in the freeboard. The temperature profiles along the bed and the freeboard also confirmed this phenomenon. It was found that as the volatile matter of fruit stones increases, the combustion takes place more in the freeboard region. The results of this study have shown that the combustion efficiencies ranged between 98.8% and 99.1% for coal, 96.0% and 97.5% for peach stone and 93.4% and 96.3% for apricot stones. The coal has zero CO emission, but biomass fuels have very high CO emission which indicates that a secondary air addition is required for the system. SO{sub 2} emission of the coal is around 2400-2800 mg/Nm{sup 3}, whereas the biomass fuels have zero SO{sub 2} emission. NO{sub x} emissions are all below the limits set by the Turkish Air Quality Control Regulation of 1986 (TAQCR) for all tests. As the results of combustion of two biomass fuels are compared with each other, peach stones gave lower CO and NO{sub x} emissions but the SO{sub 2} emissions are a little higher than for apricot stones. These results suggest that

  6. Modified atmosphere packaging extending the storage life of 'douradão' peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Douradão' peach is a perishable product and when cold stored is subject to chilling injury. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP and cold storage on quality and storage life of these peaches. Fruits were packed in polypropylene (PP trays and placed inside low density polyethylene (LDPE bags (30, 50, 60, 75 μm thickness with active modified atmosphere (10 kPa CO2 + 1.5kPa O2, balance N2. The control was made with peaches held in nonwrapped PP trays. Fruits were kept at 1 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH for 28 days and CO2 and O2 within packages was monitored every two days. After 14, 21 and 28 days, samples were withdrawn from MAP and kept in air at 25 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH for ripening. On the day of removal from the cold storage and after 4 days, peaches were evaluated for weight loss, decay incidence, flesh firmness, woolliness incidence, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA and juice content. The results showed that MAP had influence on reducing weight loss and prevented postharvest decay. MAP of 1-2 kPa O2 and 3-6 kPa CO2 at 1 °C (from 50 and 60 μm LDPE films were effective for keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peaches during 28 days of storage, the ripe fruits showed reduced incidence of woolliness, adequate juiciness and flesh firmness. Packages of 30 and 75 μm LDPE films were ineffective for reducing woolliness during cold storage. MAP fruits showed lower SSC and no relevant effect on TA. Control fruits did not present marketable conditions after 14 days of cold storage.

  7. Evidence for an Invasive Aphid “Superclone”: Extremely Low Genetic Diversity in Oleander Aphid (Aphis nerii) Populations in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, John Scott; Mondor, Edward B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of genetic diversity in successful biological invasions is unclear. In animals, but not necessarily plants, increased genetic diversity is generally associated with successful colonization and establishment of novel habitats. The Oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, though native to the Mediterranean region, is an invasive pest species throughout much of the world. Feeding primarily on Oleander (Nerium oleander) and Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) under natural conditions, these plants are unlikely to support aphid populations year round in the southern US. The objective of this study was to describe the genetic variation within and among US populations of A. nerii, during extinction/recolonization events, to better understand the population ecology of this invasive species. Methodology/Principal Findings We used five microsatellite markers to assess genetic diversity over a two year period within and among three aphid populations separated by small (100 km) and large (3,700 km) geographic distances on two host plant species. Here we provide evidence for A. nerii “superclones”. Genotypic variation was absent in all populations (i.e., each population consisted of a single multilocus genotype (MLG) or “clone”) and the genetic composition of only one population completely changed across years. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or host races on different plant species. Conclusions/Significance Aphis nerii is a well established invasive species despite having extremely low genetic diversity. As this aphid appears to be obligatorily asexual, it may share more similarities with clonally reproducing invasive plants, than with other animals. Patterns of temporal and geographic genetic variation, viewed in the context of its population dynamics, have important implications for the management of invasive pests and the evolutionary biology of asexual species. PMID:21408073

  8. Laboratory and semi-field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie; Steenberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), is an economically important pest of lettuce worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain GHA has recently been reported as a potential biocontrol candidate for use against the lettuce aphid. This study provides information...... on the mortality inflicted by B. bassiana when applied against different life stages of the lettuce aphid under laboratory conditions and how fungus infection affects the aphid fecundity. In addition, temporal changes in persistence of fungus inoculum applied to foliage of young lettuce plants under semi......-field conditions was analysed. Immature life stages were generally the least susceptible to fungal infection and the susceptibility of all stages was dose-dependent, with the highest mortality occurring at the highest dose. B. bassiana significantly affected the rate of nymph production by the lettuce aphid...

  9. Seasonal phenology and species composition of the aphid fauna in a northern crop production area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha M Kirchner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species diversity of aphids and seasonal timing of their flight activity can have significant impacts on crop production, as aphid species differ in their ability to transmit plant viruses and flight timing affects virus epidemiology. The aim of the study was to characterise the species composition and phenology of aphid fauna in Finland in one of the northernmost intensive crop production areas of the world (latitude 64°. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flight activity was monitored in four growing seasons (2007-010 using yellow pan traps (YPTs placed in 4-8 seed potato fields and a Rothamsted suction trap. A total of 58,528 winged aphids were obtained, identified to 83 taxa based on morphology, and 34 species were additionally characterised by DNA barcoding. Seasonal flight activity patterns analysed based on YPT catch fell into three main phenology clusters. Monoecious taxa showed early or middle-season flight activity and belonged to species living on shrubs/trees or herbaceous plants, respectively. Heteroecious taxa occurred over the entire potato growing season (ca. 90 days. Abundance of aphids followed a clear 3-year cycle based on suction trap data covering a decade. Rhopalosiphum padi occurring at the end of the potato growing season was the most abundant species. The flight activity of Aphis fabae, the main vector of Potato virus Y in the region, and Aphis gossypii peaked in the beginning of potato growing season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detailed information was obtained on phenology of a large number aphid species, of which many are agriculturally important pests acting as vectors of plant viruses. Aphis gossypii is known as a pest in greenhouses, but our study shows that it occurs also in the field, even far in the north. The novel information on aphid phenology and ecology has wide implications for prospective pest management, particularly in light of climate change.

  10. The Polerovirus Minor Capsid Protein Determines Vector Specificity and Intestinal Tropism in the Aphid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Véronique; Périgon, Sophie; Reinbold, Catherine; Erdinger, Monique; Scheidecker, Danièle; Herrbach, Etienne; Richards, Ken; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique

    2005-01-01

    Aphid transmission of poleroviruses is highly specific, but the viral determinants governing this specificity are unknown. We used a gene exchange strategy between two poleroviruses with different vectors, Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), to analyze the role of the major and minor capsid proteins in vector specificity. Virus recombinants obtained by exchanging the sequence of the readthrough domain (RTD) between the two viruses replicated in plant protoplasts and in whole plants. The hybrid readthrough protein of chimeric viruses was incorporated into virions. Aphid transmission experiments using infected plants or purified virions revealed that vector specificity is driven by the nature of the RTD. BWYV and CABYV have specific intestinal sites in the vectors for endocytosis: the midgut for BWYV and both midgut and hindgut for CABYV. Localization of hybrid virions in aphids by transmission electron microscopy revealed that gut tropism is also determined by the viral origin of the RTD. PMID:16014930

  11. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Maleki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan. The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea, respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas ( P 0.05. Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers.

  12. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  13. Sensory evaluation of Regina freestone peaches treated with low doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahony, M.; Wong, S.Y.; Odbert, N.

    1985-01-01

    Sensory appraisal of low post-harvest gamma irradiation dosing (65-75 Krad) of a single batch of peaches revealed significant differences in aroma and in taste components not associated with sweetness, but only slight differences in firmness and appearance. A panel of practiced judges evaluated irradiated and non-irradiated peaches using a technique of minimal cross-sensory inference. The significant differences in aroma and taste also were detected by untrained judges

  14. CONTRIBUTIONS TO IMPROVING CULTURE TEHNOLOGIES OF PEACHES GROWN ON SANDY SOILS THE SOUTH OF OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Durau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Technological factors with major implications in obtaining high yields and quality in peaches grown on sandy soils are planting row distance and shape of the crown, soil maintenance system, chemical, organic and foliar fertilzation. A smal size combined with the flatening of the crowns of the tres alows a dense planting, also ensure proper mechanization of work and easy penetration of light to the leaves and fruits. Crown form vertical belt proved to be suitable for al planting distances studied, easily made and maintained, having fruit production ranged betwen 15.9 t / ha at a distance of 2 m, 10.3 t / ha at a distance of 2.5 m and 7.9 t / ha at a distance of 3 m. The state of soil nutrient supply influence sucesful peach crop on sandy soils. The fertilzer dose of technology to N10 P80 K10 kg s.a / ha production was 34.9 t / ha. Organic fertilzation also contributes to obtaining high yields of peach. In sandy soil conditions most fruit production of 9.6 t / ha was obtained by fertilzation with organic manure 60t/ha. Besides fertilzation, soil maintenance system is one important link in the technology peach crop on sandy soils. The results found that the biggest peach fruit production was obtained from field maintenance system black-8,2t/ha. Using technology in foliar peaches culture on sandy soils, is an important means of providing nutrients that lead to improved proceses of growth and fructification. The best way is with foliar fertilzation Folibor in dose 5l/ha, the production obtained was 12.4 t /ha.

  15. The price of protection: a defensive endosymbiont impairs nymph growth in the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leybourne, Daniel J; Bos, Jorunn I B; Valentine, Tracy A; Karley, Alison J

    2018-05-24

    Bacterial endosymbionts have enabled aphids to adapt to a range of stressors, but their effects in many aphid species remain to be established. The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus), is an important pest of cereals worldwide and has been reported to form symbiotic associations with Serratia symbiotica and Sitobion miscanthi L-type Symbiont endobacteria, although the resulting aphid phenotype has not been described. This study presents the first report of R. padi infection with the facultative bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa. Individuals of R. padi were sampled from populations in Eastern Scotland, UK, and shown to represent seven R. padi genotypes based on the size of polymorphic microsatellite markers; two of these genotypes harboured H. defensa. In parasitism assays, survival of H. defensa-infected nymphs following attack by the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani (Viereck) was five-fold higher than for uninfected nymphs. Aphid genotype was a major determinant of aphid performance on two Hordeum species, a modern cultivar of barley H. vulgaris and a wild relative H. spontaneum, although aphids infected with H. defensa showed 16% lower nymph mass gain on the partially-resistant wild relative compared with uninfected individuals. These findings suggest that deploying resistance traits in barley will favour the fittest R. padi genotypes, but symbiont-infected individuals will be favoured when parasitoids are abundant, although these aphids will not achieve optimal performance on a poor quality host plant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. All 37 Mitochondrial Genes of Aphid Aphis craccivora Obtained from Transcriptome Sequencing: Implications for the Evolution of Aphids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available The availability of mitochondrial genome data for Aphididae, one of the economically important insect pest families, in public databases is limited. The advent of next generation sequencing technology provides the potential to generate mitochondrial genome data for many species timely and cost-effectively. In this report, we used transcriptome sequencing technology to determine all the 37 mitochondrial genes of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora. This method avoids the necessity of finding suitable primers for long PCRs or primer-walking amplicons, and is proved to be effective in obtaining the whole set of mitochondrial gene data for insects with difficulty in sequencing mitochondrial genome by PCR-based strategies. Phylogenetic analyses of aphid mitochondrial genome data show clustering based on tribe level, and strongly support the monophyly of the family Aphididae. Within the monophyletic Aphidini, three samples from Aphis grouped together. In another major clade of Aphididae, Pterocomma pilosum was recovered as a potential sister-group of Cavariella salicicola, as part of Macrosiphini.

  17. Methyl salicylate, a soybean aphid-induced plant volatile attractive to the predator Coccinella septempunctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei; Park, Kye-Chung

    2005-08-01

    Induced volatiles provide a signal to foraging predatory insects about the location of their prey. In Iowa, early in the growing season of soybean, Glycine max, many predacious seven-spotted lady beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, were observed on plants with heavy infestations of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. We studied whether the attraction of this beetle is caused by the release of specific volatile compounds of soybean plants infested by aphids. Volatile compounds emitted by soybean plants infested by aphids were compared with those of undamaged, uninfested, and artificially damaged plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed consistent differences in the profiles of volatile compounds between aphid-infested soybean plants and undamaged ones. Significantly more methyl salicylate was released from infested plants at both the V1 and V2 plant growth stages. However, release patterns of two other induced plant volatiles, (D)-limonene and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, differed between the two plant growth stages. Gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection of volatile extracts from infested soybean plants showed that methyl salicylate elicited significant electrophysiological responses in C. septempunctata. In field tests, traps baited with methyl salicylate were highly attractive to adult C. septempunctata, whereas 2-phenylethanol was most attractive to the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea and syrphid flies. Another common lady beetle, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, showed no preference for the compounds. These results indicate that C. septempunctata may use methyl salicylate as the olfactory cue for prey location. We also tested the attractiveness of some selected soybean volatiles to alate soybean aphids in the field, and results showed that traps baited with benzaldehyde caught significantly higher numbers of aphids.

  18. Expression profiling of selected glutathione transferase genes in Zea mays (L.) seedlings infested with cereal aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•-) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•- was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•- generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype.

  19. Consumption, preferences and habits of purchasing consumers of peaches and nectarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener Augusto Penso

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil, there are few studies and information available on consumer preferences for peaches and nectarines. This lack of information, has hindered some aspects of the production chain, as the choice and exploitation of more appropriate cultivars, offer periods, adoption of marketing and marketing strategies, consequently affecting the availability and commercialization of fruits. This study aimed to analyze the consumer preference of peaches and nectarines, evaluate the traits observed for their acquisition, and the marketplace where they are preferably purchased. The research was carried out from November 2016 to February 2017, using the descriptive research methodology, by Survey method and Web 2.0. A structured questionnaire was applied with closed questions. An online form questionnaire was prepared using the Google docs application and also distributed online, through the internet social Medias. 610 people participated in the survey, with predominance of consumers living in the South and Southeast regions of the country, in the age groups of 21 to 30 years old, with a predominance of female participants. Consumption is mainly in the in natura form, and often predominates certain times a year. Consumers buy these fruits mainly in the supermarkets/hypermarkets. The consumers of peaches and nectarines in Brazil have a higher preference for fruits with yellow flesh and red epidermis, followed by fruits with white flesh and intense red epidermis, both preferably with free stone. The main criteria for the acquisition of peaches and nectarines in Brazil are fruit appearance (presence and/or absence of defects, bruises, etc.; followed by price, color of epidermis and fruit size.

  20. Chromatin-associated regulation of sorbitol synthesis in flower buds of peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Alba; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Agustí, Manuel; Badenes, María Luisa; Ríos, Gabino

    2017-11-01

    PpeS6PDH gene is postulated to mediate sorbitol synthesis in flower buds of peach concomitantly with specific chromatin modifications. Perennial plants have evolved an adaptive mechanism involving protection of meristems within specialized structures named buds in order to survive low temperatures and water deprivation during winter. A seasonal period of dormancy further improves tolerance of buds to environmental stresses through specific mechanisms poorly known at the molecular level. We have shown that peach PpeS6PDH gene is down-regulated in flower buds after dormancy release, concomitantly with changes in the methylation level at specific lysine residues of histone H3 (H3K27 and H3K4) in the chromatin around the translation start site of the gene. PpeS6PDH encodes a NADPH-dependent sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the key enzyme for biosynthesis of sorbitol. Consistently, sorbitol accumulates in dormant buds showing higher PpeS6PDH expression. Moreover, PpeS6PDH gene expression is affected by cold and water deficit stress. Particularly, its expression is up-regulated by low temperature in buds and leaves, whereas desiccation treatment induces PpeS6PDH in buds and represses the gene in leaves. These data reveal the concurrent participation of chromatin modification mechanisms, transcriptional regulation of PpeS6PDH and sorbitol accumulation in flower buds of peach. In addition to its role as a major translocatable photosynthate in Rosaceae species, sorbitol is a widespread compatible solute and cryoprotectant, which suggests its participation in tolerance to environmental stresses in flower buds of peach.

  1. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  2. Erwinia iniecta sp. nov., isolated from Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, Tony; Luna, Emily; Portier, Perrine; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion; Lapitan, Nora; Tisserat, Ned A; Leach, Jan E

    2015-10-01

    Short, Gram-negative-staining, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from crushed bodies of Russian wheat aphid [Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov)] and artificial diets after Russian wheat aphid feeding. Based on multilocus sequence analysis involving the 16S rRNA, atpD, infB, gyrB and rpoB genes, these bacterial isolates constitute a novel clade in the genus Erwinia, and were most closely related to Erwinia toletana. Representative distinct strains within this clade were used for comparisons with related species of Erwinia. Phenotypic comparisons using four distinct strains and average nucleotide identity (ANI) measurements using two distinct draft genomes revealed that these strains form a novel species within the genus Erwinia. The name Erwinia iniecta sp. nov. is proposed, and strain B120T ( = CFBP 8182T = NCCB 100485T) was designated the type strain. Erwinia iniecta sp. nov. was not pathogenic to plants. However, virulence to the Russian wheat aphid was observed.

  3. SENTINEL trademark technical basis report for Peach Bottom. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    PECO Energy in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) installed the SENTINEL trademark software at its Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). This software incorporates models of the safety and support systems which are used to display the defense in depth present in the plant and a quantitative assessment of the plant risks during proposed on-line maintenance. During the past nine months, PECO Energy personnel have used this display to evaluate the safety of proposed on-line maintenance schedules. The report describes the motivation for and the development of the SENTINEL software. It describes the generation of Safety Function Assessment Trees and Plant Transient Assessment Trees and their use in evaluating the level of defense-in-depth of key plant safety functions and the susceptibility of the plant to critical transient events. Their results are displayed by color indicators ranging from green, through yellow and orange, to red to show increasingly hazardous conditions. The report describes the use of the PBAPS Probabilistic Safety Assessment within the SENTINEL code to calculate an instantaneous core damage frequency and the criteria by which this frequency is translated to a color indicator

  4. Dynamic Maize Responses to Aphid Feeding Are Revealed by a Time Series of Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Assays1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzin, Vered; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Richter, Annett; Schmelz, Eric A.; Schoettner, Matthias; Schäfer, Martin; Ahern, Kevin R.; Meihls, Lisa N.; Kaur, Harleen; Huffaker, Alisa; Mori, Naoki; Degenhardt, Joerg; Mueller, Lukas A.; Jander, Georg

    2015-01-01

    As a response to insect attack, maize (Zea mays) has inducible defenses that involve large changes in gene expression and metabolism. Piercing/sucking insects such as corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) cause direct damage by acquiring phloem nutrients as well as indirect damage through the transmission of plant viruses. To elucidate the metabolic processes and gene expression changes involved in maize responses to aphid attack, leaves of inbred line B73 were infested with corn leaf aphids for 2 to 96 h. Analysis of infested maize leaves showed two distinct response phases, with the most significant transcriptional and metabolic changes occurring in the first few hours after the initiation of aphid feeding. After 4 d, both gene expression and metabolite profiles of aphid-infested maize reverted to being more similar to those of control plants. Although there was a predominant effect of salicylic acid regulation, gene expression changes also indicated prolonged induction of oxylipins, although not necessarily jasmonic acid, in aphid-infested maize. The role of specific metabolic pathways was confirmed using Dissociator transposon insertions in maize inbred line W22. Mutations in three benzoxazinoid biosynthesis genes, Bx1, Bx2, and Bx6, increased aphid reproduction. In contrast, progeny production was greatly decreased by a transposon insertion in the single W22 homolog of the previously uncharacterized B73 terpene synthases TPS2 and TPS3. Together, these results show that maize leaves shift to implementation of physical and chemical defenses within hours after the initiation of aphid feeding and that the production of specific metabolites can have major effects in maize-aphid interactions. PMID:26378100

  5. Up-regulation of abscisic acid signaling pathway facilitates aphid xylem absorption and osmoregulation under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huijuan; Sun, Yucheng; Peng, Xinhong; Wang, Qinyang; Harris, Marvin; Ge, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The activation of the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway reduces water loss from plants challenged by drought stress. The effect of drought-induced ABA signaling on the defense and nutrition allocation of plants is largely unknown. We postulated that these changes can affect herbivorous insects. We studied the effects of drought on different feeding stages of pea aphids in the wild-type A17 of Medicago truncatula and ABA signaling pathway mutant sta-1. We examined the impact of drought on plant water status, induced plant defense signaling via the abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) pathways, and on the host nutritional quality in terms of leaf free amino acid content. During the penetration phase of aphid feeding, drought decreased epidermis/mesophyll resistance but increased mesophyll/phloem resistance of A17 but not sta-1 plants. Quantification of transcripts associated with ABA, JA and SA signaling indicated that the drought-induced up-regulation of ABA signaling decreased the SA-dependent defense but increased the JA-dependent defense in A17 plants. During the phloem-feeding phase, drought had little effect on the amino acid concentrations and the associated aphid phloem-feeding parameters in both plant genotypes. In the xylem absorption stage, drought decreased xylem absorption time of aphids in both genotypes because of decreased water potential. Nevertheless, the activation of the ABA signaling pathway increased water-use efficiency of A17 plants by decreasing the stomatal aperture and transpiration rate. In contrast, the water potential of sta-1 plants (unable to close stomata) was too low to support xylem absorption activity of aphids; the aphids on sta-1 plants had the highest hemolymph osmolarity and lowest abundance under drought conditions. Taken together this study illustrates the significance of cross-talk between biotic-abiotic signaling pathways in plant-aphid interaction, and reveals the mechanisms leading to alter

  6. Host Plant Volatiles and the Sexual Reproduction of the Potato Aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hurley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In late summer, heteroecious aphids, such as the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, move from their secondary summer host plants to primary host plants, where the sexual oviparae mate and lay diapausing eggs. We tested the hypothesis that volatiles of the primary host, Rosa rugosa, would attract the gynoparae, the parthenogenetic alate morph that produce oviparae, as well as the alate males foraging for suitable mates. In wind tunnel assays, both gynoparae and males oriented towards and reached rose cuttings significantly more often than other odour sources, including potato, a major secondary host. The response of males was as high to rose cuttings alone as to potato with a calling virgin oviparous female. These findings are discussed within the seasonal ecology of host alternating aphids.

