WorldWideScience

Sample records for green oak township

  1. Red Oak Research and Demonstration Area in Phelps Township, North Bay, Ontario-2004 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Deugo; Andrée Morneault; Dianne Othmer; Megan Smith; Al Stinson; Murray Woods; Ian Kovacs; Ian Aho; Bill Parker; Rob Baker; Marinus Verwey; Guylaine Thauvette; Don Willis; Jeff Dech

    2006-01-01

    In July 2004, a large stand of red oak (Quercus rubra) was harvested in Phelps Township, North Bay District, North Bay, Ontario using the uniform shelterwood system. Most of the stand was harvested to retain 40 percent crown closure, while a very small portion was harvested to retain 70 percent crown closure. During tree marking, an active Northern...

  2. Kayenta Township Building & Safety Department, Tribal Green Building Code Summit Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribal Green Building Code Summit Presentation by Kayenta Township Building & Safety Department showing how they established the building department, developed a code adoption and enforcement process, and hired staff to carry out the work.

  3. GREEN OAK AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical documentation necessary for a project demonstrating the viability of green oak as a contemporary structural material. These will include material grading guidelines, mechanical testing, architectural construction documents and details, specifications, engineering cal...

  4. PLSS Townships and Sections - MDC_Township

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of the Miami Dade County Townships. Townships are legal boundary description. Each Township is thirty six square miles with a few exceptions,...

  5. LP IN TOWNSHIP PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Diegel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A township planner wants to house many people within a given area, without exceeding a tight budget, while yet respecting certain standards. These specify a variet::y of house t::ypes. They also imply indirect:: effect::s such as open space, schools or hospitals: more people use more of these. But as we build more schools, less space remains for houses, so we are left with fewer people l requiring fewer schools.
    We show how to capture such simultaneous interactions. We also discuss some unexpected results. These arise notably in the tr~nsition from fractional to integer solutions.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Dorpsbeplanner probeer soveel moontlik mense behuis in 'n betrokke area I sonder om 'n beperkte begroting te' oorskrei, terwyl gegewe standaarde behou moet word. Laasgenoemde maak voorsiening vir 'n verskeidenheid van behuising. Dit behels ook indirekt::e navolgel soos oop ruimte, skole of hospitale: groot getalle gehuisveste mense maak meer gebruik hiervan. Maar soos daar meer skole gebou word I word minder ruimte gelaat vir behuising, dus word minder mense behuis, wat minder skole benodig.
    Ons toon aan hoe om sulke gelyktydige interaksie te verwerk. Ons bespreek oak sommige onverwagte resultate. Hierdie ontstaan veral in die oorgang van fraksionele na heeltal oplossings.

  6. BLM Colorado PLSS Township

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –In the Public Land Survey System (PLSS), a Township refers to a unit of land, that is nominally six miles on a side, usually containing 36 sections....

  7. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  8. Foliar nutrients explain goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, adult feeding preference among four California oak species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Tom. W. Coleman; Michael. I. Jones; Mary. L. Flint; Steven. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Adults of the invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), consumed foliar weight in no-choice feeding tests of, in descending order, California black oak Quercus kelloggii Newb., Engelmann oak, Quercus engelmannii Greene, coast live oak, Quercus...

  9. Public Land Survey Township Boundaries of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains polygons representing the PLSS township boundaries of the state of Iowa. TOWNSHIP was developed from a set of 99 individual county coverages...

  10. Sapwood area as an estimator of leaf area and foliar weight in cherrybark oak and green ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; John D. Hodges

    2002-01-01

    The relationships between foliar weight/leaf area and four stem dimensions (d.b.h., total stem cross-sectional area, total sapwood area, and current sapwood area at breast height) were investigated in two important bottomland tree species of the Southern United States, cherrybark oak (Quercus falcata var. pagodifolia ...

  11. The Karvina Township reclamation concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Orsag, H.; Dirner, V.

    1997-01-01

    The paper contains a summary of all reclamation activities in the Karvina township territory, Czech Republic, including those completed, those being worked at, and those under preparation. All projects are connected with changes of the landscape due to coal extraction. The landscape reclamation requires a certain volume of mine waste and of soil. The policy, as presented in this paper, has been submitted for approval by the Municipal Council

  12. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  13. Diagnosis and Management of Phytophthora ramorum canker in canyon live oak, an atypical bole canker host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth Bernhardt; Kamyar Aram; David Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of sudden oak death (SOD) in tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H. Oh) and susceptible red/black oak species (coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née; Shreve oak, Q. parvula Greene var. shrevei (C.H. Mull.) Nixon; California...

  14. The impact of shopping mall development on small township retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ligthelm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The retail sector forms a critical element of a community’s economic and social welfare. It provides people with choices and services. These choices were until recently very limited in township areas. The pre-1994 retail landscape was dominated by small, often informal businesses offering basic household necessities to relatively low income earners. This has resulted in township residents’ preference to shop outside townships, known as ‘outshopping’. Rapid income growth of township residents since 1994 resulted in a substantial increase in consumer expenditure in these areas, known as ‘in-bound shopping’. This lucrative emerging market forms the last retail frontier in South Africa and is being explored by national retailers, especially supermarket chains. This article is aimed at establishing the impact of shopping mall development in townships on the traditional small township retailers including spaza/tuck shops. The net balance sheet on the impact of shopping mall development on small township retailers clearly suggests a decline in the township retailers’ market share. A change in small business model towards, inter alia, effective customer service with a small dedicated assortment of merchandise, satisfaction of emergency needs, selling in small units and extension of credit facilities may result in the survival of some small township retailers (albeit often at a smaller turnover.

  15. AHP 10: CHILDBIRTH AND CHILDCARE IN RDO SBIS TIBETAN TOWNSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klu mo tshe ring ཀླུ་མོ་ཚེ་རིང་།

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rdo sbis (Daowei 道帏 Tibetan Autonomous Township, Xunhua 循化 Salar Autonomous County, Haidong 海东 Region, is located in eastern Qinghai 青海 Province, PR China. Knowledge, beliefs, and behavior associated with childbirth, midwifery, and childcare in Rdo sbis Township Tibetan communities are described, focusing on a single village as a case-study.

  16. The experiences of AIDS orphans living in a township

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... of juvenile delinquency, reduced literacy and, consequently, a huge economic ... of the township communities where this research was conducted, is .... the effect of the absence of their parent or loved one in the home, the ...

  17. DETERMINANTS OF WELLBEING IN A SOUTH AFRICAN TOWNSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Muzindutsi, Paul-François; Sekhu, Tshediso Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Life evaluations capture a reflective assessment on a person’s life or some specific aspects of it. Given the relative lack of empirical work on subjective wellbeing (SWB) amongst residents in South African townships, this paper seeks to fill that gap by exploring the determinants of SWB in a township of Kwakwatsi. This study is based on household data collected through a survey to investigate the factors that might affect wellbeing. A multiple regression model was used to determine the impac...

  18. Nuttall Oak Volume and Weight Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce E. Schlaegel; Regan B. Willson

    1983-01-01

    Volume and weight tables were constructed from a 62-tree sample of Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer) taken in the Mississippi Delta. The tables present volume, green weight, and dry weight of bole wood, bole wood plus bark, and total tree above a one-foot stump as predicted from the nonlinear model Y = 0Db

  19. Results of the mobile gamma scanning activities in Wayne and Pequannock Townships, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.A.; Roberts, D.A.; Patania, V.P.; Foley, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    During the early 1980s the W. R. Grace site and the adjacent area were the focus of several radiological investigations. Radiological surveys revealed surface radionuclide concentrations greater than those acceptable under US Department of Energy (DOE) remedial action guidelines. In 1984, Congress assigned responsibility for cleanup of the W.R. Grace site to the Department of Energy. The property was redesignated as the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and in 1985 DOE began plans for survey/monitoring, and remedial action of nearby vicinity properties and the interim storage site. Evaluations of the radiological survey data in 1986 indicated radioactive contamination above current DOE guidelines at the off-site areas of parts of Township Park southwest of WISS, and parts of the Sheffield Brook area and railroad siding in Pequannock Township. Remedial action was conducted over several years of most of these areas and independent verification of remedial action was performed. A team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a mobile radiological scanning survey of a stretch of public roadway in the immediate vicinity south of the WISS, extending northwest to the Pompton turnpike. A mobile gamma scanning van with an on-board computer system was used to identify at least 24 anomalous areas, some attributable to the naturally elevated levels in concrete, asphalt, and natural granite found in streets, driveways and landscaping materials in the area. Analyses of the biased soil samples taken in the ballpark also revealed slightly elevated thorium concentrations. However, soil concentration measurements when averaged over 100 m 2 fall below the limits prescribed by DOE radiological guidelines established for this site. The anomalies may result from a wide range of sources, such as ash, granite, and fertilizer as well as materials from the former Grace facility

  20. People and oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Starrs

    2015-01-01

    While technical knowledge of oaks, acorns, habitat, wildlife, and woodland environments is evolving and a sought-after field of study, there are profound linkages, at once humanistic and artistic, where it comes to people and oaks. Looking at six distinct facets of humans and oak woodlands, this essay suggests that the bonds of people to place can be mediated by the...

  1. Political Township Boundaries in Iowa for 2010, derived from Census Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Currently, Iowa townships are not actually classified as civil townships, but as special district governments. Special district governments exist to provide only one...

  2. Influence Factors and Improvement Recommendations for Core Competency of Township Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chengjun

    2014-01-01

    Core competency of township enterprises may be influenced from the property right, technology, scale operation, financial management and talent. In view of these influence factors, township enterprises should conduct technological innovation, bring into full play functions of talents, promote corporate culture of township enterprises, attach great importance to development of core products and innovation of relevant systems, and establish market information platform for township enterprises.

  3. 78 FR 28139 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Tuckahoe River, Between Corbin City and Upper Township, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Operation Regulation; Tuckahoe River, Between Corbin City and Upper Township, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... River, mile 8.0, between Corbin City and Upper Township, NJ. The deviation is necessary to facilitate... operating schedule, the State Highway Bridge, mile 8.0, between Corbin City and Upper Township, NJ shall...

  4. Community Violence and PTSD in Selected South African Townships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, B. Ann; McCall, George J.; Gibson, Diana

    2004-01-01

    Given the high rates of crime in South Africa's townships, nonpolitical violence out-side the home and its psychological impact on women were investigated within two samples, the primary a help-seeking sample and the secondary a community sample. In the help-seeking sample, two thirds of the women reported having experienced several traumatic…

  5. State-owned versus township and village enterprises in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Sun, L.; Zou, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date survey of the comparison issue between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and township-village enterprises (TVEs) in China. Although TVEs are at a disadvantage in areas such as technology, labor skills, education levels of staff access to bank loans and government

  6. State-owned versus township and village enterprises in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Sun, L.; Zou, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date survey of the comparison issue between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and township-village enterprises (TVEs) in China. Although TVEs are disadvantaged in areas such as technology, labour skills, education levels of staff, access to bank loans and government

  7. going children in a densely populated township in Lilongwe, Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweetened beverages among children in a Lilongwe township 55 ... help in guiding interventions and public health nutrition policies. Aim ... of the key factors associated with overweight and obesity. ... caregivers had given verbal consent to participate in the study ..... Impaired parent-reported health-related quality of life of.

  8. Liberating voices: narrative strategies and style in township choral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article the authors argue for the close reading of South African township choral music in order to liberate the voices of a musical genre that has long been one of this country's musical silences. In this regard an analysis of selected compositions by three composers from the Eastern Cape – Tonny Vumazonke, Phillippe ...

  9. Social entrepreneurship as a way of developing sustainable township economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semape J. Manyaka-Boshielo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates using social entrepreneurship as a way of developing sustainabletownship economies, so that poverty can be eradicated from the townships of South Africaand township dwellers can begin to play a role in the economic development of the country.The author also thinks it is God’s purpose for people to enjoy life, free from economic hardship.A reduction in poverty would also bring down the crime rate and other social ills. It starts bydefining and clarifying the concepts of ‘entrepreneur’ and ‘social entrepreneurship’. Itcontinues by looking in more depth into township life and its challenges. This is done throughreviewing the literature and observations obtained through participant observation research.Post-foundationalist practical theology believes in interdisciplinary dialogue as a means ofallowing the concept of social entrepreneurship to bring about a sustainable townshipeconomy. From the author’s observations, it became apparent that to see the attainment of asustainable township economy, training and development should start with a strong emphasison personal identity and interpersonal and business skills. The author, therefore, proposes aholistic approach to social entrepreneurship.

  10. Township boundaries and the colonization of the Moravian landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter; Šipoš, Jan; Müllerová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 89-99 ISSN 0305-7488 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11805S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : settlement morphology * township size * historical GIS Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 0.772, year: 2016

  11. Reconstituted products from oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. C. Lewis; B. G. Heebink

    1971-01-01

    "Reconstituted" describes a family of panel products made from fractionated oak, bonded with either a synthetic resin or a natural lignin bond. Several current commercial fiber panel products from oak are described, and the status of research on experimental products and processes is presented. Recent technological developments are removing the stigma...

  12. Laurels for Laurel Oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Ray

    1976-01-01

    Describes a former Air Force base converted into a joint school district vocational school which includes among other things an up-to-date facility for the students, located at Laurel Oaks, one of the four campuses of the Great Oaks Joint Vocational School District. (HF)

  13. 78 FR 13476 - Modification of the Port Limits of Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... the townships of Ashwaubenon, Allouez, Preble and Howard and the city of De Pere, all in the State of... port limits in the docket as ``Attachment A: Green Bay (Current).'' CBP proposed to amend the port... limits is included in the docket as ``Attachment B: Green Bay (Proposed).'' Interested parties were given...

  14. Geographical patterns and disasters management : case study of Alexandra Township / O.M. Mere

    OpenAIRE

    Mere, Oniccah Monimang

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the study is to explore Geographic patterns and Disasters Management in the context of Alexandra Township situated in the Johannesburg Metro. The research evaluates if the Disaster Management Unit in Johannesburg municipality is prepared in terms of policies, community campaigns on flood disasters as well as forming organizations that will assist in times of disaster. It also refers to other South African townships with regard to where most affected townships are l...

  15. Job Satisfaction Analysis in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Doctors in a Township Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiwei; Yang, Lan; Feng, Qiming; Tighe, Scott S.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method. To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction o...

  16. Decolonised Sexualities : The Lived Experiences of Black Township Women Who Love Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbasalaki, P.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369405560

    2018-01-01

    This thesis centres the lived experiences of black township women in same-sex relationships in Cape Town and Johannesburg. The main question—‘How do black township women construct their same-sex sexuality?’—called for a mixed methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative data. Set against

  17. Sudden oak death disease progression in oaks and tanoaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; Sylvia R. Mori; David L. Wood; Andrew J. Storer; Pavel Svihra; N. Maggi Kelly; Richard B. Standiford

    2006-01-01

    In March 2000, we established twenty disease progression plots in Marin County to monitor the progress of sudden oak death symptoms in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (Q. kelloggii), and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) (McPherson and others 2005). Plots were located to encompass a...

  18. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  19. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  20. Violent political contexts and the emotional concerns of township youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, G; Mendelsohn, M; Moosa, F; Tudin, P

    1996-02-01

    This article presents the findings of a series of studies that examine the perceptions of black South African youth about township life and the civil conflict and violence it encompasses. The studies were conducted with comparable samples of 58-82 youth at 3 points in South Africa's history, all characterized by high levels of violence but differing in terms of their political contexts. These contexts were overt State-community conflict, covert opposition and political repression, and intracommunity violence. The data revealed that in all 3 contexts youth reported a high exposure to violence, but only when violence occurred in the context of intracommunity conflict was it subjectively construed to be the most problematic. Reasons for this may include the real increase in more extreme forms of violence, including deaths, that occurs in intracommunity violence and the blurring of the distinction between political and criminal violence in this context.

  1. Why sustain oak forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Wm. Smith

    2006-01-01

    A brief overview and some personal thoughts are offered that deal with the implications of our social and political systems on the long-term sustainability of our forest resources. The connection of the most recent climatic events, in a geologic-time context, to the development of present day oak dominated forests of the Eastern United States is discussed. The impacts...

  2. Oak management in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb. Timothy R.; Philip M. McDonald

    1981-01-01

    Native oak species grow on 15 to 20 million acres (6 to 8 million ha) of California land, and have an estimated net volume of about 3 billion ft3 (85 million m3). This resource, valuable not only for traditional wood products, but also for wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and recreational-esthetic values, is not...

  3. Cork oak woodlands patchiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Plieninger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The cork oak (Quercus suber L.) woodlands of the agroforestry landscapes of Southwestern Iberia are undergoing drastic change due to severe natural and anthropogenic disturbances. These may eventually result in woodland loss or deforestation, the final step of an ongoing process of woodland degra...

  4. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  5. [Study on elasticity of medical service demand at the township level in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-xing; Lv, Jun; Xie, Yi-ping; Wang, Ying; Jia, Jin-zhong; Chang, Feng-shui; Duan, Lin; Sun, Mei; Wang, Zhi-feng; Hao, Mo

    2010-06-18

    To find out the economic laws regulating medical service demand in accordance with influencing factors at the township level, thus to provide references for further adjusting the medical service demand reasonably in the future. The model of medical service demand was established to measure the elasticity of demand in 49 township health clinics in 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2007. The price elasticity of outpatient and inpatient demand was stable during the four periods, and the average value was -0.029 and -0.132 respectively; the average value of income elasticity was 0.973 and 0.977, registering a downward trend in general. The medical service demand at the township level is price inelastic, indicating that it is a necessity for rural residents. The downward trend of income elasticity under the influence of some health policies illustrates a lightening in economic burden for medical service demand among rural residents in township health clinics.

  6. Political Township and Incorporated City Boundaries in Iowa in 2010 as Derived from Census Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Political Township and Incorporated City Boundaries in Iowa in 2010, as Derived from Census Datasets Original Abstract: The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and...

  7. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  8. Management of oak forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löf, Magnus; Brunet, Jörg; Filyushkina, Anna

    2016-01-01

    timber production, habitats for biodiversity and cultural services, and the study analyses associated trade-offs and synergies. The three regimes were: intensive oak timber production (A), combined management for both timber production and biodiversity (B) and biodiversity conservation without management...... of wood production and cultural services. In contrast, Regime B provided a balanced delivery of timber production, biodiversity conservation and cultural services. We identified several stand-management options which provide comparatively synergistic outcomes in ecosystem services delivery. The use...

  9. Purple martins in oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian D. C. Williams

    2002-01-01

    Purple martins are cavity-nesting swallows that once nested fairly widely in California’s oak woodlands but are now rare in that habitat. The old oaks of the Tehachapi Range (southern Sierra Nevada) may now host the last martins that nest in oak woodlands, with approximately 100-200 pairs or about 15 percent of the California population. In summer of 2000, we found 57...

  10. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  11. Microbial, algal, and fungal strategies for manganese oxidation at a Shade Township coal mine, Somerset County, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.I.; Brant, D.L.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Successful designs to eliminate Mn from mine discharge are necessary for both restoring abandoned mine lands and permitting the mining of high sulfur coal in the eastern United States. A passive in-line system that meets Mn discharge limits was built at the discharge from the former Shade Township coal mine in south central Pennsylvania. Qualitative research on monthly changes in the microbial and algal community that removes Mn is underway. Epilithic attachment of microorganisms was analyzed on artificial (glass microscope slides) and natural substrates (limestone thin sections) that were immersed in surface water for one month periods over 6 months. Organisms attached to both glass and limestone substrates. Limestone became coated with 34--86% more Mn that did glass surfaces. Light microscopy revealed 12 different strategies are being used by bacteria, cyan bacteria, diatoms, green algae, and fungi to oxidize Mn. the dominant method used by the epilithic community to oxidize Mn is coating of holdfasts by the iron bacterium, Liptothrix discophora, and the green alga, Ulothrix sp. Other methods for Mn removal by oxidation include coating of individual cells, filaments/sheaths/hyphae, extracellular polysaccharides, and biofilms. The unplanned community at the site is multifaceted and extremely efficient in its Mn removal ability. Community interactions or complexity may play roles in the stability of the ecosystem and the efficiency of its Mn oxidizing ability

  12. Microbial, algal, and fungal strategies for manganese oxidation at a Shade Township coal mine, Somerset County, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, E.I.; Brant, D.L.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.

    1999-07-01

    Successful designs to eliminate Mn from mine discharge are necessary for both restoring abandoned mine lands and permitting the mining of high sulfur coal in the eastern United States. A passive in-line system that meets Mn discharge limits was built at the discharge from the former Shade Township coal mine in south central Pennsylvania. Qualitative research on monthly changes in the microbial and algal community that removes Mn is underway. Epilithic attachment of microorganisms was analyzed on artificial (glass microscope slides) and natural substrates (limestone thin sections) that were immersed in surface water for one month periods over 6 months. Organisms attached to both glass and limestone substrates. Limestone became coated with 34--86% more Mn that did glass surfaces. Light microscopy revealed 12 different strategies are being used by bacteria, cyan bacteria, diatoms, green algae, and fungi to oxidize Mn. the dominant method used by the epilithic community to oxidize Mn is coating of holdfasts by the iron bacterium, Liptothrix discophora, and the green alga, Ulothrix sp. Other methods for Mn removal by oxidation include coating of individual cells, filaments/sheaths/hyphae, extracellular polysaccharides, and biofilms. The unplanned community at the site is multifaceted and extremely efficient in its Mn removal ability. Community interactions or complexity may play roles in the stability of the ecosystem and the efficiency of its Mn oxidizing ability.

  13. URBAN RECONFIGURATIONS OF SPACE AND PLACE WITHIN TOWNSHIP TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Craciunescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays global economic and cultural constellation determined urban communities to find a solution in order to preserve local identity and at the same time to attract capital into the area. Tourism represents in our opinion one of the greatest solutions ever exploited in mankind’s history which erases boundaries of nations and economic policies, creating glocalized encounters. In the case of a city, tourism or township tourism becomes an economical, political and cultural vector that unifies urban space which develops a network of genuine and artificial urban inter-relations between the principal stakeholders. The city as a destination must be a ‘safe’ construct that meets the expectations of various kinds of travellers and of their different travelling motivations. We believe that to a certain extent, the (rebranding of cities consists in the creation of a harmonized space that would reiterate the home-facilities of the traveller. A matter of life-style and life-quality, this issue will be analysed through the lens of travelling as a leisure activity, or as a way of escaping monotone routine of daily living, eventually a way of reinvesting income and creating economic equilibrium.

  14. Seeding and planting upland oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Oaks can be planted or seeded in uplands to: (1) afforest old fields, strip-mined areas, or other areas devoid of trees, and (2) supplement natural reproduction within existing forests. Planting is usually more successful than direct seeding. But even under good conditions survival and growth of planted oak has been considerably poorer than with conifers and other...

  15. DETERMINANTS OF HOUSING INSECURITY IN A LOW INCOMESOUTH AFRICAN TOWNSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P Mncayi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The campaign to end povertyby 2030,as advocated by the World Bank,has multifacetedcomponents. Food security and abject poverty have received more attention;however,little attention has been focused on housing insecurity. This is important,especially giventhe fact that it iswidely acknowledged that housing satiates an essential human need forphysical security, dignity and prosperity,among other things. Housing, for some time,has been observed as crucial to individual and family functioning. As indicated byorganisations such as the United Nations Habitat, the importance of appropriate housingis explained by the fact that safe housing is seen as a basic need among other needs suchas food, all of which are regarded as central components of the security of ordinaryhouseholds, particularly in developing countries. In 2015, more than 1.5 billionpeopleinthe world were living in housing that was unsafe and inadequate, while in the meantime,millions experienced eviction from their homes every year, with at least 100 millionpeople becoming homeless on any given day.Therefore, it ispertinent to understand whatdetermines housing insecurity. The studyaims toinvestigatefactors thatdetermineshousing insecurity. Using data collected from Sharpeville and Bophelong, two lowincome townships in South Africa that are particularlyvulnerable to housing insecurity,the study employs amultinomiallogisticregression to investigate the effects of head ofhousehold and the general household characteristics on housing insecurity. Theresults ofthe regression analysis show that income, gender, number of people in the household andthe amount paid to bond or rent are significant predictors of housing insecurity.Contentious issues like access to land and job opportunities are areas of further study inunderstanding the multifaceted phenomenon of housing insecurity.

