WorldWideScience

Sample records for green pasture status

  1. Improvement of Selenium Status of Pasture Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1984-01-01

    Selenium was applied to pasture crops in a field experiment (1) by foliar application of 10 g Se/ha as selenite in the spring, (2) or by 5 g Se/ha in the spring plus 5 g in early August, (3) as selenite-enriched calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) at 4 g Se/ha after each cut, and (4) as 4 g Se after...

  2. Soil water status under perennial and annual pastures on an acid duplex soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, L.K.; White, R.E.; Chen, D.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive field study of soil water balance, nitrogen (N) cycling, pasture management and animal production was carried out on an acid duplex soil at Book Book near Wagga Wagga in southern New South Wales. The experiment, carried out over a 3-year period, tested the hypothesis that sown perennial grass pastures improve the sustainability of a grazing system through better use of water and N. The treatments were: annual pastures without lime (AP-), annual pastures with lime (AP+), perennial pastures without lime (PP-) and perennial pastures with lime (PP+). Soil water measurement was made using a neutron probe on one set of the treatments comprising four adjacent paddocks. Over three winter and spring periods, the results showed that perennial grass pastures, especially PP+, consistently extracted about 40 mm more soil water each year than did the annual grass pastures. As a result, surface runoff, sub-surface flow and deep drainage (percolation below 180 cm depth) were about 40 mm less from the perennial pastures. The soil water status of the four pasture treatments was simulated reasonably well using a simple soil water model. Together with the long-term simulation of deep drainage, using past meteorological records, it is shown that proper management of perennial pastures can reduce recharge to groundwater and make pastoral systems more sustainable in the high rainfall zone. However, to completely reduce recharge, more-deeply rooted plants or trees are needed. (author)

  3. A Global Assessment of Long-Term Greening and Browning Trends in Pasture Lands Using the GIMMS LAI3g Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin I. Cook

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pasture ecosystems may be particularly vulnerable to land degradation due to the high risk of human disturbance (e.g., overgrazing, burning, etc., especially when compared with natural ecosystems (non-pasture, non-cultivated where direct human impacts are minimal. Using maximum annual leaf area index (LAImax as a proxy for standing biomass and peak annual aboveground productivity, we analyze greening and browning trends in pasture areas from 1982–2008. Inter-annual variability in pasture productivity is strongly controlled by precipitation (positive correlation and, to a lesser extent, temperature (negative correlation. Linear temporal trends are significant in 23% of pasture cells, with the vast majority of these areas showing positive LAImax trends. Spatially extensive productivity declines are only found in a few regions, most notably central Asia, southwest North America, and southeast Australia. Statistically removing the influence of precipitation reduces LAImax trends by only 13%, suggesting that precipitation trends are only a minor contributor to long-term greening and browning of pasture lands. No significant global relationship was found between LAImax and pasture intensity, although the magnitude of trends did vary between cells classified as natural versus pasture. In the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, the median rate of greening in pasture cells is significantly higher than for cells dominated by natural vegetation. In the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics, conversely, greening of natural areas is 2–4 times the magnitude of greening in pasture areas. This analysis presents one of the first global assessments of greening and browning trends in global pasture lands, including a comparison with vegetation trends in regions dominated by natural ecosystems. Our results suggest that degradation of pasture lands is not a globally widespread phenomenon and, consistent with much of the terrestrial biosphere, there have been widespread

  4. Green leaf allowance and dairy ewe performance grazing on tropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, J; Batistel, F; Ticiani, E; Sandri, E C; Pedreira, C G S; Oliveira, D E

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explain the influence of green leaf allowance levels on the performance of dairy ewes grazing a tropical grass. Seventy-two lactating ewes grazed Aruana guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana) for 80 d. The treatments were 4 daily levels of green leaf allowance (GLA) on a DM basis corresponding to 4, 7, 10, and 13 kg DM/100 kg BW, which were named low, medium-low, medium-high, and high level, respectively. The experimental design was completely randomized with 3 replications. During the experimental period, 4 grazing cycles were evaluated in a rotational stocking grazing method (4 d of grazing and 16 d of rest). There was a linear effect of GLA on forage mass, and increasing GLA resulted in increased total leaf mass, reaching an asymptotic plateau around the medium-high GLA level. The stem mass increased with increased GLA, and a pronounced increase was observed between medium-high and high GLAs. Increasing GLA increased both forage disappearance rate and postgrazing forage mass. Leaf proportion increased with GLA, peaking at the medium-high level, and the opposite occurred for stem proportions, which reduced until medium-high GLA level, followed by an increase on high GLA. Forage CP decreased linearly with GLA, and increasing GLA from low to high reduced CP content by 31%. On the other hand, NDF increased 14% and ADF increased 26%, both linearly in response to greater GLA levels. Total digestible nutrients decreased linearly by 8% when GLA increased from low to high level. Milk yield increased, peaking at medium-high GLA (1.75 kg ewe(-1) d(-1)) and decreased at high GLA level (1.40 kg ewe(-1) d(-1)). Milk composition was not affected by the GLA levels. There was a reduction in stocking rate from 72 to 43 ewes/ha when GLA increased from low to high level. Productivity (milk yield kg ha(-1) d(-1)) increased as GLA increased, peaking at medium-low level (115 kg ha(-1) d(-1)). Although this tropical grass showed the same

  5. Fertility and acidity status of latossolos (oxisols under pasture in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R.S. Vendrame

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado region, with over 50 million hectares of cultivated pasture, provides 55% of Brazilian beef production. Previous investigations have shown that about 70-80% of this pasture is affected by some kind of degradation, leading to low productivity. However, until now, few surveys have been carried out on a regional scale. The aim of the present work is both to assess the fertility and acidity levels of Cerrado soils under pasture and compare the variability of the soils characteristics on a regional scale. Two soil depths were sampled in different places within the studied area: (1 a surface horizon (0.0-0.2 m in order to evaluate its fertility and acidity status for pasture, and (2 a subsurface horizon (0.6-0.8 m, used for classification. Most of soils had levels of nutrients below the reference values for adequate pasture development. Whatever the texture, about 90% of soils had low or very low availability of phosphorus. Only 7 to 14% of soils had low pH, high exchangeable aluminum, and aluminum saturation above the critical acidity level. Except for nitrogen, no significant difference was found between Latossolos Vermelhos and Latossolos Vermelho-Amarelos.A região do Cerrado, com 50 milhões de hectares de pastagens cultivadas, responde por 55% da carne bovina produzida no Brasil. Há estimativas indicando que entre 70 e 80% destas pastagens apresentam algum grau de degradação, o que leva a baixa produtividade. No entanto, até o presente, poucos trabalhos foram desenvolvidos em escala regional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fertilidade e a acidez de Latossolos sob pastagens na região do Cerrado e comparar a variabilidade das características dos solos em escala regional. A amostragem foi realizada em duas profundidades, superficial (0,0-0,2 m para avaliação da fertilidade e acidez e subsuperficial (0,60,8 m, utilizada para classificar os solos. A maioria dos solos apresentou teores de nutrientes abaixo do recomendado

  6. Mountain pastures of Qilian Shan: plant communities, grazing impact and degradation status (Gansu province, NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Alina; Schickhoff, Udo; Shunli, Wang; Ming, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Qilian Mountains are the water source region for the low arid reaches of HeiHe river basin (Gansu province, NW China). Due to overstocking and overgrazing during the last decades adverse ecological ef¬fects, in particular on soil properties and hydrological cycle, are to be expected in growing land areas. Vegetation cover is very important to prevent erosion process and to sustain stable subsurface runoff and ground water flow. The aim of this research is to identify plant communities, detecting grazing-induced and spatially differentiated changes in vegetation patterns, and to evaluate status of pasture land degradation.The study area is located in the spring/autumn pasture area of South Qilian Mountains between 2600-3600 m a.s.l., covering five main vegetation types: spruce forest, alpine shrubland, shrubby grassland, mountain grassland, degraded mountain grassland. In order to analyze gradual changes in vegetation patterns along altitudinal and grazing gradients and to classify related plant communities, quantitative and qualitative relevé data were collected (coverage, species composition, abundance of unpalatable plants, plant functional types, etc.). Vegetation was classified using hierarchical cluster analyses. Indirect Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was used to analyze variation in relationships between vegetation, environmental factors, and grazing impact. According to DCA results, distribution of the plant communities was strongly affected by altitude and exposition. Grassland floristic gradients showed greater dependence on grazing impact, which correlated contrarily with soil organic content, soil moisture and pH. Highest numbers of species richness and alpha diversity were detected in alpine shrubland vegetation type. Comparing the monitoring data for the recent nine years, a trend of deterioration, species successions and shift in dominant species becomes obvious. Species indicating degrading site environmental conditions were identified

  7. Reclamation status of a degraded pasture based on soil health indicators.

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS, C. A. dos; KRAWULSKI, C. C.; BINI, D.; GOULART FILHO, T.; KNOB, A.; MEDINA, C. C.; ANDRADE FILHO, G.; NOGUEIRA, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Pasture degradation is a concern, especially in susceptible sandy soils for which strategies to recover them must be developed. Microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators are useful in the guindace of soil management practices and sustainable soil use. We assessed the success of threePanicum maximum Jacq. cultivars in the reclamation of a pasture in a sandy Typic Acrudox in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, based on soil health indicators. On a formerly degraded p...

  8. Reclamation status of a degraded pasture based on soil health indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Alcantara dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasture degradation is a concern, especially in susceptible sandy soils for which strategies to recover them must be developed. Microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators are useful in the guindace of soil management practices and sustainable soil use. We assessed the success of threePanicum maximum Jacq. cultivars in the reclamation of a pasture in a sandy Typic Acrudox in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, based on soil health indicators. On a formerly degraded pasture withUrochloa brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. R.D. Webster, a trial with threeP. maximum (cv. Massai, Tanzânia, or Mombaça was conducted. Lime and phosphate were applied at set-up, and mineral N and K as topdressing. A remnant of degraded pasture adjacent to the trial was used as control. Twenty-three chemical, physical, microbiological and biochemical attributes were assessed for the 0-10 cm topsoil. The procedures for reclamation improved most of the indicators of soil health in relation to the degraded pasture, such as soil P, mineral N, microbial biomass C, ammonification rate, dehydrogenase activity and acid phosphatase. CO2 evolution decreased, whereas microbial biomass C increased in the pasture under reclamation, resulting in a lower metabolic quotient (qCO2 that points to a decrease in metabolic stress of the microbial community. The reclamation of the pasture withP. maximum, especially cv. Mombaça, were evidenced by improvements in the microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators, showing a recovery of processes related to C, N and P cycling in the soil.

  9. Green Jobs in Australia: A Status Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hegarty

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper captures the breadth of complexity in the debate about ‘green jobs’ as the world seeks to transition to a ‘low carbon economy’ and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the reduction of reliance for energy on the burning of fossil fuels. A consideration is provided within both the Australian and international contexts of the current assertions and projections regarding green jobs, their definition and location in the economy. The substantive focus of the paper is on the development of these notions in the Australian context. We consider the understanding brought to the term and explore some of the intersections for vocational employment and training which have emerged in debate about the ways in which nations will manage the carbon pollution reduction imperative. We explore the ways forward for a coherent understanding of the need to build capacity for green jobs.

  10. Short communication: Characterizing metabolic and oxidant status of pastured dairy cows postpartum in an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elischer, M F; Sordillo, L M; Siegford, J M; Karcher, E L

    2015-10-01

    The periparturient period represents a stressful time for dairy cows as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. Undesirable fluctuations in metabolites and impaired immune defense mechanisms near parturition can severely affect cow health and have residual effects on performance and longevity. Metabolic and oxidative stress profiles of multiparous and primiparous dairy cows in traditional parlor and feeding systems are well characterized, but status of these profiles in alternative management systems, such as grazing cows managed with an automatic milking system (AMS), are poorly characterized. Therefore, the objective of this case study was to characterize the metabolic and oxidant status of pastured cows milked with an AMS. It was hypothesized that primiparous and multiparous cows milked with an AMS would experience changes in oxidative and metabolic status after parturition; however, these changes would not impair cow health or production. Blood was collected from 14 multiparous and 8 primiparous Friesian-cross dairy cows at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d relative to calving for concentrations of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and antioxidant potential. Milk production and milking frequency data were collected postpartum. Milk production differed on d 7 and 14 between primiparous and multiparous cows and frequency was not affected by parity. Primiparous cows had higher levels of glucose than multiparous cows. No differences in insulin, NEFA, or β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were noted between multiparous and primiparous cows postpartum, though days relative to calving significantly affected insulin and NEFA. Primiparous cows also had higher antioxidant potential than multiparous cows during the postpartum period. Results from this study show that, although responses were within expected ranges, periparturient multiparous cows responded differently than periparturient

  11. Survey of the mineral status of pastures and small ruminants in the West Region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njwe, RM.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Four dominant grass species (Hyparrhenia rufa, Melinis minutiflora, Pennisetum purpureum and Sporobolus africanus of natural pastures of the West Region of Cameroon were sampled at 60 sites between September and November of 1985. The grass samples were analysed for calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, iron, mangenese, copper and zinc. Serum was also collected from goats and sheep at the same locations where forages were sampled and analysed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and copper. Results showed that P, Mg, A/a, Zn and Cu in forages were generally below the critical level stipulated to satisfy the requirements of grazing livestock in the tropics. Calcium was inadequate in the sera of goats and sheep where as P, Mg, Zn and Cu were adequate. Use of salt licks to supplement intake of mineral elements from grasses by goats and sheep is necessary in the region.

  12. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2015 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The voluntary green power market refers to the sale and procurement of renewable energy for voluntary purposes by residential and commercial customers. This report reviews seven green power procurement mechanisms: utility green pricing programs, utility green tariffs, voluntary unbundled renewable energy certificates, competitive supplier green power, community choice aggregations, voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs), and community solar. This report details the status of trends of those seven green power procurement mechanisms in 2015. Three trends -- significant growth of the voluntary PPA project pipeline, innovative green power mechanisms developed by utilities, and geographic expansion of green power mechanisms -- suggest that the green power market is likely to continue to grow in coming years.

  13. [Study on the iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders status in pasturing areas of Tibet-a non-epidemic area of iodine deficiency disorders in serious iodine deficiency district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Dan; Li, Su-Mei; Li, Xiu-Wei; Wang, Hai-Yan; Li, Shu-Hua; Nima, Cangjue; Danzeng, Sangbu; Zhuang, Guang-Xiu

    2010-08-01

    To explore the status of iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders in the pasturing areas and agricultural regions in Tibet. 30 families were selected respectively in pastoral Dangxiong county and agricultural Qushui county of Lasa. Drinking water and edible salt were collected for testing the iodine contents. In each type of the following populations including children aged 8 - 10, women of child-bearing age and male adults, 50 subjects were randomly sampled to examine their urinary iodine contents. Among them, 50 children and 50 women were randomly selected for goiter examination by palpation. Water iodine content was less than 2 µg/L, both in pasturing area and in agricultural areas. There was no iodized salt used in the families of pasturing areas, while 90% people consumed iodized salt in agricultural areas. The median of urinary iodine in pasturing area was 50.2 µg/L, significantly lower than that of agricultural area (193.2 µg/L). However, the goiter rate of children and women in pasturing area was significantly lower than that in agricultural area. Although iodine intake of populations in pasturing area of Tibet was severely deficient, there was no epidemic of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. This phenomenon noticed by the researchers deserved further investigation.

  14. Inequality, green spaces, and pregnant women: roles of ethnicity and individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvand, Payam; Wright, John; Martinez, David; Basagaña, Xavier; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Cirach, Marta; Gidlow, Christopher J; de Hoogh, Kees; Gražulevičienė, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-10-01

    Evidence of the impact of green spaces on pregnancy outcomes is limited with no report on how this impact might vary by ethnicity. We investigated the association between residential surrounding greenness and proximity to green spaces and birth weight and explored the modification of this association by ethnicity and indicators of individual (maternal education) and neighbourhood (Index of Multiple Deprivation) socioeconomic status. Our study was based on 10,780 singleton live-births from the Born in Bradford cohort, UK (2007-2010). We defined residential surrounding greenness as average of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in buffers of 50 m, 100 m, 250 m, 500 m and 1000 m around each maternal home address. Residential proximity to green spaces was defined as living within 300 m of a green space with an area of ≥ 5000 m(2). We utilized mixed effects models to estimate adjusted change in birth weight associated with residential surrounding greenness as well as proximity to green spaces. We found a positive association between birth weight and residential surrounding greenness. Furthermore, we observed an interaction between ethnicity and residential surrounding greenness in that for White British participants there was a positive association between birth weight and residential surrounding greenness whereas for participants of Pakistani origin there was no such an association. For surrounding greenness in larger buffers (500 m and 1000 m) there were some indications of stronger associations for participants with lower education and those living in more deprived neighbourhoods which were not replicated for surrounding greenness in smaller buffer sizes (i.e. 50 m, 100 m, and 250 m). The findings for residential proximity to a green space were not conclusive. Our study showed that residential surrounding greenness is associated with better foetal growth and this association could vary between different ethnic and socioeconomic groups

  15. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2014 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nobler, Erin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-16

    NREL's annual report on green power markets summarizes status and trends in the voluntary demand for renewable energy. U.S. green power markets have become more complex over time as state-level policies have enabled more avenues for green power purchases. In recent years, community solar, community choice aggregation (CCA), and voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs) have significantly increased the number of U.S. voluntary green power customers. The community solar model has grown rapidly with 90 projects in 25 states by 2015. Renewable energy sales in CCAs declined slightly in 2014 in response to less favorable economic conditions in Illinois. At the same time, several California CCAs continued to grow, and many more communities are planning to pursue green power through aggregation. Voluntary green power purchasing through bi-lateral PPAs took off in 2014 due to several large-scale agreements signed by information and communication technology firms. Traditional green power options, such as utility green pricing programs and voluntary RECs markets, also grew in 2014. Current trends suggest strong continued growth in U.S. voluntary green power markets.

  16. Green roofs for a drier world: effects of hydrogel amendment on substrate and plant water status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Tadeja; Marin, Maria; Boldrin, David; Incerti, Guido; Andri, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-08-15

    Climate features of the Mediterranean area make plant survival over green roofs challenging, thus calling for research work to improve water holding capacities of green roof systems. We assessed the effects of polymer hydrogel amendment on the water holding capacity of a green roof substrate, as well as on water status and growth of Salvia officinalis. Plants were grown in green roof experimental modules containing 8 cm or 12 cm deep substrate (control) or substrate mixed with hydrogel at two different concentrations: 0.3 or 0.6%. Hydrogel significantly increased the substrate's water content at saturation, as well as water available to vegetation. Plants grown in 8 cm deep substrate mixed with 0.6% of hydrogel showed the best performance in terms of water status and membrane integrity under drought stress, associated to the lowest above-ground biomass. Our results provide experimental evidence that polymer hydrogel amendments enhance water supply to vegetation at the establishment phase of a green roof. In particular, the water status of plants is most effectively improved when reduced substrate depths are used to limit the biomass accumulation during early growth stages. A significant loss of water holding capacity of substrate-hydrogel blends was observed after 5 months from establishment of the experimental modules. We suggest that cross-optimization of physical-chemical characteristics of hydrogels and green roof substrates is needed to improve long term effectiveness of polymer-hydrogel blends. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vitamin B12 status and the effects of vitamin B12 supplementation during the first year of life of spring calves from pasture-fed dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, N D; Knowles, S O; Nortjé, R

    2014-09-01

    To determine the vitamin B12 status of dairy calves during their first year of life, and to evaluate the benefits of vitamin B12 supplementation. In Experiment I, 20 17-day-old heifer calves from the AgResearch Flock House herd were monitored until 198 days old. On Days 0 and 90 of the study, half of the animals received an injection of microencapsulated vitamin B12 at 0.12 mg/kg bodyweight. All received colostrum, milk replacer and calf meal, with ad libitum access to pasture. At regular intervals the calves were weighed and serum collected for vitamin B12 measurement. In Experiment II at Flock House and the adjacent Landcorp Tangimoana station, 80 150-day-old heifer calves were monitored until 342 days old. On Days 0 and 97, half of the animals received vitamin B12 as per Experiment I. At regular intervals samples were collected from 12 calves per group, to determine concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum. Mean concentration of vitamin B12 in milk replacer was 63 (SE 4) µg/kg dry matter (DM). Cobalt concentrations in calf meal were 0.45-1.58 and 0.07-0.28 mg/kg DM in pastures. From 17 to 198 days of age (Experiment I) mean concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum of the control group decreased from 119 (SE 8) to 57 (SE 5) pmol/L. From 150 to 342 days of age (Experiment II), overall mean concentrations of the control groups at Flock House and Tangimoana were 90 (SE 2) and 96 (SE 3) pmol/L, respectively. Vitamin B12 injections increased (ppasture-based diet. Supplementation increased concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum but did not improve liveweight gains. Under this calf rearing system, vitamin B12 deficiency is unlikely to occur prior to weaning, and vitamin B12 supplementation is unlikely to increase growth rates of grazing calves when concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum are > 90 pmol/L.

  18. Green Space and Child Weight Status: Does Outcome Measurement Matter? Evidence from an Australian Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taren Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether neighbourhood green space is beneficially associated with (i waist circumference (WC and (ii waist-to-height ratio (WtHR across childhood. Methods. Gender-stratified multilevel linear regressions were used to examine associations between green space and objective measures of weight status in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative source of data on 4,423 children aged 6 y to 13 y. WC and WtHR were measured objectively. Percentage green space within the local area of residence was calculated. Effect modification by age was explored, adjusting for socioeconomic confounding. Results. Compared to peers with 0–5% green space locally, boys and girls with >40% green space tended to have lower WC (βboys  −1.15, 95% CI −2.44, 0.14; βgirls  −0.21, 95% CI −1.47, 1.05 and WtHR (βboys  −0.82, 95% CI −1.65, 0.01; βgirls  −0.32, 95% CI −1.13, 0.49. Associations among boys were contingent upon age (p  valuesage∗green  space40% green space at 73.85 cm and 45.75% compared to those with 0–5% green space at 75.18 cm and 46.62%, respectively. Conclusions. Greener neighbourhoods appear beneficial to alternative child weight status measures, particularly among boys.

  19. Green Monopropellant Status at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Pierce, Charles W.; Pedersen, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is continuing investigations into the use of green monopropellants as a replacement for hydrazine in spacecraft propulsion systems. Work to date has been to push technology development through multiple activities designed to understand the capabilities of these technologies. Future work will begin to transition to mission pull as these technologies are mature while still keeping a solid goal of pushing technology development as opportunities become available. The AF-M315E activities began with hot-fire demonstration testing of a 1N monopropellant thruster in FY 14 and FY15. Following successful completion of the preliminary campaign, changes to the test stand to accommodate propellant conditioning capability and better control of propellant operations was incorporated to make testing more streamlined. The goal is to conduct hot-fire testing with warm and cold propellants using the existing feed system and original thruster design. Following the 1N testing, a NASA owned 100 mN thruster will be hot-fire tested in the same facility to show feasibility of scaling to smaller thrusters for cubesat applications. The end goal is to conduct a hot-fire test of an integrated cubesat propulsion system using an SLM printed propellant tank, an MSFC designed propulsion system electronic controller and the 100 mN thruster. In addition to the AF-M315E testing, MSFC is pursuing hot-fire testing with LMP-103S. Following our successful hot-fire testing of the 22N thruster in April 2015, a test campaign was proposed for a 440N LMP-103S thruster with Orbital ATK and Plasma Processes. This activity was funded through the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) ACO funding call in the last quarter of CY15. Under the same funding source a test activity with Busek and Glenn Research Center for testing of 5N AF-M315E thrusters was proposed and awarded. Both activities are in-work with expected completion of hot-fire testing by the end of FY17. MSFC is

  20. Green products in Germany. Status Quo and trends; Gruene Produkte in Deutschland. Status Quo und Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The contribution under consideration supplies important insights for a systematic market monitoring of ecologic products and services. These insights are a necessary precondition for a consumer-oriented environmental policy. Living, nutrition, mobility, consumer goods also are considered as finances, total balance of green products as well as main factors and actors.

  1. Status and Countermeasures for the Green Marketing of Agricultural Products Processing Enterprises in Yinchuan City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the overview and characteristics of agricultural products processing enterprise in Yinchuan City,green marketing status of agricultural products processing enterprise in Yinchuan City is introduced from the aspects of product strategy,pricing strategy,distribution strategy and promotion strategy.Problems in the green marketing of agricultural products processing enterprise are analyzed,such as the obvious contradiction between the processing demand and the raw materials,low level of comprehensive utilization of resources,no common demand for green consumption in Yinchuan City,weak strength of enterprise and no concept of green marketing,poor macro-control and insufficient input,neglecting the environmental production of materials during marketing,and insufficient input of enterprises in professional marketing personnel.In order to improve the green marketing ability of enterprises and the development of agricultural products processing enterprise in Yinchuan City,the following countermeasures are put forward:green marketing strategy(mainly including cultivating the green marketing strategy for enterprises,gathering of green information,and strengthening the marketing strategy of target market)and green marketing policy(mainly including green products policy,green price policy,green channel policy and green promotion policy).

  2. Aspects of a two-pasture — herbivore model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Åge Riseth

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Pastures for reindeer can be divided into green pastures (mainly herbs and grasses of summer time and more or less snow-covered lichen pastures of winter. Fall and spring pastures have a composition in-between these extremes, but for model purposes bisection is sufficient. For the animals the green-pasture season is an anabolic phase with a physiological building-up of protein reserves, while winter is a catabolic phase where food-intake is reduced and the animals to a considerable extent survive on the accumulated reserves from summer. While protein reserves are stored from summer to winter, lichen pastures are stored from year to year. Grasses and herbs not being grazed are wilting by the end of the growing season, while lichens not grazed can live for many years. This corresponds with fundamental differences in both growth pattern and resilience. The implications of the different features, and their interconnections, are not easy to survey without formal modeling. The point of departure is a simple pasture-herbivore model, well known from the literature building on a set of differential equations. A new two-pasture-herbivore model is developed. The model includes as basic elements the Klein (1968 hypothesis and that a residual lichen biomass is kept ungrazed due to snow-cover protection. Further the annual cycle is divided into four stylized seasons with herd rates of winter survival, spring calving, summer physiological growth and fall slaughtering. Isoclines are derived for summer pasture, winter pasture and herbivores. Stability properties are discussed in relation to various situations of seasonal pasture balance. Empirical examples, particularly that of changes in pasture balance and vegetation cover in Western Finnmark, Norway, are discussed. The article finds that the two-pasture model provides important features of reality, such as the stability aspects of pasture balance, which cannot be displayed by a one-pasture model. It is

  3. Alfalfa and pastures: sources of pests or generalist natural enemies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce’s disease of grapevine and almond leaf scorch disease are both caused by the bacterial pathogen Xyllela fastidiosa. In the Central Valley of California, the green sharpshooter is the most common vector of X. fastidiosa. As alfalfa fields and pastures are considered source habitats for green s...

  4. Green Trends in the Hotel Industry - Status and Opportunities of SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela Muhi Muhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available So-called "green" hotels that are trying to respect the rules of environmental pollution and reduce it to a minimum have become wide spread recently. The main principle of this trend is to use a variety of methods of responsible hotel operations, to reduce energy, water consumption and carbon dioxide emissions, to take care of the decomposition of solid waste and increase the recycling of waste materials, to use conventional detergents and other chemical agents to the lower measure and replace it by harmless "organic", to prevent or at least reduce the pollution of the environment and, wherever possible to preserve local biodiversity. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of green trends in the hotel industry with a focus on status and opportunities in Serbia.

  5. Are Luxury Brand Labels and "Green" Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a "green" label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.

  6. Are Luxury Brand Labels and "Green" Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Berger

    Full Text Available Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a "green" label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.

  7. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  8. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2016 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-02

    Annual report of sales and number of customers in voluntary green power markets, including utility green pricing programs, utility green partnerships, competitive suppliers, unbundled renewable energy certificates, community choice aggregations, power purchase agreements, and community solar.

  9. Influence of cow breed type, age and previous lactation status on cow height, calf growth, and patterns of body weight, condition, and blood metabolites for cows grazing bahiagrass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Williams, M J

    2017-01-01

    This study was initiated to evaluate performance and patterns of cow traits and blood metabolites of 3 breeds of cows grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge) pastures in central Florida. Purebred cows (n = 411) of either Angus (Bos taurus), Brahman (Bos indicus), or Romosinuano (Bos taurus) breeding, rotationally grazed (moved twice weekly) bahiagrass pastures year-round, and received bahiagrass hay supplemented with molasses and soyhulls or legume hay supplemented with unfortified molasses from October to June each production year. At monthly intervals, all cows were weighed, measured at the hip (HH), scored for BCS, and blood samples collected by jugular puncture from 10 cows per cow breed/block group for plasma urea N (PUN), glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Data were analyzed on cows that calved with a statistical model that included fixed effects of year, cowage, cow breed, month, block, supplement group (n = 2, but not presented), and whether the cow weaned a calf the previous year. Cow was a repeated observation over mo. Three-way interactions involving monthly patterns for cowage x year, year x lactation status the previous year, cowage × cow breed, year × cow breed, and cow breed × lactation status the previous year were significant (P cow breed × month was important (P cows compared to 3-yr old cows; 2) greater BW and BCS before calving for cows that did not lactate the previous year; 3) PUN levels were above 11 mg/dl except for February, August and September, and was generally greater in tropically adapted breeds; 4) GLU was greatest in Brahman, lowest in Angus, and intermediate in Romosinuano cows; and 5) plasma levels of NEFA escalated at calving and then declined, but Brahman cows maintained greater (P Cows that lactated the previous year had less NEFA than those that did not lactate. Brahman cows were less fertile than Bos taurus breeds, and weaned heavier calves.

  10. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (11th Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  11. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (11th Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  12. Green tea extract only affects markers of oxidative status postprandially: lasting antioxidant effect of flavonoid-free diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J.F.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Haraldsdottir, J.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) used as a food antioxidant on markers of oxidative status after dietary depletion...

  13. The Paradox of 'Green to be Seen': Green High-Status Shoppers Excessively Use (Branded) Shopping Bags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, A.J.; Van Horen, F.; Grinstein, A.

    2016-01-01

    This research conceptually replicates, in a real-world setting, prior lab findings showing that status motives make people publicly display sustainable behavior. The results show that shoppers of a high-status sustainable grocery chain display sustainable shopping more by using branded shopping bags

  14. The status quo of green-building education in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-30

    Oct 30, 2015 ... on projects in the property-development industry. The purpose of this study ... adequate technical understanding of sustainable building methods. ... skills in green building as promptly as role players in the green-building sector might .... The body of knowledge about sustainability and green buildings is ...

  15. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2009 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  16. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2009 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  17. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dagher, Leila [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  18. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Dagher, L.; Swezey, B.

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  19. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report, Sixth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2003-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, nearly 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 350 investor-owned utilities, rural electric cooperatives, and other publicly owned utilities in 33 states offer green power programs. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. It describes green power product offerings, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The three distinct markets for green power are discussed in turn.

  20. A pilot project combining multispectral proximal sensors and digital cameras for monitoring tropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Gobbett, D. L.; González, Luciano A.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; McGavin, Sharon L.

    2016-08-01

    Timely and accurate monitoring of pasture biomass and ground cover is necessary in livestock production systems to ensure productive and sustainable management. Interest in the use of proximal sensors for monitoring pasture status in grazing systems has increased, since data can be returned in near real time. Proximal sensors have the potential for deployment on large properties where remote sensing may not be suitable due to issues such as spatial scale or cloud cover. There are unresolved challenges in gathering reliable sensor data and in calibrating raw sensor data to values such as pasture biomass or vegetation ground cover, which allow meaningful interpretation of sensor data by livestock producers. Our goal was to assess whether a combination of proximal sensors could be reliably deployed to monitor tropical pasture status in an operational beef production system, as a precursor to designing a full sensor deployment. We use this pilot project to (1) illustrate practical issues around sensor deployment, (2) develop the methods necessary for the quality control of the sensor data, and (3) assess the strength of the relationships between vegetation indices derived from the proximal sensors and field observations across the wet and dry seasons. Proximal sensors were deployed at two sites in a tropical pasture on a beef production property near Townsville, Australia. Each site was monitored by a Skye SKR-four-band multispectral sensor (every 1 min), a digital camera (every 30 min), and a soil moisture sensor (every 1 min), each of which were operated over 18 months. Raw data from each sensor was processed to calculate multispectral vegetation indices. The data capture from the digital cameras was more reliable than the multispectral sensors, which had up to 67 % of data discarded after data cleaning and quality control for technical issues related to the sensor design, as well as environmental issues such as water incursion and insect infestations. We recommend

  1. Fertilization and oversowing on natural grassland: effects on pasture characteristics and yearling steers performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tonet Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetal and animal production of a natural pasture on a Mollisol soil in the region of Campanha, in RS. The experimental design consisted of complete randomized blocks with three replicates, which enables the comparison between natural unfertilized pastures with fertilized pastures and pastures fertilized and overseeded with Lolium multiflorum, Lotus corniculatus cv. São Gabriel and Trifolium repens cv. Lucero (NPO. Data were submitted to the analyses of variance considering seasons of the year as time repeated measurements. Aberddeen Angus calves of about nine months of age were used in continuous stocking with variable stocking rate in order to maintain forage offer at 13% of live weight. Data were collected between July 7th (2007 and May 3rd (2008, totaling 302 days. Fertilized and oversown pastures showed higher green forage mass mainly in the spring, as result of higher dry matter (DM accumulation rate. Average daily live-weight gain for fertilized pasture (0.581 kg/day was higher than for natural pasture (0.473 kg/day. Higher live-weight gains were obtained in the fall (0.869 kg/day. Stocking rate showed interaction with the seasons of the year, with higher stocking rates obtained in oversown pasture (701 kg of LW/ha and fertilized pasture (667 kg of LW/ha during the spring. Live-weight gain per hectare from natural pasture (224 kg LW/ha was lower than on fertilized (310 kg LW/ha and over-sown pasture (287 kg LW/ha. Forage mass, dry matter content, forage allowance and pasture height explained 61% of the average live weight gain. Despite the good performance of native grasslands in this region in its natural condition, the utilization of different inputs as fertilization and oversowing of winter cultivated species promoted positive differences in forage production and its distribution along the year and in animal yield.

  2. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report; Seventh Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2004-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering ''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. The first section provides an overview of green power markets, consumer response, and recent industry trends. Section 2 provides brief descriptions of the utility green pricing programs available nationally. Section 3 describes companies that actively market green power in competitive markets and those that market renew able energy certificates nationally or regionally. The last section provides information on a select number of large, nonresidential green power purchasers, including governmental agencies, universities, and businesses.

  3. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Eighth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2005-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering "green power" options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. The first section provides an overview of green power markets, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The second section provides brief descriptions of utility green pricing programs. The third section describes companies that actively market green power in competitive markets and those that market renewable energy certificates nationally or regionally. The final section provides information on a select number of large, nonresidential green power purchasers, including businesses, universities, and government agencies.

  4. Analysis of intelligent green building policy and developing status in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Lin, Chieh-Hung; Hsu, Ming-Wen

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Taiwan launched a program dubbed “four emerging intellectual industries” that lists intelligent green buildings. The aim of promoting of intelligent green building is to stimulate the architecture technology industry. This has been combined with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the concept of green building to provide a safe and healthy living environment. While doing this it will also aim to reduce carbon emissions and save energy. This study investigates intelligent green building policies and the promotion of progress in Taiwan. It probes into cases from 1988 to 2014. Key success factors are derived from analyzing and summarizing intelligent green building experiences in Taiwan. This is done through Secondary Data Analyses by: 1. Establishing clear norms and standards for intelligent green building design and improvement; 2. First carrying out policies in public sector, in order to provide field trial and safeguarded market opportunities for industries; 3. Implementing rating-based assessments, in order to raise the quality of design; 4. Mandatory or incentive policies are introduced, depending on local specialties and conditions; 5. Respectively planning incentives for relevant interested parties in industrial chain; 6. Strengthening marketing efforts and proactively promoting policies. - Highlights: •Aggregate and analyze the results of Intelligent Green Building policy in Taiwan. •Chi-square Test of Independence is used for inspecting successful factors. •Organize experiences and propose recommended feasible scheme for future.

  5. Green report. Report on the status of forestry in the Slovak Republic 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moravcik, M [National Forest Center. Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia)

    2006-11-15

    Report on Forestry in the Slovak Republic, better known as Green Report has been already the 14{sup th} one. The Ministry of Agriculture of SR in collaboration with the National Forest Centre in Zvolen presents in the Green Report the situation in forestry in Slovakia as well as forecasts its development for the future. Within international collaboration the Green Report is provided to international organizations, experts and institutions of the European Union. The publication has found its place also at international forestry conferences as it presents in a complex and standard way the analysis of the situation and development of forestry in Slovakia.

  6. Green report. Report on the status of forestry in the Slovak Republic 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravcik, M.

    2006-11-01

    Report on Forestry in the Slovak Republic, better known as Green Report has been already the 14 th one. The Ministry of Agriculture of SR in collaboration with the National Forest Centre in Zvolen presents in the Green Report the situation in forestry in Slovakia as well as forecasts its development for the future. Within international collaboration the Green Report is provided to international organizations, experts and institutions of the European Union. The publication has found its place also at international forestry conferences as it presents in a complex and standard way the analysis of the situation and development of forestry in Slovakia

  7. The greening of the U.S. Department of Energy Headquarters, Washington, D.C. Second-year status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-22

    The Greening of the Department of Energy Headquarters is a comprehensive, multi-year project designed to identify and implement specific actions DOE can take to save energy and money, improve the comfort and productivity of employees, and benefit the environment. It is part of the Administration`s overall effort to promote greening in all of the nation`s federal buildings. Present Clinton started the Greening of the White House in 1993, and similar efforts have been undertaken by the Department of Defense at the Pentagon, the National Park Service at the Presidio, and now the Department of Energy at the Forrestal and Germantown buildings. The Greening of the Department of Energy Headquarters, An Action Plan for Success (Action Plan), unveiled on April 22, 1996, outlined more than 80 action items for DOE`s Forrestal and Germantown buildings. The action items were designed to increase energy efficiency, improve resource management, improve air quality, reduce water use, reduce paper use, improve landscape management, improve maintenance and operational procedures, increase employee participation, and promote education and outreach. In the two years since the Action Plan was introduced, the Department of Energy has made major progress in implementing specific action items designed to target four major subject areas: (1) Energy Efficiency; (2) Resource Management; (3) Air, Water, Landscape, and (4) Human Factors. This report outlines the status of the recommendations of the Action Plan since they were introduced two years ago.

  8. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  9. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Fifth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B.; Bird, L.

    2000-08-04

    For the first time in many decades, consumers are being given a choice of who supplies their electric power and how that power is generated. One of these choices is to support electricity generation from more environmentally beneficial energy sources. The term green power generally refers to electricity supplied from renewable energy sources. By some estimates, nearly one-quarter of all U.S. consumers will have the option to purchase green power by the year 2000, either from their regulated utility provider or in competitive markets. As competition spreads in the electric power industry, more consumers will have this choice. The purpose of this brief is to provide electric industry analysts with information on green power market trends. Descriptive information on green power marketing activities in competitive and regulated market settings is included.

  10. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2008 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  11. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2008 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  12. Pastures, calf production and carcass weights of reindeer calves in the Oraniemi co-operative, Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Kumpula

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climatic and density-dependent factors on calf production and carcass weights of reindeer calves were studied between the years 1965-87 in the Oraniemi co-operative, Finnish Lapland (67°50´N. The Oraniemi area is divided into five pasture regions, in which the annual home range of the reindeer varied from 300 to 600 km2. The more than trebled reindeer density over the period 1965-87 in Oraniemi had no detrimental effect on calf production (range 15-74 calves/100 females, nor on the mean carcass weight of the calves in 1974-87 (range 16.8-23.2 kg. The annual variations in calf% were explained best by snow conditions during the previous winter and spring and their effects on the nutritional status of the females. The carcass weights of the calves were greater following a warm, rainy May and lower following a warm, rainy June and July. The weather in spring affects the emergence of green vegetation, which is reflected in the condition of females and their milk production, while the weather in early and mid-supper probably affects the quantities of blood-sucking insects and their activity. Carcass weights upon slaughtering rose from September to the beginning of December but then fell quickly. The differences in reindeer densities between the five pasture regions was not reflected in the calf% over the period 1984-87, but the carcass weights of calves were lower following high densities in the pasture regions, especially in the winter pastures.

  13. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Ninth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2006-11-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering ''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than half of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 600 utilities, or about 20% of utilities nationally, offer green power programs to customers. These programs allow customers to purchase some portion of their power supply as renewable energy--almost always at a higher price--or to contribute funds for the utility to invest in renewable energy development. The term ''green pricing'' is typically used to refer to these utility programs offered in regulated or noncompetitive electricity markets. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States.

  14. Pasture establishment and fertiliser requirements on rehabilitated land after opencast coal mining in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, R.D.; O`Connor, M.B.; Toxopeus, M.R.J. [Ruakura Agricultural Centre, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    1999-03-01

    Existing pasture establishment practices to rehabilitate land after opencast mining in the Waikato coal fields area of New Zealand were examined and compared with an alternative method involving different pasture mixtures, seeding rates, and lime and fertiliser requirements. Pasture establishment and production, botanical composition changes, and plant and soil nutrient status were measured during a 2-year field trial. Highly significant pasture responses were obtained to increased fertiliser inputs. An improved seed mixture, containing superior pasture cultivars, established more quickly and out-yielded the existing seed mixture by 58%. The two seed mixtures responded differently to sowing rates; the higher rate increased pasture yields of the improved pasture species but decreased the existing seed mix yields. Liming at 5 t ha{sup -1} significantly increased soil pH and clover content and reduced pasture manganese concentrations from possibly toxic levels. Nitrogen concentrations in pastures were below optimum throughout the trial and the strategic use of nitrogen fertiliser is recommended as a useful management option.

  15. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2013 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Belyeu, K.; Kuskova-Burns, K.

    2014-11-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This report surveys utilities, competitive suppliers, renewable energy certificate (REC) marketers, and, for the first time, the community choice aggregation market. This report finds that the voluntary market totaled 62 million megawatt-hours in 2013. Approximately 5.4 million customers are purchasing green power. This report presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing, and administrative expenses. The report also details trends in REC tracking systems, REC pricing in voluntary and compliance markets, community and crowd-funded solar, and interest in renewable energy by the information and communication technologies sector.