  7. The effect of co-infestation by conspecific and heterospecific aphids on the feeding behaviour of Nasonovia ribisnigri on resistant and susceptible lettuce cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten Cindy J.M.; Dicke, Marcel; Loon, van Joop J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Aphid saliva can suppress the blocking of sieve elements, a reaction that plants employ to inhibit aphid feeding, but aphid saliva can also elicit plant defence responses. Such plant responses might affect interactions between different aphid species and intraspecifically, e.g. among different

  8. Self-compatible peach (Prunus persica) has mutant versions of the S haplotypes found in self-incompatible Prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ryutaro; Watari, Akiko; Hanada, Toshio; Habu, Tsuyoshi; Yaegaki, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Masami; Yamane, Hisayo

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrates that self-compatible (SC) peach has mutant versions of S haplotypes that are present in self-incompatible (SI) Prunus species. All three peach S haplotypes, S (1), S (2), and S (2m), found in this study encode mutated pollen determinants, SFB, while only S (2m) has a mutation that affects the function of the pistil determinant S-RNase. A cysteine residue in the C5 domain of the S (2m)-RNase is substituted by a tyrosine residue, thereby reducing RNase stability. The peach SFB mutations are similar to the SFB mutations found in SC haplotypes of sweet cherry (P. avium) and Japanese apricot (P. mume). SFB (1) of the S (1) haplotype, a mutant version of almond (P. dulcis) S (k) haplotype, encodes truncated SFB due to a 155 bp insertion. SFB (2) of the S (2) and S (2m) haplotypes, both of which are mutant versions of the S (a) haplotype in Japanese plum (P. salicina), encodes a truncated SFB due to a 5 bp insertion. Thus, regardless of the functionality of the pistil determinant, all three peach S haplotypes are SC haplotypes. Our finding that peach has mutant versions of S haplotypes that function in almond and Japanese plum, which are phylogenetically close and remote species, respectively, to peach in the subfamily Prunoideae of the Roasaceae, provides insight into the SC/SI evolution in Prunus. We discuss the significance of SC pollen part mutation in peach with special reference to possible differences in the SI mechanisms between Prunus and Solanaceae.

  9. Effects of imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments on wheat aphids and their natural enemies on winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yunhe; Wei, Yan; Mu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the major pests of winter wheat and has posed a significant threat to winter wheat production in China. Although neonicotinoid insecticidal seed treatments have been suggested to be a control method, the season-long efficacy on pests and the impact on their natural enemies are still uncertain. Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of imidacloprid and clothianidin on the control of aphids, the number of their natural enemies and the emergence rate and yield of wheat during 2011-2014. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no effect on the emergence rate of winter wheat and could prevent yield losses and wheat aphid infestations throughout the winter wheat growing season. Furthermore, their active ingredients were detected in winter wheat leaves up to 200 days after sowing. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no adverse effects on ladybirds, hoverflies or parasitoids, and instead increased the spider-aphid ratios. Wheat seeds treated with imidacloprid and clothianidin were effective against wheat aphids throughout the winter wheat growing season and reduced the yield loss under field conditions. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments may be an important component of the integrated management of wheat aphids on winter wheat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effects of different products of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) from a variety developed in southern Brazil on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in vitro and ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Klafke, Karina; Rabelo, Thallita Kelly; Morrone, Maurilio Da Silva; Vizzotto, Márcia; Raseira, Maria do Carmo Bassols; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of fresh and conserved peach fruits (Prunus persica L. Batsch) were compared. Fresh peach pulps, peels, preserve peach pulps and the preserve syrup were prepared at equal concentrations. Rat liver, kidney and brain cortex tissue slices were pre-incubated with peach samples, subjected to oxidative stress with FeSO4 and hydrogen peroxide. Fresh peach pulps and peel conferred higher protection against cytotoxicity and oxidative stress than preserve peach pulps in most tissues. Release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β was also significantly decreased by Fresh peach pulps and peel, followed by preserve peach pulps. Total phenolic determination and HPLC analysis of carotenoids showed that the content of secondary metabolites in Fresh peach pulps and peel is significantly higher than in preserve peach pulps, while the syrup had only small or trace amounts of these compounds. Fresh peach pulps and Peel demonstrated high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects preventing against induced damage. PMID:25320458

  11. The effect of co-infestation by conspecific and heterospecific aphids on the feeding behaviour of Nasonovia ribisnigri on resistant and susceptible lettuce cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Broeke, ten, Cindy J.M.; Dicke, Marcel; Loon, van, Joop J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Aphid saliva can suppress the blocking of sieve elements, a reaction that plants employ to inhibit aphid feeding, but aphid saliva can also elicit plant defence responses. Such plant responses might affect interactions between different aphid species and intraspecifically, e.g. among different biotypes. The objectives of our study were to investigate if feeding behaviour and performance of two biotypes of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri are affected by (1) feeding by the other biotype ...

  12. Field evaluation of Bt cotton crop impact on nontarget pests: cotton aphid and boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujii, E R; Togni, P H B; de A Ribeiro, P; de A Bernardes, T; Milane, P V G N; Paula, D P; Pires, C S S; Fontes, E M G

    2013-02-01

    Bt cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac protein have high specificity for the control of lepidopteran larvae. However, studies conducted in several countries have shown these plants have a differential impact on nontarget herbivores. The aim of this study was to compare the colonization rates and population abundance of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in plots of Bt (Nuopal) and non-Bt cotton (Delta Opal) in an experimental field in Brasilia, DF, Brazil. No difference was observed in the preference and colonization by winged aphids to plants from the two treatments. There was no significant difference in abundance of wingless aphids or in the production of winged aphids between treatments. Apparently, the parameters that control factors such as fecundity, survival, and dispersal were similar on both Bt and non-Bt plants. Monitoring of plants for coccinellids, a specialist predator of aphids, and ants that act on the dispersal of aphids among plants showed no significant difference between Bt and non-Bt plants, supporting the inference above. Regarding the effect on boll weevil, there was also no significant difference between treatments in the total number of fruiting structures attacked in each plot, the percentage of fruiting structures attacked per plant or on the number of weevils emerging from fruits with boll weevil damage from egg-laying, when damaged fruit samples were held in the laboratory. Based on these results, we conclude that there is no impact of Bt cotton crop expressing Cry1Ac on the nontarget herbivores tested under field conditions.

  13. Effect of ant attendance by Monomorium minimum (Buckley) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on predation and parasitism of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, John J; Horn, David J

    2008-10-01

    Ant attendance is known to affect the population dynamics of aphids and may increase or decrease aphid populations through stimulation, predation, or protection. In this study, we performed a series of laboratory experiments to examine the effects of ant attendance on populations of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines. Aphid colonies were exposed to the predators Harmonia axyridis (Coccinellidae) and Orius insidiosus (Anthocoridae) and a parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Aphidiidae) in the presence and absence of attending Monomorium minimum (Formicidae). We also tested for direct effects of ant attendance in the absence of natural enemies. Ants attending soybean aphid populations were observed harassing or killing O. insidiosus and H. axyridis. Attendance interfered with both predator species, resulting in reduced predation and an increase in aphid numbers up to 10-fold in the presence of ants. Ants were not observed directly interfering with the parasitoid A. colemani, but the number of parasitized aphids was higher in aphid colonies that were left unattended by ants.

  14. Is Reduction in Yield Potential of Some Brassicaceous Species Due to Aphid Infestation Associated with the Changes in Stomatal Factors of Photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razaq, M.; Farooq, M.; Abbas, G.; Rehman, H. M.; Iqbal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aphids cause heavy yield losses to Brassicaceous species by affecting various physiological and biochemical processes including photosynthesis. In the present study, seasonal activity of aphid population and its impact on some brassicaceous species was assessed. Three brassicaceous species (Brassica campestris, Brassica carinata, Eruca sativa) were grown in field following standard agricultural practices. Plants of control plots retained aphid free by insecticide spray, whereas treatment plots were freely allowed for aphid infestation. There was also intermediate treatment of partial aphid infestation where insecticidal spray was applied two times. Peak populations of both aphid species were observed in the 2nd week of March during which plant photosynthetic attributes were recorded. At the time of maturity, yield attributes were also recorded. From the results, it is obvious that application of insecticide significantly reduced the aphid populations on the three brassicaceous species and enhanced the crop yield. Yield losses due to aphid infestation were maximal in Brassica campestris followed by B. carinata whereas it was minimal in Eruca sativa. Yield losses in Brassica campestris and B. carinata were due to reduction in number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and size of seeds, whereas yield losses due to aphid infestation in Eruca sativa was mainly attributed to reduction in number of pods per plant. Although insecticidal spray reduced the aphid population and increased growth and productivity of all brassicaceous species, it did not change photosynthetic capacity of all plants except in Eruca sativa. Moreover, growth and yield reduction was not associated with stomatal factors of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll contents measured as SPAD values were reduced due to aphid infestation which is positively associated with yield reduction. Insecticidal spray increased chlorophyll contents in these three brassicaceous species by reducing aphid population

  15. Production and evaluation of mineral and nutrient contents, chemical composition, and sensory properties of ice creams fortified with laboratory-prepared peach fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Background In the coming years, a nutraceutical food may provide both physical and mental benefits that are commonly attributed to the active components of the food. Objective In this study, we determined the nutrient and mineral contents, sensory properties, and physical and chemical characteristics of ice creams manufactured using peach fibre at different concentrations (1 and 2%). Method A total of five experimental groups were formed: two types (from peach peel and pulp) of flour, two fibre concentrations (1 and 2%), and a control group without fibres. Results Flour obtained from peach pulp and peel was found to have a significant (pice cream samples, especially the rates of Ca, K, Mg, and P, which increased in the samples depending on the content of peach fibre. Sensory ratings and acceptability of ice creams decreased significantly with increasing peach peel fibre, whereas ice creams made with C (control) and B1 (ice creams made from 1% peach pulp fibre) was the highest scored by the panellists. Conclusions Peach fibre concentrates might be used as a good source of nutraceutical ingredients. PMID:27814781

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Aphid-Resistant and -Sensitive Rose (Rosa Hybrida) Cultivars at Two Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Hai Kyoung; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2018-05-25

    The rose is one the most commercially grown and costly ornamental plants because of its aesthetic beauty and aroma. A large number of pests attack its buds, flowers, leaves, and stem at every growing stage due to its high sugar content. The most common pest on roses are aphids which are considered to be the major cause for product loss. Aphid infestations lead to major changes in rose plants, such as large and irregular holes in petals, intact leaves and devouring tissues. It is hypothesized that different cut rose cultivars would have different levels of sensitivity or resistance to aphids, since different levels of infestation are observed in commercially cut rose production greenhouses. The present work compared four cut rose cultivars which were bred in Korea and were either resistant or sensitive to aphid infestation at different flower developmental stages. An integrative study was conducted using comprehensive proteome analyses. Proteins related to ubiquitin metabolism and the stress response were differentially expressed due to aphid infestation. The regulations and possible functions of identified proteins are presented in detail. The differential expressions of the identified proteins were validated by immunoblotting and blue native page. In addition, total sugar and carbohydrate content were also observed.

  17. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Font i Forcada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1 on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C H; Ma, R J; Shen, Z J; Sun, X; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2014-04-08

    In this study, 33 homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) genes were identified in peach using the HD-ZIP amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana as a probe. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and the individual gene or protein characteristics, the HD-ZIP gene family in peach can be classified into 4 subfamilies, HD-ZIP I, II, III, and IV, containing 14, 7, 4, and 8 members, respectively. The most closely related peach HD-ZIP members within the same subfamilies shared very similar gene structure in terms of either intron/exon numbers or lengths. Almost all members of the same subfamily shared common motif compositions, thereby implying that the HD-ZIP proteins within the same subfamily may have functional similarity. The 33 peach HD-ZIP genes were distributed across scaffolds 1 to 7. Although the primary structure varied among HD-ZIP family proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. The results from this study will be useful in selecting candidate genes from specific subfamilies for functional analysis.

  19. Exposure to bacterial signals does not alter pea aphids' survival upon a second challenge or investment in production of winged offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas ter Braak

    Full Text Available Pea aphids have an obligate nutritional symbiosis with the bacteria Buchneraaphidicola and frequently also harbor one or more facultative symbionts. Aphids are also susceptible to bacterial pathogen infections, and it has been suggested that aphids have a limited immune response towards such pathogen infections compared to other, more well-studied insects. However, aphids do possess at least some of the genes known to be involved in bacterial immune responses in other insects, and immune-competent hemocytes. One possibility is that immune priming with microbial elicitors could stimulate immune protection against subsequent bacterial infections, as has been observed in several other insect systems. To address this hypothesis we challenged aphids with bacterial immune elicitors twenty-four hours prior to live bacterial pathogen infections and then compared their survival rates to aphids that were not pre-exposed to bacterial signals. Using two aphid genotypes, we found no evidence for immune protection conferred by immune priming during infections with either Serratia marcescens or with Escherichia coli. Immune priming was not altered by the presence of facultative, beneficial symbionts in the aphids. In the absence of inducible immune protection, aphids may allocate energy towards other defense traits, including production of offspring with wings that could escape deteriorating conditions. To test this, we monitored the ratio of winged to unwinged offspring produced by adult mothers of a single clone that had been exposed to bacterial immune elicitors, to live E. coli infections or to no challenge. We found no correlation between immune challenge and winged offspring production, suggesting that this mechanism of defense, which functions upon exposure to fungal pathogens, is not central to aphid responses to bacterial infections.

  20. Potential candidates for biological control of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković, S.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The black bean aphid is widely spread aphid species in the Palaearctic, known to attack over 1150 plant species. Because some of the host plants are of great agricultural interest, Aphis fabae represent a very important pest. We assembled all data concerning the presence of this pest and connected it in tritrophic associations. In the period of 24 years investigation on the territory of Serbia it has been recorded in 107 trophic associations. In total there are 145 findings of A. fabae parasitized by 19 taxa of Aphidiinae (Brackonidae from seven genera. The most suitable biocontrol agents for the black bean aphid are Lysiphlebus fabarum, Binodoxys angelicae, Lipolesis gracilis and the introduced species Lysiphlebus testaceipes.

  1. Expression Profiling of Selected Glutathione Transferase Genes in Zea mays (L.) Seedlings Infested with Cereal Aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2 •−) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2 •− was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2 •− generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

  2. Aphid effects on rhizosphere microorganisms and microfauna depend more on barley growth phase than on soil fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård; Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund; Christensen, Søren

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives the first reports on aphid effects on rhizosphere organisms as influenced by soil nutrient status and plant development. Barley plants grown in pots fertilized with N but without P (N), with N and P (NP), or not fertilized (0) were sampled in the early growth phase (day 25), 1 week...... before and 1 week after spike emergence. Aphids were added 16 days before sampling was carried out. In a separate experiment belowground respiration was measured on N and NP fertilized plant–soil systems with aphid treatments comparable to the first experiment. Aphids reduced numbers of rhizosphere...... experimental conditions with nematodes being the dominant bacterial grazers at N fertilization and Protozoa in the NP treatment before spike emergence....

  3. New invasive species of aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Obradović Olivera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new invasive species of aphids have been found in Serbia: Chaitophorus populifolli Essig, Myzocallis walshii (Monell and Trichosiphonaphis polygonifoliae (Shinji and two have been found in Montenegro: Aphis illinoisensis Shimer and Tinocallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy. A. illinoisensis is a pest of the grapevine, T. polygonifoliae, feeds on a decorative shrub (Lonicera and the other three feed on trees (Populus, Quercus and Lagerostroemia. Three of the species are American aphids and two are of Asian origin. Their morphology, illustrated by original drawings and data on the biology and distribution are given. .

  4. Studying, the Insecticidal Effects of Melia azedarach and Citrus limonum Extracts on Two Aphid Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam Pahlavan Yali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is the most principal plant food for 35 percent of the world's population, and canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important brassicaceous crops that play a major role in the development of edible oil. The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani and cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L. are the main pests of wheat and canola, respectively, which can considerably limit profitable production of these crops either through direct feeding or via transmission of plant pathogenic viruses. Although chemical control is the most effective and easiest way to control aphids, but this method causes problems such as pesticide residues in food and environment, and development of resistance to insecticides. The utilization of plant extracts is an environmentally safe method that can be used in control of these aphids. Among these, the products of the Melia seed (Melia azedarach Linnaeus and lemon peel (Citrus limonum Risso can be noted. Negative associations between phenolic compounds present in plant species and aphid’s invasion have been recorded for some aphid species. In this study, our goal was to determine the amount of phenol in plant extracts of Melia seed and lemon peel and evaluate the toxicity of these compounds on the wheat aphid and cabbage aphid in various doses after different time periods. Materials and methods: This research was conducted in a growth chamber (temperature 25 ± 1˚C, 65± 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16L: 8D. S. graminum and B. brassicae were bred on wheat (Pishtaz cultivar and canola (Hyola401 cultivar, respectively. The extraction of Melia seed and lemon peel was carried out and then contact toxicity bioassay was done to evaluate the insecticidal effects of these extracts on nymphs of wheat and cabbage aphids using a completely randomized design. The leaves of wheat and canola plants, impregnated with three different concentrations of each extract (10, 50 and 80 g/ml and

  5. Differential metabolic rearrangements after cold storage are correlated with chilling injury resistance of peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A Bustamante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reconfiguration of the metabolome is a key component involved in the acclimation to cold in plants; however, few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the overall metabolite changes after cold storage of fruits prior to consumption. Here, metabolite profiling of six peach varieties with differential susceptibility to develop mealiness, a chilling-injury (CI symptom, was performed. According to metabolic content at harvest; after cold treatment; and after ripening, either following cold treatment or not; peach fruits clustered in distinct groups, depending on harvest-time, cold treatment, and ripening state. Both common and distinct metabolic responses among the six varieties were found; common changes including dramatic galactinol and raffinose rise; GABA, Asp and Phe increase; and 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate decrease. Raffinose content after long cold treatment quantitatively correlated to the degree of mealiness resistance of the different peach varieties; and thus, raffinose emerges as a candidate biomarker of this CI disorder. Xylose increase after cold treatment was found only in the susceptible genotypes, indicating a particular cell wall reconfiguration of these varieties while being cold-stored. Overall, results indicate that peach fruit differential metabolic rearrangements due to cold treatment, rather than differential metabolic priming before cold, are better related with CI resistance. The plasticity of peach fruit metabolism renders it possible to induce a diverse metabolite array after cold, which is successful, in some genotypes, to avoid CI

  6. Final summary report on the Peach Bottom End-of-Life Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, K.P.

    1978-07-01

    HTGR design methods verifications have been performed under the Peach Bottom End-of-Life Program by comparison of actual with predicted physics, thermal, fission product, and materials behavior in Peach Bottom. These design methods verifications have utilized the data determined from nondestructive fuel and circuit gamma scanning on-site, from laboratory examinations of samples removed from the primary circuit, and from a complementary program of Peach Bottom fuel element postirradiation examinations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Fifty-five driver fuel elements were axially gamma scanned to determine fission product distributions for use in burnup calculations, power profile determinations, and fission product release and redistribution studies. The cesium plateout distribution in the primary circuit was subsequently mapped by gamma scanning the ducting at 12 locations, axially traversing 79 steam generator tubes with Cd Te detectors from the water side, and internally scanning two vertical runs of ducting. Component removal involved trepanning of the primary circuit ducting, obtaining access to the steam generator internals, and removing over 100 superheater, evaporator, and economizer tubing samples. During this phase, macroscopic examinations of the steam generator and ducting internals were performed. Subsequent laboratory examinations of removed samples included radiochemical tests to substantiate in-situ gamma scans and to determine 90 Sr distributions; metallurgical tests to evaluate surface films, microstructural changes, and residual mechanical properties; and tritium permeation tests to provide data for improving HTGR tritium release predictions. The condition and metallurgical integrity of all components examined were found to be excellent, with minimal coolant/substrate interaction and entirely acceptable residual mechanical properties. The suitability of the materials used in the construction of the Peach Bottom HTGR was thereby confirmed

  7. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry investigation of the impact of thermal processing and storage on peach procyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yun-Jeong; Barrett, Diane M; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2004-04-21

    Normal-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used to determine the levels and fate of procyanidins in frozen and canned Ross clingstone peaches as well as in the syrup used in the canning over a 3 month period. Procyanidin oligomers, monomers through undecamers, were identified in Ross clingstone peaches. Optimized methods allowed for the quantitation of oligomers through octamers. The profile of procyanidins in peaches is similar to profiles found in grapes, chocolate, and beverages linked to health benefits such as tea and wine. The monomer content in frozen peeled peaches was found to be 19.59 mg/kg. Dimers (39.59 mg/kg) and trimers (38.81 mg/kg) constituted the largest percent composition of oligomers in the peaches. Tetramers through octamers were present in levels of 17.81, 12.43, 10.62, 3.94 and 1.75 mg/kg, respectively. Thermal processing resulted in an 11% reduction in monomers, a 9% reduction in dimers, a 12% reduction in trimers, a 6% reduction in tetramers, and a 5% reduction in pentamers. Hexamers and heptamers demonstrated an approximate 30% loss, and octamers were no longer detected. Analysis of the syrup after thermal processing indicates that there is a migration of procyanidin monomers through hexamers into the syrup that can account for the losses observed during the canning process. Storage of canned peaches for 3 months demonstrated a time-related loss in higher oligomers and that by 3 months oligomers larger than tetramers are not observed. At 3 months postcanning, levels of monomers had decreased by 10%, dimers by 16%, trimers by 45%, and tetramers by 80%. A similar trend was observed in the canning syrup.