  16. Seeking and Finding Positive Youth Development Among Zulu Youth in South African Townships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kelly D; Theron, Linda C; Scales, Peter C

    2017-07-01

    A cross-sectional study explored the presence and power of developmental assets in a sample of youth from rural South African townships. Learners (female = 58%; M age  = 17.1; N = 505) attending three township high schools completed self-report measures of developmental assets and thriving outcomes. Participants reported contextual assets (e.g., family, school, community) in the vulnerable ranges, with gender, family structure, and school type accounting for some differences. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that five asset contexts (family, school, community, personal, social) were uniquely predictive of thriving outcomes. Discussion focuses on contextual expressions of positive youth development among Zulu township youth in challenging environments. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  18. Radiological verification survey results at 898 Black Oak Ridge Rd., Wayne, New Jersey (WJ004V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 898 Black Oak Ridge Road, Wayne, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at one meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 898 Black Oak Ridge Road were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives

  19. Report on a regional new energy vision establishment in Yatsuka Township; Yatsukamachi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Surveys and discussions were given on establishing a new energy vision in Yatsuka Township in Shimane Prefecture. For the survey on available amount of natural energies (sunlight and wind), all-weather insolation required for solar energy power generation was analyzed by using the NEDO information, and wind was analyzed based on observations at Matsue Meteorological Observatory, Sakai-minato Observatory, and Nakaura Water Gate. In discussing the system, power generation amount in the Matsue area was estimated for the case when solar cells of single crystal silicon plus amorphous hybrid type HIP-H48B1 are used. For wind power generation, power generation amount was calculated from observation values derived at the Nakaura water gate when wind mills with diameters from 2 to 10 m are used. Furthermore, calculations were performed on power amount generated uniformly by using a hybrid system using solar energy power generation and wind power generation. As a result of the discussions, a plan was established to introduce the new energies by means of a solar and wind energy hybrid power generation system to the greenhouse 'Green Stellar' symbolizing the Japan's largest peony production, being capable of year-round peony cultivation. The system is planned to be introduced to the town office building and other public organizations sequentially according to annual programs. (NEDO)

  20. Risk analysis and guidelines for harvest activities in wisconsin oak timberlands to minimize oak wilt threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Kyoko Scanlon

    2010-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important species group in the forests of Wisconsin. The State’s timberland typed as oak-hickory forest was estimated at 2.9 million acres in 1996. Growing stock volume for red oak was estimated at 2.4 billion cubic feet, whereas select white oak volume was estimated to be 927 million cubic feet. Oak wilt, the oak disease...

  1. Partnerships for Educational Excellence and Research: HPT in the Townships of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joanne K.; Weisenburgh-Snyder, Amy B.; Damons, Bruce; Van Rooyen, Marie; Ismail, Camila

    2011-01-01

    Effective performance-based instruction is making a sustained and noticeable impact on township schools in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We document the performance improvement effort made over the past 7 years by Partnerships for Educational Excellence and Research International (P.E.E.R), a team of educators, instructional system designers,…

  2. 75 FR 28685 - Oritani Financial Corp., MHC, Township of Washington, NJ; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-39: OTS Nos. H-2944 and H-4701... hereby given that on May 10, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of Oritani Financial Corp., MHC, and Oritani Bank, Township of Washington, New Jersey, to convert to the stock form of...

  3. TownshipNet: A localized hybrid TVWS-WiFi and cloud services network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadzic, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a network architecture to provide low cost last mile access and cloud services for local content sharing in a poorly resourced township environment. We describe how ICT solutions are developed in close partnership with the local...

  4. Job Satisfaction Analysis in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Doctors in a Township Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiwei; Yang, Lan; Feng, Qiming; Tighe, Scott S

    2017-01-01

    Background . Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method . To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction of doctors and to make recommendations for improvements. Results . About 75% (28/39) of the doctors expressed negative attitudes related to their work conditions. Slightly more than half (22/39) mentioned they should receive greater compensation for their work and more than one were seriously considering other options. Many participants (35/39) showed their satisfaction about the achievement of serving as a doctor. Conclusion . Their main concerns related to job satisfaction included working conditions, financial rewards, and the doctor's relationships with patients. Increasing the incomes and fringe benefits of healthcare workers, improving their work conditions, and providing training and continuing education opportunities would help rural clinics retain doctors and eliminate the current unsatisfactory conditions. The findings also highlight the need for the government to increase financial support of township hospitals.

  5. Living with Bats: The Case of Ve Golokuati Township in the Volta Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse S. Ayivor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bats to humans through direct and indirect contact with bats raises public apprehension about living close to bats. In the township of Ve Golokuati in Ghana, several “camps” of Epomophorus gambianus roost in fruit trees that provide ecosystems services for residents. This study explored human-bat interaction in the township and the potential risks of disease transmission from bats to humans. Data were derived through questionnaire administration and participatory appraisal approach involving focus group discussions, participatory landscape mapping, and transect walk. The study found that most human activities within the township, such as petty-trading, domestic chores, and children’s outdoor recreation, exposed people to bats. Though there have been no reported cases of disease spillover from bats to humans from the perspective of residents and from medical records, respondents whose activities brought them closer to bats within the township were found to be more likely to experience fevers than those who do not interact with bats frequently. The study recommends education of community members about the potential risks involved in human-bat interactions and makes suggestions for reducing the frequent interactions with and exposure to bats by humans.

  6. Site suitability evaluation for ecotourism using GIS and AHP: A case study of Isfahan Townships, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mobaraki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism, as a multibillion dollars business, is an industry with high potentials for economic competition. One of the proper solutions for developing ecotourism is better identification of different regions where there is a tourism capacity and accurate planning for performing feasibility study of those regions in terms of attracting ecotourism as well as creating infrastructures in those regions. This paper evaluates capacities and power of tourism as well as nature tourism in Isfahan Township using Geographic Information System and Analytical Hierarchy Process. The present research is applied and research method is descriptive-analytical. Meanwhile, to analyze data, Arc GIS is used. Findings indicate that regarding the map of ecotourism capacity of Isfahan townships, resulted from combining various climatologically, geological, hydrological, topological maps and access maps, the township is not homogeneous in terms of nature tourism and coastal parts of the township (regions around Zayand-e-Rood have better condition than other parts and should be considered for tourism development planning.

  7. Household food wastage in a developing country: A case study of Mamelodi Township in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, including those with food shortages a large portion of household waste is estimated to be food. This paper reports on findings of a research study conducted in one of South Africa’s largest townships (Mamelodi) within...

  8. Job Satisfaction Analysis in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Doctors in a Township Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method. To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction of doctors and to make recommendations for improvements. Results. About 75% (28/39 of the doctors expressed negative attitudes related to their work conditions. Slightly more than half (22/39 mentioned they should receive greater compensation for their work and more than one were seriously considering other options. Many participants (35/39 showed their satisfaction about the achievement of serving as a doctor. Conclusion. Their main concerns related to job satisfaction included working conditions, financial rewards, and the doctor’s relationships with patients. Increasing the incomes and fringe benefits of healthcare workers, improving their work conditions, and providing training and continuing education opportunities would help rural clinics retain doctors and eliminate the current unsatisfactory conditions. The findings also highlight the need for the government to increase financial support of township hospitals.

  9. Labour Manoeuvrability and Economic Performance in Township-Village Enterprises: The Case of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modderman, Eelco; Gorter, Cees; Dalhuisen, Jasper; Nijkamp, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the relationship between economic performance and labourmanoeuvrability of township-village enterprises in the Jiangsu province, China. We start with a general overview of the development in the Chinese economy and the functioning of labour markets. Next, we

  10. Utilising excess minibus-taxi capacity for South African townships tours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, S.J.H.; Makoriwa, Collins; de Boer, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an option for the utilisation of excess off-peak capacity of minibus-taxis in South Africa for township tours. The minibus-taxi system typically faces steep peak loads during rush hours with excess vehicle and person capacity available during off-hours. The advantages of the

  11. Money and violence : financial self-help groups in a South African township

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bähre, Erik

    2007-01-01

    This ethnography is about the way in which Xhosa migrants in the townships of Cape Town, South Africa, collectively manage their money in financial self-help groups, also known as financial mutuals. This is an umbrella term for a myriad of collective financial arrangements that are mostly informal.

  12. Budget Monitoring and Control in South African Township Schools: Democratic Governance at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestry, Raj; Naidoo, Gans

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates budget monitoring and control in township schools in South Africa. The enactment of the Schools Act 1996 revolutionized school financial management in South Africa, making it part of the drive for democratic school governance. School governing bodies had to be established, whose responsibility it became to manage finances…

  13. 78 FR 21849 - Television Broadcasting Services; Ely, NV to Middletown Township, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 13-72; RM-11694, DA 13-448] Television Broadcasting Services; Ely, NV to Middletown Township, NJ AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  14. The promotion of mental health of adolescents in a township in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Siphepho

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of adolescents have been observed drinking alcohol, pushing and abusing drugs and also stealing cars. A lot of adolescents idle in the township streets, girls are falling pregnant and dropping out of school. No research has been done to elicit the opinions of families on the everyday life of the adolescents in this township. The objectives of this research were twofold, namely: To explore and describe the families’ opinions on the everyday life of adolescents in a specific township in Swaziland, and to describe guidelines for advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners to assist these families to mobilize resources in order to promote, maintain and restore mental health as integral part of health of adolescents in this township. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used where the research was conducted in two phases. Trustworthiness measures as well as ethical measures were applied throughout the research. Five categories were identified from the result of the focus group interviews with families: Adolescents presenting ineffective communication patterns due to lack of support from their families; adolescents engaging into risky lifestyles related to lack of support and healthy relationships with their parents; families unable to create a supportive and conducive environment for their adolescents due to their focus on own family stumbling blocks and non-availability of recreational centres related to lack of a supportive and conducive environment in the community and inadequate accommodation leading to overcrowding. Guidelines for advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners were deducted from identified themes and the literature control.

  15. Outpatient prescription practices in rural township health centers in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Qian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sichuan Province is an agricultural and economically developing province in western China. To understand practices of prescribing medications for outpatients in rural township health centers is important for the development of the rural medical and health services in this province and western China. Methods This is an observational study based on data from the 4th National Health Services Survey of China. A total of 3,059 prescriptions from 30 township health centers in Sichuan Province were collected and analyzed. Seven indicators were employed in the analyses to characterize the prescription practices. They are disease distribution, average cost per encounter, number of medications per encounter, percentage of encounters with antibiotics, percentage of encounters with glucocorticoids, percentage of encounters with combined glucocorticoids and antibiotics, and percentage of encounters with injections. Results The average medication cost per encounter was 16.30 Yuan ($2.59. About 60% of the prescriptions contained Chinese patent medicine (CPM, and almost all prescriptions (98.07% contained western medicine. 85.18% of the prescriptions contained antibiotics, of which, 24.98% contained two or more types of antibiotics; the percentage of prescriptions with glucocorticoids was 19.99%; the percentage of prescriptions with both glucocorticoids and antibiotics was 16.67%; 51.40% of the prescriptions included injections, of which, 39.90% included two or more injections. Conclusions The findings from this study demonstrated irrational medication uses of antibiotics, glucocorticoids and injections prescribed for outpatients in the rural township health centers in Sichuan Province. The reasons for irrational medication uses are not only solely due to the pursuit of maximizing benefits in the township health centers, but also more likely attributable to the lack of medical knowledge of rational medication uses among rural doctors and the

  16. [Investigation on current situation of malaria blood examinations in township-level hospitals of Nantong City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui-Sheng, Ding; Cai-Qun, Cao; Ping, Miao; Mei-Fang, Gu; Xiao-Bin, Cao

    2016-11-18

    To understand the quality of malaria blood examinations in township-level hospitals, so as to provide the evidence for continuing the malaria blood examinations in the stage of post-malaria elimination. A total of 64 township hospitals were investigated and 640 negative malaria blood slides were scored individually according to 10 indicators in "Malaria Elimination Technical Scheme" in 2013 and 2014. The single and multiple indicators were calculated, and the work of blood examinations and situation of technicians were investigated. The data of malaria blood examinations and patient discovery in township hospitals of Nantong City were collected and analyzed during the period of 2011-2014. For the single indicator, 29.5% of the thick blood films did not reach the standard, and 35.8% of thin blood films did not reach the standard. For the multiple indicators, blood slides with more than 4 indicators below the standard (poor quality) accounted for 32.5%. From malaria blood examinations and malaria situation, the number of slides was 194 635 during the period of 2011-2014, and there were no local vivax malaria casesin 4 consecutive years from 2011 to 2014, and local malaria has been effectively controlled in Nantong City. For health facilities where malaria patients initially presented, the township and village level accounted for 16.3%, and county and higher level accounted for 83.7%. The quality of malaria blood examinations in township level hospitals of Nantong City is not high and the microscopic examination has a relatively low efficiency in the discovery of malaria cases. A new model for malaria blood examinations needs to be further explored.

  17. Micro-enterprise predicament in township economic development: Evidence from Ivory Park and Tembisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Charman

    2017-05-01

    Aim: In response to the developmental need to stimulate micro-enterprise growth in South African townships, the paper poses the question: what approaches are most likely to have a positive impact on township businesses, given current micro-enterprise dynamics? Setting: Primary research was undertaken in two neighbouring townships in Gauteng province, in Ivory Park and Tembisa. Methods: The data comprises a geospatial census of enterprise activities, a survey of select firms and qualitative interviews with business owners. The research utilised a small-area census approach to obtain data on business activities within an area of approximately 2km2 in each site. The census enumerated 2509 micro-enterprises in Ivory Park and 1722 micro-enterprises in Tembisa. Firm interviews were conducted with business owners in four sectors: grocery retail, liquor retail, hair care and early childhood development centres. Results: The business census identifies a strong similarity in the structure of the townships’ informal micro-entrepreneurship despite the considerable differences in the socio-economic status of the respective case sites. The enterprise survey highlights the resource constraints of township businesses and thinness of local markets. Interviews with entrepreneurs reveal four main pathways through which individuals enter into self-employment with the most dynamic enterprises established by inward investing entrepreneurs. Spatial considerations exert an influence on the position of enterprise sectors, whilst access to land and business infrastructure are notable constraints. Conclusion: Reflecting on the evidence, the paper concludes with making a call for a more low-geared development approach, focusing on lessening the legal, institutional and regulatory obstacles to enterprise growth as a first step. Municipalities have an important role in liberalising the spaces and places where township informal enterprises can and should be permitted to trade as well as

  18. How to identify and manage oak wilt in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.N. Appel; R.S. Cameron; A.D. Wilson; J.D. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Transporting unseasoned firewood from diseased red oaks is a potential means of spreading the oak wilt fungus. Oak wilt cannot be transmitted by burning infected firewood, but fungal mats may form on firewood in storage. Presently, no vectors have been proven to transmit the fungus from live oaks to other oak trees, but diseased wood fromany oak species should never be...

  19. Variation in flood tolerance of container-grown seedlings of swamp white oak, bur oak, and white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; J.W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall

    2008-01-01

    How much variation in flood tolerance exists among seedlings within oak species, given the flood frequency of sites from which acorns are collected, has been largely unexplored. Our studies examined initial growth and flood tolerance for seedlings of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Willd.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa L.), and white...

  20. Fire effects on Gambel oak in southwestern ponderosa pine-oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Abella; Peter Z. Fulé

    2008-01-01

    Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) is ecologically and aesthetically valuable in southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Fire effects on Gambel oak are important because fire may be used in pine-oak forests to manage oak directly or to accomplish other management objectives. We used published literature to: (1) ascertain...

  1. Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004 with the mission of standing up a supercomputer 100 times...

  2. Quercus kelloggii Newb., California black oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) exceeds all other California oaks in volume, distribution, and altitudinal range. Yet this deciduous hardwood has had little sustained commercial use and almost no management, even though its wood closely resembles that of its valuable, managed, and heavily used counterpart-northern red oak (...

  3. The Hibernation of the oak Mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerling, L.C.P.

    1966-01-01

    The oak mildew invaded Western Europa in the years 1908 and 1909. Since then this parasite, Microsphaera alphitoides Griff. & Maubl. (syn. M. quercina (Schw.) Burr.) has occurred regularly in the Netherlands on oak seedlings and oak coppice, mainly Quercus pedunculata Ehr. (syn. Q. robur L. ). After

  4. Regenerating oaks with the shelterwood system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan L. Sander

    1979-01-01

    It is well known that a new reproduction stand that follows complete overstory removal will contain oaks in proportion to the numbers and size of advance oak reproduction present before the overstory was removed. Furthermore, the individual advance oaks must be relatively large with well-established root systems before they will compete successfully and be dominant in...

  5. Sudden Oak Death - Eastern (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph O' Brien; Manfred Mielke; Steve Oak; Bruce Moltzan

    2002-01-01

    A phenomenon known as Sudden Oak Death was first reported in 1995 in central coastal California. Since then, tens of thousands of tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus), coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia), and California black oaks (Quercus kelloggii) have been killed by a newly identified fungus, Phytophthora ramorum. On these hosts, the fungus causes a bleeding canker on...

  6. Contact allergy to oak moss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Gimenéz-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2003-01-01

    In addition to pure synthetic fragrance materials several natural extracts are still in use in the perfume industry. Among them oak moss absolute, prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Arch., is considered a major contact sensitizer and is therefore included in the fragrance mix used...... for diagnosing perfume allergy. The process of preparing oak moss absolute has changed during recent years and, even though several potential sensitizers have been identified from former benzene extracts, its present constituents and their allergenic status are not clear. In the study reported here, we applied...

  7. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  8. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  9. Developing a sustainable community tourism strategy for townships : the case of Soshanguve / Paul Nkemngu Acha-Anyi

    OpenAIRE

    Acha-Anyi, Paul Nkemngu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a sustainable tourism strategy for the Soshanguve Township. The motivation for this study arose out of the acute developmental challenges facing many township communities in South Africa, mainly due to the absence of economic opportunities. This results in a high unemployment rate, poverty and an elevated number of crime incidences. A sustainable community tourism strategy could alleviate this situation by availing itself of the opportunities presented by ...

  10. Living in the townships: An appraisal of Pentecostal social ministry in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Molobi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an appraisal of the social ministry of Pentecostal churches through fellowship, healing and livelihood creation in the township communities of the city of Tshwane. In meeting this aim the discussion advances a thesis of these churches as agents of social support and survival of the downcast. In particular, the article attempts to show how these churches exert themselves towards establishing not only moral responsibility, but also a context where the weakest and the least privileged can learn how to survive. The squatter camp people are unique with the special challenges requiring distinctive consideration. Pentecostal churches believe that the lost people matter to God and are of importance to their congregations as well. The backyard Bible study ministries and mutual cooperation strategies are employed for mutual support. Making use of the existing empirical research data and available literature will show how Pentecostal churches in the townships support the laity and community in times of need.

  11. Genetic variation in California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Diane L. Delany; Lawrence A. Riggs

    1990-01-01

    In forestry the importance of genetic variation for successful reproduction, survival and growth has been widely documented for commercial conifers; until recently, little genetic work has been done on the California oaks. Even before the nature of genetic variation was scientifically investigated, its importance was suspected in operational forestry. Many failures of...

  12. Oak Ridge Geochemical Reconnaissance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, J.W.

    1977-03-01

    The Oak Ridge reconnaissance program is responsible for the geochemical survey in a 12-state area covering Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, Indiana, and Illinois as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. The program concept is outlined and the planning and organization of the program is discussed

  13. Oak woodlands as wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Tietje; K. Purcell; S. Drill

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides local planners and policymakers with information on the diversity and abundance of oak woodland wildlife, wildlife habitat needs, and how local planning activities can influence wildlife abundance and diversity. Federal and state laws, particularly the federal and California Endangered Species Act and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA...

  14. Non-directive play therapy with aggressive children in a Black township : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M. Ed. In South Africa many people have been directly or indirectly involved in criminal and/or violent acts either as victims or as perpetrators. Research has shown that violence in its various forms, be it political, criminal or domestic, is endemic in South Africa (Stravou, 1993; Turton, Straker & Moosa, 1992). According to Gibson, Mogale and Friedler (1991:1), political violence, especially in South African townships, has been enacted between the ANC and Inkatha and this violence is re...

  15. Experiences on sea water reverse osmosis plant at Anuvijay township, Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, M.R.; Selvavinayagam, P.; Singaravelan, S.; Ramdoss, R.; Sundar, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Sea water reverse Osmosis plant SWRO of KKNPP is located at Anuvijay township, Chettikulam, Tirunelveli District, Tamilnadu. The objective of SWRO is to produce 2400 M 3 of potable quality water per day. This plant consists of four streams, each having a capacity of 25 M 3 /hr. Each stream is having 9 pressure tube in parallel and each pressure tube has 6 polyamide spiral wound membrane in series. (author)

  16. Thermal characteristics of a residential house in a new township in Johor Bahru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. Y.; Lee, Y. H.; Mohammad, S.; Shek, P. N.; Ma, C. K.

    2017-11-01

    As one of the densest population occurred in Johor Bahru, development of a new township become necessary in order to cater this growth. Rapid urbanization is a factor of degradation of environmental quality which may increase surrounded temperature through urban heat island (UHI) phenomena. Therefore, this paper is investigating thermal comfort for a new township, Bandar Dato Onn in Johor Bahru, in order to understand the thermal characteristics of a new township and for further mitigation of UHI phenomena. Surface temperature, ambient temperature and relative humidity have been collected from a terrace house of Bandar Dato Onn. Thermal characteristics with the features of time lag and decrement factors were discussed based on the collected data. The time lag of 5 to 8 hours and the decrement factors of 0.02 to 0.06 were recorded during a five-day measurement. It was concluded that human thermal comfort may not be achieved as the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system needed for bedroom and living room. Passive energy design is suggested to be included in the house in order to have human thermal comfort while reducing the electricity consumption towards sustainable future.

  17. The prospects of making small retail outlets in the Townships aggressively competitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malefane Johannes Lebusa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, township Small Retail Outlets were mostly established for survival and operated under a generally closed market system where the competition was not very strong. However, with the advent of democracy many people lost their formal income through retrenchments and out of desperation, many of these people opened Small Retail Outlets thus most of the existing and new entrants into the township market were unskilled or semiskilled labourers with little or no formal skills in business or entrepreneurship. Such efforts were rarely guided by any specific and informed strategy of identifying and exploiting a gap in the market. With the consolidation of the free market system under democracy, big brand businesses such as Shoprite Checkers and Small Retail Outlets of foreign nationals with different strategies entered and competed in this township market. With fewer formal skills in business and entrepreneurship, the owners of the Small Retail Outlets struggled to compete and thrive under these relatively new economic conditions. Given this situation, I conducted semi-structured interviews with fifteen of these traditional Small Retail Outlets to find out and better understand the challenges they face and the skills that might be needed to aggressively compete in this space. Based on these findings and understandings, I further examined these issues and suggest infusions of specific entrepreneurship skills that could develop their aggressive competitiveness. Keywords: entrepreneurship, competitiveness, small retail outlets, shopping complexes, innovation

  18. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  19. Radiological survey results at 914 Black Oak Ridge Road, Wayne, New Jersey (WJ005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at several vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 914 Black Oak Ridge Road, Wayne, New Jersey was not one of these vicinity properties; however the owner requested that his property be radiologically surveyed. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological scoping survey of this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted in early November 1993, was to determine whether any radiological contamination might be present on the property. The radiological survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at one meter, and the collection of soil and/or debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of applicable DOE guidelines

  20. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  1. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available , beetles and spiders); and the number of birds that nest in vegetated roofs (including kestrels, swallows, and wagtails). Objective The primary objective of a green roof is to create a living habitat in an otherwise barren environment, hence the use... the negative environmental impacts including plant and insect specie loss. Thus at a philosophical level green roofs support the notion “replace what you displace”. Key ecological issues that can be addressed through green roofs include: Negative effects...

  2. Oak management for wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Barlow

    1971-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing oak management alternatives through comparisons of the present value of the net cash flow produced. Even-aged management without age-class regulation returned $72.60 of present value over a 40-year period. In the next 40 years the only expenses reduce the present value to $72.43. To regulate this stand into a forest with an equal...

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.

  4. Green thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank Woolsey, III

    Many people around the world have observed green light apparently emanating from severe thunderstorms, but until recently there has been no scientific study of the phenomenon. Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm suggest that they are some kind of illusion. The existence of green thunderstorms has been objectively demonstrated by recording spectra of light from thunderstorms using a handheld spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 and the spring of 1996 numerous storms were observed and spectra of the light emanating from these storms were recorded. Observations were made both at the ground and aboard research aircraft. Furthermore, time series of spectra were recorded as the observed color of some storms changed from dark blue to a bluish-green. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the occurrence of green light in connection with severe storms. Fankhauser gave some observational support to the belief that green light from thunderstorms is possible and believed that the source of the light is from the blue sky penetrating thin regions in the clouds. Fraser believes that light from the setting sun, in combination with the process of scattering by atmospheric molecules, creates the green light associated with severe weather and the thunderstorm acts only as a black backdrop. Unfortunately, no cloud illuminated by the sun is black and the green airlight produced by the Fraser theory is in reality overwhelmed by light reflected by the cloud. Often the unusual coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflection of light from foliage on the ground. The quantitative measurements made during the observation period fail to support these assumptions. We have observed thunderstorms to be green over ground that was not green and we have observed blue thunderstorms over ground that was green

  5. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...