  16. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nicholas, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  17. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2016 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  18. Effect of oral administration of green tea extract in various dosage schemes on oxidative stress status of mice in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bártíková Hana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a favorite beverage and its extracts are popular components of dietary supplements. The aim of the present in vivo study was to obtain detailed information about the effect of a standard green tea extract (Polyphenon, P, at different doses, on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in murine blood, liver, small and large intestine. In all doses, P improved the oxidative stress status via an increased content of plasmatic SH-groups (by 21-67 %. Regarding antioxidant enzymes in tissues, the low dose of P had the best positive effect as it elevated the activity of NADPH quinone reductase in liver and small intestine, thioredoxin reductase in small intestine and hepatic superoxide dismutase. Based on these facts, consumption of green tea seems to be safe and beneficial, while consumption of dietary supplements containing high doses of catechins may disturb oxidative balance by lowering the activity of thioredoxin reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase

  19. Dynamic endocrine responses to stress: evidence for energetic constraints and status dependence in breeding male green turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, Tim S; Knapp, Rosemary; Whittier, Joan M; Limpus, Col J

    2002-03-01

    During reproduction, male vertebrates may exhibit a continuum of interactions between sex and adrenal steroids during stressful events, the outcome of which may be important in either reducing or promoting male reproductive success. We studied adult male green turtles (Chelonia mydas) to examine if they altered plasma corticosterone (CORT) and androgen levels in response to a standardized capture/restraint stressor as potential mechanisms to maintain reproductive activity during stressful events. At the population level, we found that migrant breeding males had a significantly smaller CORT response to the capture/restraint stressor compared to nonbreeding males and that this decreased response coincided with the generally poorer body condition of migrant breeders. In contrast, plasma androgen levels decreased significantly in response to the capture/restraint stressor in migrant breeding males, but not in nonbreeding and pre-migrant breeding males. For individual migrant breeding males, the magnitude of their CORT and androgen responses to the capture/restraint stressor was highly correlated with their body condition and body length, respectively. Our results demonstrate that male green turtles exhibit complex interactions in their endocrine responses to a capture/restraint stressor and that variation in these interactions is associated with differences in males' reproductive, energetic, and physical state. We hypothesize that interplay between physical status and plasma hormone responses to stressors could have important consequences for male green turtle reproduction.

  20. Effect of nutrient supply status on biomass composition of eukaryotic green microalgae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, G.; Brányiková, Irena; Zachleder, Vilém; Brányik, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2014), s. 1359-1377 ISSN 0921-8971 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/1270 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : nutrient * biomass * green microalgae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.559, year: 2014

  1. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Nicholas, T.

    2013-10-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. These markets continued to exhibit growth and stimulate renewable energy development in 2012. This paper reviews the voluntary market and identifies market trends.

  2. Does green tea consumption improve the salivary antioxidant status of smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Somayyeh; Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Daraei, Azam

    2017-06-01

    
Considering the higher rate of oral cancer, and reduction in salivary antioxidants in smokers as indicated in previous studies, antioxidant- containing nutrients such as green tea, seem to be beneficial in counteracting against oxidative stress in this group. This study assessed the salivary total antioxidant alteration in smokers compared to nonsmokers, after short-tem (7days) and long-term (3 weeks), green tea drinking. In this experimental study, 20 volunteer moderate-to-heavy male smokers, and 20 matched healthy non-smokers were selected to participate, according to the inclusion criteria. Participants were instructed to drink two cups of green tea per day, by dissolving 2g of green tea in 150ml of hot water for each cup. After saliva collection, antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured at baseline, after 7days, and after 21days. Statistical evaluation was done by SPSS 21, using paired samplet tests, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. 
 At day zero nonsmokers had a higher antioxidant capacity than smokers (686.6±62.22 vs. 338.8±59.9) mM/50μl, Psmokers and non-smokers over the study period (after tea drinking). In addition, a significant difference was found in total antioxidant capacity alteration in smokers compared to non-smokers from baseline to day 21. Results support the effectiveness of green tea consumption in salivary antioxidants enhancement in smokers, in both the short- and long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of "Green Natural Gas" Using Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC): Status of Technology and Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard

    2012-01-01

    energy sources only. Also dimethyl ether (DME = (CH3)2O), which might be called Liquefied Green Gas, LGG, in analogy to Liquefied Petroleum Gas, LPG, because DME has properties similar to LPG. It further gives a short review of the state of the art of electrolysis in general and SOEC in particular......This paper gives arguments in favour of using green natural gas (GNG) as storage media for the intermittent renewable energy sources. GNG is here defined as being CH4, i.e. methane, often called synthetic natural gas or substitute natural gas (SNG), produced using renewable or at least CO2 neutral....... Production of synthesis gas (H2 + CO) from CO2 and H2O using SOEC technology is evaluated. GNG and LGG can be produced from synthesis gas (or short: syngas) by means of well established commercially available catalysis technology. Finally, estimations of costs and efficiencies are presented and the relative...

  4. Sustainable intensification of cultivated pastures using multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rangeland and wildlife parks) for guidelines to implementing this approach in cultivated pasture. In rangeland or natural grassland ... Keywords: animal production, biodiversity, cultivated pastures, foraging ecology, plant–herbivore interactions ...

  5. Green Trends in the Hotel Industry - Status and Opportunities of SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bela Muhi; Jasmina Stankovic; Dusan Jovanovic; Rade B. Bozovic

    2013-01-01

    So-called "green" hotels that are trying to respect the rules of environmental pollution and reduce it to a minimum have become wide spread recently. The main principle of this trend is to use a variety of methods of responsible hotel operations, to reduce energy, water consumption and carbon dioxide emissions, to take care of the decomposition of solid waste and increase the recycling of waste materials, to use conventional detergents and other chemical agents to the lower measure and replac...

  6. Pasture types and Echinococcus multilocularis, Tibetan communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qian; Vuitton, Dominique A; Xiao, Yongfu; Budke, Christine M; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Schantz, Peter M; Raoul, Francis; Yang, Wen; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick

    Our study showed that open pastures had more small mammal burrows than fenced pastures in Tibetan pastoralist communities in 2003. This characteristic was linked to a higher prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and indicates that pasture type may affect E. multilocularis transmission.

  7. The return of "Gasoline station-park" status into green-open space in DKI Jakarta Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsar, L. H. R.; Waryono, T.; Sobirin

    2017-07-01

    The development of gasoline stations in 1970 increased drastically due to the Government support through DKT Jaya Official Note (DKT Jakarta), resulting in a great number of the parks (green open space or RTH - Ruang Terbuka Hijau) converted into a gasoline station. Currently, to meet the RTH target (13.94 % RTH based RTRW [(Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah) DKT Jakarta 2010], the policy was changed by Decree No.728 year 2009 and Governor Tnstruction No.75 year 2009. Land function of 27 gasoline stations unit must be returned. This study is to determine the appropriateness of gasoline Station-Park conversion into RTH based site and situation approach. The scope of this study was limited only to gasoline stations not converted into RTH. The methodology was the combination of AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) and ranking method. Site variables were meant for prone to flooding, the width of land for gasoline station, land status. Situation variables were meant for other public space, availability of other gasoline stations, gasoline stations service, road segments, and the proportions of built space. Analysis study used quantitative descriptive analysis. The results were three of the five gasoline stations were congruence to be converted into a green open space (RTH).

  8. Can French environmental taxes really turn into green taxes? Current status and conditions of acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiroleu-Assouline, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    French environmental taxes are not really ecologically oriented. Their main aim is to raise revenues. Clear signs of this inappropriate direction are given by the large share of the energy taxes and by the low level of most tax rates, which for the most part, are only implicit tax rates on the polluting goods. An ecological tax reform would imply a global green tax shift with tax rates proportionate to the marginal damages. The success and the acceptation of such a reform by the taxpayers rely on the chosen recycling mechanism for the tax revenues, on government's efforts in information and pedagogy, on transparency about the policy choices but also, somehow paradoxically, on audacity of actions. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE', No. 139

  9. Nitrous oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling along a pasture chronosequence in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes and soil nitrogen (N cycling following forest conversion to pasture in the central Amazon near Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Two undisturbed forest sites and 27 pasture sites of 0.5 to 60 years were sampled once each during wet and dry seasons. In addition to soil-atmosphere fluxes of N2O we measured 27 soil chemical, soil microbiological and soil physical variables. Soil N2O fluxes were higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Fluxes of N2O from forest soils always exceeded fluxes from pasture soils and showed no consistent trend with pasture age. At our forest sites, nitrate was the dominant form of inorganic N both during wet and dry season. At our pasture sites nitrate generally dominated the inorganic N pools during the wet season and ammonium dominated during the dry season. Net mineralization and nitrification rates displayed large variations. During the dry season net immobilization of N was observed in some pastures. Compared to forest sites, young pasture sites (≤2 years had low microbial biomass N and protease activities. Protease activity and microbial biomass N peaked in pastures of intermediate age (4 to 8 years followed by consistently lower values in older pasture (10 to 60 years. The C/N ratio of litter was low at the forest sites (~25 and rapidly increased with pasture age reaching values of 60-70 at pastures of 15 years and older. Nitrous oxide emissions at our sites were controlled by C and N availability and soil aeration. Fluxes of N2O were negatively correlated to leaf litter C/N ratio, NH4+-N and the ratio of NO3--N to the sum of NO3--N + NH4+-N (indicators of N availability, and methane fluxes and bulk density (indicators of soil aeration status during the wet season. During the dry season fluxes of N2O were positively correlated to microbial biomass N, β-glucosidase activity, total inorganic N stocks and NH4+-N. In our study region, pastures of all age emitted less N2O than

  10. Change in status of green peafowl Pavo muticus (Family Phasianidae in Southcentral Vietnam: A comparison over 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niti Sukumal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity declines in Southeast Asia have led to predictions that many vertebrate species will become extinct within 50 years. Examples of quantified deterioration in species status remain scarce, however. The Southeast Asian geographical range of the Endangered Green peafowl is still contracting due to hunting pressure and habitat disturbance. In Vietnam, the main population lies in the southcentral region with a relatively high density reported in 1998. The aim of this study was to assess the species’ current status in Yok Don and Cat Tien National Parks, which are thought to contain the most important Vietnamese populations. We used line and point transects to investigate the density and analyze habitat selection and effects of human activity. The Yok Don population has decreased sharply during the past 15 years, while in Cat Tien, the estimated density was higher. Animals were most numerous close to water sources and lowest where cattle numbers were highest and ground vegetation cover absent. Here we document a significant negative population change in a previously widespread vertebrate species. Although comparisons of population data over long periods are rare, we demonstrate that taking advantage of opportunities to resurvey species can quantify population declines.

  11. Nutrient Status of Vermicompost of Urban Green Waste Processed by Three Earthworm Species Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattnaik, S.; Vikram, M.

    2010-01-01

    Major nutrient status of vermicompost of vegetable market waste (MW) and floral waste (FW) processed by three species of earthworms namely, Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida, and Perionyx excavatus and its simple compost were assessed across different periods in relation to their respective initiative substrates. Their physical parameters temperature, moisture, ph, and electrical conductivity were also recorded. The nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium increased in the vermicompost and compost while the organic carbon, C/N and C/P ratios decreased as the composting process progressed from 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. The nutrient statuses of vermicomposts of all earthworm species produced from both the wastes were more than that of the compost and that of their respective substrates. Moreover, the vermicompost produced by E. eugeniae possessed higher nutrient contents than that of E. fetida, P. excavatus, and compost. The MW showed higher nutrient contents than the FW. Thus, vermicomposting is the paramount approach of nutrient recovery of urban green waste.

  12. Substitutes for potent green house gases. HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, P.H. [Dansk Teknologisk Institut (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    CFCs (halogenated chlorofluorocarbons), HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), PFCs (fluorocarbons) and SF{sub 6} (sulphur hexafluoride) are all artificial substances which were not to be found in nature until recently. In 1995 the Danish consumption of HFC substances was approximately 740 tonnes, where the corresponding amount of SF{sub 6} was about 17 tonnes. If the entire amount of these substances was released to to the atmosphere, the resulting impact would correspond to an increased emission of greenhouse gases, corresponding to approximately 1.5 million tonnes of CO{sub 2}. HFC substances would account for 73%, SF{sub 6} with 25% and PFC for 1%. This corresponds to approximately 2.6% of the Danish CO{sub 2} emission (nearly 60 million tonnes per year). This corresponds to about half of the aimed 6% reduction of CO{sub 2} emission attained by introduction of mandatory green taxes on CO{sub 2}. According to experience from the CFC programme it is possible to recover some CFC and send it to controlled destruction. From 1993 to 1996 the refrigeration industry, for instance, has returned a total amount of 163 tonnes of CFC refrigerant through the KMO organization (Koelebranchens Miljoe Ordning). Most of this has been destroyed and a small amount has been purified and recycled afterwards. Similarly, it is likely to believe that some HFC refrigerant will be returned through the KMO organization. (au) 11 refs., also published in Danish

  13. Pasture improvement in Spanish Dehesas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the south-west of the Iberian Peninsula, the dehesa is a widespread agro-silvo-pastoral land use system, characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. Many years of inappropriate management of dehesas (deforestation, overgrazing, excessive agricultural activities, etc.) has led to the degradation of vegetation and soils in extensive areas, causing reductions in biomass and biodiversity, affecting the permanence of plants and causing important losses of palatable species. As there is growing interest in these wooded rangeland ecosystems due to their economic importance and high environmental value, the recovery of the original pasture biodiversity and the increase of productivity, together with the conservation of the environment, are the main goals in these areas of low productive potential, degraded and subject to soil erosion. Soil and climate conditions have a great influence on grassland production, with rainfall producing strong seasonal and interannual variations. These natural pastures, mainly composed of summer withering annual species, reach maximum productions in spring and register low values in autumn, slowing down in winter. During the summer dry season, the wilting pastures can offer a good forage for animals. Autochthonous annual legumes play an important role because they are well adapted to local edaphic and climatic conditions and produce hard seeds which germinate in autumn. This helps them to survive the frequent droughts and offer a high quality forage, which is a valuable complement to other pasture plants with lower protein content. Therefore, for several decades, legume seeding combined with the application of phosphate fertilizer has been the most common strategy used to improve pastures in SW Spain, where dehesas cover an area of about four million hectares. This paper examines the whole process of pasture improvement

  14. Effects of 530 nm green light on refractive status, melatonin, MT1 receptor, and melanopsin in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jiaqi; Lu, Yi; Chu, Renyuan

    2011-02-01

    To investigate (i) the effect of monochromatic light on inhibiting induction of light-induced melatonin and (ii) the roles of melanopsin and MT1 receptor in light-induced myopia in the guinea pig. Forty-eight guinea pigs were randomly distributed into three treatment groups: white-light (control), green-light (530 nm), and blue-light (480 nm) groups. Levels of pineal gland melatonin were measured twice daily--10:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m.--10 days after initial light treatment. Thirty additional guinea pigs were also assigned to these groups and treated similarly. For these latter animals, refractive status, ocular length, and vitreous depth were measured before and after light treatment. Eight weeks after light treatment, retinal and sceral levels of melanopsin, melatonin receptor type (MT) 1, and mRNA protein were determined by Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry. The level of pineal gland melatonin in the green-light group was significantly higher than that in the blue-light group. Biometric measurements showed that guinea pigs in the green-light group had a somewhat myopic refractive status. Expressions of retinal melanopsin mRNA and protein were significantly higher in the blue-light group and lower in the green-light group when compared to controls. Conversely, expressions of MT1 receptor mRNA and protein in retina and sclera were significantly higher in the green-light group and lower in the blue-light group when compared to controls. Green light appears to suppress induction of melatonin production. In addition, 530 nm of green light is involved in the development of myopia. In the guinea pig, MT1 receptor and melanopsin appear to play roles in the development of myopia induced by 530 nm of light.

  15. Phosphorus, carbon- and nitrogen interactions in productive and degraded tropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberson, A.; Hegglin, D. D.; Nesper, M.; Rao, I.; Fonte, S.; Ramirez, B.; Velasquez, J.; Tamburini, F.; Bünemann, E. K.; Frossard, E.

    2011-12-01

    Pastures are the main land use in deforested areas of tropical South America. The highly weathered soils of these regions usually have low total and available phosphorus (P) contents. Low P availability can strongly limit plant and animal productivity and other soil ecosystem functions. Most introduced pastures of Brachiaria spp. are grass-alone (GA) while some are grass-legume (GL) pastures. The majority of the introduced pastures, particularly the grass-alone are at some state of degradation (GD). Pasture degradation induces severe loss of plant biomass production, with drastic ecological and economic implications. Although the importance of P deficiency in pasture degradation has been recognized, the knowledge generated on stoichiometry of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and P along pathways of the nutrient cycles of pastures, with different botanical composition and productivity, has been very limited. We will present results of a case study realized during 2010 to 2011 in the forest margins agro-ecosystem of the department of Caquetá, Colombia. Our objectives were to determine: i) whether P availability is lower in degraded compared to productive pastures, and ii) whether the introduction of legumes in the pasture increases P availability through enhanced biological P cycling through plant growth, plant litter decomposition and the soil microbial biomass; and iii) whether pasture types (GA vs GL) and the state of pasture degradation affect the C:N:P ratios in nutrient pools of the soil-plant system. An on-farm study was conducted on nine farms in the department of Caquetá, Colombia. On every farm three different pasture types were studied: degraded grass alone pastures (GD), productive grass-alone pastures (GA) and productive grass-legume pastures (GL). Basic soil characteristics and indicators on soil P status, microbial P cycling, plant biomass production, plant litter deposition and nutrient concentrations in plant tissue were determined. Analysis of P, C and N

  16. Diazotrophic Bacterial Community of Degraded Pastures

    OpenAIRE

    João Tiago Correia Oliveira; Everthon Fernandes Figueredo; Williane Patrícia da Silva Diniz; Lucianne Ferreira Paes de Oliveira; Pedro Avelino Maia de Andrade; Fernando Dini Andreote; Júlia Kuklinsky-Sobral; Danúbia Ramos de Lima; Fernando José Freire

    2017-01-01

    Pasture degradation can cause changes in diazotrophic bacterial communities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the culturable and total diazotrophic bacterial community, associated with regions of the rhizosphere and roots of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. pastures in different stages of degradation. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil were collected from slightly, partially, and highly degraded pastures. McCrady’s table was used to obtain the Most Probable Number (MPN) of bacteria per gram ...

  17. Comportamento ingestivo de novilhos de corte em pastagem de aveia preta e azevém com níveis distintos de folhas verdes Ingestive behaviour of beef steers grazing oat and Italian ryegrass pasture with different levels of green leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naíme de Barcellos Trevisan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar como dois níveis distintos de biomassa de folhas verdes, representados por 350 e 600kg ha-1 de matéria seca de folhas verdes (MSFV afetam o comportamento de novilhos de corte e sua taxa de bocados. Para as avaliações de comportamento ingestivo, foi utilizado o método direto de observação visual de animais focais em dois períodos de 24 horas, com início e término às 13:00 horas, durante o ciclo de duração da pastagem, nos dias 16-17/08 e 24-25/09/2002. Para cada turno de seis horas, foram utilizados três observadores treinados, um para cada dois potreiros contíguos (três animais focais por potreiro. A intervalos de 10 minutos eram registrados as atividades de pastejo, ruminação, ócio e realizadas medidas relativas à taxa de bocados, correspondente ao número de bocados de apreensão por minuto. A menor porcentagem de matéria seca existente na pastagem durante a primeira avaliação do comportamento ingestivo foi responsável pelo aumento no tempo de pastejo, na comparação entre períodos. A atividade complementar ao pastejo, na primeira avaliação, foi a ruminação, sem diferenças para ócio. As mais baixas biomassas induziram os animais a aumentar o número de bocados como forma de otimizar o consumo de forragem.The objective of this trial was to evaluate how two levels of green leaves biomass, represented by 350 and 600kg ha-1 of green leaves dry matter (GLDM affected beef steers behaviour and its bite rate. Evaluations of ingestive behaviour were performed with focal animals observed visually on two periods of 24 hours, with beginning and end at 01 pm, during pasture growth season, at 08/16-17 and 09/24-25/2002. Three trained observers were used for each turn of six hours, one for each two contiguous paddocks (where three focal animals grazed. At 10 minutes intervals, grazing time, rumination activities and rest were registered and estimated the bite rate, as the number of

  18. PASTURE SHADING STRATEGIES: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomaiací de Andrade

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes affect animals’ metabolism in a general way, resulting in an increase of heat stress and productivity decrease. Among viable alternatives to ameliote this situation, the most indicated is reforestation of pasture areas due to the great ecological benefit given to animals and the environment as a whole. The intercropping between trees and animals is called silvopastoral system, and represents a promising alternative to current means of production. For a correct deployment of this system it is necessary to consider some characteristics of the land and the environment concerned, to avoid loss and competition between members of the system, in other words, between tree and fodder species.

  19. Environmental determinants of the old oaks in wood-pastures from a changing traditional social-ecological system of Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, Cosmin Ioan; Samoilă, Ciprian; Öllerer, Kinga; Băncilă, Raluca I; Réti, Kinga-Olga; Craioveanu, Cristina; Poszet, Szilárd; Rákosy, László; Hartel, Tibor

    2016-05-01

    Large, old trees are keystone ecological structures, their decline having disproportional ecological consequences. There is virtually no information available regarding the status and occurrence of old trees in traditional cultural landscapes from Eastern Europe. In this study, we explore the environmental determinants of the old oaks found in wood-pastures from a changing traditional rural landscape from Central Romania. Both the old oaks and the wood-pastures harboring them have exceptional cultural, historical, and ecological values, yet are vulnerable to land-use change. We surveyed 41 wood-pastures from Southern Transylvania and counted the old oaks in them. We then related the number of old oaks from these wood-pastures to a set of local and landscape level variables related to wood-pastures. We found 490 old oaks in 25 wood-pastures. The number of old oaks was positively related to the size of the wood-pasture and the amount of pasture and forest around it (500 m buffer), and negatively related to the proximity of the village. Furthermore, we found a significant interaction between the effects of sheepfolds in the wood-pasture and the size of the wood-pasture on the number of old trees, indicating a negative influence of sheepfolds on the number of old trees in smaller sized wood-pastures. There is an increasing risk for losing old trees in the traditional cultural landscapes due to the lack of formal recognition of these trees. Therefore, while presenting the positive example of local initiatives and citizen science, we argue for an urgent development and implementation of conservation policies along with education strategies targeting the old trees and rural communities from the changing traditional cultural landscapes of Eastern Europe.

  20. Supplementation of dairy weaners grazing tropical pastures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tropical pastures for growth of dairy replacement heifers, and to assess the need for ... restricted by intake of digestible nutrients. Tropical pastures ... 1983, 13(l). Table 1 Effect of rnaize or maize plus cotton seed meal on the growth of weaner calves. Level. Wean wt wean ro ll0 kg ll0- 130 kg. Wean ro 130 kg. Supplements.

  1. Steers performance in dwarf elephant grass pastures alone or mixed with Arachis pintoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Steben; Ribeiro Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Miguel, Marcolino Frederico; de Almeida, Edison Xavier; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2013-08-01

    The inclusion of legumes in pasture reduces the need for mineral nitrogen applications and the pollution of groundwater; however, the agronomic and animal husbandry advantages with tropical legumes are still little known. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the use of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) in dwarf elephant grass pastures (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) on forage intake and animal performance. The experimental treatments were dwarf elephant grass fertilized with 200 kg N/ha, and dwarf elephant grass mixed with forage peanut without mineral fertilizers. The animals used for the experiment were 12 Charolais steers (body weight (BW) = 288 ± 5.2 kg) divided into four lots (two per treatment). Pastures were managed under intermittent stocking with an herbage allowance of 5.4 kg dry matter of green leaves/100 kg BW. Dry matter intake (mean = 2.44% BW), the average daily gain (mean = 0.76 kg), and the stocking rate (mean = 3.8 AU/ha) were similar between the studied pastures, but decreased drastically in last grazing cycle with the same herbage allowance. The presence of peanut in dwarf elephant grass pastures was enough to sustain the stocking rate, but did not allow increasing forage intake and animal performance.

  2. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions....... This book examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers of decline, which are shown...

  3. Restricting daily time at pasture at low and high pasture allowance: effects on pasture intake and behavioral adaptation of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, E; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2009-07-01

    In pasture-based dairy systems, daily time at pasture is restricted during several periods of the year. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of restricting time at pasture on milk yield, pasture dry matter (DM) intake, and grazing behavior of dairy cows according to pasture allowance (PA), which partly defines pasture availability. The experiment was carried out in spring on strip-grazed perennial ryegrass pastures. The 6 treatments consisted of 3 durations of daily time at pasture [U: unrestricted day and night grazing (22 h at pasture); R9: 1 grazing session restricted to 9 h between the 2 milkings; R5: 2 grazing sessions of 2.75 h after each milking) compared at low and high PA (13 and 24 kg of DM/d per cow >5 cm, respectively). Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were used according to a 6 x 4 incomplete Latin square design replicated 3 times with four 14-d periods. Pasture DM intake was measured by the ytterbium-fecal index method and grazing behavior from portable devices. On average, restricting time at pasture from U to R (mean of R5 + R9) decreased pasture intake by 2.9 kg of DM, milk yield by 1.3 kg, and milk protein concentration by 0.11%, and increased milk fat concentration by 0.20%. Pasture intake and milk yield did not differ significantly between R9 and R5. The reduction of pasture intake and milk yield with decreasing time at pasture was greater at high compared with low PA. Grazing times were 536, 414, and 305 min, representing proportions of time spent grazing of 0.40, 0.77, and 0.93 for treatments U, R9, and R5, respectively. The reduction of grazing time with decreasing time at pasture was greater at high compared with low PA. Pasture intake rate greatly increased with decreasing time at pasture, but mainly on R5 (29.8, 31.6, and 42.1 g of DM/min for U, R9, and R5, respectively). The effect of time at pasture on pasture intake rate was unaffected by PA. In conclusion, the effect of restriction of time at pasture on

  4. Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Cardozo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality.

  5. Comparison of Pasture Vegetation in LFA Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Kecseiová

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare pasture vegetation in LFA areas located in two different altitudes. Pasture vegetation sampling was performed 1 month on two different farms (Těšov, Vlčí Jámy. The selected places were marked by three representative places at 10 m2. Dried samples were weighed and chemically analyzed by standard methods ÚKZÚZ.

  6. Natural Radionuclides in Meadow and Pasture land in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén, Klas; Villanueva, José - Luis Gutiérrez; Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve

    transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information...... for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow/pasture...... grass –cow-milk). Limited data are available on the mobility and the transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides in the ecosystems of the agricultural land. In addition, information concerning the concentrations in meat and dairy products is of interest for assessing exposures of humans to natural...

  7. Analysis of farmers' willingness to participate in pasture grazing programs: Results from a discrete choice experiment with German dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danne, M; Musshoff, O

    2017-09-01

    Over the last decades, the usage of pasture for grazing of dairy cows has decreased considerably. Pasture grazing programs initiated by dairy companies try to counteract this trend. The present paper investigates farmers' willingness to participate in such grazing programs. A special aim was to quantify the price premiums farmers require for program participation and to identify determinants influencing the premium level. The empirical analysis is based on a discrete choice experiment with 293 German dairy farmers. Models are estimated in terms of willingness to accept. It was found that farmers have no substantial preference for whether the pasture grazing program is financed by the food industry, a governmental scheme, or the dairy company. However, an extension of the annual or daily grazing period results in a decreasing willingness of farmers to participate in a pasture grazing program. In addition, farmers decline the option of a feeding standard prescribing the use of only green fodder when offered an alternative program that merely reduces the amount of concentrated feed or maize silage in the diet. Farmers' with an aversion toward program participation have a significant higher price demand for fulfilling the program requirements. Furthermore, the required price premiums increase with growing milk yields and a greater number of cows kept on the farm. However, if the availability of pasture is high, farmers are more likely to participate. The estimated price premiums and factors influencing farmers' willingness to participate found by this study should be considered by dairies and policymakers to gain insights into the design of possible pasture grazing programs from the perspective of farmers. Thereby, paying price premiums to farmers may increase the attractiveness of pasture grazing, which could finally result in an extended usage of pasture grazing. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The pasture-type approach for mountain pasture description and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Argenti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of pastoral resources can take different approaches with the main goal of characterizing pasture vegetation and its potential carrying capacity. In recent times, the pasture-type approach has been developed in several Alpine areas – on a regional and on a district scale – starting from sward surveys carried out taking the approach formerly developed by the French pastoral school. The pasture-type approach may play an important role in defining the management of mountain and marginal environments where grazing pressure reduction remarkably affects the agro-ecosystems functions (production, landscape, wildlife, recreation, etc.. This approach is based on the concept of pasture type, which could be defined as a semi-natural vegetation (mainly exploited by grazing animals, rather homogeneous in terms of botanic composition and influenced by environmental factors and agro-pastoral management. This paper presents the pasture-type approach by discussing the results of two large studies carried out in two areas of the south side of the Alps (Piedmont and Veneto. In order to identify pasture types, the vegetation composition was assessed with a point quadrat method. It allowed the computation of species-specific contribution, and of sward forage value and carrying capacity, after a multivariate statistical procedure for type classification and ordination. The site conditions (altitude, slope, aspect and other environmental variables were surveyed. Moreover, to characterize the pasture types from the point of view of the ecological and management factors affecting vegetation composition, the Landolt indicators were used. The results achieved in the two areas were synthesised and organised into reference technical tools with the aim of using the pasture-type approach for pastoral planning. For each study area an identification key to recognize pasture types was drafted, and a handbook containing the technical sheets for pasture type

  9. Carbon budgets for an irrigated intensively grazed dairy pasture and an unirrigated winter-grazed pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John E.; Laubach, Johannes; Barthel, Matti; Fraser, Anitra; Phillips, Rebecca L.

    2016-05-01

    Intensification of pastoral agriculture is occurring rapidly across New Zealand, including increasing use of irrigation and fertiliser application in some regions. While this enables greater gross primary production (GPP) and livestock grazing intensity, the consequences for the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) of the pastures are poorly known. Here, we determined the NECB over one year for an irrigated, fertilised and rotationally grazed dairy pasture and a neighbouring unirrigated, unfertilised, winter-grazed pasture. Primary terms in the NECB calculation were: net ecosystem production (NEP), biomass carbon removed by grazing cows and carbon (C) input from their excreta. Annual NEP was measured using the eddy-covariance method. Carbon removal was estimated with plate-meter measurements calibrated against biomass collections, pre- and post-grazing. Excreta deposition was calculated from animal feed intake. The intensively managed pasture gained C (NECB = 103 ± 42 g C m-2 yr-1) but would have been subject to a non-significant C loss if cattle excreta had not been returned to the pasture. The unirrigated pasture was C-neutral (NECB = -13 ± 23 g C m-2 yr-1). While annual GPP of the former was almost twice that of the latter (2679 vs. 1372 g C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration differed by only 68 % between the two pastures (2271 vs. 1352 g C m-2 yr-1). The ratio of GPP to the total annual water input of the irrigated pasture was 37 % greater than that of the unirrigated pasture, i.e. the former used the water input more efficiently than the latter to produce biomass. The NECB results agree qualitatively with those from many other eddy-covariance studies of grazed grasslands, but they seem to be at odds with long-term carbon-stock studies of other New Zealand pastures.

  10. Diazotrophic Bacterial Community of Degraded Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tiago Correia Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasture degradation can cause changes in diazotrophic bacterial communities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the culturable and total diazotrophic bacterial community, associated with regions of the rhizosphere and roots of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. pastures in different stages of degradation. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil were collected from slightly, partially, and highly degraded pastures. McCrady’s table was used to obtain the Most Probable Number (MPN of bacteria per gram of sample, in order to determine population density and calculate the Shannon-Weaver diversity index. The diversity of total diazotrophic bacterial community was determined by the technique of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE of the nifH gene, while the diversity of the culturable diazotrophic bacteria was determined by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (BOX-PCR technique. The increase in the degradation stage of the B. decumbens Stapf. pasture did not reduce the population density of the cultivated diazotrophic bacterial community, suggesting that the degradation at any degree of severity was highly harmful to the bacteria. The structure of the total diazotrophic bacterial community associated with B. decumbens Stapf. was altered by the pasture degradation stage, suggesting a high adaptive capacity of the bacteria to altered environments.

  11. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  12. Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and geographical variation. ... Seven species are important pasture grasses throughout the western Transvaal, Orange Free State, northern Cape and Natal. ... Language: English.

  13. Unpalatable plants facilitate tree sapling survival in wooded pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.; Ouden, den J.; Müller-Schärer, H.

    2006-01-01

    Summary 1. In endangered wooded pasture ecosystems established tree saplings are frequently found in spatial association with protective structures, suggesting nurse effects. This associational resistance is thought to be a driving force behind tree regeneration in wooded pastures. Experimental

  14. The management of pot experiments for fertility studies with pasture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of pot experiments for fertility studies with pasture crops. ... Discussions on soil preparation and potting procedure, rates and methods of nutrient addition, indicator crops and the ... species|pastures|crops|moisture gradients ...

  15. Ingestive behavior of supplemented Nellore heifers grazing palisadegrass pastures managed with different sward heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Bruno Ramalho; Azenha, Mariana Vieira; Casagrande, Daniel Rume; Costa, Diogo Fleury Azevedo; Ruggieri, Ana Cláudia; Berchielli, Telma Teresinha; Reis, Ricardo Andrade

    2017-04-01

    Three sward heights (15, 25 and 35 cm) and three supplement types (energy, energy-protein, and a mineral mix supplement) were evaluated in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement distributed in a completely randomized design to study changes in forage search patterns in Nellore heifers in a continuous grazing system. Pasture data were collected using two replicates (paddocks) per treatment over four periods during the rainy season. The behavior assessments were made in the first and fourth grazing seasons. It was hypothesized that supplements and pasture management would modify ingestive behavior, considering that animals would require less time grazing if they had energy requirements met through higher digestibility of better managed paddocks, or use of supplements high in energy. Total and green forage masses along with green : dead material ratio were greater in treatments managed with higher sward heights. Sward managed with 35 cm height resulted in lower leaf : stem ratio compared with 15 cm sward height treatments. The animals on the 15 cm pastures spent more time grazing overall and during each meal, but there were no differences observed in meal numbers in comparison to 35 cm treatments. Heifers fed protein and/or energy supplements spent less time grazing in the early afternoon, but overall grazing time was the same for all animals. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Carbon stocks and dynamics under improved tropical pasture and silvopastoral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Vidal, O.; Buurman, P.; Ramirez, B.L.; Amezquita, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of land use change on soil organic carbon, the carbon contents and stocks of primary forest, degraded pasture, and four improved pasture systems in Colombian Amazonia were compared in a flat and a sloping landscape. The improved pastures were Brachiaria humidicola, and

  17. Green tea and vitamin E enhance exercise-induced benefits in body composition, glucose homeostasis, and antioxidant status in elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narotzki, Baruch; Reznick, Abraham Z; Navot-Mintzer, Dalya; Dagan, Bracha; Levy, Yishai

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of green tea plus vitamin E in addition to exercise on body composition and metabolic and antioxidant parameters in healthy elderly individuals. Interventional randomized controlled prospective trial. For 12 weeks, 22 elderly men and women (age: 71.1 ± 1.2 years; body mass index: 28.3 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) [mean ± SE]) undertook 30 minutes of moderately intense walking 6 d/wk. They were randomly assigned to ingest either green tea plus vitamin E (GTVE; 3 cups and 400 IU, respectively; n = 11) or placebo (n = 11). Data on anthropometrics, fasting insulin and glucose levels, physical fitness, dietary intake, safety parameters, and biomarkers of oxidation status were recorded and analyzed at the start and end of the study. Though dietary intake was unchanged, improved exercise capacity was followed by a significant reduction in body weight and fasting insulin levels in all participants. Additional consumption of GTVE resulted in a twofold increase in serum vitamin E (from 20.4 to 40.6 μmol/L, p fasting glucose levels (from 5.30 to 4.98 mmol/L, p benefits in body composition and glucose tolerance and may also lower oxidative burden.

  18. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  19. Monitoring the intake of pasture and concentrates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administrator

    was conducted to evaluate the potential of "excretal NIRS", a methodology that associates excretal spectral information in .... lucerne, respectively, and pasture intake was evaluated during the last two days of each grazing period ... excreta collection devices were coated with disposable diapers and were emptied every 6 h.

  20. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Catford, Jane A; Barney, Jacob N; Hulme, Philip E; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-11-18

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks.

  1. Nutrient Status of Vermicompost of Urban Green Waste Processed by Three Earthworm Species—Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pattnaik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major nutrient status of vermicompost of vegetable market waste (MW and floral waste (FW processed by three species of earthworms namely, Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida, and Perionyx excavatus and its simple compost were assessed across different periods in relation to their respective initiative substrates. Their physical parameters—temperature, moisture, pH, and electrical conductivity—were also recorded. The nutrients—nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium—increased in the vermicompost and compost while the organic carbon, C/N and C/P ratios decreased as the composting process progressed from 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. The nutrient statuses of vermicomposts of all earthworm species produced from both the wastes were more than that of the compost and that of their respective substrates. Moreover, the vermicompost produced by E. eugeniae possessed higher nutrient contents than that of E. fetida, P. excavatus, and compost. The MW showed higher nutrient contents than the FW. Thus, vermicomposting is the paramount approach of nutrient recovery of urban green waste.

  2. Trading green backs for green crabs: evaluating the commercial shellfish harvest at risk from European green crab invasion [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4jf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Mach

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonnative species pose a threat to native biodiversity and can have immense impacts on biological communities, altering the function of ecosystems. How much value is at risk from high-impact invasive species, and which parameters determine variation in that value, constitutes critical knowledge for directing both management and research, but it is rarely available. We evaluated the value of the commercial shellfish harvest that is at risk in nearshore ecosystems of Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, from the invasive European green crab, Carcinus maenas. We assessed this value using a simple static ecological model combined with an economic model using data from Puget Sound’s shellfish harvest and revenue and the relationship between C. maenas abundance and the consumption rate of shellfish. The model incorporates a range in C. maenas diet preference, calories consumed per year, and crab densities. C. maenas is likely to prey on commercially harvested hardshell clams, oysters, and mussels, which would likely reduce additional revenue from processing and distribution, and the number of jobs associated with these fisheries. The model results suggest possible revenue losses of these shellfish ranging from $1.03-23.8 million USD year-1 (2.8-64% losses, with additional processing and distribution losses up to $17.6 million USD and 442 job positions each year associated with a range of plausible parameter values. The broad range of values reflects the uncertainty in key factors underlying impacts, factors that are highly variable across invaded regions and so not knowable a priori. However, future research evaluating species invasions can reduce the uncertainty of impacts by characterizing several key parameters: density of individuals, number of arrivals, predation and competition interactions, and economic impacts. This study therefore provides direction for research to inform more accurate estimates of value-at-risk, and suggests substantial

  3. Trading green backs for green crabs: evaluating the commercial shellfish harvest at risk to European green crab invasion [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/32t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Mach

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonnative species pose a threat to native biodiversity and can have immense impacts on biological communities, altering the function of ecosystems. How much value is at risk from high-impact invasive species, and which parameters determine variation in that value, constitutes critical knowledge for directing both management and research, but it is rarely available. We evaluated the value of the commercial shellfish harvest that is at risk in nearshore ecosystems of Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, from the invasive European green crab, Carcinus maenas. We assessed this value using a simple static ecological model combined with an economic model using data from Puget Sound’s shellfish harvest and revenue and the relationship between C. maenas abundance and the consumption rate of shellfish. The model incorporates a range in C. maenas diet preference, calories consumed per year, and crab densities. C. maenas is likely to prey on commercially harvested hardshell clams, oysters, and mussels, which would likely reduce additional revenue from processing and distribution, and the number of jobs associated with these fisheries. The model results suggest possible revenue losses of these shellfish ranging from $1.03-23.8 million USD (2.8-64% losses, with additional processing and distrubution losses up to $17.6 million USD and 442 job positions each year associated with a range of plausible parameter values. The broad range of values reflects the uncertainty in key factors underlying impacts, factors that are highly variable across invaded regions and so not knowable a priori. However, future research evaluating species invasions can reduce the uncertainty of impacts by characterizing several key parameters: density of individuals, number of arrivals, predation and competition interactions, and economic impacts. This study therefore provides direction for research to inform more accurate estimates of value-at-risk, and suggests substantial motivation

  4. Mineral content in soil and pasture in bovine dairy herds of the Andean region of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Rodrigo Balarezo Urresta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to characterize the mineral status of the soil and pasture in of the Andean Ecuadorian region, during the rainy and dry periods, three dairy farms were used as study cases investigated him three dairy farms of the El Carchi province. They determined the chemical indicators of the soil and the pasture, the descriptive statisticians were calculated themselves and it was used a multifactorial ANOVA to determine the main factors affecting them on them, comparing means with Bonferroni and Duncan test. The soil classified as acid lightly, 100 % of the samples presented elevated levels of organic matter, NH4+, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The farm had a significant effect on the pH, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mg and P, and the climatic period on the organic matter, NH4+, S, Cu and P. Pasture presented deficiencies of Mg, Zn and Na, the other minerals were above the critical limits. The farm affected the Ca, P, Mg, Na and Mn, and the climatic period the levels of Ca, K, Cu y Zn. In conclusion, 100 % soil samples presented high OM, slight acidity, low levels of Ca and high concentrations of NH4+, S, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn. In pastures, there were diagnosed deficiencies of P, Cu and Zn, and their concentrations differed among farms and the two climatic periods of the year.

  5. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Adrian Eng-Choon; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements. (paper)

  6. MULTIFUNCTIONAL UTILIZATION OF PASTURES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. DRAGOMIR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Romanian pastures are characterized by a multitude of functions that may be used for human benefit: food and habitat for animals, development of some connected activities (collection and processing of apicultural products, medicinal plants, etc., natural reservoir providing biodiversity for more than 70% of the plant species (the preservation of this may assure an important germplasm fund for the next cultivars, the most efficient method of soil protection against erosion, provider of unconventional energy, accomplishment of efficient biological cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and carbon dioxide (CO2, development of landscape tourism due to the plant and animal diversity that ennoble and beautify the environment. If only 60% of the permanent pasture area was used, with the application of minimal technological measures, it would provide the necessary food for at least 1.6 million cattle (57% of the current livestock and 12 million sheep and goats.

  7. Modeling and improving Ethiopian pasture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, S. G.; Cola, G.; Gilioli, G.; Mariani, L.

    2018-05-01

    The production of pasture in Ethiopia was simulated by means of a dynamic model. Most of the country is characterized by a tropical monsoon climate with mild temperatures and precipitation mainly concentrated in the June-September period (main rainy season). The production model is driven by solar radiation and takes into account limitations due to relocation, maintenance respiration, conversion to final dry matter, temperature, water stress, and nutrients availability. The model also considers the senescence of grassland which strongly limits the nutritional value of grasses for livestock. The simulation for the 1982-2009 period, performed on gridded daily time series of rainfall and maximum and minimum temperature with a resolution of 0.5°, provided results comparable with values reported in literature. Yearly mean yield in Ethiopia ranged between 1.8 metric ton per hectare (t ha-1) (2002) and 2.6 t ha-1 (1989) of dry matter with values above 2.5 t ha-1 attained in 1983, 1985, 1989, and 2008. The Ethiopian territory has been subdivided in 1494 cells and a frequency distribution of the per-cell yearly mean pasture production has been obtained. This distribution ranges from 0 to 7 t ha-1 and it shows a right skewed distribution and a modal class between 1.5-2 t ha-1. Simulation carried out on long time series for this peculiar tropical environment give rise to as lot of results relevant by the agroecological point of view on space variability of pasture production, main limiting factors (solar radiation, precipitation, temperature), and relevant meteo-climatic cycles affecting pasture production (seasonal and inter yearly variability, ENSO). These results are useful to establish an agro-ecological zoning of the Ethiopian territory.