  8. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  9. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Santos, Ronaldo P; Desmouliere, Sylvain J M; Ferreira, Evandro J L; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  10. Isolated and Community Contexts Produce Distinct Responses by Host Plants to the Presence of Ant-Aphid Interaction: Plant Productivity and Seed Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Graziele Silva; Zurlo, Luana Fonseca; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; Alves, Guilherme Pereira; Carvalho, Mariana Comanucci Silva; Souza, Brígida

    2017-01-01

    Ant-aphid interactions may affect host plants in several ways, however, most studies measure only the amount of fruit and seed produced, and do not test seed viability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the presence of ant-aphid interactions upon host plant productivity and seed viability in two different contexts: isolated and within an arthropod community. For this purpose we tested the hypothesis that in both isolated and community contexts, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction will have a positive effect on fruit and seed production, seed biomass and rate of seed germination, and a negative effect on abnormal seedling rates, in comparison to plants without ants. We performed a field mesocosm experiment containing five treatments: Ant-aphid, Aphid, Community, Ant-free community and Control. We counted fruits and seeds produced by each treatment, and conducted experiments for seed biomass and germinability. We found that in the community context the presence of an ant-aphid interaction negatively affected fruit and seed production. We think this may be because aphid attendance by tending-ants promotes aphid damage to the host plant, but without an affect on seed weight and viability. On the other hand, when isolated, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction positively affected fruit and seed production. These positive effects are related to the cleaning services offered to aphids by tending-ants, which prevent the development of saprophytic fungi on the surface of leaves, which would cause a decrease in photosynthetic rates. Our study is important because we evaluated some parameters of plant fitness that have not been addressed very well by other studies involving the effects of ant-aphid interactions mainly on plants with short life cycles. Lastly, our context dependent approach sheds new light on how ecological interactions can vary among different methods of crop management. PMID:28141849

  11. Isolated and Community Contexts Produce Distinct Responses by Host Plants to the Presence of Ant-Aphid Interaction: Plant Productivity and Seed Viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Oliveira Canedo-Júnior

    Full Text Available Ant-aphid interactions may affect host plants in several ways, however, most studies measure only the amount of fruit and seed produced, and do not test seed viability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the presence of ant-aphid interactions upon host plant productivity and seed viability in two different contexts: isolated and within an arthropod community. For this purpose we tested the hypothesis that in both isolated and community contexts, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction will have a positive effect on fruit and seed production, seed biomass and rate of seed germination, and a negative effect on abnormal seedling rates, in comparison to plants without ants. We performed a field mesocosm experiment containing five treatments: Ant-aphid, Aphid, Community, Ant-free community and Control. We counted fruits and seeds produced by each treatment, and conducted experiments for seed biomass and germinability. We found that in the community context the presence of an ant-aphid interaction negatively affected fruit and seed production. We think this may be because aphid attendance by tending-ants promotes aphid damage to the host plant, but without an affect on seed weight and viability. On the other hand, when isolated, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction positively affected fruit and seed production. These positive effects are related to the cleaning services offered to aphids by tending-ants, which prevent the development of saprophytic fungi on the surface of leaves, which would cause a decrease in photosynthetic rates. Our study is important because we evaluated some parameters of plant fitness that have not been addressed very well by other studies involving the effects of ant-aphid interactions mainly on plants with short life cycles. Lastly, our context dependent approach sheds new light on how ecological interactions can vary among different methods of crop management.

  12. Deciphering the role of NADPH oxidase in complex interactions between maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes and cereal aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-07-22

    Plant NADPH oxidases (NOXs) encompass a group of membrane-bound enzymes participating in formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under physiological conditions as well as in response to environmental stressors. The purpose of the survey was to unveil the role of NADPH oxidase in pro-oxidative responses of maize (Zea mays L.) seedling leaves exposed to cereal aphids' infestation. The impact of apteral females of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) and grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) feeding on expression levels of all four NADPH oxidase genes (rbohA, rbohB, rbohC, rbohD) and total activity of NOX enzyme in maize plants were investigated. In addition, inhibitory effect of diphenylene iodonium (DPI) pre-treatment on NOX activity and hydrogen peroxide content in aphid-stressed maize seedlings was studied. Leaf infestation biotests were accomplished on 14-day-old seedlings representing two aphid-resistant varieties (Ambrozja and Waza) and two aphid-susceptible ones (Tasty Sweet and Złota Karłowa). Insects' attack led to profound upregulation of rbohA and rbohD genes in tested host plants, lower elevations were noted in level of rbohB mRNA, whereas abundance of rbohC transcript was not significantly altered. It was uncovered aphid-induced enhancement of NOX activity in examined plants. Higher increases in expression of all investigated rboh genes and activity of NADPH oxidase occurred in tissues of more resistant maize cultivars than in susceptible ones. Furthermore, DPI treatment resulted in strong reduction of NOX activity and H2O2 accumulation in aphid-infested Z. mays plants, thus evidencing circumstantial role of the enzyme in insect-elicited ROS generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sugarcane Aphid Population Growth, Plant Injury, and Natural Enemies on Selected Grain Sorghum Hybrids in Texas and Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Gordy, John W; Kerns, David L; Woolley, James B; Rooney, William L; Bowling, Robert D

    2017-10-01

    In response to the 2013 outbreak of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), in North America, experiments were conducted at three southern U.S. grain sorghum production locations (Corpus Christi, TX; Winnsboro, LA; Rosenberg, TX). The objectives were to authenticate yield decline on susceptible hybrids (2014 and 2015) and to measure aphid population growth and natural enemy prevalence on susceptible and resistant hybrids with similar genetic background (2014). Yield decline on susceptible hybrids (Tx 2752/Tx430 and DKS53-67) was more substantial when aphid population growth accelerated quickly and peaked above 300 aphids per leaf (50 to nearly 100% yield decline). Location and year variation in maximum aphid density and cumulative aphid-days was high, with doubling time values on the susceptible hybrids ranging between 3.9 and 7.9 d. On resistant Tx2752/Tx2783, leaf injury and yield decline were not seen or less severe than on its paired susceptible Tx2752/Tx430. Aphids declined on Tx2752/Tx2783 after initial colony establishment (Corpus Christi) or took about 60% longer to double in population size when compared with Tx2572/Tx430 (Winnsboro). The predominant natural enemy taxa were aphelinid mummies (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and sryphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae), and they were more prevalent during flowering than prior to flowering. They were generally responsive to changes in aphid density of both susceptible and resistant hybrids, but variability points to need for further study. In future research, full season observations should continue as well as more detailed study of potential compatibility of sorghum resistance and biological control. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Biological control of tortricids and aphids in strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Enkegaard, Annie; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    Cropping practice and biological control can contribute to reduced pesticide use in strawberries. Organic strawberries are less attacked by strawberry tortricid and buckwheat flower strips can augment its natural enemies. Against shallot aphid the two-spot ladybird is promising....

  15. Characterization of Arabidopsis Transcriptional Responses to Different Aphid Species Reveals Genes that Contribute to Host Susceptibility and Non-host Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouannet, Maëlle; Morris, Jenny A.; Hedley, Peter E.; Bos, Jorunn I. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are economically important pests that display exceptional variation in host range. The determinants of diverse aphid host ranges are not well understood, but it is likely that molecular interactions are involved. With significant progress being made towards understanding host responses upon aphid attack, the mechanisms underlying non-host resistance remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated and compared Arabidopsis thaliana host and non-host responses to aphids at the transcriptional level using three different aphid species, Myzus persicae, Myzus cerasi and Rhopalosiphum pisum. Gene expression analyses revealed a high level of overlap in the overall gene expression changes during the host and non-host interactions with regards to the sets of genes differentially expressed and the direction of expression changes. Despite this overlap in transcriptional responses across interactions, there was a stronger repression of genes involved in metabolism and oxidative responses specifically during the host interaction with M. persicae. In addition, we identified a set of genes with opposite gene expression patterns during the host versus non-host interactions. Aphid performance assays on Arabidopsis mutants that were selected based on our transcriptome analyses identified novel genes contributing to host susceptibility, host defences during interactions with M. persicae as well to non-host resistance against R. padi. Understanding how plants respond to aphid species that differ in their ability to infest plant species, and identifying the genes and signaling pathways involved, is essential for the development of novel and durable aphid control in crop plants. PMID:25993686

  16. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konopacka, D.; Jesionkowska, K.; Kruczynska, D.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers’ preferences towards new varieties, and the data is

  17. Performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed peach-palm by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; dos Santos Cruz, Cristiane Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplying the by-product of peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) on performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of feedlot lambs. Twenty Santa Ines lambs of 150 days average age and 22.4 ± 3.4 kg body weight were confined in individual pens. A completely randomized design was utilized with four experimental diets composed of: fresh peach-palm by-product enriched with urea, fresh peach-palm by-product + concentrate, silage of peach-palm by-product + concentrate, and silage of peach-palm by-product enriched with 15 % corn meal + concentrate. Intake was evaluated daily, and at the end of 42 days of experiments, lambs were slaughtered and the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass parts were evaluated. Performance and carcass characteristics showed differences between the animals' intake of total mixed rations (TMR) and only the diet with roughage. For the lambs that intaked TMR, the form of utilization of roughage (fresh or as silage) affected animal performance but did not change the carcass characteristics. Dry matter intake and feed conversion were influenced by the form of utilization of the silage (with and without additive). Providing fresh by-product plus concentrate improves lamb performance but does not interfere in the carcass characteristics, compared with the use of by-product in the form of silage.

  18. De novo transcriptome assembly of two different peach cultivars grown in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica is one of the most popular stone fruits worldwide. Next generation sequencing (NGS has facilitated genome and transcriptome analyses of several stone fruit trees. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome analyses of two peach cultivars grown in Korea. Leaves of two cultivars, referred to as Jangtaek and Mibaek, were harvested and used for library preparation. The two prepared libraries were paired-end sequenced by the HiSeq2000 system. We obtained 8.14 GB and 9.62 GB sequence data from Jangtaek and Mibaek (NCBI accession numbers: SRS1056585 and SRS1056587, respectively. The Trinity program was used to assemble two transcriptomes de novo, resulting in 110,477 (Jangtaek and 136,196 (Mibaek transcripts. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. The identified proteins were subjected to BLASTP search against NCBI's non-redundant database for functional annotation. This study provides transcriptome data for two peach cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses.

  19. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; van Ruth, Saskia

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were assessed for chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Chemical aroma profile was obtained by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and spectral masses were tentatively identified with PTR-Time of Flight-MS (PTR-Tof-MS). Sensory analysis was performed at commercial maturity considering seven aroma/flavor attributes. The four types of peaches showed both distinct chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Flat peaches and canning peaches showed most distinct patterns according to discriminant analysis. The sensory data were related to the volatile compounds by partial least square regression. γ-Hexalactone, γ-octalactone, hotrienol, acetic acid and ethyl acetate correlated positively, and benzeneacetaldehyde, trimethylbenzene and acetaldehyde negatively to the intensities of aroma and ripe fruit sensory scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Postharvest biological control of brown rot in peaches after cold storage preceded by preharvest chemical control 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pathogenic fungi cause skin darkening and peach quality depreciation in post harvest. Therefore, alternative techniques to chemical treatment are necessary in order to reduce risks to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of Trichoderma harzianum in association with different fungicides applied before harvest to 'Eldorado' peaches for brown rot control and other quality parameters during storage. The treatments consisted of five preharvest fungicide applications (control, captan, iprodione, iminoctadine and tebuconazole associated with postharvest application of T. harzianum, after cold storage (with and without application, in three evaluation times (zero, two and four days at 20 °C, resulting in a 5x2x3 factorial design. The application of T. harzianum only brought benefits to the control of brown rot when combined with the fungicide captan, at zero day shelf life. After two days, there was a greater skin darkening in peaches treated with T. harzianum compared with peaches without the treatment, except for peaches treated with the fungicide iprodione and T. harzianum The application of T. harzianum during postharvest showed no benefits for the control of brown rot, however, the association with fungicides reduced the incidence of Rhizopus stolonifer during the shelf life.

  1. Expression of the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) gene in transgenic potato plants confers resistance to aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Xue; Yan, Haolu; Liang, Lina; Zhou, Xiangyan; Yang, Jiangwei; Si, Huaijun; Zhang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Aphids, the largest group of sap-sucking pests, cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide every year. The massive use of pesticides to combat this pest causes severe damage to the environment, putting in risk the human health. In this study, transgenic potato plants expressing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) gene were developed using CaMV 35S and ST-LS1 promoters generating six transgenic lines (35S1-35S3 and ST1-ST3 corresponding to the first and second promoter, respectively). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the GNA gene was expressed in leaves, stems and roots of transgenic plants under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, while it was only expressed in leaves and stems under the control of the ST-LS1 promoter. The levels of aphid mortality after 5 days of the inoculation in the assessed transgenic lines ranged from 20 to 53.3%. The range of the aphid population in transgenic plants 15 days after inoculation was between 17.0±1.43 (ST2) and 36.6±0.99 (35S3) aphids per plant, which corresponds to 24.9-53.5% of the aphid population in non-transformed plants. The results of our study suggest that GNA expressed in transgenic potato plants confers a potential tolerance to aphid attack, which appears to be an alternative against the use of pesticides in the future. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Transmission of Turnip yellows virus by Myzus persicae Is Reduced by Feeding Aphids on Double-Stranded RNA Targeting the Ephrin Receptor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Mulot

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aphid-transmitted plant viruses are a threat for major crops causing massive economic loss worldwide. Members in the Luteoviridae family are transmitted by aphids in a circulative and non-replicative mode. Virions are acquired by aphids when ingesting sap from infected plants and are transported through the gut and the accessory salivary gland (ASG cells by a transcytosis mechanism relying on virus-specific receptors largely unknown. Once released into the salivary canal, virions are inoculated to plants, together with saliva, during a subsequent feeding. In this paper, we bring in vivo evidence that the membrane-bound Ephrin receptor (Eph is a novel aphid protein involved in the transmission of the Turnip yellows virus (TuYV, Polerovirus genus, Luteoviridae family by Myzus persicae. The minor capsid protein of TuYV, essential for aphid transmission, was able to bind the external domain of Eph in yeast. Feeding M. persicae on in planta- or in vitro-synthesized dsRNA targeting Eph-mRNA (dsRNAEph did not affect aphid feeding behavior but reduced accumulation of TuYV genomes in the aphid's body. Consequently, TuYV transmission efficiency by the dsRNAEph-treated aphids was reproducibly inhibited and we brought evidence that Eph is likely involved in intestinal uptake of the virion. The inhibition of virus uptake after dsRNAEph acquisition was also observed for two other poleroviruses transmitted by M. persicae, suggesting a broader role of Eph in polerovirus transmission. Finally, dsRNAEph acquisition by aphids did not affect nymph production. These results pave the way toward an ecologically safe alternative of insecticide treatments that are used to lower aphid populations and reduce polerovirus damages.

  3. Transmission of Turnip yellows virus by Myzus persicae Is Reduced by Feeding Aphids on Double-Stranded RNA Targeting the Ephrin Receptor Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulot, Michaël; Monsion, Baptiste; Boissinot, Sylvaine; Rastegar, Maryam; Meyer, Sophie; Bochet, Nicole; Brault, Véronique

    2018-01-01

    Aphid-transmitted plant viruses are a threat for major crops causing massive economic loss worldwide. Members in the Luteoviridae family are transmitted by aphids in a circulative and non-replicative mode. Virions are acquired by aphids when ingesting sap from infected plants and are transported through the gut and the accessory salivary gland (ASG) cells by a transcytosis mechanism relying on virus-specific receptors largely unknown. Once released into the salivary canal, virions are inoculated to plants, together with saliva, during a subsequent feeding. In this paper, we bring in vivo evidence that the membrane-bound Ephrin receptor (Eph) is a novel aphid protein involved in the transmission of the Turnip yellows virus (TuYV, Polerovirus genus, Luteoviridae family) by Myzus persicae . The minor capsid protein of TuYV, essential for aphid transmission, was able to bind the external domain of Eph in yeast. Feeding M. persicae on in planta - or in vitro -synthesized dsRNA targeting Eph -mRNA (dsRNA Eph ) did not affect aphid feeding behavior but reduced accumulation of TuYV genomes in the aphid's body. Consequently, TuYV transmission efficiency by the dsRNA Eph -treated aphids was reproducibly inhibited and we brought evidence that Eph is likely involved in intestinal uptake of the virion. The inhibition of virus uptake after dsRNA Eph acquisition was also observed for two other poleroviruses transmitted by M. persicae , suggesting a broader role of Eph in polerovirus transmission. Finally, dsRNA Eph acquisition by aphids did not affect nymph production. These results pave the way toward an ecologically safe alternative of insecticide treatments that are used to lower aphid populations and reduce polerovirus damages.

  4. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  5. Neozygites osornensis sp. nov., a fungal species causing mortality to the cypress aphid Cinara cupressi in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Cristian Montalva; Barta, Marek; Pérez, Eladio Rojas; Flores, Eduardo Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    An entomophthoralean fungus causing epizootics in populations of the cypress aphid, Cinara cupressi Buckton, in Chile is described as a new species, Neozygites osornensis Montalva et Barta. The aphid pathogen is described based on morphological characters. An exhaustive description, illustrations and a comparison with closely related species are provided. The fungus differs from similar Neozygites species by smaller hyphal bodies, nuclei, primary conidia, capilliconidia and capilliphores and by noticeably different shape of capilliconidia. A key to aphid-pathogenic species of Neozygites is also included.

  6. Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) from Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Petr; Rakhshani, E.; Tomanović, Ž.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Sharkey, M.

    -, č. 2498 (2010), s. 47-52 ISSN 1175-5326 Grant - others:Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia(CS) 143006B; U. S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0542864 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : aphids * parasitoids * biodiversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010

  7. Characterization of Amazon fibers of the peach palm, balsa, and babassu by XDR, TGA and NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria A.; Marconcini, Jose M.; Morelli, Carolina L.; Marinelli, Alessandra L.; Bretas, Rosario E.S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present the results by testing X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and determining the moisture content of the peach palm, balsa and babassu fibers for assessing the feasibility of composite materials. The fibers of peach palm, balsa and babassu showed characteristic chemical structure of lignocellulosic material, and good thermal stability up to 220 deg C. The fiber with the highest crystallinity index (Ic) is the peach palm (72%) and the less crystalline is the babassu (37%), while the balsa fibers have Ic equal to 64%. The results have shown that these fibers can be used in the manufacture of composite materials. (author)

  8. Polyphyly of the extinct family Oviparosiphidae and its implications for inferring aphid evolution (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Żyła

    Full Text Available Aphidoidea, the so-called "true aphids" are one of the most challenging groups in terms of solving the phylogenetic relationships. Morphology-based analyses were strongly affected by widespread homoplasy, while the molecular-based attempts struggled with the lack of sufficient phylogenetic signal. Despite significant improvements, the higher classification still remains unresolved and rather controversial. However, the use of the fossil record, one of the most valuable sources of information, was mainly limited to calibration of a phylogenetic tree, without a direct inclusion into the analysis. The extinct family Oviparosiphidae has long been considered as the common ancestor of all recent Aphidoidea and it was used as a calibration point in several analyses, but it has been never analyzed in a phylogenetic context. The family has been treated as a monophyletic group purely based on the simultaneous presence of two abdominal structures, ovipositor and siphunculi. However, it has been shown recently that at least one more extinct lineage, present at the same time, was characterized by the same features. For these reasons, we performed a maximum parsimony analysis using morphological data for extinct aphid taxa to prove the monophyly of Oviparosiphidae. Our analysis shows that the presumed ancestor lineage of recent aphids is a polyphyletic group. Our results support the hypothesis of an early Mesozoic rapid radiation of aphids, which led to several different lineages characterized by both ovipositor and siphunculi. The results indicate the necessity of examining the other extinct families, and shows that the diversity of aphids before the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (KTR was higher than expected. Even though there is not enough data to perform a formal analysis, fossils seem to suggest a significant impact of the KTR on aphid diversification. Additionally, we have made a redescription of two genera and description of a new species

  9. Synergy between chemical and biological control in the IPM of currant-lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri) in Canterbury, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, L L; McLachlan, A; Till, C M; Walker, M K

    2010-04-01

    Field trials were conducted at four Canterbury, New Zealand locations in 2005-06 to determine if the synergistic effects of biological control by natural enemies and standard drenching techniques controlled lettuce aphid populations throughout the entire growing season. Chemical usage significantly lowered aphid densities in the outer, wrapper and heart leaves compared to control plants at most times. However, in mid-summer, natural enemies, such as the brown lacewing (Micromus tasmaniae), 11-spotted ladybird beetle (Coccinella undecimpunctata) and small hoverfly larvae (Melanostoma fasciatum), were more than sufficient to control lettuce aphids without the use of insecticides. Drenching, in addition to natural enemy attack, appears to be required in early spring and late summer to maintain very low levels of lettuce aphid. Given the potential for imidacloprid resistance to develop, it may be advisable to restrict drenches to these key periods in order to allow populations of natural enemies to maintain control of prey populations. We recommend industry support the validation of action thresholds across different regions within New Zealand and focus on the seasonal biology of predators to assist growers with the sustainable long-term control of lettuce aphids. The inclusion of additional data into an economic model to compare pest damage with predator loading would be useful for growers in managing aphid problems. These results will assist in the continued improvement and development of a sustainable IPM strategy for lettuce aphids in New Zealand and elsewhere.

  10. Association mapping of aphid resistance in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is a destructive insect pest of cowpea, as well as other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. The utilization of aphid resistance in cowpea breeding is one of the most efficient and environmental friendly methods to contro...

  11. Aphids and ladybird beetle’s abundance and diversity in alfalfa fields of Yasouj, southwestern of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mirfakhraie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is the oldest and the most important forage legume. It has been cultivated for forage longer than any other crop. Diversity indices provide information about community composition. Diversity indices are measured by species richness and species evenness therefore, it could give us more ecological information rather than a simple species list in the fields. During 2015-2016, aphids and ladybird beetle’s abundance and diversity were monitored in alfalfa fields of Yasouj. Samplings were conducted with 150 plants in the alfalfa fields from mid-May to mid-November. Species richness was measured using Shannon and Simpson indices. In this study, six aphids and five coccinellid species were collected and identified. Among the collected aphid species, Aphis fabae (Scopoli, 1763 and Therioaphis maculata (Buckton, 1899 were most abundant in the fields. For coccinellids, Coccinella septempunctata L. was the most abundant species. Highest aphid species diversity was observed on 17 May 2016.