  6. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  7. Assessing Methods to Protect Susceptible Oak and Tanoak Stands from Sudden Oak Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund Swiecki; Elizabeth Bernhardt

    2010-01-01

    Landowners and managers have been seeking ways to protect susceptible oak (Quercus) species and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) from sudden oak death (SOD) caused by Phytophthora ramorum. Because disease epidemiology differs between tanoaks and susceptible oaks, we are testing different control strategies...

  8. Oak Dispersal Syndromes: Do Red and White Oaks Exhibit Different Dispersal Srategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Steele; Peter Smallwood; William B. Terzaghi; John E. Carlson; Thomas conteras; Amy McEuen

    2004-01-01

    We provide an overview of the ecological and evolutionary interactions between oaks and several of their dispersal agents, and review a series of studies that demonstrate how various acorn characteristics affect feeding and caching decisions of these animals, which in turn may influence oak dispersal and establishment. We demonstrate that acorns of red oak species show...

  9. A guide for evaluating the adequacy of oak advance reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan L. Sander; Paul S. Johnson; Richard F. Watt

    1976-01-01

    Gives instructions for conducting an inventory of oak advance reproduction prior to final harvest cutting to evaluate the potential for successful oak reproduction in new stands. The potential for oak stump sprouting is also considered.

  10. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...

  11. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  12. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  13. Stakeholders' participation in township tourism planning and development: the case of business managers in Soshanguve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acha-Anyi Paul Nkemngu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder theory advocates the inclusion and participation of relevant stakeholders in both community and business development. This necessitates a diligent planning process with the aim of working towards pre-determined objectives. Furthermore, the constructive participation of stakeholders in the development process can be said to depend on their understanding of the role they are expected to play. Therefore, the participation of business managers in tourism planning and development can be assessed based on their familiarity with both the general and personal business success factors in their operating environment. This paper assesses the contribution of tourism business operators in Soshanguve Township to tourism development in their community. The study undertakes a quantitative survey of 29 managers of tourism businesses on their perceptions on general business success factors and personal business success factors in Soshanguve Township. The results reveal discrepancies between what the managers perceive to be general business success factors in the community and the factors they consider to have contributed to their personal business success. The inference from the above is that business managers are not optimising on the business potential in their community based on the margin of difference between what they percieve to be the best industry success factors and the implementation of the same in their personal businesses. The study concludes with recommendations on how to breach the gap in order to maximise the contribution of businesses to tourism development in Soshanguve Township. Prime among these is the increase intervention by the local government in the coordination and training of businesses in the community.

  14. Ground-water levels in aquifers used for residential supply, Campton Township, Kane County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Kraske, Kurt A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Campton Township Board of Trustees, measured water levels in the aquifers used for residential supply in Campton Township, Kane County, Illinois. Aquifers used for residential supply are the shallow and deep aquifers in the glacial drift, composed of unconsolidated sand and gravels; the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer, composed of dolomite and shale of the Alexandrian Series and the Maquoketa Group; the Galena-Platteville aquifer, composed of dolomite of the Platteville and Galena Groups; and the Ancell aquifer, composed of sandstones of the Glenwood Formation and the St. Peter Sanstone. Water-level altitudes in the shallow drift aquifers generally follow surface topography. Analysis of water-level data does not clearly indicate overutilization of these aquifers. Water-level altitudes in the deep drift aquifers decrease from west to east. Comparison of historical depth to water measurements with current (1995) measurements indicates large decreases in water levels in some areas. The deep drift aquifers may be overutilized at these locations. Water-level altitudes in the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer generally decrease from west to east. The potentiometric surface of the aquifer follows the bedrock-surface topography in some locations. Localized low water-level altitudes and large decreases in water levels indicate the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer is overutilized in several areas. Water-level altitudes in the wells finished in the Galena- Platteville aquifer vary by more than 300 feet. Large decreases in water levels in wells finished in the Galena-Platteville aquifer indicate the Galena-Platteville and Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifers are overutilized in the northern part of the township. Water-level altitudes in the wells finished in the Ancell aquifer are also highly variable. There is no indication that the Ancell aquifer is overutilized.

  15. Rural electrification program with renewable energy sources: An analysis of China’s Township Electrification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2012-01-01

    Given the fact that 1.4 billion people, over 20% of the world’s population, lack access to electricity, rural electrification remains a common challenge for many developing countries. The ‘Township Electrification Program’ launched by the Chinese government in 2002 is known as the world’s largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. This study gives an in-depth examination of the program implemented in two selected townships in remote of rural areas of western China. The results showed that the implementation of the program possessed a technical orientation (e.g., construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g., electricity tariff, households’ ability to pay electricity fees, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g., training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g., good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Even though electricity was provided by the solar PV power stations, households still relied on traditional energy sources, such as candles and dry cell batteries, due to the fact that electricity service was unreliable and electricity supply was not sufficient for households’ needs. - Highlights: ► China’s electrification rate has reached the level of OECD countries. ► Township Electrification Program is the world’s largest electrification program. ► The program possessed a technical orientation and underestimated other aspects. ► Households still relied on traditional energy, such as candles and batteries. ► Having electricity access did not mean that electricity was actually used.

  16. Goldspotted oak borer: Field identification guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hishinuma; T.W. Coleman; M.L. Flint; S.J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a flatheaded borer new to California that poses a significant threat to oak trees. The pest is native to southeastern Arizona, although a related species occurs in southern Mexico and northern Guatemala. GSOB was first collected and identified in California in 2004 in San Diego County...

  17. Oak regeneration potential increased by shelterwood treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Schlesinger; Ivan L. Sander; Kenneth R. Davidson

    1993-01-01

    In much of the Central Hardwood Forest Region, oak species are not regenerating well, even though large oak trees are common within the existing forests. The shelterwood method has been suggested as a potential tool for establishing and developing advanced regeneration where it is lacking. The 10-yr results from a study of several variants of the shelterwood method...

  18. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  19. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  20. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.

  1. The story of a narrative: Teaching and assessing English writing in a township school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Akinyeye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The new language curriculum in South Africa recommends that extended writing be taught through a combination of text-based (or genre and process approaches. This article reports on a study of the teaching and assessment of narrative writing in English as a first additional language (FAL at a time of curriculum change. The setting is a Cape Flats township school. In focusing on a story written by a Grade 9 learner and assessed by her teacher, the study sought evidence of the use of text-based and process approaches. The theoretical frame is informed by genre theory, which draws on Systemic Functional Linguistics and social constructivist approaches to language learning. A qualitative research paradigm was used. Data obtained for this case study included the learner’s writing, interviews with the teacher, and classroom observation. The study finds very little evidence of a scaffolded approach to the teaching and assessment of writing, and explores the constraints on the realisation of the curriculum cycle in English FAL. These relate to the teacher’s understanding of writing as well as to material conditions in township schools.

  2. Understanding teenage pregnancy in a post-apartheid South African township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi

    2010-05-01

    Although South Africa's total fertility rate is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of early childbearing remain a concern. Most teenage pregnancies occur among poor black and coloured South Africans. The majority of these pregnancies are said to be unwanted and unplanned and the teenager's relationships, unstable. Becoming a mother during one's teenage years is perceived to be socially, economically and physically deleterious for the teenager and her baby. This paper presents ethnographic data collected over a five-year period in the South African township of Nyanga East in the Western Cape. It draws attention to the circumstances that surround teenage pregnancy and discusses reactions to teenage pregnancies in this community. Findings highlight that despite the negative perception of teenage pregnancy within the township, particular social and cultural circumstances provided fertile ground for its occurrence. Furthermore, the paper argues that in this particular community the management of a teenage pregnancy played a functional and critical role in maintaining and reproducing social norms and ideals regarding intergenerational relationships, which ultimately ensured that the rates of early childbearing remained high.

  3. Implementation of a "County-Township-Village" Allied HIV Prevention and Control Intervention in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Junjun; Lu, Qinglin; Liang, Bingyu; Liu, Deping; Fang, Keyong; Huang, Jiegang; He, Yang; Ning, Chuanyi; Liao, Yanyan; Lai, Jingzhen; Wei, Wudi; Qin, Fengxiang; Ye, Li; Geng, Wenkui; Liang, Hao

    2017-09-01

    In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention. Compared to traditional intervention, the innovative intervention achieved positive effects in decreasing risky behaviors. Among female sex workers, condom use rate in the last month increased from 72.06% to 96.82% (p ratio of HIV infection during innovative intervention was 0.631 (95% confidence interval 0.549-0.726) compared with traditional one. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that innovative intervention restores each disability-adjusted life year costing an average of $124.26. Taken together, Longzhou's innovative intervention has achieved good effects on HIV/AIDS prevention and control and provides a good reference for rural China.

  4. Critical Failure Factors in Selling Shoplots towards Sustainability of New Township Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawil N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is to identify the critical factors of shop houses sale failure in Nilai New Township. The critical factors of sale failure of commercial property types, shop houses in new township need to be discover as reported by Valuation and Property Services Department (JPPH showed 5,931 units of shop houses in Malaysia is currently completed but remained unsold where Johor was recorded as the highest with unsold units followed by Negeri Sembilan. Thus Nilai New towship is chosen as research sample for unsold shop houses units due to its strategic location which is near to KLIA, International Sepang Circuit, educational instituitions and surrounded by housing scheme but yet still has numbers of unsold units. Data was gathered from survey question between developers, local authority, purchasers/tenant and local residents.. Generally, the factors of sale failure are economy, demography, politic, location and access, public and basic facilities, financial loan, physical of product, current stock of shop houses upon completion, future potential of subsale and rental, developer’s background, promotion and marketing, speculation and time.

  5. Betel Quid and Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders in a Periurban Township in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Ko-Ko; Ohnmar, Mya; Hlaing, Moh-Moh; Oo, Yin-Thet-Nu; Win, Swe-Swe; Htike, Maung-Maung-Than; Aye, Phyu-Phyu; Shwe, Sein; Htwe, Moe-Thida; Thein, Zaw-Moe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe betel quid chewing practice and compare oral potentially malignant disorders between chewers and non-chewers of betel quid among residents in Dagon Myothit (East) Township, Myanmar. The study used a cross-sectional design conducted with a representative sample of 542 adults aged 18 years and above in the township. The trained interviewers collected data using a pretested structured questionnaire. On-site oral examination was done for suspected oral lesions. The mean age of the respondents was 45 years and 59% were women. Fifty-two percent of the respondents were currently in the habit of chewing betel quids (72% of men and 39% of women). Among 284 current betel quid chewers, 240 (85%) chewed betel quids together with tobacco. Out of 284 current betel quid chewers, 24 (8.5%) were found to have oral potentially malignant disorders; out of 258 betel quid non-chewers, only 1 (0.4%) was found to have oral potentially malignant disorders. This highlights the growing importance of smokeless tobacco use as public health problem.

  6. When HIV is ordinary and diabetes new: remaking suffering in a South African township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Emily; Norris, Shane A

    2015-01-01

    Escalation of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among urban South African populations disproportionately afflicted by HIV/AIDS presents not only medical challenges but also new ways in which people understand and experience sickness. In Soweto, the psychological imprints of political violence of the Apartheid era and structural violence of HIV/AIDS have shaped social and health discourses. Yet, as NCDs increasingly become part of social and biomedical discussions in South African townships, new frames for elucidating sickness are emerging. This article employs the concept of syndemic suffering to critically examine how 27 women living with Type 2 diabetes in Soweto, a township adjacent to Johannesburg known for socio-economic mobility as well as inequality, experience and understand syndemic social and health problems. For example, women described how reconstructing families and raising grandchildren after losing children to AIDS was not only socially challenging but also affected how they ate, and how they accepted and managed their diabetes. Although previously diagnosed with diabetes, women illustrated how a myriad of social and health concerns shaped sickness. Many related diabetes treatment to shared AIDS nosologies, referring to diabetes as 'the same' or 'worse'. These narratives demonstrate how suffering weaves a social history where HIV becomes ordinary, and diabetes new.

  7. Exploring safety in township secondary schools in the Free State province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Masitsa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research overwhelmingly suggests that effective teaching and learning can occur only in a safe and secure school environment. However, despite the plethora of laws and acts protecting teachers and learners in South African schools, scores of them are still unsafe. This study examines the safety of teachers and learners in township secondary schools in the Free State province, South Africa. The sample of study consisted of 396 teachers who were randomly selected from 44 township secondary schools across the province. The sample completed a questionnaire based on the safety of teachers and learners in their schools. Prior to completion, the questionnaire was tested for reliability using the Cronbach alpha coefficient and it was found to have a reliability score of .885, indicating an acceptable reliability coefficient. The questionnaire was computer analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Primer Version 12. The results of the analysis revealed that both teachers and learners are not safe in their schools, either during or after school hours. The causes of a lack of safety in these schools reside within and without the schools, implying that learners are sometimes the culprits. The study concludes with recommendations on addressing the problem.

  8. The influence of township schools on the resilience of their learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Mampane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many learners living in townships require protection and resilience to overcome obstacles and adversities in their context of development. The literature on resilience indicates strongly that resilience is embedded systemically. In the absence of constructive and supportive conditions in the home environment, the school would logically appear to be the next resource in line to be tapped. We investigated the contribution of two South African township schools to the resilience of their middleadolescent learners. Case studies with focus groups of resilient and less-resilient Grade 9 learners were used, following the Interactive Qualitative Analysis method, to determine the participants' perceptions of how the school contributes to the degree and nature of their resilience. The influence of the school varied depending on the degree of the learners' resilience, but also depending on factors within the school itself, suggesting that schools play a distinctive and determining role. Contributions particularly highlighted included creation, or failure to create, a supportive teaching and learning environment with effective implementation of rules and educational policy to provide care and safety for its learners and develop them to reach their future goals. Resilient learners were more ready than less resilient learners to acknowledge and utilise these characteristics. All focus groups placed much emphasis on goal attainment, suggesting a strong relationship with resilience.

  9. Renewable Energy Use in Smallholder Farming Systems: A Case Study in Tafresh Township of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shabanali Fami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate use of renewable energy and materials in smallholder farming system of the Tafresh township of Iran. The population of the study consisted of 2,400 small farmers working in the smallholder farming systems of the area, in which 133 people were selected as sample using Cochran formula and simple random sampling technique. In order to gather the information, a questionnaire was developed for the study and validated by the judgment of the experts in agricultural development and extension. The reliability of the main scales of the questionnaire was examined by Cronbach Alpha coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 0.93, indicating the tool of study is reliable. The findings revealed that the majority of the respondents use renewable energy and materials directly in its traditional forms without enabling technologies, and they lack the access to renewable technologies to improve the efficiency of energy use. They preferred fossil energy for many activities due to its lower cost and ease of access. The overall conclusion is that there are potentials and capacities for using renewable energies and materials in the farming systems of the Tafresh township. The government has to support and encourage the adoption of renewable technologies and abandon fossil fuels wherever possible.

  10. Applying spatial clustering analysis to a township-level social vulnerability assessment in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yen Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The degree of social vulnerability may vary according to the conditions and backgrounds of different locations, yet spatial clustering phenomena may exist when nearby spatial units exhibit similar characteristics. This study applied spatial autocorrelation statistics to analyze the spatial association of vulnerability among townships in Taiwan. The vulnerability was first assessed on the basis of a social vulnerability index that was constructed using Fuzzy Delphi and analytic hierarchy process methods. Subsequently, the corresponding indicator variables were applied to calculate standardized vulnerability assessment scores by using government data. According to the results of the vulnerability assessment in which T scores were normalized, the distribution of social vulnerabilities varied among the townships. The scores were further analyzed using spatial autocorrelation statistics for spatial clustering of vulnerability distribution. The Local G statistic identified 42 significant spatial association pockets, whereas the Global G statistic indicated no spatial phenomenon of clustering. This phenomenon was verified and explained by applying Moran's I statistics to examine the homogeneity and heterogeneity of spatial associations. Although both statistics were originally designed to identify the existence of spatial clustering, they serve diverse purposes, and the results can be compared to obtain additional insights into the distribution patterns of social vulnerability.

  11. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  12. Green Nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Nicholas; Eickers, Stephanie; Geene, Leonie; Todorovic, Marijana; Villmow, Annika; Forschungsstelle für Umweltpolitik (FFU), Freie Universität Berlin

    2018-01-01

    Traditional environmental policy instruments have not always proven successful in fostering environmentally friendly behaviour. The question remains: how can policymakers tackle the attitude-behaviour gap when it comes to pro-environmental choices and sustainable lifestyles? One solution that has emerged is green nudging, a new and potentially promising policy tool born of behavioural economics and experimental psychology. This paper contributes to the current discussion surrounding green nud...

  13. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucke, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1991 is the 21st in a series that began in 1971. The report documents the annual results of a comprehensive program to estimate the impact of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge operations upon human health and the environment. The report is organized into ten sections that address various aspects of effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, dose assessment, waste management, and quality assurance. A compliance summary gives a synopsis of the status of each facility relative to applicable state and federal regulations. Data are included for the following: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs are intended to serve as effective indicators of contaminant releases and ambient contaminant concentrations that have the potential to result in adverse impacts to human health and the environment

  14. Mammals of the Oak forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otalora Ardila, Aida

    2003-01-01

    The high rate of deforestation over the Andean forests has generated a large proportion of fragmented landscapes in the country. The distribution of oak groves in the country was determined based on ecosystem maps. Charala and Encino oak groves patches are the largest ones found at the east Andes and like others, due to the unfair use of these resources, have suffered a fragmentation process. Fifty-five species of mammals included in 10 orders and 14 families were found in these forests. Chiroptera and Rodentia were the most representative groups. Anthropic processes had produced a 68.1% loss of the habitat and constitute the main threat for these forests. The sizes of the patches were evaluated for three mammal species categories. The patches' area are not favorable for large-size species, intermediately to favorable to medium-size species and are favorable for small-size species. It is suggested that patches' area effect over mammal species could relate to the decrease of species richness and of each fragment area. There are good connections between patches (only five isolated), allowing the presence of a greater species diversity. There is also a bleak plateau zone between connected patches increasing their connectivity and offering different habitats and resources for some mammal species

  15. Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipper, M.N.

    1990-03-01

    Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs

  16. Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipper, M.N.

    1990-03-01

    Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs.

  17. Restoration of Black Oak (Quercus velutina) Sand Barrens via Three Different Habitat Management Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriska, David John

    Disturbance regimes, i.e. frequent fires, historically maintained oak barrens until European settlement patterns, and eventually, Smoky the Bear and the fire suppression campaign of the U.S. Forest Service snuffed out the periodic flames. In the absence of a disturbance regime, ground layer floral composition at many historical oak sand barrens will change predominantly because of a buildup of leaf litter and shading of the soils. Termed mesophication, this process of ecological succession will drive Black Oak Sand Barrens to an alternate steady state. A survey conducted on Singer Lake Bog in Green, Ohio, demonstrated that succession shifted the community to red maple-black cherry woodlands more typical of a dry southern forest. In an attempt to revive disturbance, three restoration techniques were applied at ten degraded northeast Ohio oak barrens to contrast their effectiveness in restoring black oak sand barren flora. The three restoration treatments were select canopy tree reduction favoring 5% to 30% tree canopy cover, forest floor leaf litter removal, and prescribed fire. Vegetation responses to manipulations were monitored prior to and following treatment applications, and were compared against both baseline data from before-treatment surveys and paired control sites adjacent treated areas. Imposing disturbance successfully increased species diversity and abundance above that found across Singer Lake Bog compared to sampling made prior to and adjacent to treated areas. Select canopy tree removal exhibited the largest floral responses from targeted barrens species, i.e. graminoids. A forest floor invertebrate family (Carabidea: Coleoptera) was measured for species richness and abundance pre and post treatment, where a noticeable shift occurred away from woodland obligate ground beetles toward open grassland species. Replicating oak barren structure, prior to replicating disturbance processes, is the first step in the ecological restoration of these systems.

  18. The mighty oak faces challenges in the Pacific West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail Wells

    2010-01-01

    In popular imagination, the oak tree stands for strength, endurance, and longevity. But in the coastal lowlands and central valleys of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California, oaks face a battery of natural and human-induced threats. Sudden oak death, caused by a virulent pathogen identified in 2000, has killed millions of tanoaks, California black oaks,...

  19. A field guide to insects and diseases of California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth A. Bernhardt

    2006-01-01

    California has more than twenty-five native species, natural hybrids, and varieties of oaks (Quercus species). The form of these oaks ranges from large trees, up to about 25 m tall, to shrubs no taller than about 1.5 m. California's native oaks include representatives of three oak subgroups or subgenera (Table 1). Hybridization only occurs...

  20. Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil

    2002-01-01

    Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin...

  1. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, A.; Madeira, M.; Lima Santos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands...... patterns of oak recruitment and therefore, its study may be helpful in highlighting future baselines for the sustainable management of oak woodlands....

  2. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  3. Green times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenclever, W.D.; Hasenclever, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors, founding members of the ''Green Party'' have in mind to make a very personal contribution to a better understanding of the present political situation which, although it seems to have reached a deadlock, still offers positive chances and prospects. New approaches in policy are mentioned which may help to overcome the present state of resignation of many adolescents and adults. Among other things, they describe themselves setting out for new pathways, the ''Greens'' in Parliament, prospect for the future, opportunities of the ecologically oriented economic policy. Finally, they call upon the reader to think and develop further under the motto ''What we all can do''. (HSCH) [de

  4. Features Of The Legal Practices Application In The Decisions Of The Township Courts In Russia In The Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Dashkovskaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the concept of legal custom as a source of law is researched. The role of legal customs in Russian Empire is shown. It is proved that during the Russian Empire period legal custom played an important role in the legal system, being one of the building blocks. Peculiarities of township courts activity are researched. Significance of legal customs for proceedings in the township courts is shown. For the importance of township courts in the Russian Empire played the fact that in their work they used existing among peasants customs and it was sanctioned by the authorities. Author stresses out that by recognizing custom, state thus authorizes current pattern of behavior in the society, a way of resolve conflicts that to the greatest extent are consistent with the understanding of justice by the society. To the legal custom, following features: custom is formed as a result of certain action frequent repetition; the source of the legal custom formation is a social consciousness; customs largely reflect the level of the society development at the particular stage; customs has quite a local character; customs reflect collective understanding on the fair nature of law. In the article two features which the judicial system of the Russian Empire had in the post-reform period: presence of class township courts as a class judiciary and application of legal customs to the township courts are noted. Combination of these two features allowed government to preserve patriarchal relations in the countryside. Such conservation, to some extent, was contrary to the liberal orientation of the "great reforms" of Alexander II, hindered development of the capitalist relations in the country, delaying implementation of the judicial reform principles.

  5. Challenging Pentecostal moralism: erotic geographies, religion and sexual practices among township youth in Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchardt, Marian

    2011-06-01

    Research on constructions of sexuality in Pentecostalism often struggles with the fact that the research setting is defined ex ante in terms of church communities, which imposes upon ethnographic accounts the same limitations Pentecostal morality imposes upon church members' discourse. Taking young Pentecostals operating in a space that is not explicitly religious as the methodological entrance to the field, this paper explores negotiations over sexuality, intimate relationships and love among Xhosa-speaking township youth. It introduces the notion of erotic geographies to consider how possible influences of religious discourses on sexuality are refracted by alternative cultural orientations and material contexts. Findings suggest that premarital abstinence appears as a highly exceptional ideal for youth. Even among Pentecostal youth, notions of sexuality are largely severed from religiosity and faithfulness and romanticism are dominant ideals. Future research on Pentecostalism and sexuality should be less religious-centric and rooted more firmly in ethnographies of youth sexual cultures.

  6. Occupational health and safety challenges in China--focusing on township-village enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Siying; Song, Qingkun; Tse, Lap-Ah; Yu, Ignatius T S; Wong, Tze-Wai; Griffiths, Sian

    2011-01-01

    China has experienced dramatic industrialization, urbanization, and economic growth over the last 3 decades. The rapid transformation and dramatic prosperity of industries in rural areas have, in turn, created tremendous challenges for occupational health and safety (OHS). This article was prepared to address occupational health and safety issues in township- and village-owned enterprises (TVEs) from several aspects, including working conditions and workplace hazards, major recognized OHS problems, implications of TVE industries to environmental health, and migrant workers. Among the major recognized OHS problems, pneumoconiosis, chemical poisoning, and workplace accidents, especially in small-scale coal mines, are highlighted. It is suggested that the national polices and regulations that specifically target TVEs are indispensable and a more powerful administrative structure should be established to ensure that the pertinent polices, regulations, and OHS standards can be enforced widely and effectively in practice. Copyright © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  7. FUNCTIONAL STRATEGIES OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN POLICESERVICEIN PREVENTION AND COMBATING OF SUBSTANCEABUSEIN A SOUTH AFRICAN TOWNSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Machethe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on the functional strategies and initiatives takenby SouthAfrican Police Service(SAPStowards prevention and combating of substanceabusein a South African Township. The study made useof mainly quantitative(survey methodto collect relevant data from 80participants who were selectedfrom the SAPS, local churches,Non-governmental organisations (NGOsandcommunity members.The findings of this study indicate an array of strategies inuse. Police regular conduct of stop and search in certain sectors than others,regular patrols, use of reliable volunteer informants (informants, secret detection,tracking and investigation, sharing of crime information tips and education ofpublic, and police partnership with civilorganisations were revealed as thesustaining strategies by the SAPS.Critical analysis of these strategies in the studyrevealed a mixed bag of functionality. Pragmaticsuggestions to improve on thelagging strategies were made by this study.