  8. Modeling and improving Ethiopian pasture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, S. G.; Cola, G.; Gilioli, G.; Mariani, L.

    2018-01-01

    The production of pasture in Ethiopia was simulated by means of a dynamic model. Most of the country is characterized by a tropical monsoon climate with mild temperatures and precipitation mainly concentrated in the June-September period (main rainy season). The production model is driven by solar radiation and takes into account limitations due to relocation, maintenance respiration, conversion to final dry matter, temperature, water stress, and nutrients availability. The model also considers the senescence of grassland which strongly limits the nutritional value of grasses for livestock. The simulation for the 1982-2009 period, performed on gridded daily time series of rainfall and maximum and minimum temperature with a resolution of 0.5°, provided results comparable with values reported in literature. Yearly mean yield in Ethiopia ranged between 1.8 metric ton per hectare (t ha-1) (2002) and 2.6 t ha-1 (1989) of dry matter with values above 2.5 t ha-1 attained in 1983, 1985, 1989, and 2008. The Ethiopian territory has been subdivided in 1494 cells and a frequency distribution of the per-cell yearly mean pasture production has been obtained. This distribution ranges from 0 to 7 t ha-1 and it shows a right skewed distribution and a modal class between 1.5-2 t ha-1. Simulation carried out on long time series for this peculiar tropical environment give rise to as lot of results relevant by the agroecological point of view on space variability of pasture production, main limiting factors (solar radiation, precipitation, temperature), and relevant meteo-climatic cycles affecting pasture production (seasonal and inter yearly variability, ENSO). These results are useful to establish an agro-ecological zoning of the Ethiopian territory.

  9. Effect of Interactions on the Nutrient Status of a Tropical Soil Treated with Green Manures and Inorganic Phosphate Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul R. Bah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated nutrient management systems using plant residues and inorganic P fertilizers have high potential for increasing crop production and ensuring sustainability in the tropics, but their adoption requires in-depth understanding of nutrient dynamics in such systems. This was examined in a highly weathered tropical soil treated with green manures (GMs and P fertilizers in two experiments conducted in the laboratory and glasshouse. The treatments were factorial combinations of the GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium, and Imperata cylindrica and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks [PRs] from North Carolina, China, and Algeria, and triple superphosphate replicated thrice. Olsen P, mineral N, pH, and exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg were monitored in a laboratory incubation study for 16 months. The change in soil P fractions and available P was also determined at the end of the study. Phosphorus available from the amendments was quantified at monthly intervals for 5 months by 33P-32P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata as test crop. The GMs were labeled with 33P to determine their contribution to P taken up by Setaria, while that from the P fertilizers was indirectly measured by labeling the soil with 32P. The P fertilizers hardly changed Olsen P and exchangeable cations during 16 months of incubation. The legume GMs and legume GM+P did not change Olsen P, lowered exchangeable Ca, and increased exchangeable K about threefold (4.5 cmol[+]kg−1 soil in the first 4 months, even as large amounts of NH4-N accumulated (~1000 mg kg soil−1 and soil pH increased to more than 6.5. Afterwards, Olsen P and exchangeable Ca and Mg increased (threefold as NH4+-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs also augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect in the soil, while fertilizer-P was irreversibly retained. The GMs increased PR-P utilization by 40 to over 80%, mobilized soil P, and

  10. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  11. Genetic strain and diet effects on grazing behavior, pasture intake, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, A J; Kolver, E S; Roche, J R

    2011-07-01

    stage of lactation, timing of sunset, or supplementation status, suggesting that photoperiod influenced grazing behavior. Results confirmed changes in grazing behavior, an associated reduction in pasture DMI, and an increase in milk production when cows consume increasing amounts of concentrates. However, as the effect of supplement on grazing behavior differed between morning and afternoon supplementation, further research is required to better understand the factors controlling grazing behavior, to allow improved milk production responses to supplementary feeding. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil carbon under perennial pastures; benchmarking the influence of pasture age and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, Susan E.; Spoljaric, Nancy; Kelly, Georgina

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports baseline soil carbon stocks from a field survey of 19 sites; 8 pairs/triplet in the Monaro region of New South Wales. Site comparisons were selected by the Monaro Farming Systems group to demonstrate the influence of land management on soil carbon, and included: nutrient management, liming, pasture age and cropping history. Soil carbon stocks varied with parent material and with land management. The fertilised (phosphorus) native perennial pasture had a greater stock of soil carbon compared with the unfertilised site; 46.8 vs 40.4 Mg.C.ha to 0.50 m. However, the introduced perennial pasture which had been limed had a lower stock of soil carbon compared with the unlimed site; 62.8 vs 66.7 Mg.C.ha to 0.50 m. There was a greater stock of soil carbon under two of the three younger (35 yr old) pastures. Cropped sites did not have lower soil carbon stocks at all sites; however, this survey was conducted after three years of above average annual rainfall and most sites had been cropped for less than three years. At all sites more than 20% of the total carbon stock to 0.50 m was in the 0.30 to 0.50 m soil layer highlighting the importance of considering this soil layer when investigating the implications of land management on soil carbon. Our baseline data indicates that nutrient management may increase soil carbon under perennial pastures and highlights the importance of perennial pastures for soil carbon sequestration regardless of age.

  13. Economic Pasture-Based Cow-Calf Systems for Appalachia

    OpenAIRE

    Emenheiser, Joseph Carl

    2014-01-01

    Pasture-based beef production is well-suited for the Appalachian region of the United States. This research investigated pasture, beef cattle, and economics components within the cow-calf sector of pasture beef production, and presents implications of their interplay for the vitality of the whole system. Samples of forage DM mass and CP, ADF, NDF, and ash contents in each paddock of a rotational stocking system were collected monthly for 4 grazing seasons. Effects of month, stockpiling, hay f...

  14. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2001-01-01

    Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the Entom......Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included...

  15. Biophysical Properties of Cultivated Pastures in the Brazilian Savanna Biome: An Analysis in the Spatial-Temporal Domains Based on Ground and Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd in the world, with cattle ranching being particularly prominent in the 200-million ha, Brazilian neotropical moist savanna biome, known as Cerrado, one of the world’s hotspots for biodiversity conservation. As decreasing productivity is a major concern affecting the Cerrado pasturelands, evaluation of pasture conditions through the determination of biophysical parameters is instrumental for more effective management practices and herd occupation strategies. Within this context, the primary goal of this study was the regional assessment of pasture biophysical properties, through the scaling of wet- and dry-season ground truth data (total biomass, green biomass, and % green cover via the combined use of high (Landsat-TM and moderate (MODIS spatial resolution vegetation index images. Based on the high correlation found between NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index and % green cover (r = 0.95, monthly MODIS-based % green cover images were derived for the 2009–2010 hydrological cycle, which were able to capture major regional patterns and differences in pasture biophysical responses, including the increasing greenness values towards the southern portions of the biome, due to both local conditions (e.g., more fertile soils and management practices. These results corroborate the development of biophysically-based landscape degradation indices, in support of improved land use governance and natural area conservation in the Cerrado.

  16. American Pastured Poultry Producers Association (APPPA) Perspective of Alternative Poultry Production Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Pastured Poultry Producers Association (APPPA) is a nonprofit educational and networking organization dedicated to encouraging the production, processing, and marketing of poultry raised on pasture, and is the largest industry group focused on pastured poultry. APPPA passionately embr...

  17. Struggling for Water and Pastures in Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie

    inform natural resource struggles on the ground and reveals that points of contest between universalism and cultural relativism in regard to property, public authority and justice are reflected in both national legislation and in international development practices. On the basis of a sensitive study...... of struggles over water and pastures in Diffa, Signe Marie Cold-Ravnkilde accounts for the outcome of conflict and cooperation and explains why herders, like people in other cultures, conceive of their rights in a contradictory manner: as requiring adoption to cultural specific conditions and yet applies...

  18. Biomass requirements from natural pastures for livestock grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of seasonal shortages of herbage production from natural pastures in the Ethiopian highlands was investigated. This was done by comparing the available biomass amounts on the pastures with biomass amounts required for livestock grazing and for protecting land slope from soil erosion within a given slope ...

  19. Productivity, botanical composition, and nutritive value of commercial pasture mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastures in the northeastern USA often are planted to mixtures of grasses and legumes. There is limited public sector information on the performance of commercial forage mixtures. We evaluated a range of commercial pasture mixtures to determine if the number of species in a mixture affected yield an...

  20. The complemental role of dryland cultivated pastures in market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complemental role of dryland cultivated pastures in market-related beef production from semi-arid rangeland. ... Abstract. Rangeland condition is a decisive factor in determining the income/cost ratio of production hence in the profitability of any beef production enterprise. Cultivated pastures can play an important role in ...

  1. Dry matter intake and digestibility of temperate pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on total and forage dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility of wethers and heifers consuming temperate pasture. Twenty four Corriedale x Milchschaf wethers and 24 crossbred heifers fed temperate pasture were non-supplemented or ...

  2. Short Communication: Significance for pasture production in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Significance for pasture production in the southern Cape coastal region of naturalized rhizobia nodulating the strain specific Medicago ... The significance of naturalized strains of M. polymorpha in the production of medic pastures in some soils of the southern Cape coastal region is discussed.

  3. Influence of transient flooding on methane fluxes from subtropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonally flooded subtropical pastures are major methane (CH4) sources, where transient flooding drives episodic and high-magnitude emissions from the underlying landscape. Understanding the mechanisms that drive these patterns is needed to better understand pasture CH4 emissions and their response...

  4. Biometrical applications in tropical pasture and agro-pastoral research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amézquita, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    "Biometrical Applications in Tropical Pasture and Agro-pastoral Research" illustrates, through selected Case Studies, the contribution of Biometry to pasture and agro-pastoral research in Tropical Latin America ( TLA ) in the last

  5. Development of Botanical Composition in Maribaya Pasture, Brebes, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami, N.; Ngadiyono, N.; Panjono; Agus, F. N.; Shirothul, H. M.; Budisatria, I. G. S.; Hendrawati, Y.; Subroto, I.

    2018-02-01

    The research was aimed to observe the development of botanical composition in Maribaya pastures. The sampling method was cluster random sampling. The observed variables were the type of forages and the botanical composition in the pasture. Botanical composition was measured by using Line Intercept method and the production was measured by the estimation of botany production for each square meter using its dry matter measurement. The botani sampling was performed using square with size of 1×1 m2. The observation was performed before the pasture made (at 2015) and after the pasture made (at 2017). Based on the research result, it was found that there was significant difference between the forage type in the pasture at 2015 and at 2017. It happens due to the adjustment for the Jabres cattle feed.

  6. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  7. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  8. FACTORS TO CONSIDER ABOUT MILK PRODUCTION ON PASTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Wilson da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we addressed issues that permeate discussions related to some factors to consider about milk production on pasture, since the viability of milk production on pasture until the nutritional value of pasture for dairy cows. Analyze the theme of milk production on pasture and how it is inserted within the perspective of the viability of exploiting the cattle dairy pastures in Brazil is the objective of this work. In general, it was observed that the responses of production with grazing animals are conditioned on the rational use of pasture, so this factor of production represents an economical feed source for livestock destined for milk production. For that, it is evident the need to use land intensively, in order to obtain forage quantity and quality necessary to fully meet the nutritional needs of cows, lactating or not. It was observed in this study the great demand for information on pasture as a resource for the production of milk, which justifies this work. It was concluded that grazing managed properly represent a viable, low cost, animal nutrition in the production of bovine milk.

  9. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard

    2011-01-01

    Walking whilst defaecating was most likely to occur when cows were simultaneously engaged in an ‘active’ state, such as going to drink or catching up with the herd. Overall, standing to defaecate and moving forward...... behaviour of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was observed at pasture for6 heach day between morning and afternoon milking for a total of24 h. Lying (l), standing (s) and walking (w) behaviours were recorded pre, during and post-elimination. Sequences of 3–6 changes in these behaviours were recorded if expressed...... within 30 s of an eliminative event. Intentional, incidental or no avoidance of faeces was also recorded for each event. Activity, characterised as static (lying, grazing or loafing), or active (moving to a different area of field, going to drink and catching up with herd) was also recorded. Of the 437...

  11. Cladonia lichens on extensive green roofs: evapotranspiration, substrate temperature, and albedo [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2v4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Heim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs are constructed ecosystems that provide ecosystem services in urban environments. Shallow substrate green roofs subject the vegetation layer to desiccation and other environmental extremes, so researchers have evaluated a variety of stress-tolerant vegetation types for green roof applications. Lichens can be found in most terrestrial habitats.  They are able to survive extremely harsh conditions, including frequent cycles of desiccation and rehydration, nutrient-poor soil, fluctuating temperatures, and high UV intensities. Extensive green roofs (substrate depth <20cm exhibit these harsh conditions, making lichens possible candidates for incorporation into the vegetation layer on extensive green roofs.  In a modular green roof system, we tested the effect of Cladonia lichens on substrate temperature, water loss, and albedo compared to a substrate-only control. Overall, the Cladonia modules had significantly cooler substrate temperatures during the summer and significantly warmer temperatures during the fall.  Additionally, the Cladonia modules lost significantly less water than the substrate-only control. This implies that they may be able to benefit neighboring vascular plant species by reducing water loss and maintaining favorable substrate temperatures.

  12. Cladonia lichens on extensive green roofs: evapotranspiration, substrate temperature, and albedo [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2ha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Heim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs are constructed ecosystems that provide ecosystem services in urban environments. Shallow substrate green roofs subject the vegetation layer to desiccation and other environmental extremes, so researchers have evaluated a variety of stress-tolerant vegetation types for green roof applications. Lichens can be found in most terrestrial habitats.  They are able to survive extremely harsh conditions, including frequent cycles of desiccation and rehydration, nutrient-poor soil, fluctuating temperatures, and high UV intensities. Extensive green roofs (substrate depth <20cm exhibit these harsh conditions, making lichens possible candidates for incorporation into the vegetation layer on extensive green roofs.  In a modular green roof system, we tested the effect of Cladonia lichens on substrate temperature, water loss, and albedo compared to a substrate-only control. Overall, the Cladonia modules had significantly cooler substrate temperatures during the summer and significantly warmer temperatures during the fall.  Additionally, the Cladonia modules lost significantly less water than the substrate-only control. This implies that they may be able to benefit neighboring vascular plant species by reducing water loss and maintaining favorable substrate temperatures.

  13. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Petrina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P P P P P P P Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  14. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Alexandre; Monahan, Frank J; Moloney, Aidan P; Earley, Bernadette; Black, Alistair D; Campion, Deirdre P; Englishby, Tanya; Reilly, Petrina; O'Doherty, John; Sweeney, Torres

    2010-03-31

    Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P outdoor animals (P outdoor animals with elevated levels of serum pepsinogen (P outdoor animals in comparison to the indoor animals. Lower levels of copper and iodine were measured in the outdoor animals in comparison to indoor animals (P < 0.001). Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  15. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  16. Nutrition of intensive pastures in the summer rainfall areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Fertilizer nitrogen sources; Fertilizers; Grasses; Legumes; Lime; Nitrogen application responses; Phosphorous; Potassium; Soil acidity; cutting; fertilizer; grass; grazing; legume; minerals; nitrogen; persistence; phosphorus; productivity; soil test calibrations; utilization; soils; nutrition; pastures; summer rainfall area; ...

  17. Nitrogen uptake into unfertilized pasture of the Willem Pretorius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen uptake into unfertilized pasture of the Willem Pretorius Game Reserve, ... The herbage yield of five main types of grassland in the Willem Pretorius Game Reserve was measured by clipping five 0, 5 m ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Short Communication: Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, F.M. Jr.; Carneiro, R.F.V.; Leite, L.F.C.; Araujo, A.S.F.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality. (Author)

  19. Pasture improvement in Malawi: the introduction of legumes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; S. guyanensis cv. Schofield, S. humilis cv. Queensland Grown, S. humilis cv. Costal Early, S. humilis (BPI 404) and Lotononis bainessi cv. Miles. Eleven principles of legume introduction into grazing systems are discussed. Keywords: pasture ...

  20. Planning countermeasures on pasture-milk pathway in nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eged, K.; Kanyar, B.; Kis, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The pasture → milk → human exposure pathway was modelled with respect to the countermeasures in a nuclear emergency situation. The measures included feed and milk substitution by non-contaminated material, and cost-benefit analysis and uncertainty analysis was performed. Comparison of the maximum benefit of the two kinds of intervention suggests that feed substitution is superior to milk substitution. The duration of the pasture substitution depends strongly on the initial concentration of iodine-131 in the pasture. For relatively low values of activity concentration, the optimum date of withdrawing the intervention increases linearly with the logarithm of the initial radionuclide concentration in the pasture, the maximum value, however, takes nearly 40 days. For milk or feed substitution, the effect of the excess cost of early intervention reduces the maximum value of the cost-benefit function. (P.A.)

  1. Nutritive evaluation of Medicago truncutula (cv. jernalong) pasture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritive evaluation of Medicago truncutula (cv. jernalong) pasture for sheep. 1. Seasonal .... obtained by laboratory work, using in vitro techniques. (Engels et al. .... model that was used to explain 92,3% of the variance in. IVDOM content.

  2. About climate changes impact on the Kazakhstan pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed', L.V.; Belenkova, Z.S.; Turbacheva, T.P.

    1997-01-01

    Assessment of arid pastures vulnerability situated under direct influence of regional climate change related with greenhouse effect is carried out on Northern Aral Sea area as example. Climate change variants calculated with future prospects for on Kazakhstan territory with use up-to-date models of GFDL (USA), CCCM (Canada) climate theory are used. Number of protective measures are proposed for mitigation of consequences of possible vulnerability of pastures during simultaneous impact of complex of anthropogenic and natural factors. (author)

  3. Microwave sensors for detection of wild animals during pasture mowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patrovsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 400000 wild animals are killed or severely injured every year during spring time pasture mowing. Conventional methods for detection and removal or expulsion of animals before mowing are either inefficient or very time-consuming. The first really working method is based on a pyro-detector which senses the temperature contrast between the animals body and the surrounding pasture. Unfortunately, the detection reliability of this sensor decreases with increasing ambient temperature and strong sunlight, i.e. for typical weather conditions, when pasture is mowed, especially around noon. In this paper, a detector is presented that exhibits complementary behaviour. It works best during dry conditions (i.e. around noon, but has a tendency to false alarms when dew is present (i.e. morning and evening. The sensor is based on a commercial, low-cost Doppler module at 24GHz. It senses the difference of radar cross section between the animals body (high water content, specular reflection and the pasture (low water content, diffuse reflection. The signal is analysed by means of a non-linear Wigner time-frequency transformation. Experimental results are presented for a laboratory setup as well as for measurement in actual spring-time pasture. The results prove that a microwave sensor is capable of reliably detecting animals of the size of a fawn even if it is covered by a layer of pasture.

  4. Transfer of cesium-137 from pasture to milk after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlen, G.; Johansson, K.J.; Bertilsson, J.

    1991-01-01

    During 1986, the year of the Chernobyl accident, the Cs-137 activity concentration in the milk and pasture of some dairy farms in the northern part of the county of Uppsala was studied. In 1987, the transfer of Cs-137 from fodder to milk was investigated on 11 dairy farms in the northern part of the county during the first month on pasture. These farms had been studied also during a previous period when the cows were kept in the stable. In 1988, the transfer of Cs-137 from fodder to milk was followed intensively on 5 dairy farms in the same area during the first month on pasture. The Cs-137 activity concentration was measured continuously in feeds and milk during the study periods in 1987 and 1988. All feedstuffs fed in the stable were weighed twice a week, and the amount of forage grazed was calculated from the cows requirements of nutrients. Samples of all feed were taken for Cs-137 determination and chemical analyses. The transfer coefficient for 10 of the 11 dairy farms during the first month on pasture in 1987 was, on average, 0.005 d kg -1 . The Cs-137 activity concentration was significantly lower in the milk of the farms studied during the first month on pasture in 1988 than during the same period in 1987. The mean transfer coefficient for 4 of the 5 dairy farms studied during the first month on pasture in 1988 was 0.007 d kg -1 . (au) (27 refs.)

  5. Signal grass structure at different sites of the same pasture under three grazing intensities - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.11801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Lopes Albino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk at different sites of the same pasture featuring varying grazing intensities (under grazed, properly grazed and overgrazed. The pasture was managed under continuous stocking using 200-kg cattle and grass height kept at about 25 cm. The randomized block design was used, with three replications. Sward height (38.0 cm and extended plant height (85.2 cm were greater at the under grazed site. The falling index was lower at the properly grazed site (1.28. At the under grazed site, the masses of green leaf blade (3442 kg ha-1 DM, green stem (8370 kg ha-1 DM, green forage (11812 kg ha-1 DM and total forage (14137 kg ha-1 DM were higher when compared to the overgrazed and properly grazed sites. Dead material mass was higher at the properly grazed (3422 kg ha-1 DM and under grazed (2324 kg ha-1 DM sites. At the under grazed sites, there was a higher occurrence of tillers taller than 40 cm. Tillers with sizes between 10 and 30 cm predominated in properly grazed sites. In overgrazed site there was a higher share of tillers with sizes smaller than 20 cm. There is spatial variability of vegetation in the same pasture of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk due to uneven grazing by cattle.

  6. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  7. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available , beetles and spiders); and the number of birds that nest in vegetated roofs (including kestrels, swallows, and wagtails). Objective The primary objective of a green roof is to create a living habitat in an otherwise barren environment, hence the use... the negative environmental impacts including plant and insect specie loss. Thus at a philosophical level green roofs support the notion “replace what you displace”. Key ecological issues that can be addressed through green roofs include: Negative effects...

  8. Soil erosion studies in buffelgrass pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Valdez-Zamudio; D. Phillip Guertin

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of exotic grasses in native rangelands to increase the production of forage has been a good alternative for the cattle industry in North America. Different studies have demonstrated that buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), a plant introduced from Africa, increases the annual green forage production approximately three times in comparison to production...

  9. Contamination of pasture by iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio

    1980-08-01

    The reassessment of the experimental data on the transfer of iodine to aerial parts of rye-gras leads to the following significant findings: 1 - Water content of herbage depending markedly on time and location, the contamination of the vegetals has to be expressed on a dry weight basis. 2 - The value of the geometrical mean of the deposition velocity of iodine vapour as derived from 19 experiments carried out over 4 years is 0.76 cm/s. This value agrees very well with the value of V(d)=0.80 obtained in the USA during experiments comparable as to the number of tests and their duration. Consequently we propose a value of V(d)=0.76 cm/s for the evaluation of pasture land contamination by iodine resulting from routine releases. For accidental releases, however, we propose a value of V(d)=2 cm/s, which was the upper limit in about 90% of our experimental results. 3 - The analysis of data on wet deposition of iodine on the aerial parts of rye-grass shows that the initial retention when expressed as percent of the total deposit decreases with aspersion intensities. If expressed as retention factor, the initial retention is constant, for all aspersion intensities. The average initial iodine retention being lower by a factor of 2.3 than water retention the value of the latter will therefore be the upper limit for this radionuclide [fr

  10. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.

  11. Green thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank Woolsey, III

    Many people around the world have observed green light apparently emanating from severe thunderstorms, but until recently there has been no scientific study of the phenomenon. Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm suggest that they are some kind of illusion. The existence of green thunderstorms has been objectively demonstrated by recording spectra of light from thunderstorms using a handheld spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 and the spring of 1996 numerous storms were observed and spectra of the light emanating from these storms were recorded. Observations were made both at the ground and aboard research aircraft. Furthermore, time series of spectra were recorded as the observed color of some storms changed from dark blue to a bluish-green. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the occurrence of green light in connection with severe storms. Fankhauser gave some observational support to the belief that green light from thunderstorms is possible and believed that the source of the light is from the blue sky penetrating thin regions in the clouds. Fraser believes that light from the setting sun, in combination with the process of scattering by atmospheric molecules, creates the green light associated with severe weather and the thunderstorm acts only as a black backdrop. Unfortunately, no cloud illuminated by the sun is black and the green airlight produced by the Fraser theory is in reality overwhelmed by light reflected by the cloud. Often the unusual coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflection of light from foliage on the ground. The quantitative measurements made during the observation period fail to support these assumptions. We have observed thunderstorms to be green over ground that was not green and we have observed blue thunderstorms over ground that was green

  12. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN PASTURES WITH TREES, TREELESS PASTURES AND DECIDUOUS FOREST FROM HUATUSCO, VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Torres-Rivera

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It was compared the amount of carbon (C sequestered in a pasture with trees (P+Ar and in conventional treeless pastures (P and deciduous forest (BC, typical of the region of Huatusco, Veracruz, Mexico. Total C sequestered by the systems evaluated was 49.9, 63.0 and 469.8 ton ha-1 for P, P+Ar and BC, respectively. The system with the highest amount of C sequestered was BC, with almost equal proportions in the aerial (268.4 ton ha-1 and belowground parts (201.4 ton ha-1. The amount of C sequestered in the livestock systems represented about one tenth of that sequestered in BC, being higher the proportion obtained in P+Ar (13.4 % compared to P (10.6 %. In both livestock systems, a significantly greater amount of C was sequestered in the soil organic matter than in the aerial biomass, with 59.7 and 3.29 ton ha-1 in P+Ar, and with 48.2 and 1.78 ton ha-1 in P, respectively. It is expected that as trees of the P+Ar system gain volume, C sequestration will increase, especially in the aerial biomass.

  13. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...

  14. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  15. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...

  16. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  17. Distribution of Diverse Escherichia coli between Cattle and Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NandaKafle, Gitanjali; Seale, Tarren; Flint, Toby; Nepal, Madhav; Venter, Stephanus N; Brözel, Volker S

    2017-09-27

    Escherichia coli is widely considered to not survive for extended periods outside the intestines of warm-blooded animals; however, recent studies demonstrated that E. coli strains maintain populations in soil and water without any known fecal contamination. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the niche partitioning of E. coli occurs between cattle and their pasture. We attempted to clarify whether E. coli from bovine feces differs phenotypically and genotypically from isolates maintaining a population in pasture soil over winter. Soil, bovine fecal, and run-off samples were collected before and after the introduction of cattle to the pasture. Isolates (363) were genotyped by uidA and mutS sequences and phylogrouping, and evaluated for curli formation (Rough, Dry, And Red, or RDAR). Three types of clusters emerged, viz. bovine-associated, clusters devoid of cattle isolates and representing isolates endemic to the pasture environment, and clusters with both. All isolates clustered with strains of E. coli sensu stricto, distinct from the cryptic species Clades I, III, IV, and V. Pasture soil endemic and bovine fecal populations had very different phylogroup distributions, indicating niche partitioning. The soil endemic population was largely comprised of phylogroup B1 and had a higher average RDAR score than other isolates. These results indicate the existence of environmental E. coli strains that are phylogenetically distinct from bovine fecal isolates, and that have the ability to maintain populations in the soil environment.

  18. Solar radiation in forest and pasture areas in the Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, J.R.P.; Costa, R.F. da; Fisch, G.; Souza, S.S. de; Nobre, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The average daytime behavior of the global incident radiation (Rg) over grassland (NS) and forest (RJ) in Rondonia State during dry and wet seasons were analyzed. The data set originated from the ABRACOS Project’s automatic meteorological stations in years 1992 through 1996. Results showed that incident radiation is smaller in pasture than in forest (17.1MJ m -2 dia -1 pasture versus 18.3M Jm -2 dia -1 forest) during the dry season. In the wet season, incident radiation is smaller than dry season, with 16.9MJ m -2 dia -1 for pasture and 17.1MJ m -2 dia -1 for forest. Atmospheric transmittance in pasture was smaller than forest (0.58 versus 0.66) in the dry season. This difference is equivalent a reduction of 2.8M Jm -2 dia -1 in the surface incident radiation. In the wet season the transmittances were 0.52 for the pasture and 0.50 for the forest. (author) [pt

  19. The effect of Lameness before and during the breeding season on fertility in 10 pasture-based Irish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Joris R; Huxley, Jon; Lorenz, Ingrid; Doherty, Michael L; O'Grady, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lameness on fertility have been documented frequently but few data are available from seasonally breeding, pasture-based herds (such as those used in Ireland) where cows are housed during the winter months but managed at pasture for the remainder of the year. This study determined the prevalence of lameness in a group of 786 cows in 10 pasture-based Irish dairy herds before, during and after the breeding season and assessed the relationship between lameness and the reproductive performance in these herds through serial locomotion scoring during the grazing period. Lameness prevalences of 11.6 % before, 14.6 % during and 11.6 % after the breeding season were found and these compared favourably to results from housed cattle and are similar to other studies carried out in grazing herds. A Cox proportional hazards model with locomotion score as time varying covariate was used. After controlling for the effect of farm, month of calving, body condition score at calving, body condition score loss after calving and economic breeding index, cows identified as lame during the study were less likely to become pregnant. Cows lame before the earliest serve date but no longer lame during the breeding season, cows becoming lame after the earliest serve date and cows identified lame both before and after this date were respectively 12 %, 35 % and 38 % less likely to become pregnant compared to cows never observed lame during the study. However, these findings were only significant for cows becoming lame after the earliest serve date and cows lame both before and after the start of breeding. This study found that the reproductive efficiency was significantly (p  0.05) lower in these animals compared to cows never diagnosed as lame. In addition to lameness status, nutritional status and genetics were found to influence the reproductive performance in pasture-based Irish dairy herds.

  20. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  1. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  2. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.

  3. Desmodium: A low-cost pasture for the eastern Cape coastal region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Animal production; Beef production; botany; Desmodium intortum; dryland; east london; Eastern Cape; economic evaluation; fertilizer; grasses; gross margin; Growth requirements; livestock; Management; maximum production; pasture; Pastures; Production costs; south africa; star grass; stocking rate; stocking ...

  4. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  5. Green Nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Nicholas; Eickers, Stephanie; Geene, Leonie; Todorovic, Marijana; Villmow, Annika; Forschungsstelle für Umweltpolitik (FFU), Freie Universität Berlin

    2018-01-01

    Traditional environmental policy instruments have not always proven successful in fostering environmentally friendly behaviour. The question remains: how can policymakers tackle the attitude-behaviour gap when it comes to pro-environmental choices and sustainable lifestyles? One solution that has emerged is green nudging, a new and potentially promising policy tool born of behavioural economics and experimental psychology. This paper contributes to the current discussion surrounding green nud...

  6. SPATIAL VARIABILITY AND VITALITY OF EPIGEOUS TERMITE MOUNDS IN PASTURES OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigeous termite mounds are frequently observed in pasture areas, but the processes regulating their population dynamics are poorly known. This study evaluated epigeous termite mounds in cultivated grasslands used as pastures, assessing their spatial distribution by means of geostatistics and evaluating their vitality. The study was conducted in the Cerrado biome in the municipality of Rio Brilhante, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In two pasture areas (Pasture 1 and Pasture 2, epigeous mounds (nests were georeferenced and analyzed for height, circumference and vitality (inhabited or not. The area occupied by the mounds was calculated and termite specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. The spatial distribution pattern of the mounds was analyzed with geostatistical procedures. In both pasture areas, all epigeous mounds were built by the same species, Cornitermes cumulans. The mean number of mounds per hectare was 68 in Pasture 1 and 127 in Pasture 2, representing 0.4 and 1 % of the entire area, respectively. A large majority of the mounds were active (vitality, 91 % in Pasture 1 and 84 % in Pasture 2. A “pure nugget effect” was observed in the semivariograms of height and nest circumference in both pastures reflecting randomized spatial distribution and confirming that the distribution of termite mounds in pastures had a non-standard distribution.

  7. PASTURE ffPROVEMENT POSSIBILTTIES IN EFFECTIVE AI{IMAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PASTURE ffPROVEMENT POSSIBILTTIES IN EFFECTIVE AI{IMAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS. P. de V. Booysen. University of Natal, King George V Avenue, Durban. (Key words: .... inherent in biotic simplification is the danger of increased susceptibility of the abiotic component to degradation. So as the agriculturalist ...

  8. Planning pastures: taking species attributes to the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter hardiness limits the use of the productive forage grass perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the northeastern United States. Both efforts to breed more cold-tolerant varieties and the changing climate increase the potential of this grass in pastures. Growth chamber studies of thirteen co...

  9. Nutritive value of Medicago truncatula (ev. Jemalong) as pasture for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indication of total feacal output in white tailed deer. J. Range Mgmt. 30,61. RUSSEL, AJ.F., 1984. Means of assessing the adequacy of nutrition in pregnant ewes. Livest. Prod. Sci. 11,429. SMITH, A.M. & REID, J.T., 1955. Use of chromic oxide as an indicator of feacal output for the purpose of determining the intake of pasture.

  10. Survival and development of chicken ascarid eggs in temperate pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt

    2017-01-01

    Eggs of chicken ascarids (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) are believed to be hardy and survive for long periods. However, this has not been evaluated quantitatively and our study therefore aimed to determine development and recovery of chicken ascarid eggs after burying in pasture soil...

  11. 75 FR 7153 - National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ..., who suggested an intake level that would be attainable on productive pastures of farming operations in... animals.'' Most types or species of livestock animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, sheep, goats..., goats, swine, poultry, equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fiber, feed, or other...

  12. Tiller diversity on Brachiaria decumbens pasture managed under continuos stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out aiming to classify and quantify tiller categories of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk from different heights found on the same pasture. Four different plant heights (10; 20; 30 and 40 cm living at the same pasture were evaluated. Randomized block design with three replications was used. Tillers were classified according to their stage of development, growth origin, defoliation level and size. The number of vegetative tillers reduced linearly, while the number of reproductive tillers and dead tillers increased linearly according to the plant height. The number of aerial tillers showed a quadratic response in relation to the plant height. The pastures having grasses of 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm in height had respectively 292, 408, 496 and 344 aerial tillers/m2. The population density of defoliated tillers reduced linearly according to the plant height. The population density of tillers without the apical shoot showed quadratic response to the signal grass height, being the smallest values found for places having grasses of 10 cm (176 tillers/m2 and 40 cm (180 tillers/m2 in height. The number of tillers without defoliation quadratic responded to the plant height, being the highest values found for places having grasses extremely high. The areas with the highest grasses also showed the highest numbers of tallest tillers. There is indeed a spatial variability of the vegetation and a high morphological diversity of tillers on Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures managed under the continuous stocking system.

  13. Managing cultivated pastures for improving soil quality in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are concerns that soils under pastures in certain regions of South Africa are degrading as a result of mismanagement, which include practising continuous tillage, improper grazing management, injudicious application of fertilisers and poor irrigation management. Soil quality indicators, which include physical, ...

  14. Surface - atmosphere exchange of ammonia over grazed pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantaz, M.A.H.G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and grazed pasture in an area of intensive livestock breeding. The term exchange is used because gaseous ammonia can be taken up (dry deposition) as well as released (emission) by this type of surface.
    Ammonia exchange

  15. THE FUTURE ROLE OF IMPROVED PASTURES FOR BEEF CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increase in the total annual livemass per hectare can be achieved by ... the specific component of the animal production system and the ... native grassland through the application of fertilizen ... By comparison. maintenance costs are low (ca ... this principle is as follows: .... a grass pasture in the sarne productive condition.

  16. The disc pasture meter: Possible applications in grazing management.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disc meter is a simple inexpensive instrument which may be used to make rapid yield estimates of standing forage. Linear regression relationships between meter reading and pasture dry matter yield are usually fairly good, but these may be affected by a number of different factors. The meter should therefore be ...

  17. Soil quality effects on regeneration of annual Medicago pastures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual medic (Medicago spp.) pastures are widely used as the forage component of crop rotation systems in the Mediterranean region of South Africa. Reliable establishment of medics can be challenging. This may be related to poor soil quality, an inherent problem of soils in the region often aggravated by poor ...

  18. Short-Term and Sub-Chronic Dietary Exposure to Aspalathin-Enriched Green Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) Extract Affects Rat Liver Function and Antioxidant Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Johanna Debora; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2015-12-18

    An aspalathin-enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract (GRE) was fed to male Fischer rats in two independent studies for 28 and 90 days. The average dietary total polyphenol (TP) intake was 756 and 627 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/kg body weight (bw)/day over 28 and 90 days, respectively, equaling human equivalent doses (HEDs) of 123 and 102 GAE mg/kg bw/day. Aspalathin intake of 295 mg/kg bw/day represents a HED of 48 mg/kg bw/day (90 day study). Consumption of GRE increased feed intake significantly (p stress related genes, indicative, among others, of an underlying oxidative stress related to changes in the GSH redox pathway and possible biliary dysfunction.

  19. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  20. Potential for biological nitrification inhibition to reduce nitrification and N2O emissions in pasture crop-livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G V; Rao, I M; Nakahara, K; Sahrawat, K L; Ando, Y; Kawashima, T

    2013-06-01

    Agriculture and livestock production systems are two major emitters of greenhouse gases. Methane with a GWP (global warming potential) of 21, and nitrous oxide (N2O) with a GWP of 300, are largely emitted from animal production agriculture, where livestock production is based on pasture and feed grains. The principal biological processes involved in N2O emissions are nitrification and denitrification. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the natural ability of certain plant species to release nitrification inhibitors from their roots that suppress nitrifier activity, thus reducing soil nitrification and N2O emission. Recent methodological developments (e.g. bioluminescence assay to detect BNIs in plant root systems) have led to significant advances in our ability to quantify and characterize the BNI function. Synthesis and release of BNIs from plants is a highly regulated process triggered by the presence of NH4 + in the rhizosphere, which results in the inhibitor being released precisely where the majority of the soil-nitrifier population resides. Among the tropical pasture grasses, the BNI function is strongest (i.e. BNI capacity) in Brachiaria sp. Some feed-grain crops such as sorghum also have significant BNI capacity present in their root systems. The chemical identity of some of these BNIs has now been established, and their mode of inhibitory action on Nitrosomonas has been characterized. The ability of the BNI function in Brachiaria pastures to suppress N2O emissions and soil nitrification potential has been demonstrated; however, its potential role in controlling N2O emissions in agro-pastoral systems is under investigation. Here we present the current status of our understanding on how the BNI functions in Brachiaria pastures and feed-grain crops such as sorghum can be exploited both genetically and, from a production system's perspective, to develop low-nitrifying and low N2O-emitting production systems that would be economically profitable and

  1. Green times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenclever, W.D.; Hasenclever, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors, founding members of the ''Green Party'' have in mind to make a very personal contribution to a better understanding of the present political situation which, although it seems to have reached a deadlock, still offers positive chances and prospects. New approaches in policy are mentioned which may help to overcome the present state of resignation of many adolescents and adults. Among other things, they describe themselves setting out for new pathways, the ''Greens'' in Parliament, prospect for the future, opportunities of the ecologically oriented economic policy. Finally, they call upon the reader to think and develop further under the motto ''What we all can do''. (HSCH) [de

  2. Transpiration efficiency of three Mediterranean annual pasture species and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, T P; Turner, N C

    1998-06-01

    Attempts to improve water use efficiency in regions with Mediterranean climates generally focus on increasing plant transpiration relative to evaporation from the soil and increasing transpiration efficiency. Our aim was to determine if transpiration efficiency differs among key species occurring in annual pastures in southern Australia. Two glasshouse experiments were conducted with three key pasture species, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.), capeweed [Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns] and annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Transpiration efficiency was assessed at the levels of␣whole-plant biomass and water use (W), leaf gas exchange measurements of the ratio of CO 2 assimilation to leaf conductance to water vapour (A/g), and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) in leaf tissue. In addition, Δ was measured on shoots of the three pasture species growing together in the field. In the glasshouse studies, annual ryegrass had a consistently higher transpiration efficiency than subterranean clover or capeweed by all methods of measurement. Subterranean clover and capeweed had similar transpiration efficiencies by all three methods of measurement. Wheat had W values similar to ryegrass but A/g and Δ values similar to subterranean clover or capeweed. The high W of annual ryegrass seems to be related to a conservative leaf gas exchange behaviour, with lower assimilation and conductance but higher A/g than for the other species. In contrast to the glasshouse results, the three pasture species had similar Δ values when growing together in mixed-species swards in the field. Reasons for these differing responses between glasshouse and field-grown plants are discussed in terms of the implications for improving the transpiration efficiency of mixed-species annual pasture communities in the field.

  3. Green sea turtle age, growth, population characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Morphology, sex ratio, body condition, disease status, age structure, and growth patterns were characterized for 448 green sea turtles cold stunned in St. Joseph...

  4. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  5. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  6. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  7. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  8. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  9. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  10. Is a 'green China' possible? Status of pollution in China, answer of the Chinese government and illustration of the commitment of a French NGO in south western China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruvost, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Despite the gap between political statements and actual results, the authors highlight signals which might indicate that one could see emerge, if not a 'green China', a China aware that its unbridled growth cannot go on without better accounting for environmental issues. In a first part, they propose an overview of the situation of pollution in China. Then, they analyse why and how the Chinese government became aware of the necessity to struggle for the protection of the environment, and implemented a new model of sustainable growth, China becoming a major actor of the international struggle against climate change. In the second part, in order to illustrate the evolutions of the Chinese environmental policy, they address the activities of a French GNO (ID, Initiative Developpement) in collaboration with the Chinese government for the protection of the environment in two Chinese regions (Yunnan and Guizhou). After a presentation of these activities and of related projects, the authors also discuss the ambivalent relationships between the GNO and the Chinese government: a sustainable and serene collaboration with local and regional authorities, and in increasing control of environmental GNOs by the central government

  11. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent

    2017-08-01

    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr -1 . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha -1 ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha -1 ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha -1  yr -1 while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha -1  yr -1 . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  13. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  14. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  15. Rumen conditions that predispose cattle to pasture bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majak, W; Howarth, R E; Cheng, K J; Hall, J W

    1983-08-01

    Rumen contents from the dorsal sac were examined before alfalfa ingestion to determine factors that predispose cattle to pasture bloat. Chlorophyll concentration, buoyancy of particulate matter, and rates of gas production were significantly higher in cattle that subsequently bloated than in those that did not. Higher chlorophyll in bloat cases indicated accumulation of suspended chloroplast particles in the dorsal sac, perhaps due to increased buoyancy of the particulate matter. The higher fermentation rates (in the presence of glucose) suggested that the latent capacity for gas production was due to microbial colonization of suspended feed particles. Chlorophyll 4 h after feeding was also higher in bloated as compared to unbloated animals. In short, the microbial colonization and retention of particulate matter provided active inocula for promoting rapid legume digestion. Consequently, gas production was enhanced when feeding commenced, but the fermentation gases were trapped by the buoyant, frothy ingesta, resulting in the condition of pasture bloat.