  12. Resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in Melon Accession TGR-1551.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mona A; Gosalvez, Blanca; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, Maria Luisa; Aranda, Miguel A

    2015-10-01

    The genetic control of resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) in the TGR-1551 melon accession was studied through agroinoculation of a genetic family obtained from the cross between this accession and the susceptible Spanish cultivar 'Bola de Oro'. Segregation analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that one dominant gene and at least two more modifier genes confer resistance; one of these additional genes is likely present in the susceptible parent 'Bola de Oro'. Local and systemic accumulation of the virus was analyzed in a time course experiment, showing that TGR-1551 resistance was expressed systemically as a significant reduction of virus accumulation compared with susceptible controls, but not locally in agroinoculated cotyledons. In aphid transmission experiments, CABYV inoculation by aphids was significantly reduced in TGR-1551 plants, although the virus was acquired at a similar rate from TGR-1551 as from susceptible plants. Results of feeding behavior studies using the DC electrical penetration graph technique suggested that viruliferous aphids can salivate and feed from the phloem of TGR-1551 plants and that the observed reduction in virus transmission efficiency is not related to reduced salivation by Aphis gossypii in phloem sieve elements. Since the virus is able to accumulate to normal levels in agroinoculated tissues, our results suggest that resistance of TGR-1551 plants to CABYV is related to impairment of virus movement or translocation after it reaches the phloem sieve elements.

  13. Morphological variation of Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae associated with different aphid hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya M. Villegas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasitoids are frequently used in biological control due to the fact that they are considered host specific and highly efficient at attacking their hosts. As they spend a significant part of their life cycle within their hosts, feeding habits and life history of their host can promote specialization via host-race formation (sequential radiation. The specialized host races from different hosts can vary morphologically, behaviorally and genetically. However, these variations are sometimes inconspicuous and require more powerful tools in order to detect variation such as geometric morphometrics analysis. Methods We examined Aphidius ervi, an important introduced biological control agent in Chile associated with a great number of aphid species, which are exploiting different plant hosts and habitats. Several combinations (biotypes of parasitoids with various aphid/host plant combinations were analyzed in order to obtain measures of forewing shape and size. To show the differences among defined biotypes, we chose 13 specific landmarks on each individual parasitoid wing. The analysis of allometric variation calculated in wing shape and size over centroid size (CS, revealed the allometric changes among biotypes collected from different hosts. To show all differences in shape of forewings, we made seven biotype pairs using an outline-based geometric morphometrics comparison. Results The biotype A. pis_pea (Acyrthosiphon pisum on pea was the extreme wing size in this study compared to the other analyzed biotypes. Aphid hosts have a significant influence in the morphological differentiation of the parasitoid forewing, splitting biotypes in two groups. The first group consisted of biotypes connected with Acyrthosiphon pisum on legumes, while the second group is composed of biotypes connected with aphids attacking cereals, with the exception of the R. pad_wheat (Rhopalosiphum padi on wheat biotype. There was no significant effect of plant

  14. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on shelf-life and ripening of peaches and apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.Y.; Stevens, C.; Khan, V.A.; Kabwe, M.; Wilson, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    ''Loring'' and ''Elberta'' peaches and ''Golden Delicious'' apples were irradiated with UV (254nm) to doses of 0.84 X 10(4) to 40 X 10(4) erg/mm2 then stored. ''Loring'' were stored 10 days and ''Elberta'' 20 days at 12 degrees C. ''Golden Delicious'' were stored 30 days at 20-25 degrees C in a dark room. Fruit were examined and differences in percentage rot and in physical-chemical properties determined. Percentage rot decreased with increasing UV dose. Fruit were firmer, pH and soluble solids lower and acidity higher for UV-treated than for nontreated peaches; pH was lower and acidity and ascorbic acid higher in UV treated than in nontreated apples. Percentage weight loss was less for UV-treated apples. The results indicated that UV treatment not only reduced storage rots but also delayed ripening of peaches and apples

  15. Transgenic Expression of a Functional Fragment of Harpin Protein Hpa1 in Wheat Represses English Grain Aphid Infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Man-yu; ZHOU Ting; ZHAO Yan-ying; LI Jia-bao; XU Heng; DONG Han-song; ZHANG Chun-ling

    2014-01-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 produced by the rice bacterial blight pathogen promotes plant growth and induces plant resistance to pathogens and insect pests. The region of 10-42 residues (Hpa110-42) in the Hpa1 sequence is critical as the isolated Hpa110-42 fragment is 1.3-7.5-fold more effective than the full length in inducing plant growth and resistance. Here we report that transgenic expression of Hpa110-42 in wheat induces resistance to English grain aphid, a dominant species of wheat aphids. Hpa110-42-induced resistance is effective to inhibit the aphid behavior in plant preference at the initial colonization stage and repress aphid performances in the reproduction, nymph growth, and instar development on transgenic plants. The resistance characters are correlated with enhanced expression of defense-regulatory genes (EIN2, PP2-A, and GSL10) and consistent with induced expression of defense response genes (Hel, PDF1.2, PR-1b, and PR-2b). As a result, aphid infestations are alleviated in transgenic plants. The level of Hpa110-42-induced resistance in regard to repression of aphid infestations is equivalent to the effect of chemical control provided by an insecticide. These results suggested that the defensive role of Hpa110-42 can be integrated into breeding germplasm of the agriculturally signiifcant crop with a great potential of the agricultural application.

  16. Study of tritium permeation through Peach Bottom Steam Generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Baugh, W.A.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1977-06-01

    The report describes the equipment developed, samples tested, procedures used, and results obtained in the tritium permeation tests conducted on steam generator tubing samples which were removed from the Peach Bottom Unit No. 1 reactor

  17. Activity of pectin methyl esterase during blanching of peaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Rodis, P.S.; Hertog, M.L.A.T.M.; Proxenia, N.; Dijk, van C.

    1999-01-01

    The activity of pectin methyl esterase (PE) in peaches during blanching treatments was modelled and analyzed. It was postulated that the enzyme exists in two configurations, one bound and one soluble. The bound configuration can be converted into the soluble configuration. These two configurations

  18. Predation determines different selective pressure on pea aphid host races in a complex agricultural mosaic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbert Balog

    Full Text Available Field assessments were conducted to examine the interplay between host plant and predation in complex agricultural mosaic on pea aphid clover and alfalfa races. In one experiment, we examined the relative fitness on clover race (CR and alfalfa race (AR pea aphids on broad bean, red clover and alfalfa alone. But because clover is typically grown in a more complex agricultural mosaic with alfalfa and broad bean, a second experiment was conducted to assess the fitness consequences under predation in a more complex agricultural field setting that also included potential apparent competition with AR pea aphids. In a third experiment we tested for the effect of differential host race density on the fitness of the other host race mediated by a predator effect. CR pea aphids always had fitness losses when on broad bean (had lower fitness on broad bean relative to red clover and fitness benefits when on red clover (higher fitness on red clover relative to broad bean, whether or not in apparent competition with alfalfa race aphids on bean and alfalfa. AR suffered fitness loss on both alfalfa and bean in apparent competition with CR on clover. Therefore we can conclude that the predation rate between host races was highly asymmetrical. The complexity of the agricultural mosaic thus can influence prey selection by predators on different host plants. These may have evolutionary consequences through context dependent fitness benefits on particular host plants.

  19. Alteration of intersubunit acid–base pair interactions at the quasi-threefold axis of symmetry of Cucumber mosaic virus disrupts aphid vector transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricault, Christine A.; Perry, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    In the atomic model of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), six amino acid residues form stabilizing salt bridges between subunits of the asymmetric unit at the quasi-threefold axis of symmetry. To evaluate the effects of these positions on virion stability and aphid vector transmissibility, six charged amino acid residues were individually mutated to alanine. All of the six engineered viruses were viable and exhibited near wild type levels of virion stability in the presence of urea. Aphid vector transmissibility was nearly or completely eliminated in the case of four of the mutants; two mutants demonstrated intermediate aphid transmissibility. For the majority of the engineered mutants, second-site mutations were observed following aphid transmission and/or mechanical passaging, and one restored transmission rates to that of the wild type. CMV capsids tolerate disruption of acid–base pairing interactions at the quasi-threefold axis of symmetry, but these interactions are essential for maintaining aphid vector transmissibility. - Highlights: ► Amino acids between structural subunits of Cucumber mosaic virus affect vector transmission. ► Mutant structural stability was retained, while aphid vector transmissibility was disrupted. ► Spontaneous, second-site mutations restored aphid vector transmissibility

  20. Alteration of intersubunit acid–base pair interactions at the quasi-threefold axis of symmetry of Cucumber mosaic virus disrupts aphid vector transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricault, Christine A. [Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, 334 Plant Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Perry, Keith L., E-mail: KLP3@cornell.edu [Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, 334 Plant Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    In the atomic model of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), six amino acid residues form stabilizing salt bridges between subunits of the asymmetric unit at the quasi-threefold axis of symmetry. To evaluate the effects of these positions on virion stability and aphid vector transmissibility, six charged amino acid residues were individually mutated to alanine. All of the six engineered viruses were viable and exhibited near wild type levels of virion stability in the presence of urea. Aphid vector transmissibility was nearly or completely eliminated in the case of four of the mutants; two mutants demonstrated intermediate aphid transmissibility. For the majority of the engineered mutants, second-site mutations were observed following aphid transmission and/or mechanical passaging, and one restored transmission rates to that of the wild type. CMV capsids tolerate disruption of acid–base pairing interactions at the quasi-threefold axis of symmetry, but these interactions are essential for maintaining aphid vector transmissibility. - Highlights: ► Amino acids between structural subunits of Cucumber mosaic virus affect vector transmission. ► Mutant structural stability was retained, while aphid vector transmissibility was disrupted. ► Spontaneous, second-site mutations restored aphid vector transmissibility.

  1. Investigation of energy inputs for peach production using sensitivity analysis in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royan, Mahsa; Khojastehpour, Mehdi; Emadi, Bagher; Mobtaker, Hassan Ghasemi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated energy use and inputs–output relationship in peach production. ► Total energy consumption in peach production was 37536.96 MJ ha −1 . ► Diesel fuel with about (26.32%) was the major energy consumer. ► Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 0.55 and 0.29 kg MJ −1 . ► The machinery energy was the most significant input affecting the output level. - Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the energy balance between the energy inputs and yield in peach production in Golestan province of Iran as a case study. The results showed that total energy consumption in peach production was 37536.96 MJ ha −1 where the diesel fuel with about (26.32%) was the major energy consumer. The direct energy shared about (50.98%) whereas the indirect energy did (49.02%). Energy use efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy and net energy were 0.55, 0.29 kg MJ −1 , 3.41 MJ kg −1 and −16642.03 MJ ha −1 , respectively. Econometric assessment results revealed that the energy inputs of human labor, machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers and farm yard manure had significant influence on the yield. The impact of human labor energy (1.36) was found as the highest among the other input parameters. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the MPP value of energy inputs was between −2.8 and 11.31. Also the MPP value of human labor was the highest, followed by diesel fuel and farm yard manure energy inputs, respectively.

  2. HPLC-DAD-ESIMS analysis of phenolic compounds in nectarines, peaches, and plums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Barberán, F A; Gil, M I; Cremin, P; Waterhouse, A L; Hess-Pierce, B; Kader, A A

    2001-10-01

    The phenolic compounds of 25 peach, nectarine, and plum cultivars were studied and quantified by HPLC-DAD-ESIMS. Hydroxycinnamates, procyanidins, flavonols, and anthocyanins were detected and quantified. White and yellow flesh nectarines and peaches, and yellow and red plums, were analyzed at two different maturity stages with consideration of both peel and flesh tissues. HPLC-MS analyses allowed the identification of procyanidin dimers of the B- and A-types, as well as the presence of procyanidin trimers in plums. As a general rule, the peel tissues contained higher amounts of phenolics, and anthocyanins and flavonols were almost exclusively located in this tissue. No clear differences in the phenolic content of nectarines and peaches were detected or between white flesh and yellow flesh cultivars. There was no clear trend in phenolic content with ripening of the different cultivars. Some cultivars, however, had a very high phenolic content. For example, the white flesh nectarine cultivar Brite Pearl (350-460 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 430-550 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and the yellow flesh cv. Red Jim (180-190 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 210-330 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh), contained 10 times more phenolics than cultivars such as Fire Pearl (38-50 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 23-30 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh). Among white flesh peaches, cultivars Snow King (300-320 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 660-695 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and Snow Giant (125-130 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 520-540 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) showed the highest content. The plum cultivars Black Beaut and Angeleno were especially rich in phenolics.

  3. Invertebrate communities in spring wheat and the identification of cereal aphid predators through molecular gut content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereal aphid complexes are responsible for reducing wheat production worldwide; however, management against these species is rare in North America. Generalist predators may contribute to reducing cereal aphid numbers and preventing significant damage to crops. A two-year survey identifying the arth...

  4. Short Communication: Occurrence of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae), on wild annual and perennial leguminous plants was studied at two locations (Adet and Wondata) in West Gojam, Ethiopia in 1999/2000 seasons. Annual and perennial leguminous wild or volunteer plants encountered in the study areas ...

  5. Primary coolant chemistry of the Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnette, R.D.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1980-11-01

    The chemical impurities in the primary coolants of the Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain reactors are discussed. The impurity mixtures in the two plants were quite different because the sources of the impurities were different. In the Peach Bottom reactor, the impurities were dominated by H 2 and CH 4 , which are decomposition products of oil. In the Fort St. Vrain reactor, there were high levels of CO, CO 2 , and H 2 O. Although oil ingress at Peach Bottom created carbon deposits on virtually all surfaces, its effect on reactor operation was negligible. Slow outgassing of water from the thermal insulation at Fort St. Vrain caused delays in reactor startup. The overall graphite oxidation in both plants was negligible

  6. Primary coolant chemistry of the Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnette, R.D.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical impurities in the primary coolants of the Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain reactors are discussed. The impurity mixtures in the two plants were quite different because the sources of the impurities were different. In the Peach Bottom reactor, the impurities were dominated by H 2 and CH 4 , which are decomposition products of oil. In the Fort St. Vrain reactor, there were high levels of CO, CO 2 , and H 2 O. Although oil ingress at Peach Bottom created carbon deposits on virtually all surfaces, its effect on reactor operation was negligible. Slow outgassing of water from the thermal insulation at Fort St. Vrain caused delays in reactor startup. The overall graphite oxidation in both plants was negligible. (author)

  7. Characterising root density of peach trees in a semi-arid Chernozem to increase plant density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Gavat, Corina; Chitu, Emil; Oprita, Alexandru; Moale, Cristina; Calciu, Irina; Vizitiu, Olga; Lamureanu, Gheorghe

    2016-01-01

    The available information on root system in fully mature peach orchards in semi-arid regions is insufficient. This paper presents a study on the root system density in an irrigated peach orchard from Dobrogea, Romania, using the trench technique. The old orchard has clean cultivation in inter-row and in-row. The objectives of the study were to: test the hypothesis that the roots of fully mature peach trees occupy the whole soil volume; find out if root repulsive effect of adjacent plants occurred for the rootstocks and soil conditions; find relationships between root system and soil properties and analyse soil state trend. Some soil physical properties were significantly deteriorated in inter-row versus in-row, mainly due to soil compaction induced by technological traffic. Density of total roots was higher in-row than inter-row, but the differences were not significant. Root density decreased more intensely with soil depth than with distance from tree trunks. Root density correlated with some soil properties. No repulsive effect of the roots of adjacent peach trees was noted. The decrease of root density with distance from trunk can be used in optimising tree arrangement. The conclusions could also be used in countries with similar growth conditions.

  8. 75 FR 3694 - Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ...., Fletcher, Heald & Hildreth, PLC, 1300 N. 17th Street - Eleventh Floor, Arlington, Virginia 22209 (Counsel... website, http://www.bcpiweb.com >. The proposed channel at Peach Springs is part of a hybrid application and rulemaking proceeding. In the application (File No. BNPH-20091016ADO), Cochise Media Licenses, the...

  9. Effect of the addition of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes peel flour on the color and sensory properties of cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader MARTÍNEZ-GIRÓN

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the color and sensorial characteristics of a cake made with different amounts of flour made with peach palm peel flour. The flour was added at different concentrations, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10% (w/w, including a control (tartrazine. Physiochemical analyses were carried out on the cakes, including total carotenoids, CIE-L*a*b* color coordinates, and sensorial attributes. The results demonstrated that the peach palm peel flour substitution increased the total carotenoid content of the cakes. The color test showed that high levels of peach palm peel flour resulted in a decrease in the values of lightness (L* and hue angle (h°, while the values of browning index (BI and color change (ΔE* increased significantly. The qualification of the sensorial evaluation indicated that the quality attributes were acceptable in the cakes made with wheat flour and 7.5% peach palm peel flour. Therefore, it was concluded that flour obtained from peach palm peel is a by-product that can be used as a natural food dye alternative in bread products.

  10. Appraisal of genetic diversity of different peach cultivars and genotypes through rapd markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, J.; Jamal, N.; Shafi, M

    2012-01-01

    The present study was amid to investigate the genetic diversity of twenty peach cultivars and genotypes by RAPD primers at the Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar. The result indicated that fifteen primers (GLCO9, GLC20, GLA20, GLA13, GLB10, GLB20, GLB06, GLB19, GLA19, GLB19, GLD16, GLB15, GLA15, GLB12, GLB11) gave genetic distance among the peach cultivars and genotypes under study by PCR amplification. Average genetic diversity (estimated as genetic distance) ranged between 12 and 58%. The molecular size of most of the bands were from 150 bp to 1000 bp. Based on dendrogram analysis, Khyber 1 and Khyber 2 was grouped in cluster A, and Tex-A6-69 and BY-8-135 in cluster B, Candan and 6A were most closely related cultivars and genotypes among the 20 peach cultivars and genotypes while Lering, Flam crest, Tex x-9, early grand and Floradaking were distinctly grouped when compared with the rest of population. (author)

  11. Discovery and Targeted LC-MS/MS of Purified Polerovirus Reveals Differences in the Virus-Host Interactome Associated with Altered Aphid Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin; Fish, Tara; Smith, Dawn; Gildow, Fredrick; MacCoss, Michael J.; Thannhauser, Theodore W.; Gray, Stewart M.

    2012-01-01

    Circulative transmission of viruses in the Luteoviridae, such as cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV), requires a series of precisely orchestrated interactions between virus, plant, and aphid proteins. Natural selection has favored these viruses to be retained in the phloem to facilitate acquisition and transmission by aphids. We show that treatment of infected oat tissue homogenate with sodium sulfite reduces transmission of the purified virus by aphids. Transmission electron microscopy data indicated no gross change in virion morphology due to treatments. However, treated virions were not acquired by aphids through the hindgut epithelial cells and were not transmitted when injected directly into the hemocoel. Analysis of virus preparations using nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry revealed a number of host plant proteins co-purifying with viruses, some of which were lost following sodium sulfite treatment. Using targeted mass spectrometry, we show data suggesting that several of the virus-associated host plant proteins accumulated to higher levels in aphids that were fed on CYDV-infected plants compared to healthy plants. We propose two hypotheses to explain these observations, and these are not mutually exclusive: (a) that sodium sulfite treatment disrupts critical virion-host protein interactions required for aphid transmission, or (b) that host infection with CYDV modulates phloem protein expression in a way that is favorable for virus uptake by aphids. Importantly, the genes coding for the plant proteins associated with virus may be examined as targets in breeding cereal crops for new modes of virus resistance that disrupt phloem-virus or aphid-virus interactions. PMID:23118947

  12. Discovery and targeted LC-MS/MS of purified polerovirus reveals differences in the virus-host interactome associated with altered aphid transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cilia

    Full Text Available Circulative transmission of viruses in the Luteoviridae, such as cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV, requires a series of precisely orchestrated interactions between virus, plant, and aphid proteins. Natural selection has favored these viruses to be retained in the phloem to facilitate acquisition and transmission by aphids. We show that treatment of infected oat tissue homogenate with sodium sulfite reduces transmission of the purified virus by aphids. Transmission electron microscopy data indicated no gross change in virion morphology due to treatments. However, treated virions were not acquired by aphids through the hindgut epithelial cells and were not transmitted when injected directly into the hemocoel. Analysis of virus preparations using nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry revealed a number of host plant proteins co-purifying with viruses, some of which were lost following sodium sulfite treatment. Using targeted mass spectrometry, we show data suggesting that several of the virus-associated host plant proteins accumulated to higher levels in aphids that were fed on CYDV-infected plants compared to healthy plants. We propose two hypotheses to explain these observations, and these are not mutually exclusive: (a that sodium sulfite treatment disrupts critical virion-host protein interactions required for aphid transmission, or (b that host infection with CYDV modulates phloem protein expression in a way that is favorable for virus uptake by aphids. Importantly, the genes coding for the plant proteins associated with virus may be examined as targets in breeding cereal crops for new modes of virus resistance that disrupt phloem-virus or aphid-virus interactions.

  13. Discovery and targeted LC-MS/MS of purified polerovirus reveals differences in the virus-host interactome associated with altered aphid transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia, Michelle; Peter, Kari A; Bereman, Michael S; Howe, Kevin; Fish, Tara; Smith, Dawn; Gildow, Fredrick; MacCoss, Michael J; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Gray, Stewart M

    2012-01-01

    Circulative transmission of viruses in the Luteoviridae, such as cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV), requires a series of precisely orchestrated interactions between virus, plant, and aphid proteins. Natural selection has favored these viruses to be retained in the phloem to facilitate acquisition and transmission by aphids. We show that treatment of infected oat tissue homogenate with sodium sulfite reduces transmission of the purified virus by aphids. Transmission electron microscopy data indicated no gross change in virion morphology due to treatments. However, treated virions were not acquired by aphids through the hindgut epithelial cells and were not transmitted when injected directly into the hemocoel. Analysis of virus preparations using nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry revealed a number of host plant proteins co-purifying with viruses, some of which were lost following sodium sulfite treatment. Using targeted mass spectrometry, we show data suggesting that several of the virus-associated host plant proteins accumulated to higher levels in aphids that were fed on CYDV-infected plants compared to healthy plants. We propose two hypotheses to explain these observations, and these are not mutually exclusive: (a) that sodium sulfite treatment disrupts critical virion-host protein interactions required for aphid transmission, or (b) that host infection with CYDV modulates phloem protein expression in a way that is favorable for virus uptake by aphids. Importantly, the genes coding for the plant proteins associated with virus may be examined as targets in breeding cereal crops for new modes of virus resistance that disrupt phloem-virus or aphid-virus interactions.