  8. ASSOCIATION OF FOOD SECURITY AND HOUSEHOLDDEMOGRAPHICS IN A SOUTH AFRICAN TOWNSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshediso Joseph Sekhampu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchshowsthatfoodinsecurityisone of the challengesthatpost-apartheidSouth Africafaces.Food securityindicators notethat South Africa as a countryhas an apparent state of sufficiency, while household indicators show greatdisparities between urban and rural households.Thepurpose of this study was toanalysethe food security status of households in the township of Kwakwatsi, FreeStateprovince. Data were collected through a household survey to determinetheassociationbetweenhousehold food security andthedemographic variables of ahousehold. Of the sampled households,51.1%were found to be food secureaccording tothe Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS. Logisticregression analysis revealedthatthere is a clear correlation betweenhouseholdsize, household income,andgender and marital status of the household headandhousehold food security.While household size,and the gender andmarital statusof the household head wereassociated withfoodinsecurity,an increase inhousehold income andtheage of thehouseholdheadwereassociated withfoodsecurity.The study offers trends in food security and can be used as a referencesource when addressing socio-economic challengesthatlow-incomehouseholdsin South African townshipsface.

  9. Engineering feasibility analysis for in-situ stabilization of Burrell Township site residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The Burrell Township site, located in western Pennsylvania, received approximately 11,600 tons of radioactively-contaminated material in late 1956 and early 1957 from the Vitro Manufacturing Company's operations in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. WESTON was requested to conduct an engineering study to determine the feasibility of stabilizing the site in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) interim and proposed standards (45 FR 27366--27368, April 22, 1980, and 46 FR 2556--2563, January 9, 1981). The scope of this study is limited to those alternatives that can be implemented on the site and will not require removal and offsite disposal of radioactively-contaminated material. Four alternatives for control of the radioactive material at the Burrell site were considered and evaluated, as follows: 1. Site stabilization and closure. 2. Site control and containment. 3. Waste excavation and encapsulation. 4. Waste excavation, incineration, and encapsulation. 2 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Evaluation of the Township Proper Carrying Capacity over Qinghai-Tibet plateau by CASA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengyong; Cao, Guangchao; Xue, Huaju; Jiang, Gang; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Jie; Chen, Kelong

    2018-01-01

    The existing study of proper carrying capacity (PCC) has mostly focused on province or county administrative units, which can only macroscopically master the quantitative characteristics of PCC, but could not effectively take some animal husbandry management measures that are pertinent and operational. At town-scale, this paper used CASA model to estimate the PCC in Mongolian Autonomous County of Henan, Qinghai province, China,with serious grassland degeneration that mainly caused by overgrazing. The results showed that the PCC throughout the County was 950,417 sheep unit. For the township, the PCC of Saierlong and Duosong were the largest (247,100 sheep unit) and the smallest (82,016 sheep unit) respectively. This study will provide reference data for developing sustainable development of town-scale pasture policies and also will help to evaluate the health status of the alpine grassland ecosystem on Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

  11. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  12. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  13. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  14. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  15. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  16. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  17. Accelerating oak air drying by presurfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. T. Simpson; R. C. Baltes

    1972-01-01

    A comparison was made between the air-drying rates of rough and presurfaced northern red oak and white oak. In both species, the presurfaced material was about 1/8 inch thinner than the rough material and dried faster than the rough material. The reduction in drying time depends on the method of analyzing the drying curves, but is slightly less than 10 percent.

  18. Perspectives on cultural values of California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Starrs

    2002-01-01

    The status and prospects of oaks—those native to California and the many elsewhere—are insufficiently known, despite historical volumes of work done in the past and more ongoing today. That globally there is a blistering diversity of oaks in different environments, and put to distinct uses, is beyond dispute. Less agreed upon, though, is their complex history and the...

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R.

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1

  20. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  1. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  2. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  3. Propagation of Southern Red Oak and Water Oak by Rooted Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horace J. Duncan; Fred R. Matthews

    1969-01-01

    Southern red oak and water oak, needed in studies of fusiform rust of southern pines, were propagated from cuttings of rooted stump sprouts and mature tree branches placed in outdoor propagation beds in June. Root strike and root development were increased when cuttings with basal wounds were treated with both the hormone IBA and the fungicide folpet. Cuttings from...

  4. Amplification of North American Red Oak Microsatellite Markers in European White Oaks and Chinese Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. R. Aldrich; M. Jagtap; C. H. Michler; J. Romero-Severson

    2003-01-01

    We examined the cross-species amplification success of thirty microsatellite markers developed from North American northern red oak (Quercus rubra) in other members of the family Fagaceae. Sixteen of these markers are newly developed and we report primer sequences and amplification conditions here. Twelve of the thirty (40.0%) red oak markers...

  5. Population genetics and biological control of goldspotted oak borer, an invasive pest of California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanessa Lopez; Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Richard Stouthamer; Mark Hoddle

    2015-01-01

    California’s oak woodlands are threatened by the recent introduction of goldspotted oak borer (Agrilus auroguttatus). This invasive wood-borer is indigenous to mountain ranges in southern Arizona where its low population densities may be due to the presence of co-evolved, host-specific natural enemies. Reuniting A. auroguttatus...

  6. Forecasting the future of coast live oak forests in the face of sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letty B. Brown; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the potential short- and long-term impacts of sudden oak death (SOD) on forest structure and composition. This study began in 2002 to evaluate the effects of SOD on coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) - California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) forests over a gradient of Phytophthora ramorum...

  7. An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding area in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was conducted during the period March 30 to April 14,1992. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment of the Oak Ridge Reservation for use in environmental management programs and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) along a series of parallel lines 250 feet (76 meters) apart and included X-10 (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), K-25 (former Gaseous Diffusion Plant), Y-12 (Weapons Production Plant), the Freels Bend Area and Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, the East Fork Poplar Creek (100-year floodplain extending from K-25 to Y-12), Elza Gate (former uranium ore storage site located in the city of Oak Ridge), Parcel A, the Clinch River (river banks extending from Melton Hill Dam to the city of Kingston), and the CSX Railroad Tracks (extending from Y-12 to the city of Oak Ridge). The survey encompassed approximately 55 square miles (1 41 square kilometers) of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding area

  8. Fire in upper Midwestern oak forest ecosystems: an oak forest restoration and management handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee E. Frelich; Peter B. Reich; David W. Peterson

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the literature to synthesize what is known about the use of fire to maintain and restore oak forests, woodlands, and savannas of the upper Midwestern United States, with emphasis on Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Included are (1) known physical and ecological effects of fire on oaks from acorn through seedling, established sapling, and mature stages of...

  9. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  10. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  11. Oak Ridge rf Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.L.; Hoffman, D.J.; McCurdy, H.C.; McManamy, T.J.; Moeller, J.A.; Ryan, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The rf Test Facility (RFTF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a national facility for the testing and evaluation of steady-state, high-power (approx.1.0-MW) ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems and components. The facility consists of a vacuum vessel and two fully tested superconducting development magnets from the ELMO Bumpy Torus Proof-of-Principle (EBT-P) program. These are arranged as a simple mirror with a mirror ratio of 4.8. The axial centerline distance between magnet throat centers is 112 cm. The vacuum vessel cavity has a large port (74 by 163 cm) and a test volume adequate for testing prototypic launchers for Doublet III-D (DIII-D), Tore Supra, and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Attached to the internal vessel walls are water-cooled panels for removing the injected rf power. The magnets are capable of generating a steady-state field of approx.3 T on axis in the magnet throats. Steady-state plasmas are generated in the facility by cyclotron resonance breakdown using a dedicated 200-kW, 28-GHz gyrotron. Available rf sources cover a frequency range of 2 to 200 MHz at 1.5 kW and 3 to 18 MHz at 200 kW, with several sources at intermediate parameters. Available in July 1986 will be a >1.0-MW, cw source spanning 40 to 80 MHz. 5 figs

  12. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  13. (Re)visualizing Black lesbian lives, (trans)masculinity, and township space in the documentary work of Zanele Muholi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imma, Z'étoile

    2017-04-03

    This article explores the politics of representing Black queer and trans subjectivities in the recent documentary film and photography of South African lesbian visual activist Zanele Muholi. While Muholi's work has been most often been positioned as an artistic response to the hate-crimes and violence perpetuated against Black lesbians in South African townships, most notably acts of sexual violence known increasingly as corrective rape, I argue that Muholi's documentary texts trouble the spatial, gendered, and highly racialized articulations that make up an increasingly global corrective rape discourse. The article considers how her visual texts foreground and (re)visualize Black queer and trans gender experiences that relocate, challenge, collaborate with, and at times, perform, masculinity as means to subvert heterosexist and racist constructions of township space and the Black gendered body.

  14. Factors contributing to the resilience of middle-adolescents in a South African township: insights from a resilience questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlalepule Ruth Mampane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to resilience are key to the positive development of youths, and knowledge of such factors is essential for promoting resilience in schools through both policy and practice. This study reports on the results of an item and factor analysis of the Resilience Questionnaire for Middle-adolescents in Township Schools (R-MATS that was used to survey 291 Grade 9 middle-adolescent learners from two black-only township secondary schools. The majority of respondents indicated an overall sense of contending with various stressors, especially the exposure to violence, and academic challenges. Respondents attributed their buoyancy to individual and environmental factors, such as self-confidence, an internal locus of control, a tough personality, commitment, being achievement-oriented, as well as positive identification of and access to social support.

  15. Challenges for the surgical capacity building of township hospitals among the Central China: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Yang, Jian; Wu, Yue; Pan, Zijin; He, Xiaoqun; Li, Boyang; Zhang, Liang

    2018-05-02

    China's rapid transition in healthcare service system has posed considerable challenges for the primary care system. Little is known regarding the capacity of township hospitals (THs) to deliver surgical care in rural China with over 600 million lives. We aimed to ascertain its current performance, barriers, and summary lessons for its re-building in central China. This study was conducted in four counties from two provinces in central China. The New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) claim data from two counties in Hubei province was analyzed to describe the current situation of surgical care provision. Based on previous studies, self-administered questionnaire was established to collect key indicators from 60 THs from 2011 to 2015, and social and economic statuses of the sampling townships were collected from the local statistical yearbook. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among seven key administrators in the THs that did not provide appendectomy care in 2015. Determinants of appendectomy care provision were examined using a negative binominal regression model. First, with the rapid increase in inpatient services provided by the THs, their proportion of surgical service provision has been nibbled by out-of-county facilities. Second, although DY achieved a stable performance, the total amount of appendectomy provided by the 60 THs decreased to 589 in 2015 from 1389 in 2011. Moreover, their proportion reduced to 26.77% in 2015 from 41.84% in 2012. Third, an increasing number of THs did not provide appendectomy in 2015, with the shortage of anesthesiologists and equipment as the most mentioned reasons (46.43%). Estimation results from the negative binomial model indicated that the annual average per capita disposable income and tightly integrated delivery networks (IDNs) negatively affected the amount of appendectomy provided by THs. By contrast, the probability of appendectomy provision by THs was increased by performance-related payment (PRP). Out

  16. Working and Learning Among California Oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietje, B.; Gingg, B.; Zingo, J.; Huntsinger, L.

    2009-04-01

    With tremendous support from collaborators and enthusiastic volunteers, "Learning Among the Oaks" at the historic Santa Margarita Ranch has become a favorite outdoor learning experience for hundreds of Santa Margarita School students, along with their teachers and families. Oaks are at the center of this unique and cost effective public education program. From getting to know local oaks to exploring conservation issues within the context of a historic working cattle ranch, students take pride in expanding their awareness and knowledge of the local oak woodland community. Santa Margarita School families representing the varied demographics of the community come together on the trail. For many, the program provides a first opportunity to get to know those who make a living on the land and to understand that this land around their school is more than a pretty view. "Learning Among the Oaks" also addresses the need for quality, hands-on science activities and opportunities to connect children with the outdoor world. Using a thematic approach and correlating lessons with State Science Standards, we've engaged students in a full-spectrum of exciting outdoor learning adventures. As students progress through the grades, they find new challenges within the oak trail environment. We've succeeded in establishing an internship program that brings highly qualified, enthusiastic university students out to practice their science teaching skills while working with elementary school students. In the future, these university student interns may assist with the development of interpretive displays, after-school nature activities and monitoring projects. We've benefited from proximity to Cal Poly State University and its "learn-by-doing" philosophy. We've also succeeded in building a dedicated network of volunteers and collaborators, each with a special interest satisfied through participation in the oak trail program. While "Learning Among the Oaks" has focused on educating school

  17. Concern about Workplace Violence and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers’ worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory. Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%. One hundred and six (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%. While most (85.2% respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents’ suggested measures for controlling violence included “widening channels on medical dispute solutions,” “improving doctor-patient communication,” and “advocating for respect for medical workers via the media.” Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers’ worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals.

  18. Concern about Workplace Violence and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Jiao, Mingli; Cui, Yu; Lu, Yan; Liu, Jinghua; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhao, Yuchong; Zhao, Yanming; Li, Ye; Liang, Libo; Kang, Zheng; Wu, Qunhong; Yin, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers’ worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory). Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%). One hundred and six (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%). While most (85.2%) respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents’ suggested measures for controlling violence included “widening channels on medical dispute solutions,” “improving doctor-patient communication,” and “advocating for respect for medical workers via the media.” Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers’ worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals. PMID:27517949

  19. Concern about Workplace Violence and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Jiao, Mingli; Cui, Yu; Lu, Yan; Liu, Jinghua; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhao, Yuchong; Zhao, Yanming; Li, Ye; Liang, Libo; Kang, Zheng; Wu, Qunhong; Yin, Mei

    2016-08-10

    Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers' worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory). Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%). One hundred and six (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%). While most (85.2%) respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents' suggested measures for controlling violence included "widening channels on medical dispute solutions," "improving doctor-patient communication," and "advocating for respect for medical workers via the media." Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers' worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals.

  20. Internal doses in Oak Ridge. The Internet beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the information, presented by the Radiation Internal Dose Information Center (RIDIC) of the Oak Ridge Associated Universities in Oak Ridge, TN, USA, via Internet (www.orau.gov/ehsd/ridic.htm)

  1. The epidemiology of sudden oak death in Oregon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebba K. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    The phytopathogen Phytophthora ramorum (Werres, DeCock & Man in't Veld), causal agent of Sudden Oak Death (SOD) of oaks (Quercus spp.) and tanoaks (Notholithocarpus densiflorus syn. Lithocarpus densiflorus...

  2. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base

  3. Are we teaching critical literacy? Reading practices in a township classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynis Lloyd

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in educational provision in South Africa since 1994, the opportunities for learners from historically under-resourced schools to gain access to powerful English resources remain limited and unequal (Prinsloo 2012. In this article I will provide a detailed description of literacy practices in a township high school in Cape Town, specifically of the orientations to text that are made available to learners. I will draw on feminist poststructuralist theory, in which the subject is theorised as constructed and contested in language to construct difference. The analysis of classroom discourse and text-based tasks shows that the orientations to reading that were offered were characterised by a focus on the surface meaning of the texts and by an absence of critical engagement, despite the latter being required in the new Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement. The analysis reveals how the power dynamics of our racialised past and dominant ideologies about gender, class and race continue to define teaching in our classrooms in ways that limit access to the English resources that learners in under-resourced schools need for academic success.

  4. The life-world of mothers who care for mentally retarded children: the Katutura township experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntswane, A M; van Rhyn, L

    2007-03-01

    This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155) of analysing qualitative data. The results indicated various emotions and challenges experienced by these mothers during the care of their children. Feelings of shock, despondency and sadness dominated the early stages when the retarded children were still young. During later years, as the children were growing up, the mothers felt shame, fear, frustration, anger, disappointment and worry. However, acceptance followed, as the children grew older. Stigma seemed to affect all the respondents. Support in any form or lack thereof seemed to be the decisive factor-positioning mothers along a continuum of two extremes, namely despairing isolation and integrated happiness. Recommendations were made regarding the improvement of heath care services and education of the mothers and their families.

  5. New energy vision in Iwaizumi Township area; 2000 nendo Iwaizumicho chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A new energy vision was established in the Iwaizumi Township area in Iwate Prefecture. The heat energy consumed by each household in Iwaizumi Town is 20.5 two-hundred-liter drums, while transportation (railways, buses, trucks and private cars) consumes 12.2 drums annually, and the electric energy field 4.7 drums annually. As the town as a whole, the ratio of utilization as heat energy is relatively high. Therefore, new energy introduction should be focused importantly on use of solar heat hot water supply device and high-level utilization of forestry fuels. The new energy introduction project includes introduction of bio-mass energy to produce heat energy and electric power using livestock excreta, cut woods, thinned woods, and kitchen refuses as the resources, structuring a new energy model for the 'Communication Land Iwaizumi', activation of the central urban area by introducing micro hydropower generation, assistance to proliferation of new energies to town-operated houses, households, and business entities, introduction of new energies into the disaster prevention center, schools, and insurance, medical and welfare facilities, introduction of clean energy automobiles, and uplift of consciousness of town people. (NEDO)

  6. A journey towards inclusive education; a case study from a 'township' in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Rosemary; Prudhomme, Debbie; Bullen, Ann; Pitt, Catherine; Geiger, Martha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to relate part of the journey to appropriate education for two young children with physical disabilities in a low socio-economic peri-urban informal settlement - or 'township' - in South Africa. The part of the on-going journey described here spanned four-and-a-half years and included the two children, their families, their teachers, their community and a small team of rehabilitation professionals working for a non-profit organisation in the area. The rehabilitation professionals' goals were to provide support for the children, their families, their current special care centre and the school(s) they would attend in the future. The steps from the special care centre, to a mainstream early childhood development (ECD) centre for both of them, and then on to (a) a school for learners with special educational needs (LSEN) for one child and (b) a mainstream primary school for the other, are described. Challenges encountered on the way included parental fears, community attitudes and physical accessibility. Practical outcomes included different placements for the two children with implications and recommendations for prioritised parent involvement, individual approaches, interdisciplinary and community-based collaborations. Recommendations are given for clinical contexts, curricula and policy matters; for research and for scaling up such a programme through community workers.

  7. The Role of Rural Communities in Conservation of Rangelands in Mahneshan Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Karimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the action of rangeland-depended livestock holders regarding rangeland conservation, including protection and rehabilitation activities and to analyse relevant influencing factors, using a mixed method of survey and case study. The data were collected through analysing existing documents, focus groups, semi-structured and structured interviews using questionnaires submitted to 204 rural livestock holders in the Mahneshan Township. The quantitative data were analysed using SPSS and AMOS software. According to the results farmers’ knowledge regarding the role, importance and factors affecting rangeland degradation was relatively high, however they had a low level of knowledge and action about mechanical conservation techniques. The action of livestock holders in terms of biological conservation activities and grazing management showed a positive and signifincat corrletaion with variables such as implementing of rangeland projects, their interaction with external institutions, participating in extension training courses, education level and irrigated and rainfed agricultural land size. Moreover, based on a path analysis, 37% of the variance of the farmers’ actions regarding the rangeland conservation was explained by the variables such as rangeland rehabilitation actions, farmers’ conservation knowledge, farmers’ interaction with natural resources experts, beekeeping, and participating in extension training courses. Promotional and extension activities and farmers’ interaction with experts have a positive effect in enhancing farmers’ knowledge and actions for sustainable rangeland use and conservation.

  8. Information Sources Influencing Soil Testing Innovation Adoption by Grape Farmers in the Khorramdarreh Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Shirin Golbaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Testing soil  is recognized to be an important practice for sustainable use of nutrients, which has been introduced to Iranian grape farmers as an innovation for over a decade. Its adoption and utilization may be influenced by receiving information from different sources. This study is performed to introduce these information sources that may influence the adoption of soil testing innovation by grape farmers. Using a survey, a sample of 260 out of 3942 grape farmers of the Khorramdarreh Township was selected using a stratified sampling technique and data was collected by structured interviews using a questionnaire. The content and face validity of the questionnaire was discussed and reviewed by a panel of experts consisting of university staff and agricultural professionals. Its reliability was also assessed through a pilot study and its main constructs were approved to be reliable using the Cronbach’s alpha test (measures between 0.71 and 0.84. Less than half of the grape farmers conducted soil testing in their vineyards. A regression analysis showed that variables such as contact of the farmers with model grape producers, Poster Received, publications and listening to radio programs and farmers’ education have a significant positive impact on soil testing innovation adoption. Therefore, both interpersonal and mass media can have a positive effect on farmers to adopt this innovation.

  9. The life-world of mothers who care for mentally retarded children: the Katutura township experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Ntswane

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155 of analysing qualitative data. The results indicated various emotions and challenges experienced by these mothers during the care of their children. Feelings of shock, despondency and sadness dominated the early stages when the retarded children were still young. During later years, as the children were growing up, the mothers felt shame, fear, frustration, anger, disappointment and worry. However, acceptance followed, as the children grew older. Stigma seemed to affect all the respondents. Support in any form or lack thereof seemed to be the decisive factor-positioning mothers along a continuum of two extremes, namely despairing isolation and integrated happiness. Recommendations were made regarding the improvement of heath care services and education of the mothers and their families.

  10. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS INFLUENCING BETEL NUT CHEWING AMONG ADULTS IN WEST INSEIN TOWNSHIP, YANGON, MYANMAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Su Kyaw; Narksawat, Kulaya; Sillabutra, Jutatip

    2016-09-01

    Betel nut chewing can cause precancerous oral lesions and is common in Myanmar. We conducted a cross sectional study aimed to estimate prevalence and factors influencing betel nut chewing among 420 subjects aged ≥18 years in West Insein Township, Yangon, Myanmar in order to inform preventive health programs. The mean age of the study subjects was 45(±15) years. The overall prevalence of current betel nut chewing among study subjects was 55.2%. The mean age starting betel nut chewing was 29(±13) years, and the mean duration of chewing was 15(±13) years. The reasons given by study subjects for chewing betel nut included the addictive effect to betel nut, to release tension, to get rid of boredom and to stop smoking. Sixty-two point three percent of current betel nut chewers also chewed tobacco and 24.2% also smoked cigarettes. Factors significantly associated with betel nut chewing were male gender, current alcohol consumer, having no education or finishing primary or secondary school, having a low score regarding their attitude about the health effects of betel nut chewing, and having high score on interpersonal factors by family and peer pressure. Our results show a need to better educate the public about the health effects of betel nut chewing among the study population.

  11. Aedes larval indices and the occurrence of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in urban community of Thanlyin Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thae’ Zar Chi Bo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban community of Thanlyin Township, Yangon Region during 2014 to determine Aedes larval indices and the occurrence of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF within past one year. A total of 327 households and 1491 members were included in the study. Aedes larval indices detected in this study were 25.7% for house index, 15.5% for container index and 48.0% for Breteau index. The occurrence of DHF among households and family members were 2.1% (95% CI: 0.9%, 4.4% and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.3%, 1.1%, respectively. The occurrence was highest among 5 to 14 years age-group. No case was reported among persons with equal or more than 60 years of age. Mortality and case fatality rates were 0% during study period. Larval positivity among households was significantly related to sufficiency of family income and number of water container they have. Surveillance and control procedures for both DHF and vector should be intensified in urban area. Awareness and participation of the community in prevention and control of DHF should also be raised. Socioeconomic status as well as proper water supply and storage should be improved in urban area.

  12. Information and communications technology adoption amongst township micro and small business: The case of Soweto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Marnewick

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: This research determines to what extent ICT is adopted by MSBs in Soweto, and whether or not a positive correlation exists between the adoption rate of ICT and the financial and growth performance of the MSB itself. Method: A structured questionnaire was completed by 978 respondents to determine the extent of ICT adoption and for what ICT is used. This exploratory research provides new knowledge about the acceptance of ICT within township MSBs. Results: The results indicate that ICT is not used to the fullest by MSBs. Rather, it is used as a basic tool for doing business but it does not form an integral part of the business. This research provides insight into the usage and adoption of ICT and it opens the door for further cross-analysis research. Conclusion: Education and training are needed to ensure that MSBs use ICT to the fullest. MSBs embracing ICT can evolve from a survivalist SME to a more sustainable micro and small MSB.