  16. Pasture cows nutrition in submounteens condition in Sumava region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka MARTÍNKOVÁ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of from meadow and grazing herbage were evaluated. Dry matter, crude protein, ash, fat and fibre were analyzed. Herbage sampling was realized on three pastures of cattle with higher altitudes. Grass and herbage are the most natural and optimal feedstuff for cattle in fresh and as silage feed. Grazing management should notably regulate the pasture composition, i.e. support dominance of soft stoloniserous strains of grasses and decrease occurrence of weed and less value strain of gramineous grasses.The impact of grazing on milk performance and health of dairy cows was surveyed on sub-mountain farms. The higher milk, fat and protein yields were found in grazing season in comparison with winter confinement period.

  17. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  18. Milk production and in sacco disappearance of pasture NDF in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of feeding low (2.4 kg/d), medium (4.8 kg/d) and high (7.2 kg/d) levels of a barley-based concentrate on milk production and in sacco ruminal disappearance of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in Jersey cows grazing a Westerwold ryegrass pasture.

  19. Dairy farming: indoor v. pasture-based feeding

    OpenAIRE

    HOFSTETTER, P.; FREY, H.-J; GAZZARIN, C.; WYSS, U.; KUNZ, P.

    2017-01-01

    The current situation of volatile milk prices and rising costs of, e.g. grain and labour, suggests that it is worth studying productivity and efficiency in dairy farming. The objective of the current whole-system study, carried out in lowland Central Switzerland from 2007 to 2010, was to compare the performance, efficiency, land productivity and profitability of indoor-feeding (IF) dairy production with that of pasture-based feeding (PF) dairy production. An IF herd consisting of 11 Holstein-...

  20. Distribution of Diverse Escherichia coli between Cattle and Pasture

    OpenAIRE

    NandaKafle, Gitanjali; Seale, Tarren; Flint, Toby; Nepal, Madhav; Venter, Stephanus N.; Brözel, Volker S.

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli is widely considered to not survive for extended periods outside the intestines of warm-blooded animals; however, recent studies demonstrated that E. coli strains maintain populations in soil and water without any known fecal contamination. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the niche partitioning of E. coli occurs between cattle and their pasture. We attempted to clarify whether E. coli from bovine feces differs phenotypically and genotypically from isola...

  1. Predicting the Diffusion of Improved Pastures in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell S. Jarvis

    1981-01-01

    Research suggests the logistic curve is the characteristic diffusion path for new technologies. Econometric analysis of fertilized grass-legume pastures in Uruguay indicated that their diffusion during the first years following introduction also followed a logistic path. Some departure from a simple logistic shape was explained by including beef and fertilizer prices within the diffusion framework. Both the rate and limit of diffusion were positively related to changes in the technology's pro...

  2. Green pastures: Do US real estate prices respond to population health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Claudia; Bishai, David

    2018-01-01

    We investigate whether communities with improving population health will subsequently experience rising real estate prices. Home price indices (HPIs) for 371 MSAs from 1990 to 2010 are regressed against life-expectancy five years prior. HPIs come from the Federal Housing Finance Agency. Life expectancy estimates come from the Institute of Health Metrics. Our analysis uses random and fixed effect models with a comprehensive set of controls. Life expectancy predicted increases in the HPI controlling for potential confounders. We found that, this effect varied spatially. Communities that invest their revenue from property taxes in public health infrastructure could benefit from a virtuous cycle of better health leading to higher property values. Communities that do not invest in health could enter vicious cycles and this could widen geospatial health and wealth disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Information Society of the 1990s; Blue Sky and Green Pastures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Toni Carbo

    1987-01-01

    Predicts how an information-intensive society in the next 10 years will affect the daily life of an individual. Trends described include renewed emphasis of problem solving, increased awareness of the importance of lifelong learning, greater economic challenges, and redirected attention to sociocultural concerns. (EM)

  4. Assessing soil carbon stocks under pastures through orbital remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Gyula Julius Szakács

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of world food and energy supply increases the threat of global warming due to higher greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural activity. Therefore, it is widely admitted that agriculture must establish a new paradigm in terms of environmental sustainability that incorporate techniques for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This article addresses to the scientific demand to estimate in a fast and inexpensive manner current and potential soil organic carbon (SOC stocks in degraded pastures, using remote sensing techniques. Four pastures on sandy soils under Brazilian Cerrado vegetation in São Paulo state were chosen due to their SOC sequestration potential, which was characterized for the soil depth 0-50 cm. Subsequently, a linear regression analysis was performed between SOC and Leaf Area Index (LAI measured in the field (LAIfield and derived by satellite (LAIsatellite as well as SOC and pasture reflectance in six spectra from 450 nm - 2350 nm, using the Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ sensor of satellite Landsat 7. A high correlation between SOC and LAIfield (R² = 0.9804 and LAIsatellite (R² = 0.9812 was verified. The suitability of satellite derived LAI for SOC determination leads to the assumption, that orbital remote sensing is a very promising SOC estimation technique from regional to global scale.

  5. Spectral Slope as an Indicator of Pasture Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lugassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a spectral method for assessment of pasture quality based only on the spectral information obtained with a small number of wavelengths. First, differences in spectral behavior were identified across the near infrared–shortwave infrared spectral range that were indicative of changes in chemical properties. Then, slopes across different spectral ranges were calculated and correlated with the changes in crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and metabolic energy concentration (MEC. Finally, partial least squares (PLS regression analysis was applied to identify the optimal spectral ranges for accurate assessment of CP, NDF and MEC. Six spectral domains and a set of slope criteria for real-time evaluation of pasture quality were suggested. The evaluation of three level categories (low, medium, high for these three parameters showed a success rate of: 73%–96% for CP, 72%–87% for NDF and 60%–85% for MEC. Moreover, only one spectral range, 1748–1764 nm, was needed to provide a good estimation of CP, NDF and MEC. Importantly, five of the six selected spectral regions were not affected by water absorbance. With some modifications, this rationale can be applied to further analyses of pasture quality from airborne sensors.

  6. Productive performance of Holstein calves finished in feedlot or pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA O. DIAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of animals from dairy farms is an alternative to meat production since it provides an increment of total income for farmers. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves finished in two feeding systems (feedlot or pasture. Forty-three animals with 58 days old and 57 kg were divided in two treatments: 23 animals finished in feedlot with corn silage plus concentrate based on corn and soybean meal (40:60; 20 animals kept in cultivated pastures according to the period of the year: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum with supplementation with the same feedlot-concentrate at 1% body weight. Animals were slaughtered with 200 kg. Dry matter and nutrient intake were determined, with the use of chromium oxide for estimating pasture intake. Feedlot animals had greater total intake and total digestible nutrients, resulting in higher average daily gain (0.949 vs 0.694 kg day-1. Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion did not show significant differences. Holstein calves have improved performance when finished in feedlot.

  7. The Battle over Pastures: The Hidden War in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Alden Wily

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rangelands (‘pastures’ constitute a large and valuable natural resource in Afghanistan. Millions of rural people shape their agro-pastoral or pastoral livelihoods around this asset. In many ways, the territorial history of Afghanistan may be written through the lens of ancient and continuing battles between ethnic groups for possession of alpine pastures. In more recent times, this battle has centred on control of the Hindu Kush, the rich highland pastures of central Afghanistan. This paper focuses on the worsening conflict over this resource and the diminishing opportunities for its resolution, as new pressures mount. Despite numerous government initiatives, the Karzai Administration has failed to get to grips with the ownership issues underpinning this contestation and the associated seasonal armed conflict. As rangelands are made more available for purchase in the marketplace and as a surge in mining developments eats into pastures, more conflict may be expected, deepening divisions not only between ethnicities, but also between rich and poor, and between the people and the state.

  8. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  9. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  10. Transplantation of subalpine wood-pasture turfs along a natural climatic gradient reveals lower resistance of unwooded pastures to climate change compared to wooded ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazov, Konstantin; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre

    2014-04-01

    Climate change could impact strongly on cold-adapted mountain ecosystems, but little is known about its interaction with traditional land-use practices. We used an altitudinal gradient to simulate a year-round warmer and drier climate for semi-natural subalpine grasslands across a landscape of contrasting land-use management. Turf mesocosms from three pasture-woodland land-use types-unwooded pasture, sparsely wooded pasture, and densely wooded pasture-spanning a gradient from high to low management intensity were transplanted downslope to test their resistance to two intensities of climate change. We found strong overall effects of intensive (+4 K) experimental climate change (i.e., warming and reduced precipitation) on plant community structure and function, while moderate (+2 K) climate change did not substantially affect the studied land-use types, thus indicating an ecosystem response threshold to moderate climate perturbation. The individual land-use types were affected differently under the +4 K scenario, with a 60% decrease in aboveground biomass (AGB) in unwooded pasture turfs, a 40% decrease in sparsely wooded pasture turfs, and none in densely wooded ones. Similarly, unwooded pasture turfs experienced a 30% loss of species, advanced (by 30 days) phenological development, and a mid-season senescence due to drought stress, while no such effects were recorded for the other land-use types. The observed contrasting effects of climate change across the pasture-woodland landscape have important implications for future decades. The reduced impact of climate change on wooded pastures as compared to unwooded ones should promote the sustainable land use of wooded pastures by maintaining low management intensity and a sparse forest canopy, which buffer the immediate impacts of climate change on herbaceous vegetation.

  11. Natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Gutierrez Villanueva, J.-L.; Sundell-Bergman, S.

    2012-06-01

    The amount of natural radionuclides in the environment differs between the Nordic countries as shown by previous investigations and also by this study. Agricultural areas of high natural background are predominantly found in Sweden, Southern Finland and Norway while low background areas are typical for Iceland and Denmark. Thus, this study offers possibilities for studying behaviour of natural radionuclides under different conditions such as the influence of different soil types as well as the husbandry. Furthermore the areas also enable studying environmental behaviour of radium and other natural radionuclides under seemingly steady state conditions. However, migration and accumulation of natural radionuclides in cultivated soil is complex involving various processes. Thus, a long term goal of this study was to identify the implications of some of these processes by determining the soil to plant transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow/pasture grass -cow-milk). Limited data are available on the mobility and the transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides in the ecosystems of the agricultural land. In addition, information concerning the concentrations in meat and dairy products is of interest for assessing exposures of humans to natural radionuclides. Soil characteristics are known to have significant impact on the mobility and uptake of natural radionuclides. Therefore, the uptake in relation to

  12. Natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K.; Gutierrez Villanueva, J.-L.; Sundell-Bergman, S. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) (Sweden)] [and others

    2012-06-15

    The amount of natural radionuclides in the environment differs between the Nordic countries as shown by previous investigations and also by this study. Agricultural areas of high natural background are predominantly found in Sweden, Southern Finland and Norway while low background areas are typical for Iceland and Denmark. Thus, this study offers possibilities for studying behaviour of natural radionuclides under different conditions such as the influence of different soil types as well as the husbandry. Furthermore the areas also enable studying environmental behaviour of radium and other natural radionuclides under seemingly steady state conditions. However, migration and accumulation of natural radionuclides in cultivated soil is complex involving various processes. Thus, a long term goal of this study was to identify the implications of some of these processes by determining the soil to plant transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow/pasture grass -cow-milk). Limited data are available on the mobility and the transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides in the ecosystems of the agricultural land. In addition, information concerning the concentrations in meat and dairy products is of interest for assessing exposures of humans to natural radionuclides. Soil characteristics are known to have significant impact on the mobility and uptake of natural radionuclides. Therefore, the uptake in relation to

  13. Seasonal and temporal evolution of nutrient composition of pastures grown on remediated and non remediated soils affected by trace element contamination (Guadiamar Valley, SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madejon, P.; Dominguez, M. T.; Murillo, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    Elevated trace element concentrations in soils can affect the solubility and uptake of essential elements, resulting in nutrient deficiencies in plant tissues. The present paper deals with nutrient composition of pastures established on polluted and remediated soils (Green Corridor of the Guadiamar river Valley), in order to check the potential nutritional disorders that could derive from the soil pollution. In addition, nutrient composition of a representative grass, Cynodon dactylon, collected in 1999 and 2008 was compared in remediated and non-remediated sites of the polluted area. In general, nutrient concentrations of pastures were similar or even higher in polluted sites compared to control sites. Therefore, the estimated potential ingestion of main nutrients by horses (the most abundant animals in the area) was also greater in the polluted and remediated soils and covered their nutritional requirements (more than 300 (N), 70 (S), 35 (P), 400 (K), 175 (Ca) and 30 (Mg) mg kg{sup -}1 body weight day {sup -}1 in spring and autumn). Temporal evolution of nutrients and physiological ratios (N/S, Ca/P, K/Na, K/Ca+Mg) in C. dactylon showed a significant variation from 1999 to 2008, especially in the non-remediated area, leading to a recovery of the nutritional quality of this grass. The reasonable nutritional quality of pastures and the absence of negative interactions between nutrients and trace elements seem to indicate a stabilisation of soil pollutants in the affected area. (Author) 41 refs.

  14. Green and lean: Is neighborhood park and playground availability associated with youth obesity? Variations by gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Hughey, S; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Child, Stephanie; Moore, Justin B; Porter, Dwayne; Hibbert, James

    2017-02-01

    Parks and park features are important for promoting physical activity and healthy weight, especially for low-income and racial/ethnic minority youth who have disproportionately high obesity rates. This study 1) examined associations between neighborhood park and playground availability and youth obesity, and 2) assessed whether these associations were moderated by youth race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). In 2013, objectively measured height and weight were collected for all 3rd-5th grade youth (n=13.469) in a southeastern US county to determine body mass index (BMI) percentiles. Enumeration and audits of the county's parks (n=103) were concurrently conducted. Neighborhood park and playground availability were calculated as the number of each facility within or intersecting each youth's Census block group. Multilevel linear regression models were utilized to examine study objectives. For boys, no main effects were detected; however, SES moderated associations such that higher park availability was associated with lower BMI percentile for low-SES youth but higher BMI percentile for high-SES youth. For girls, the number of parks and playgrounds were significantly associated with lower BMI (b=-2.2, b=-1.1, pyouth obesity by SES and race/ethnicity, highlighting the importance of studying the intersection of these characteristics when exploring associations between built environment features and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom F. O’Callaghan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two pasture feeding systems—perennial ryegrass (GRS and perennial ryegrass and white clover (CLV—and an indoor total mixed ration (TMR system on the (a rumen microbiome; (b rumen fluid and milk metabolome; and (c to assess the potential to distinguish milk from different feeding systems by their respective metabolomes. Rumen fluid was collected from nine rumen cannulated cows under the different feeding systems in early, mid and late lactation, and raw milk samples were collected from ten non-cannulated cows in mid-lactation from each of the feeding systems. The microbiota present in rumen liquid and solid portions were analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while 1H-NMR untargeted metabolomic analysis was performed on rumen fluid and raw milk samples. The rumen microbiota composition was not found to be significantly altered by any feeding system in this study, likely as a result of a shortened adaptation period (two weeks’ exposure time. In contrast, feeding system had a significant effect on both the rumen and milk metabolome. Increased concentrations of volatile fatty acids including acetic acid, an important source of energy for the cow, were detected in the rumen of TMR and CLV-fed cows. Pasture feeding resulted in significantly higher concentrations of isoacids in the rumen. The ruminal fluids of both CLV and GRS-fed cows were found to have increased concentrations of p-cresol, a product of microbiome metabolism. CLV feeding resulted in increased rumen concentrations of formate, a substrate compound for methanogenesis. The TMR feeding resulted in significantly higher rumen choline content, which contributes to animal health and milk production, and succinate, a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Milk and rumen-fluids were shown to have varying levels of dimethyl sulfone in each feeding system, which was found to be an important compound for distinguishing between the diets

  16. Pasture Management Strategies for Sequestering Soil Carbon - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzluebbers, Alan J.

    2006-03-15

    Pasturelands account for 51 of the 212 Mha of privately held grazing land in the USA. Tall fescue is the most important cool-season perennial forage for many beef cattle producers in the humid region of the USA. A fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, infects the majority of tall fescue stands with a mutualistic association. Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte have negative impacts on cattle performance. However, there are indications that endophyte infection of tall fescue is a necessary component of productive and persistent pasture ecology. The objectives of this research were to characterize and quantify changes in soil organic carbon and associated soil properties under tall fescue pastures with and without endophyte infection of grass. Pastures with high endophyte infection had greater concentration of soil organic carbon, but lower concentration of biologically active soil carbon than pastures with low endophyte infection. A controlled experiment suggested that endophyte-infected leaf tissue may directly inhibit the activity of soil microorganisms. Carbon forms of soil organic matter were negatively affected and nitrogen forms were positively affected by endophyte addition to soil. The chemical compounds in endophyte-infected tall fescue (ergot alkaloids) that are responsible for animal health disorders were found in soil, suggesting that these chemicals might be persistent in the environment. Future research is needed to determine whether ergot alkaloids or some other chemicals are responsible for increases in soil organic matter. Scientists will be able to use this information to better understand the ecological impacts of animals grazing tall fescue, and possibly to identify and cultivate other similar associations for improving soil organic matter storage. Another experiment suggested that both dry matter production and soil microbial activity could be affected by the endophyte. Sampling of the cumulative effects of 20 years of tall fescue

  17. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    OpenAIRE

    Randi A. Black; Peter D. Krawczel

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastu...

  18. Sources of N2O in organic grass-clover pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2002-01-01

    Organic farming practises, and in particular dairy production systems based on grass-clover pastures are becoming increasingly abundant within Danish agriculture. Grass-clover pastures may provide a mitigation option to reduce grassland nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Velthof et al. 1998). The objectives of this work was to examine the relationship between N2O emissions and transformations of inorganic N in organically managed grass-clover pastures of different ages. Results from the projec...

  19. Pasture shade and farm management effects on cow productivity in the tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Ainsworth, Justin A.W.; Moe, Stein R.; Skarpe, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This is the postprint version of the article. The published article can be located at the publisher's webpage Shade, provided by trees within pastures, can affect cattle productivity through mitigating heat stress and by altering understorey pasture growth and cattle behaviour. Models for daily milk yield and body condition were used to evaluate the effect of pasture shade on dual purpose cow productivity within a silvopastoral system in a dry tropical province of Nicaragua. Daily milk yie...

  20. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  1. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  2. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  3. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  4. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  5. Quantifying phosphorus levels in soils, plants, surface water, and shallow groundwater associated with bahiagrass-based pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Hubbard, Robert K; Coleman, Samuel W

    2010-01-01

    Recent assessments of water quality status have identified eutrophication as one of the major causes of water quality 'impairment' not only in the USA but also around the world. In most cases, eutrophication has accelerated by increased inputs of phosphorus due to intensification of crop and animal production systems since the early 1990 s. Despite substantial measurements using both laboratory and field techniques, little is known about the spatial and temporal variability of phosphorus dynamics across landscapes, especially in agricultural landscapes with cow-calf operations. Critical to determining environmental balance and accountability is an understanding of phosphorus excreted by animals, phosphorus removal by plants, acceptable losses of phosphorus within the manure management and crop production systems into soil and waters, and export of phosphorus off-farm. Further research effort on optimizing forage-based cow-calf operations to improve pasture sustainability and protect water quality is therefore warranted. We hypothesized that properly managed cow-calf operations in subtropical agroecosystem would not be major contributors to excess loads of phosphorus in surface and ground water. To verify our hypothesis, we examined the comparative concentrations of total phosphorus among soils, forage, surface water, and groundwater beneath bahiagrass-based pastures with cow-calf operations in central Florida, USA. Soil samples were collected at 0-20; 20-40, 40-60, and 60-100 cm across the landscape (top slope, middle slope, and bottom slope) of 8 ha pasture in the fall and spring of 2004 to 2006. Forage availability and phosphorus uptake of bahiagrass were also measured from the top slope, middle slope, and bottom slope. Bi-weekly (2004-2006) groundwater and surface water samples were taken from wells located at top slope, middle slope, and bottom slope, and from the runoff/seepage area. Concentrations of phosphorus in soils, forage, surface water, and shallow

  6. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  7. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  8. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  9. Abundance of large old trees in wood-pastures of Transylvania (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Tibor; Hanspach, Jan; Moga, Cosmin I; Holban, Lucian; Szapanyos, Árpád; Tamás, Réka; Hováth, Csaba; Réti, Kinga-Olga

    2018-02-01

    Wood-pastures are special types of agroforestry systems that integrate trees with livestock grazing. Wood pastures can be hotspots for large old tree abundance and have exceptional natural values; but they are declining all over Europe. While presence of large old trees in wood-pastures can provide arguments for their maintenance, actual data on their distribution and abundance are sparse. Our study is the first to survey large old trees in Eastern Europe over such a large area. We surveyed 97 wood-pastures in Transylvania (Romania) in order to (i) provide a descriptive overview of the large old tree abundance; and (ii) to explore the environmental determinants of the abundance and persistence of large old trees in wood-pastures. We identified 2520 large old trees belonging to 16 taxonomic groups. Oak was present in 66% of the wood-pastures, followed by beech (33%), hornbeam (24%) and pear (22%). For each of these four species we constructed a generalized linear model with quasi-Poisson error distribution to explain individual tree abundance. Oak trees were most abundant in large wood-pastures and in wood-pastures from the Saxon cultural region of Transylvania. Beech abundance related positively to elevation and to proximity of human settlements. Abundance of hornbeam was highest in large wood-pastures, in wood-pastures from the Saxon cultural region, and in places with high cover of adjacent forest and a low human population density. Large old pear trees were most abundant in large wood-pastures that were close to paved roads. The maintenance of large old trees in production landscapes is a challenge for science, policy and local people, but it also can serve as an impetus for integrating economic, ecological and social goals within a landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  11. Spatial variability of chemical properties of soil under pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ferreira da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of soil chemical attributes under pasture, as well as lime and fertilizer recommendations based on the interpretation of soil chemical analysis from two sampling methods: conventional and systematic depths of 0 to 10 and 10 to 20 cm. The study was conducted at IFES-campus Alegre-ES. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and geostatistics. Results indicate that the spatial method enabled the identification of deficit areas and excessive liming and fertilization, which could not be defined by the conventional method.

  12. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  13. EFFECT OF FALLOW LAND, CULTIVATED PASTURE AND ABANDONED PASTURE ON SOIL FERTILITY IN TWO DEFORESTED AMAZONIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A DIEZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two practices adopted by settlers (abandoned pasture and fallow land on soil fertility of two deforested Amazonian regions (Belém-Pará and Ariquemes-Rondônia was studied. Whenever possible, cultivated pasture, over similar time periods in both cases and in natural forest, were employed as soil fertility reference standards. Nutrient dynamics was studied using the electroultra-filtration technique. In general, deforestation, as practiced in these areas, has a degrading effect on soil fertility. The effect of burning normally leads to a pH rise caused by ash. This usually yields a favorable transitory effect, improving soil fertility conditions, however not sufficient for plant needs, as inferred from the low P and K levels. Cattle excrements, improved the K level for cultivated pastures. Qualitative differences related to N were observed between cultivated pasture and both, fallow land or abandoned pasture. In the first, a certain recovery of available N levels was detected, mainly affecting the EUF-Norg fraction. On the other hand, a regeneration of organic compounds, in the fallow land and the abandoned pasture, closely related to those existing in the natural forest, was verified. This is mainly due to the presence of a higher proportion of NO3-_N and, consequently, a EUF-Norg/EUF-NO3- ratio close to 1.Comparou-se o efeito de duas práticas de manejo, ou seja, o abandono da pastagem e o pousio, sobre a fertilidade do solo de duas regiões desmatadas da Amazônia (Belém-Pará e Ariquemes-Rondônia. Quando possível, pastagens cultivadas por períodos semelhantes e florestas nativas foram usadas como padrões da fertilidade do solo. A dinâmica dos nutrientes foi estuda pela técnica da eletroultrafiltração (EUF. De um modo geral, o desmatamento, como praticado nessas regiões, tem efeito degradador sobre a fertilidade do solo. A queima da biomassa vegetal normalmente leva a um aumento do pH causado pelas cinzas, resultando

  14. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  15. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil organic (14)C dynamics : Effects of pasture installation on arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkens, P.F A M; Hassink, J; van der Plicht, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    In a study addressing composition and recovery of soil carbon following pasture installation on arable land, radiocarbon isotope ratios were measured in size- and density-separated soil organic matter (SOM) fractions in a pasture and maize plot. The average soil carbon age increased with depth from

  17. Fatty acid metabolism and deposition in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pasture and feedlot finished cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of pasture finishing versus high-concentrate finishing, over time, on fatty acid metabolism in Angus crossbred (n = 24) steers. Ruminal fluid, serum, and adipose tissue biopsies were obtained on d 0, 28, 84, and 140. Pasture forages and diet ingr...

  18. Long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    High grazing pressure can lead to soil erosion in pastures by compacting soil and increasing runoff and sediment delivery to waterways. Limited information exists on the effects of grazing management and best management practices (BMPs), such as buffer strips, on soil erosion from pastures. The obje...

  19. Effect of pasture botanical composition on milk composition in organic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S.; Dahl, A.V.; Vae, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Milk samples from sixteen Norwegian Red dairy cows grazing mixed swards of either grass-red clover (GR) or mixed swards of sown and unsown species of grass, clover and other herbs (GCH) were collected during four periods. Both pastures were organically managed. Pasture botanical composition had...

  20. Facilitative and competitive interactions between sympatric cattle, red deer and wild boar in Dutch woodland pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.; Lammertsma, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Use of cattle-grazed and ungrazed woodland pastures by red deer Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 and wild boar Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 was investigated monthly by measuring dung-deposition rates. Cattle Bos taurus grazed pastures year-round, with peak intensities during the growing season

  1. the utilisation of ctnchrus and paivicum pastures or lucerne hay for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At lhis rate the Panit'um pasture farled to provide an adequate mainlenance diet for the entire period of the trraf, but the Cenchrus pasture produccd ... season sheep were grazed in rotation around paddocks, being moved at 3 to 4-day intervals ... was possible to skip certain paddocks in the rotation and surplus growth was ...

  2. DYNAMICS OF OPTIMAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PASTURE PRODUCTION AND MILK YIELDS OF AUSTRALIAN DAIRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Tozer, Peter R.; Huffaker, Ray G.

    1998-01-01

    Deregulation of the Australian dairy industry could effect the utilization of resources by milk producers. In this study we examine the feed input mix dairy producers use, both pastures and supplements, prior to and after deregulation. We are particularly interested in the interaction of pasture utilization and farm profitability.

  3. Effects of buffer strips and grazing management on soil loss from pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive grazing pressure can cause soil erosion from pastures causing increased sediment loading to aquatic systems. The objectives of this work were to determine the long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures fertilized with broiler litter. Field stud...

  4. Research on the Vegetation Structure of the Pastures in Silvan District, Diyarbakır

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyithan SEYDOŞOĞLU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the vegetation structures of the native pastures in the six villages of district Silvan, Diyarbakır, in the year of 2014 .Vegetations of the pastures were studied by the Loop Method. In each pasture 400 loop measurements in 4 lines were made. Plant-covered area rate, botanical composition in the plant covered area was calculated from the loop measurements. 43 plant species of 35 genus from 11 families were determined on the vegetation of the pastures. Plant cover percentages varied between 46.2% to 72.0% and botanical composition rate of grasses, legumes and other family plants in the total plant cover varied between 30.81%, and 72.92%, 16.89%, and 48.25%, 10.19%, and 39.74%, respectively, as depending on the pastures. From the results of the research, it was concluded that vegetations of the pastures were generally composed of invader plants. Therefore the pastures have poor condition. The research on the determination of proper improvement methods for the pastures must be conducted.

  5. Soil organic 14C dynamics: effects of pasture installation on arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Plicht, van der J.; Hassink, J.

    1998-01-01

    In a study addressing composition and recovery of soil carbon following pasture installation on arable land, radiocarbon isotope ratios were measured in size-and density-separated soil organic matter (SOM) fractions in a pasture and maize plot. The average soil carbon age increased with depth from

  6. Preemergence herbicides on weed control in elephant grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. is an important forage crop that has been proposed as a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. However, weed interference is a major factor limiting elephant grass production. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate preemergence herbicides for selective weed control in an elephant grass pasture. Herbicide treatments included atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, diuron + hexazinone, sulfentrazone, imazethapyr, and atrazine at label use rates. Weedy and weed-free treatments were included. Atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine did not cause phytotoxicity on elephantgrass 35 days after treatment (DAT. However, diuron + hexazinone and imazethapyr were the most phytotoxic on elephantgrass, resulting in 81 and 70% phytotoxicity in 2014, and 7 and 6% phytotoxicity in 2015 respectively 35 DAT. All treatments provided effective weed control (>81% with the exception of ethoxysulfuron (0 and 11% in 2014 and 2015, respectively, and atrazine (59% in 2014. These results show that atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine were selectives when applied in preemergence in elephant grass pasture.

  7. Artificial radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, W.A.; Bonnett, P.J.P.; Barr, H.M.; Howorth, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A study has been carried out to determine the impact of Sellafield discharges on the levels of radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland. The likely areas of tidal inundations along the Nith, Urr, Dee, Fleet and Cree (including nearby Bladnoch) rivers were assessed using maps and aerials photographs. These were then visited and gamma radiation measurements taken at regular intervals to enable the external dose from anthropogenic nuclides to be estimated. A further survey followed where soil cores were taken from the areas on each river where the external dose appeared highest and analysed for a range of artificial radionuclides. The levels of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am found, although small, were clearly in excess of the background from other sources. A habit survey was carried out to provide site specific information of tide washed pasture usage, which, with the spatial radionuclide data was used to estimate doses to appropriate critical groups. The maximum annual dose calculated to arise was 60 μSv which is less than 6% of the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv. (author)

  8. Model of nutritional balance for bovine in pasturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas Ramirez, H.B.

    2001-01-01

    The shepherding is nevertheless the most economic alimentary system for the bovine, the pastures of the warm tropic, it has high fiber and low nitrogen (protein) and they restrict the production of the animal. The investigations suggest that small quantities of supplements of the metabolic environment of the rumen rebound significantly in the production. The bovines (Brachiaria spp) presented deficit of ammonia ruminal (4-10 mgs/100 ml of flowing ruminal), but when elevating the ammonia to 15-30 mgs the animal answer, was favorable since in young bulls was supplemented with 60 gr. of urea and 300 of molasses during 350 days won 210 kgs of weight, against 145 kgs of molasses and 130 kgs in single Brachiaria. Other investigations indicate that the supplement of urea, molasses is more effective in dry time than rainy, but if there is not enough biomass it decreases its effectiveness, since this supplement adds quality and not, quantity and it also stimulates the consumption. They also suggest that the supplement urea-molasses should be strategic according to nutritional quality of the pasture, in periods of the year, addition of true protein, age of the animal and production type. The determinations have more than enough speed of consumption of urea and concentrations of ruminal ammonia indicate that the key is in the regulation of the consumption of urea, independent of the daily quantity, to avoid intoxications and to favor the environment

  9. Green chemistry using radiotracers at SINP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Susanta

    2006-01-01

    Green chemistry is utilization of set of principles, which restricts the use, or generation of hazardous substances. In this aim, it is necessary to develop alternative methods, or to find greener reagents for minimum utilization of environmentally hostile substances. Radiotracers can be effectively utilized for development of such methods. This article describes the current status of Green Chemistry research using accelerator/reactor produced radionuclides at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India. (author)

  10. Transfer of biologically fixed nitrogen to the non-legume component of mixed pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haystead, A.

    1983-01-01

    Pasture ecosystems are extremely diverse, as are the management procedures imposed upon them by the pastoralist. In low input pasture enterprises in marginal areas, legume nitrogen fixation is frequently (but not invariably) crucial to continued productivity. Legumes usually do not dominate a pasture and their role in transferring fixed nitrogen to a non-legume, frequently graminaceous, species is important. Methods for measuring this transfer are critically assessed in terms of their usefulness in realistic pasture environments. Existing techniques all have serious disadvantages in this respect. Isotopic studies of individual processes within the transfer system are described and some new lines of investigation are proposed. The value of isotopic studies in improving pasture management is discussed. (author)

  11. Effects of Biosolids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with biosolids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Biosolids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, biosolids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did biosolids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Biosolids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the biosolids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that biosolids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  12. Measuring larval nematode contamination on cattle pastures: Comparing two herbage sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschave, S H; Levecke, B; Duchateau, L; Vercruysse, J; Charlier, J

    2015-06-15

    Assessing levels of pasture larval contamination is frequently used to study the population dynamics of the free-living stages of parasitic nematodes of livestock. Direct quantification of infective larvae (L3) on herbage is the most applied method to measure pasture larval contamination. However, herbage collection remains labour intensive and there is a lack of studies addressing the variation induced by the sampling method and the required sample size. The aim of this study was (1) to compare two different sampling methods in terms of pasture larval count results and time required to sample, (2) to assess the amount of variation in larval counts at the level of sample plot, pasture and season, respectively and (3) to calculate the required sample size to assess pasture larval contamination with a predefined precision using random plots across pasture. Eight young stock pastures of different commercial dairy herds were sampled in three consecutive seasons during the grazing season (spring, summer and autumn). On each pasture, herbage samples were collected through both a double-crossed W-transect with samples taken every 10 steps (method 1) and four random located plots of 0.16 m(2) with collection of all herbage within the plot (method 2). The average (± standard deviation (SD)) pasture larval contamination using sampling methods 1 and 2 was 325 (± 479) and 305 (± 444)L3/kg dry herbage (DH), respectively. Large discrepancies in pasture larval counts of the same pasture and season were often seen between methods, but no significant difference (P = 0.38) in larval counts between methods was found. Less time was required to collect samples with method 2. This difference in collection time between methods was most pronounced for pastures with a surface area larger than 1 ha. The variation in pasture larval counts from samples generated by random plot sampling was mainly due to the repeated measurements on the same pasture in the same season (residual variance

  13. Effects of Bio solids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.; Butler, C.; Cody, J.; Warne, M.S.J.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; Bell, M.; Barry, G.; Pritchard, D.; Penny, N.; Penny, N.

    2011-01-01

    Bio solids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with bio solids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Bio solids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, bio solids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did bio solids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Bio solids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the bio solids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that bio solids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  14. The Effects of Modern-Day Cropland and Pasture Management on Vegetation Fire: An Earth System Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, S. S.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Pacala, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a major component of the global carbon cycle, with some estimates of the associated emissions reaching 2.5 PgC/yr. This and the other impacts of biomass burning have driven efforts to improve its simulation in Earth system models. Recent global fire models usually include both bioclimatic and anthropogenic drivers of fire, with the latter (via population density and sometimes economic status) serving to increase or suppress burned area. Some models have added the representation of fire used in deforestation and cropland management, the extent and seasonal timing of which may not be accounted for by the usual approach to anthropogenic influence. Human land use can also limit fire by fragmenting landscapes, but this process is not included in most global models. Moreover, although people often use fire to manage grazing lands for livestock, these practices have not been explicitly modeled (except as performed by pre-industrial societies). This could be important for regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, where the seasonality of pasture burning tends to differ from that of other lands, potentially influencing savanna-forest dynamics. Recent efforts elucidating the effects of cropland and pasture on fire regimes at regional scales provide insight into these processes. Using this new understanding, we have developed a fire model with structurally distinct modules for burning of croplands, pasture, and primary and secondary lands, as well as fire use for deforestation. Parameters for each are rigorously constrained using remote-sensing observations of burned area. This structure allows us to disentangle agricultural practices and fragmentation effects from the endogenous processes driving fire on non-agricultural land, resulting in a better ability to simulate how fire works at large scales. This is critical for modeling the future of fire and all the parts of the Earth system that it affects, including vegetation distributions, nutrient cycling, and biosphere

  15. Carbon fluxes of Kobresia pygmaea pastures on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foken, T.; Biermann, T.; Babel, W.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    With an approximate cover of 450,000 km2 on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the Cyperaceae Kobresia pygmaea forms he world's largest alpine ecosystem. This species, especially adapted to grazing pressure, grows to a height of only 2-6 cm and can be found in an altitudinal range of 4000 to 5960 m a.s.l. A special characteristic of this ecosystem is the stable turf layer, which is built up from roots and plays a significant role in protecting soil from erosion. This is of great importance since soils on the TP store 2.5 % of the global soil organic carbon stocks. The aim of the investigation was the study of the carbon storage and the impact of human-induced land use change on these Kobresia pygmaea pastures. We therefore applied eddy-covariance measurements and modelling as a long-term control of the fluxes between the atmosphere and the pastures and 13C labelling for the investigation of flux partitioning, and chamber measurements to investigate the degradation of the pastures. Combining CO2 budgets observed in 2010 with eddy-covariance measurements and relative partitioning of Carbon fluxes estimated with 13C labelling enabled us to characterise the C turnover for the vegetation period with absolute fluxes within the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum. These results revealed that this ecosystem indeed stores a great amount of C in below-ground pools, especially in the root turf layer. To further investigate the importance of the root layer, the experiments in 2012 focused on flux measurements over the different surface types which make up the heterogeneity of the Kobresia pygmaea pastures and might result from degradation due to extensive grazing. The three surface types investigated with a LiCOR long-term monitoring chamber system include Kobresia pygmaea with intact turf layer (IRM), a surface type where the turf layer is still present but the vegetation is sparse and mainly consists of Cryptogam crusts (DRM) and finally areas without the turf layer (BS). According to

  16. Grazing Soybean to Increase Voluntary Cow Traffic in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. F. Clark

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS require cow traffic to enable cows to be milked. The interval between milkings can be manipulated by strategically allocating pasture. The current experiment investigated the effect of replacing an allocation of grazed pasture with grazed soybean (Glycine max with the hypothesis that incorporating soybean would increase voluntary cow traffic and milk production. One hundred and eighty mixed age, primiparous and multiparous Holstein-Friesian/Illawarra cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n = 90/group with a 2×2 Latin square design. Each group was either offered treatments of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hoach ex Chiov. pasture (pasture or soybean from 0900 h to 1500 h during the experimental period which consisted of 2 periods of 3 days following 5 days of training and adaptation in each period with groups crossing over treatments after the first period. The number of cows trafficking to each treatment was similar together with milk yield (mean ≈18 L/cow/d in this experiment. For the cows that arrived at soybean or pasture there were significant differences in their behaviour and consequently the number of cows exiting each treatment paddock. There was greater cow traffic (more cows and sooner exiting pasture allocations. Cows that arrived at soybean stayed on the allocation for 25% more time and ate more forage (8.5 kg/cow/d/allocation relative to pasture (4.7 kg/cow/d/allocation. Pasture cows predominantly replaced eating time with rumination. These findings suggest that replacing pasture with alternative grazeable forages provides no additional incentive to increase voluntary cow traffic to an allocation of feed in AMS. This work highlights the opportunity to increase forage intakes in AMS through the incorporation of alternative forages.

  17. Spatio-temporal modelling of biomass of intensively grazed perennial dairy pastures using multispectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisinghe, Asoka; Clark, Dave; Waugh, Deanne

    2012-06-01

    Pasture biomass is a vital input for management of dairy systems in New Zealand. An accurate estimate of pasture biomass information is required for the calculation of feed budget, on which decisions are made for farm practices such as conservation, nitrogen use, rotational lengths and supplementary feeding leading to profitability and sustainable use of pasture resources. The traditional field based methods of measuring pasture biomass such as using rising plate metres (RPM) are largely inefficient in providing the timely information at the spatial extent and temporal frequency demanded by commercial environments. In recent times remote sensing has emerged as an alternative tool. In this paper we have examined the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from medium resolution imagery of SPOT-4 and SPOT-5 satellite sensors to predict pasture biomass of intensively grazed dairy pastures. In the space and time domain analysis we have found a significant dependency of time over the season and no dependency of space across the scene at a given time for the relationship between NDVI and field based pasture biomass. We have established a positive correlation (81%) between the two variables in a pixel scale analysis. The application of the model on 2 selected farms over 3 images and aggregation of the predicted biomass to paddock scale has produced paddock average pasture biomass values with a coefficient of determination of 0.71 and a standard error of 260 kg DM ha-1 in the field observed range between 1500 and 3500 kg DM ha-1. This result indicates a high potential for operational use of remotely sensed data to predict pasture biomass of intensively grazed dairy pastures.

  18. Grazing alters net ecosystem C fluxes and the global warming potential of a subtropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; DeLucia, Nicholas J; Bernacchi, Carl J; Boughton, Elizabeth H; Sparks, Jed P; Chamberlain, Samuel D; DeLucia, Evan H

    2018-03-01

    The impact of grazing on C fluxes from pastures in subtropical and tropical regions and on the environment is uncertain, although these systems account for a substantial portion of global C storage. We investigated how cattle grazing influences net ecosystem CO 2 and CH 4 exchange in subtropical pastures using the eddy covariance technique. Measurements were made over several wet-dry seasonal cycles in a grazed pasture, and in an adjacent pasture during the first three years of grazer exclusion. Grazing increased soil wetness but did not affect soil temperature. By removing aboveground biomass, grazing decreased ecosystem respiration (R eco ) and gross primary productivity (GPP). As the decrease in R eco was larger than the reduction in GPP, grazing consistently increased the net CO 2 sink strength of subtropical pastures (55, 219 and 187 more C/m 2 in 2013, 2014, and 2015). Enteric ruminant fermentation and increased soil wetness due to grazers, increased total net ecosystem CH 4 emissions in grazed relative to ungrazed pasture (27-80%). Unlike temperate, arid, and semiarid pastures, where differences in CH 4 emissions between grazed and ungrazed pastures are mainly driven by enteric ruminant fermentation, our results showed that the effect of grazing on soil CH 4 emissions can be greater than CH 4 produced by cattle. Thus, our results suggest that the interactions between grazers and soil hydrology affecting soil CH 4 emissions play an important role in determining the environmental impacts of this management practice in a subtropical pasture. Although grazing increased total net ecosystem CH 4 emissions and removed aboveground biomass, it increased the net storage of C and decreased the global warming potential associated with C fluxes of pasture by increasing its net CO 2 sink strength. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  20. Green industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2014-01-01

    Green growth requires green technologies: production techniques that economize on exhaustible resources and emit fewer greenhouse gases. The availability of green technologies both lowers social costs in the transition to a green growth path and helps achieve a satisfactory rate of material progress under that path. The theoretical case in favour of using industrial policy to facilitate green growth is quite strong. Economists’ traditional scepticism on industrial policy is grounded instead o...