  14. Non-destructive grading of peaches by near-infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, G.; Capozzo, L.; Attolico, G.; Distante, A.

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes an experimental study on non-destructive methods for sorting peaches according to their degree of ripeness. The method is based on near-infrared (NIR) transmittance spectrometry in the region between 730 and 900 nm. It estimates the ripeness in terms of internal sugar content and firmness. A station for acquiring the NIR signal has been designed and realized, carefully choosing between several options for each component. Four different stations have been realized and compared during the experimental phase. The signals acquired by the station have been pre-processed using a noise-reducing method based on a packets-wavelet transform. In addition, an outlier detection technique has been applied for identifying irregular behaviors inside each of the considered classes. Finally, a minimum distance classifier estimates the grade of each experimental data. The results obtained in classification show that this early version of the station enables the correct discrimination of peaches with a percentage of 82.5%.

  15. Population Growth Parameters of Rose Aphid, Macrosiphum rosae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Different Rose Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golizadeh, A; Jafari-Behi, V; Razmjou, J; Naseri, B; Hassanpour, M

    2017-02-01

    The rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosae (L.), is one of the most important pests on rose plants (Rosa spp.) with a worldwide distribution. As resistance indices, the development, survivorship, and reproduction of this aphid were evaluated on 10 rose cultivars, including Bella Vita, Cool Water, Dolce Vita, Maroussia, Orange Juice, Pinkpromise, Roulette, Tea, Valentine, and Persian Yellow in laboratory at 25 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity, and photoperiod of 16:8 (L/D) h. Rose aphid successfully survived on all 10 rose cultivars, although mortality rate was higher on Tea and Bella Vita. The number of offspring per female differed significantly among the tested rose cultivars, and ranged from 9.2 on Tea to 38.7 nymphs on Orange Juice. Population growth parameters were significantly affected by rose cultivars. The longest mean generation time (T) was observed on Bella Vita (14.8 days) and Tea (14.7 days) and the shortest on Orange Juice (10.0 days). The net reproductive rate (R 0 ) ranged from 6.9 on Tea to 33.2 nymphs on Orange Juice cultivar. Correspondingly, the highest value of intrinsic rate of increase (r m ) was observed on Orange Juice (0.348 day -1 ) and lower values on Tea (0.131 day -1 ) followed by Bella Vita (0.154 day -1 ). Cluster analysis of all the measured parameters of rose aphid on different rose cultivars revealed that Tea and Bella Vita were relatively resistant to M. rosae. These findings could be useful in developing an integrated pest management (IPM) program for this aphid in urbanized areas and commercial rose potting.

  16. Resistance to lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri) biotype 0 in wild lettuce accessions PI 491093 and PI 274378

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Homoptera : Aphididae), is a major insect pest of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L, in many commercial lettuce productions areas around the world. Resistance to lettuce aphid was first reported in Lactuca virosa L. accession IVT 280 and characterized as complete,...

  17. Genetics coupled to quantitative intact proteomics links heritable aphid and endosymbiont protein isoform expression to polerovirus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow dwarf viruses in the family Luteoviridae, such as Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV), are vectored by aphids and cause the most economically important virus disease of cereal crops worldwide. The identification of aphid proteins mediating virus transmission will better define transmiss...

  18. Resistance to a new biotype of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri in Lactuca virosa accession IVT280

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Host plant resistance is an effective protection strategy to control aphids in many crops. However, the evolution of insensitive aphid biotypes necessitates the search for new resistance sources. Wild relatives of crop plants can be important sources for resistance genes to be introgressed into new

  19. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Peaches and Pumpkins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemimi, Ammar; Watson, Dennis G.; Choudhary, Ruplal; Dasari, Mallika R.; Lightfoot, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was used to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds from pumpkins and peaches. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effects of three independent variables each with three treatments. They included extraction temperatures (30, 40 and 50°C), ultrasonic power levels (30, 50 and 70%) and extraction times (10, 20 and 30 min). The optimal conditions for extractions of total phenolics from pumpkins were inferred to be a temperature of 41.45°C, a power of 44.60% and a time of 25.67 min. However, an extraction temperature of 40.99°C, power of 56.01% and time of 25.71 min was optimal for recovery of free radical scavenging activity (measured by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reduction). The optimal conditions for peach extracts were an extraction temperature of 41.53°C, power of 43.99% and time of 27.86 min for total phenolics. However, an extraction temperature of 41.60°C, power of 44.88% and time of 27.49 min was optimal for free radical scavenging activity (judged by from DPPH reduction). Further, the UAE processes were significantly better than solvent extractions without ultrasound. By electron microscopy it was concluded that ultrasonic processing caused damage in cells for all treated samples (pumpkin, peach). However, the FTIR spectra did not show any significant changes in chemical structures caused by either ultrasonic processing or solvent extraction. PMID:26885655

  20. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Predator efficiency reconsidered for a ladybird-aphid system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Yasuda, H.; Kajita, Y.; Sato, S.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, mar (2015), s. 27 ISSN 2296-701X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : biological control * generation time ratio * population dynamics * predator-prey systems * ladybirds * aphids Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Wheat Nitrogen Fertilisation Effects on the Performance of the Cereal Aphid Metopolophium dirhodum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. J. Gash

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of five rates of nitrogen fertiliser applications on the performance of the cereal aphid Metopolophium dirhodum on winter wheat, within the range of rates recommended for UK crops, were investigated over two seasons in field-grown crops and also on plants grown in the glasshouse. Longevity was unaffected by the level of fertilisation, but aphid intrinsic rate of increase and fecundity increased with each level applied. In the second field season, when a higher upper limit was used, many of these increases were significant. A previously unreported finding for this species was that there was a significant decrease in fecundity for the highest rate of fertilisation. Results for the glasshouse-reared aphids followed a similar pattern to those in the field, and overall they underline recent reports in the literature of the negative effects of high nutrient concentrations on the performance of herbivorous insects. The underlying reasons for these are discussed.

  3. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  4. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  5. The effect of within-crop habitat manipulations on the conservation biological control of aphids in field-grown lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; Kravar-Garde, L; Reynolds, K; Wright, C; Mead, A

    2011-12-01

    Within-crop habitat manipulations have the potential to increase the biological control of pests in horticultural field crops. Wildflower strips have been shown to increase the abundance of natural enemies, but there is little evidence to date of an impact on pest populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether within-crop wildflower strips can increase the natural regulation of pests in horticultural field crops. Aphid numbers in plots of lettuce grown adjacent to wildflower strips were compared with those in plots grown in the absence of wildflowers. The presence of wildflower strips led to a decrease in aphid numbers on adjacent lettuce plants during June and July, but had less impact in August and September. The decrease in aphid numbers was greatest close to the wildflower strips and, the decrease in aphid numbers declined with increasing distance from the wildflower strips, with little effect at a distance of ten metres. The main natural enemies found in the crop were those that dispersed aerially, which is consistent with data from previous studies on cereal crops. Analysis and interpretation of natural enemy numbers was difficult due to low recovery of natural enemies, and the numbers appeared to follow changes in aphid abundance rather than being directly linked to the presence of wildflower strips. Cutting the wildflower strips, to remove floral resources, had no impact on the reduction in aphid numbers achieved during June and July, but decreased the effect of the wildflower strips during August and September. The results suggest that wildflower strips can lead to increased natural regulation of pest aphids in outdoor lettuce crops, but more research is required to determine how this is mediated by natural enemies and how the impact of wildflower strips on natural pest regulation changes during the growing season.

  6. Identification of an intraspecific alarm pheromone and two conserved odorant-binding proteins associated with (E)-β-farnesene perception in aphid Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jia; Xue, Wenxin; Duan, Hongxia; Jiang, Xin; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Wenjuan; Jiang, Shanshan; Sun, Jingrun; Chen, Julian

    2017-08-01

    (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) is the common active component of aphid alarm pheromone. Either or both of two orthologs of ordorant-binding proteins (OBPs), OBP3 and OBP7, recently reported in aphids, may be involved in EBF perception. The aim of this study was to investigate the respondence of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi to its intraspecific alarm pheromone and which OBP is responsible for that response. We tested the olfactory response of the aphid R. padi to EBF and freshly crushed aphids. Then, we extracted the volatiles from crushed aphids using solid phase microextraction (SPME) for analysis with GC×GC-TOF/MS. We also cloned two OBPs cDNAs in R. padi (RpadOBP3 and RpadOBP7) and expressed them in competent Escherichia coli cells. Both recombinant proteins, RpadOBP3 and RpadOBP7, bound EBF well, with RpadOBP7 having specifically stronger affinity for EBF than for other volatiles. Based on the crystal structure of the OBPs with high identity, we performed homology modeling and analyzed the interactions between RpadOBPs and EBF. In conclusion, R. padi was repelled by both EBF and crushed aphids. EBF was identified as the only volatile that acted as the alarm pheromone. Our results indicated that OBP7 is a potential molecular target to control wheat aphids by disturbing their behaviors to the alarm pheromone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus Coat Protein in the Host Plant and Aphid Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Doumayrou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in plant virus–vector interactions is essential for the development of effective control measures for aphid-vectored epidemic plant diseases. The coat proteins (CP are the main component of the viral capsids, and they are implicated in practically every stage of the viral infection cycle. Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1, Enamovirus, Luteoviridae and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2, Umbravirus, Tombusviridae are two RNA viruses in an obligate symbiosis causing the pea enation mosaic disease. Sixteen mutant viruses were generated with mutations in different domains of the CP to evaluate the role of specific amino acids in viral replication, virion assembly, long-distance movement in Pisum sativum, and aphid transmission. Twelve mutant viruses were unable to assemble but were able to replicate in inoculated leaves, move long-distance, and express the CP in newly infected leaves. Four mutant viruses produced virions, but three were not transmissible by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Three-dimensional modeling of the PEMV CP, combined with biological assays for virion assembly and aphid transmission, allowed for a model of the assembly of PEMV coat protein subunits.

  8. Role of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus Coat Protein in the Host Plant and Aphid Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumayrou, Juliette; Sheber, Melissa; Bonning, Bryony C; Miller, W Allen

    2016-11-18

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in plant virus-vector interactions is essential for the development of effective control measures for aphid-vectored epidemic plant diseases. The coat proteins (CP) are the main component of the viral capsids, and they are implicated in practically every stage of the viral infection cycle. Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1, Enamovirus , Luteoviridae ) and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2, Umbravirus , Tombusviridae ) are two RNA viruses in an obligate symbiosis causing the pea enation mosaic disease. Sixteen mutant viruses were generated with mutations in different domains of the CP to evaluate the role of specific amino acids in viral replication, virion assembly, long-distance movement in Pisum sativum , and aphid transmission. Twelve mutant viruses were unable to assemble but were able to replicate in inoculated leaves, move long-distance, and express the CP in newly infected leaves. Four mutant viruses produced virions, but three were not transmissible by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum . Three-dimensional modeling of the PEMV CP, combined with biological assays for virion assembly and aphid transmission, allowed for a model of the assembly of PEMV coat protein subunits.

  9. Winter treatments against the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum): products and timing of applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kelderer, Markus; Lardschneider, Ewald; Casera, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    In organic apple growing the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) is still an unsolved problem. Various approaches to use beneficial insects were not really effective. Only winter treatments with mineral oils showed partial and fluctuating success. In 2006 and 2007 field trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of winter treatments to control woolly apple aphids. The efficacy of several products (different mineral oils, lime sulphur, and lime sulphur + mineral oil) w...

  10. Alternaria toxin-induced resistance in rose plants against rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosivorum): effect of tenuazonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fa-zhong; Yang, Bin; Li, Bei-bei; Xiao, Chun

    2015-04-01

    Many different types of toxins are produced by the fungus, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Little is known, however, regarding the influence of these toxins on insects. In this study, we investigated the toxin-induced inhibitory effects of the toxin produced by A. alternata on the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosivorum, when the toxin was applied to leaves of the rose, Rosa chinensis. The results demonstrated that the purified crude toxin was non-harmful to rose plants and rose aphids, but had an intensive inhibitory effect on the multiplication of aphids. The inhibitory index against rose aphids reached 87.99% when rose plants were sprayed with the toxin solution at a low concentration. Further results from bioassays with aphids and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses demonstrated that tenuazonic acid (TeA) was one of the most important resistance-related active components in the crude toxin. The content of TeA was 0.1199% in the crude toxin under the HPLC method. Similar to the crude toxin, the inhibitory index of pure TeA reached 83.60% 15 d after the rose plants were sprayed with pure TeA solution at the lower concentration of 0.060 μg/ml, while the contents of residual TeA on the surface and in the inner portion of the rose plants were only 0.04 and 0.00 ng/g fresh weight of TeA-treated rose twigs, respectively, 7 d after the treatment. Our results show that TeA, an active component in the A. alternata toxin, can induce the indirect plant-mediated responses in rose plants to intensively enhance the plant's resistances against rose aphids, and the results are very helpful to understand the plant-mediated interaction between fungi and insects on their shared host plants.

  11. Synthesis and biological activity of pyridazine amides, hydrazones and hydrazides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Ann M; Yap, Maurice Ch; Hunter, Ricky; Babcock, Jonathan; Huang, Xinpei

    2017-04-01

    Optimization studies on compounds initially designed to be herbicides led to the discovery of a series of [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides exhibiting aphicidal properties. Systematic modifications of the amide moiety as well as the pyridine and pyridazine rings were carried out to determine if these changes could improve insecticidal potency. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies showed that changes to the pyridine and pyridazine rings generally resulted in a significant loss of insecticidal potency against green peach aphids [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] and cotton aphids [(Aphis gossypii (Glover)]. However, replacement of the amide moiety with hydrazines, hydrazones, or hydrazides appeared to be tolerated, with small aliphatic substituents being especially potent. A series of aphicidal [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides were discovered as a result of random screening of compounds that were intially investigated as herbicides. Follow-up studies of the structure-activity relationship of these [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides showed that biosteric replacement of the amide moiety was widely tolerated suggesting that further opportunities for exploitation may exist for this new area of insecticidal chemistry. Insecticidal efficacy from the original hit, compound 1, to the efficacy of compound 14 produced greater than 10-fold potency improvement against Aphis gossypii and greater than 14-fold potency improvement against Myzus persicae. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  13. Cellular tropism, population dynamics, host range and taxonomic status of an aphid secondary symbiont, SMLS (Sitobion miscanthi L type symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Li

    Full Text Available SMLS (Sitobion miscanthi L type symbiont is a newly reported aphid secondary symbiont. Phylogenetic evidence from molecular markers indicates that SMLS belongs to the Rickettsiaceae and has a sibling relationship with Orientia tsutsugamushi. A comparative analysis of coxA nucleotide sequences further supports recognition of SMLS as a new genus in the Rickettsiaceae. In situ hybridization reveals that SMLS is housed in both sheath cells and secondary bacteriocytes and it is also detected in aphid hemolymph. The population dynamics of SMLS differ from those of Buchnera aphidicola and titer levels of SMLS increase in older aphids. A survey of 13 other aphids reveals that SMLS only occurs in wheat-associated species.

  14. Performance and feeding behaviour of two biotypes of the black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on resistant and susceptible Lactuca sativa near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Broeke, Cindy J M; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A

    2013-10-01

    The black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is an important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Since 1982, the control of this aphid on lettuce is largely based on host plant resistance, conferred by the Nr gene, introgressed from Lactuca virosa. The resistance mechanism remains to be identified. N. ribisnigri populations virulent on the Nr-based resistance in lettuce have emerged in several locations in Europe since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by the Nr gene in lettuce by detailed studies of aphid feeding behaviour and performance. Both avirulent (Nr:0) and virulent (Nr:1)biotypes of N. ribisnigri were studied on five resistant and two susceptible near isogenic lines (NILs). In addition, survival and colony development were quantified.Nr:0 aphids showed a strong decrease in sieve element ingestion and took longer to accept a sieve element on resistant NILs compared with susceptible NILs, and no aphids survived on the resistant NIL. Nr:1 aphids fed and performed equally well on the resistant and susceptible NILs. The resistance mechanism against Nr:0 aphids encoded by the Nr gene seems to be located in the phloem, although we also observed differences in feeding behaviour during the pathway phase to the phloem. Nr:1 aphids were highly virulent to the resistance conferred by the Nr gene. The consequences of the appearance of Nr:1 aphids for control of N. ribisnigri are discussed.

  15. Virus-induced gene silencing of WRKY53 and an inducible phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in wheat reduces aphid resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although several wheat genes differentially expressed during the Russian wheat aphid resistance response have recently been identified, their requirement for and specific role in resistance remain unclear. Progress in wheat-aphid interaction research is hampered by inadequate collections of mutant g...

  16. Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia in the Czech Republic – cause of the significant population decrease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelka, Jan; Žurovcová, Martina; Rychlý, S.; Starý, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 4 (2014), s. 273-280 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/1940 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : alien aphid species * anholocyclic populations * aphids overwintering mortality Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.650, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jen.12068/pdf

  17. Multi-modal defences in aphids offer redundant protection and increased costs likely impeding a protective mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Adam J; Doremus, Matthew R; Kraft, Laura J; Kim, Kyungsun L; Oliver, Kerry M

    2018-03-01

    The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, maintains extreme variation in resistance to its most common parasitoid wasp enemy, Aphidius ervi, which is sourced from two known mechanisms: protective bacterial symbionts, most commonly Hamiltonella defensa, or endogenously encoded defences. We have recently found that individual aphids may employ each defence individually, occasionally both defences together, or neither. In field populations, Hamiltonella-infected aphids are found at low to moderate frequencies and while less is known about the frequency of resistant genotypes, they show up less often than susceptible genotypes in field collections. To better understand these patterns, we sought to compare the strengths and costs of both types of defence, individually and together, in order to elucidate the selective pressures that maintain multi-modal defence mechanisms or that may favour one over the other. We experimentally infected five aphid genotypes (two lowly and three highly resistant), each with two symbiont strains, Hamiltonella-APSE8 (moderate protection) and Hamiltonella-APSE3 (high protection). This resulted in three sublines per genotype: uninfected, +APSE8 and +APSE3. Each of the 15 total sublines was first subjected to a parasitism assay to determine its resistance phenotype and in a second experiment, a subset was chosen to compare fitness (fecundity and survivorship) in the presence and absence of parasitism. In susceptible aphid genotypes, parasitized sublines infected with Hamiltonella generally showed increased protection with direct fitness benefits, but clear infection costs to fitness in the absence of parasitism. In resistant genotypes, Hamiltonella infection rarely conferred additional protection, often further reduced fecundity and survivorship when enemy challenged, and resulted in constitutive fitness costs in the absence of parasitism. We also identified strong aphid genotype × symbiont-strain interactions, such that the best defensive

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Nanodispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid nanodispersion of 15% emamectin benzoate was prepared by the method of solidifying nanoemulsion. The mean particle size and polydispersity index of the solid nanodispersions were 96.6±1.7 nm and 0.352±0.041, respectively. The high zeta potential value of 31.3±0.5 mV and stable crystalline state of the nanoparticles suggested the excellent physical and chemical stabilities. The contact angle and retention compared with microemulsions and water dispersible granules on rice, cabbage, and cucumber leaves indicated its improved wettability and adhesion properties. The bioassay compared with microemulsions and water dispersible granules against diamondback moths and green peach aphids provided an evidence of its enhanced biological activity. This formulation composition could avoid organic solvents and obviously reduce surfactants. It is perspective in raising bioavailability and reducing residual pollution of pesticides and further improving agricultural production and environmental safety.

  19. Comparative Transcriptome and Microscopy Analyses Provide Insights into Flat Shape Formation in Peach (Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit shape is an important external characteristic that consumers use to select preferred fruit cultivars. In peach, the flat fruit cultivars have become more and more popular worldwide. Genetic markers closely linking to the flat fruit trait have been identified and are useful for marker-assisted breeding. However, the cellular and genetic mechanisms underpinning flat fruit formation are still poorly understood. In this study, we have revealed the differences in fruit cell number, cell size, and in gene expression pattern between the traditional round fruit and modern flat fruit cultivars. Flat peach cultivars possessed significantly lower number of cells in the vertical axis because cell division in the vertical direction stopped early in the flat fruit cultivars at 15 DAFB (day after full bloom than in round fruit cultivars at 35 DAFB. This resulted in the reduction in vertical development in the flat fruit. Significant linear relationship was observed between fruit vertical diameter and cell number in vertical axis for the four examined peach cultivars (R2 = 0.9964 at maturation stage, and was also observed between fruit vertical diameter and fruit weight (R2 = 0.9605, which indicated that cell number in vertical direction contributed to the flat shape formation. Furthermore, in RNA-seq analysis, 4165 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected by comparing RNA-seq data between flat and round peach cultivars at different fruit development stages. In contrast to previous studies, we discovered 28 candidate genes potentially responsible for the flat shape formation, including 19 located in the mapping site and 9 downstream genes. Our study indicates that flat and round fruit shape in peach is primarily determined by the regulation of cell production in the vertical direction during early fruit development.

  20. Coupling genetics and proteomics to identify aphid proteins associated with vector-specific transmission of polerovirus (luteoviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Thannhauser, T W; Burrows, Mary; Cox-Foster, Diana; Gildow, Fred E; Gray, Stewart M

    2008-01-01

    Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) is transmitted specifically by the aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum in a circulative nonpropagative manner. The high level of vector specificity results from the vector aphids having the functional components of the receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways to allow virus to transverse the gut and salivary tissues. Studies of F(2) progeny from crosses of vector and nonvector genotypes of S. graminum showed that virus transmission efficiency is a heritable trait regulated by multiple genes acting in an additive fashion and that gut- and salivary gland-associated factors are not genetically linked. Utilizing two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis to compare the proteomes of vector and nonvector parental and F(2) genotypes, four aphid proteins (S4, S8, S29, and S405) were specifically associated with the ability of S. graminum to transmit CYDV-RPV. The four proteins were coimmunoprecipitated with purified RPV, indicating that the aphid proteins are capable of binding to virus. Analysis by mass spectrometry identified S4 as a luciferase and S29 as a cyclophilin, both of which have been implicated in macromolecular transport. Proteins S8 and S405 were not identified from available databases. Study of this unique genetic system coupled with proteomic analysis indicated that these four virus-binding aphid proteins were specifically inherited and conserved in different generations of vector genotypes and suggests that they play a major role in regulating polerovirus transmission.