  13. Assessment of CO2 emission reduction and identification of CDM potential in a township

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, R.; Aseri, Tarun Kumar; Jamuwa, Doraj Karnal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India); Bansal, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Mahila Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India)

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents the theoretical investigation of CDM opportunity in a township at Jaipur, India. The purpose of study is to identify and analyze the various opportunities viz., installation of solar water heater, energy efficient lighting, energy efficient air conditioners, and energy efficient submersible water pumps in desert coolers and thus achieve a considerable (65.7 %) reduction in GHG emissions. Out of the various opportunities considered, the retrofitting with solar water heater can be recommended for CDM. Though, the retrofitting with energy efficient lighting, energy efficient air conditioners and energy efficient submersible water pumps in desert coolers claimed CO2 emission reduction of 104.84, 25.92, and 36.94 tons per annum, respectively, but the only opportunity which got through CDM was retrofitting with solar water heater claiming 115.70 tCO2 (100 %) emission reductions per annum which could result into net earnings of 115.70 CERs. The simple and discounted payback period for all four project activities are also calculated with and without CDM and tax benefits.

  14. Space and place in researching male early high school leaving in Orange Farm Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangile Bingma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I reflect on the methodological processes underpinning a dissertation that investigated male learners' reasons for leaving high school early and the strategies they employed to negotiate everyday life. A qualitative case study was conducted with nine male early high school leavers between the ages of 18 and 25, as well as 12 stakeholders involved in the Orange Farm Township, south of Johannesburg. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, document reviews, and observations. Narrative analysis revealed complications related to the notions of space and place of the potential participants and the researcher. In the first place, the difficulty was not in identifying participants, but in establishing rapport to the extent that they agreed to participate in the research. Assumptions about space and place gave rise to expectations that had to be managed, and consequently the researcher had to rethink the methodological choices. In particular, participants' perceived real social positions and their relation to different social spaces had to be negotiated. It is suggested that relatively novice researchers, researching male early high school leaving in familiar spaces, can mitigate complications of space, place and stigma during fieldwork by using multiple sources of data and strategic, flexible interviewing techniques.

  15. Socio-Economic Determinants of Poverty Amongst Female-Headed Households in a South African Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshediso Joseph Sekhampu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reported here used household level data toanalysedeterminants ofhousehold poverty amongst female-headed households in a South AfricanTownship of Bophelong. Poverty is defined and then measured for the sampledpopulation. A Logistic regression was estimated based on this data with theeconomic status (that is poor and non-poor as the dependent variable and a set ofdemographic variables as explanatory variables. The results show that householdsize, the age and employment status of theheadof householdsignificantly explainvariations in the likelihood of being poor.Household size was positivelyassociated with the probability of being poor, whereas the age and employmentstatus of the head of the household reduces the probability ofbeing in the poorcategory.It is of interest to note that the educational attainment of the householdhead is not important in reducing the chances of being a poor household.Information provided through this study is at household level and extends onexisting findings on poverty in South Africa bymodellingand determining thevarious socio-economic and demographic household level indicators responsiblefor female poverty.

  16. TOO SICK TO START: ENTREPRENEUR'S HEALTH AND BUSINESS ENTRY IN TOWNSHIPS AROUND DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Pereira, Nuno Sousa; Pauly, Mark V

    2010-01-01

    Unlike large firms with management teams, small businesses are usually run by one key person, the owner-entrepreneur, who bears almost all of the risks and makes almost all of the decisions related to the business. Because the owner-entrepreneur also embodies most of the firm-specific knowledge capital, health of the owner-entrepreneur is an important factor in the production process. Following a cohort of respondents in townships around Durban, South Africa, over a three-year period, we examined the relationship between an individual's physical health and the decision to start a business. Our results suggest that respondents who were recent business entrants were in better health than respondents who did not start new businesses. Moreover, respondents without a business at the beginning of the study who later opened businesses during the three-year study interval were significantly more likely to have better baseline health than those respondents who never started a new business. Hence, good health among entrepreneurs seems to be an important prerequisite to small business entry.

  17. HIV testing practices of South African township MSM in the era of expanded access to ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo G M; Knox, Justin; Collier, Kate L; Lane, Tim; Reddy, Vasu

    2015-03-01

    While men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa are at high risk for HIV infection, few of those already infected know their status. Effectively promoting frequent HIV testing-of increasing importance with the expanding accessibility of antiretroviral treatment-requires an understanding of the testing practices in this population. To understand men's HIV testing practices, including their behavior, experiences, and perceptions, we conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black South African MSM (ages 20-39), purposively recruited from four townships. Many men in the sample had tested for HIV. While ever having tested seemed to facilitate repeat testing, men still expressed a high level of discomfort with testing. It was common to test after having engaged in risky behavior, thus increasing anxiety about testing that was already present. Fear that they might test HIV positive caused some men to avoid testing until they were clearly sick, and others to avoid testing completely. HIV testing may increase in this population if it becomes a routine practice, instead of being driven by anxiety-inducing incidents. Mobilization through social support might facilitate frequent testing while education about current treatment options is needed.

  18. Energy aspects of city districts and rural townships; Energieaspekte staedtischer und laendlicher Siedlungen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Arend, M.; Philippen, D. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gilgen, K.; Beaujean, K. [Hochschule fuer Technik Rapperswil, Institut fuer Raumentwicklung, Rapperswil (Switzerland); Schneider, S. [Planungsbuero Jud AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-01-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning the energy consumption of various residential districts in cities and in rural townships. The analysis examines the consumption of primary energy by residential buildings, their supply and disposal infrastructures and that of traffic induced by settlements. Also, grey energy: consumption for the construction, renovation and demolition of buildings and infrastructures as well as the consumption of primary energy for the production and disposal of individual motor vehicle traffic and public transport is reviewed. Four Swiss case studies are dealt with including largely homogenous residential districts in Effretikon, Oetwil am See, Uster and the City of Zurich. The results of the analyses made are presented in graphical form. The authors quote the great potential for the reduction of the consumption of settlement-dependent primary energy that lies in the fields of energy-efficiency of buildings, mobility and power consumption. The report is rounded off with a comprehensive appendix.

  19. The supply and demand situation for oak timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth L. Quigley

    1971-01-01

    Twenty oak species in the eastern United States account for one-third of the hardwood sawtimber volume and almost 10 percent of both hardwood and softwood growing-stock volume. The oak-hickory and oak-pine forest types occupy about 38 percent of the forest land in the eastern United States. Oak timber volume is increasing. Annual growth exceeds annual removals by about...

  20. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  1. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  2. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  3. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  4. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  5. Comparative analysis of some bioecological characteristics of Hungarian oak and Turkey oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukin Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an in-depth study of some bioecological characteristics of the Hungarian and Turkey oak, autochthonous oak species and edificators of climatogenic communities of central Serbia. Today, these forest complexes are mostly of coppice origin and as such, they require implementation of reclamation operations. In order to determine biological dominance, select the optimal reclamation operations and finally improve the state of these forests, we studied the environmental conditions, stand state, development and position of individual trees in a mixed coppice stand of Hungarian and Turkey oak in a suburban zone of the city of Belgrade.

  6. A Dendrochronological Analysis of Red Oak Borer Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Richard P. Guyette

    2004-01-01

    Unprecedented outbreaks of red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus Haldemann) have occurred in the lower Midwestern United States. Although generally not a mortality agent, red oak borer appears to contribute to general oak decline and mortality. The objective of this project was to explore dendrochronology as a means of determining the role of tree age,...

  7. Coarse woody debris metrics in a California oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    William D. Tietje; Michael A. Hardy; Christopher C. Yim

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the metrics of coarse woody debris (CWD) in California oak woodland, most notably at the scale of the stand and woodland type. In a remote part of the National Guard Post, Camp Roberts, that has not burned in over a half century, we tallied 314 pieces of CWD in a blue oak (Quercus douglasii)-coast live oak (

  8. Managing an oak decline crisis in Oakville, Ontario: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter A. Williams; John W. McNeil; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Robert A. Haack

    2013-01-01

    The town of Oakville, Ontario, is located along the north shore of Lake Ontario between Toronto and Hamilton. In the fall of 2002, significant oak (Quercus spp.) mortality was observed at Oakville's Iroquois Shoreline Woods Park, an environmentally significant forest remnant noted for its oak-dominated forests. Investigations suggested that oak...

  9. Flood tolerance of oak seedlings from bottomland and upland sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; Jerry Van Sambeek; Mark Coggeshall; David. Gwaze

    2009-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of oak species in floodplains presents numerous challenges because of the seasonal flooding associated with these areas. Utilizing not only flood-tolerant oak species, but also flood tolerant seed sources of the oak species, may serve to enhance seedling survival and growth rates. Despite the importance of these factors to hardwood forest...

  10. Oak woodland conservation management planning in southern CA - lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi Dagit

    2015-01-01

    The California Oak Woodlands Conservation Act (AB 242 2001) established requirements for the preservation and protection of oak woodlands and trees, and allocated funding managed by the Wildlife Conservation Board. In order to qualify to use these funds, counties and cities need to adopt an oak conservation management plan. Between 2008 and 2011, a team of concerned...

  11. Bird communities of gambel oak: a descriptive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas Leidolf; Michael L. Wolfe; Rosemary L. Pendleton

    2000-01-01

    Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii Nutt.) covers 3.75 million hectares (9.3 million acres) of the western United States. This report synthesizes current knowledge on the composition, structure, and habitat relationships of gambel oak avian communities. It lists life history attributes of 183 bird species documented from gambel oak habitats of the western...

  12. Reconstructing the competitive dynamics of mixed-oak neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric K. Zenner; Daniel J. Heggenstaller; Patrick H. Brose; JeriLynn E. Peck; Kim C. Steiner

    2012-01-01

    The disparity between the potential for latent oak dominance within a stand and their region-wide decline in importance value raises questions about the competitiveness of oaks in early stand dynamics. We reconstructed tree height growth dynamics in mixed-species neighborhoods to determine if currently dominant oaks were ever shorter than their competitors and at what...

  13. Effects of the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, on the health of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, in southern California before and after treatment with two systemic insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Mary L. Flint; Tom W. Coleman; Joseph J. Doccola; Donald M. Grosman; David L. Wood; Steven J. Seybold

    2015-01-01

    The invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is threatening the health and survival of oak trees in San Diego County, California (Flint and others 2013). The primary oak species colonized and killed in this area include coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (...

  14. ORLANDO - Oak Ridge Large Neutrino Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, W.; Cohn, H.; Efremenko, Yu.; Fazely, A.; Gabriel, T.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Plasil, F.; Svoboda, R.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss a proposal for construction of an Oak Ridge LArge Neutrino DetectOr (ORLANDO) to search for neutrino oscillations at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). A 4 MW SNS is proposed to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory with the first stage to be operative around 2006. It will have two target stations, which makes it possible with a single detector to perform a neutrino oscillation search at two different distances. Initial plans for the placement of the detector and the discovery potential of such a detector are discussed

  15. Status of oak seedlings and saplings in the northern United States: implications for sustainability of oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris W. Woodall; Randall S. Morin; Jim R. Steinman; Charles H. Perry

    2008-01-01

    Oak species are a substantial component of forest ecosystems in a 24-state region spanning the northern U.S. During recent decades, it has been documented that the health of oak forests has been experiencing large-scale decline. To further evaluate the sustainability of oak forests in nearly half the states of the U.S., the current status of oak seedlings and saplings...

  16. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  17. Coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, susceptibility and response to goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, injury in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom W. Coleman; Nancy E. Grulke; Miles Daly; Cesar Godinez; Susan L. Schilling; Philip J. Riggan; Steven J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    Oak mortality is often associated with a complex of decline factors. We describe the morphological and physiological responses of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, in California to an invasive insect, the goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and evaluate drought as a...

  18. New relationships among the sudden oak death pathogen, bark and ambrosia beetles, and fungi colonizing coast live oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Erbilgin; Brice A. McPherson; Pierluigi Bonello; David L. Wood; Andrew J. Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD) has had devastating effects on several oak species in many California coastal forests. Phytophthora ramorum has been identified as the primary causal agent of sudden oak death. While the pathogen may be capable of killing mature trees, it is likely that in nature opportunistic organisms play significant roles in the decline and...

  19. Development, succession, and stand dynamics of upland oak forests in the Wisconsin Driftless Area: Implications for oak regeneration and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan L. Buchanan; Kurt F. Kipfmueller; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the deciduous forests of the eastern United States, oak (Quercus) regeneration has declined in stands historically dominated by oak species. In the Wisconsin Driftless Area, the level of decline in oak regeneration is variable and influenced by stand structural development, historical disturbance regime, abiotic site characteristics, and...

  20. An ecologically based approach to oak silviculture: a synthesis of 50 years of oak ecosystem research in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Alejandro A. Royo; Patrick H. Brose; Todd F. Hutchinson; Martin A. Spetich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    Oak (Quercus L.) is an abundant and widely distributed genus in eastern North America. A history of periodic fire, grazing, canopy disturbance and timber harvesting has favored oak's dominance. But, changes in this regime toward much less fire or complete fire suppression, and selective cutting are causing the successional replacement of oak....

  1. A meta-analysis of the fire-oak hypothesis: Does prescribed burning promote oak reproduction in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose; Daniel C. Dey; Ross J. Phillips; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2013-01-01

    The fire-oak hypothesis asserts that the current lack of fire is a reason behind the widespread oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration difficulties of eastern North America, and use of prescribed burning can help solve this problem. We performed a meta-analysis on the data from 32 prescribed fire studies conducted in mixed-oak forests to test whether they...

  2. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  3. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  4. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  5. Design assessment for the Bethel Valley FFA Upgrades at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the proposed upgrades to Building 3025 and the Evaporator Area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Design assessments, specifications and drawings are provided. Building 3025 is a general purpose research facility utilized by the Materials and Ceramics Division to conduct research on irradiated materials. The Evaporator Area, building 2531, serves as the collection point for all low-level liquid wastes generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  6. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  7. Physical distribution of oak strip flooring 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    As an aid to the marketing of oak strip flooring, a study was made of the distribution process for this product, from manufacture to consumer-where the flooring came from, where it went, how much was shipped, and who handled it.

  8. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year

  9. Profitability of Precommericially Thinning Oak Stump Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, percommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-yr-old...

  10. Profitability of precommercially thinning oak stump sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, precommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-year-old...

  11. Sowing pregerminated northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.

  12. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  13. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  14. 25 MV tandem accelerator at Oak Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    A new heavy-ion accelerator facility is under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A brief description of the scope and status of this project is presented with emphasis on the first operational experience with the 25 MV tandem accelerator

  15. Oak Regeneration Guidelines for the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley; Peter J. Gould; Songlin Fei; Marc McDill

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the first explicit guidelines for regenerating oaks in the central Appalachians. The objectives of this paper are (1) to describe the research foundation on which the guidelines are based and (2) to provide users with the instructions, data collection forms, supplementary tables, and decision charts needed to apply the guidelines in the field. The...

  16. Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

    1980-03-01

    This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

  17. Growth of Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington; Warren D. Devine

    2011-01-01

    Many land managers are interested in maintaining or restoring plant communities that contain Oregon white oak (OWO, Quercus garryana), yet there is relatively little information available about the species' growth rates and survival to guide management decisions. We used two studies to characterize growth (over multi-year periods and within...

  18. Effect of Drying Method on the Permeability Coefficient of Oak Wood (Quercus infactoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuboo Salehpour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of drying method on the permeability coefficient of the oak wood (Quercus infectoria Oliv was studied. Freshly-cut logs of oak were prepared from Oureman, the east area of Kourdistan in Iran. Then, boards with nominal thickness of 6 cm were cut. The boards were dried using two methods. In the first method, the boards were air dried to the moisture content close to FSP for 45 days and then they were kiln dried using T5-D1 schedule. In the second method, the boards were dried from green condition to the final moisture content of 10% using T5-D1 schedule. Then, the permeability coefficient in the transverse and longitudinal directions in both heartwood and sapwood regions was measured, separately. Results showed that the permeability of oak boards dried by kiln drying method both in the transverse and longitudinal directions and also in the heartwood and sapwood regions was greater than that of those dried by the combined method (air drying + kiln drying.

  19. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  20. Factors influencing family planning practice among reproductive age married women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Myo Min; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Nanthamongkokchai, Sutham

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors that influence the family planning practice among married, reproductive age women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 284 married, reproductive age women using stratified random sampling. The data were collected through questionnaire interviews during February and March 2012 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression. The proportion of families practicing family planning was 74.7%, contraceptive injection being the most commonly used method. The factors influencing family planning practice were attitude towards family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The women with a positive attitude toward family planning practiced family planning 3.7 times more than women who had a negative attitude. If family planning services were available for 24 hours, then women would practice 3.4 times more than if they were not available for 24 hours. When women got fair to good support from health workers, they practiced 15.0 times more on family planning and 4.3 times more who got fair to good support from partners and friends than women who got low support. The factors influencing family planning practice of married, reproductive age women were attitude toward family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The findings suggest that empowerment of health workers, training of volunteers, pharmacists and contraceptive drug providers, encouraging inter-spousal communication, and peer support, as well as an integrated approach to primary health care in order to target different populations to change women's attitudes on family planning, could increase family planning practice among Myanmar women.

  1. Efficiency and productivity measurement of rural township hospitals in China: a bootstrapping data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Cai, Miao; Tao, Hongbing; He, Zhifei; Lin, Xiaojun; Lin, Haifeng; Zuo, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    Objective Township hospitals (THs) are important components of the three-tier rural healthcare system of China. However, the efficiency and productivity of THs have been questioned since the healthcare reform was implemented in 2009. The objective of this study is to analyse the efficiency and productivity changes in THs before and after the reform process. Setting and participants A total of 48 sample THs were selected from the Xiaogan Prefecture in Hubei Province from 2008 to 2014. Outcome measures First, bootstrapping data envelopment analysis (DEA) was performed to estimate the technical efficiency (TE), pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE) of the sample THs during the period. Second, the bootstrapping Malmquist productivity index was used to calculate the productivity changes over time. Results The average TE, PTE and SE of the sample THs over the 7-year period were 0.5147, 0.6373 and 0.7080, respectively. The average TE and PTE increased from 2008 to 2012 but declined considerably after 2012. In general, the sample THs experienced a negative shift in productivity from 2008 to 2014. The negative change was 2.14%, which was attributed to a 23.89% decrease in technological changes (TC). The sample THs experienced a positive productivity shift from 2008 to 2012 but experienced deterioration from 2012 to 2014. Conclusions There was considerable space for TE improvement in the sample THs since the average TE was relatively low. From 2008 to 2014, the sample THs experienced a decrease in productivity, and the adverse alteration in TC should be emphasised. In the context of healthcare reform, the factors that influence TE and productivity of THs are complex. Results suggest that numerous quantitative and qualitative studies are necessary to explore the reasons for the changes in TE and productivity. PMID:27836870

  2. How is their word knowledge growing? Exploring Grade 3 vocabulary in South African township schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Pretorius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report on a study that examined the active and receptive English vocabulary of two different groups of Grade 3 learners in South African township schools. The groups consisted of English Home Language (HL learners in the Western Cape and Xhosa HL and English First Additional Language (FAL learners in the Eastern Cape. The purpose was to document their different vocabulary trajectories during Grade 3. The Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey was used to measure the active vocabulary levels of 118 learners at the beginning and the end of the school year. Another 284 learners from the same eight Grade 3 classes participated in a receptive vocabulary test at the end of the year. This test assessed their knowledge of the 60 most frequent words that occur in South Africa Grade 4 English textbooks. Results showed that although the HL learners knew almost double the number of words their English FAL peers did, both groups of learners increased their active word knowledge through the year by about 9%. Regarding their receptive vocabulary, the English FAL learners on average only knew 27% of the most frequent words at the end of their Grade 3. No significant gender differences were found. Learners in both language groups who were above their grade age had significantly lower scores than their younger peers. This confirms findings that children who start school with weak language skills tend to stay weak. Finally, initial active vocabulary knowledge was found to be a strong predictor of vocabulary development during the school year.

  3. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. White Oak Creek watershed: Melton Valley area Remedial Investigation report, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes A and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This document contains Appendixes A ''Source Inventory Information for the Subbasins Evaluated for the White Oak Creek Watershed'' and B ''Human Health Risk Assessment for White Oak Creek / Melton Valley Area'' for the remedial investigation report for the White Oak Creek Watershed and Melton Valley Area. Appendix A identifies the waste types and contaminants for each subbasin in addition to the disposal methods. Appendix B identifies potential human health risks and hazards that may result from contaminants present in the different media within Oak Ridge National Laboratory sites

  5. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  6. Sampling and Analysis Plan for White Oak Creek Watershed Remedial Investigation supplemental sampling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This Sampling and Analysis (SAP) presents the project requirements for proposed soil sampling to support the White Oak Creek Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. During the Data Quality Objectives process for the project, it was determined that limited surface soils sampling is need to supplement the historical environmental characterization database. The primary driver for the additional sampling is the need to identify potential human health and ecological risks at various sites that have not yet proceeded through a remedial investigation. These sites include Waste Area Grouping (WAG)3, WAG 4, WAG 7, and WAG 9. WAG 4 efforts are limited to nonradiological characterization since recent seep characterization activities at the WAG have defined the radiological problem there

  7. Relationships between biotic and abiotic factors and regeneration of chestnut oak, white oak, and northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley; Marc E. McDill

    2003-01-01

    A series of substantial field surveys of 38 mixed-oak stands in central Pennsylvania were carried out during 1996-2000. All the stands were surveyed 1 year prior to harvest, and 16 stands have been surveyed 1 year after harvest. Three abiotic factors at stand scale, four abiotic factors at plot scale, and two biotic factors and one abiotic factor at subplot scale was...

  8. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  9. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as ''Whiteoak'' Creek)

  10. Green industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2014-01-01

    Green growth requires green technologies: production techniques that economize on exhaustible resources and emit fewer greenhouse gases. The availability of green technologies both lowers social costs in the transition to a green growth path and helps achieve a satisfactory rate of material progress under that path. The theoretical case in favour of using industrial policy to facilitate green growth is quite strong. Economists’ traditional scepticism on industrial policy is grounded instead o...

  11. Population diversity and evidence of introgression among the black oaks of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard S. Dodd; Nasser Kashani; Zara Afzal-Rafii

    2002-01-01

    The black oaks of California include 4 tree species (California black oak, coast live oak, Shreve oak, interior live oak) that are known to hybridize. Complex patterns of population variation within each species are likely to result from these hybrid combinations and from subsequent introgressions. We have been studying population variation using biochemical and...

  12. Factors Associated with the Competencies of Public Health Workers in Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing Municipality, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhifei; Cheng, Zhaohui; Fu, Hang; Tang, Shangfeng; Fu, Qian; Fang, Haiqing; Xian, Yue; Ming, Hui; Feng, Zhanchun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to explore the competencies of public health workers (PHWs) of township hospitals in Chongqing Municipality (China), and determine the related impact factors of the competencies of PHWs; Methods: A cross-sectional research was conducted on 314 PHWs from 27 township hospitals in three districts in Chongqing Municipality (China), from June to August 2014. A self-assessment questionnaire was established on the basis of literature reviews and a competency dictionary. The differences in competencies among the three districts were determined by adopting the chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) method, and the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs were determined by adopting stepwise regression analysis. Results: (1) Results of the demographic characteristics of PHWs in three sample districts of Chongqing Municipality showed that a significant difference in age of PHWs (p = 0.021 competency results of PHWs in township hospitals, seven among the 11 aspects were found to have significant differences in the three districts by the ANOVA test; (3) By adopting the t-test and ANOVA method, results of the relationship between the characteristics of PHWs and their competency scores showed that significant differences were found in the economic level (p = 0.000 competencies of PHWs in township hospitals, including the economic level (p = 0.000 competencies of the township hospital staff in Chongqing Municipality (China), are generally insufficient, therefore, regulating the medical education and training skills of PHWs is crucial to improve the competencies of PHWs in the township hospitals of Chongqing Municipality. The results of this study can be mirrored in other areas of China. PMID:26569273

  13. Factors Associated with the Competencies of Public Health Workers in Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing Municipality, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhifei; Cheng, Zhaohui; Fu, Hang; Tang, Shangfeng; Fu, Qian; Fang, Haiqing; Xian, Yue; Ming, Hui; Feng, Zhanchun

    2015-11-09

    This study aimed to explore the competencies of public health workers (PHWs) of township hospitals in Chongqing Municipality (China), and determine the related impact factors of the competencies of PHWs; A cross-sectional research was conducted on 314 PHWs from 27 township hospitals in three districts in Chongqing Municipality (China), from June to August 2014. A self-assessment questionnaire was established on the basis of literature reviews and a competency dictionary. The differences in competencies among the three districts were determined by adopting the chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) method, and the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs were determined by adopting stepwise regression analysis. (1) RESULTS of the demographic characteristics of PHWs in three sample districts of Chongqing Municipality showed that a significant difference in age of PHWs (p = 0.021 competency results of PHWs in township hospitals, seven among the 11 aspects were found to have significant differences in the three districts by the ANOVA test; (3) By adopting the t-test and ANOVA method, results of the relationship between the characteristics of PHWs and their competency scores showed that significant differences were found in the economic level (p = 0.000 competencies of PHWs in township hospitals, including the economic level (p = 0.000 competencies of the township hospital staff in Chongqing Municipality (China), are generally insufficient, therefore, regulating the medical education and training skills of PHWs is crucial to improve the competencies of PHWs in the township hospitals of Chongqing Municipality. The results of this study can be mirrored in other areas of China.