  1. Using a whole farm model to determine the impacts of mating management on the profitability of pasture-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, P C; Burke, C R; Levy, G; Tiddy, R M

    2010-08-01

    An approach to assessing likely impacts of altering reproductive performance on productivity and profitability in pasture-based dairy farms is described. The basis is the development of a whole farm model (WFM) that simulates the entire farm system and holistically links multiple physical performance factors to profitability. The WFM consists of a framework that links a mechanistic cow model, a pasture model, a crop model, management policies and climate. It simulates individual cows and paddocks, and runs on a day time-step. The WFM was upgraded to include reproductive modeling capability using reference tables and empirical equations describing published relationships between cow factors, physiology and mating management. It predicts reproductive status at any time point for individual cows within a modeled herd. The performance of six commercial pasture-based dairy farms was simulated for the period of 12 months beginning 1 June 2005 (05/06 year) to evaluate the accuracy of the model by comparison with actual outcomes. The model predicted most key performance indicators within an acceptable range of error (residualprofitability of changes in farm "set-up" (farm conditions at the start of the farming year on 1 June) and mating management from 05/06 to 06/07 year. Among the six farms simulated, the 4-week calving rate emerged as an important set-up factor influencing profitability, while reproductive performance during natural bull mating was identified as an area with the greatest opportunity for improvement. The WFM presents utility to explore alternative management strategies to predict likely outcomes to proposed changes to a pasture-based farm system. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Utility of Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, reference evapotranspiration, and pan evaporation methods to estimate pasture evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, D.M.; Jacobs, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) was measured at 30-min resolution over a 19-month period (September 28, 2000-April 23, 2002) from a nonirrigated pasture site in Florida, USA, using eddy correlation methods. The relative magnitude of measured ETa (about 66% of long-term annual precipitation at the study site) indicates the importance of accurate ET a estimates for water resources planning. The time and cost associated with direct measurements of ETa and the rarity of historical measurements of ETa make the use of methods relying on more easily obtainable data desirable. Several such methods (Penman-Monteith (PM), modified Priestley-Taylor (PT), reference evapotranspiration (ET 0), and pan evaporation (Ep)) were related to measured ETa using regression methods to estimate PM bulk surface conductance, PT ??, ET0 vegetation coefficient, and Ep pan coefficient. The PT method, where the PT ?? is a function of green-leaf area index (LAI) and solar radiation, provided the best relation with ET a (standard error (SE) for daily ETa of 0.11 mm). The PM method, in which the bulk surface conductance was a function of net radiation and vapor-pressure deficit, was slightly less effective (SE=0.15 mm) than the PT method. Vegetation coefficients for the ET0 method (SE=0.29 mm) were found to be a simple function of LAI. Pan coefficients for the Ep method (SE=0.40 mm) were found to be a function of LAI and Ep. Historical or future meteorological, LAI, and pan evaporation data from the study site could be used, along with the relations developed within this study, to provide estimates of ETa in the absence of direct measurements of ETa. Additionally, relations among PM, PT, and ET0 methods and ETa can provide estimates of ETa in other, environmentally similar, pasture settings for which meteorological and LAI data can be obtained or estimated. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Green entrepreneurship: EU experience and Ukraine perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena CHYGRYN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available These days the environmental challenges begin to play crucial role in sustainable development of the countries and regions. European environmental policy aims in the creation of a favorable framework for the development of green entrepreneurship. The paper deals with the analysis of EU experience in supporting and promoting the green entrepreneurship. The author analyzed and systematized the EU trends in GHG emission. The main features and parts of the green economy are described. The author emphasizes that EU has the huge experience in the sphere of developing and providing relevant green activities, which can be used by Ukraine for implementation green entrepreneurship projects on the different levels of the economy. Thus, the green positive practices in Austria, Hungary, Ireland and Spain were described. The author underlines that green entrepreneurship for Ukraine is one of the necessary conditions for improving the environmental status, solving the problems with the rational use of natural resources, increasing the welfare of the citizen, integration into the European Union and to ensure the green of innovative development. The activities which are necessary for mainstreaming for Ukraine’s integrating to the European sustainable entrepreneurship space were considered.

  4. Grazing behavior and intake of goats rotationally grazing Tanzania-grass pasture with different post-grazing residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia H.M.R. Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate intake and ingestive behavior of goats rotationally grazing Tanzania (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia 1 pastures with 2 levels of post-grazing residue. The experimental area consisted of 1.2 ha of Tanzania pasture divided into 12 paddocks (24 areas, managed under 2 post-grazing residues: low green (leaf + stem herbage mass (GHM post-grazing (LR, approximately 1,500 kg/ha GHM; and high GHM post-grazing (HR, approximately 3,000 kg/ha GHM. Each paddock was grazed for 3 consecutive days (D1, D2, D3 followed by 33 days rest and evaluated from October 2005 to April 2006. Animal behavior (grazing time, bite rate and bite size/weight was evaluated on each grazing day. While goats spent more time grazing on LR than HR (P=0.02, bite rate did not differ between treatments or among days (P=0.31 and averaged 26.5 bites/min. In contrast, bite weight was greater in HR (0.15 g/bite than in LR (0.12 g/bite, and decreased from D1 to D3 (P<0.001. Absolute dry matter intake of goats was greater in the HR (2.19 kg/d than the LR (1.89 kg/d treatment; however, differences were not significant (P>0.05 when intake was determined on a body weight or metabolic weight basis. Our findings are consistent with the general assumption that bite weight is a trade-off between quantity and quality of the herbage mass and is the main determinant of animal performance. More studies are needed to determine animal performance on the various treatments and to determine management strategies to provide a desirable balance between animal weight gain and pasture stability.Keywords: Animal behavior, foraging, grazing systems, Megathyrsus maximus, plant - animal relations.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(491-100

  5. Effects of pasture management and off-stream water on temporal/spatial distribution of cattle and stream bank characteristics in cool-season grass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarte, K A; Russell, J R; Morrical, D G

    2011-10-01

    A 2-yr grazing experiment was conducted to assess the effects of grazing management on cattle distribution and pasture and stream bank characteristics. Six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures in central Iowa were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with stream access restricted to 4.9-m-wide stabilized crossings (CSR), or rotational stocking with stream access restricted to a riparian paddock (RP). Pastures were stocked with 15 fall-calving Angus cows (Bos taurus L.) from mid-May to mid-October for 153 d in 2008 and 2009. A global positioning system (GPS) collar recording cow position every 10 min was placed on at least 1 cow per pasture for 2 wk of each month from May through September. Off-stream water was provided to cattle in CSU and CSR treatments during the second of the 2 wk when GPS collars were on the cattle. A black globe temperature relative humidity index (BGTHI) was measured at 10-min intervals to match the time of the GPS measurements. Each month of the grazing season, forage characteristics (sward height, forage mass, and CP, IVDMD, and P concentrations) and bare and fecal-covered ground were measured. Stream bank erosion susceptibility was visually scored in May, August, and October (pre-, mid-, and post-stocking). Cattle in RP and CSR treatments spent less time (P CSR treatment reduced the probability (P CSR and RP treatments in the stream and streamside zones in September and October and in July and September. Streams in pastures with the CSU treatment had less stable banks (P CSR treatments. Results show that time spent by cattle near pasture streams can be reduced by RP or CSR treatments, thereby decreasing risks of sediment and nutrient loading of pasture streams even during periods of increased BGTHI.

  6. Review of the relationship between nutrition and lameness in pasture-fed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, C T; Bramley, E; Lean, I J

    2003-10-01

    Lameness of dairy cattle fed predominantly on pasture is increasingly recognised as one of the most costly disease conditions affecting dairy herds in New Zealand and Australia. Numerous risk factors are involved in the aetiology of claw lameness, including environment and factors associated with the conformation of individual cows. The role of nutrition requires further definition. Australasian pastures are characterised by low levels of fibre and effective fibre, rapid rates of fibre degradation, high water content, and high concentrations of rumen degradable protein during the autumn, winter and spring months. Relationships between high-quality vegetative pastures and ruminal acidosis may increase the risk of laminitis, particularly where pasture is supplemented with grains or other feeds containing significant amounts of starch. This article reviews the incidence, prevalence and pathophysiology of ruminal acidosis and laminitis and considers mechanisms by which acidosis may occur in pasture-fed cows. Techniques for diagnosing ruminal acidosis are reviewed, and practical strategies to avoid it are proposed. Currently, there is little information on the incidence and prevalence of ruminal acidosis and laminitis in pasture-fed cattle. The evidence gathered in this review suggests that ruminal acidosis and laminitis should be considered in the aetiology of lameness in pasture-fed dairy herds.

  7. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern

    2016-03-01

    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region.

  8. Phosphorus bioavailability in soybean grown after pasture under different fertility regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Néia Eberhardt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual effect of phosphorus (P fertilizer applied to an Urochloa decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture on the P bioavailability to the following soybean crop. Low-productivity pasture, planted on an Oxisol in an experimental field at Embrapa Cerrados, was divided into three strips, each of 1.5 ha and fertilized by broadcasting annual applications of 0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 of P2O5 for four years. After the pasture was desiccate with herbicide, soybeans were sown and fertilized with 0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1 of P2O5 applied within each strip, making a total of nine (3x3 P treatments. Residual available P content (Mehlich-1 and resin from the pasture fertilization was lower than from soybean fertilization. However, the bioavailable residual P from the pasture, determined by P accumulated in plants, production of dry matter and grain yield, had similar availability to inorganic P applied to the soybean. Early P fertilization applied to pasture is technically feasible and can be used to maintain the pasture: it is recommended to replace corrective fertilization for following soybean crops.

  9. Forage Quality Determined by Botanic Species’ Contribution on Permanent Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the forage obtained from permanent pastures is determined, in its turn, by the floristic structure consisted of species belonging to various botanic families. Each botanic species presents a specific chemical content and a certain contribution to the balancing of forage’s nutritional value. The chemical analyses performed, at species level, revealed the importance of the “diverse” species, which, with their content in mineral elements, may influence animals’ capacity of production and reproduction. Some of the species, considered to be weeds within the permanent pastures’ floristic composition, presented high crude protein content values: Achillea millefolium with 24.22%, Taraxacum officinale 24.06%, Urtica dioica with 32.46%, Plantago major with 17.04%, etc.

  10. Land Change in Eastern Mediterranean Wood-Pasture Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis; Schneider, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean Europe, wood-pasture landscapes with oak woodlands as emblematic ecosystems are undergoing rapid land-use change, which may threaten their legacy as hotspots of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and cultural heritage. The objective of this study was to quantify land cover changes...... and transitions as well as the dynamics of oak woodland patterns and densities over 50 years in two municipalities at the center and edges of Quercus macrolepis distribution in Northern Lesvos (Greece). We used aerial photographs from 1960 and WorldView-2 satellite images from 2010 to process land cover maps...... and metrics, and to calculate oak canopy cover with a point-grid sampling approach. Spatiotemporal dynamics of land cover change were generally high—especially between oak woodlands and grass- and shrub-lands, resulting in a more heterogeneous and fragmented landscape in 2010. Surprisingly, oak woodland area...

  11. Stakeholder perspectives of wood-pasture ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrido, Pablo; Elbakidze, Marine; Angelstam, Per

    2017-01-01

    respondents showed more appreciation for regulating and supporting services, which included biodiversity conservation and climate regulation. Private and public sector respondents appreciated provisioning services more, whereas the civil sector mentioned supporting and regulating services more. For instance......, water regulation was only mentioned by civil and public sector respondents, while genetic resource preservation was only expressed by the private sector. All sectors noted cultural services as key ES. We discuss most mentioned ES by respondents, the co-production nature of ES in wood-pastures, as well...... to describe stakeholders' appreciation of ES from dehesa landscapes in northern Extremadura, Spain. A total of 45 ES were mentioned, and compared among different sectors and levels of governance. At the local level, people appreciated especially provisioning and cultural services. In contrast, regional level...

  12. Farm Level Assessment of Irrigation Performance for Dairy Pastures in the Goulburn-Murray District of Australia by Combining Satellite-Based Measures with Weather and Water Delivery Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abuzar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pasture performance of 924 dairy farms in a major irrigation district of Australia was investigated for their water use and water productivity during the 2015-2016 summer which was the peak irrigation period. Using satellite images from Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2, estimates of crop coefficient (Kc were determined on the basis of a strong linear relationship between crop evapotranspiration (ETc and vegetation index (NDVI of pasture in the region. Utilizing estimates of Kc and crop water requirement (CWR, NDVI-dependent estimates of Irrigation Water Requirement (IWR were derived based on the soil water balance model. In combination with daily weather information and seasonal irrigation water supply records, IWR was the key component in the understanding of current irrigation status at farm level, and deriving two irrigation performance indicators: (1 Relative Irrigation Water Use (RIWU and (2 Total Irrigation Water Productivity (TIWP. A slightly higher proportion of farm irrigators were found to be either matching the irrigation requirement or under-watering (RIWU ≤ 1.0. According to TIWP, a few dairy farms (3% were found to be in the category of high yield potential with excess water use, and very few (1% in the category of limited water supply to pastures of high yield potential. A relatively high number of farms were found to be in the category where excess water was supplied to pastures of low-medium yield potential (27%, and farms where water supply compromised pastures with a sub-maximal vegetation status (15%. The results of this study will assist in objectively identifying where significant improvement in efficient irrigation water use can be achieved.

  13. Using remotely sensed vegetation indices to model ecological pasture conditions in Kara-Unkur watershed, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Loes; Baartman, Jantiene; Verbesselt, Jan; Borchardt, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Kyrgyzstan has a long history of nomadic lifestyle in which pastures play an important role. However, currently the pastures are subject to severe grazing-induced degradation. Deteriorating levels of biomass, palatability and biodiversity reduce the pastures' productivity. To counter this and introduce sustainable pasture management, up-to-date information regarding the ecological conditions of the pastures is essential. This research aimed to investigate the potential of a remote sensing-based methodology to detect changing ecological pasture conditions in the Kara-Unkur watershed, Kyrgyzstan. The relations between Vegetation Indices (VIs) from Landsat ETM+ images and biomass, palatability and species richness field data were investigated. Both simple and multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses, including terrain attributes, were applied. Subsequently, trends of these three pasture conditions were mapped using time series analysis. The results show that biomass is most accurately estimated by a model including the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI) and a slope factor (R2 = 0.65, F = 0.0006). Regarding palatability, a model including the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Northness Index, Near Infrared (NIR) and Red band was most accurate (R2 = 0.61, F = 0.0160). Species richness was most accurately estimated by a model including Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), Eastness Index and estimated biomass (R2 = 0.81, F = 0.0028). Subsequent trend analyses of all three estimated ecological pasture conditions presented very similar trend patterns. Despite the need for a more robust validation, this study confirms the high potential of a remote sensing based methodology to detect changing ecological pasture conditions.

  14. Canopy seed banks as time capsules of biodiversity in pasture-remnant tree crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Nalini M; Haber, Willam A

    2009-10-01

    Tropical pastures present multiple barriers to tree regeneration and restoration. Relict trees serve as "regeneration foci" because they ameliorate the soil microclimate and serve as safe spots for dispersers. Here, we describe another mechanism by which remnant trees may facilitate pasture regeneration: the presence of seed banks in the canopy soil that accumulates from decomposing epiphytes within the crowns of mature remnant trees in tropical cloud forest pastures. We compared seed banks of canopy soils (histosols derived from fallen leaves, fruits, flower, and twigs of host trees and epiphytes, dead bryophytes, bark, detritus, dead animals, and microorganisms, and dust that accumulate on trunks and the upper surfaces of large branches) in pastures, canopy soils in primary forest trees, and soil on the forest floor in Monteverde, Costa Rica. There were 5211 epiphytic and terrestrial plant seeds in the three habitats. All habitats were dominated by seeds in a relatively small number of plant families, most of which were primarily woody, animal pollinated, and animal dispersed. The density of seeds on the forest floor was greater than seed density in either pasture-canopy or forest-canopy soils; the latter two did not differ. Eight species in 44 families and 61 genera from all of the habitats were tallied. There were 37 species in the pasture-canopy soil, 33 in the forest-canopy soil, and 57 on the forest floor. Eleven species were common to all habitats. The mean species richness in the pasture canopy was significantly higher than the forest canopy (F =83.38; p banks of pasture trees can function as time capsules by providing propagules that are removed in both space and time from the primary forest. Their presence may enhance the ability of pastures to regenerate more quickly, reinforcing the importance of trees in agricultural settings.

  15. Estrutura do pasto de capim-braquiária com variação de alturas Structure of signal grass pasture with height variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-10-01

    experimental design with two repetitions. Variation in the initial height of the signal grass pasture plant showed a linear and a negative response. The masses of green leaf blade mass, live stem, dead material, live forage and total forage linearly increased with heights of the plants on the pasture. However, it was observed a linear reduction in green leaf blade/live stem ratio and the height of the plants on the pasture (from 1.16 to 0.58. Plant height on the pasture had a stronger effect on the increase of live stem and the dead material masses than it had on the green leaf blade mass. Volumetric density of green leaf blade decreased (from 97.09 to 39.07 kg/cm ha DM with plant height on the pasture. The same response was found for volumetric densities of live forage (from 181.62 to 107.85 kg/cm.ha dry matter and total forage (from 283.39 to 195.72 kg/cm.ha dry matter. On the other hand, the plant heights on pasture did not affect volumetric density of live stem and dead material, which showed mean values 80.95 and 95.61 kg/cm.ha DM, respectively. The heights of the plants on pasture had a quadratic effect on light interception by the canopy. Grazing areas with heights of 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm showed light interception values of 56.15, 85.16, 93.39 and 96.57%, respectively. It occurs and temporal variabilities on the B. decumbens pasture structure managed under continuous stocking.

  16. Impacts of sugarcane agriculture expansion over low-intensity cattle ranch pasture in Brazil on greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Camila Bolfarini; Filoso, Solange; Pitombo, Leonardo Machado; Cantarella, Heitor; Rossetto, Raffaella; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; do Carmo, Janaina Braga

    2018-01-15

    Sugarcane is a widespread bioenergy crop in tropical regions, and the growing global demand for renewable energy in recent years has led to a dramatic expansion and intensification of sugarcane agriculture in Brazil. Currently, extensive areas of low-intensity pasture are being converted to sugarcane, while management in the remaining pasture is becoming more intensive, i.e., includes tilling and fertilizer use. In this study, we assessed how such changes in land use and management practices alter emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 by measuring in situ fluxes for one year after conversion from low-intensity pasture to conventional sugarcane agriculture and management-intensive pasture. Results show that CO 2 and N 2 O fluxes increased significantly in pasture and sugarcane with tillage, fertilizer use, or both combined. Emissions were highly variable for all GHGs, yet, cumulatively, it was clear that annual emissions in CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 -eq) were higher in management-intense pasture and sugarcane than in unmanaged pasture. Surprisingly, tilled pasture with fertilizer (management-intensive pasture) resulted in higher CO 2 -eq emissions than conventional sugarcane. We concluded that intensification of pasture management and the conversion of pasture to sugarcane can increase the emission factor (EF) estimated for sugarcane produced in Brazil. The role of management practices and environmental conditions and the potential for reducing emissions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The transfer of 137Cs through the soil-plant-sheep food chain in different pasture ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Paasikallio

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A grazing experiment with sheep was carried out in 1990-1993 on natural, semi-natural and cultivated pasture on clay soil. The pastures were located in Southern Finland and were moderately contaminated with 137 Cs by Chernobyl fallout. Natural pasture refers to forest pasture and serai-natural pasture to set-aside field pasture, the latter having been under cultivation about 15 years ago. The transfer of 137Cs to sheep was clearly higher from forest pasture than from the other two pastures and it was lowest from cultivated pasture. The transfer was higher to muscle and kidney than to liver and heart. The transfer of 137Cs to plants and to meat varied with years. Seasonal variation in the plant 137 Cs was followed-up on forest and set-aside field pasture; the activity concentration of plants reached a maximum in June, a lesser increase occurred later in the autumn. In 1993, which was considered an average year with respect to 137Cs transfer to plants, the mean soil-plant transfer factors of 137Cs for forest, set-aside field and cultivated pastures were 1.78, 0.36 and 0.09, and soil-meat aggregated transfer factors 11.0, 0.28 and 0.03, respectively.

  18. Estimating Green Water Footprints in a Temperate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hess

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The “green” water footprint (GWF of a product is often considered less important than the “blue” water footprint (BWF as “green” water generally has a low, or even negligible, opportunity cost. However, when considering food, fibre and tree products, is not only a useful indicator of the total appropriation of a natural resource, but from a methodological perspective, blue water footprints are frequently estimated as the residual after green water is subtracted from total crop water use. In most published studies, green water use (ETgreen has been estimated from the FAO CROPWAT model using the USDA method for effective rainfall. In this study, four methods for the estimation of the ETgreen of pasture were compared. Two were based on effective rainfall estimated from monthly rainfall and potential evapotranspiration, and two were based on a simulated water balance using long-term daily, or average monthly, weather data from 11 stations in England. The results show that the effective rainfall methods significantly underestimate the annual ETgreen in all cases, as they do not adequately account for the depletion of stored soil water during the summer. A simplified model, based on annual rainfall and reference evapotranspiration (ETo has been tested and used to map the average annual ETgreen of pasture in England.

  19. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  20. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  1. Participatory financing for green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laville, Dorine; Phantharangsi, Maryvonne; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Demeulenaere, Laurence; Lequeux, Typhaine; Cuny, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    As for the French Ministry of the Environment, participatory financing can be an innovating and mobilising tool to finance projects related to the energy and ecological transition, and as such a financing is promoted by the law on energy transition for a green growth, this publication presents this type of financing. It evokes its legal framework, its different forms (loan to companies, loan to individuals, gift, capital investment), its safe legal framework (definition of different types of status). It outlines how it can be a lever for energy and ecological transition even if green projects are difficult to quantify. It evokes the future introduction of a label, and the introduction of legal and regulatory measures to develop the renewable energy sector

  2. Green supply chain overview and a South African case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoeman, C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates status quo concerning the environment and the human (economic) impact on its sustainability. It narrows in on the South Africa context and then focuses on the transport and supply chain's contributions. Green supply chain...

  3. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  4. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  5. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  6. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  7. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  8. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  9. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  10. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  11. Influence of Pasture Rearing on the Cecal Bacterial Microbiota in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čermák L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Differences in quantity of cecal microbiota in broiler chickens from conventional and pasture rearing were investigated by cultivation. Rearing on pasture brings stress reduction and increases comfort and bird welfare, which leads to products with better taste and flavour compared to conventionally produced broiler chickens. A difference in cecal settlement of general anaerobes, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, and campylobacters and salmonellas in the two different rearing systems was addressed. Whereas numbers of total anaerobes and lactic acid bacteria were not affected, those of coliforms were significantly reduced in pasture rearing. Campylobacters were found only in pasture-reared chickens (in 28% of animals. Salmonellas were not detected in any of the systems.

  12. Heterotrophic components of soil respiration in pastures and forests in southwestern Amazonia, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Atlas Davidson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present data on soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration in pastures, mature and secondary forests, in order to elucidate their contribution to total CO2 flux from soil to atmosphere. The research was conducted in Southwestern Amazonia, Acre State, Brazil. Microbial biomass was estimated using a variation of the traditional fumigation-extraction method and heterotrophic respiration was measured using respirometry flasks attached to an infrared gas analyzer. Soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration did not differ statistically among pastures, mature and secondary forests. These laboratory results indicate that higher CO2 fluxes from pasture soils measured in situ are probably due to higher root respiration by pasture grasses.

  13. LBA-ECO ND-10 Soil Properties of Pasture Chronosequences, Para, Brazil: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of soil physical property and chemical measurements of samples collected from two pasture chronosequences (years since...

  14. LBA-ECO ND-10 Soil Properties of Pasture Chronosequences, Para, Brazil: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of soil physical property and chemical measurements of samples collected from two pasture chronosequences (years since conversion...

  15. LBA-ECO ND-01 Reflectance and Biophysical Measures, Grass Pastures: Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of spectral reflectance (350 to 2,500 nm at 1-nm increments) and biophysical measurements on grass pastures in eight...

  16. Phyto-oestrogens and their metabolites in milk produced on two pastures with different botanical compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S. A.; Purup, S.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2014-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to assess the effects of grazing a recently established pasture containing red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and an older pasture containing a variety of sown and unsown plant species on milk concentrations of phyto-oestrogens. Sixteen Norwegian Red dairy cows [mean (standard......Phyto-oestrogens are a group of secondary plant metabolites that may bind to oestrogen receptors and exert oestrogenic or anti-oestrogenic effects in humans and can protect against cancer diseases. When ingested by dairy cows, phyto-oestrogens can be metabolised and transferred to the milk...... deviation); body weight 599 (45.1). kg, stage of lactation 73 (15.0) d in milk, milk yield 29.9 (2.90) kg/d at the start of the experiment] were divided into two groups and grazed either a short-term pasture (SP) or a long-term pasture (LP). The SP was representative of organically managed leys in Norway...

  17. Phosphorus fertilizer and grazing management effects on phosphorus in runoff from dairy pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Warwick J; Nicholls, Paul J; Milham, Paul J; Havilah, Euie J; Lawrie, Roy A

    2008-01-01

    Fertilizer phosphorus (P) and grazing-related factors can influence runoff P concentrations from grazed pastures. To investigate these effects, we monitored the concentrations of P in surface runoff from grazed dairy pasture plots (50 x 25 m) treated with four fertilizer P rates (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) for 3.5 yr at Camden, New South Wales. Total P concentrations in runoff were high (0.86-11.13 mg L(-1)) even from the control plot (average 1.94 mg L(-1)). Phosphorus fertilizer significantly (P pasture biomass (P dairy pastures should be the maintenance of soil P at or near the agronomic optimum by the use of appropriate rates of P fertilizer.

  18. Barium selenate supplementation and its effect on intramammary infection in pasture-based dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, A; Kruze, J; Barkema, H W; Dohoo, I R; Sanchez, J; Uribe, D; Wichtel, J J; Wittwer, F

    2010-04-01

    A significant proportion of cattle receive inadequate dietary Se because of its low content in soils and pastures of various regions of the world. Several economically important diseases in dairy cows, such as mastitis, have been associated with Se deficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single injection of a long-acting form of Se at drying off on the risk and incidence rate of new intramammary infections and on milk somatic cell count in the subsequent lactation in pasture-based dairy cows. Forty-nine Chilean Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a diet containing pasture-based dairy cows did not affect udder health in the subsequent lactation, indicating that Se basal intake was adequate for preventing subclinical mastitis in pasture-based cows in southern Chile. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil organic matter dynamics during 80 years of reforestation of tropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika Marin-Spiotta; Whendee L. Silver; Christopher W. Swanston; Rebecca. Ostertag

    2009-01-01

    Our research takes advantage of a historical trend in natural reforestation of abandoned tropical pastures to examine changes in soil carbon (C) during 80 years of secondary forest regrowth. We combined a chronosequence...

  20. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi A. Black

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined on: (1 lying behaviour and activity; (2 feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3 intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14 or pasture ( n = 14 using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d, lying bouts (bouts/d, steps (steps/d and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum, close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum, calving (calving date and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum. Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less

  1. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Randi A; Krawczel, Peter D

    2016-07-13

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14) or pasture ( n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less aggression

  2. Carbon sequestration in Himalaya's alpine meadows: Mitigating cropping encroachment on pastures in Northern Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rueff, Henri; Syed Rehman, Aziz; Rahim, Inam; Maselli, Daniel; Nafees, Mohammad; Wiesmann, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Rangelands store about 30% of the world’s carbon and support over 120 million pastoralists globally. Adjusting the management of remote alpine pastures bears a substantial climate change mitigation potential that can provide livelihood support for marginalized pastoralists through carbon payment. Landless pastoralists in Northern Pakistan seek higher income by cropping potatoes and peas over alpine pastures. However, tilling steep slopes without terracing exposes soil to erosion. Moreover, yi...

  3. Evaluation of a whole-farm model for pasture-based dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, P C; Palliser, C C; Macdonald, K A; Lancaster, J A S; Levy, G; Thorrold, B S; Wastney, M E

    2008-06-01

    In the temperate climate of New Zealand, animals can be grazed outdoors all year round. The pasture is supplemented with conserved feed, with the amount being determined by seasonal pasture growth, genetics of the herd, and stocking rate. The large number of factors that affect production makes it impractical and expensive to use field trials to explore all the farm system options. A model of an in situ-grazed pasture system has been developed to provide a tool for developing and testing novel farm systems; for example, different levels of bought-in supplements and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer application, to maintain sustainability or environmental integrity and profitability. It consists of a software framework that links climate information, on a daily basis, with dynamic, mechanistic component-models for pasture growth and animal metabolism, as well as management policies. A unique feature is that the component models were developed and published by other groups, and are retained in their original software language. The aim of this study was to compare the model, called the whole-farm model (WFM) with a farm trial that was conducted over 3 yr and in which data were collected specifically for evaluating the WFM. Data were used from the first year to develop the WFM and data from the second and third year to evaluate the model. The model predicted annual pasture production, end-of-season cow liveweight, cow body condition score, and pasture cover across season with relative prediction error pasture and supplement intake were predicted with acceptable accuracy, suggesting that the metabolic conversion of feed to fat, protein, and lactose in the mammary gland needs to be refined. Because feed growth and intake predictions were acceptable, economic predictions can be made using the WFM, with an adjustment for milk yield, to test different management policies, alterations in climate, or the use of genetically improved animals, pastures, or crops.

  4. How to determine the GHG budget of a pasture field with grazing animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Christof; Neftel, Albrecht; Felber, Raphael

    2016-04-01

    Up to now the scientific investigation and description of the agriculture related greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange has been largely separated into (i) direct animal related and (ii) ecosystem area related processes and measurement methods. An overlap of the two usually separated topics occurs for grazed pastures, where direct animal and pasture area emissions are relevant. In the present study eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements on the field scale were combined with a source location attribution (footprint) model and with GPS position measurements of the individual animals. The experiment was performed on a pasture field in Switzerland under a rotational full grazing regime with dairy cows. The exchange fluxes of CH4, CO2, and N2O were measured simultaneously over the entire year. The observed CH4 emission fluxes correlated well with the presence of cows in the flux footprint. When converted to average emission per cow, the results agreed with published values from respiration chamber experiments with similar cows. For CO2 a sophisticated partitioning algorithm was applied to separate the pasture and animal contributions, because both were in the same order of magnitude. The N2O exchange fully attributable to the pasture soil showed considerable and continuous emissions through the entire seasonal course mainly modulated by soil moisture and temperature. The resulting GHG budget shows that the largest GHG effect of the pasture system was due to enteric CH4 emissions followed by soil N2O emissions, but that the carbon storage change was affected by a much larger uncertainty. The results demonstrate that the EC technique in combination with animal position information allows to consistently quantify the exchange of all three GHG on the pasture and to adequately distinguish between direct animal and diffuse area sources (and sinks). Yet questions concerning a standardized attribution of animal related emissions to the pasture GHG budget still need to be resolved.

  5. Management and productive aspects of a dairy herd in a Valle d’Aosta alpine pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bianchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Western Italia Alps pasture areas utilization ratio is sensibly getting lower both as to surfaces and to mountain livestock resources. Recent researches show that in the valley bottom areas transhumance is progressively being abandoned for a permanent and intensive livestock breeding often made up with non local breeds and anyway no more fit to high altitude grazing (Battaglini et al.,2001. This trend is leading to lose local pastures (referred as to exploitable surfaces and fertility and livestock resources.......

  6. Sparse trees and shrubs confers a high biodiversity to pastures: Case study on spiders from Transylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallé, Róbert; Urák, István; Nikolett, Gallé-Szpisjak; Hartel, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    The integration of food production and biodiversity conservation represents a key challenge for sustainability. Several studies suggest that even small structural elements in the landscape can make a substantial contribution to the overall biodiversity value of the agricultural landscapes. Pastures can have high biodiversity potential. However, their intensive and monofunctional use typically erodes its natural capital, including biodiversity. Here we address the ecological value of fine scale structural elements represented by sparsely scattered trees and shrubs for the spider communities in a moderately intensively grazed pasture in Transylvania, Eastern Europe. The pasture was grazed with sheep, cattle and buffalo (ca 1 Livestock Unit ha-1) and no chemical fertilizers were applied. Sampling sites covered the open pasture as well as the existing fine-scale heterogeneity created by scattered trees and shrub. 40 sampling locations each being represented by three 1 m2 quadrats were situated in a stratified design while assuring spatial independency of sampling locations. We identified 140 species of spiders, out of which 18 were red listed and four were new for the Romanian fauna. Spider species assemblages of open pasture, scattered trees, trees and shrubs and the forest edge were statistically distinct. Our study shows that sparsely scattered mature woody vegetation and shrubs substantially increases the ecological value of managed pastures. The structural complexity provided by scattered trees and shrubs makes possible the co-occurrence of high spider diversity with a moderately high intensity grazing possible in this wood-pasture. Our results are in line with recent empirical research showing that sparse trees and shrubs increases the biodiversity potential of pastures managed for commodity production.

  7. Variation in density of cattle-visiting muscid flies between Danish inland pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    The density of cattle-visiting flies (Muscidae) and the load of black-flies (Simulium spp.) were estimated in twelve and eighteen inland pastures in Denmark in 1984 and 1985 respectively. No differences in the geographical distribution pattern of the predominant cattle-visiting Muscidae were reco......-exposed pastures. A comparable relationship was found for Haematobia irritans. With Haematobosca stimulans (Mg.) and Morellia spp. no relation between grassland environment and fly density was detected....

  8. The influence of feedback on hay pastures. | N.F.G. | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding of hay to sheep or cattle on an Eragrostis curvula pasture during the winter months has a most beneficial effect on the response of the pasture to fertilization in subsequent seasons. Low rates of feedback (10 t/ha) had an effect for two seasons whilst the effect of 30 t/ha lasted for at least three seasons and was ...

  9. Forage mass and the nutritive value of pastures mixed with forage peanut and red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate three pasture-based systems mixed with elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species, annual ryegrass, for pasture-based system 1; elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + forage peanut, for pasture-based system 2; and elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + annual ryegrass + red clover, for pasture-based system 3. Elephantgrass was planted in rows 4 m apart from each other. During the cool-season, annual ryegrass was sown in the alleys between the rows of elephantgrass; forage peanut and red clover were sown in the alleys between the elephantgrass according to the respective treatment. The experimental design was totally randomized in the three treatments (pasture-based systems, two replicates (paddocks in completely split-plot time (grazing cycles. Holstein cows receiving 5.5 kg-daily complementary concentrate feed were used in the evaluation. Pre-grazing forage mass, botanical composition and stocking rate were evaluated. Samples of simulated grazing were collected to analyze organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP and organic matter in situ digestibility (OMISD. Nine grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period (341 days. The average dry matter values for pre-grazing and stocking rate were 3.34; 3.46; 3.79 t/ha, and 3.28; 3.34; 3.60 AU/ha for each respective pasture-based system. Similar results were observed between the pasture-based systems for OM, NDF, CP and OMISD. Considering forage mass, stocking rate and nutritive value, the pasture-based system intercropped with forage legumes presented better performance.

  10. Show Me the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  11. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  12. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  13. In the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  14. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  15. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  16. The transfer of 137Cs through the soil-plant-sheep food chain in different pasture ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PAASIKALLIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A grazing experiment with sheep was carried out in 1990-1993 on natural, semi-natural and cultivated pasture on clay soil. The pastures were located in Southern Finland and were moderately contaminated with 137 Cs by Chernobyl fallout. Natural pasture refers to forest pasture and semi-natural pasture to set-aside field pasture, the latter having been under cultivation about 15 years ago. The transfer of 137 Cs to sheep was clearly higher from forest pasture than from the other two pastures and it was lowest from cultivated pasture. The transfer was higher to muscle and kidney than to liver and heart. The transfer of 137 Cs to plants and to meat varied with years. Seasonal variation in the plant 137 Cs was followed-up on forest and set-aside field pasturerespect to 137 Cs transfer to plants, the mean soil-plant transfer factors of 137 Cs for forest, set-aside field and cultivated pastures were 1.78, 0.36 and 0.09, and soil-meat aggregated transfer factors 11.0, 0.28 and 0.03, respectively.;

  17. The transfer of 137Cs through the soil-plant-sheep food chain in different pasture ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasikallio, Arja; Sormunen-Cristian, Riitta

    1996-01-01

    A grazing experiment with sheep was carried out in 1990-1993 on natural, semi-natural and cultivated pasture on clay soil. The pastures were located in Southern Finland and were moderately contaminated with 137 Cs by Chernobyl fallout. Natural pasture refers to forest pasture and semi-natural pasture to set-aside field pasture, the latter having been under cultivation about 15 years ago. The transfer of 137 Cs to sheep was clearly higher from forest pasture than from the other two pastures and it was lowest from cultivated pasture. The transfer was higher to muscle and kidney than to liver and heart. The transfer of 137 Cs to plants and to meat varied with years. Seasonal variation in the plant 137 Cs was followed-up on forest and set-aside field pasturerespect to 137 Cs transfer to plants, the mean soil-plant transfer factors of 137 Cs for forest, set-aside field and cultivated pastures were 1.78, 0.36 and 0.09, and soil-meat aggregated transfer factors 11.0, 0.28 and 0.03, respectively

  18. Horse Welfare and Natural Values on Semi-Natural and Extensive Pastures in Finland: Synergies and Trade-Offs

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    Markku Saastamoinen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In several regions in Europe, the horse is becoming a common grazer on semi-natural and cultivated grasslands, though the pasturing benefits for animals and biodiversity alike are not universally appreciated. The composition of ground vegetation on pastures determines the value of both the forage for grazing animals as well as the biodiversity values for species associated with the pastoral ecosystems. We studied three pastures, each representing one of the management types in southern Finland (latitudes 60–61: semi-natural, permanent and cultivated grassland. All have been grazed exclusively by horses for several decades. We aimed to evaluate feeding values and horses’ welfare, on the one hand, and impacts of horses on biodiversity in boreal conditions, on the other. Though there were differences among the pastures, the nutritional value of the vegetation in all three pastures met the energy and protein needs of most horse categories through the whole grazing season. Some mineral concentrations were low compared to the requirements, and supplementation of Cu, Zn and Na is needed to balance the mineral intake. Only minor injuries or health problems were observed. All metrics of biological values, as well as number of species eaten by horses, were particularly high in a semi-natural pasture compared to other pasture types. The highest ratio of species cover preferred by horses to the total cover was found in the permanent pasture, while at the regularly re-seeded pasture, there was a particularly high cover of species, indicating low biodiversity values on grassland. There was, therefore, a trade-off between the quantity of forage and biological values in pastures, but not in quality. The results provide clear indication both for the suitability of the studied pasture types to horses and for grazing of horses for biodiversity management. In each pasture type, specific management is needed to simultaneously achieve objectives of adequate

  19. Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.S.

    2005-09-01

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and in soil N 2 O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N 2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N 2 O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N 2 O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N 2 as a source of N 2 O. 2: examining the link between N 2 O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N 2 O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N 2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N 2 O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m -2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor

  20. Evaluation of ruminal fluid in buffaloes produced extensively in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Duarte Cerqueira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of the ruminal fluid has great importance in the diagnosis of microbial and biochemical alterations of reticulum and rumen. In the state of Pará buffaloes are produced extensively, mainly in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha. The physiologic parameters of the ruminal content in buffaloes in this condition had not been determined. The objective of this study was to establish normal values for reticulum-ruminal fluid examination in buffaloes in pastures of B. brizantha. Twenty buffaloes of the Murrah breed were used. Samples of ruminal fluid were obtained during 4 days, twice a day, at 7:00am and 5:00pm. The aspect, color, smell, and the sedimentation and fluctuation period (TSF of the fluid were analyzed macroscopically. Physico-chemical analysis included pH, glucose fermentation, methilene blue reduction (RAM and total acidity. All animal had a green-olive ruminal fluid with viscous consistency, and aromatic smell. The pH varied from 6.95 to 7.03. The RAM test varied from 126.74 to 291.83 seconds and the TSF from 266.7 to 298.89 seconds. Glucose fermentation produced 0.69 to 0.78 ml of gas per hour. Total acidity was 18.11 to 18.32 UC. In the microbiologic examination the number of protozoa was 551,377.31 to 518,860.72 with predominance of Gram negative bacteria.

  1. Effects of pasture renovation on hydrology, nutrient runoff, and forage yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koff, J P; Moore, P A; Formica, J; Van Eps, M; DeLaune, P B

    2011-01-01

    Proper pasture management is important in promoting optimal forage growth and reducing runoff and nutrient loss. Pasture renovation is a management tool that improves aeration by mechanically creating holes or pockets within the soil. Pasture renovation was performed before manure application (poultry litter or swine slurry) on different pasture soils and rainfall simulations were conducted to identify the effects of pasture renovation on nutrient runoff and forage growth. Renovation of small plots resulted in significant and beneficial hydrological changes. During the first rainfall simulation, runoff volumes were 45 to 74% lower for seven out of eight renovated treatments, and infiltration rates increased by 3 to 87% for all renovated treatments as compared with nonrenovated treatments. Renovation of pasture soils fertilized with poultry litter led to significant reductions in dissolved reactive P (DRP) (74-87%), total P (TP) (76-85%), and total nitrogen (TN) (72-80%) loads in two of the three soils studied during the first rainfall simulation. Renovation did not result in any significant differences in forage yields. Overall, beneficial impacts of renovation lasted up to 3 mo, the most critical period for nutrient runoff following manure application. Therefore, renovation could be an important best management practice in these areas.

  2. DIAGNOSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADED PASTURES IN AREAS OF MUNICIPAL GURUPI-TO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Araújo de Freitas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation in grassland areas is a major constraint for the performance of ranching, which dominates the extensive grazing system on pasture. Therefore, this study aimed to carry out environmental assessment of pasture degradation areas in the municipality of Gurupi-TO. An environmental diagnosis was conducted in four properties: farm “Morada do Boi III”, farm “Jatobá”, and farm “Nova Esperança”. The environmental degradation was evaluated according to the following methods: (a Interview structured in a questionnaire in order to survey: formation, degradation, rehabilitation and maintenance of pastures; (B Soil sample collecting, 0-20 cm; and (c Visual assessment of the environmental degradation level. With regard to the third method, five different parameters such as: Strength and Quality of pasture, Plant population, Weeds, Ground cover, and Erosion were utilized in this evaluation. According to this, individual keys were set up for each parameter, keys that range from 1 to four 4, in which 1 was 75%. It was observed that the four properties are in degradation, but each at a different level. It was found moderate to very strong degradation, as is the case of farm “Jatobá”. It was observed, in all properties, that the soil fertility in decline is related to pasture degradation. Thus, environmental recovery strategies in the four properties are required. Keywords: soil fertility; degradation of pastures; Brachiaria brizantha.

  3. Ingestive behavior, performance and forage intake by beef heifers on tropical pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Alves de Oliveira Neto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate forage intake, performance and ingestive behavior of beef heifers. Productive, structural and chemical characteristics of the pasture were also evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three pasture systems (Alexandergrass [Urochloa plantaginea Link.] with and without supplement to heifers and Coastcross [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.] and two phenological stages: vegetative and flowering. The grazing method was put-and-take stocking. Grazing, ruminating and idle activities, feeding stations, displacement patterns, bite mass and bite rate were evaluated. The forage intake was estimated using chromic oxide as an indicator of fecal output. The heifers modified the use of feeding stations and displacement patterns between phenological stages and pasture systems. Heifers consumed more forage in the vegetative stage (2.81% of body weight in dry matter than in the flowering stage (1.92% of body weight in dry matter. Average daily gain, body condition and stocking rate were similar for heifers in the evaluated systems. Beef heifers receiving protein supplement on Alexandergrass pasture consumed more forage than heifers fed Coastcross exclusively. Regardless of the species, no difference was observed when the heifers were exclusively on pasture. Pasture systems on Alexandergrass or Coastcross provide suitable nutrient intake for heifers to be mated at 18 months of age.