  1. Expression of Pinellia pedatisecta Lectin Gene in Transgenic Wheat Enhances Resistance to Wheat Aphids

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoliang Duan; Qiling Hou; Guoyu Liu; Xiaomeng Pang; Zhenli Niu; Xiao Wang; Yufeng Zhang; Baoyun Li; Rongqi Liang

    2018-01-01

    Wheat aphids are major pests during the seed filling stage of wheat. Plant lectins are toxic to sap-sucking pests such as wheat aphids. In this study, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (ppa), a gene encoding mannose binding lectin, was cloned, and it shared 92.69% nucleotide similarity and 94% amino acid similarity with Pinellia ternata agglutinin (pta). The ppa gene, driven by the constitutive and phloem-specific ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene (rbcs) promoter in pBAC-rbcs...

  2. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions.

  3. Identification of distinct quantitative trait loci associated with defence against the closely related aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum and A. kondoi in Medicago truncatula

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Su-Min

    2012-03-21

    Aphids are a major family of plant insect pests. Medicago truncatula and Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid, PA) are model species with a suite of resources available to help dissect the mechanism underlying plant-aphid interactions. A previous study focused on monogenic and relatively strong resistance in M. truncatula to PA and other aphid species. In this study a moderate resistance to PA was characterized in detail in the M. truncatula line A17 and compared with the highly susceptible line A20 and the more resistant line Jester. The results show that PA resistance in A17 involves both antibiosis and tolerance, and that resistance is phloem based. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (n=114) from a cross between A17 and A20 revealed that one locus, which co-segregated with AIN (Acyrthosiphon-induced necrosis) on chromosome 3, is responsible for the reduction of aphid biomass (indicator of antibiosis) for both PA and bluegreen aphid (BGA, A. kondoi), albeit to a lesser degree for PA than BGA. Interestingly, two independent loci on chromosomes 5 and 3 were identified for the plant biomass reduction (indicator of plant tolerance) by PA and BGA, respectively, demonstrating that the plant\\'s tolerance response to these two closely related aphid species is distinct. Together with previously identified major resistant (R) genes, the QTLs identified in this study are powerful tools to understand fully the spectrum of plant defence against sap-sucking insects and provide opportunities for breeders to generate effective and sustainable strategies for aphid control. 2012 The Author.

  4. Tritrophic associations and taxonomic notes on Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae, a keystone aphid parasitoid in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshani Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of host associations, distribution and types of reproduction (sexual, asexual of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall across 20 provinces of Iran during 2006-2011 was undertaken. The parasitoid was reared from three groups of host aphids belonging to genera Aphis and Brachycaudus, and occasional host aphid genera. Aphis craccivora Koch was the most frequent host aphid for L. fabarum on various host plants, including economically important crops. The field sex ratio generally favored females, but in some cases, only thelytokous (uniparental populations were found. In those cases, the host was always an Aphis species. Specimens reared from Brachycaudus aphids were all biparental, indicating the presence of a sibling biological species. Overall analysis of diagnostic morphological characters in the forewing indicated intra-specific variability in forewing marginal setae as well as variations in length of the R1 vein. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  5. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a...

  6. Recent characterization of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Woodiness disease is the most important disorder of passion fruit worldwide. The causal agent in Brazil is the Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), and despite the economic relevance of passion fruit for agriculture there have been recently very few studies about this virus in Brazil and worldwide. This work reveals ...

  7. Macrosiphoniella remaudierei, a new species of aphid on Helichrysum in Iran (Hemiptera, Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Sebastiano; Nieto Nafría, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    A new species of aphid, belonging to the genus Macrosiphoniella Del Guercio, 1911, is described using three samples collected in Iran on Helichrysum armenium (Asteraceae, Inuleae) by the late Prof. G. Remaudière. Both apterous and alate viviparous females of the new taxon, Macrosiphoniella remaudierei sp. n. , are described and compared to corresponding morphs of the closely allied Macrosiphoniella aetnensis and to other congeneric aphid species on Helichrysum in the Palaearctic region. Type specimens are now stored in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris.

  8. Macrosiphoniella remaudierei, a new species of aphid on Helichrysum in Iran (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Barbagallo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of aphid, belonging to the genus Macrosiphoniella Del Guercio, 1911, is described using three samples collected in Iran on Helichrysum armenium (Asteraceae, Inuleae by the late Prof. G. Remaudière. Both apterous and alate viviparous females of the new taxon, M. remaudierei sp. n., are described and compared to corresponding morphs of the closely allied M. aetnensis and to other congeneric aphid species on Helichrysum in the Palaearctic region. Type specimens are now stored in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle in Paris.

  9. Aphids transform and detoxify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol via a type II biotransformation mechanism yet unknown in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zutter, N; Audenaert, K; Arroyo-Manzanares, N; De Boevre, M; Van Poucke, C; De Saeger, S; Haesaert, G; Smagghe, G

    2016-12-08

    Biotransformation of mycotoxins in animals comprises phase I and phase II metabolisation reactions. For the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), several phase II biotransformation reactions have been described resulting in DON-glutathiones, DON-glucuronides and DON-sulfates made by glutathione-S-transferases, uridine-diphosphoglucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases, respectively. These metabolites can be easily excreted and are less toxic than their free compounds. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in the animal kingdom the conversion of DON to DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G) via a model system with plant pathogenic aphids. This phase II biotransformation mechanism has only been reported in plants. As the DON-3G metabolite was less toxic for aphids than DON, this conversion is considered a detoxification reaction. Remarkably, English grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) which co-occur with the DON producer Fusarium graminearum on wheat during the development of fusarium symptoms, tolerate DON much better and convert DON to DON-3G more efficiently than pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), the latter being known to feed on legumes which are no host for F. graminearum. Using a non-targeted high resolution mass spectrometric approach, we detected DON-diglucosides in aphids probably as a result of sequential glucosylation reactions. Data are discussed in the light of an eventual co-evolutionary adaptation of S. avenae to DON.

  10. Varietals resistance and susceptibility in mustard (brassica campestris l.) genotypes against aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, G.Z.; Tofique, M.

    2009-01-01

    The exploitation of resistant cultivars is an imperative, simple, practical and flexible way to cope with insect pests incidence. Thirty genotypes of mustard (Brassica campestris L.) were tested for their resistance and susceptibility to aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) exposed under natural field conditions. Data on pest tolerance of genotypes were judged by quantitative traits such as number of aphids on each infested plant and mean dry weight of seeds per genotype. Studies observed the discrepancy in overall rates of pest invasion and seed yield contained by trailed mustard genotypes. Agati sarson (P), S-9-S-97-100/45 and S-9-S-97-100/45 were the least damaged genotypes showing their moderate resistance. Amongst other genotypes, MM-I/01-5, MM-I285 and MM-I/01-6 were the most damaged showing oversensitive response. Although the majority of genotypes were found vulnerable to pest, Agati sarson (P) and S-9-S-97-100/45 due to their lowest hypersensitive response toward aphid contamination and increased pods yield could be used for the development of essential resistance in mustard plant. A marked mode of damage inflicted by aphid on the crop was noticed and the abiotic factors contributing variations in aphid infestation levels during both growing seasons were determined. Knowledge about the host plant resistance investigated can facilitate growers to choose the most appropriate cultivars as pest control strategy. (author)

  11. How conserved are the bacterial communities associated with aphids? A detailed assessment of the Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) using 16S rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E L; Daniell, T J; Wishart, J; Hubbard, S F; Karley, A J

    2012-12-01

    Aphids harbor a community of bacteria that include obligate and facultative endosymbionts belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae along with opportunistic, commensal, or pathogenic bacteria. This study represents the first detailed analysis of the identity and diversity of the bacterial community associated with the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.). 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that the community of bacteria associated with B. brassicae was diverse, with at least four different bacterial community types detected among aphid lines, collected from widely dispersed sites in Northern Britain. The bacterial sequence types isolated from B. brassicae showed little similarity to any bacterial endosymbionts characterized in insects; instead, they were closely related to free-living extracellular bacterial species that have been isolated from the aphid gut or that are known to be present in the environment, suggesting that they are opportunistic bacteria transmitted between the aphid gut and the environment. To quantify variation in bacterial community between aphid lines, which was driven largely by differences in the proportions of two dominant bacterial orders, the Pseudomonales and the Enterobacteriales, we developed a novel real-time (Taqman) qPCR assay. By improving our knowledge of aphid microbial ecology, and providing novel molecular tools to examine the presence and function of the microbial community, this study forms the basis of further research to explore the influence of the extracellular bacterial community on aphid fitness, pest status, and susceptibility to control by natural enemies.

  12. Deficit irrigation of peach trees to reduce water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack of water is a major limiting factor for production tree fruits such as peaches in the San Joaquin Valley of California and many other arid- or semi-arid regions in the world. Deficit irrigation can be used in some cropping systems as a water resource management strategy to reduce non-productiv...

  13. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria reduce aphid population and enhance the productivity of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair; Khaliq, Abdul; Ahmed, Jam Nazir; Nawaz, Ahmad; Hussain, Mubshar

    2018-04-24

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria increase plant growth and give protection against insect pests and pathogens. Due to the negative impact of chemical pesticides on environment, alternatives to these chemicals are needed. In this scenario, the biological methods of pest control offer an eco-friendly and an attractive option. In this study, the effect of two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains (Bacillus sp. strain 6 and Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K) on aphid population and wheat productivity was evaluated in an aphid susceptible (Pasban-90) and resistant (Inqlab-91) wheat cultivar. The seeds were inoculated with each PGPR strain, separately or the combination of both. The lowest aphid population (2.1tiller -1 ), and highest plant height (85.8cm), number of spikelets per spike (18), grains per spike (44), productive tillers (320m -2 ), straw yield (8.6Mgha -1 ), and grain yield (4.8Mgha -1 ) were achieved when seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. strain 6+Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K. The grain yield of both varieties was enhanced by 35.5-38.9% with seed inoculation with both bacterial strains. Thus, the combine use of both PGPR strains viz. Bacillus sp. strain 6+Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K offers an attractive option to reduce aphid population tied with better wheat productivity. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. An ecological method to understand agricultural standardization in peach orchard ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Hao-Zhang

    2016-02-22

    While the worldwide standardization of agricultural production has been advocated and recommended, relatively little research has focused on the ecological significance of such a shift. The ecological concerns stemming from the standardization of agricultural production may require new methodology. In this study, we concentrated on how ecological two-sidedness and ecological processes affect the standardization of agricultural production which was divided into three phrases (pre-, mid- and post-production), considering both the positive and negative effects of agricultural processes. We constructed evaluation indicator systems for the pre-, mid- and post-production phases and here we presented a Standardization of Green Production Index (SGPI) based on the Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator (FPPSI) method which we used to assess the superiority of three methods of standardized production for peaches. The values of SGPI for pre-, mid- and post-production were 0.121 (Level IV, "Excellent" standard), 0.379 (Level III, "Good" standard), and 0.769 × 10(-2) (Level IV, "Excellent" standard), respectively. Here we aimed to explore the integrated application of ecological two-sidedness and ecological process in agricultural production. Our results are of use to decision-makers and ecologists focusing on eco-agriculture and those farmers who hope to implement standardized agricultural production practices.

  15. Version VI of the ESTree db: an improved tool for peach transcriptome analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Barbara; Caprera, Andrea; Vecchietti, Alberto; Merelli, Ivan; Barale, Francesca; Milanesi, Luciano; Stella, Alessandra; Pozzi, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    Background The ESTree database (db) is a collection of Prunus persica and Prunus dulcis EST sequences that in its current version encompasses 75,404 sequences from 3 almond and 19 peach libraries. Nine peach genotypes and four peach tissues are represented, from four fruit developmental stages. The aim of this work was to implement the already existing ESTree db by adding new sequences and analysis programs. Particular care was given to the implementation of the web interface, that allows querying each of the database features. Results A Perl modular pipeline is the backbone of sequence analysis in the ESTree db project. Outputs obtained during the pipeline steps are automatically arrayed into the fields of a MySQL database. Apart from standard clustering and annotation analyses, version VI of the ESTree db encompasses new tools for tandem repeat identification, annotation against genomic Rosaceae sequences, and positioning on the database of oligomer sequences that were used in a peach microarray study. Furthermore, known protein patterns and motifs were identified by comparison to PROSITE. Based on data retrieved from sequence annotation against the UniProtKB database, a script was prepared to track positions of homologous hits on the GO tree and build statistics on the ontologies distribution in GO functional categories. EST mapping data were also integrated in the database. The PHP-based web interface was upgraded and extended. The aim of the authors was to enable querying the database according to all the biological aspects that can be investigated from the analysis of data available in the ESTree db. This is achieved by allowing multiple searches on logical subsets of sequences that represent different biological situations or features. Conclusions The version VI of ESTree db offers a broad overview on peach gene expression. Sequence analyses results contained in the database, extensively linked to external related resources, represent a large amount of

  16. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-01-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  17. An integrated approach for increasing breeding efficiency in apple and peach in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Francois; Aranzana, Maria José; Arus, Pere; Bassi, Daniele; Bink, Marco; Bonany, Joan; Caprera, Andrea; Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca; Costes, Evelyne; Durel, Charles-Eric; Mauroux, Jehan-Baptiste; Muranty, Hélène; Nazzicari, Nelson; Pascal, Thierry; Patocchi, Andrea; Peil, Andreas; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte; Rossini, Laura; Stella, Alessandra; Troggio, Michela; Velasco, Riccardo; van de Weg, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Despite the availability of whole genome sequences of apple and peach, there has been a considerable gap between genomics and breeding. To bridge the gap, the European Union funded the FruitBreedomics project (March 2011 to August 2015) involving 28 research institutes and private companies. Three complementary approaches were pursued: (i) tool and software development, (ii) deciphering genetic control of main horticultural traits taking into account allelic diversity and (iii) developing plant materials, tools and methodologies for breeders. Decisive breakthroughs were made including the making available of ready-to-go DNA diagnostic tests for Marker Assisted Breeding, development of new, dense SNP arrays in apple and peach, new phenotypic methods for some complex traits, software for gene/QTL discovery on breeding germplasm via Pedigree Based Analysis (PBA). This resulted in the discovery of highly predictive molecular markers for traits of horticultural interest via PBA and via Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) on several European genebank collections. FruitBreedomics also developed pre-breeding plant materials in which multiple sources of resistance were pyramided and software that can support breeders in their selection activities. Through FruitBreedomics, significant progresses were made in the field of apple and peach breeding, genetics, genomics and bioinformatics of which advantage will be made by breeders, germplasm curators and scientists. A major part of the data collected during the project has been stored in the FruitBreedomics database and has been made available to the public. This review covers the scientific discoveries made in this major endeavour, and perspective in the apple and peach breeding and genomics in Europe and beyond.

  18. Local predators attack exotic aphid Brachycaudus divaricatae in Lithuania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danilov, J.; Rakauskas, R.; Havelka, Jan; Starý, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2016), s. 263-269 ISSN 1721-8861 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Prunus * Aphids * Brachycaudus divaricatae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2016 http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/pdfarticles/vol69-2016-263-269danilov.pdf

  19. The Effect of Temperature and Host Plant Resistance on Population Growth of the Soybean Aphid Biotype 1 (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Ashley R; Nechols, James R; McCornack, Brian P; Margolies, David C; Sandercock, Brett K; Yan, Donglin; Murray, Leigh

    2017-02-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate direct and indirect effects of temperature on demographic traits and population growth of biotype 1 of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura. Our objectives were to better understand how temperature influences the expression of host plant resistance, quantify the individual and interactive effects of plant resistance and temperature on soybean aphid population growth, and generate thermal constants for predicting temperature-dependent development on both susceptible and resistant soybeans. To assess indirect (plant-mediated) effects, soybean aphids were reared under a range of temperatures (15-30 °C) on soybean seedlings from a line expressing a Rag1 gene for resistance, and life history traits were quantified and compared to those obtained for soybean aphids on a susceptible soybean line. Direct effects of temperature were obtained by comparing relative differences in the magnitude of life-history traits among temperatures on susceptible soybeans. We predicted that temperature and host plant resistance would have a combined, but asymmetrical, effect on soybean aphid fitness and population growth. Results showed that temperature and plant resistance influenced preimaginal development and survival, progeny produced, and adult longevity. There also appeared to be a complex interaction between temperature and plant resistance for survival and developmental rate. Evidence suggested that the level of plant resistance increased at higher, but not lower, temperature. Soybean aphids required about the same number of degree-days to develop on resistant and susceptible plants. Our results will be useful for making predictions of soybean aphid population growth on resistant plants under different seasonal temperatures. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Insulin-related peptide 5 is involved in regulating embryo development and biochemical composition in pea aphid with wing polyphenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan eGuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In aphids there is a fecundity-dispersal trade-off between wingless and winged morphs. Recent research on the molecular mechanism of wing morphs associated with dispersal reveals that insulin receptors in the insulin signaling (IS pathway regulate alteration of wing morphs in planthoppers. However, little is known about whether genes in the IS pathway are involved in developmental regulation in aphid nymphs with different wing morphs. In this study, we show that expression of the insulin-related peptide 5 gene (Apirp5 affects biochemical composition and embryo development of wingless pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. After comparing expression levels of major genes in the IS pathway between third instar winged and wingless nymphs, we found that Apirp5 showed higher expression in head and thorax of the wingless nymphs than in the winged nymphs. Although microinjection treatment affects physical performance in aphids, nymphs with RNA interference of Apirp5 had less weight, smaller embryo size and higher carbohydrate and protein contents compared to control group. Comparison between winged and wingless nymphs showed a similar trend. These results indicate that Apirp5 is involved in embryo development and metabolic regulation in wing dimorphic pea aphid.

  1. Aphid parasitoid (Hymenoptera:Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in wetland habitats in western Palearctic: key and associated aphid parasitoid guilds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomanović, Ž.; Starý, Petr; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Gagić, V.; Plećaš, M.; Janković, M.; Rakhshani, E.; Ćetković, A.; Petrović, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, 1-2 (2012), s. 189-198 ISSN 0037-9271 Grant - others:The Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia(RS) 043001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : aphid parasitoids * tritrophic interactions * wetlands Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2012 http://zoologie.umh.ac.be/asef/pdf/2012_48_01_02/full/Tomanovic_et_al_2012_ASEF_48_1_2_189_198_full.pdf

  2. Breeding in peach, cherry and plum: from a tissue culture, genetic, transcriptomic and genomic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilio Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is an overview of traditional and modern breeding methodologies being used to develop new Prunus cultivars (stone fruits with major emphasis on peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. To this end, common breeding tools used to produce seedlings, including in vitro culture tools, are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms of inheritance of many important agronomical traits are described. Recent advances in stone fruit transcriptomics and genomic resources are providing an understanding of the molecular basis of phenotypic variability as well as the identification of allelic variants and molecular markers. These have potential applications for understanding the genetic diversity of the Prunus species, molecular marker-assisted selection and transgenesis. Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs molecular markers are described as useful tools to describe genetic diversity in peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. Additionally, the recently sequenced peach genome and the public release of the sweet cherry genome are discussed in terms of their applicability to breeding programs

  3. Changes of oxidase and hydrolase activities in pecan leaves elicited by black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Ni, Xinzhi; Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Buntin, G David

    2009-06-01

    The black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a foliar feeder of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch (Juglandaceae). The pest causes chlorosis of leaflet lamina, physiological damage to foliage and trees, and commonly limits the profitability of commercial pecan orchard enterprises. However, key aspects of this host-pest interaction are poorly understood. We report here the effects of M. caryaefoliae feeding on the foliar activity of oxidative (i.e., catalase, lipoxygenase [LOX]-1 and 3, and peroxidase) and hydrolytic (i.e., esterase) enzymes in relation to the degree of aphid resistance among pecan varieties. The 2-yr study showed that M. caryaefoliae-infested foliage exhibited elevated peroxidase activity only in susceptible ('Desirable', 'Sumner', and 'Schley'), but not in resistant ('Cape Fear', 'Gloria Grande', and 'Money Maker') genotypes. Susceptible genotypes also exhibited more severe leaf chlorosis in response to M. caryaefoliae feeding than the resistant genotypes; however, the aphid feeding did not influence catalase or esterase activity in all varieties, except the increase of esterase activity in Desirable and Gloria Grande. Melanocallis caryaefoliae feeding also influences activity of two lipoxygenase isozymes, with LOX3 being more frequently induced than LOX1. Foliar LOX3 activity was more frequently induced by M. caryaefoliae feeding in the moderately resistant 'Oconee' and highly resistant Money Maker and Cape Fear than in the susceptible genotypes. Therefore, the elevation of peroxidase is likely to be associated with aphid susceptibility and contributed to the severe leaf chlorosis, whereas the increase of LOX3 activity might be associated with aphid resistance in pecan. These findings contribute to our understanding of the etiology of M. caryaefoliae-elicited leaf chlorosis on pecan foliage. Such information may also be used to develop enzyme markers for identifying black pecan aphid resistance

  4. Susceptibility of Aphelinus certus to foliar-applied insecticides currently or potentially registered for soybean aphid control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewin, Andrew J; Schaafsma, Arthur W; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2012-02-01

    Soybean aphid, a serious economic pest of soybean in North America, is currently managed by applying non-selective foliar insecticides during outbreaks according to decision thresholds and crop maturity. Natural enemies, such as the parasitoid Aphelinus certus Yasnosh, potentially play an important role in suppressing soybean aphid. Using selective insecticides that preserve A. certus may enhance the biological control service they provide and thus prevent or reduce the severity of soybean aphid outbreaks. The toxicity of five insecticides (λ-cyhalothrin, dimethoate, flonicamid, mineral oil, spirotetramat) and the biopesticide Beauveria bassiana to A. certus was assessed. The LD50 values of λ-cyhalothrin and dimethoate were similar; however, the hazard quotient of dimethoate was greater than that of λ-cyhalothrin. In a screening bioassay, the descending order of toxicity for the recommended rates 48 h after application was dimethoate>λ-cyhalothrin>flonicamid>mineral oil>Beauveria bassiana>spirotetramat. Overall, λ-cyhalothrin and dimethoate were both harmful to A. certus. The other insecticides tested were harmless to A. certus and are potential candidates for inclusion in soybean aphid management programs. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of Intercropping Collard with Beans or Onions on Aphid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemical sprays, which has tended to result in pest resistance and pollution to the environment, This ... effects of intercropping and nitrogen fertilization on aphid population on collard and the yield ... :h~ cultivation and sale of collard (Brassica.