  14. Indoor social networks in a South African township: potential contribution of location to tuberculosis transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Wood

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that in South Africa, with a generalized tuberculosis (TB epidemic, TB infection is predominantly acquired indoors and transmission potential is determined by the number and duration of social contacts made in locations that are conducive to TB transmission. We therefore quantified time spent and contacts met in indoor locations and public transport by residents of a South African township with a very high TB burden.A diary-based community social mixing survey was performed in 2010. Randomly selected participants (n = 571 prospectively recorded numbers of contacts and time spent in specified locations over 24-hour periods. To better characterize age-related social networks, participants were stratified into ten 5-year age strata and locations were classified into 11 types.Five location types (own-household, other-households, transport, crèche/school, and work contributed 97.2% of total indoor time and 80.4% of total indoor contacts. Median time spent indoors was 19.1 hours/day (IQR:14.3-22.7, which was consistent across age strata. Median daily contacts increased from 16 (IQR:9-40 in 0-4 year-olds to 40 (IQR:18-60 in 15-19 year-olds and declined to 18 (IQR:10-41 in ≥45 year-olds. Mean daily own-household contacts was 8.8 (95%CI:8.2-9.4, which decreased with increasing age. Mean crèche/school contacts increased from 6.2/day (95%CI:2.7-9.7 in 0-4 year-olds to 28.1/day (95%CI:8.1-48.1 in 15-19 year-olds. Mean transport contacts increased from 4.9/day (95%CI:1.6-8.2 in 0-4 year-olds to 25.5/day (95%CI:12.1-38.9 in 25-29 year-olds.A limited number of location types contributed the majority of indoor social contacts in this community. Increasing numbers of social contacts occurred throughout childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, predominantly in school and public transport. This rapid increase in non-home socialization parallels the increasing TB infection rates during childhood and young adulthood reported in this

  15. Public-health and individual approaches to antiretroviral therapy: township South Africa and Switzerland compared.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Keiser

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in resource-limited settings follows a public health approach, which is characterised by a limited number of regimens and the standardisation of clinical and laboratory monitoring. In industrialized countries doctors prescribe from the full range of available antiretroviral drugs, supported by resistance testing and frequent laboratory monitoring. We compared virologic response, changes to first-line regimens, and mortality in HIV-infected patients starting HAART in South Africa and Switzerland.We analysed data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and two HAART programmes in townships of Cape Town, South Africa. We included treatment-naïve patients aged 16 y or older who had started treatment with at least three drugs since 2001, and excluded intravenous drug users. Data from a total of 2,348 patients from South Africa and 1,016 patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study were analysed. Median baseline CD4+ T cell counts were 80 cells/mul in South Africa and 204 cells/mul in Switzerland. In South Africa, patients started with one of four first-line regimens, which was subsequently changed in 514 patients (22%. In Switzerland, 36 first-line regimens were used initially, and these were changed in 539 patients (53%. In most patients HIV-1 RNA was suppressed to 500 copies/ml or less within one year: 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] 95%-97% in South Africa and 96% (94%-97% in Switzerland, and 26% (22%-29% and 27% (24%-31%, respectively, developed viral rebound within two years. Mortality was higher in South Africa than in Switzerland during the first months of HAART: adjusted hazard ratios were 5.90 (95% CI 1.81-19.2 during months 1-3 and 1.77 (0.90-3.50 during months 4-24.Compared to the highly individualised approach in Switzerland, programmatic HAART in South Africa resulted in similar virologic outcomes, with relatively few changes to initial regimens. Further innovation and resources are

  16. A Review of Polyphenolics in Oak Woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenolics, which are ubiquitous in plants, currently are among the most studied phytochemicals because of their perceptible chemical properties and antioxidant activity. Oak barrels and their alternatives, which are widely used in winemaking nowadays, contribute polyphenolics to wines and are thought to play crucial roles in the development of wines during aging. This study summarizes the detailed information of polyphenolics in oak woods and their products by examining their structures and discussing their chemical reactions during wine aging. This paper evaluates the most recent developments in polyphenolic chemistry by summarizing their extraction, separation, and their identification by the use of chromatographic and spectral techniques. In addition, this paper also introduces polyphenol bioactive ingredients in other plant foods.

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented

  18. Quality Characteristics of Appalachian Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1995-01-01

    Red oak lumber defect information derived from a well-constructed board data bank was analyzed. The potential utility of No. 1 Common and No. 2A Common lumber is indicated by the finding that 23 percent of the No. 1 Common boards and 35 percent of the No. 2A Common boards in the data bank contain clear-face cutting percentages that meet the minimum requirement for the...

  19. 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber is a collection of fully described FAS, Selects, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards (a total of 1,578 at present). The data bank has two unique features to aid in sample selection. The first feature is the double grading of FAS, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards to reflect the surface area in grading cuttings when grading...

  20. Monomeric Ellagitannins in Oaks and Sweetgum

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Zhentian

    2002-01-01

    Ellagitannins are plant phenolics characterized by biaryl-coupled gallic acid moieties esterified to a D-glucose core. They are widely distributed through higher plants. In the case of oaks, ellagitannin concentrations in heartwood can reach up to 10% (dry wt. basis). These secondary metabolites are not only important physiologically but also influence the economic value and quality of wood products that contain them. Efforts were made to develop and validate the methods used to quantify ...

  1. ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory.

  2. ORNL [Oak Ridge National Laboratory] 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  4. The potential and reality of the solar water heater programme in South African townships: Lessons from the City of Tshwane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, Claire; Cherni, Judith A.; Mapako, Maxwell

    2017-01-01

    The South African solar water heater (SWH) programme is part of national policy to improve the country's electricity security, an innovative strategy to provide indigent households with free solar water heaters. The study assesses the effects of the government programme for poor townships on reduction of household electricity consumption, decline in energy poverty, and reduction in CO2 emissions; and estimates the impact of SWH on reducing electricity demand nationwide. It reports results from fieldwork carried out in the City of Tshwane to measure both quantitatively and qualitatively the success of the project's deployment in townships. Although households register average savings of 27% on their monthly electricity bills and off-peak electricity demand has reduced significantly in the area, a variety of problems prevented the project from attaining the desired level of impact. Difficulties encountered include technical faults with the heaters combined with nonavailability of maintenance; a rise in water consumption; lack of community engagement leading to apathy; and dearth of owner training leading to underuse. The gap between inflated estimates and real savings is discussed. Expanding the programme could generate jobs but significant challenges remain. - Highlights: • The government's aim of saving electricity and reducing utility bills partly achieved. • Savings of electricity are estimated at about 25% less than the potential saving. • Wrong assumption that peak time is only 1 h produced savings 5 times larger. • ESKOM & government overlooked providing Information on the SWH to the householders. • No maintenance led to abandonment by many or water leaking increasing utility bills.

  5. An investigation on forage yield capacity of kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) and grazing planning of Mediterranean maquis scrublands for traditional goat farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolunay, Ahmet; Adıyaman, Elif; Akyol, Ayhan; İnce, Duygu; Türkoğlu, Türkay; Ayhan, Veysel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated grazing capacities of maquis scrubland and preparation principles of grazing management in forest resources. Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.), which is widespread as a main shrub species in maquis vegetation in Turkey, and pure hair goats (Capra hircus L.) feeding on shoots and leaves of this shrub were selected for study. The study was conducted in two stages. Green leaf and shoot samples were taken from kermes oaks in the first stage and the amount of green herbage yield (g ∗ m(-1)) and dry matter yield (kg ∗ ha(-1)) that may be obtained per unit area from these samples was identified. The considered amount of dry matter consumed by pure hair goats daily and the number of goats being fed within 1 year on land of 1 ha according to different land coverage rates of kermes oaks (goat head ∗ ha ∗ yr) were calculated. In the second stage, grazing capacities of sample areas where kermes oak spread were identified and compared with the grazing plan prepared by the forestry administration for this area. Forage yield variance according to land coverage rates of maquis scrublands should be considered when determining optimum animal numbers for grazing per area for sustainable goat farming.

  6. An Investigation on Forage Yield Capacity of Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera L. and Grazing Planning of Mediterranean Maquis Scrublands for Traditional Goat Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tolunay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated grazing capacities of maquis scrubland and preparation principles of grazing management in forest resources. Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L., which is widespread as a main shrub species in maquis vegetation in Turkey, and pure hair goats (Capra hircus L. feeding on shoots and leaves of this shrub were selected for study. The study was conducted in two stages. Green leaf and shoot samples were taken from kermes oaks in the first stage and the amount of green herbage yield (g*m−1 and dry matter yield (kg*ha−1 that may be obtained per unit area from these samples was identified. The considered amount of dry matter consumed by pure hair goats daily and the number of goats being fed within 1 year on land of 1 ha according to different land coverage rates of kermes oaks (goat head*ha*yr were calculated. In the second stage, grazing capacities of sample areas where kermes oak spread were identified and compared with the grazing plan prepared by the forestry administration for this area. Forage yield variance according to land coverage rates of maquis scrublands should be considered when determining optimum animal numbers for grazing per area for sustainable goat farming.

  7. An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding area, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, R.J.

    1989-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding area in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was conducted from September 12--29, 1989. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the site's terrestrial radiological environment for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) along a series of parallel lines 152 meters (500 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 440 square kilometers (170 square miles) as defined by the Tennessee Valley Authority Map S-16A of the entire Oak Ridge Reservation and adjacent area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) in the form of a radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 14 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). The man-made radionuclides, cobalt-60, cesium-137, and protactinium-234m (a radioisotope indicative of depleted uranium), were detected at several facilities on the site. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several locations within the survey boundary. In addition to the large scale aerial survey, two special flyovers were requested by the Department of Energy. The first request was to conduct a survey of a 1-mile x 2-mile area in south Knoxville, Tennessee. The area had been used previously to store contaminated scrap metals from operations at the Oak Ridge site. The second request was to fly several passes over a 5-mile length of railroad tracks leading from the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, north through the city of Oak Ridge. The railroad tracks had been previously used in the transport of cesium-137

  8. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  9. US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Environmental Management Public Involvement Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This document was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements for writing community relations plans. It includes information on how the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office prepares and executes Environmental Management Community relations activities. It is divided into three sections: the public involvement plan, public involvement in Oak Ridge, and public involvement in 1995. Four appendices are also included: environmental management in Oak Ridge; community and regional overview; key laws, agreements, and policy; and principal contacts

  10. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  11. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  12. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  13. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  14. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  15. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  16. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  17. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  18. Ninth workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings (abstracts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.R. Weigel; J.W. Van Sambeek; C.H., eds. Michler

    2005-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities in field performance of oak plantings, seedling propagation, genetics, acorn germination, and natural regeneration of oaks are described in 26 abstracts.

  19. Tenth workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Emile S. Gardiner; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities in field performance of oak plantings, seedling propagation, genetics, acorn germination, and natural regeneration of oaks are described in 15 abstracts.

  20. Prescribing Patterns in Outpatient Clinics of Township Hospitals in China: A Comparative Study before and after the 2009 Health System Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Pan, Qingxia; Shan, Linghan; Liu, Chaojie; Gao, Lijun; Hao, Yanhua; Song, Jian; Ning, Ning; Cui, Yu; Li, Ye; Qi, Xinye; Liang, Chao; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Guoxiang

    2016-07-05

    China introduced a series of health reforms in 2009, including a national essential medicines policy and a medical insurance system for primary care institutions. This study aimed to determine the changing prescribing patterns associated with those reforms in township hospitals. A multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling method was adopted to identify 29 township hospitals from six counties in three provinces. A total of 2899 prescriptions were collected from the participating township hospitals using a systematic random sampling strategy. Seven prescribing indicators were calculated and compared between 2008 and 2013, assessing use of medicines (antibiotics and adrenal corticosteroids) and polypharmacy, administration route of medicines (injections), and affordability of medicines. Significant changes in prescribing patterns were found. The average number of medicines and costs per-prescription dropped by about 50%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring antibiotics declined from 54% to 38%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring adrenal corticosteroid declined from 14% to 4%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring injections declined from 54% to 25%. Despite similar changing patterns, significant regional differences were observed. Significant changes in prescribing patterns are evident in township hospitals in China. Overprescription of antibiotics, injections and adrenal corticosteroids has been reduced. However, salient regional disparities still exist. Further studies are needed to determine potential shifts in the risk of the inappropriate use of medicines from primary care settings to metropolitan hospitals.

  1. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST: SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE - VOLUME II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of the Shirco pilot-scale infrared thermal destruction system has been evaluated at the Rose Township, Demode Road Superfund Site and is presented in the report. The waste tested consisted of solvents, organics and heavy metals in an illegal dump site. Volume I gi...

  2. Superfund Technology Evaluation Report: SITE Program Demonstration Test Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System at the Rose Township Demode Road Superfund Site Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System was evaluated during a series of seventeen test runs under varied operating conditions at the Demode Road Superfund Site located in Rose Township, Michigan. The tests sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of the unit and the t...

  3. Teachers' Knowledge and Views on the Use of Learners' Socio-Cultural Background in Teaching Natural Sciences in Grade 9 Township Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavuru, Lydia; Ramnarain, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    This article explores teachers' knowledge and views on the role of learners' socio-cultural background when teaching Natural Sciences to Grade 9 learners at three South African township schools. Within a socio-cultural framework, the research investigated how teachers accommodate learners' cultural norms and values, religion and beliefs,…

  4. Facilitating access to English for Xhosa-speaking pupils in black township primary schools around Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel Hibbert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper results from a research project completed by the author in 1994 on the quality of language-learning environments in the Cape Town area . . Xhosa is now constitutionally enshrined as one of the eleven official languages of South Africa, and is the dominant language in Western Cape black townships. This paper questions the fruitfUlness of primary schools in black townships attempting to use English as the sole medium of instruction. The paper shows that in actual classroom situations the Ll (Xhosa is used as an aid to L2 (English medium instruction in the schools of Khayelitsha and Lagunya townships around Cape Town. The paper argues for the recognition and forther extension of such bilingual practices in primary schools to work towards more successfUl use of the L2 as the medium of instruction. It assesses the implications of such bilingual policy for classroom interaction and materials development. Hierdie artikel spruit voort uit 'n navorsingsprojek wat in 1994 deur die skrywer onderneem is in groter Kaapstad oor die kwaliteit van die omgewings waarbinne taal aange/eer word. Xhosa is volgens die konstitusie een van die elf amptelike tale in Suid-Afrika en is die oorheersende taal in die swart woonbuurte van die Wes-Kaap. In hierdie artikel word die waarde bevraagteken van die poging wat in die primere skole in die swart woonbuurte aangewend word om Engels as enigste medium van onderrig te gebruik. In die artikel word ook daarop gewys dat skole in Khayelitsha en Lagunya, twee swart woonbuurte naby Kaapstad, Xhosa (Tl gebruik as hulpmiddel by die onderrig deur medium van Engels (T2. Daar word aangevoer dat hierdie gebruik van tweetalige onderrig in primere skole erkenning behoort te kry en verder uitgebrei behoort te word sodat daar gestrewe kan word na 'n meer suksesvol/e gebruik van die tweede taal as onderrigmedium. 'n Waardebepaling van die implikasies van so 'ntweetalige beleid vir k/askamerinteraksie en die ontwikkeling van

  5. Sporulation capacity of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branches from six 2 to 3-year old northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with ca. 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum isolate Pr-6 and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia produ...

  6. Infectivity and sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branches from northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia production, while the other three plants w...

  7. Removal action report on the Building 3001 canal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a federal facility managed by Lockheed Martin C, Energy Research, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ORNL on the Oak Ridge Reservation in East Tennessee at the Anderson and Roane County lines, approximately 38 km (24 miles) west of Knoxville, Tennessee, and 18 km (11 miles) southwest of downtown Oak Ridge. The Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor and its storage and transfer canal are located in Bldg. 3001 in the approximate center of Waste Area Grouping I in the ORNL main complex. 4:1 The Bldg. 3001 Storage Canal is an L-shaped, underground, reinforced-concrete structure running from the back and below the Graphite Reactor in Bldg. 3001 to a location beneath a hot cell in the adjacent Bldg. 3019. The Graphite Reactor was built in 1943 to produce small quantities of plutonium and was subsequently used to produce other isotopes for medical research before it was finally shut down in 1963. The associated canal was used to transport, under water, spent fuel slugs and other isotopes from the back of the reactor to the adjacent Bldg. 31319 hot cell for further processing. During its operation and years subsequent to operation, the canal's concrete walls and floor became contaminated with radioisotopes from the water.This report documents the activities involved with replacing the canal water with a solid, controlled, low-strength material (CLSM) in response to a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action

  8. Comprehensive integrated planning: A process for the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Comprehensive Integrated Plan is intended to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel in implementing a comprehensive integrated planning process consistent with DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management and Oak Ridge Operations Order 430. DOE contractors are charged with developing and producing the Comprehensive Integrated Plan, which serves as a summary document, providing information from other planning efforts regarding vision statements, missions, contextual conditions, resources and facilities, decision processes, and stakeholder involvement. The Comprehensive Integrated Plan is a planning reference that identifies primary issues regarding major changes in land and facility use and serves all programs and functions on-site as well as the Oak Ridge Operations Office and DOE Headquarters. The Oak Ridge Reservation is a valuable national resource and is managed on the basis of the principles of ecosystem management and sustainable development and how mission, economic, ecological, social, and cultural factors are used to guide land- and facility-use decisions. The long-term goals of the comprehensive integrated planning process, in priority order, are to support DOE critical missions and to stimulate the economy while maintaining a quality environment

  9. Sudden Oak Death, Phytophthora ramorum: A Persistent Threat to Oaks and Other Tree Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Frankel; K.M. Palmieri

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the status and management of sudden oak death and “sudden larch death” in the urban and wildland forests of California, Oregon, and the UK. The causal pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, was discovered in all three locations over a decade ago; however, efforts to contain and eliminate infestations have been unsuccessful. These less...

  10. Evaluation of Propiconazole Application Methods for Control of Oak Wilt in Texas Live Oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson; D.G. Lester

    1996-01-01

    Four fungicide application methods using the microencapsulated (blue) 14.3% EC formulation of propiconazole (Alamo), including a low-concentration high volume method, two high-concentration low volume microinjection methods, and a low-concentration intermediate volume soil drench method, were tested for effectiveness in controlling oak wilt in a mature natural stand of...

  11. Comprehensive integrated planning: A process for the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Comprehensive Integrated Plan is intended to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel in implementing a comprehensive integrated planning process consistent with DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management and Oak Ridge Operations Order 430. DOE contractors are charged with developing and producing the Comprehensive Integrated Plan, which serves as a summary document, providing information from other planning efforts regarding vision statements, missions, contextual conditions, resources and facilities, decision processes, and stakeholder involvement. The Comprehensive Integrated Plan is a planning reference that identifies primary issues regarding major changes in land and facility use and serves all programs and functions on-site as well as the Oak Ridge Operations Office and DOE Headquarters. The Oak Ridge Reservation is a valuable national resource and is managed on the basis of the principles of ecosystem management and sustainable development and how mission, economic, ecological, social, and cultural factors are used to guide land- and facility-use decisions. The long-term goals of the comprehensive integrated planning process, in priority order, are to support DOE critical missions and to stimulate the economy while maintaining a quality environment.

  12. Show Me the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  13. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  14. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  15. In the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  16. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  17. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucke, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    The first two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its surrounding environs and the public during 1991. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1991 data for the ORR. This volume, Volume 2, includes the detailed data formats that ensure all the environmental data are represented. Narratives are not included. The information in Vol. 2 is addressed and analyzed in Vol. 1

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    The two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its environs and the public during 1992. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1992 data for the ORR. This volume (volume 2) includes the detailed data in formats that ensure all the environmental data are presented. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2

  20. Oak Ridge TNS Program: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1978-01-01

    The Oak Ridge TNS activities have been directed at characterizing the design space between TFTR and EPR with a fundamental emphasis on higher beta plasma systems than previously projected, i.e., anti β approximately 5 to 10% as compared to 1 to 3%. Based on the results of the FY 1977 System Studies, our activities this year are directed toward preconceptual design with particular emphasis placed on reducing the technological requirements through innovations in plasma engineering. Examples of the new innovations include microwave assisted start up to reduce power requirements and a reduced TF ripple constraint by more refined ripple loss calculations, to increase engineering feasibility through simpler, more maintainable designs

  1. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    The two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its environs and the public during 1992. This Volume (Volume 1) includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1992 data for the ORR. Volume 2 includes the detailed data in formats that ensure all the environmental data are represented. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2

  2. Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility Position Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL; Thach, Kevin G [ORNL; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Rogers, James H [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the business, administration, reliability, and usability aspects of storage systems at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The OLCF has developed key competencies in architecting and administration of large-scale Lustre deployments as well as HPSS archival systems. Additionally as these systems are architected, deployed, and expanded over time reliability and availability factors are a primary driver. This paper focuses on the implementation of the Spider parallel Lustre file system as well as the implementation of the HPSS archive at the OLCF.

  3. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Ching-Hsun Chang; Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green min...

  4. Oak Wilt: People and Trees, A Community Approach to Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Juzwik; S. Cook; L. Haugen; J. Elwell

    2004-01-01

    Version 1.3. This self-paced short course on CD-ROM was designed as a learning tool for urban and community foresters, city administrators, tree inspectors, parks and recreation staff, and others involved in oak wilt management.Click the "View or print this publication" link below to request your Oak Wilt: People and...

  5. Regeneration of native California oaks in the forest zone [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. McDonald

    1999-01-01

    The two native California oaks in the forest zone of California are California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.) and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus [Hook. and Arn.] Rehd.). Both are ancient species with many adaptations to withstand California's Mediterranean climate, but some weaknesses as well. Both sprout vigorously...

  6. Chemical ecology of sudden oak death/ambrosia beetle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances S. Ockels; Pierluigi Bonello; Brice McPherson; David L. Wood

    2006-01-01

    Coast live oaks, Quercus agrifolia, infected with Phytophthora ramorum in California produce a characteristic sequence of symptoms and signs. Ambrosia beetles consistently tunnel into the bark of bleeding cankers in naturally infected trees. In field monitoring conducted since 2000, every bleeding coast live oak that subsequently...

  7. Consequences of Phytophthora ramorum infection in coast live oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice McPherson; David L. Wood; Sylvia R. Mori; Pavel Svihra; Richard B. Standiford; N. Maggi. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, has infected and killed large numbers of oaks (Quercus spp.) and tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus) in California since the mid 1990s. Since March 2000 we have been investigating the interactions between patterns of disease progression and...

  8. Optimizing Emory oak woodlands for multiple resource benefits [Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlow Shipek; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; Leonard F. DeBano

    2005-01-01

    The Emory oak woodlands in the southwestern United States present a diverse range of resources. People utilize these woodlands for wood products, cattle grazing, and recreational purposes. The woodlands provide a diversity of wildlife habitats for resident and migratory species. Occupying predominantly upland regions, the oak woodlands protect watersheds from excessive...

  9. Some natural factors that govern the management of oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney Weitzman; G. R., Jr. Trimble

    1957-01-01

    The oaks are the most important species group in the Appalachian hardwood forests. In West Virginia, oaks provide more than half of the lumber produced in the State. In addition, they provide a large portion of the mine timbers and specialty products.

  10. Economic incentives for oak woodland preservation and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi Dagit; Cy Carlberg; Christy Cuba; Thomas Scott

    2015-01-01

    Numerous ordinances and laws recognize the value of oak trees and woodlands, and dictate serious and expensive consequences for removing or harming them. Unfortunately, the methods used to calculate these values are equally numerous and often inconsistent. More important, these ordinances typically lack economic incentives to avoid impacts to oak woodland values...

  11. Molecular diversity among Turkish oaks ( QUERCUS ) using random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turkey is one of the most important region of the world according to oak species number and variation. In this study, species belonging to evergreen oaks in Turkey were investigated to solve taxonomic problems and to design the limit of taxa by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data. Here, three species of ...