  4. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Ching-Hsun Chang; Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green min...

  5. ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND IMPACT OF DISTURBANCE IN AN ALPINE PASTURE OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ DHAULAKHANDI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The alpine area in Garhwal Himalaya is highly fragile and is known for its beautiful flora and fauna. The study area was located just below the Gangotri glacier which is the origin of Bhagirathi, a holy river of India. Pilgrimage, tourism, adventure activities and mules are the factors responsible for causing disturbance in this area. There is a remarkable variation in the values of diversity, species richness, dominance, density IVI and biomass production at Bhojbasa Protected (BP and Bhojbasa Disturbed (BD sites. The value of liveshoot biomass was highest in August (444 g m-2 on BP and 80 g m-2 on BD sites. Belowground biomass was also recorded highest for BP site and lowest for BD site. The ANP value at BP site was 363 g m-2 y-1 and 26 g m-2 y-1 at BD site.This area has shown decrease in diversity and productivity, and heavy soil erosion that indicate the consequence of increasing human activities due to pilgrimage, tourism and camping and frequent movement of mules carrying goods. Therefore, this area requires strict measures for biodiversity conservation and disaster mitigation.

  6. Trophic structure of macroinvertebrates in tropical pasture streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Neves da Silveira-Manzotti

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The aim of this study was to describe the diet of stream macroinvertebrates and to determine their trophic groups. Methods Invertebrates were sampled with D nets in three pasture streams. They were identified to genus level and submitted to gut content analysis, except for fluid feeders such as hemipterans, to which diet data was obtained from the literature. Trophic groups were determined based on a similarity analysis using the Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. Results Five trophic groups were defined: fine-detritivores (feed mostly on fine particulate organic matter - FPOM, coarse-detritivores/herbivores (feed mostly on coarse particulate organic matter - CPOM - and plant material, omnivores, specialist-predators (prey upon aquatic insects only, and generalist-predators. Ephemeroptera, Diptera (except Tanypodinae, Coleoptera, and Trichoptera (except Smicridea were detritivores. The caddis Macronema (Trichoptera fed exclusively on plant detritus and Tanypodinae and Smicridea were classified as omnivores. The odonate families Calopterygidae and Gomphidae were classified as specialist-predators, while Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Belostoma, and Limnocoris (Hemiptera were generalist-predators. Conclusions The great quantity and frequency of occurrence of FPOM consumed by most taxa highlight the importance of this food resource for macroinvertebrate communities from tropical streams. Furthermore, observed variations on trophic group assignment for some taxa indicate the generalist and opportunistic nature of these aquatic invertebrates. Such findings reinforce the importance of conducting gut content analysis on macroinvertebrates to understand their role in the structure and functioning of tropical streams.

  7. Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Baptaglin Montagner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

  8. Epigeic spiders of the pastures of northern Wielkopolska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźny, Marek

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of epigeic spiders (Araneae occurring on three different types of pastures in northern Wielkopolska was analysed. Studies were conducted from May 1992 to October 1993. The 18,995 specimens collected were classified as belonging to 137 species and 17 families. The family Linyphiidae proved the richest in species while Lycosidae was the most abundantly in terms of number of specimens. Zoocenological analysis of spider communities showed their differentiation testifying to differences in the sites studied. The dominants were: 1 Osowo Stare (Site 1: Pardosa palustris, 2 Sycyn Dolny (Site 2: Xerolycosa miniata, P. palustris, Xysticus kochi, 3 Braczewo (Site 3: Erigone dentipalpis, P. palustris. Seasonal changes of dominance of the species at each site were established. A comparison of changes of the species’ dominances in the years 1992 and 1993 disclosed similar values of the individual dominance coefficient at the sites in Osowo Stare and Braczewo. This result indicates the occurrence of the process of stabilization of these biocenoses and a tendency to equilibrium in the environment. The least stable proved to be the site at Sycyn Dolny. Analysis of the seasonal dynamics of epigeic spider communities was also made by determining the mean number of species at each site in the two years of study. The highest number of species was noted in spring. It is interesting to note the appearance of species which are rare or very rare in Poland such as: Lepthyphantes insignis, Ostearius melanopygius, Enoplognatha mordax and Enoplognatha oelandica.

  9. Green Thunderstorms Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank W., III; Beasley, William H.; Bohren, Craig F.

    1996-12-01

    Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Often the green coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflections of light from green foliage on the ground. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm do not believe that green thunderstorms exist. They suggest that the green storms may be fabrications by excited observers. The authors have demonstrated the existence of green thunderstorms objectively using a spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 the authors observed numerous storms and recorded hundreds of spectra of the light emanating corn these storms. It was found that the subjective judgment of colors can vary somewhat between observers, but the variation is usually in the shade of green. The authors recorded spectra of green and nongreen thunderstorms and recorded spectral measurements as a storm changed its appearance from dark blue to a bluish green. The change in color is gradual when observed from a stationary position. Also, as the light from a storm becomes greener, the luminance decreases. The authors also observed and recorded the spectrum of a thunderstorm during a period of several hours as they flew in an aircraft close to a supercell that appeared somewhat green. The authors' observations refute the ground reflection hypothesis and raise questions about explanations that require the presence of hail.

  10. Different supplents for finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tadeu de Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of four types of supplement on the finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season. Sixty-four castrated Nellore males with an age of approximately 34 months and initial body weight (BW ranging from 360 to 380 kg were divided into 16 animals per treatment in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four types of pasture supplement: deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + energy protein mineral salt (SuEPM used as control; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + ground corn grain (SuCo; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + citrus pulp (SuCPu; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + soy hull (SuSH. The pasture was deferred for 170 days and provided 3,482 kg DM/ha of forage, permitting a stocking rate of 1.56 AU/ha (DM intake of 2.25% BW and 50% pasture efficiency. The animals received the supplement ad libitum in the SuEPM treatment and as % BW in the other treatments from July to October. The animals were slaughtered at a minimum BW of 457 kg. The following variables were evaluated: final weight, weight gain during the period (WG, average daily gain (ADG, hot carcass weight (HCW, and hot carcass yield (HCY. With respect to final weight, the supplement in the SuCo, SuCPu and SuSH treatments permitted a greater supply of nutrients and the animals therefore exhibited better performance (P<0.05 compared to the SuEPM treatment (mean of 478.68 vs 412.62 kg. The same effect was observed for the other parameters studied. Analysis of WG and ADG showed that SuSH was superior to the SuCo and SuCPu treatments (P<0.05 due to the increased offer of concentrate and SuEPM was inferior to the other treatments. Higher HCW (260.05 kg and HCY (53.92% were obtained with treatment SuSH as a result of greater performance. Supplementation of cattle during the dry period on

  11. A Contextual Analysis of Land-Use and Vegetation Changes in Two Wooded Pastures in the Swiss Jura Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Chételat

    2013-03-01

    The most important changes in tree density occurred during World War II and resulted in a more open landscape. The intensive use of wooded pastures during the war was the consequence of a high demand for wood and food resources. Postwar protectionist regulations, agricultural subsidies, and technical improvements maintained considerable pressure on wooded pastures. Storms and drought episodes further exacerbated this process in some areas. The trend then reversed from the 1970s onwards because of the limitations put on milk production and the falling price of wood. This resulted in a more extensive use of pastures, leading to tree encroachment. However, remote sites were more impacted than pastures closer to inhabited areas, which exhibited a trend towards more segregation between grassland and densely wooded pastures. With both extensification and segregation of land use, the complex vegetation mosaic and the landscape diversity that characterize wooded pastures are threatened but still offer good economic opportunities that call for differentiated management strategies.

  12. GREEN MANAGEMENT: THE REALITY OF BEING GREEN IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Green management and going green are not as clear cut and easy as hyped by the general media. While going ecologically green is indeed beneficial and appropriate, the process and procedure of becoming green is anything but easy. Firstly, turning green is largely not a legal requirement, but a voluntary process. Thus, even though LEED (which is by far the more publicly known green certification standard) governs the certification of the green management effort, it is not a compulsory condition...

  13. Rehabilitation with pasture after open-cut coal mining at three sites in the Bowen Coal Basin of Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coaldrake, J E

    1978-03-01

    Open-cut coal mining in the Bowen Coal Basin leaves piled heaps of overburden, chiefly of a clayey nature, that have high pH, high salinity, and low contents of phosphorus and nitrogen. It is likely that pastures of introduced sub- tropical species can be used as a first stage in rehabilitating these areas, and possibly to convert them into permanent grazing lands. In field experiments the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela (Buffel grass), Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (Rhodes grass) and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume cv. Petrie (green panic) all showed satisfactory establishment and growth at two sites out of three tested. There was a clear response to superphosphate, with 400 kg/ha proving better over a two-year period than 100 kg/ha. Responses to nitrogen (as ammonium sulphate and as ammonium nitrate) were variable, and there was no response to gypsum and manganese at the one site tested for them. Of three tropical legumes subjected to limited testing only leucaena leucocephala gave encouraging results.

  14. Morphogenesis in pastures of Coastcross-1 and Tifton 85 mixed with forage peanut, submitted to cutting management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnos Fernando Ziech

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the presence of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi Krap. and Greg. on the morphogenesis characteristics of two cultivars of Cynodon (Tifton 85 and Coastcross-1. The experimental design was factorial (three factors, in randomized blocks, having as factors the cultivars (2, the occupancy area of forage peanut (4 and the seasons (3, with three replications, established in plots. There were three assessments during the study, in spring, summer and autumn, in which the total number of tillers, the culm and leaf elongation, the senescence rate and leaf emergence, the phyllochron, the leaf lifespan, the leaf number and the height of culm and canopy were evaluated. The number of green leaves, number of elongating leaves and senescence rate were similar among cultivars, but cv. Coastcross-1 showed higher number of expanded leaves and leaf emergence rate, and lower phyllochron and leaf lifespan. We observed lower rates of senescence and higher leaf emergence in spring, and lower rates of leaf elongation in autumn. The increasing participation of forage peanut in the pastures did not affect the calculated morphogenetic variables, but decreased the number of grass tillers. A lower average daily thermal accumulation decreased the development of both grasses in this study, with a more pronounced effect in cv. Tifton 85. The Coastcross-1 cultivar has higher elongation rate and leaf emergence, coupled with lower phyllochron and leaf lifespan, indicating a need for shorter rest periods when compared to cv. Tifton 85.

  15. Operational challenges and opportunities in pastured poultry operations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoraibi, C; Pitesky, M; Dailey, N; Niemeier, D

    2017-06-01

    As pastured poultry production has gained increased popularity in the United States in recent years, there is a growing need for research and outreach efforts aimed at this sector of poultry production. In order to get familiarized with American pastured poultry producers, we conducted an online questionnaire aimed primarily at evaluating what operational challenges are faced by producers and what educational opportunities should be initiated by researchers. Results showed that pastured poultry farms largely vary in total number of acres farmed and total number of birds kept. The vast majority of farms (96%) rotate their flocks on pasture and include livestock species (78%) in their rotation systems. Mobile coops are the preferred housing option provided by producers (88%). The most common source of mortality listed by respondents was predation (52%), followed by "other" (32%). However, predation was not selected as the most important challenge by the majority of respondents. Sixty-four percent of participants instead mentioned providing adequate feed at reasonable cost as the major challenge in raising poultry on pasture, followed again by "other" (52%) and lack of processing facilities for small numbers of birds (40%). Finally, the topics considered by respondents as the most helpful to learn more about were how to improve egg production rate and/or feed conversion ratio (67%), followed by how to improve pasture condition and optimum vegetative cover all year round (62%). Despite its small sample size, this study's results provide some valuable insights of challenges encountered and information needed on pastured poultry farms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. MODIS Time Series to Detect Anthropogenic Interventions and Degradation Processes in Tropical Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alves Aguiar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unavoidable diet change in emerging countries, projected for the coming years, will significantly increase the global consumption of animal protein. It is expected that Brazilian livestock production, responsible for close to 15% of global production, be prepared to answer to the increasing demand of beef. Consequently, the evaluation of pasture quality at regional scale is important to inform public policies towards a rational land use strategy directed to improve livestock productivity in the country. Our hypothesis is that MODIS images can be used to evaluate the processes of degradation, restoration and renovation of tropical pastures. To test this hypothesis, two field campaigns were performed covering a route of approximately 40,000 km through nine Brazilian states. To characterize the sampled pastures, biophysical parameters were measured and observations about the pastures, the adopted management and the landscape were collected. Each sampled pasture was evaluated using a time series of MODIS EVI2 images from 2000–2012, according to a new protocol based on seven phenological metrics, 14 Boolean criteria and two numerical criteria. The theoretical basis of this protocol was derived from interviews with producers and livestock experts during a third field campaign. The analysis of the MODIS EVI2 time series provided valuable historical information on the type of intervention and on the biological degradation process of the sampled pastures. Of the 782 pastures sampled, 26.6% experienced some type of intervention, 19.1% were under biological degradation, and 54.3% presented neither intervention nor trend of biomass decrease during the period analyzed.

  17. Mapping of macro and micro nutrients of mixed pastures using airborne AisaFENIX hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, Gábor; Yule, I. J.

    2016-07-01

    On-farm assessment of mixed pasture nutrient concentrations is important for animal production and pasture management. Hyperspectral imaging is recognized as a potential tool to quantify the nutrient content of vegetation. However, it is a great challenge to estimate macro and micro nutrients in heterogeneous mixed pastures. In this study, canopy reflectance data was measured by using a high resolution airborne visible-to-shortwave infrared (Vis-SWIR) imaging spectrometer measuring in the wavelength region 380-2500 nm to predict nutrient concentrations, nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), zinc (Zn), sodium (Na), manganese (Mn) copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) in heterogeneous mixed pastures across a sheep and beef farm in hill country, within New Zealand. Prediction models were developed using four different methods which are included partial least squares regression (PLSR), kernel PLSR, support vector regression (SVR), random forest regression (RFR) algorithms and their performance compared using the test data. The results from the study revealed that RFR produced highest accuracy (0.55 ⩽ R2CV ⩽ 0.78; 6.68% ⩽ nRMSECV ⩽ 26.47%) compared to all other algorithms for the majority of nutrients (N, P, K, Zn, Na, Cu and Mg) described, and the remaining nutrients (S and Mn) were predicted with high accuracy (0.68 ⩽ R2CV ⩽ 0.86; 13.00% ⩽ nRMSECV ⩽ 14.64%) using SVR. The best training models were used to extrapolate over the whole farm with the purpose of predicting those pasture nutrients and expressed through pixel based spatial maps. These spatially registered nutrient maps demonstrate the range and geographical location of often large differences in pasture nutrient values which are normally not measured and therefore not included in decision making when considering more effective ways to utilized pasture.

  18. Effects of herbage intake on goat performance in the mediterranean type natural pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, Basri H; Gokkus, Ahmet; Savas, Turker; Yurtman, Ismail Y

    2009-02-01

    This study aimed at identifying changes in natural pastures during the grazing season and investigating the effects of these changes on pasture feeding potential for high yielding dairy goats. During the study, 12 dairy goats were grazed on a 1.5 ha natural pasture for three months from April to June in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The goats were fed 0.5 kg/day of concentrate as a supplement during the grazing season. Botanical composition, herbage production and intake, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the pasture were determined. Live weight, milk yield, milk dry matter (DM) and fat content of the goats were monitored. The data were analyzed using a linear model, which evaluated the effects of grazing seasons in each year. Based on the three-year average, 87% of pasture was herbaceous plants and the remaining was shrubs in DM basis with Cistus creticus, Quercus ithaburensis, Pistacia atlantica and Asparagus acutifolius being the major shrub species. The herbage yield in June was significantly lower than in other months in all years (P = 0.001). In all experimental years, the CP content of the pasture decreased but the structural carbohydrates increased as the grazing season proceeded. While live weight was not affected by grazing periods except for 2004 (P = 0.001), milk yield significantly decreased with advancing grazing period (P = 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that natural pasture has a supportive effect in April and May on the milk yield of lactating goats which are in mid-lactation, and suggested that supplementary feeding is required in consecutive grazing periods.

  19. The Challenges of Bottom-up Approach of Natural-Social Integration in China Highland Pasture Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Likun

    2017-04-01

    The pasture land covers two fifth of total Chinese land area, which is mainly distributed in western highland of Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan Provinces. China pasture land is not only in charge of providing food resource to regional people, but also plays important role in highland ecosystem services and biodiversity. Along with global warming and enhanced grazing activity, 90% of China pasture land is facing the threat of land degradation. From middle 1990's, Chinese government has released a series of pasture land conservation policies to prevent further environmental degradation. In the same time, lots of pasture ecosystem and environment change researches are supported by national and regional funding agencies. In this study, by monitoring and investigating this top-down approach of pasture land research and policy making processes, we would like to find out the gaps and problems of current research and policy making on China pasture land conservation, especially focusing on the possibility of establishing the bottom-up approach of natural-social sciences integration to support the pasture land conservation and sustainable pasture land management in highland China.

  20. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  1. 绿色CAPP系统的研究%Research on Green CAPP System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林锋; 喻道远

    2001-01-01

    阐明了绿色工艺设计在绿色制造中的重要地位,提出了混合式绿色CAPP系统的绿色化改进方案。%The significance of green manufacturing and its status quo are analysed with the conclusion that green process design is important to green manufacturing while developing green CAPP system is an effective way to realize green process design. An plan to improve current used hybrid CAPP system is also brought forward to equip the system with green property.

  2. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop......Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  3. Ecosystem services from converted land: the importance of tree cover in Amazonian pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kirsten; Valentim, Judson; Turner, B. L.

    2013-01-01

    Deforestation is responsible for a substantial fraction of global carbon emissions and changes in surface energy budgets that affect climate. Deforestation losses include wildlife and human habitat, and myriad forest products on which rural and urban societies depend for food, fiber, fuel, fresh water, medicine, and recreation. Ecosystem services gained in the transition from forests to pasture and croplands, however, are often ignored in assessments of the impact of land cover change. The role of converted lands in tropical areas in terms of carbon uptake and storage is largely unknown. Pastures represent the fastest-growing form of converted land use in the tropics, even in some areas of rapid urban expansion. Tree biomass stored in these areas spans a broad range, depending on tree cover. Trees in pasture increase carbon storage, provide shade for cattle, and increase productivity of forage material. As a result, increasing fractional tree cover can provide benefits land managers as well as important ecosystem services such as reducing conversion pressure on forests adjacent to pastures. This study presents an estimation of fractional tree cover in pasture in a dynamic region on the verge of large-scale land use change. An appropriate sampling interval is established for similar studies, one that balances the need for independent samples of sufficient number to characterize a pasture in terms of fractional tree cover. This information represents a useful policy tool for government organizations and NGOs interested in encouraging ecosystem services on converted lands. Using high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery, fractional tree cover in pasture is quantified for the municipality of Rio Branco, Brazil. A semivariogram and devolving spatial resolution are employed to determine the coarsest sampling interval that may be used, minimizing effects of spatial autocorrelation. The coarsest sampling interval that minimizes spatial dependence was about 22 m. The

  4. Nitrous oxide emissions from forests and pastures of various ages in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, J. M.; Steudler, P. A.; Feigl, B. J.; Neill, C.; Garcia, D.; Piccolo, M. C.; Cerri, C. C.; Tian, H.

    2001-12-01

    Nitrous oxide emissions from tropical forest soils are thought to account for 2.2-3.7 Tg N yr-1 of the total annual global production of 10-17 Tg N yr-1. Recent research suggests that clearing of tropical forest for pasture can increase N2O emissions but that the period of elevated emissions may be limited and fluxes from older pastures may be lower than from the original forest. Here we report N2O emissions from two land-use sequences in the Brazilian Amazon's state of Rondônia. Each sequence includes a forest and a set of pastures of different ages. One sequence contains a newly created pasture that we studied intensively through its first 2 years, including forest cutting, burning, and the planting of forage grasses. Emissions from the newly created pasture were about two and one half times the forest emissions during the first 2 years (5.0 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 versus 1.9 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1). Nitrous oxide fluxes from pastures older than 3 years were on average about one third lower than fluxes from uncut forest (1.4 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 versus 1.9 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1). The best predictor of N2O flux across the chronosequences was the magnitude of the NO3 pool in the upper 10 cm of soil measured at the time of gas sampling. Using a simple cohort model combined with deforestation rates estimated from satellite images by Brazil's Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) for the period 1978 through 1997, we estimate that for the Brazilian Amazon the basin-wide flux of N2O-N from pasture soils was 0.06 Tg in 1997. This is ˜8% of the combined forest plus pasture flux of 0.78 Tg N2O-N we estimate for the Brazilian part of the basin in 1997. In the absence of any forest-to-pasture conversion in the Brazilian part of the basin, we estimate that the basin-wide flux of N2O-N would have been only slightly larger: 0.80 Tg in 1997. Through a second modeling analysis we estimate that for the whole of the Amazon Basin, including parts of the basin outside of Brazil, the N2O

  5. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different doses of fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlize Prigol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The correct choice of fertilizer is of great importance to ensure the continuous production of pasture both in quantity and in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter production of perennial pasture consisting of Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different nutrient sources on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol, presents in a region where the climate is characterized as humid-mesothermic with a hot summer, Cfa according to Köppen, with an average annual rainfall of 2039 mm, well distributed throughout the year and average annual temperatures around 18 º C, varying monthly from 14.1 to 23 º C. The treatments consisted of three nutrient sources: 1 organic manure, a base of chicken bedding (average values of reference NPK (02/03/02, 2 organic manure + mineral - organic mineral, with application of 606 kg ha-1 (04/10/10 Formula, aiming to adjust the same amounts of NPK supplied by mineral fertilizer and, 3 Mineral. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with nine replications. We collected five samples of each pasture treatment for determination of the average. After cutting the pasture of Tifton 85, the samples were subjected to weighing for determination of wet weight and then taken to the drying oven (temperature 65 ° C for 72 hours to determine dry matter production. The statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows computer system (SAS and the results submitted to the Tukey test at 5%. The highest dry matter yield (kg ha-1 was

  6. Pasture degradation modifies the water and carbon cycles of the Tibetan highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Babel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau has a significant role with regard to atmospheric circulation and the monsoon in particular. Changes between a closed plant cover and open bare soil are one of the striking effects of land use degradation observed with unsustainable range management or climate change, but experiments investigating changes of surface properties and processes together with atmospheric feedbacks are rare and have not been undertaken in the world's two largest alpine ecosystems, the alpine steppe and the Kobresia pygmaea pastures of the Tibetan Plateau. We connected measurements of micro-lysimeter, chamber, 13C labelling, and eddy covariance and combined the observations with land surface and atmospheric models, adapted to the highland conditions. This allowed us to analyse how three degradation stages affect the water and carbon cycle of pastures on the landscape scale within the core region of the Kobresia pygmaea ecosystem. The study revealed that increasing degradation of the Kobresia turf affects carbon allocation and strongly reduces the carbon uptake, compromising the function of Kobresia pastures as a carbon sink. Pasture degradation leads to a shift from transpiration to evaporation while a change in the sum of evapotranspiration over a longer period cannot be confirmed. The results show an earlier onset of convection and cloud generation, likely triggered by a shift in evapotranspiration timing when dominated by evaporation. Consequently, precipitation starts earlier and clouds decrease the incoming solar radiation. In summary, the changes in surface properties by pasture degradation found on the highland have a significant influence on larger scales.

  7. Decentralizing Governance of Agropastoral Systems in Kyrgyzstan: An Assessment of Recent Pasture Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyldyz Shigaeva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Agropastoral systems in Kyrgyzstan have undergone dramatic change in recent decades. In large part, change has resulted from the introduction of legislation that devolves authority and responsibility for the management of common-pool agropastoral resources to community-level pasture users associations. By applying Ostrom’s principles of common resource governance, this paper analyzes the institutions and norms that currently shape local management practices in rural areas of Naryn Province in Kyrgyzstan and the views of different actors on pasture governance, including points of disagreement. Our research and analysis reveal that the community-initiated and -owned systems of pasture governance that were expected to develop and mature under the new Pasture Law have not yet been entirely realized. Decentralization occurred without the participation or awareness of most local resource users. As a consequence, users are creating and reinforcing their own community-defined practices and internal rules, leaving official management plans largely ignored and unenforced. Resource users tend to perceive the government-sanctioned pasture users associations not as public or democratic organizations that represent their interests, but rather as agencies that aim primarily to control the use of resources, exclude some people from decision-making, or impose taxation. Sustainable management of pasturelands therefore may best be served when community perspectives are more suitably integrated—from the planning phase through to collaborative governance and implementation of locally agreed upon management options.

  8. Carbon turnover in two soils with contrasting mineralogy under long-term maize and pasture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfitt, R.L.; Parshotam, A.; Salt, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Total organic carbon (C) and natural 13 C abundance were measured in adjacent allophanic soils (Andisols) and non-allophanic soils (Inceptisols) under maize (Zea mays L.) and ryegrass pasture (Lolium perenne L.) to assess the C turnover rate in soils of contrasting mineralogy and specific surface area. The allophanic soil contained more total C than the non-allophanic soil (139v.101t C/ha in the upper 0-35 cm) but neither soil showed a significant difference in C content between pasture and maize, provided maize residue was retained and incorporated. The gross annual inputs under maize and pasture were both estimated to be about 9 t C/ha, consistent with the similar soil total C contents. Since the soil total C content did not appear to change with time, the gross C mineralisation was about 9 t C/ha each year. The proportion of old pasture C remaining in the soil after maize cropping for 25 years was about 78% in the allophanic soils and about 69% in the non-allophanic soils, reflecting the influence of both Al and allophane, with its high specific surface area, on the retention of old C. The maize C retained in 25 years was similar in both the allophanic soil and the non-allophanic soil (29 t/ha). Therefore, the higher total C content of the allophanic soil would appear to arise from stabilisation of old pasture and forest C by Al and allophane. Copyright (2002) CSIRO Publishing

  9. [Claw size of Scottish Highland Cows after pasture and housing periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, K; Kolp, E; Braun, U; Weidmann, E; Hässig, M

    2014-09-01

    The claws of pastured Scottish Highland Cattle are large and this may raise the question if regular claw trimming is necessary. Therefore, the claws of the right thoracic and pelvic limbs were measured in 22 Scottish Highland cows 4 times 8 weeks apart. The cows were kept on various alpine pastures before the first measurement, on a two-hectare low-land pasture before the second measurement, in a welfare-compliant straw-bedded free stall before the third measurement and on alpine pasture before the fourth measurement. Housing conditions significantly affected claw dimensions. The claws were composed of dry, hard horn during pasture periods, and had prominent weight-bearing hoof-wall borders and soles with a natural axial slope. Long dorsal walls and heels and a greater symmetry were common. Claw lesions were absent. In contrast, free-stall housing was associated with shorter toes and steeper toe angles, but white line deterioration, heel horn erosion, wearing of the axial slope and hoof wall edges were common.

  10. Management of microbial contamination in storm runoff from California coastal dairy pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David J; Atwill, Edward R; Lennox, Michael S; Pereira, Maria D G; Miller, Woutrina A; Conrad, Patricia A; Tate, Kenneth W

    2010-01-01

    A survey of storm runoff fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) from working farm and ranch pastures is presented in conjunction with a survey of FCB in manure management systems (MMS). The cross-sectional survey of pasture runoff was conducted on 34 pastures on five different dairies over 2 yr under varying conditions of precipitation, slope, manure management, and use of conservation practices such as vegetative filter strips. The MMS cross-sectional survey consisted of samples collected during 1 yr on nine different dairies from six loafing barns, nine primary lagoons, 12 secondary lagoons, and six irrigation sample points. Pasture runoff samples were additionally analyzed for Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia duodenalis, whereby detectable concentrations occurred sporadically at higher FCB concentrations resulting in poor correlations with FCB. Prevalence of both parasites was lower relative to high-use areas studied simultaneously on these same farms. Application of manure to pastures more than 2 wk in advance of storm-associated runoff was related to a > or =80% reduction in FCB concentration and load compared to applications within 2 wk before a runoff event. For every 10 m of buffer length, a 24% reduction in FCB concentration was documented. A one-half (75%), one (90%), and two (99%) log10 reduction in manure FCB concentration was observed for manure holding times in MMS of approximately 20, 66, and 133 d, respectively. These results suggest that there are several management and conservation practices for working farms that may result in reduced FCB fluxes from agricultural operations.

  11. Community-based management: under what conditions do Sami pastoralists manage pastures sustainably?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera H Hausner

    Full Text Available Community-based management (CBM has been implemented in socio-ecological systems (SES worldwide. CBM has also been the prevailing policy in Sámi pastoral SES in Norway, but the outcomes tend to vary extensively among resource groups ("siidas". We asked why do some siidas self-organize to manage common pool resources sustainably and others do not? To answer this question we used a mixed methods approach. First, in the statistical analyses we analyzed the relationship between sustainability indicators and structural variables. We found that small winter pastures that are shared by few siidas were managed more sustainably than larger pastures. Seasonal siida stability, i.e., a low turnover of pastoralists working together throughout the year, and equality among herders, also contributed to more sustainable outcomes. Second, interviews were conducted in the five largest pastures to explain the relationships between the structural variables and sustainability. The pastoralists expressed a high level of agreement with respect to sustainable policies, but reported a low level of trust and cooperation among the siidas. The pastoralists requested siida tenures or clear rules and sanctioning mechanisms by an impartial authority rather than flexible organization or more autonomy for the siidas. The lack of nestedness in self-organization for managing pastures on larger scales, combined with the past economic policies, could explain why CBM is less sustainable on the largest winter pastures. We conclude that the scale mis-match between self-organization and the formal governance is a key condition for sustainability.

  12. Production and use of the pastures of the Colombia high Andean areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotero Cadavid, J.

    1993-01-01

    A relationship of the most common pastures is made in the Andean high area between the 2000 and 3000 m.s.n.m. and of their native vegetable associations, as well as of the invaders plants and overgrowths. The gramineae germoplasm and leguminous is indicated that has been proven lower those conditions. Data of yield average of dry matter are presented for native and introduced grasses of cold climate in Colombia. Equally it is indicated the daily earnings by animal, the load capacity and the animal production with different fertilization systems and some parameters of productivity are shown of gramineous and leguminous introduced in the high areas of Colombia. The nutritious value of gramineous and leguminous of cold climate and its chemical composition are made. A description is made of the ecological areas of the Andean high area and the pastures types that prevail in them. The factors are described that they impact in the degree of deterioration of the pastures like the environment, the same grass, the handling, the livestock, the type of exploitation, the holding of the earth and the administration. The agricultural production systems are mentioned that are associate the Andean pastures, as well as the main obstacles to increase the production of the systems and pastures and their possible solutions

  13. Productivity, utilization efficiency and sward targets for mixed pastures of marandugrass, forage peanut and tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the productivity and utilization efficiency of a mixed marandugrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Mandobi and tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides pasture, rotationally stocked at four daily forage allowance levels (6.6, 10.3, 14.3 and 17.9% of live weight, in order to define sward management targets for these mixtures. In each stocking cycle, dry matter (DM accumulation rates, defoliation intensity (%, grazing depth (% and grazed horizon (cm were evaluated. Sward targets were defined according to the sward condition that best conciliated the grass-legume balance and the equilibrium between forage production and utilization. Pastures submitted to higher forage allowance levels showed higher productivity, but were less efficiently utilized. It was not possible to establish sward management targets for marandugrass-tropical kudzu pastures. For marandugrass-forage peanut pastures the best sward state was set with forage allowance of 10.3% of live weight. Under rotational stocking, the following sward targets were suggested for these pastures in the Western Amazon: pre-grazing height of 30-35 cm (June to September or 45-50 cm (October to May and post-grazing sward height of 20-25 cm (June to September or 25-30 cm (October to May.

  14. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  15. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Santoso; Rengganis Fitriani

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawangg...

  16. Effect of pasture availability and genotype on welfare, immune function, performance and meat characteristics of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Mugnai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To analyse the effect of pasture availability and genotype on innate immunological status,morphological organisation of lymphoid follicles, behaviour, performance and carcass and meat characteristics, 80 growing rabbits (40 Leprino of Viterbo and 40 New Zealand White, NZW were reared in bicellular standard cages (control or in a wired pen, provided with an external grass pasture (pasture. Blood samples and behaviour observations (10 rabbits per group were performed at different ages (weaning, 49 and 89 d. At the end of the trial, 10 rabbits per group were slaughtered to study meat quality/composition and vermiform appendix structure. Leprino rabbits showed higher serum lysozyme values than NZW for all ages and rearing systems. Leprino rabbits showed the highest values in caged animals (29.6 and 32.4 mg/mL, respectively at 49 and 89 d of age, while NZW animals did so in the pen (2.2 and 0.00 g/mL, respectively at 49 and 89 d of age. Haemolytic Complement Assay increased with age in Leprino (43.7 vs. 48.6 and 51.2 μg/mL, respectively for cage and pen, but decreased in NZW (68.6 vs. 25.8 and 41.1 μg/mL, respectively for cage and pen. Plasma TBARs was always higher in Leprino rabbits (16.0 vs. 7.0 μmol malondialdehyde/L at 29 d of age; 17.9 vs. 8.0 μmol malondialdehyde/L at 49 d of age; 20.0 vs. 11.4 μmol malondialdehyde/L at 89 d of age, whereas plasma tocopherol showed an inverse trend (32.9 vs. 46.6 mg/L at 29 d of age; 32.5 vs. 44.4 mg/L at 49 d of age; 31.2 vs. 42.4 mg/L at 89 d of age. Mortality rate of Leprino rabbits was highest in the cage system, while mortality was highest in NZW housed in the pen. Productive performance, carcass traits and fatty acid composition of meat were strongly affected by genotype and rearing system. Regarding genotype effect, Leprino showed lower daily gains (31.9 and 29.6 vs. 44.2 and 40.0 g, respectively for cage and pen system, live (2563 and 2418 vs. 2902 and 2650, respectively for cage and pen system

  17. Quick Green Scan: A Methodology for Improving Green Performance in Terms of Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Kluczek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The heating sector has begun implementing technologies and practices to tackle the environmental and social–economic problems caused by their production process. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology, “the Quick-Green-Scan”, that caters for the need of quick assessment decision-makers to improve green manufacturing performance in companies that produce heating devices. The study uses a structured approach that integrates Life Cycle Assessment-based indicators, framework and linguistic scales (fuzzy numbers to evaluate the extent of greening of the enterprise. The evaluation criteria and indicators are closely related to the current state of technology, which can be improved. The proposed methodology has been created to answer the question whether a company acts on the opportunity to be green and whether these actions are contributing towards greening, maintaining the status quo or moving away from a green outcome. Results show that applying the proposed improvements in processes helps move the facility towards being a green enterprise. Moreover, the methodology, being particularly quick and simple, is a practical tool for benchmarking, not only in the heating industry, but also proves useful in providing comparisons for facility performance in other manufacturing sectors.

  18. Variation in density of cattle-visiting muscid flies between Danish inland pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    recorded, whilst the relative abundance and density of the species and the total fly-load varied considerably between pastures. In most cases the mean loads of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Hydrotaea irritans (Fall.) on heifers varied significantly in relation to site topography and shelter. These crude......The density of cattle-visiting flies (Muscidae) and the load of black-flies (Simulium spp.) were estimated in twelve and eighteen inland pastures in Denmark in 1984 and 1985 respectively. No differences in the geographical distribution pattern of the predominant cattle-visiting Muscidae were...... site variables explained 65-98% of the variation in densities of horn flies and sheep head flies observed between pastures. Highest densities of Hydrotaea irritans were primarily associated with permanent, low-lying, fairly sheltered grassland sites, whereas the density was low in temporary, dry, wind...

  19. Effect of pasture irrigation on the technical and management indicators of dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Moraes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pasture irrigation on the technical and management indicators of 20 demonstrative units participating in the “Balde Cheio” Program in the state of Rio de Janeiro from January to December 2011. The following variables were obtained: dam/labor ratio, herd size/labor ratio, milk yield/labor ratio, animals/production area, percentage of lactating cows, and milk yield. Return was analyzed considering gross margin, net margin, outcome (profit or loss, and profitability. The data were analyzed using the PASW 18.0 software. Pasture irrigation did not significantly alter the indicators studied. The greater profitability and return of farms using pasture irrigation were the consequence of better animal production rates/day and per ha/year. When gross margin, net margin and outcome using total revenue are considered, there is decapitalization of the farms. 

  20. Soil 137Cs activity in a tropical deciduous ecosystem under pasture conversion in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Oliva, F.; Maass, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil profiles of 137 Cs were measured in a tropical deciduous ecosystem under pasture conversion on the Pacific Coast of Mexico. Soil samples were taken from unperturbed forest, and from pasture plots following forest conversion. The average total 137 Cs areal activity of non-eroded forest sites indicated a base level of 5 315 ± 427 Bq m -2 . On average, total areal activity on hill-tops was significantly higher (range 10-47%) in the forest than in the pastures. A significant correlation was found between the total 137 Cs areal activity and soil organic matter content (r 2 = 0.16). This correlation can be explained by a soil physical-protection hypothesis. The redistribution of 137 Cs in the landscape is explained by soil erosion processes. (author)

  1. Determination of 90Sr Abundance in Different Kind of Pasture at PPTN Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyati; Murdahayu Makmur; Agus Gindo S

    2007-01-01

    The determination of 90 Sr abundance in the pasture grass around Serpong had been done. The aim of the research is to determine 90 Sr abundance in the pasture which could be used to estimate the dose received by human in food chain pathways. The mean of 90 Sr mean activities in pasture around PPTN Serpong is 14.14 ± 3.7 mBq/kg, this result is insignificantly different compared to its control (off-site), i.e. 14.18 ± 6.9 mBq/kg. Elephant grass (Penisettum Purpureum) has the highest abundance of 90 Sr which is 24.8 ± 15.6 mBq/kg, followed by teki grass (Setaria Spha Celata) and ilalang grass (Imperata Cylinrica) which are 14.9 ± 6.0 mBq/kg and 8.0 ± 4.8 mBq/kg, respectively. (author)

  2. Green Space Attachment and Health: A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; van Dijk, Terry; Tang, Jianjun; van den Berg, Agnes E

    2015-11-12

    The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents' emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The present research aimed to examine the links between self-reported health, attachment to green space, and the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Data were collected via paper-mailed surveys in two neighborhoods (n = 223) of a medium-sized Dutch city in the Netherlands. These neighborhoods differ in the perceived and objectively measured accessibility and usability of green spaces, but are matched in the physically available amount of urban green space, as well as in demographic and socio-economic status, and housing conditions. Four dimensions of green space attachment were identified through confirmatory factor analysis: place dependence, affective attachment, place identity and social bonding. The results show greater attachment to local green space and better self-reported mental health in the neighborhood with higher availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The two neighborhoods did not differ, however, in physical and general health. Structural Equation Modelling confirmed the neighborhood differences in green space attachment and mental health, and also revealed a positive path from green space attachment to mental health. These findings convey the message that we should make green places, instead of green spaces.

  3. Green Space Attachment and Health: A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents’ emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The present research aimed to examine the links between self-reported health, attachment to green space, and the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Data were collected via paper-mailed surveys in two neighborhoods (n = 223 of a medium-sized Dutch city in the Netherlands. These neighborhoods differ in the perceived and objectively measured accessibility and usability of green spaces, but are matched in the physically available amount of urban green space, as well as in demographic and socio-economic status, and housing conditions. Four dimensions of green space attachment were identified through confirmatory factor analysis: place dependence, affective attachment, place identity and social bonding. The results show greater attachment to local green space and better self-reported mental health in the neighborhood with higher availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The two neighborhoods did not differ, however, in physical and general health. Structural Equation Modelling confirmed the neighborhood differences in green space attachment and mental health, and also revealed a positive path from green space attachment to mental health. These findings convey the message that we should make green places, instead of green spaces.

  4. The transfer of radiocesium from pasture to milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, K.J.; Karlen, G.; Bertilsson, J.

    1991-01-01

    The deposition of radioactive material coming from the Chernobyl accident is very heterogeneous in Sweden as a result of heavy rainfall in late April 1986 in many parts. The ground deposition of 137 Cs and 134 Cs has been measured using an aircraft equipped with NaI-detector. When the deposition occurred the grass had just started to grow in the region around Gaevle. About 200 km north (around Sundsvall) the ground was still snowcovered. Interception of 137 Cs on growing green grass was therefore rather small in Sweden. (au)

  5. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  6. Residential Greenness and Birthweight in the State of Massachusetts, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin C. Fong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural vegetation, or greenness, may benefit maternal health and consequently, fetal growth, by providing opportunities for physical activity and psychological restoration, and decreasing detrimental environmental exposures. We retrieved Massachusetts Birth Registry data from 2001–2013 and investigated the association between residential greenness and birthweight in full-term births (≥37 weeks gestation. We calculated average residential greenness during pregnancy using 250 m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI from satellites. We estimated associations between greenness and continuous birthweight, term low birthweight (TLBW: <2500 g, and small for gestational age (SGA: <10th percentile of birthweight stratified by sex and gestational age adjusted for individual and neighborhood covariates and considered nonlinearity and effect modification. Higher greenness exposure was associated with higher birthweight with stronger associations in the lower than higher range of greenness. Greenness was associated with lower odds of TLBW (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97, 0.99 per 0.1 increase in NDVI and SGA (OR 0.98; 95% 0.97, 0.99 and associations varied by population density (TLBW and socioeconomic status (TLBW, SGA. Our results suggest that greenness is beneficial to fetal growth exhibited by higher birthweight and lower odds of TLBW and SGA. Unlike prior studies, associations with TLBW and SGA appeared stronger among those with higher socioeconomic status.

  7. Soil organic carbon in riparian forests, rice fields, and pastures in Piedras, Tolima, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Jair Andrade-Castañeda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in the interface between riparian forests and a matrix of rice fields and pastures with organic management. The study took place in Piedras, Tolima, Colombia. Two plots in production (rice and pasture were selected and SOC was estimated in these areas and in the edge and the interior of adjacent riparian forests at a depth of 0 to 20 cm. Bulk density and SOC concentration were quantified between May and July, 2013. Potential change in SOC storage due to land use change among rice fields, pastures, and riparian forests was estimated. The interfaces rice field-riparian forest and pasture-riparian forest stored an average of 65.6 and 61.3 t C/ha, respectively, with no statistical differences (p>0.05. Statistical differences were not detected (p>0.05 between agricultural matrices (rice fields and pastures in any of the variables. The sampling position (matrix and the edge and interior of forests had a significant impact (p<0.05 just in bulk density: 1.7 vs 1.1 vs 1.0 g/cm3 in interior and edge of the riparian forests and the matrix, respectively. SOC was not statistically affected (p>0.05 by the position in the riparian forest-matrix interface. Conversion from riparian forests to rice fields or pastures with organic management is not emitting greenhouse gases, on the contrary, it is increasing SOC in 3.2 t C/ha. 