  6. Is the response of aphids to alarm pheromone stable?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thieme, T.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 10 (2015), s. 741-746 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : (E)-β-farnesene * dropping response * habituation * Leguminosae * pea aphid Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2015

  7. Behavioral evidence for local reduction of aphid-induced resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prado, E.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five aphids of three different species, Brevicoryne brassicae L, Myzus persicae Schulzer, and Rhopalosiphum padi L(Hemiptera: Aphididae) were each allowed to infest leaves of a young plant of their respective host plant species for 4 days, except that the oldest expanded leaf (the `systemic¿

  8. 77 FR 46373 - Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No APHIS-2012-0061] Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control... for the biological control of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the continental United States. We... glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the Continental United States'' (March 2012...

  9. Preference and life history traits of Aphelinus abdominalis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) when offered different development stages of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Skovgård, Henrik; Steenberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    stages of the lettuce aphid were exposed for parasitism compared with older developmental stages. This pattern was supported in the choice experiment where significantly more 2nd instar lettuce aphids were parasitised than alatoid 4th instars, with Manly’s preference index (mean ± SE) for the former...... %) were found across all host stages of the lettuce aphid....

  10. Non-pest prey do not disrupt aphid predation by a web-building spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, K D; Whitney, T D; Harwood, J D

    2016-02-01

    A generalist predator's ability to contribute to biological control is influenced by the decisions it makes during foraging. Predators often use flexible foraging tactics, which allows them to pursue specific types of prey at the cost of reducing the likelihood of capturing other types of prey. When a pest insect has low nutritional quality or palatability for a predator, the predator is likely to reject that prey in favour of pursuing alternative, non-pest prey. This is often thought to limit the effectiveness of generalist predators in consuming aphids, which are of low nutritional quality for many generalist predators. Here, we report behavioural assays that test the hypothesis that the generalist predator, Grammonota inornata (Araneae: Linyphiidae), preferentially forages for a non-pest prey with high nutritional quality (springtails), and rejects a pest prey with low nutritional quality (aphids). In no-choice assays, molecular gut-content analysis revealed that spiders continued to feed on the low-quality aphids at high rates, even when high-quality springtails were readily available. When provided a choice between aphids and springtails in two-way choice tests, spiders did not show the expected preference for springtails. Decision-making by spiders during foraging therefore appears to be sub-optimal, possibly because of attraction to the less frequently encountered of two preys as part of a dietary diversification strategy. These results indicate that behavioural preferences alone do not necessarily compromise the pest-suppression capacity of natural enemies: even nutritionally sub-optimal pest prey can potentially be subject to predation and suppression by natural enemies.

  11. Salt Stress Effects on Secondary Metabolites of Cotton in Relation to Gene Expression Responsible for Aphid Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Many secondary metabolites have insecticidal efficacy against pests and may be affected by abiotic stress. However, little is known of how plants may respond to such stress as pertains the growth and development of pests. The objective of this study was to determine if and how salt stress on cotton plants affects the population dynamics of aphids. The NaCl treatment (50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM and 200 mM increased contents of gossypol in cotton by 26.8-51.4%, flavonoids by 22.5-37.6% and tannic by 15.1-24.3% at 7-28 d after salt stress. Compared with non-stressed plants, the population of aphids on 150 and 200 mM NaCl stressed plants was reduced by 46.4 and 65.4% at 7d and by 97.3 and 100% at 14 days after infestation. Reductions in aphid population were possibly attributed to the elevated secondary metabolism under salt stress. A total of 796 clones for aphids transcriptome, 412 clones in the positive- library (TEST and 384 clones in the reverse-library (Ck, were obtained from subtracted cDNA libraries and sequenced. Gene ontology (GO functional classification and KEGG pathway analysis showed more genes related to fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis, and fewer genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and cell motility pathways in TEST than in Ck library, which might be the reason of aphids population reduction. A comparative analysis with qRT-PCR indicated high expression of transcripts CYP6A14, CYP6A13, CYP303A1, NADH dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase in the TEST group. However, CYP307A1 and two ecdysone-induced protein genes were down regulated. The results indicate that genes of aphids related to growth and development can express at a higher level in reaction to the enhanced secondary metabolism in cotton under salinity stress. The expression of CYP307A1 was positively correlated with the population dynamics of aphids since it was involved in ecdysone synthesis.

  12. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with changes in the morphology of Pichia fermentans on apple and peach fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Stefano; Scherm, Barbara; Liu, Jia; Farrell, Robert; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Budroni, Marilena; Maserti, Bianca E; Wisniewski, Michael E; Migheli, Quirico

    2012-11-01

    Pichia fermentans (strain DISAABA 726) is an effective biocontrol agent against Monilinia fructicola and Botrytis cinerea when inoculated in artificially wounded apple fruit but is an aggressive pathogen when inoculated on wounded peach fruit, causing severe fruit decay. Pichia fermentans grows as budding yeast on apple tissue and exhibits pseudohyphal growth on peach tissue, suggesting that dimorphism may be associated with pathogenicity. Two complementary suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategies, that is, rapid subtraction hybridization (RaSH) and PCR-based subtraction, were performed to identify genes differentially expressed by P. fermentans after 24-h growth on apple vs. peach fruit. Gene products that were more highly expressed on peach than on apple tissue, or vice versa, were sequenced and compared with available yeast genome sequence databases. Several of the genes more highly expressed, when P. fermentans was grown on peach, were related to stress response, glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, and alcoholic fermentation but surprisingly not to cell wall degrading enzymes such as pectinases or cellulases. The dual activity of P. fermentans as both a biocontrol agent and a pathogen emphasizes the need for a thorough risk analysis of potential antagonists to avoid unpredictable results that could negatively impact the safe use of postharvest biocontrol strategies. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevated CO2 increases R gene-dependent resistance of Medicago truncatula against the pea aphid by up-regulating a heat shock gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yucheng; Guo, Huijuan; Yuan, Erliang; Ge, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Resistance against pathogens and herbivorous insects in many plant results from the expression of resistance (R) genes. Few reports, however, have considered the effects of elevated CO 2 on R gene-based resistance in plants. The current study determined the responses of two near isogenic Medicago truncatula genotypes (Jester has an R gene and A17 does not) to the pea aphid and elevated CO 2 in open-top chambers in the field. Aphid abundance, mean relative growth rate and feeding efficiency were increased by elevated CO 2 on A17 plants but were reduced on Jester plants. According to proteomic and gene expression data, elevated CO 2 enhanced pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) but decreased the effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in aphid-infested A17 plants. For aphid-infested Jester plants, by contrast, elevated CO 2 enhanced the ETI-related heat shock protein (HSP) 90 and its co-chaperones, the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In a loss-of-function experiment, silencing of the HSP90 gene in Jester plants impaired the JA signaling pathway and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis against the aphid under ambient CO 2 , and negated the increased resistance against the aphid under elevated CO 2 . Our results suggest that increases in expression of HSP90 are responsible for the enhanced resistance against the aphid under elevated CO 2 . © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) attacking aphids feeding on solanaceae and cucurbitaceae crops in Southeastern Europe: Aphidiine-aphid-plant associations and key

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavallieratos, N. G.; Tomanović, Ž.; Starý, Petr; Žikić, V.; Petrović-Obradović, O.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 2 (2010), s. 153-164 ISSN 0013-8746 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007102 Grant - others:The Ministry of Science and Environment Protection(CS) 143006B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Aphidiinae * aphids * Solanaceae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2010

  15. Is home-based palliative care cost-effective? An economic evaluation of the Palliative Care Extended Packages at Home (PEACH) pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Agar, Meera; Harlum, Janeane; Karnon, Jonathon; Currow, David; Eckermann, Simon

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a home-based palliative care model relative to usual care in expediting discharge or enabling patients to remain at home. Economic evaluation of a pilot randomised controlled trial with 28 days follow-up. Mean costs and effectiveness were calculated for the Palliative Care Extended Packages at Home (PEACH) and usual care arms including: days at home; place of death; PEACH intervention costs; specialist palliative care service use; acute hospital and palliative care unit inpatient stays; and outpatient visits. PEACH mean intervention costs per patient ($3489) were largely offset by lower mean inpatient care costs ($2450) and in this arm, participants were at home for one additional day on average. Consequently, PEACH is cost-effective relative to usual care when the threshold value for one extra day at home exceeds $1068, or $2547 if only within-study days of hospital admission are costed. All estimates are high uncertainty. The results of this small pilot study point to the potential of PEACH as a cost-effective end-of-life care model relative to usual care. Findings support the feasibility of conducting a definitive, fully powered study with longer follow-up and comprehensive economic evaluation.

  16. Coupling Genetics and Proteomics To Identify Aphid Proteins Associated with Vector-Specific Transmission of Polerovirus (Luteoviridae)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Thannhauser, T. W.; Burrows, Mary; Cox-Foster, Diana; Gildow, Fred E.; Gray, Stewart M.

    2008-01-01

    Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) is transmitted specifically by the aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum in a circulative nonpropagative manner. The high level of vector specificity results from the vector aphids having the functional components of the receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways to allow virus to transverse the gut and salivary tissues. Studies of F2 progeny from crosses of vector and nonvector genotypes of S. graminum showed that virus transmission efficiency is a heritable trait regulated by multiple genes acting in an additive fashion and that gut- and salivary gland-associated factors are not genetically linked. Utilizing two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis to compare the proteomes of vector and nonvector parental and F2 genotypes, four aphid proteins (S4, S8, S29, and S405) were specifically associated with the ability of S. graminum to transmit CYDV-RPV. The four proteins were coimmunoprecipitated with purified RPV, indicating that the aphid proteins are capable of binding to virus. Analysis by mass spectrometry identified S4 as a luciferase and S29 as a cyclophilin, both of which have been implicated in macromolecular transport. Proteins S8 and S405 were not identified from available databases. Study of this unique genetic system coupled with proteomic analysis indicated that these four virus-binding aphid proteins were specifically inherited and conserved in different generations of vector genotypes and suggests that they play a major role in regulating polerovirus transmission. PMID:17959668

  17. Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidinea and ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae in the urban environments of Bydgoszcz and its vicinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina BENNEWICZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study was aphids (Hem., Aphidinea in particularly valuable environments called environmental islands. In fact, they are specific refuges of beneficial and protected entomofauna in the agricultural landscape. The results can contribute to verification of protection of some arable crops by taking those habitats into consideration in the so-called natural biological pest control. Towns, in turn, are specific ecosystems which are composed of many factors with a clearly different character and intensity than in natural environments. On account of the important role and a small degree of knowing Carabidae fauna in urbanized areas, a study was undertaken in 1998 in Bydgoszcz and its neighbourhood, aimed at indicating hanges that occur in the fauna of Carabidae in various types of urban green and town protection zone, as well as determining the role of these environments as reservoirs of entomophagous species, which can disperse to agrocenoses.

  18. Non-pathogenic rhizobacteria interfere with the attraction of parasitoids to aphid-induced plant volatiles via jasmonic acid signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Ana; Soler, Roxina; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Shimwela, Mpoki M; VAN Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2013-02-01

    Beneficial soil-borne microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi or rhizobacteria, can affect the interactions of plants with aboveground insects at several trophic levels. While the mechanisms of interactions with herbivorous insects, that is, the second trophic level, are starting to be understood, it remains unknown how plants mediate the interactions between soil microbes and carnivorous insects, that is, the third trophic level. Using Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and the aphid Myzus persicae, we evaluate here the underlying mechanisms involved in the plant-mediated interaction between the non-pathogenic rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae, by combining ecological, chemical and molecular approaches. Rhizobacterial colonization modifies the composition of the blend of herbivore-induced plant volatiles. The volatile blend from rhizobacteria-treated aphid-infested plants is less attractive to an aphid parasitoid, in terms of both olfactory preference behaviour and oviposition, than the volatile blend from aphid-infested plants without rhizobacteria. Importantly, the effect of rhizobacteria on both the emission of herbivore-induced volatiles and parasitoid response to aphid-infested plants is lost in an Arabidopsis mutant (aos/dde2-2) that is impaired in jasmonic acid production. By modifying the blend of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that depend on the jasmonic acid-signalling pathway, root-colonizing microbes interfere with the attraction of parasitoids of leaf herbivores. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Neonicotinoid binding, toxicity and expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliane Taillebois

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are particularly effective against sucking pests. They are widely used in crops protection to fight against aphids, which cause severe damage. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to the commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI, thiamethoxam (TMX and clothianidin (CLT. Binding studies on aphid membrane preparations revealed the existence of high and low-affinity binding sites for [3H]-IMI (Kd of 0.16 ± 0.04 nM and 41.7 ± 5.9 nM and for the nicotinic antagonist [125I]-α-bungarotoxin (Kd of 0.008 ± 0.002 nM and 1.135 ± 0.213 nM. Competitive binding experiments demonstrated that TMX displayed a higher affinity than IMI for [125I]-α-bungarotoxin binding sites while CLT affinity was similar for both [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-IMI binding sites. Interestingly, toxicological studies revealed that at 48 h, IMI (LC50 = 0.038 µg/ml and TMX (LC50 = 0.034 µg/ml were more toxic than CLT (LC50 = 0.118 µg/ml. The effect of TMX could be associated to its metabolite CLT as demonstrated by HPLC/MS analysis. In addition, we found that aphid larvae treated either with IMI, TMX or CLT showed a strong variation of nAChR subunit expression. Using semi-quantitative PCR experiments, we detected for all insecticides an increase of Apisumα10 and Apisumβ1 expressions levels, whereas Apisumβ2 expression decreased. Moreover, some other receptor subunits seemed to be differently regulated according to the insecticide used. Finally, we also demonstrated that nAChR subunit expression differed during pea aphid development. Altogether these results highlight species specificity that should be taken into account in pest management strategies.

  20. Ultrastructure of compatible and incompatible interactions in phloem sieve elements during the stylet penetration by cotton aphids in melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garzo, E.; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Morcillo, Cesar; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, M.L.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Resistance of the melon line TGR-1551 to the aphid Aphis gossypii is based on preventing aphids from ingesting phloem sap. In electrical penetration graphs (EPGs), this resistance has been characterized with A. gossypii showing unusually long phloem salivation periods (waveform E1) mostly

  1. Minimising losses caused by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in vegetable cucurbit crops in tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean environments through cultural methods and host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, B A; Kehoe, M A; Jones, R A C

    2011-08-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, 10 field experiments were done at Kununurra, Carnarvon or Medina in Western Australia (WA) which have tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean climates, respectively. These experiments investigated the effectiveness of cultural control measures in limiting ZYMV spread in pumpkin, and single-gene resistance in commercial cultivars of pumpkin, zucchini and cucumber. Melon aphids (Aphis gossypii) colonised field experiments at Kununurra; migrant green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) visited but did not colonise at Carnarvon and Medina. Cultural control measures that diminished ZYMV spread in pumpkin included manipulation of planting date to avoid exposing young plants to peak aphid vector populations, deploying tall non-host barriers (millet, Pennisetum glaucum) to protect against incoming aphid vectors and planting upwind of infection sources. Clustering of ZYMV-infected pumpkin plants was greater without a 25m wide non-host barrier between the infection source and the pumpkin plants than when one was present, and downwind compared with upwind of an infection source. Host resistance gene zym was effective against ZYMV isolate Knx-1 from Kununurra in five cultivars of cucumber. In zucchini, host resistance gene Zym delayed spread of infection (partial resistance) in 2 of 14 cultivars but otherwise did not diminish final ZYMV incidence. Zucchini cultivars carrying Zym often developed severe fruit symptoms (8/14), and only the two cultivars in which spread was delayed and one that was tolerant produced sufficiently high marketable yields to be recommended when ZYMV epidemics are anticipated. In three pumpkin cultivars with Zym, this gene was effective against isolate Cvn-1 from Carnarvon under low inoculum pressure, but not against isolate Knx-1 under high inoculum pressure, although symptoms were milder and marketable yields greater in them than in cultivars without Zym. These findings allowed additional cultural control recommendations to be added

  2. Effect of controlled atmosphere on postharvest quality of 'Douradão' peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with one of the most important cultivar grown in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, which has gained the preference of consumers, due to its sweet taste, intense skin color and large size; however, these fruits are susceptible to chilling injury when cold stored for long periods. The use of controlled atmosphere (CA with elevated CO2 and reduced O2 concentrations prevent the onset of the chilling symptom. Thus, the effect of three different conditions of controlled atmosphere (CA1, CA2, CA3 and Control was evaluated in order to extend the storage life of 'Douradão' peaches. After 14, 21 and 28 days, samples were withdrawn from CA and kept in fresh air at 25 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH to complete ripening. On the day of removal and after 4 days, were the peaches quality characteristics were evaluated. The results showed that the use of CA during cold storage reduced weight loss and prevented postharvest decay. CA2 and CA3 treatments were effective in keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peaches during 28 days of cold storage, the ripe fruits showed reduced incidence of woolliness, adequate juiciness and flesh firmness. CA1 and Control treatments did not present marketable conditions after 14 days of cold storage.

  3. Efficacy of mineral oil combined with insecticides for the control of aphid virus vectors to reduce potato virus Y infections in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars M.; Nielsen, Steen L.

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are major vectors of plant viruses. Potato virus Y (PVY) is the most important aphid-transmitted virus affecting potato crops in Denmark. Because of a changed seed potato growing strategy, the seed potato area in Denmark is changing from regions with a low average temperature to regions...... with a higher average temperature. This means that the aphids may infest the potato crops earlier and the population development of the aphids may be faster, and consequently PVY may more easily become epidemic in seed potato crops. With a view to reducing the spread of PVY a 3-year experiment was carried out...... with a combination of mineral oil and insecticides. In 2005 and 2007 when a very high number of aphids were present, nearly all plants were infected with PVY. In 2006 with a lower number of aphids a smaller proportion of the plants were infected, and a tendency to a lower PVY incidence in mineral-oil treated plots...

  4. Thermal inactivation of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in Jubileu clingstone peach and yeast isolated from its spoiled puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Menezes Lopes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermal inactivation of yeast isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree and that of polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD in cv. Jubileu, which is widely cultivated in southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, were studied. PPO and POD were extracted using the protein powder method and submitted to partial purification by precipitation followed by dialysis. The enzymatic activity was determined measuring the increase in absorbance at 420 nm for PPO and 470 nm for POD. The yeast used in this investigation was isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree at 22 °Brix, with total initial microbial count of 22 × 10² UFCmL- 1. Stock cultures were maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA slants at 4 °C and pH 5 for later use for microbial growth. In all cases, kinetic analysis of the results suggests that the thermal inactivation was well described by a first-order kinetic model, and the temperature dependence was significantly represented by the Arrhenius law. Both enzymes were affected by heat denaturation, and PPO was more thermostable. PPO was also more thermosTable than the yeast isolated from peach puree. The D60-values were 1.53 and 1.87 min for PPO and yeast isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree, respectively.

  5. Pepo aphid-borne yellows virus: a new species in the genus Polerovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibaba, Jacques D; Laing, Mark D; Gubba, Augustine

    2017-02-01

    Pepo aphid-borne yellows virus (PABYV) has been proposed as a putative representative of a new species in the genus Polerovirus in the family Luteoviridae. The genomes of two South African (SA) isolates of cucurbit-infecting PABYV were described in this record. Total RNA, extracted from a pattypan (Cucurbita pepo L.) and a baby marrow (C. pepo L.) leaf samples, was subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the HiSeq Illumina platform. Sanger sequencing was subsequently used to authenticate the integrity of PABYV's genome generated from de novo assembly of the NGS data. PABYV genome of SA isolates consists of 5813 nucleotides and displays an organisation typical of poleroviruses. Genome sequence comparisons of the SA PABYV isolates to other poleroviruses support the classification of PABYV as a new species in the genus Polerovirus. Recombination analyses showed that PABYV and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) shared the same ancestor for the genome part situated between breaking points. Phylogenetic analyses of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the coat protein genes showed that SA PABYV isolates shared distant relationship with CABYV and Suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus. Based on our results, we propose that PABYV is a distinct species in the genus Polerovirus.