  12. Predicting oak density with ecological, physical, and soil indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; Adrian A. Lesak; Yong Wang

    2006-01-01

    We predicted density of oak species in the mid-Cumberland Plateau region of northeastern Alabama on the basis of basal area of tree associations based on light tolerances, physical site characteristics, and soil type. Tree basal area was determined for four species groups: oaks (Quercus spp.), hickories (Carya spp.), yellow-poplar...

  13. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report summary for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document presents a summary of the information collected for the Oak Ridge Reservation 1994 site environmental report. Topics discussed include: Oak Ridge Reservation mission; ecology; environmental laws; community participation; environmental restoration; waste management; radiation effects; chemical effects; risk to public; environmental monitoring; and radionuclide migration

  14. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this survey, oak gall wasp species were collected from the oak forests of Pardanan, Mirabad, Nalas, Sardasht, Hamran and Dar-ghabr in West-Azerbaijan province. The galls occurring on 50 cm sampled branches from four cardinal directions on each tree were counted multiple times throughout the season. Species ...

  15. Effects of fire and browsing on regeneration of blue oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bartolome; Mitchel P. McClaran; Barbara H. Allen-Diaz; Jim Dunne; Lawrence D. Ford; Richard B. Standiford; Neil K. McDougald; Larry C. Forero

    2002-01-01

    Blue oaks (Quercus douglasii) are not regenerating well over much of California. The roles of fire and browsing in regeneration are probably significant, but poorly understood. We burned two foothill blue oak woodland sites which contained significant numbers of small trees between 40 and 70 cm tall, then compared height growth over 14 years among 48...

  16. How to assess oak regeneration potential in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan L. Sander

    1989-01-01

    The values in tables 1 and 2 apply specifically to oak stands in the Missouri Ozarks and may or may not apply outside this area. Unfortunately, similar values for oak do not exist for other geographic areas. Use the procedures and values cautiously in other areas. Consider them as approximations and compare them to values based on local experience and guidelines.

  17. Pathways for resilience in Mediterranean cork oak land use systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acácio, V.C.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Loss of woodlands and degradation of vegetation and soil have been described for all Mediterranean-type ecosystems worldwide. In the Western Iberian Peninsula, overexploitation of evergreen cork oak land use systems has led to soil erosion, failures in oak recruitment, and loss of forests.

  18. A review of fire and oak regeneration and overstory recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Zhaofei Fan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has played a prominent role in the history of oak in eastern North America, and it is useful today for promoting oak regeneration where competition with other woody vegetation is a problem and for managing savannas and woodlands. We spent the last century extinguishing wildfire from forests for good reason, but now we must spend some time relearning how to use...

  19. Blue Oak Canopy Effect on Seasonal Forage Production and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Frost; Neil K. McDougald; Montague W. Demment

    1991-01-01

    Forage production and forage quality were measured seasonally beneath the canopy of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and in open grassland at the San Joaquin Experimental Range. At the March and peak standing crop sampling dates forage production was significantly greater (p=.05) beneath blue oak compared to open grassland. At most sampling dates, the...

  20. The Distribution of Road Salt in Private Drinking Water Wells in a Southeastern New York Suburban Township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Victoria R; Cunningham, Mary Ann; Curri, Neil; Findlay, Stuart E; Carroll, Sean M

    2018-05-01

    We used a GIS analysis of sodium and chloride concentrations in private water wells in a southeastern New York township to describe the pattern of distribution of road salt in aquifers tapped for drinking water. The primary source of road salt was sodium chloride, and sodium and chloride concentrations were significantly correlated ( = 0.80, road ( = 0.76, road had higher concentrations of chloride than wells that were higher than the nearest road, but this occurred only when the nearest road was >30 m from the wells ( road type (major or minor roads). Surface geology and hydrologic soil class had significant effects ( road salt contamination of groundwater is unevenly distributed and is affected by landscape factors that can be used to guide well testing and best management practices of deicing salt distribution. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Pretreatment Characteristics of Waste Oak Wood by Ammonia Percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jin-Suk; Lee, Joon-Pyo; Park, Soon-Chul

    A log of waste oak wood collected from a Korean mushroom farm has been tested for ammonia percolation pretreatment. The waste log has different physical characteristics from that of virgin oak wood. The density of the waste wood was 30% lower than that of virgin oak wood. However, there is little difference in the chemical compositions between the woods. Due to the difference in physical characteristics, the optimal pretreatment conditions were also quite different. While for waste oak the optimum temperature was determined to be 130°C, for virgin oak wood the optimum pretreatment was only achieved at 170°C. Presoaking for 12 h with ammonia solution before pretreatment was helpful to increase the delignification efficiency.

  2. Facilitating Oak and Hickory Regeneration in Mature Central Hardwood Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Holzmueller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oak and hickory regeneration is often absent in mature oak-hickory forests in the Central Hardwood Region of the United States. Prescribed fire and thinning, alone and combined, are commonly prescribed silvicultural treatments that are recommended to initiate the regeneration process. This study examined the regeneration response in three mature oak stands following four treatments: (1 thin, (2 burn, (3 thinning and burning, or (4 no treatment (control. Ten years after initial treatment, results indicate that oak and hickory seedlings had greater height and diameter in the thinning and burning treatment compared to the control and that this treatment may help facilitate desirable regeneration in mature oak-hickory forests.

  3. Association between gallbladder stones and chronic hepatitis C: Ultrasonographic survey in a hepatitis C and B hyperendemic township in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Dai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder (GB stones have been associated with several metabolic factors and liver diseases. This community-based study aimed at investigating the prevalence rate of GB stones and its associated factors in a hepatitis B virus (HBV/hepatitis C virus (HCV-endemic township in southern Taiwan. A total of 1701 residents (689 males and 1012 females; mean age: 51.2 ± 16.0 years were enrolled in this prospectively designed screening project. Serum biochemistry tests, including testing for levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, and antibody to HCV (anti-HCV were conducted. In addition, a hepatobiliary ultrasonographic (US examination was also conducted. Of the 1701 residents, 243 (14.3% and 475 (27.9% were found to be positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV, respectively. Results of the US examination revealed the prevalence rate of GB stone and fatty liver to be 6.8% and 55.6%, respectively. Using univariate analyses we found that significantly higher proportions of the participants with GB stone were male, over 50 years of age, positive for anti-HCV (p = 0.001, p 50 year were identified as independent factors associated with the formation of GB stones. Anti-HCV was associated with GB stones in males but not in females in both univariate and multivariate analyses. GB stones were found to have a prevalence rate of 6.8% in this HCV/HBV hyperendemic township and are associated with higher mean age. A correlation between chronic hepatitis C and GB stones is observed only among males.

  4. Child Support Grant access and receipt among 12-week-old infants in an urban township setting in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Doherty, Tanya; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfers (CTs) are increasingly used as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The Child Support Grant (CSG) is the largest CT programme in South Africa, and on the continent, targeting poor children from birth until the age of 18 with a monthly sum of R300 (USD30). Evidence on the CSG shows that early receipt of the grant is associated with improved child health outcomes. Since its implementation, one of the major concerns about the grant has been take-up rates, particularly for younger children. This paper reports results on take-up rates for 12-week-old infants residing in an urban township in South Africa. This is a descriptive study utilising data from a community-based, cluster-randomised trial which evaluated a programme providing pregnancy and post-natal home visits by community health workers to 3,494 mothers in Umlazi township, South Africa. At the 12-week visit, half (52%) of the mothers who had enrolled in the study had applied for the CSG on behalf of their children, while 85% of the mothers who had not applied were still planning to apply. Only 38% (1,327) of all children had received the CSG. In this study, many mothers had not applied for the CSG in the first few months after delivery, and only a third of children had accessed the grant. Further research is needed to understand what the current barriers are that prevent mothers from applying for this important form of social protection in the early months after delivery.

  5. Child Support Grant access and receipt among 12-week-old infants in an urban township setting in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanga Zembe-Mkabile

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cash transfers (CTs are increasingly used as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The Child Support Grant (CSG is the largest CT programme in South Africa, and on the continent, targeting poor children from birth until the age of 18 with a monthly sum of R300 (USD30. Evidence on the CSG shows that early receipt of the grant is associated with improved child health outcomes. Since its implementation, one of the major concerns about the grant has been take-up rates, particularly for younger children. This paper reports results on take-up rates for 12-week-old infants residing in an urban township in South Africa. Methods: This is a descriptive study utilising data from a community-based, cluster-randomised trial which evaluated a programme providing pregnancy and post-natal home visits by community health workers to 3,494 mothers in Umlazi township, South Africa. Results: At the 12-week visit, half (52% of the mothers who had enrolled in the study had applied for the CSG on behalf of their children, while 85% of the mothers who had not applied were still planning to apply. Only 38% (1,327 of all children had received the CSG. Conclusions: In this study, many mothers had not applied for the CSG in the first few months after delivery, and only a third of children had accessed the grant. Further research is needed to understand what the current barriers are that prevent mothers from applying for this important form of social protection in the early months after delivery.

  6. Wheat Farmer's Land Consolidation Attitude and Suitable Solutions from Their Viewpoints in (Case Study: Hashtrood Township Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shams

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper planning and implementation of sound programs and strategies is vital to  agricultural development. Recognizing current problems and strengths of any section is required in the first step. One of the most important problems in the Iranian agriculture sector is land fragmentation. The purpose of this descriptive-correlational study was to investigate wheat farmers’ attitude and land consolidation solutions from their viewpoints in the Hashtrood Township in year 2013. A group of experts from different majors confirmed the validity of the questionnaire used as our research tool and by conducting a pilot test and the Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be equal to 0.85 for attitude scale and 0.8 for solution scale, and hence its reliability was verified. The target population consisted of all of the wheat farmers in the Hashtrood Township in the East Azerbaijan province 186 of whom  were selected as samples from 15 villages based on Cochran’s sampling formula and the multi stage randomized sampling method. An analysis of the attitudes of wheat farmers revealed that 67.7 and 32.3 percent of them have unfavorable and neutral attitudes towards land consolidation. Also, there is a significant positive relationship between farming experience and their attitude in land consolidation, but there is a negative relationship between it and their total land segments.  Factor analysis of data revealed that four factors named as deterrent actions, cooperative-common actions, supportive-infrastructural actions and motivational extension actions explained 59.9% of land consolidation solutions by wheat farmers.

  7. Green Thunderstorms Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank W., III; Beasley, William H.; Bohren, Craig F.

    1996-12-01

    Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Often the green coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflections of light from green foliage on the ground. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm do not believe that green thunderstorms exist. They suggest that the green storms may be fabrications by excited observers. The authors have demonstrated the existence of green thunderstorms objectively using a spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 the authors observed numerous storms and recorded hundreds of spectra of the light emanating corn these storms. It was found that the subjective judgment of colors can vary somewhat between observers, but the variation is usually in the shade of green. The authors recorded spectra of green and nongreen thunderstorms and recorded spectral measurements as a storm changed its appearance from dark blue to a bluish green. The change in color is gradual when observed from a stationary position. Also, as the light from a storm becomes greener, the luminance decreases. The authors also observed and recorded the spectrum of a thunderstorm during a period of several hours as they flew in an aircraft close to a supercell that appeared somewhat green. The authors' observations refute the ground reflection hypothesis and raise questions about explanations that require the presence of hail.

  8. Phytophthora ramorum infection in coast live oaks and Shreve's oaks treated with insecticide to prevent beetle colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; David L. Wood; David M. Rizzo; Pavel Svihra; Steve Tjosvold; Andrew J. Storer; Richard B. Standiford

    2006-01-01

    As the name implies, sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, kills many, if not most of the coast live oaks, Quercus agrifolia, that become infected (McPherson and others, 2005). Several genera of ambrosia and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) colonize bleeding (infected) trees and are suspected to hasten tree death....

  9. Long-term trends in coast live oak and tanoak stands affected by Phytophthora ramorum canker (Sudden Oak Death)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth Bernhardt

    2010-01-01

    Permanent plots were established in 2000 to examine how tree and site factors affect risk of Phytophthora ramorum stem canker (sudden oak death [SOD]) and determine how affected stands change over time due to disease. P. ramorum canker was prevalent in the sampled coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) or...

  10. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  11. Forest stand dynamics and sudden oak death: Mortality in mixed-evergreen forests dominated by coast live oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.B. Brown; B. Allen-Diaz

    2009-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the recently discovered non-native invasive pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, has already killed tens of thousands of native coast live oak and tanoak trees in California. Little is known of potential short and long term impacts of this novel plant–pathogen interaction on forest structure and composition. Coast live...

  12. Elemental concentrations in foliage of red maple, red oak, and white oak in relation to atmospheric deposition in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. D. Davis; J. M. Skelly; B. L. Nash

    1995-01-01

    Foliage was sampled in June and late August-early September in 1988 and 1989 from the outer crowns of codominant red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and white oak (Q. alba L.) trees in forest stands along an atmospheric deposition gradient in north-central Pennsylvania. Leaf samples...

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Management Program is the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. A vital aspect of this goal is to comply with all applicable state, federal, and DOE requirements. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented

  14. An aerial radiological survey of the White Oak Creek Floodplain, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Date of survey: September-October 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1987-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the White Oak Creek Floodplain of the Oak Ridge Reservation during the period 30 September through 3 October 1986. The survey was performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge Operations Office, by EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM), a contractor of the DOE. The survey results will be utilized in support of the Remedial Action Program being conducted at the site by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., operator of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A flight line spacing of 37 meters (120 feet) and a survey altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) yielded the maximum data density and sensitivity achievable by the aerial system, which was greater than that achieved from prior surveys of the entire Oak Ridge Reservation. Isopleth maps of Cs-137, Co-60, Ti-208 implied concentrations, and exposure rates provided an estimate of the location and magnitude of the man-made activity. These maps, overlaid on a current photograph of the area, combine to yield a view of the radiological condition of the White Oak Creek Floodplain. 5 refs., 40 figs., 3 tabs

  15. GREEN MANAGEMENT: THE REALITY OF BEING GREEN IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Green management and going green are not as clear cut and easy as hyped by the general media. While going ecologically green is indeed beneficial and appropriate, the process and procedure of becoming green is anything but easy. Firstly, turning green is largely not a legal requirement, but a voluntary process. Thus, even though LEED (which is by far the more publicly known green certification standard) governs the certification of the green management effort, it is not a compulsory condition...

  16. Species Diversity of Oak Stands and Its Significance for Drought Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kotlarz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought periods have an adverse impact on the condition of oak stands. Research on different types of ecosystems has confirmed a correlation between plant species diversity and the adverse effects of droughts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes that occurred in an oak stand (Krotoszyn Plateau, Poland under the impact of the summer drought in 2015. We used a method based on remote sensing indices from satellite images in order to detect changes in the vegetation in 2014 and 2015. A positive difference was interpreted as an improvement, whereas a negative one was treated as a deterioration of the stand condition. The Shannon-Wiener species diversity was estimated using an iterative principal component analysis (PCA algorithm based on aerial images. We observed a relationship between the species indices of the individual forest divisions and their response to drought. The highest correlation between the index differences and the Shannon-Wiener indices was found for the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI index (+0.74. In addition, correlations were observed between the mean index difference and the percentage shares in the forest divisions of species such as Pinus sylvestris L. (P. sylvestris (+0.67 ± 0.08 and Quercus robur L. (Q. robur (−0.65 ± 0.10. Our results lead us to infer that forest management based on highly diverse habitats is more suitable to meet the challenges in the context of global climatic changes, characterized by increasingly frequent droughts.

  17. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  18. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail

  19. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  20. Ecology and management of oak woodlands and savannas in the southwestern Borderlands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott

    2013-01-01

    Management of the Madrean oak woodlands and the less dense and ecologically different oak savannas must be based on sound ecological information. However, relatively little is known about the Madrean oak ecosystems in spite of the fact that they cover about 80,000 km2 in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Emory oak (Quercus emoryi), the dominant tree...

  1. Sustaining oak forests in eastern North America: regeneration and recruitment, the pillars of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Oak cover types comprise half of the forestlands in the eastern United States. There is a great desire to sustain these highly valued forests. Unfortunately, reports of the successional replacement of oak are all too common, as they are throughout the world. Sustaining the oak resource requires the ability to both regenerate and recruit oak into the overstory as...

  2. Factors Associated with the Competencies of Public Health Workers in Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing Municipality, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifei He

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to explore the competencies of public health workers (PHWs of township hospitals in Chongqing Municipality (China, and determine the related impact factors of the competencies of PHWs; Methods: A cross-sectional research was conducted on 314 PHWs from 27 township hospitals in three districts in Chongqing Municipality (China, from June to August 2014. A self-assessment questionnaire was established on the basis of literature reviews and a competency dictionary. The differences in competencies among the three districts were determined by adopting the chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA method, and the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs were determined by adopting stepwise regression analysis. Results: (1 Results of the demographic characteristics of PHWs in three sample districts of Chongqing Municipality showed that a significant difference in age of PHWs (p = 0.021 < 0.05 and the majors of PHWs (p = 0.045 < 0.05; (2 In terms of the self-evaluation competency results of PHWs in township hospitals, seven among the 11 aspects were found to have significant differences in the three districts by the ANOVA test; (3 By adopting the t-test and ANOVA method, results of the relationship between the characteristics of PHWs and their competency scores showed that significant differences were found in the economic level (p = 0.000 < 0.05, age (p = 0.000 < 0.05, years of working (p = 0.000 < 0.05 and title of PHWs (p = 0.000 < 0.05; (4 Stepwise regression analysis was used to determine the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs in township hospitals, including the economic level (p = 0.000 < 0.001, years of working (p = 0.000 < 0.001, title (p = 0.001 < 0.005, and public health major (p = 0.007 < 0.01. Conclusions: The competencies of the township hospital staff in Chongqing Municipality (China, are generally insufficient, therefore, regulating the medical education and training skills of PHWs is crucial

  3. White Oak Creek embayment sediment retention structure: The Oak Ridge model in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kimmel, B.L.; Page, D.G.; Hudson, G.R.; Wilkerson, R.B.; Zocolla, M.

    1992-01-01

    White Oak Creek is the major surface-water drainage through the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Samples taken from the lower portion of the creek revealed high levels of Cesium-137, and lower levels of Cobalt-60 in near-surface sediment. Other contaminants present in the sediment included: lead, mercury, chromium, and PCBS. In October 1990, DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) agreed to initiate a time-critical removal action in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to prevent transport of the contaminated sediments into the Clinch River system. This paper discusses the environmental, regulatory, design, and construction issues that were encountered in conducting the remediation work

  4. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities

  5. Source document for waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, P.L.; Kuhaida, A.J., Jr.

    1996-09-01

    This document serves as a source document for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and other types of documents developed for and pertaining to Environmental Restoration (ER) Program activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It contains descriptions of the (1) regulatory requirements for the ORR ER Program, (2) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) ER Program, (3) ORNL site history and characterization, and (4) history and characterization of Waste Area Groupings (WAGS) 1-20. This document was created to save time, effort, and money for persons and organizations drafting documents for the ER Program and to improve consistency in the documents prepared for the program. By eliminating the repetitious use of selected information about the program, this document will help reduce the time and costs associated with producing program documents. By serving as a benchmark for selected information about the ER Program, this reference will help ensure that information presented in future documents is accurate and complete

  6. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ``doses`` of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases.

  7. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ''doses'' of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases

  8. Phenolic Acids, Phenolic Aldehydes and Furanic Derivatives in Oak Chips: American vs. French Oaks

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrita, M.J.; Barrocas Dias, C.; Costa Freitas, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, syringic and ellagic acids), phenolic aldehydes (vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde) and furanic derivatives (furfural, 5-methylfurfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) were quantified in commercial American and French oak chips. Chips with different sizes and toast degrees were used. Compounds were extracted directly from the wood samples in order to determine possible differences among woods as well as toast degree. Likewise, the compo...

  9. Tiger team assessment of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1990-02-01

    This document contains findings identified during the Tiger Team Compliance Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Y-12 Plant Tiger Team Compliance Assessment is comprehensive in scope. It covers the Environmental, Safety, and Health (including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance), and Management areas and determines the plant's compliance with applicable federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Parker, A.F.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides summary information on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) sites as listed in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), dated January 1, 1992, Appendix C. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory was built in 1943 as part of the World War II Manhattan Project. The original mission of ORNL was to produce and chemically separate the first gram-quantities of plutonium as part of the national effort to produce the atomic bomb. The current mission of ORNL is to provide applied research and development in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in nuclear fusion and fission, energy conservation, fossil fuels, and other energy technologies and to perform basic scientific research in selected areas of the physical, life, and environmental sciences. ER is also tasked with clean up or mitigation of environmental impacts resulting from past waste management practices on portions of the approximately 37,000 acres within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Other installations located within the ORR are the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25) and the Y-12 plant. The remedial action strategy currently integrates state and federal regulations for efficient compliance and approaches for both investigations and remediation efforts on a Waste Area Grouping (WAG) basis. As defined in the ORR FFA Quarterly Report July - September 1995, a WAG is a grouping of potentially contaminated sites based on drainage area and similar waste characteristics. These contaminated sites are further divided into four categories based on existing information concerning whether the data are generated for scoping or remedial investigation (RI) purposes. These areas are as follows: (1) Operable Units (OU); (2) Characterization Areas (CA); (3) Remedial Site Evaluation (RSE) Areas; and (4) Removal Site Evaluation (RmSE) Areas.

  11. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop......Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  12. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, P.L.; Legeay, A.J.; Pesce, D.S.; Stanley, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    This report, Site Descriptions of Environmental Restoration Units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is being prepared to assimilate information on sites included in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of the K-25 Site, one of three major installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) built during World War III as part of the Manhattan Project. The information included in this report will be used to establish program priorities so that resources allotted to the K-25 ER Program can be best used to decrease any risk to humans or the environment, and to determine the sequence in which any remedial activities should be conducted. This document will be updated periodically in both paper and Internet versions. Units within this report are described in individual data sheets arranged alphanumerically. Each data sheet includes entries on project status, unit location, dimensions and capacity, dates operated, present function, lifecycle operation, waste characteristics, site status, media of concern, comments, and references. Each data sheet is accompanied by a photograph of the unit, and each unit is located on one of 13 area maps. These areas, along with the sub-area, unit, and sub-unit breakdowns within them, are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B is a summary of information on remote aerial sensing and its applicability to the ER program

  13. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, P.L.; Legeay, A.J.; Pesce, D.S.; Stanley, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    This report, Site Descriptions of Environmental Restoration Units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is being prepared to assimilate information on sites included in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of the K-25 Site, one of three major installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) built during World War III as part of the Manhattan Project. The information included in this report will be used to establish program priorities so that resources allotted to the K-25 ER Program can be best used to decrease any risk to humans or the environment, and to determine the sequence in which any remedial activities should be conducted. This document will be updated periodically in both paper and Internet versions. Units within this report are described in individual data sheets arranged alphanumerically. Each data sheet includes entries on project status, unit location, dimensions and capacity, dates operated, present function, lifecycle operation, waste characteristics, site status, media of concern, comments, and references. Each data sheet is accompanied by a photograph of the unit, and each unit is located on one of 13 area maps. These areas, along with the sub-area, unit, and sub-unit breakdowns within them, are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B is a summary of information on remote aerial sensing and its applicability to the ER program.

  14. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, N.L.

    1989-05-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1988. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1988 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Volume 2. The tables in Volume 2 are addressed in Volume 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Volume 1

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D ampersand D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D ampersand D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on D ampersand D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the ranking os remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. The focus of Vol. 1, Pt. B, is RA, and it has been divided into six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, which defines problems specific to the ER Program for ORNL. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of the TLD. Chapters 3 through 5 are organized into necessary subelement categories: RA, characterization, and robotics and automation. The final chapter contains regulatory compliance information concerning RA

  18. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Santoso; Rengganis Fitriani

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawangg...