  8. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  9. Floristic and phytosociology of weeds in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaílson Penha Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge of weed floristic composition and phytosociology are key factors for improving weed management in pastures. Information on weed species that occur in pastures in Northeast Brazil, particularly in Maranhão State is very limited. It is, therefore, important, to search for information to help farmers to control weeds in livestock farming. This paper describes the weed flora diversity and community structure parameters, including density, frequency, abundance and importance value for each weed species found in five pastures of same age and management in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil. The weed survey was carried out using a wooden frame (80 cm x 30 cm placed randomly on the soil surface 30 times in each pasture (n = 150. Weeds were pulled out, separated by species and counted. The weed flora was represented by 996 individuals, from nine families, 15 genera and 19 species. Weed density within pastures was of 44.3 plants m-2. The weed flora was dominated by species of the Cyperaceae and Poaceae families. The most important weed species based on Importance Value were Eragrostis ciliaris (IV = 32.97, Cyperus rotundus (IV = 31,95, Cyperus luzulae (IV = 27,50, Cyperus sphacelatus (IV = 27,42, Pycreus lanceolatus (IV = 27,33 Cyperus haspan (IV = 25,72 and Eleusine indica (IV = 23,49. Weed diversity, based on Shannon Diversity Index was very high (H' = 4.37 nats ind-1. Our results could lead to improved weed management in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil.

  10. Nitrogen partitioning and milk production of dairy cows grazing simple and diverse pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totty, V K; Greenwood, S L; Bryant, R H; Edwards, G R

    2013-01-01

    Research was conducted to examine the effects of a diverse pasture mix on dry matter intake, milk yield, and N partitioning of lactating dairy cows. A pasture containing only ryegrass and white clover (RG), or high-sugar ryegrass and white clover (HS), was compared with a diverse pasture mix (HSD) including chicory, plantain, lotus, high-sugar ryegrass, and white clover. The experiment was conducted over a 10-d period using 3 groups of 12 cows in late lactation. No difference was observed in dry matter (14.3 kg of dry matter/cow per day) or N (583 g of N/cow per day) intake between treatments. The cows grazing the HSD pasture had an increased milk yield (16.9 kg/d) compared with those grazing the simple RG and HS pastures (15.2 and 14.7 kg/d, respectively). However, no differences were observed in milk solids yield for the 3 treatments. A tendency toward greater milk protein yields in the HSD group resulted in improved N use efficiency for milk of 20.4% from the cows fed HSD, compared with 17.8 and 16.7% from cows in the RG and HS treatments, respectively. Urinary N excretion was lower from the cows fed HSD, at 353.8 g/d, compared with 438.3 and 426.6 g/d for cows fed RG and HS, respectively. These results suggest that the use of pastures containing chicory, lotus, and plantain can contribute to the goal of reducing N losses from cows in late lactation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Greening the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  12. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  13. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  14. Green for rarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raal, F.A.; Robinson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Green diamonds once recovered from Witwatersrand gold/uranium deposits, are now a thing of the past with the modernisation of extraction metallurgy methods. The green colouration has been shown to be due to radiation from uranium present in the ore

  15. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  16. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  17. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  18. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  19. The role of rodents in the seed fate of a thorny shrub in an ancient wood pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, Jeroen; Smit, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Thorny shrubs play a crucial role for the diversity and dynamics in wood pastures: they protect non-defended plants from large herbivores and thus facilitate tree establishment in the landscape through associational resistance. How thorny shrubs themselves establish in wood pastures - the main

  20. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  1. Data to calculate emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. McAuliffe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern about environmental burdens originating from livestock production, the importance of farming system evaluation has never been greater. In order to form a basis for trade-off analysis of pasture-based cattle production systems, liveweight data from 90 Charolais × Hereford-Friesian calves were collected at a high temporal resolution at the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP in Devon, UK. These data were then applied to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC modelling framework to estimate on-farm methane emissions under three different pasture management strategies, completing a foreground dataset required to calculate emissions intensity of individual beef cattle.

  2. Factors associated with the financial performance of spring-calving, pasture-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom, G; Horan, B; Berry, D P; Roche, J R

    2015-05-01

    As land becomes a limiting resource for pasture-based dairy farming, the inclusion of purchased supplementary feeds to increase milk production per cow (through greater dry matter intake) and per hectare (through increased stocking rate) is often proposed as a strategy to increase profitability. Although a plausible proposition, virtually no analysis has been done on the effect of such intensification on the profitability of commercial pasture-based dairy farm businesses. The objective of this study was to characterize the average physical and financial performance of dairy systems differing in the proportion of the cow's diet coming from grazed pasture versus purchased supplementary feeds over 4 yr, while accounting for any interaction with geographic region. Physical, genetic, and financial performance data from 1,561 seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy farms in Ireland were available between the years 2008 and 2011; data from some herds were available for more than 1 yr of the 4-yr study period, providing data from 2,759 dairy farm-years. The data set was divided into geographic regions, based on latitude, rainfall, and soil characteristics that relate to drainage; these factors influence the length of the pasture growth season and the timing of turnout to pasture in spring and rehousing in autumn. Farms were also categorized by the quantity of feed purchased; farms in which cows received 30% of their annual feed requirements from purchased feed were considered to be categories representative of increasing levels of system intensification. Geographic region was associated with differences in grazing days, pasture harvested per hectare, milk production per cow and per hectare, and farm profitability. Farms in regions with longer grazing seasons harvested a greater amount of pasture [an additional 19kg of dry matter (DM)/ha per grazing day per hectare], and greater pasture harvested was associated with increased milk component yield per hectare (58.4kg of fat

  3. Rationally Managed Pastures Stock More Carbon than No-Tillage Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizumi L. S. Seó

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant share of Greenhouse Gases (GHG produced from agriculture comes from cattle farming. The reduction in GHG emissions from ruminants fed with grains has led some researchers to recommend such a diet as a means of mitigating emissions in the sector. A more accurate balance of emissions, however, must include the carbon (C stocked by feed crops. Within the grain production system, no-tillage (NT cultivation systems have a greater capacity to increase and store soil organic carbon (SOC. Within grazing management systems, the rotation used in Voisin's Rational Grazing (VRG allows the accumulation of SOC through root growth. The objective of this study was to assess the C stock of pasture under VRG and compare soil C stock between VRG pasture and fields under no-tillage management, in two seasons over a period of 1 year. The study included five dairy farms in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In each property, we collected soil to quantify SOC from VRG pasture and NT fields, in summer and winter. In the pasture, to determine the total stock, we also collected samples from the aerial parts of plants and the roots. Further, we estimated how efficient would be producing milk from those pastures or from those crops. The VRG pasture showed a greater capacity to stock C in the soil than the no-tillage fields (VRG = 115.0 Mg C ha−1; NT = 92.5 Mg C ha−1; p < 0.00009, with the greatest difference at a depth of 0–10 cm (VRG = 41 Mg C ha−1; NT = 32 Mg C ha−1; p < 0.00008. In VRG, 95% of C was in the soil, 1% in the aerial part of plants, and 4% in the roots. On pasture was produced 0.15 kg of milk.kg−1 of C stored, and on NT system 0.13 kg of milk.kg−1 of C stored. In this study, we conclude that independent of season, the soil in well managed pastures had a greater stock of C, produced more milk and produced more milk.kg−1 of stored C than fields under NT management. Therefore, when comparing GHG emissions of ruminants with different

  4. Transfer of iodine-131 from deposition-to-milk : estimation of pasture intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Bouville, A.; Wachholz, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    In assessments of radiological transport of I-131 from fallout deposition to cow's milk, knowledge of the fraction of the dairy cow's diet that is due to fresh pasture is essential because it is the only portion of the feed that may be contaminated to a substantial extent. For studies involving past fallout events covering large geographic areas, such as the current effort by the National Cancer Institute to assess the exposure to I-131 received by the American people during the Nevada Test Site atmospheric weapons tests conducted during the 1950's, it is necessary to derive this estimate of pasture consumption from past records

  5. Transfer of 131I and sup(95m)Tc from pasture to goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the behaviour of 131 I (Tsub(1/2)=8.0d) and sup(95m)Tc (Tsub(1/2)=61d), which were sprayed on to pasture that was subsequently grazed by a herd of dairy goats. The transfer of 131 I to goats milk was about 5600 times more than that of sup(95m)Tc after 5 d of grazing contaminated pasture. Most of the difference appeared to be explained by a progressive immobilisation of technetium on vegetation, which occurred during the first few days of the experiment. (UK)

  6. Methods for assessing the impact of avermectins on the decomposer community of sheep pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K L

    1993-06-01

    This paper outlines methods which can be used in the field assessment of potentially toxic chemicals such as the avermectins. The procedures focus on measuring the effects of the drug on decomposer organisms and the nutrient cycling process in pastures grazed by sheep. Measurements of decomposer activity are described along with methods for determining dry and organic matter loss and mineral loss from dung to the underlying soil. Sampling methods for both micro- and macro-invertebrates are discussed along with determination of the percentage infection of plant roots with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. An integrated sampling unit for assessing the ecotoxicity of ivermectin in pastures grazed by sheep is presented.

  7. Contamination dynamics in fallouts, pasturable vegetation and milk in Leningrad distrist after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedbaevskaya, N.A.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Blinova, L.D.; Kryshev, I.I.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation monitoring of individual elements of agroecosystem in the area of the Leningrad NPP is carried out with the purpose of studying the concentration dynamics of radioisotopes in the atmosphere resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. The γ-radiation dose rate on the terrain, content and radionuclide composition of atmospheric fallout, content of γ-emitting isotopes in the soil and plants at pastures is monitored from April up to September 1986; radioisotope content in cow milk by pasturing is determined

  8. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  9. Estrutura do capim-braquiária durante o diferimento da pastagem = Signalgrass structure during pasture deferment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o número de perfilhos, a massa de forragem e de seus componentes morfológicos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk durante o diferimento da pastagem. Os tratamentos foram quatro períodos de diferimento (18, 46, 74 e 121dias, a partir de 8/3/2004. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com duas repetições. Foram determinados os números de perfilhos vegetativos (PV, reprodutivos (PR e mortos (PM, bem como as massas de lâmina foliar verde (MLV, colmo verde (MCV e forragemmorta (MFM. Durante o período de diferimento houve redução no número de PV (de 1.491 para 944 perfilhos m-2. Os números de PR e PM não foram influenciados pelo período de diferimento e suas médias foram 211 e 456 perfilhos m-2, respectivamente. O período de diferimento causou incremento nas MCV (de 2.965 para 4.877 kg ha-1 de massa seca e MFM (2.324 para 4.823 kg ha-1 de massa seca, porém não influenciou a MLV (em média, 2.047 kg ha-1 de massa seca. Em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, o pasto de B. decumbens, adubado com nitrogênio e diferido no início de março, pode permanecer diferido por cerca de 70 dias para conciliar produção de forragem em quantidade com boa composição morfológica. This experiment was performed aiming to evaluate tiller population density, forage mass and its morphological components on pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. during deferment. The treatments encompassed four deferred grazing periods (18, 46, 74 and 121 days. Arandomized block design with two replications was used. The numbers of vegetative tillers (VT, reproductive tillers (RT and dead tillers (DT in the pasture were determined. The masses of green leaf blade (GLBM, dead stem (DSM and dead forage (DFM were alsodetermined. There was a reduction in the number of VT (from 1,491 to 944 tiller m-2 during the deferment period. RT and DT numbers were not influenced by the deferment periods. Their averages were

  10. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  11. Variabilidade espacial e temporal da vegetação em pastos de capim braquiária diferidos Spatial and temporal variability of vegetation on deferred signalgrass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a variabilidade espacial e temporal de características descritoras da condição de pastos diferidos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk (capim-braquiária. Os tratamentos consistiram de combinações dos períodos de diferimento da pastagem (73, 103, 131 e 163 dias com os períodos de pastejo (29, 57 e 85 dias. Utilizou-se esquema de parcelas subdivididas e delineamento em blocos casualizados com duas repetições. Foi determinada a dispersão dos valores de altura do pasto, altura da planta estendida e do índice de tombamento do pasto. A variabilidade espacial da altura do pasto aumentou de forma linear com o período de diferimento, porém não foi influenciada pelo período de pastejo. O coeficiente de variação da altura da planta estendida diminuiu linearmente em pastos submetidos aos maiores períodos de diferimento e não foi afetado pelo período de pastejo. A variabilidade do índice de tombamento, no entanto, apresentou resposta quadrática ao período de diferimento, com ponto de máximo correspondente ao coeficiente de variação de 38,25% aos 130 dias. Em pastagens diferidas por curto período (73 dias, ocorreu variação negativa do coeficiente de variação durante o período de pastejo. Pastos de capimbraquiária sob diferimento por longos períodos possuem maior variabilidade da altura do pasto e menor heterogeneidade da altura da planta estendida. Além do efeito temporal, ocorre grande variabilidade espacial nas pastagens de capim-braquiária diferidas.It was evaluated spatial and temporal variability of status descriptive characters of Brachiaria decumbens (signalgrass cv. Basilisk deferred pastures. Treatments consisted of combinations of pasture deferring periods (73, 103, 131 and 163 days with grazing periods (29, 57 and 85 days. Randomized block design with two repetitions and subdivided plots was used. It was determined the dispersion of pasture height (PH, stretched plant height (SPH and falling index

  12. Discrete state perturbation theory via Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinson, W.

    1975-01-01

    The exposition of stationary-state perturbation theory via the Green's function method in Goldberger and Watson's Collision Theory is reworked in a way that makes explicit its mathematical basis. It is stressed that the theory consists of the construction of, and manipulations on, a mathematical identity. The perturbation series fall out of the identity almost immediately. The logical status of the method is commented on

  13. Evaluation System and Implementation Countermeasure of Automobile Green Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Xie, Xinxin; Yan, Chaoyong

    2018-01-01

    Green maintenance research is in the beginning of our country, the work is being explored. Based on the existing research results at home and abroad, this paper learns and draws lessons from the experiences and lessons of foreign advanced countries and domestic advanced enterprises. In the face of the challenges brought by economic development and energy saving and emission reduction, this paper discusses the green maintenance theory and security system, And the research status of green maintenance content and system at home and abroad, through the deletion and selection of green maintenance index, through the AHP method to determine the green evaluation criteria, and the introduction of C equivalent evaluation system, the use of fuzzy synthesis Evaluation method to build a green maintenance evaluation model, and the actual validation, put forward the implementation of green maintenance feasibility programs and related security recommendations, vehicle maintenance enterprises to carry out green maintenance, improve business efficiency and reduce environmental management costs to provide theoretical basis. And to achieve effective reduction of environmental pollution, reduce maintenance costs of the target, a reasonable promotion of maintenance and environmental protection and sustainable development. Promote green maintenance from research to practice, from the laboratory to the maintenance of enterprises, from the pilot to the overall development and transformation.

  14. Recovery of soil physical properties by green manure, liming, gypsum and pasture and spontaneous native species¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina dos Santos Batista Bonini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate usage can degrade natural resources, particularly soils. More attention has been paid to practices aiming at the recovery of degraded soils in the last years, e.g, the use of organic fertilizers, liming and introduction of species adapted to adverse conditions. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the recovery of physical properties of a Red Latosol (Oxisol degraded by the construction of a hydroelectric power station. In the study area, a soil layer about 8m thick had been withdrawn by heavy machines leading not only to soil compaction, but resulting in high-degree degradation. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with nine treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of: 1- soil mobilization by tilling (to ensure the effect of mechanical mobilization in all treatments without planting, but growth of spontaneous vegetation; 2- Black velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy; 3- Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L. DC; 4- Liming + black velvet bean; 5-Liming + pigeonpea until 1994, when replaced by jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis; 6- Liming + gypsum + black velvet bean; 7- Liming + gypsum + pigeonpea until 1994, when replaced by jack bean; and two controls as reference: 8- Native Cerrado vegetation and 9- bare soil (no tilling and no planting, left under natural conditions and in this situation, without spontaneous vegetation. In treatments 1 through 7, the soil was tilled. Treatments were installed in 1992 and left unmanaged for seven years, until brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens was planted in all plots in 1999. Seventeen years after implantation, the properties soil macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, bulk density and aggregate stability were assessed in the previously described treatments in the soil layers 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m, and soil Penetration Resistance and soil moisture in 0.00-0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m. The plants were evaluated for: brachiaria dry matter and spontaneous growth of native tree species in the plots as of 2006. Results were analyzed by variance analysis and Tukey´s test at 5 % for mean comparison. In all treatments, except for the bare soil (no recovery measures, ongoing recovery of the degraded soil physical properties was observed. Macroporosity, soil bulk density and total porosity were good soil quality indicators. The occurrence of spontaneous native species indicated the soil recovery process. The best adapted species was Machaerium acutifolium Vogel, with the largest number of plants and most advanced development; the dry matter production of B. decumbens in recovering soil was similar to normal conditions, evidencing soil recovery.

  15. Selling the green dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the marketing and sales of energy generated from renewable energy sources. To purchase environmental energy in the USA, the consumer need do no more than tick a box on a sheet of paper. But, it is not just households that opt for green energy: businesses are also willing customers. A factor in the success in selling green energy to big business is that the retail price of wind power can be held constant over periods of several years, whereas fossil fuel prices can fluctuate wildly. Details of sources and sales of the top ten companies selling green energy are given

  16. Manufacturing Green Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Ooi, Can Seng

    2014-01-01

    In an increasingly global economy, being green, or having an environmentally sustainbale place brand, provides a competitive advantage. Singapore, long known as the ``garden city´´ has been a leader in green city imaging since the founding of the equatorial city-state, contributing, in large part...... to the city’s profile as the economic giant of Southeast Asia. Using a political ecology lens, the paper aims to uncover the contested socio-economic narratives of green city imaging by examining the evolution of the garden city branding scheme since Singapore’s independence in 1959. Results show...

  17. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  18. Sustainable green urban planning: the Green Credit Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The Green Credit Tool is evaluated as a method to quantify the value of green-spaces and to determine how these green-space-values can be replaced or compensated for within urban spatial planning projects. Design/methodology/approach – Amersfoort Local Municipality created the Green Credit

  19. Diversity of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Rojo, Maria Pilar; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Jandt, Ute; Bruelheide, Helge; Rodwell, John S.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Perrin, Philip M.; Kacki, Zygmunt; Willner, Wolfgang; Fernández-González, Federico; Chytrý, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Questions: Which are the main vegetation types of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe? What are the main environmental gradients that drive patterns of species composition? Is it possible to classify these grasslands to phytosociological alliances that reflect management

  20. The effects of altitude and harvest time on the feed value of extensive mountain pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukolova, Veronika; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Homolka, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four samples of Czech pasture forages were harvested in the region of Sumava National Park and the Protected Landscape Area from three different altitudes (650, 700 and 850 m above sea level). The samples were analysed for chemical composition, in vitro digestibilities and rumen degradabil...

  1. Soil Microbial Community Changes in Wooded Mountain Pastures due to Simulated Effects of Cattle Grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohler, F.; Hamelin, J.; Gillet, F.; Gobat, J.M.; Buttler, A.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of cattle activity on pastures can be subdivided into three categories of disturbances: herbage removal, dunging and trampling. The objective of this study was to assess separately or in combination the effect of these factors on the potential activities of soil microbial communities and

  2. Effect of tanniniferous food from Bauhinia pulchella on pasture contamination with gastrointestinal nematodes from goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Suzana G; Barros, Lilyan B G; Louvandini, Helder; Abdalla, Adibe L; Costa Junior, Livio M

    2016-02-24

    Tannin-rich plants have been examined as an alternative for controlling the gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. In vivo assays typically examine the anthelmintic activity in female fecundity and/or the adult worm burden, without considering other life-cycle stages or the impact on pasture contamination. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of tanniniferous food from Bauhinia pulchella in goats and the potential impact on pasture contamination with the infective larval stage of gastrointestinal nematodes. Sixteen cross breed Boer goats that were naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were fed tanniniferous concentrate from the leaves of B. pulchella and compared to a separate paddock of control animals without condensed tannin supplementation. A range of parasite characteristics were monitored throughout the 63 days of experimentation, including faecal egg count (FEC), egg hatching and relative numbers of hatched helminth larvae on herbage. Worm free tracer animals were used to assess the infective larval stage load of the contaminated pasture. The tanniniferous food did not reduce the combined FEC values, but egg hatching was significantly affected (p food from B. pulchella showed reduced contamination through infective larval stages. Tracer goats maintained in paddocks grazed with animals fed with tanniniferous food had lower numbers of Trichostrongylus colubriformis than did those in the control group (86 % reduction). Condensed tannin from B. pulchella showed anthelmintic activity, affected egg viability and reduced pasture contamination, which led to the reduced infection of the animals by T. colubriformis.

  3. Comparison of Vegetation Indices from Rpas and SENTINEL-2 Imagery for Detecting Permanent Pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piragnolo, M.; Lusiani, G.; Pirotti, F.

    2018-04-01

    Permanent pastures (PP) are defined as grasslands, which are not subjected to any tillage, but only to natural growth. They are important for local economies in the production of fodder and pastures (Ali et al. 2016). Under these definitions, a pasture is permanent when it is not under any crop-rotation, and its production is related to only irrigation, fertilization and mowing. Subsidy payments to landowners require monitoring activities to determine which sites can be considered PP. These activities are mainly done with visual field surveys by experienced personnel or lately also using remote sensing techniques. The regional agency for SPS subsidies, the Agenzia Veneta per i Pagamenti in Agricoltura (AVEPA) takes care of monitoring and control on behalf of the Veneto Region using remote sensing techniques. The investigation integrate temporal series of Sentinel-2 imagery with RPAS. Indeed, the testing area is specific region were the agricultural land is intensively cultivated for production of hay harvesting four times every year between May and October. The study goal of this study is to monitor vegetation presence and amount using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and the Normalized Difference Built Index (NDBI). The overall objective is to define for each index a set of thresholds to define if a pasture can be classified as PP or not and recognize the mowing.

  4. Forage production of grass-legume binary mixtures on Intermountain Western USA irrigated pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A well-managed irrigated pasture is optimized for forage production with the use of N fertilizer which incurs extra expense. The objective was to determine which binary grass-legume mixture and mixture planting ratio of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (TF), meadow brome (Bromus bieberstei...

  5. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture l. Suckling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture l. Suckling behaviour lona B. Stewart. and B.P. Louw. Department of Agricultural Development: Natal Region, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg,. 3200 Republic of South Africa. A.W. Lishman. Department of Animal Science and Poultry Science, University ol Natal, ...

  6. Productivity and nutritive quality of three brassica varieties for use in pasture-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassicas are gaining popularity among pasture-based livestock producers to extend grazing during the ‘summer slump’ and throughout the fall. A 2-yr study was conducted to compare biomass production and nutrient composition of ‘Barisca’ rapeseed (RAP; Brassica napus L.), ‘Inspiration’ canola (CAN; B...

  7. Varying pasture growth and commodity prices change the value of traits in sheep breeding objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Thompson, P.N.; Werf, van der J.H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Breeding programs for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system. Economic weights are commonly based on average conditions. In pasture based livestock production systems the cost of feed is an important profit driver, but

  8. Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

  9. Calibration and use of plate meter regressions for pasture mass estimation in an Appalachian silvopasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    A standardized plate meter for measuring pasture mass was calibrated at the Agroforestry Research and Demonstration Site in Blacksburg, VA, using six ungrazed plots of established tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae) overseeded with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata). Each plot was interplanted with b...

  10. Least limiting water range of Udox soil under degraded pastures on different sun-exposed faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Renato Ribeiro; Marciano da Costa, Liovando; Rodrigues de Assis, Igor; Santos, Danilo Andrade; Ruiz, Hugo Alberto; Guimarães, Lorena Abdalla de Oliveira Prata; Andrade, Felipe Vaz

    2017-07-01

    The efficient use of water is increasingly important and proper soil management, within the specificities of each region of the country, allows achieving greater efficiency. The South and Caparaó regions of Espírito Santo, Brazil are characterized by relief of `hill seas' with differences in the degree of pasture degradation due to sun exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the least limiting water range in Udox soil under degraded pastures with two faces of exposure to the sun and three pedoenvironments. In each pedoenvironment, namely Alegre, Celina, and Café, two areas were selected, one with exposure on the North/West face and the other on the South/East face. In each of these areas, undisturbed soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth to determine the least limiting water range. The exposed face of the pasture that received the highest solar incidence (North/West) presented the lowest values in least limiting water range. The least limiting water range proved to be a physical quality indicator for Udox soil under degraded pastures.

  11. Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Bødker, Rene; Enøe, Claes

    2012-01-01

    Bluetongue is a disease of ruminants which reached Denmark in 2007. We present a process-based stochastic simulation model of vector-borne diseases, where host animals are not confined to a central geographic farm coordinate, but can be distributed onto pasture areas. Furthermore vectors fly freely...

  12. COMPARISON OF VEGETATION INDICES FROM RPAS AND SENTINEL-2 IMAGERY FOR DETECTING PERMANENT PASTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piragnolo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Permanent pastures (PP are defined as grasslands, which are not subjected to any tillage, but only to natural growth. They are important for local economies in the production of fodder and pastures (Ali et al. 2016. Under these definitions, a pasture is permanent when it is not under any crop-rotation, and its production is related to only irrigation, fertilization and mowing. Subsidy payments to landowners require monitoring activities to determine which sites can be considered PP. These activities are mainly done with visual field surveys by experienced personnel or lately also using remote sensing techniques. The regional agency for SPS subsidies, the Agenzia Veneta per i Pagamenti in Agricoltura (AVEPA takes care of monitoring and control on behalf of the Veneto Region using remote sensing techniques. The investigation integrate temporal series of Sentinel-2 imagery with RPAS. Indeed, the testing area is specific region were the agricultural land is intensively cultivated for production of hay harvesting four times every year between May and October. The study goal of this study is to monitor vegetation presence and amount using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI, and the Normalized Difference Built Index (NDBI. The overall objective is to define for each index a set of thresholds to define if a pasture can be classified as PP or not and recognize the mowing.

  13. Effects of large herbivores on wood pasture dynamics in a European wetland system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, P.; Bokdam, J.; Sykora, K.V.; Berendse, F.

    2014-01-01

    Whether self-regulating large herbivores play a key role in the development of wood-pasture landscapes remains a crucial unanswered question for both ecological theory and nature conservation. We describe and analyse how a ‘partly self-regulating’ population of cattle, horses and red deer affected

  14. Simulating runoff from small grazed pasture watersheds located at North Appalachian Experimental Watershed in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff from grazing pasture lands can impact water quality in receiving streams if not well managed. Management consists of conservation practices to reduce runoff and pollutants transport. Simulation models have been effectively used to design and implement these conservation practices. The Agricul...

  15. Using NDVI to estimate carbon fluxes from small rotationally grazed pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data have been extensively used for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) and yield of grazing lands throughout the world. However, the usefulness of satellite-based images for monitoring rotationally-grazed pastures in the northea...

  16. CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND PLANT COMMUNITY DYNAMICS FOLLOWING REFORESTATION OF TROPICAL PASTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WHENDEE L. SILVER; LARA M. KUEPPERS; ARIEL E. LUGO; REBECCA OSTERTAG; VIRGINIA MATZEK

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of abandoned cattle pastures to secondary forests and plantations in the tropics has been proposed as a means to increase rates of carbon (C) sequestration from the atmosphere and enhance local biodiversity. We used a long-term tropical reforestation project (55–61 yr) to estimate rates of above- and belowground C sequestration and to investigate the impact...

  17. Salmonella enterica isolates from pasture-raised poultry exhibit antimicrobial resistance and class I integrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, S N; Hanning, I; Han, J; Nayak, R; Clement, A R; Wooming, A; Hererra, P; Jones, F T; Foley, S L; Ricke, S C

    2010-12-01

    While considerable foodborne pathogen research has been conducted on conventionally produced broilers and turkeys, few studies have focused on free-range (organic) or pastured poultry. The current surveillance study was designed to isolate, identify and genetically characterize Salmonella from pastured poultry farm environment and from retail samples. In this study, 59 isolates were collected from two pastured poultry farms (n = 164; pens, feed, water and insect traps) and retail carcasses (n = 36) from a local natural foods store and a local processing plant. All isolates were serotyped and analysed phenotypically (antimicrobial resistance profiles) and genotypically (DNA fingerprints, plasmid profiles and integron analysis). Salmonella enterica was detected using standard microbiological methods. Salmonella Kentucky was the most prevalent serotype detected from the sampled sources (53%), followed by Salmonella Enteritidis (24%), Bareilly (10%), Mbandaka (7%), Montevideo (5%) or Newport (2%). All isolates were resistant to sulfisoxazole and novobiocin, and the majority (40/59) possessed class I integrons shown by PCR detection. Each Salmonella serotype elicited a distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis fingerprint profile, and unique differences were observed among the serotypes.  The findings of this study show that Salmonella serotypes isolated from pasture-raised poultry exhibit antimicrobial resistance and class I integrons.  This study demonstrates that despite the cessation of antibiotic usage in poultry production, antibiotic resistant Salmonella may still be recovered from the environment and poultry products. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Breeding objectives for sheep should be customised depending on variation in pasture growth across years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Thompson, A.N.; Werf, van der J.H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding programmes for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system, which affect the response in each trait after selection. The profitability of sheep production systems is affected by changes in pasture growth as well as

  19. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  20. Genome Sequence of “Pedosphaera parvula” Ellin514, an Aerobic Verrucomicrobial Isolate from Pasture Soil▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; van Passel, Mark W. J.; Sangwan, Parveen; Palva, Airi; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Chertkov, Olga; Larimer, Frank W.; Land, Miriam L.; Hauser, Loren; Brettin, Thomas S.; Detter, John C.; Han, Shunsheng; de Vos, Willem M.; Janssen, Peter H.; Smidt, Hauke

    2011-01-01

    “Pedosphaera parvula” Ellin514 is an aerobically grown verrucomicrobial isolate from pasture soil. It is one of the few cultured representatives of subdivision 3 of the phylum Verrucomicrobia. Members of this group are widespread in terrestrial environments. PMID:21460084

  1. Projecting land use changes in the Neotropics: the geography of pasture expansion into forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, T.; Gerber, P.; Verburg, P.H.; Rosales, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Steinfeld, H.

    2007-01-01

    In tropical Latin America, pasture land for extensive grazing continues to expand, mostly at the expense of forest cover. Until now, scientists and policy makers tackling this issue had no geographically exhaustive information at the continental level about the spatial dynamics of this process. On

  2. Economic and environmental issues associated with confinement and pasture-based dairy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk is produced in a continuum of dairy systems from full confinement to full pasture grazing. Climate, available feeds, and milk price: feed cost ratio influence the preferred system. All dairy systems have an environmental impact and inputs to maximise profit may lead to pollution levels unacce...

  3. Pasture-Based Swine Management: Behaviour and Performances of Growing-Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Fortina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A pasture-based swine management (PBSM trial was conducted in Piemonte (N-W Italy to study the performances and the carcass yield of 16 hybrid pigs (8 castrated males and 8 females; average initial weight: 90 kg. Animals were allowed to forage pea, clover, beet and alfalfa pastures for 170 days in a crop-pasture rotation on different paddocks. A concentrate was fed to supply 50% of estimated energy requirements. Forage dry matter intake (DMI ranged from 0.32 kg/day (alfalfa to 2.85 kg/day (pea, depending on the period and forage type. Pigs were weighted every 30 days and at slaughtering; average daily gain (ADG was 0.29 kg. The stocking rate (SR ranged from 109 kg/ha LW (clover to 2347 kg/ha LW (pea. Data collected at slaughtering (average final weight: 141 kg were: hot carcass weight and yield, lean and fat cuts weight, backfat thickness, pH45 and pH24. The statistical analysis (ANOVA of SPSS did not show differences between males and females. Results showed that PBSM should be especially appealing to limited-resource farmers due to low inputs needed; pasture can be used to replace 50% of the nutritional needs, helping to save on grain costs, without affecting carcass characteristics.

  4. Distributional patterns of fall armyworm parasitoids in a corn field and pasture field in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assessment of parasitoids and their selective patterns among Spodoptera frugiperda corn and rice host strains was performed from August 2008-August 2010 in a corn crop and a grass pasture in northern Florida under different seasonal conditions (spring and fall). Sentinel larvae from our laborator...

  5. INVESTMENT EFFECTS OF ENDOGENOUS AND EXOGENOUS DEPRECIATION: IMPROVED PASTURES IN URUGUAY

    OpenAIRE

    Ekboir, Javier M.; Jarvis, Lovell S.; Rey, Carlos

    1998-01-01

    The depreciation rate for capital assets may have endogenous and exogenous components. Change in the exogenous component depends on technological change and/or environmental factors, shifts the production function, and independently affects profitability and investment. Change in the endogenous component does not. These hypotheses are tested using data on Uruguayan grass-legume pastures.

  6. Concentrate Supplement Modifies the Feeding Behavior of Simmental Cows Grazing in Two High Mountain Pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanzin, Alberto; Corazzin, Mirco; Piasentier, Edi; Bovolenta, Stefano

    2018-05-16

    During grazing on Alpine pastures, the use of concentrates in dairy cows' diet leads to a reduction of the environmental sustainability of farms, and influences the selective pressure on some plant species. In order to minimize the use of concentrates, it is imperative to obtain data on the grazing behavior of cows. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of concentrate levels on the behavior of dairy cows during grazing. One hundred and ten lactating Italian Simmental cows, that sequentially grazed two pastures characterized by Poion alpinae (Poion) and Seslerion caeruleae (Seslerion) alliance, were considered. For each pasture, eight cows were selected and assigned to two groups: High and Low, supplemented with 4 kg/head/d, and 1 kg/head/d of concentrate respectively. Cows were equipped with a noseband pressure sensor and a pedometer (RumiWatch system, ITIN-HOCH GmbH) to assess grazing, ruminating, and walking behavior. In addition, the plant selection of the animals was assessed. On Poion, increased supplement intake caused a more intense selection of legumes, without affecting feeding and walking times. On Seslerion, grazing time was higher in Low than High. Grazing management in alpine region must take into account the great variability of pastures that largely differ from a floristic and nutritional point of view.

  7. Concentrate Supplement Modifies the Feeding Behavior of Simmental Cows Grazing in Two High Mountain Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Romanzin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available During grazing on Alpine pastures, the use of concentrates in dairy cows’ diet leads to a reduction of the environmental sustainability of farms, and influences the selective pressure on some plant species. In order to minimize the use of concentrates, it is imperative to obtain data on the grazing behavior of cows. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of concentrate levels on the behavior of dairy cows during grazing. One hundred and ten lactating Italian Simmental cows, that sequentially grazed two pastures characterized by Poion alpinae (Poion and Seslerion caeruleae (Seslerion alliance, were considered. For each pasture, eight cows were selected and assigned to two groups: High and Low, supplemented with 4 kg/head/d, and 1 kg/head/d of concentrate respectively. Cows were equipped with a noseband pressure sensor and a pedometer (RumiWatch system, ITIN-HOCH GmbH to assess grazing, ruminating, and walking behavior. In addition, the plant selection of the animals was assessed. On Poion, increased supplement intake caused a more intense selection of legumes, without affecting feeding and walking times. On Seslerion, grazing time was higher in Low than High. Grazing management in alpine region must take into account the great variability of pastures that largely differ from a floristic and nutritional point of view.

  8. Soil physical attributes in forms of sowing the annual winter pasture and intervals between grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton da Veiga

    Full Text Available The sowing of winter pastures in areas used for summer grain production and their management under direct cattle grazing can cause changes in soil physical attributes, whose intensity depends on the degree of soil mobilization, grazing interval, stocking rate and weather. To study these aspects it was conducted over four years an experiment in a randomized block with split plots design and four replications. In the main plots were applied two forms of sowing the annual winter pasture (direct seeding and seeding + harrowing and, in the subplots, four intervals between grazing (7, 14 and 28 days and ungrazed. Undisturbed soil cores were sampled at the end of each grazing cycle, in the 0-0.05 m layer to determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity and aggregate stability and in the layers of 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.15 and 0.15-0.20 m depth to determine bulk density and classes of soil pores. The direct seeding of annual winter pasture increases hydraulic conductivity and reduces soil bulk density in relation to seeding + harrowing while dairy cows trampling increases soil density and reduces macroporosity in the most superficial soil layer. The variation in climatic conditions among grazing cycles affects the soil physical attributes more markedly than forms of sowing and intervals between grazing of the annual winter pasture.

  9. Empirical Models to Quantify the Nutritive Value of Annual Pastures in South-West Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Gherardi, S.G.; Wood, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to quantify the magnitude of the major sources of variation, which affect in vitro digestibility (DMD) and concentrations of neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and crude protein (CP) of annual pastures in Mediterranean-type climate zones. Four

  10. Phosphorus, iron, and aluminum losses in runoff from a rotationally-grazed pasture in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastures can be a source of phosphorus (P) contributing to eutrophication and impairment of water resources. Phosphorus is tightly held in soils that are highly weathered, acidic, and with high iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) content like the Ultisols of southeastern USA. We used 11-yr (1999-2009) of da...

  11. Ammonia emissions from urea application to permanent pasture on a volcanic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere, deriving mainly from livestock urine and manures, but fertilizer applications to pastures and crops also represent an important source. In Chile, where agriculture and cattle production are important activities (accounting for 4.5% of GDP along with the forestry sector), there are very few published data regarding NH3 emissions from pasture and crop fertilization. This study aimed to provide the first empirical field data for Chile on N losses due to NH3 volatilization following urea application to permanent pasture on a volcanic soil and to assess the influence of environmental conditions on emissions. Four field experiments were carried out on a volcanic acid soil using the micrometeorological integrated horizontal flux (IHF) mass balance method. Measurements were made in winter 2005 and 2007, and spring 2007 and 2008 following urea N fertilization to a permanent pasture at a rate equivalent to 100 kg N ha-1. Cumulative NH3 emissions over the measurement period were 1.4 and 7.7 kg N ha-1 for winter applications, and 12.2 and 26.7 kg N ha-1 for spring dressings. These N losses due to NH3 volatilization are within the range of emissions reported elsewhere. Consideration of urea application timing in Chile, with regards to weather and soil conditions, could have important consequences on minimising potential N losses via volatilization with associated financial benefits to farmers.

  12. Assessment of the disc pasture meter on natural veld in the False ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of the standard disc pasture meter is found to be a reliable technique for estimating the yield of the densely tufted grass swards found in the False Thornveld of the Eastern Province. It compares favourably with traditional methods of yield estimation in the veld type and its attractiveness lies in the rapidity with which ...

  13. Estimating grass fuel loads with a disc pasture meter in the Kruger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports the results of a study conducted to assess the efficiency of a new calibration procedure for the disc pasture meter, used for estimating the fuel load available for combustion during fires; The major portion of the fuel load in the savanna areas comprises surface fuels in the form of the standing grass sward. The disc ...

  14. Soil structure and earthworm activity in an marine silt loam under pasture versus arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, A.G.; Pulleman, M.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural management influences soil organic matter (SOM) and earthworm activity which interact with soil structure. We aimed to describe the change in earthworm activity and related soil (micro)structure and SOM in a loamy Eutrodept as affected by permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable

  15. The role of pasture and soybean in deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barona, Elizabeth; Ramankutty, Navin; Coomes, Oliver T; Hyman, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon are complex. A growing debate considers the extent to which deforestation is a result of the expansion of the Brazilian soy industry. Most recent analyses suggest that deforestation is driven by the expansion of cattle ranching, rather than soy. Soy seems to be replacing previously deforested land and/or land previously under pasture. In this study, we use municipality-level statistics on agricultural and deforested areas across the Legal Amazon from 2000 to 2006 to examine the spatial patterns and statistical relationships between deforestation and changes in pasture and soybean areas. Our results support previous studies that showed that deforestation is predominantly a result of pasture expansion. However, we also find support for the hypothesis that an increase of soy in Mato Grosso has displaced pasture further north, leading to deforestation elsewhere. Although not conclusive, our findings suggest that the debate surrounding the drivers of Amazon deforestation is not over, and that indirect causal links between soy and deforestation may exist that need further exploration. Future research should examine more closely how interlinkages between land area, prices, and policies influence the relationship between soy and deforestation, in order to make a conclusive case for 'displacement deforestation'.

  16. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  17. Changes and continuity of wood-pastures in the lowland landscape in Czechia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forejt, Michal; Skalos, Jan; Pereponova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The term wood-pastures is usually applied to areas with trees or other woody vegetation, scattered through a mainly grazed grassland area, and reflects one of the oldest land use types in Europe, which plays important ecological, agricultural and socio-cultural roles. However, a rapid decline...

  18. Greenhouse gas balances of Frisian peat pastures. Long term effects of land use options.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Peat pastures in the Dutch province of Friesland emit high amounts of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, and CH4). These high emissions are the results of deep drainage of the peat for agricultural purposes and consequently oxidation of the peat. Other

  19. Carbon sequestration potential of grazed pasture depends on prior management history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazed pastures are often assumed to be net sinks for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and thus, are promoted as a management practice that can help mitigate climate change. The ability to serve as a C sink is especially pronounced following a history of tillage and row crop production. I...

  20. Yield and soil carbon sequestration in grazed pastures sown with two or five forage species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing plant species richness is often associated with an increase in productivity and associated ecosystem services such as soil C sequestration. In this paper we report on a nine-year experiment to evaluate the relative forage production and C sequestration potential of grazed pastures sown to...

  1. Soil organic matter dynamics after the conversion of arable land to pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Plicht, van der J.; Hassink, J.

    1999-01-01

    Conversion of arable land (maize) to pasture will affect the soil organic matter (SOM) content. Changes in the SOM content were studied using a size- and density-fractionation method and 13C analysis. Twenty-six years of maize cropping had resulted in a depletion of carbon stored in the

  2. Intake and ingestive behavior of goats on marandu-grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernando de Oliveira Macedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Marandu-grass (Brachiaria brizantha pasture height (30, 40, 50 and 60 cm on the canopy structural traits and grazing behavior and forageingestion process by goats. Six goats were used to evaluate behavior during grazing, and four were used to evaluate the ingestion process - all goats were Anglo-Nubian. The adopted experimental design was completely randomized, with two replicates in space and two replicates in time. Increase in the canopy height resulted in an increase in the masses of forage, leaves, stem, and dead material and tiller density, and reduction in leaf/stem ratio. Grazing time increased and idle time reduced as the canopy height was elevated. The correlation between canopy height and bite depth was positive and linear (r = 0.99. The mass of consumed forage, the intake rate, and the bite mass were higher at 60 cm. The correlation between pasture height and bite rate was negative, whereas the correlation between pasture height and the time per bite was positive. On Marandu-grass pastures, the greatest efficiency in forage harvesting by goats occurs at a canopy height of 60 cm.