  6. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Gi [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun, E-mail: yhsuny@naver.co [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20+-3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  7. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon; Kim, Hong-Gi; Yook, Hong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20±3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  8. Co-combustion of peach and apricot stone with coal in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atimtay, Aysel T.; Kaynak, Burcak [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    In this study a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) having an inside diameter of 102 mm and a height of 900 mm was used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry with coal. A lignite coal was used for co-combustion. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. Variations of emissions of various pollutants were studied by changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity, and fuel feed rate). Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. For co-combustion of apricot and peach fruit stones with a lignite coal, various ratios of biomass to coal ranging from 0 to 100 wt.% were tested. For the peach stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies are about 98% and for the apricot stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies ranged between 94.7% and 96.9% for 25%, 50% and 75% of apricot stone in the fuel mixture. The results of this study have shown that as the biomass ratio in the fuel mixture increases, the combustion takes place at the upper regions of the main column. This causes higher temperatures in the freeboard than the bed. Also the CO and hydrocarbon (C{sub m}H{sub n}) emissions increase as the biomass percentage increases in the fuel mixture. This causes decrease in the combustion efficiency. These results suggest that peach and apricot stones are potential fuels that can be utilized for clean energy production in small-scale fruit juice industries by using BFBC. The percentage of peach stones or apricot stones in the fuel mixture is suggested to be below 50 wt.% in order to obtain the emission limits of EU. During the design of the BFBC, one has to be careful about the volatile matter (VM) content of the biomass. For the complete combustion of the VM, longer freeboard or secondary air addition should be

  9. Evaluation of fruit quality, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant activity of flat peach cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Claudio; Marallo, Nadia; Graziani, Giulia; Ritieni, Alberto; Di Matteo, Antonio

    2015-08-15

    Fruit quality traits (fresh weight, dry weight, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and firmness) as well as the content of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds) and total antioxidant activity were evaluated in four commercial cultivars of peach (Greta, Ufo 4, Rome Star and Ufo 6) and four of nectarine (Neve, Planet 1, Maria Carla and Mesembrina) differing in fruit shape (standard or flat) and flesh colour (white or yellow), important cultivars of the Italian and foreign market. The higher fruit organoleptic quality and nutritional profile of flat peach and nectarine cultivars make them candidates for exploiting new market opportunities and the chance to improve profits of farmers. The results showed that assayed quality parameters differed greatly among cultivars. In particular, flesh color and fruit shape accounted for most of the variation in traits underlying organoleptic and nutritional quality. Overall data suggested that the flat white-fleshed nectarine Planet 1, the yellow-fleshed nectarine Mesembrina and the yellow-fleshed peach Ufo 6, because of their profiles in terms of soluble solids content, titratable acidity and bioactive compounds, have the greatest potential to meet current consumer requirements. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Analysis of containment venting at the Peach Bottom atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.; Wright, R.E.; Leonard, M.T.; DiSalvo, R.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of the extent to which containment venting would be effective in preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents has been completed for the Peach Bottom Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). The analysis indicates that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment overpressurization highly depends on the sequence of the severe accident. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including transients with failure of long-term decay heat removal and loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks inside the containment. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with three severe accident sequences currently identified as important risk contributors at Peach Bottom. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction is identified, but their influence on risk is not analyzed. (orig./HP)

  11. Analysis of containment venting at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.; Wright, R.E.; Leonard, M.T.; DiSalvo, R.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of the extent to which containment venting would be effective in preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents has been completed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). The analysis indicates that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment overpressurization highly depends on the sequence of the severe accident. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including transients with failure of long-term decay heat removal and loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks inside the containment. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with three severe accident sequences currently identified as important risk contributors at Peach Bottom. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction is identified, but their influence on risk is not analyzed

  12. Nutritional status, yield and composition of peach fruit subjected to the application of organic compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Wellington Bastos de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional state, yield and composition of peaches on peach trees subjected to the application of organic compost to the soil. This experiment was conducted during the 2008 and 2009 cropping season in an orchard containing Chimarrita cultivars grafted onto Capdeboscq rootstocks and Haplumbrept soils in the municipality of Farroupilha (RS, Brazil. The treatments included 0, 9, 18, 36, 72 and 144 liters of organic compost per plant-1 year-1. The total nutrient contents in the leaves, yield components, yields per plant and hectare and compositions of the fruits were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 soon after harvest and after 30 days of storage. The application of organic compost to the soil increased the yield components and the yields per plant and hectare in the two treatments with the highest compost additions, which indicated that the addition of 72 L of compost per plant-1 is ideal economically. The organic compost had little effect on the composition of the peach fruit after harvest and after 30 days of storage.

  13. Releases of a natural flightless strain of the ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata reduce aphid-born honeydew beneath urban lime trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, S.T.E.; Holness, T.C.; Kuik, van A.J.; Jong, de P.W.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aphids can cause major environmental problems in urban areas. One important problem is the annual outbreaks of lime aphid, Eucallipterus tiliae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), which spoil the surroundings of lime trees by depositing honeydew. To date no environmentally friendly method has been

  14. Tools for evaluating Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in the field: Effects of host aphid and host plant on mummy location and color plus improved methods for obtaining adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.; Hoy, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Lipolexis oregmae Gahan was introduced into Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), on citrus. Prior to evaluating distribution, host range, and potential nontarget effects of L. oregmae in Florida, we evaluated the role of other potential host aphids and host plants on mummy production and location. Under laboratory conditions, this parasitoid produced the most progeny on the target pest, the brown citrus aphid on citrus. This parasitoid, unlike the majority of aphidiids, did not produce mummies on any of the host plants tested when reared in black citrus aphid T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) on grapefruit, spirea aphid Aphis spiraecola Patch on grapefruit and pittosporum, cowpea aphid A. craccivora Koch on grapefruit and cowpeas, or melon aphid A. gossypii Glover on grapefruit and cucumber. Thus, sampling for L. oregmae mummies of these host aphids and host plants must involve holding foliage in the laboratory until mummies are produced. This parasitoid requires high relative humidity to produce adults because no adults emerged when mummies were held in gelatin capsules, but high rates of emergence were observed when mummies were held on 1.5% agar plates. In addition, we compared the color of 6 aphid hosts and the color of mummies produced by L. oregmae when reared in them to determine if color of mummies could be used to identify L. oregmae . Mummy color varied between aphid hosts and tested host plants, and is not a useful tool for identifying L. oregmae for nontarget effects. (author) [es

  15. Crystal Structures and Binding Dynamics of Odorant-Binding Protein 3 from two aphid species Megoura viciae and Nasonovia ribisnigri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northey, Tom; Venthur, Herbert; De Biasio, Filomena; Chauviac, Francois-Xavier; Cole, Ambrose; Ribeiro, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Grossi, Gerarda; Falabella, Patrizia; Field, Linda M; Keep, Nicholas H; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2016-04-22

    Aphids use chemical cues to locate hosts and find mates. The vetch aphid Megoura viciae feeds exclusively on the Fabaceae, whereas the currant-lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri alternates hosts between the Grossulariaceae and Asteraceae. Both species use alarm pheromones to warn of dangers. For N. ribisnigri this pheromone is a single component (E)-β-farnesene but M. viciae uses a mixture of (E)-β-farnesene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene. Odorant-binding proteins (OBP) are believed to capture and transport such semiochemicals to their receptors. Here, we report the first aphid OBP crystal structures and examine their molecular interactions with the alarm pheromone components. Our study reveals some unique structural features: 1) the lack of an internal ligand binding site; 2) a striking groove in the surface of the proteins as a putative binding site; 3) the N-terminus rather than the C-terminus occupies the site closing off the conventional OBP pocket. The results from fluorescent binding assays, molecular docking and dynamics demonstrate that OBP3 from M. viciae can bind to all four alarm pheromone components and the differential ligand binding between these very similar OBP3s from the two aphid species is determined mainly by the direct π-π interactions between ligands and the aromatic residues of OBP3s in the binding pocket.

  16. Genomic characterization of putative allergen genes in peach/almond and their synteny with apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Shuiming; Illa, Eudald; Song, Lijuan; Wu, Shandong; Howad, Werner; Arús, Pere; Weg, Eric van de; Chen, Kunsong; Gao, Zhongshan

    2008-01-01

    Background Fruits from several species of the Rosaceae family are reported to cause allergic reactions in certain populations. The allergens identified belong to mainly four protein families: pathogenesis related 10 proteins, thaumatin-like proteins, lipid transfer proteins and profilins. These families of putative allergen genes in apple (Mal d 1 to 4) have been mapped on linkage maps and subsequent genetic study on allelic diversity and hypoallergenic traits has been carried out recently. In peach (Prunus persica), these allergen gene families are denoted as Pru p 1 to 4 and for almond (Prunus dulcis)Pru du 1 to 4. Genetic analysis using current molecular tools may be helpful to establish the cause of allergenicity differences observed among different peach cultivars. This study was to characterize putative peach allergen genes for their genomic sequences and linkage map positions, and to compare them with previously characterized homologous genes in apple (Malus domestica). Results Eight Pru p/du 1 genes were identified, four of which were new. All the Pru p/du 1 genes were mapped in a single bin on the top of linkage group 1 (G1). Five Pru p/du 2 genes were mapped on four different linkage groups, two very similar Pru p/du 2.01 genes (A and B) were on G3, Pru p/du 2.02 on G7,Pru p/du 2.03 on G8 and Pru p/du 2.04 on G1. There were differences in the intron and exon structure in these Pru p/du 2 genes and in their amino acid composition. Three Pru p/du 3 genes (3.01–3.03) containing an intron and a mini exon of 10 nt were mapped in a cluster on G6. Two Pru p/du 4 genes (Pru p/du 4.01 and 4.02) were located on G1 and G7, respectively. The Pru p/du 1 cluster on G1 aligned to the Mal d 1 clusters on LG16; Pru p/du 2.01A and B on G3 to Mal d 2.01A and B on LG9; the Pru p/du 3 cluster on G6 to Mal d 3.01 on LG12; Pru p/du 4.01 on G1 to Mal d 4.03 on LG2; and Pru p/du 4.02 on G7 to Mal d 4.02 on LG2. Conclusion A total of 18 putative peach/almond allergen genes have

  17. Genomic characterization of putative allergen genes in peach/almond and their synteny with apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weg Eric

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruits from several species of the Rosaceae family are reported to cause allergic reactions in certain populations. The allergens identified belong to mainly four protein families: pathogenesis related 10 proteins, thaumatin-like proteins, lipid transfer proteins and profilins. These families of putative allergen genes in apple (Mal d 1 to 4 have been mapped on linkage maps and subsequent genetic study on allelic diversity and hypoallergenic traits has been carried out recently. In peach (Prunus persica, these allergen gene families are denoted as Pru p 1 to 4 and for almond (Prunus dulcisPru du 1 to 4. Genetic analysis using current molecular tools may be helpful to establish the cause of allergenicity differences observed among different peach cultivars. This study was to characterize putative peach allergen genes for their genomic sequences and linkage map positions, and to compare them with previously characterized homologous genes in apple (Malus domestica. Results Eight Pru p/du 1 genes were identified, four of which were new. All the Pru p/du 1 genes were mapped in a single bin on the top of linkage group 1 (G1. Five Pru p/du 2 genes were mapped on four different linkage groups, two very similar Pru p/du 2.01 genes (A and B were on G3, Pru p/du 2.02 on G7,Pru p/du 2.03 on G8 and Pru p/du 2.04 on G1. There were differences in the intron and exon structure in these Pru p/du 2 genes and in their amino acid composition. Three Pru p/du 3 genes (3.01–3.03 containing an intron and a mini exon of 10 nt were mapped in a cluster on G6. Two Pru p/du 4 genes (Pru p/du 4.01 and 4.02 were located on G1 and G7, respectively. The Pru p/du 1 cluster on G1 aligned to the Mal d 1 clusters on LG16; Pru p/du 2.01A and B on G3 to Mal d 2.01A and B on LG9; the Pru p/du 3 cluster on G6 to Mal d 3.01 on LG12; Pru p/du 4.01 on G1 to Mal d 4.03 on LG2; and Pru p/du 4.02 on G7 to Mal d 4.02 on LG2. Conclusion A total of 18 putative peach

  18. Activated carbon from peach stones using phosphoric acid activation at medium temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Su

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the activation features of phosphoric acid have been investigated using waste peach stones as the raw material in the production of granular activated carbon. Thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis was conducted to characterize the thermal behavior of peach stone and titration method was used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the produced activated carbon. It was observed that the iodine value of the activated carbon increased with activation temperature. However, temperatures higher than 500 degrees C caused a thermal destruction, which resulted in the decrease of the adsorption capacity. Activation longer than 1.5 h at 500 degrees C resulted in thermal degradation of the porous structure of the activated carbon. The adsorption capacity was enhanced with increasing of amounts of phosphoric acid, however, excessive phosphoric acid caused a decrease in the iodine value. In addition, it was found that the carbon yields generally decreased with activation temperature and activation time. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was conducted to observe the changes in the poros structure of the activated carbon produced in different temperatures. Activation of carbon by phosphoric acid was found to be superior to that by CaCl2 and gas activation. The activated carbon produced from peach stone was applied as an adsorbent in the treatment of synthesized wastewater containing cadmium ion and its adsorption capacity was found to be as good as that of the commercial one.

  19. 76 FR 31295 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... forms to collect information related to the Federal marketing orders for nectarines and peaches grown in... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Andrew Hatch, Supervisory Marketing Specialist, Marketing Order... Email: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Marketing Order Nos. 916 and 917...

  20. The helper component-proteinase of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlotshwa, S.

    2000-01-01

    Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus causes severe yield losses in cowpea, an important legume crop in semi-arid regions of Africa. We have elucidated the genomic sequence of the virus and subsequently focused our attention on the so-called helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro), a

  1. Characterization and genetic dissection of resistance to spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii) in Medicago truncatula

    KAUST Repository

    Kamphuis, L. G.; Lichtenzveig, J.; Peng, K.; Guo, S.-M.; Klingler, John; Siddique, K. H. M.; Gao, L.-L.; Singh, K. B.

    2013-01-01

    Aphids cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide. Medicago truncatula, a model legume, cultivated pasture species in Australia and close relative of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), was used to study the defence response against Therioaphis trifolii f. maculate [spotted alfalfa aphid (SAA)]. Aphid performance and plant damage were compared among three accessions. A20 is highly susceptible, A17 has moderate resistance, and Jester is strongly resistant. Subsequent analyses using A17 and A20, reciprocal F1s and an A17×A20 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population revealed that this moderate resistance is phloem mediated and involves antibiosis and tolerance but not antixenosis. Electrical penetration graph analysis also identified a novel waveform termed extended potential drop, which occurred following SAA infestation of M. truncatula. Genetic dissection using the RIL population revealed three quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 3, 6, and 7 involved in distinct modes of aphid defence including antibiosis and tolerance. An antibiosis locus resides on linkage group 3 (LG3) and is derived from A17, whereas a plant tolerance and antibiosis locus resides on LG6 and is derived from A20, which exhibits strong temporary tolerance. The loci identified reside in regions harbouring classical resistance genes, and introgression of these loci in current medic cultivars may help provide durable resistance to SAA, while elucidation of their molecular mechanisms may provide valuable insight into other aphid–plant interactions.

  2. Characterization and genetic dissection of resistance to spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii) in Medicago truncatula

    KAUST Repository

    Kamphuis, L. G.

    2013-09-21

    Aphids cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide. Medicago truncatula, a model legume, cultivated pasture species in Australia and close relative of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), was used to study the defence response against Therioaphis trifolii f. maculate [spotted alfalfa aphid (SAA)]. Aphid performance and plant damage were compared among three accessions. A20 is highly susceptible, A17 has moderate resistance, and Jester is strongly resistant. Subsequent analyses using A17 and A20, reciprocal F1s and an A17×A20 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population revealed that this moderate resistance is phloem mediated and involves antibiosis and tolerance but not antixenosis. Electrical penetration graph analysis also identified a novel waveform termed extended potential drop, which occurred following SAA infestation of M. truncatula. Genetic dissection using the RIL population revealed three quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 3, 6, and 7 involved in distinct modes of aphid defence including antibiosis and tolerance. An antibiosis locus resides on linkage group 3 (LG3) and is derived from A17, whereas a plant tolerance and antibiosis locus resides on LG6 and is derived from A20, which exhibits strong temporary tolerance. The loci identified reside in regions harbouring classical resistance genes, and introgression of these loci in current medic cultivars may help provide durable resistance to SAA, while elucidation of their molecular mechanisms may provide valuable insight into other aphid–plant interactions.

  3. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on physiological traits and CBF gene expression in peach floral organs under freezing stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Binbin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA treatment on the cold resistance of peach flower, the floral organs of two peach cultivars were treated with 20 mg/L SA and stored at 0°C for observation and sample collection. Water application was the control. After a treatment period, the anther relative water content of the control and SA-treated flowers decreased. The extent of the reduction was greater in the control, suggesting that the SA treatment significantly helped to maintain the anther water content of peach. Analysis of the stigma relative electric conductivity revealed that the SA treatment prevented membrane injury during the low temperature treatment. Additionally, we measured CBF gene expression at low temperature in the petal, stigma and ovary. The expression was markedly upregulated in the cold-treated floral organs. CBF gene expression after SA treatment was higher than in the control when cold conditions continued. These results suggest that the effects of SA on ameliorating the freezing injury to peach floral organs and on enhancing cold tolerance may be associated with the induction of CBF gene.

  4. Hypersensitivity to Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Peach-Allergic Patients: rPrup 3 and rPrup 1 Are Predictive of Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheri, A; Farioli, L; Pravettoni, V; Piantanida, M; Stafylaraki, C; Scibilia, J; Mirone, C; Preziosi, D; Nichelatti, M; Pastorello, E A

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of allergens in the severity of tomato allergy symptoms has not yet been studied. To evaluate the relationship between severe allergic reactions to peach and tomato and between tomato allergy symptoms and the pattern of IgE positivity for rPru p 1, rPru p 3, rPru p 4, rBetv 1, rBetv 2, rBetv4, rPhl p 1, and rPhl p 12 in order to identify the role of recombinant allergens in the severity of reactions to tomato. We studied peach-allergic patients with clinical reactions to tomato by performing an open food challenge, skin prick test, and determination of serum specific IgE to tomato and to recombinant peach, birch, and grass allergens. Statistical analysis was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the severity of tomato symptoms and IgE positivity to the different allergens and to peach-induced symptoms. We found a significant association between severe reactions to tomato and severe reactions to peach (P = .01 7) and levels of IgE to rPru p3 (P = .029) and between mild tomato allergy symptoms and levels of IgE to rPru p1 (P = .047), anti-rBetv 1 (P = .0414), anti-rBetv 2 (P = .0457), and Phleum pratense (P = .0022). We observed a significant relationship between peach and symptoms of tomato allergy. IgE positivity for rPru p3 seems to be a surrogate biochemical marker for severe tomato allergy, whereas the presence of anti-rPru p 1 IgE may be an indicator of mild tomato allergy.

  5. APHiD: Hierarchical Task Placement to Enable a Tapered Fat Tree Topology for Lower Power and Cost in HPC Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelogiannakis, George; Ibrahim, Khaled Z.; Shalf, John; Wilke, Jeremiah J.; Knight, Samuel; Kenny, Joseph P.

    2017-05-14

    The power and procurement cost of bandwidth in system-wide networks has forced a steady drop in the byte/flop ratio. This trend of computation becoming faster relative to the network is expected to hold. In this paper, we explore how cost-oriented task placement enables reducing the cost of system-wide networks by enabling high performance even on tapered topologies where more bandwidth is provisioned at lower levels. We describe APHiD, an efficient hierarchical placement algorithm that uses new techniques to improve the quality of heuristic solutions and reduces the demand on high-level, expensive bandwidth in hierarchical topologies. We apply APHiD to a tapered fat-tree, demonstrating that APHiD maintains application scalability even for severely tapered network configurations. Using simulation, we show that for tapered networks APHiD improves performance by more than 50% over random placement and even 15% in some cases over costlier, state-of-the-art placement algorithms.

  6. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resistance source to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... The present study evaluated the resistance of 7 varieties of the broad bean Vicia faba L. to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854. These landraces from the region of Biskra (in the south of Algeria) were selected in an initial field trial and subjected to further testing in the greenhouse. Landrace V51.

  8. Elucidating the resistance response of irradiated banana cv. Lakatan to banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) infection transmitted by the banana aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Cueva, F.M.; Sison, M.L.J.; Dinglasan, E.G.; Damasco, O.P.

    2014-01-01

    Development of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)-resistant banana variety Lakatan through gamma-irradiation had been successfully done as part of integrated management strategies against the disease. Ten irradiated Lakatan lines exhibited resistance to BBTV. Resistance of these lines was evaluated based on symptomatology and host-virus relationship. Insect colony development on Lakatan banana irradiated lines was monitored by artificially inoculating viruliferous banana aphids, Pentalonia nigronervosa, and counting the resulting number of aphids per plant at weekly intervals. Resistance to virus multiplication of Lakatan irradiated lines was characterized by quantifying the virus titer through Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results showed that not all lines were suitable as hosts in establishing aphid population. The reaction of the mutant lines to the vector and the pathogen varied to some extent. Disease incidence in some cases was correlated with aphid preference. Disease incidence was significantly higher (50%) on lines that were preferred by aphids and lower (50%) in those that were not colonized. Some mutant lines with very low aphid colony count, however showed high BBTV incidence. Variability in the results could be affected by other factors such as the developmental stage of the plant and prevailing environmental conditions during the conduct of the experiment. Virus titer was also reduced on these mutant lines, thus reduced virus multiplication. Non-irradiated (control) Lakatan banana had comparably high population of aphids, high disease incidence, and high virus titer

  9. Development of biocontrol agents from food microbial isolates for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Schneider, Karin E; Li, Xiu-Zhen

    2008-08-15

    An unconventional strategy of screening food microbes for biocontrol activity was used to develop biocontrol agents for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Forty-four microbial isolates were first screened for their biocontrol activity on apple fruit. Compared with the pathogen-only check, seven of the 44 isolates reduced brown rot incidence by >50%, including four bacteria: Bacillus sp. C06, Lactobacillus sp. C03-b and Bacillus sp. T03-c, Lactobacillus sp. P02 and three yeasts: Saccharomyces delbrueckii A50, S. cerevisiae YE-5 and S. cerevisiae A41. Eight microbial isolates were selected for testing on peaches by wound co-inoculation with mixtures of individual microbial cultures and conidial suspension of M. fructicola. Only two of them showed significant biocontrol activity after five days of incubation at 22 degrees C. Bacillus sp. C06 suppressed brown rot incidence by 92% and reduced lesion diameter by 88% compared to the pathogen-only check. Bacillus sp.T03-c reduced incidence and lesion diameter by 40% and 62%, respectively. The two isolates were compared with Pseudomonas syringae MA-4, a biocontrol agent for post-harvest peach diseases, by immersing peaches in an aliquot containing individual microbial isolates and the pathogen conidia. Treatments with isolates MA-4, C06 and T03-c significantly controlled brown rot by 91, 100, and 100% respectively. However, only isolates MA-4 and C06 significantly reduced brown rot by 80% and 15%, respectively when bacterial cells alone were applied. On naturally infected peaches, both the bacterial culture and its cell-free filtrate of the isolate C06 significantly controlled peach decay resulting in 77 and 90% reduction, respectively, whereas the treatment using only the bacterial cells generally had no effect. Isolate C06 is a single colony isolate obtained from a mesophilic cheese starter, and has been identified belonging to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The results have clearly

  10. Neonicotinoid Binding, Toxicity and Expression