  3. Invited review: Genetic considerations for various pasture-based dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, S P; Mullen, K A E

    2014-10-01

    Pasture-based dairy systems use grazing to supply significant percentages of the dry matter intake of cows and heifers. Such systems vary from those for which pasture is used only as a supplemental feed for cows primarily fed a total mixed ration to those for which pasture is the primary source of dry matter for the herd. Cows that are optimal in a pasture system share many general characteristics with cows that are appropriate for a nonpasture system, including feed efficiency, maintenance of body condition, reproductive fitness, udder health, longevity, and the ability to adapt to various management systems. However, in such divergent feeding systems, the relative importance of various traits can differ. In pasture systems where cow nutrient demand intentionally coincides with seasonal forage availability, the focus of selection has emphasized fertility and other fitness traits, as well as yields of milk or milk components. Breeds or strains with higher yields of protein and fat typically have advantages in grazing systems that supply milk to solids-based or cheese markets. Holstein cows with high percentages of North American ancestry can work well in grazing systems that include supplemental concentrates or partial mixed rations, particularly if calving intervals are less restrictive. Crossbred cows can be selected for use in specific grazing systems as well as for specific milk markets, with the added advantage of heterosis. Breeds and crosses with high fertility are important for seasonal breeding and calving. The ability of cattle to both milk and maintain sufficient body condition for reproduction is important for any dairy production system but is critical in a seasonal system. Dairy farms that depend on pasture for most of dry matter for cows typically have lower production per cow than nongrazing dairies but have the potential to be economically competitive because of lower operating and overhead costs. Although the principles of selection are similar

  4. Factors associated with profitability in pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, L; McHugh, N; Hennessy, T; Moran, B; Kearney, R; Wallace, M; Shalloo, L

    2018-06-01

    The global dairy industry needs to reappraise the systems of milk production that are operated at farm level with specific focus on enhancing technical efficiency and competitiveness of the sector. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with costs of production, profitability, and pasture use, and the effects of pasture use on financial performance of dairy farms using an internationally recognized representative database over an 8-yr period (2008 to 2015) on pasture-based systems. To examine the associated effects of several farm system and management variables on specific performance measures, a series of multiple regression models were developed. Factors evaluated included pasture use [kg of dry matter/ha and stocking rate (livestock units/ha)], grazing season length, breeding season length, milk recording, herd size, dairy farm size (ha), farmer age, discussion group membership, proportion of purchased feed, protein %, fat %, kg of milk fat and protein per cow, kg of milk fat and protein per hectare, and capital investment in machinery, livestock, and buildings. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated costs of production per hectare differed by year, geographical location, soil type, level of pasture use, proportion of purchased feed, protein %, kg of fat and protein per cow, dairy farm size, breeding season length, and capital investment in machinery, livestock, and buildings per cow. The results of the analysis revealed that farm net profit per hectare was associated with pasture use per hectare, year, location, soil type, grazing season length, proportion of purchased feed, protein %, kg of fat and protein per cow, dairy farm size, and capital investment in machinery and buildings per cow. Pasture use per hectare was associated with year, location, soil type, stocking rate, dairy farm size, fat %, protein %, kg of fat and protein per cow, farmer age, capital investment in machinery and buildings per cow, breeding season length

  5. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  6. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  7. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  8. Green certificates causing inconvenience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    From early 2002, producers of green energy in selected countries have been able to benefit from generous financial support in the Netherlands. Thus, there has been increased sale of green certificates from Norway and Sweden. But the condition that physical energy delivery should accompany the certificates has caused a marked rise in the price of energy in transit through Germany to the Netherlands. This article discusses the green certificate concept and the experience gained from the Netherlands. One conclusion is that if large-scale trade with green certificates is introduced in Europe without the condition of accompanying energy delivery, then producers of hydro-electric power in Norway and Sweden may be the losers

  9. Green space as classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Peter; Schipperijn, Jasper; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    More and more Danish teachers have started introducing curriculum-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly ‘outdoor school’ day for school children. This move towards schooling in non-classroom spaces presents a challenge for green space managers. Basic managerial knowledge related to what......, who, when and where has thus far only been supported by anecdotal evidence, but seems fundamental to the decision-making of a range of green space providers. The present study aims to describe, characterise and discuss outdoor teachers’ use, preferences and ecostrategies in relation to green space....... A nationwide survey was conducted among Danish teachers practising outdoor teaching (107 respondents), and it showed that a majority used and preferred forest areas. The outdoor teachers used mainly school grounds and local green space for their outdoor teaching with a majority using the same place or mostly...

  10. Green by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on the two sources of energy including green energy and gray energy. It discusses several facts which includes lower levels of greenhouse gases and conventional pollutants, relationship between economic incentives and underlying preferences and potential effects...

  11. Green Sturgeon Acoustic Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is used to hold tracking data for green sturgeon tagged in Central California. The data collection began in late 2002 and is ongoing.

  12. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  13. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  14. Decon Green (trademark)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Procell, Lawrence R; Henderson, Vikki D; Sorrick, David C; Hess, Zoe A; Gehring, David G; Brickhouse, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    ...; it affords the broad-spectrum decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. Composed entirely of ingredients commonly found in cosmetics, detergents, laundry boosters, and vitamins, Decon Green (trademark...

  15. Superfund Green Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  16. ADVANTAGES OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanshyam Das Soni

    2017-01-01

    Technology is application of knowledge to practical requirements. Green technologies encompass various aspects of technology which help us reduce the human impact on the environment and create ways of sustainable development. Social equitability, economic feasibility and sustainability are the key parameters for green technologies. Today the environment is racing towards the tipping point at which we would have done permanent irreversible damage to the planet earth. Our current actions are pu...

  17. Genomic and metabolic characterisation of alkaloid biosynthesis by asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes of tall fescue pasture grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Piyumi N; Kaur, Jatinder; Tian, Pei; Rochfort, Simone J; Guthridge, Kathryn M; Sawbridge, Timothy I; Spangenberg, German C; Forster, John W

    2017-06-01

    Symbiotic associations between tall fescue grasses and asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes exhibit biosynthesis of alkaloid compounds causing both beneficial and detrimental effects. Candidate novel endophytes with favourable chemotypic profiles have been identified in germplasm collections by screening for genetic diversity, followed by metabolite profile analysis in endogenous genetic backgrounds. A subset of candidates was subjected to genome survey sequencing to detect the presence or absence and structural status of known genes for biosynthesis of the major alkaloid classes. The capacity to produce specific metabolites was directly predictable from metabolic data. In addition, study of duplicated gene structure in heteroploid genomic constitutions provided further evidence for the origin of such endophytes. Selected strains were inoculated into meristem-derived callus cultures from specific tall fescue genotypes to perform isogenic comparisons of alkaloid profile in different host backgrounds, revealing evidence for host-specific quantitative control of metabolite production, consistent with previous studies. Certain strains were capable of both inoculation and formation of longer-term associations with a nonhost species, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Discovery and primary characterisation of novel endophytes by DNA analysis, followed by confirmatory metabolic studies, offers improvements of speed and efficiency and hence accelerated deployment in pasture grass improvement programs.

  18. Constructed wetland attenuation of nitrogen exported in subsurface drainage from irrigated and rain-fed dairy pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, C C; Nguyen, M L; Sukias, J P S

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen removal performance is reported for constructed wetlands treating subsurface drainage from irrigated and rain-fed dairy pastures in North Island, New Zealand. Flow-proportional sampling of inflow and outflow concentrations were combined with continuous flow records to calculate mass balances for the wetlands. Drainage flows from the irrigated catchment were 2.5-4 fold higher and N exports up to 5 fold higher per unit area than for the rain-fed catchment. Hydraulic and associated N loadings to the wetlands were highly pulsed, associated with rainfall, soil water status, and irrigation events. Transient pulses of organic nitrogen were an important form of N loss from the rain-fed landscape in the first year, and were very effectively removed in the wetland (> 90%). Median nitrate concentrations of approximately 10 g m(-3) in the drainage inflows were reduced by 15-67% during passage through the wetlands and annual nitrate-N loads by 16-61% (38-31 7 g N m(-2)y(-1)). Generation in the wetlands of net ammoniacal-N and organic-N (irrigated site) partially negated reduction in nitrate-N loads. The results show that constructed wetlands comprising 1-2% of catchment area can provide moderate reductions in TN export via pastoral drainage, but performance is markedly influenced by variations in seasonal loading and establishment/maturation factors.

  19. Water and nitrogen in crop and pasture systems in southern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, J.F.; Peoples, M.B.; Herwaarden, A.F. van

    1998-01-01

    Recent research on water and N for dryland crops in southern Australia has addressed the need for more efficient and sustainable production. Water-use efficiency is well below the potential and N-use efficiency well below optimum on farms. Excess water and N cause on-site and off-site environmental damage. The most effective means of illustrating these inefficiencies to growers is to present simple benchmarks of water and N-use efficiencies with which farmers can assess and improve the performance of their own crops. The practices shown by our recent research that best support the goals of more efficient and sustainable production are those that maximize extraction of soil water and mineral N, and increase biological N 2 fixation. Wheat growing after a brassica break-crop extract more water and mineral N from the soil than when grown as a continuous cereal, apparently because of a 'biofumigation' effect that reduces the numbers of soil-borne pathogens of wheat and produces a stronger root system. In the case of phased pasture-crop systems, annual pastures do not fully extract subsoil water or mineral N. However, when the grasses are removed from annual pastures with a selective herbicide, the remaining pure clover rapidly decomposes after maturity, leaving a large amount of mineral N for the following crop. Perennial pastures containing lucerne produce more forage and fix more N 2 than do annual pastures, but they dry the soil profile. After removal of the lucerne, the soil may be so dry that mineralization is slow, with the risk of water deficit for the subsequent crop. (author)

  20. Detecting Dewatering of Peatland Pastures Using Sentinel-1 Satellite Radar Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuff, F.; Samiei-Esfahany, S.; van Leijen, F. J.; Hanssen, R. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Netherlands are famous for their polders and the draining of soils to be used as pastures. Around 30% of the pastures are situated on peat soils, mostly in the western part of the Netherlands. Peat is composed of organic materials that oxidize and emit greenhouse gases when exposed to air. Oxidation of peat soils results in volume reduction and subsequent subsidence. As a result, the groundwater level rises relative to the surface. Consequently, the soil needs to be dewatered to keep it sufficiently dry for farming, resulting in more oxidation, and therefore more subsidence. This process is bound to continue until the peat soils have disappeared completely. The societal cost of land subsidence due to peat soils are estimated to be 5200 million euro for urban areas and 200 million euro for peatland pastures, for a period until 2050. Measuring the subsidence is not straightforward, if not impossible, with conventional geodetic means as soft soils make it impossible to install fixed benchmarks for repeated surveying. Also, due to the very fast temporal decorrelation over pastures, conventional InSAR approaches cannot measure a signal due to loss of coherence. Here we deploy a complete set of available SAR data from Sentinel-1, Radarsat-2 and TerraSAR-X to estimate the spatio-temporally varying subsidence signal due to the dewatering of peatland pastures over the western part of the Netherlands. We compute the InSAR coherence matrix for all possible interferometric combination, and compute an equivalent single-master stack to estimate the subsidence. Using terrain and land-use defined coherence estimation areas we optimize the phase estimation over areas severely affected by temporal decorrelation. This leads to a first estimate of deformation signals correlated with ancient shallow soil structures due to fluviatile structures. We use the methodology to investigate the effect of advanced local drainage schemes to slow down the subsidence phenomena.

  1. Distribution and Population Dynamics of Nematodes in a Rice Field and Pasture in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, C. C.; Dash, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    Ecological studies on soil nematodes were made in a tropical rice field and pasture. Parasitic species were more diversified in the pasture than in the rice field. Eighty-six and sixty percent of total nematodes occurred in the top 10 cm in rice field and pasture, respectively. Nematodes were not randomly or uniformly dispersed but aggregated. Parasitic forms were most abundant and correlated with root biomass in the 0-15-cm soil layer, the greatest number usually occurring at the 10-15-cm depth at both sites. In summer, however, they were densest at the 15-30-cm depth. Microbivores were most frequent in the top 5 cm of both sites. Micellaneous feeders (food sources uncertain) usually occurred in highest densities at the 15-30-cm depth. Predators showed no distinct depth preference. Temperature and moisture of the soil apparently played an important role in regulating nematode population. Peak densities of 31.3 × 10⁴/m² and 21.6 × 10⁴/m² at a 30-cm depth occurred in January, while minimum densities of 5.0-5.3 × 10⁴/m² and 4.1 × 10⁴/m² occurred in July-October and April in rice field and pasture, respectively. Monthly mean biomass of nematodes was 23.8 ± 4.5 mg/m² in rice field and 11.5 ± 1.5 mg/m² in pasture. PMID:19300801

  2. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  3. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon from changing pasture to an energy crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Duval

    Full Text Available Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L. is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46-76 Mg dry mass · ha(-1. Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq · m(-2 over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions.

  4. The GEOGLAM Rangelands and Pasture Productivity Activity: Recent Progress and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerschman, J. P.; Held, A. A.; Donohue, R. J.; Renzullo, L. J.; Sims, N.; Kerblat, F.; Grundy, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rangelands and pastures cover about a third of the world's land area and support livestock production which represents ~40% of global agricultural gross domestic product. The global consumption of animal protein shows a clear increasing trend, driven by both total population and per capita income increases, putting a growing pressure on the sustainability of grazing lands worldwide. Despite their relevance, rangelands have received less attention than croplands regarding global monitoring of the resource productivity and condition. The Rangelands and Pasture Productivity (RaPP) activity is a component within the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative established under the Group on Earth Observations (GEOGLAM) in 2013. GEOGLAM RaPP is aimed at providing the global community with the means to monitor the world's rangelands and pastures on a routine basis, and the capacity to produce animal protein in real-time, at global, regional and national levels. Since its launch two years ago GEOGLAM RAPP has made progress in the four implementation elements. These include: 1- the establishment of community of practice; 2- the development of a global monitoring system for rangeland condition; 3- the establishment of pilot sites in main rangeland systems for satellite data products validation and model testing; and 4- integration with livestock production models. Three international workshops have been held building the community of practice. A prototype monitoring system that provides global visualisations and querying capability of vegetation cover data and anomalies has been established. Pilot sites, mostly in areas with long records of field measurements of rangeland condition and productivity have been proposed for nine countries. The link to global livestock models, including physical and economic components, have been established. Future challenges for GEOGLAM RaPP have also been identified and include: better representation of the areas occupied by rangelands

  5. What is a green building?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreenegoor, R.C.P.; Krikke, T.; Mierlo, van B.P.; Pluijm, van der W.M.P.; Poortvliet, R.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2009-01-01

    What is a green building? A large amount of definitions and green rating tools prove that an exact definition is still a point of discussion. To research the differences between green rating tools, four different buildings are assessed with: EPN, BREEAM, LEED, GreenCalc+ and EcoQuantum. These tools

  6. Altitude, pasture type, and sheep breed affect bone metabolism and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in grazing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Helen; Leiber, Florian; Kohler, Martina; Kreuzer, Michael; Liesegang, Annette

    2013-05-15

    This study aimed to investigate the bone development of two mountain sheep breeds during natural summer grazing either in the lowlands or on different characteristic alpine pastures. Pasture types differed in topographic slope, plant species composition, general nutritional feeding value, Ca and P content, and Ca:P ratio of herbage. Twenty-seven Engadine sheep (ES) lambs and 27 Valaisian Black Nose sheep (VS) lambs were divided into four groups of 6 to 7 animals per breed and allocated to three contrasting alpine pasture types and one lowland pasture type. The lambs were slaughtered after 9 wk of experimental grazing. The steep alpine pastures in combination with a high (4.8) to very high (13.6) Ca:P ratio in the forage decreased total bone mineral content as measured in the middle of the left metatarsus of the lambs from both breeds, and cortical bone mineral content and cortical bone mineral density of ES lambs. Breed × pasture type interactions occurred in the development of total and cortical bone mineral content, and in cortical thickness, indicating that bone metabolism of different genotypes obviously profited differently from the varying conditions. An altitude effect occurred for 25-hydroxyvitamin D with notably higher serum concentrations on the three alpine sites, and a breed effect led to higher concentrations for ES than VS. Despite a high variance, there were pasture-type effects on serum markers of bone formation and resorption.

  7. Analysis of evapotranspiration and biomass in pastures with degradation indicatives in the Upper Tocantins River Basin, in Brazilian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Guimarães Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to apply the Simple Algorithm For Evapotranspiration Retrieving (SAFER with MODIS images together with meteorological data to analyze evapotranspiration (ET and biomass production (BIO according to indicative classes of pasture degradation in Upper Tocantins River Basin. Indicative classes of degraded pastures were obtained from the NDVI time-series (2002-2012. To estimate ET and BIO in each class, MODIS images and data from meteorological stations of the year 2012 were used. The results show that compared to not-degraded pastures, ET and BIO were different in pastures with moderate to strong degradation, mainly during water stress period. Therefore, changes in energy balance partition may occur according to the degradation levels, considering that those indicatives of degradation processes were identified in 24% of the planted pasture areas. In this context, ET and BIO estimates using remote sensing techniques can be a reliable indicator of forage availability, and large-scale aspects related to the degradation of pastures. It is expected that this knowledge may contribute to initiatives of public policies aimed at controlling the loss of production potential of pasture areas in the Upper Tocantins River Basin in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

  8. Hypoglycin A concentrations in seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus trees growing on atypical myopathy-affected and control pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, L; Nicholson, A; Jewitt, E M; Gerber, V; Hegeman, A; Sweetman, L; Valberg, S

    2014-01-01

    Hypoglycin A, found in seeds of Acer negundo, appears to cause seasonal pasture myopathy (SPM) in North America and is implicated in atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe. Acer negundo is uncommon in Europe. Thus, the potential source of hypoglycin A in Europe is unknown. We hypothesized that seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus were the source of hypoglycin A in Europe. Our objective was to determine the concentration of hypoglycin A in seeds of A. pseudoplatanus trees located in pastures where previous cases of AM had occurred. None. University of Berne records were searched to retrospectively identify 6 farms with 10 AM cases and 11 suspected AM deaths between 2007 and 2011. During October 2012, A. pseudoplatanus seeds were collected from 2 to 6 trees per pasture on 6 AM farms (7 pastures) from trees in or close to 2 pastures on 2 control farms where AM had not been previously reported. Hypoglycin A in seeds was analyzed by GC-MS. Acer pseudoplatanus trees were identified on all AM pastures. Hypoglycin A was detected in all A. pseudoplatanus seeds in highly variable concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 2.81 μg/mg (mean 0.69) on AM farms and 0.10 to 9.12 μg/mg (mean 1.59) on control farms. Preventing horses from grazing pastures containing A. pseudoplatanus seeds during late fall and early spring might be the best means to prevent AM. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Grazing management effects on sediment, phosphorus, and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarte, Kirk A; Russell, James R; Kovar, John L; Morrical, Daniel G; Ensley, Steven M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Cornick, Nancy A; Cho, Yong Il

    2011-01-01

    Erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. A 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (P), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. Six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central Iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (CSR), and rotational stocking (RS). Rainfall simulations on stream banks resulted in greater ( CSR pastures. Bovine enterovirus was shed by an average of 24.3% of cows during the study period and was collected in the runoff of 8.3 and 16.7% of runoff simulations on bare sites in CSU pastures in June and October of 2008, respectively, and from 8.3% of runoff simulations on vegetated sites in CSU pastures in April 2009. Fecal pathogens (bovine coronavirus [BCV], bovine rotavirus group A, and O157:H7) shed or detected in runoff were almost nonexistent; only BCV was detected in feces of one cow in August of 2008. Erosion of cut-banks was the greatest contributor of sediment and P loading to the stream; contributions from surface runoff and grazing animals were considerably less and were minimized by grazing management practices that reduced congregation of cattle by pasture streams. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positively affects green product development performance. In addition, our findings also indicate that the relationship between proactive green innovation and green product development performance is partially mediated by green creativity. Accordingly, green creativity plays a critical role for companies to achieve a great green product development performance. However, reactive green innovation does not significantly influence green creativity and green product development performance. Companies should develop proactive green innovation rather than reactive green innovation in order to enhance their green creativity and increase their product development performance.

  11. Effect of supplement level on herbage intake and feeding behaviour of Italian Brown cows grazing on Alpine pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Villa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Summer grazing of dairy cows on mountain pastures often leads to a fall in production or in body condition when the pasture is not adequately supplemented with concentrate feeds (Malossini et al., 1992; Bovolenta et al., 1998. An abundant use of concentrates may result into a reduction of herbage intake according to a substitution rate mechanism (Faverdin et al., 1991. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation level on herbage intake, milk yield and feeding behaviour (time spent grazing and ruminating of dairy cows at pasture, combining the use of an electronic bitemeter and a double marker method for the estimation of intake.

  12. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Recent work using radioactive nitrogen on the blue-green algae of paddy fields has been reviewed. These algae fix dinitrogen and photoassimilate carbon evolving oxygen, thereby augmenting nitrogen and carbon status of the soil and also providing oxygen to the water-logged rice paddies. Further studies using radioactive isotopes 13 N, 24 Na and 22 Na on their nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation pathways; regulation of nitrogenase, heterocysts production and sporulation and sodium transport and metabolism have been carried out and reported. The field application of blue green algae for N 2 fixation was found to increase the status of soil nitrogen and yield of paddy. (M.G.B.)

  13. Green Toxicology: a strategy for sustainable chemical and material development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sarah E; Hartung, Thomas; Hollert, Henner; Mathes, Björn; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Studer, Christoph; Krug, Harald F

    2017-01-01

    Green Toxicology refers to the application of predictive toxicology in the sustainable development and production of new less harmful materials and chemicals, subsequently reducing waste and exposure. Built upon the foundation of "Green Chemistry" and "Green Engineering", "Green Toxicology" aims to shape future manufacturing processes and safe synthesis of chemicals in terms of environmental and human health impacts. Being an integral part of Green Chemistry, the principles of Green Toxicology amplify the role of health-related aspects for the benefit of consumers and the environment, in addition to being economical for manufacturing companies. Due to the costly development and preparation of new materials and chemicals for market entry, it is no longer practical to ignore the safety and environmental status of new products during product development stages. However, this is only possible if toxicologists and chemists work together early on in the development of materials and chemicals to utilize safe design strategies and innovative in vitro and in silico tools. This paper discusses some of the most relevant aspects, advances and limitations of the emergence of Green Toxicology from the perspective of different industry and research groups. The integration of new testing methods and strategies in product development, testing and regulation stages are presented with examples of the application of in silico, omics and in vitro methods. Other tools for Green Toxicology, including the reduction of animal testing, alternative test methods, and read-across approaches are also discussed.

  14. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  15. Agricultural factors affecting the radionuclide foodchain pathway: green forage consumption of dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shor, R W; Fields, D E [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1980-08-01

    The fraction of feed obtained by dairy cows from green forage is important in calculating dose from /sup 131/I because of its short half-life (8 days). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission recommendations concerning feed consumption refer to experimental work done 15-20 years ago. The fact that the average milk production per cow has increased by 45% in the past 15 years suggested an accompanying increase in food intake and a need to reexamine the forage consumption parameters. In the present study records of the Dairy Herd Improvement Association were compared with experimental values and with recommendations by standard nutritional authorities. Results are presented in tables. As measurements of pasture consumption were not available an indirect estimate of green forage consumption was made using various assumptions which are discussed in detail.

  16. Green technology meets ecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Radošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying concept and principles of green chemistry into different technological processes, green technologies are developed. The environmental and economic benefits of “green” approach is achieved through several directions, such as the use of renewable raw materials, creation of economic efficiency, the use of alternative reaction conditions, as well as the application of non-conventional solvents. From the point view of green chemistry, alternative solvents, in order to be a “green“ substitution to hazardous organic solvents, should be: non-volatile, non-flammable, stabile, synthesized by an environmentally friendly procedure, nontoxic and biodegradable. The toxic impact of all newly synthesized chemicals, such as alternative solvents, could be determined by methods and techniques of ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology, an interdisciplinary scientific field, can serve as a way of monitoring the greenness of the processes. In vivo and in vitro experiments are used to study the effects of chemicals on different levels of organizations, from molecules to communities and ecosystem. The usage of in vitro methods is encouraged by a scientific community and regulatory agencies as an alternative to in vivo studies in order to reduce the number of laboratory animals used in the toxicological studies. Therefore, in this paper we gave a brief overview on the usage of animal cell cultures within the field of green chemistry and technology.

  17. Labelling it green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.; Brocklehurst, F. [ETSU, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The first two rounds of contracts awarded through the NFFO will expire in December 1998. These generators will then be looking for new contracts to supply renewable electricity. Since these projects were initiated the renewable energy market has grown steadily, but it is still mainly restricted to the protected market within NFFO. Consumer interest has grown steadily too, fuelled by the emergence of green energy supply companies. Market research has indicated that consumers would like the choice of green electricity, what remains unclear is if they would exercise this choice and to what extent they might pay a premium price for the privilege. From September 1998 the phased introduction of domestic sector franchise de-regulation commences. In principle, consumers can purchase their electricity from any supplier. This provides a golden opportunity for green generation. To make the most of this opportunity generators and suppliers will need to clearly explain to the public what their product is, how it is different and how everyone benefits from its use. A major marketing issue will be to provide assurance to the general public, that for example, they can indeed purchase energy from a windfarm in Wales, despite living in areas other than Wales. The DTI is assisting the expansion of the green market into the domestic sector via funding a project which plans to deliver an accreditation scheme in September 1998. This will provide a means of verifying the green claims of generators/supply companies. (Author)

  18. Arsenic distribution in a pasture area impacted by past mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Valle, P; Álvarez-Ayuso, E; Murciego, A; Muñoz-Centeno, L M; Alonso-Rojo, P; Villar-Alonso, P

    2018-01-01

    Former mine exploitations entail a serious threat to surrounding ecosystems as after closure of mining activities their unmanaged wastes can be a continuous source of toxic trace elements. Quite often these mine sites are found within agricultural farming areas, involving serious hazards as regards product (feed/food) quality. In this work a grazing land impacted by the abandoned mine exploitation of an arsenical deposit was studied so as to evaluate the fate of arsenic (As) and other trace elements and the potential risks involved. With this aim, profile soil samples (0-50cm) and pasture plant species (Agrostis truncatula, Holcus annus and Leontodon longirostris) were collected at different distances (0-100m) from the mine waste dump and analyzed for their trace element content and distribution. Likewise, plant trace element accumulation from impacted grazing soils and plant trace element translocation were assessed. The exposure of livestock grazing animals to As was also evaluated, establishing its acceptability regarding food safety and animal health. International soil guideline values for As in grazing land soils (50mgkg -1 ) resulted greatly exceeded (up to about 20-fold) in the studied mining-affected soils. Moreover, As showed a high mobilization potential under circumstances such as phosphate application or establishment of reducing conditions. Arsenic exhibited relatively high translocation factor (TF) values (up to 0.32-0.89) in pasture plant species, reaching unsafe concentrations in their above-ground tissues (up to 32.9, 16.9 and 9.0mgkg -1 in Agrostis truncatula, Leontodon longirostris and Holcus annus, respectively). Such concentrations represent an elevated risk of As transfer to the high trophic-chain levels as established by international legislation. The limited fraction of arsenite found in plant roots should play an important role in the relatively high As root-to-shoot translocation shown by these plant species. Both soil ingestion and

  19. Exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between air and a mixed pasture sward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jonathan L; Thomas, Gareth O; Bailey, Rebekah; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jones, Kevin C

    2004-07-15

    To improve understanding of air-to-vegetation transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), uptake and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between grass sward and air was investigated. Pasture swards were placed in fanned (2 m s(-1) wind speed) and unfanned conditions for a period of 20 days and sampled at intervals. Depuration was carried out after a short (4 days) and a long (14 days) exposure period. Prior to contamination, a mixed pasture sward at a semi-rural location contained sigmaPCN concentrations 15-20% of the sigmaPCB concentration. Uptake of both PCBs and PCNs was broadly linear in fanned and unfanned conditions over the 20-day period, i.e., the pasture did not reach equilibrium with the air. Uptake rates (fluxes) were greater under the fanned conditions. The difference in uptake rates between fanned and unfanned conditions increased with degree of chlorination for both PCBs and PCNs, ranging between a factor of 2 for tri-chlorinated PCBs and PCNs and a factor 5 for octa-chlorinated PCBs. Depuration results over the first hours were very scattered, showing an initial period of loss, followed by an increase in concentrations, possibly as a result of re-volatilization of PCBs from the soil in the trays, with consequent recapture by the overlying sward. Rapid clearance was observed over the following days, but depuration of PCBs and PCNs was still incomplete after 14 days, with 20% of the initial concentration of the sigmaPCBs and 10% of the sigmaPCNs retained by the sward. There was no difference in the proportion of POPs retained in the sward between the 4- and 14-day contamination treatments. POP-specific differences in the amount of compound "trapped" in leaves after contamination were observed. The results show that, although changes in the rate of air movement around a pasture have an effect on the uptake rate of POPs into the vegetation, plant-side resistance controls both the air-to-pasture and

  20. Trading green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out into the feasibility of developing an electricity trading mechanism which would allow consumers to purchase electricity which has been derived from renewable energy resources. This study was part funded by the European Commission (ALTENER), the Department of Trade and Industry and a number of private sector companies. The trading mechanism is known as the Green Pool. As a result of the findings of this study discussions are being held with potential generators and suppliers to establish a Green Pool plc. The aim is to encourage the development of new renewable energy projects outside the NFFO and SRO schemes. The Green Pool plc will be owned by the generators and its main objective will be to market the electricity produced by its members. (Author)

  1. Certified: green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, S.; Brown, L.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the energy industry in the USA may be a force favouring the environment but for the consumer it is something of a nightmare since there are so many options with respect to both price, service and environmental awareness. However, there is now a marked tendency for companies wishing to be seen as 'green' to favour environmentally aware suppliers. Indeed, some suppliers holding formal qualifications in 'greenness' believe they are justified in charging a premium for their energy. The question is asked 'what is green?' and the authors discuss the answers at some length: the hydro industry fares well in such a discussion. The authors (from Scientific Certification Systems) believe that certification provides a rational explanation of prices and why charging a premium may be justifiable.(UK)

  2. GREEN BANKING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the green banking in Romania, a new approach of conducting the banking business through considering the corporate social responsibility and environmental aspects. Nowadays, it is difficult to face the globalization and competition in order to asssure the implementation of the green banking practices. The aim of the present study is to identify corporations that have sustainability concerns. To achieve this objective, we set some hypothesis and after this we showed that the corporations are more likely to be included in the list of top banks in the world. Our study is relevant for future research in this area, because of the importance of such aspects in corporations nowadays.The conclusions of our study is that green banking practices in Romania is in an incipient stage

  3. Green Logistics Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  4. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...... and much in favour of industry. In fact, CO2 tax rates for industry are, on average, six times lower than those for households. We argue that the reason for this tax differentiation is that industry, in contrast to households, has a strong capability to lobby. Therefore, green taxation is effectively...... blocked and the desired environmental results are not being achieved. Why then is green taxation persistently applied in relation to industry? We argue that strong fiscal incentives drive this policy choice at the expense of environmental concerns because it allows environmental bureaucracies to budget-maximize....

  5. Recria de cordeiras em pastagem nativa melhorada submetida à fertilização nitrogenada: 1. Dinâmica da pastagem Rearing of lambs in improved native pasture submitted to nitrogen fertilization: 1. Pasture dynamic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Justin Carassai

    2008-08-01

    ídrico, a aplicação de nitrogênio não contribui para a expressão de resposta das características estudadas.It was evaluated the effect of nitrogen fertilization (100 and 200 kg/ha of N as urea on the components of forage production of an improved native pasture with 3.12 ha (paddocks - 0.52 ha. Control areas without application of N were used, using a complete block design with two replications. Paddocks were grazed by lambs in a continuous stocking and variable stocking rate to keep forage allowance of 16% LW. In spring of 2004, pasture was uniformly fertilized with 250 kg/ha of 5-20-20 and N doses were applied during experimental period (summer 2005. Total forage on offer and rate of forage disappearance were not affected by treatments nor the periods of evaluation. Total herbage mass diminished significantly with time and was affected by N doses as function of the accumulation verified prior to the experimental period. All other studied variables showed no significant effect of N due to water deficit. There was no herbage accumulation during the first part of experimental period and accumulation rate only became positive in the last half period. As consequence, herbage height and herbage mass diminished significantly with time. Green forage mass showed inverse behaviour in relation to dead material percentage. The quadratic response of this later component was initially characterized by high values that diminished by the final period with the reestablishment of normal rainfall. By this reason, the green forage allowance was very low and interacted in time with N doses. Volumetric density presented low values when compared to values previously observed in this kind of pasture. However, a tendency for higher values was verified at the end of the observations period. The herbage height and herbage mass presented high correlation (r = 0.87 indicating that herbage height can be a good estimator of herbage mass, in these conditions. In the situation of water deficit

  6. LBA-ECO ND-01 Forest and Pasture Soil and Grass Analyses, Rondonia, Brazil: 2003-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides soil physical and chemical properties, and grass nutrient measurements of samples collected from 17 pasture sites located within the state of...

  7. LBA-ECO ND-01 Forest and Pasture Soil and Grass Analyses, Rondonia, Brazil: 2003-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides soil physical and chemical properties, and grass nutrient measurements of samples collected from 17 pasture sites located within the...

  8. Planning Green Infrastructure as a Source of Urban and Regional Resilience – Towards Institutional Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina SCHIAPPACASSE; Bernhard MÜLLER

    2015-01-01

    Green infrastructure programmes and strategies are regarded as planning opportunities to promote sustainable and resilient urban development. However, the discourse about green infrastructure policy and its effectiveness has pointed to the limited success in practical implementation. Since the green infrastructure has no planning status in its own right, it depends on being embedded in comprehensive urban and regional planning approaches if it is to have an impact on sustainable and resilient...

  9. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  10. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  11. Green in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Calero Munoz, Coral

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book that presents a comprehensive overview of sustainability aspects in software engineering. Its format follows the structure of the SWEBOK and covers the key areas involved in the incorporation of green aspects in software engineering, encompassing topics from requirement elicitation to quality assurance and maintenance, while also considering professional practices and economic aspects. The book consists of thirteen chapters, which are structured in five parts. First the "Introduction" gives an overview of the primary general concepts related to Green IT, discussing wha

  12. Volatile compounds and sensory properties of Montasio cheese made from the milk of Simmental cows grazing on alpine pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovolenta, S; Romanzin, A; Corazzin, M; Spanghero, M; Aprea, E; Gasperi, F; Piasentier, E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the volatile compounds, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory properties of Montasio, a semicooked pressed cheese, produced from the milk of the dual-purpose Italian Simmental cows grazing on alpine pastures. A total of 72 cows grazing on 2 pastures, which differed in botanical composition (nutrient-rich pasture vs. nutrient-poor pasture), received 2 different levels of supplementation (3.0 vs 1.5 kg/head per day). The experimental cheeses were produced from whole, raw milk and ripened for 60 d. Sixty-one volatile compounds, including alcohols (11), aldehydes (6), ketones (10), lactones (2), esters (6), hydrocarbons (3), carboxylic acids (6), phenolic compounds (4), monoterpenes (7), sesquiterpenes (1), sulfur compounds (4), and amines (1), were detected. The main families in terms of relative weight appeared to be carboxylic acids, esters, and alcohols. A panel of trained assessors described the experimental cheeses as having an intense color; small and evenly distributed eyes; an intense odor and flavor of milk-sour, milk, and cow; and a tender and creamy texture. The pasture type affected the volatile fraction, particularly ketones, phenolic compounds, and terpenes, which are overall higher in nutrient-poor pastures. A slight effect on the sensory analyses, in particular the effect of the cow attribute on odor and flavor, was perceived by the panelists. The cheeses produced on nutrient-rich pasture had higher b* (yellowness) index. These results were consistent with the color evaluation of the sensory panel. In addition, the pasture affected some textural attributes (adhesivity, creaminess, and granules) as perceived by the panelists. Concentrate supplementation, which is required to meet the feeding requirements of grazing cows, had no clear effect on either the volatile compounds or the sensory properties of the cheeses. Thus, at least within levels of integration adopted, it is expected not to alter the organoleptic

  13. Desempenho de novilhos mantidos em pastagens de capim-elefante e capim-mombaça Performance of steers raised on pastures of Elephant and Mombasa grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Souza Garcia

    2011-02-01

    massa corporal foi de 850 g/dia e o ganho por área de 246 kg/ha durante o período experimental.The performance of steers raised on elephant and mombasa grass pastures was evaluated from October to December 2006. A rotational grazing system with a regulated forage offer was adopted. The experimental area consisted of two repetitions containing 18 0.25-ha paddocks divided into nine paddocks with elephant grass and nine with mombasa grass. Forage species, area repetition, the interaction among these effects, paddocks within the interaction, and the experimental error were the effects of the treatments. This model was used to analyze pasture attributes. For analyses of intake, digestibility and gain, 24 steers were randomly assigned to the respective interactions among forage vs. repetition vs. grazing system, totaling three animals per triple interaction. The grazing systems consisted of ad libitum (AL and restricted (PR grazing. Elephant-grass showed the highest total dry matter biomass (TB and green leaf dry matter biomass (GLDM. There were no differences among forage plants for production of biomass of green leaf dry matter; leaf proportion was the greatest in mombasa grass, however. Extrusas showed similar bromatological composition. Only crude protein intake, which was the highest for mombasa pasture, differed among forage plants. Ad libitum feeding enabled a higher intake of all nutrients from both pastures. Digestibility of nutrients was higher for elephant-grass but it did not differ among feeding levels: only crude protein content was the highest on pasture where grazing was restrict and gross energy content of pasture was higher for ad libitum grazing system. Despite qualitative and quantitative differences among forage plants, differences of weight gain per animal and per area were not found. For animal with ad libitum feeding, average body mass gain was 850 g/day and gain per area was 246 kg/ha during the experimental period.

  14. Pasture practices, milk distribution, and consumption in the continental U.S. in the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Bouville, A.; Wachholz, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    Determining the consumption of milk contaminated with 131I, resulting from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site, by the United States population during the 1950s constitutes one part of the methodology used by the National Cancer Institute to assess radiation exposures to Americans. In order to make these estimates for locations throughout the United States, it is necessary to determine the pasture intake by cows and the distribution of the milk produced for human consumption at times when the weapons were tested. Since the milk industry has undergone many changes during the past 35 y, historical records and information must be used. The methodology developed to estimate the intake of contaminated pasture by dairy cows, milk production, and milk distribution on a county basis for the continental U.S. during the 1950s is described in detail. The relevant data on milk consumption by humans are also discussed

  15. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (Pmeat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Sampling methods for pasture, soil and deposition for radioactivity emergency preparedness in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare sampling techniques for pasture, soil and deposition, planned for radioactivity surveillance in emergency situations in the Nordic countries. The basis of the survey was a questionnaire, sent to radiation protection authorities and laboratories. Sampling of pasture is performed with a cutting height between 1 and 5 cm above the ground from an area of about 1 m 2 . The sampling plots are usually randomly positioned. Soil samples, 3 to 20 cores in various patterns, are generally taken by a corer of varying diameter. For deposition sampling, precipitation collectors of different sizes are used. When comparing results, the differences between laboratories should be borne in mind so that proper corrections can be made. It is, however, important to consider that, especially in an emergency situation, the use of standardised methods may worsen the results if these methods are not part of the daily work. (orig.)

  17. Relationship between gross nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emission in grass-cliver pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    between 82 and 136 mu g N(2)O-N m(-2) d(-1), independent of pasture age. The (15)N labelling indicated that at least 50% of the N(2)O was derived from the soil NH(4)(+) pool, approaching 100% in June. In the two year old pasture the NH(4)(+) pool contributions to N(2)O emissions varied significantly...... with sampling time. Emission rates of N(2)O correlated positively with soil NH(4)(+) concentrations and the NH(4)(+) supply as expressed by gross mineralization. The N(2)O emissions showed a significant inverse relationship with soil NO(3)(-), but was not correlated with the supply of NO(3)(-) as expressed...

  18. Transfer of 131I and /sup 95m/Tc from pasture to goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Field measurements were made in 1983 on the transfer of 131 I and /sup 95m/Tc from spray-contaminated pasture to goat's milk. The transfer of 131 I to milk was similar to that used for mathematical models in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109, which was derived from stall-feeding experiments using capsulized doses. Compared to 131 I, the /sup 95m/Tc transferred to milk was about 5600 times less. The lower transfer resulted from both immobilization of technetium on pasture prior to ingestion as well as reduced gastrointestinal absorption. The results show that the food chain transfer of technetium to milk is much less than that previously expected based on inferences made from metabolism studies. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  19. CO2 and Carbon Balance of an Intensively Grazed Temperate Pasture: Response to Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, S.; Mudge, P. L.; Wallace, D.; Campbell, D.; Wall, A.; Hosking, C. L.; Schipper, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent soil resampling studies have shown that soils on flat land used for intensive dairy farming in New Zealand have lost large amounts of carbon (~1 t C ha-1y-1) over the past few decades, and the causes of these losses are poorly understood. One of the management practices potentially contributing to the C losses from these dairy soils is the periodic cultivation commonly associated with pasture renewal or the rotation through summer or winter crops. Here we report the results of three experiments aimed at quantifying the effect of cultivation as part of pasture renewal on the CO2 and C balances of permanent pastures. In the first experiment, the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of an intensively grazed dairy pasture was measured before, during and after cultivation using eddy covariance (EC) from 2008 to 2011 at a dairy farm in the Waikato region on the North Island of New Zealand. The net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) was determined by combining NEE data with measurements and estimates of other C imports (feed) and C exports (milk, methane, silage and leaching). The other two experiments took place on the same farm and monitored two different cultivation events in 2008. We made chamber measurements of soil CO2 losses between spraying and seedling emergence. One of the cultivations took place in summer 2008 during a drought, whereas the other took place in spring 2008 when soil water was not limiting. For the first two years of experiment 1 the site was under permanent pasture and it was a sink for both CO2 (1.6 and 2.3 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively) and C (0.59 and 0.90 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively), despite a severe drought in summer 2008 which had led to a loss of approximately 1.1 t C ha-1 as CO2 over the three summer months. Pasture renewal took place in March 2010 and CO2 losses during this event were approximately 1.7 t C ha-1. However, the site seemed to recover quickly and was a sink of CO2 at an annual time scale of

  20. Sward and milk production response to early turnout of dairy cows to pasture in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VIRKAJÄRVI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The timing of turnout is an important factor affecting the grazing management of dairy cows. However,its consequences are not well known in the short grazing season of northern Europe. Thus, the effect of the turnout date of dairy cows to pasture on sward regrowth, herbage mass production and milk production was studied in two experiments,1a grazing trial with 16 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and 2a plot trial where the treatments simulated the grazing trial.The treatments were early turnout (1 Juneand normal turnout (6 June.Early turnout decreased the annual herbage mass (HM production in the plot trial (P =0.005,but due to a higher average organic matter (OMdigestibility (P 0.05. Although early turnout had no effect on milk yields it meant easier management of pastures.;