  19. Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report; Reports of the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction, Vol. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas E. Widner; et. al.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel of individuals appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. The panel requested that the principal investigator for the project prepare the following report, ''Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report,'' to serve the following purposes: (1) summarize in a single, less technical report, the methods and results of the various investigations that comprised the Phase II of the dose reconstruction; (2) describe the systematic searching of classified and unclassified historical records that was a vital component of the project; and (3) summarize the less detailed, screening-level assessments that were performed to evaluate the potential health significance of a number of materials, such a uranium, whose priority did not require a complete dose reconstruction effort. This report describes each major step of the dose reconstruction study: (1) the review of thousands of historical records to obtain information relating to past operations at each facility; (2) estimation of the quantity and timing of releases of radioiodines from X-10, of mercury from Y-12, of PCB's from all facilities, and of cesium-137 and other radionuclides from White Oak Creek; (3) evaluation of the routes taken by these contaminants through the environment to nearby populations; and (4) estimation of doses and health risks to exposed groups. Calculations found the highest excess cancer risks for a female born in 1952 who drank goat milk; the highest non-cancer health risk was for children in a farm family exposed to PCBs in and near

  20. Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report; Reports of the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction, Vol. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widner, Thomas E.; email = twidner@jajoneses.com

    1999-01-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel of individuals appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. The panel requested that the principal investigator for the project prepare the following report, ''Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report,'' to serve the following purposes: (1) summarize in a single, less technical report, the methods and results of the various investigations that comprised the Phase II of the dose reconstruction; (2) describe the systematic searching of classified and unclassified historical records that was a vital component of the project; and (3) summarize the less detailed, screening-level assessments that were performed to evaluate the potential health significance of a number of materials, such a uranium, whose priority did not require a complete dose reconstruction effort. This report describes each major step of the dose reconstruction study: (1) the review of thousands of historical records to obtain information relating to past operations at each facility; (2) estimation of the quantity and timing of releases of radioiodines from X-10, of mercury from Y-12, of PCB's from all facilities, and of cesium-137 and other radionuclides from White Oak Creek; (3) evaluation of the routes taken by these contaminants through the environment to nearby populations; and (4) estimation of doses and health risks to exposed groups. Calculations found the highest excess cancer risks for a female born in 1952 who drank goat milk; the highest non-cancer health risk was for children in a farm family exposed to PCBs in and near East Fork Poplar Creek. More detailed

  1. Temporal dynamics of spectral bioindicators evidence biological and ecological differences among functional types in a cork oak open woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasoli, Sofia; Costa e Silva, Filipe; Silva, João M. N.

    2016-06-01

    The application of spectral vegetation indices for the purpose of vegetation monitoring and modeling increased largely in recent years. Nonetheless, the interpretation of biophysical properties of vegetation through their spectral signature is still a challenging task. This is particularly true in Mediterranean oak forest characterized by a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. In this study, the temporal dynamics of vegetation indices expected to be related with green biomass and photosynthetic efficiency were compared for the canopy of trees, the herbaceous layer, and two shrub species: cistus ( Cistus salviifolius) and ulex ( Ulex airensis). coexisting in a cork oak woodland. All indices were calculated from in situ measurements with a FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder, USA). Large differences emerged in the temporal trends and in the correlation between climate and vegetation indices. The relationship between spectral indices and temperature, radiation, and vapor pressure deficit for cork oak was opposite to that observed for the herbaceous layer and cistus. No correlation was observed between rainfall and vegetation indices in cork oak and ulex, but in the herbaceous layer and in the cistus, significant correlations were found. The analysis of spectral vegetation indices with fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) and quantum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence ( ΔF/ Fm') evidenced strongest relationships with the indices Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)512, respectively. Our results, while confirms the ability of spectral vegetation indices to represent temporal dynamics of biophysical properties of vegetation, evidence the importance to consider ecosystem composition for a correct ecological interpretation of results when the spatial resolution of observations includes different plant functional types.

  2. Establishing oaks in Big River floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Dey; John Kabrick; Michael Gold

    2003-01-01

    Successful tree establishment is fundamental to implementing agroforestry practices, reforesting bottomland cropfields or regenerating green-tree reservoirs. Planting trees can be problematic in floodplains and riparian areas because of intense competition from herbaceous and woody plants, animal herbivory and browsing, and flooding and saturated soils.

  3. Factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among 4,669 clinical medical students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Yunbo; Hu, Guijie; Chen, Qingyun; Peng, Hailun; Li, Kailan; Wei, Jinling; Yi, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs), the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs) starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33%) had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55%) had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary.

  4. Factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among 4,669 clinical medical students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbo Qing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs, the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. Methods: An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Results: Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33% had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55% had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Conclusion: Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary.

  5. 60 years of great science [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-01-01

    This issue highlights Oak Ridge National Laboratory's contributions in more than 30 areas of research and related activities during the past 60 years and provides glimpses of current activities that are carrying on this heritage.

  6. Technical Evaluation of Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kriskovich, J R

    2002-01-01

    Two evaluations of the Oak Ridge Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Facility (FTF) were performed on December 11 and 12, 2001, and consisted of a quality assurance and a technical evaluation. This report documents results of the technical evaluation.

  7. Establishing Mixtures of Redcedar In Poor Oak-Hickory Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon S. Minckler

    1966-01-01

    Oak-history forests on the poorest sites in the Upper Mississippi Valley have both low productivity and little esthetic appeal. A mixture of the native evergreen redcedar would add bearty and increase wildlife values.

  8. Oak Ridge low-level waste disposal facility designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Jones, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    The strategic planning process that culuminates in the identification, selection, construction, and ultimate operation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for all types of low-level waste (LLW) generated on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted under the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program. This program considered management of various concentrations of short half-life radionuclides generated principally at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and long half-life radionuclides (principally uranium) generated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant. The LLWDDD Program is still ongoing and involves four phases: (1) alternative identification and evaluation, (2) technology demonstration, (3) limited operational implementation, and (4) full operational implementation. This document provides a discussion of these phases

  9. Research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, H.

    1980-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a large (5300 people), US-government-funded laboratory, which performs research in many disciplines and in many technological areas. Programs and organization of ORNL are described for the People's Republic of China

  10. Technical specifications for the Oak Ridge Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Information is presented concerning the Oak Ridge Research Reactor in the areas of: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; administrative controls; and monitoring of effluents

  11. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.

  12. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  13. Evaluation of extractive content in Albanian white oak ( Quercus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , have an important impact on wood properties and its utilization. The study was carried on extractives content of white oak (Quercus petraea Liebl). Eighteen sawdust samples were taken from cuts in six different heights of three trees.

  14. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  15. Anti nutritional evaluation of the flour of the nipples of holm oak (quercus ilex) and oak cork (quercus suber) Raw and pressure-sealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mahi, F. Z.

    2009-01-01

    The present study contributes to the development of the food potential of the nipples of oak like new resources likely to be exploited on an industrial scale for their use in animal feeds. Our work relates to two species S of nipples of oak, edible, the holm oak and the other fodder one, the oak cork known for their spontaneousness and their vey significant geographical distribution. (Author)

  16. Greening the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  17. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  18. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  19. Green for rarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raal, F.A.; Robinson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Green diamonds once recovered from Witwatersrand gold/uranium deposits, are now a thing of the past with the modernisation of extraction metallurgy methods. The green colouration has been shown to be due to radiation from uranium present in the ore

  20. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  1. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  2. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  3. Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training and Green Tea Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Inactive Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fathei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Physical activities, as well as diet, are known as the truest scientific methods to reduce the signs of the cardio-vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8–week aerobic trainings and green tea supplementation on some of the cardio-vascular risk factors in the obese inactive women. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 40 obese inactive women, who were residents of Mashhad Township, were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected via purposeful available sampling method, were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 per group. The groups were green tea, aerobic training, aerobic training and green tea supplementation, and control groups. 8-week training program consisted of three 45- to 60-minute sessions per week. Green tea was consumed by green tea group three times a day after each meal. The composed group underwent both interventions, while control group underwent no intervention. Data was analyzed by SPSS 15 software using correlated T test and one-way ANOVA. Findings: Mean total cholesterol level was significantly changed in green tea, aerobic training, and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean triglyceride level was significantly changed in green tea and aerobic training groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean low density lipoprotein was significantly changed in green tea and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean high-density lipoprotein was significantly changed only in aerobic group in posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. In addition, mean concentration of C-reactive protein was significantly reduced in aerobic training (p=0.01 and composed (p=0.04 groups. Conclusion: 8 weeks aerobic training, green tea consumption, and their composition reduce the cardiovascular risk factors in inactive obese women in a relatively similar manner.

  4. Development of tree hollows in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur)

    OpenAIRE

    Ranius, Thomas; Niklasson, Mats; Berg, Niclas

    2009-01-01

    Many invertebrates, birds and mammals are dependent on hollow trees. For landscape planning that aims at persistence of species inhabiting hollow trees it is crucial to understand the development of such trees. In this study we constructed an individual-based simulation model to predict diameter distribution and formation of hollows in oak tree populations. Based on tree-ring data from individual trees, we estimated the ages when hollow formation commences for pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) ...

  5. Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new heavy-ion accelerator facility is now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A brief description of the scope and schedule of this project is given, and the new large tandem accelerator, which will be a major element of the facility is discussed in some detail. Several studies which have been made or are in progress in Oak Ridge in preparation for operation of the tandem accelerator are briefly described

  6. ALTERNATIVE OAK IN THE MATURATION OF WINES CABERNET SAUVIGNON

    OpenAIRE

    T. B. Hamm; R. A. G. Kohn; E. P. Pinto; L. Lucchetta; V. Manfroi; C. V. Rombaldi

    2014-01-01

    The wine maturation with classic oak is a practice used for a long time, but recently the alternative means (fragments) has been used for its lower cost and practicality. In this study, the alternative wooden barrel was evaluated sit tested two types of oak fragment (chip and cube) and two doses (1 and 2 g L-1). The variables analyzed were as physicochemical characteristics and sensory analysis. The wines showed positive characteristics in general quality, highlighting the conditions of body ...

  7. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report Summary, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared and published each year to inform the public of the environmental activities that take place on the reservation and in the surrounding areas. It is written to comply with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. This document has been prepared to present the highlights of the Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report 2007 in an easy-to-read, summary format.

  8. Do chestnut, northern red, and white oak germinant seedlings respond similary to light treatments? II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Rebbeck; Amy Scherzer; Kurt. Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Understanding differences in physiological and growth strategies in low-light environments among upland oak species may help managers address the challenges of oaks' poor regeneration. Gas exchange and chlorophyll content were measured for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), and white oak (...

  9. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  10. Responses of oaks and tanoaks to the sudden oak death pathogen after 8 y of monitoring in two coastal California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; Sylvia R. Mori; David L. Wood; Maggi Kelly; Andrew J. Storer; Pavel Svihra; Richard B. Standiford

    2010-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, is widely established in mesic forests of coastal central and northern California. In 2000, we placed 18 plots in two Marin County sites to monitor disease progression in coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia), California black oaks (Q. kelloggii), and tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus), the species that are most...

  11. Impact of the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, on the health of coast live oak before and after treatment with two systemic insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Mary L. Flint; Tom W. Coleman; Joseph J. Doccola; Donald M. Grosman; David L. Wood; Steven J. Seybold

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, is threatening the health and survival of oak trees in San Diego County, California. From two sites in the core area of the infestation, we report a 2.5 year investigation of the impact of A. auroguttatus on coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, before and after treatment with two systemic...

  12. Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Sancak, Kerem; Jansson, Nicklas

    2016-03-01

    Old living oaks (Quercus robur) are known as a very species-rich habitat for saproxylic beetles, but it is less clear to what extent such veteran trees differ from an even rarer feature: downed trunks of large oaks. In this study, we set out to sample this habitat, using window traps, with two aims: (1) to describe the variation of assemblages among downed trunks of different type and (2) to compare beetles on downed oaks with data from veteran standing trees. The results showed that trunk volume and sun exposure better explained assemblages as well as species numbers on downed trunks than did decay stage. Furthermore, species classified as facultative saproxylic species showed weak or no differentiation among downed trunks. Species with different feeding habits showed no apparent differentiation among downed trunks. Furthermore, species composition on dead, downed oak trunks differed sharply from that of living, veteran oaks. Wood or bark feeders were more common on veterans than downed trunks, but there was no difference for those species feeding on fungi or those feeding on insects and their remains. In conclusion, for a successful conservation of the saproxylic beetle fauna it is important to keep downed oak trunks, and particularly large ones, in forest and pastures as they constitute a saproxylic habitat that differs from that of living trees.

  13. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  14. Relationship between resistance to Phytophthora ramorum and constitutive phenolic chemistry in coast live oaks and northern red oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemarie M. Nagle; Matteo Garbelotto; Brice McPherson; David L. Wood; Pierluigi. Bonello

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum causes lethal canker diseases and extensive mortality in coast live oak (CLO) (Quercus agrifolia) and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus). No practical controls are available for this disease in non-urban environments. Therefore, characterization of natural resistance is highly...

  15. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents data and information related to remedial investigation studies for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Information is included on a soil gas survey, surface radiological investigations of waste areas, and well installation for ground water monitoring

  16. Community perceptions of risk factors for interpersonal violence in townships in Cape Town, South Africa: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen

    2017-10-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major contributor to the burden of disease globally, and in South Africa, it is the leading cause of injury. There is an emerging consensus that the development of actionable policy and effective prevention strategies for interpersonal violence requires an understanding of the contextual matters that elevate risk for interpersonal violence. The objective of this study was to explore community perceptions of risks for interpersonal violence in five townships in Cape Town, South Africa, with high rates of violence. Focus group discussions were conducted with community members to identify key factors in that contributed to being either a perpetrator or victim of interpersonal violence. The ecological framework was used to classify the risk factors as occurring at individual, relationship, community or society levels. Some of the risk factors identified included alcohol abuse, poverty, informality of settlements and cultural norms. Differences in how each of these risk factors are expressed and experienced in the five communities are also elucidated. This approach enabled the collection of contextual community-based data that can complement conventional surveillance data in the development of relevant community-level strategies for interpersonal violence prevention.

  17. Guidelines for sustainable tourism planning in the township of San Francisco de Asis (Acandi Municipality, Choco, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan Carvajal, Carlos Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents important management guidelines for conducting a tourism planning process in the township of San Francisco de Asis, which were developed from the conceptual notion of sustainable tourism and participation of local people. This case considered the participatory research method, used ethnography techniques and implemented shops with the community. As a main result proposed the consolidation of four components, socio- political, socio- cultural, social- ecological and socio- economic; that must be managed in an integrated fashion to achieve real sustainable tourism in this territory. In the first component outlines an participatory process that must take place between the various stake holders; in the second considered strengthen the social tissue and valuing cultural traditions to adequately integrate tourism activities; the third proposes an integrated environmental conservation in the whole territory and as an obligation of all stake holders, including to tourists; finally, in the fourth component, recommend the creation of more opportunities and general welfare for the entire local population in order to prevent the growth of tourism segregated. As a general conclusion will projected that the implementation of these guidelines permitted advance, from the practical, in the development of a truly sustainable tourism that help improve the living conditions of local people and conserve valuable natural and cultural resources that exist in this territory.

  18. An investigation into the disciplinary methods used by teachers in a secondary township school in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numvula J. Serame

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The research that this article reports on investigated the incidence of learner discipline problems, the effect of them on teachers, the teachers’ methods of maintaining discipline and the effectiveness of those methods in one township, namely Jouberton in Klerksdorp, South Africa. The experiences of both teachers and learners were surveyed. It was found that discipline at the school is far from satisfactory and problems with discipline are more serious than the international norm indicates. These problems have a serious effect on a large part of the teachers’ family life, personal health, job satisfaction and morale. Whilst both teachers and learners commendably prefer the educationally sound preventive and positive methods of maintaining discipline, the application of these methods appears not to be effective: it seems as if teacher education falls short in the area of maintaining discipline, particularly regarding the successful application of proactive methods of maintaining discipline. Finally, the learners’ views on the maintenance of discipline are an alarming indictment of the principles of democracy, human rights and human dignity, and of rationality as a tool for conflict resolution. Recommendations are made for follow-up research with the objective of amelioration.

  19. Job satisfaction and its modeling among township health center employees: a quantitative study in poor rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun A; Wang, Qi; Lu, Zu X

    2010-05-10

    Job satisfaction is important to staff management of township health centers (THCs), as it is associated with organizational performance, quality of care and employee retention. The purpose of this study was to measure job satisfaction level of THC employees in poor rural China and to identify relevant features in order to provide policy advice on human resource development of health service institutions in poor regions. A self-completion questionnaire was used to assess the job satisfaction and relevant features (response rate: 90.5%) among 172 employees (i.e., clinic doctors, medico-technical workers and public health workers) of 17 THCs in Anhui and Xinjiang provinces of China. The study covered a time period of two months in 2007. The mean staff job satisfaction scored 83.3, which was in the category of "somewhat satisfied" on a scale ranging from 0 (extremely dissatisfied) to 100 (extremely satisfied) by employing Likert's transformation formula. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed eight domains involved in modeling of job satisfaction, among which, the caregivers were more satisfied with job significance (88.2), job competency (87.9) and teamwork (87.7), as compared with work reward (72.9) and working conditions (79.7). Mean job satisfaction in Xinjiang (89.7) was higher than that in Anhui (75.5). Employees of THCs have moderate job satisfactions in poor areas, which need to be raised further by improving their working conditions and reward.

  20. Preparation of a flood-risk environmental index: case study of eight townships in Changhua County, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Szu-Hsien

    2018-02-26

    To evaluate flood-prone areas, correlation analysis of flooding factors for the quantitative evaluation of hazard degree was determined to assist in further disaster prevention management. This study used flood-prone areas in 35 villages over eight townships (Changhua, Huatan, Yuanlin, Xiushui, Puyan, Hemei, Dacun, and Erlin) in Changhua County as research samples. Linear combination was used to evaluate flood-prone environmental indices, and an expert questionnaire was designed by using the analytic hierarchy process and the Delphi method to determine the weights of factors. These factors were then used to calculate the eigenvector of a pairwise comparison matrix to obtain the weights for the risk assessment criteria. Through collection of disaster cases, with particular focus on specifically protected areas where flooding has occurred or is likely to occur, public adaptation and response capabilities were evaluated by using an interview questionnaire that contains the items of perceived disaster risk, resource acquisition capability, adaptation capability, and environment understanding and disaster prevention education. Overlays in a geographic information system were used to analyze the flood-risk degree in villages and to construct a distribution map that contains flood-prone environment indices. The results can assist local governments in understanding the risk degree of various administrative areas to aid them in developing effective mitigation plans.

  1. Job satisfaction and its modeling among township health center employees: a quantitative study in poor rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zu X

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job satisfaction is important to staff management of township health centers (THCs, as it is associated with organizational performance, quality of care and employee retention. The purpose of this study was to measure job satisfaction level of THC employees in poor rural China and to identify relevant features in order to provide policy advice on human resource development of health service institutions in poor regions. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was used to assess the job satisfaction and relevant features (response rate: 90.5% among 172 employees (i.e., clinic doctors, medico-technical workers and public health workers of 17 THCs in Anhui and Xinjiang provinces of China. The study covered a time period of two months in 2007. Results The mean staff job satisfaction scored 83.3, which was in the category of "somewhat satisfied" on a scale ranging from 0 (extremely dissatisfied to 100 (extremely satisfied by employing Likert's transformation formula. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA revealed eight domains involved in modeling of job satisfaction, among which, the caregivers were more satisfied with job significance (88.2, job competency (87.9 and teamwork (87.7, as compared with work reward (72.9 and working conditions (79.7. Mean job satisfaction in Xinjiang (89.7 was higher than that in Anhui (75.5. Conclusions Employees of THCs have moderate job satisfactions in poor areas, which need to be raised further by improving their working conditions and reward.

  2. Reading is FUNdamental: The effect of a reading programme on vocabulary development in a high poverty township school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheepers, Ruth

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of the vocabulary of grade 7 learners in a reading project currently underway at a school in Atteridgeville, a township on the outskirts of Pretoria. A library has been established at the school and teachers throughout the school attend workshops designed to heighten their awareness of the value of reading and the importance of vocabulary, and to provide them with strategies to facilitate the development of reading. This paper focuses on the vocabulary development of grade 7 learners – they are in the senior phase of primary school and will soon be entering high school where they will be faced with more academic vocabulary in context-reduced textbooks. Learners’ vocabulary was tested early in the year and then again towards the end to assess whether increased access to books and reading had had an effect on vocabulary growth. Results revealed that learners at the project school showed a lack of vocabulary, even at the end of the study period, not only in terms of academic words but also high frequency words. Extensive reading alone is clearly not enough – learners need explicit vocabulary instruction: in order to read successfully at high school level, learners need a working knowledge of academic vocabulary, and this knowledge is developed by reading – but learners cannot read successfully without an adequate basic high-frequency vocabulary.

  3. The roles of community health workers in management of non-communicable diseases in an urban township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lungiswa P. Tsolekile

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community health workers (CHWs are increasingly being recognised as a crucial part of the health workforce in South Africa and other parts of the world. CHWs have taken on a variety of roles, including community empowerment, provision of services and linking communities with health facilities. Their roles are better understood in the areas of maternal and child health and infectious diseases (HIV infection, malaria and tuberculosis. Aim: This study seeks to explore the current roles of CHWs working with non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Setting: The study was conducted in an urban township in Cape Town, South Africa. Method: A qualitative naturalistic research design utilising observations and in-depth interviews with CHWs and their supervisors working in Khayelitsha was used. Results: CHWs have multiple roles in the care of NCDs. They act as health educators, advisors, rehabilitation workers and support group facilitators. They further screen for complications of illness and assist community members to navigate the health system. These roles are shaped both by expectations of the health system and in response to community needs. Conclusion: This study indicates the complexities of the roles of CHWs working with NCDs. Understanding the actual roles of CHWs provides insights into not only the competencies required to enable them to fulfil their daily functions, but also the type of training required to fill the present gaps.

  4. English reading and writing performance of Xitsonga-speaking Grade 7 learners in township schools: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyike, Tintswalo V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A clear preference for English as language of teaching and learning (LoLT is evident in most South African schools. However, discrepancies exist between language policy aims and educational outcomes with regard to the successful acquisition of English among English second language (ESL learners. Effective participation in all learning activities is closely linked to learners’ proficiency in the LoLT; poor English proficiency leads to underachievement across the curriculum. In the light of this, a case study as conducted to investigate the English reading and writing performance of Grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners in three selected township schools in the Tshwane metropolitan area, Gauteng Province. Firstly, a literature review was undertaken to explore the importance of reading and writing skills in the classroom with particular reference to the demands made on ESL learners. Following this, standardised tests were used to assess the learners’ English reading and writing performance. Findings indicated that learners performed poorly in both reading and writing; however, no significant relationship could be demonstrated between reading and writing, possibly due to the nature of the components of the test. The overall lack of reading and writing competence in English holds implications for learners’ academic achievement in all learning areas in situations in which English is used as the LoLT.

  5. TOO SICK TO START: ENTREPRENEUR’S HEALTH AND BUSINESS ENTRY IN TOWNSHIPS AROUND DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAO, LI-WEI; SZREK, HELENA; PEREIRA, NUNO SOUSA; PAULY, MARK V.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike large firms with management teams, small businesses are usually run by one key person, the owner-entrepreneur, who bears almost all of the risks and makes almost all of the decisions related to the business. Because the owner-entrepreneur also embodies most of the firm-specific knowledge capital, health of the owner-entrepreneur is an important factor in the production process. Following a cohort of respondents in townships around Durban, South Africa, over a three-year period, we examined the relationship between an individual’s physical health and the decision to start a business. Our results suggest that respondents who were recent business entrants were in better health than respondents who did not start new businesses. Moreover, respondents without a business at the beginning of the study who later opened businesses during the three-year study interval were significantly more likely to have better baseline health than those respondents who never started a new business. Hence, good health among entrepreneurs seems to be an important prerequisite to small business entry. PMID:21603114

  6. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  7. Decomposition of oak leaf litter and millipede faecal pellets in soil under temperate mixed oak forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajovský, Karel; Šimek, Miloslav; Háněl, Ladislav; Šantrůčková, Hana; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The millipedes Glomeris hexasticha (Diplopoda, Glomerida) were maintained under laboratory conditions and fed on oak leaf litter collected from a mixed oak forest (Abieto-Quercetum) in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. Every fourth day litter was changed and produced faecal pellets were separated and afterwards analysed. Content of organic carbon and C:N ratio lowered in faecal pellets as compared with consumed litter. Changes in content of chemical elements (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na) were recognised as those characteristic for the first stage of degradation of plant material. Samples of faecal pellets and oak leaf litter were then exposed in mesh bags between the F and H layers of forest soil for up to one year, subsequently harvested and analysed. A higher rate of decomposition of exposed litter than that of faecal pellets was found during the first two weeks. After 1-year exposure, the weight of litter was reduced to 51%, while that of pellets to 58% only, although the observed activity of present biotic components (algae, protozoans, nematodes; CO2 production, nitrogenase activity) in faecal pellets was higher as compared with litter. Different micro-morphological changes were observed in exposed litter and in pellets although these materials originated from the same initial sources. Comparing to intact leaf litter, another structural and functional processes occurred in pellets due to the fragmentation of plant material by millipedes. Both laboratory and field experiments showed that the millipede faecal pellets are not only a focal point of biodegradation activity in upper soil layers, but also confirmed that millipede feces undergo a slower decomposition than original leaf litter.

  8. Autosomal and sex-linked microsatellite loci in the green oak leaf roller Tortrix viridana L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, H.C.; Arens, P.F.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Eight microsatellite markers were developed for the lepidopteran species Tortrix viridana using an enrichment protocol. The loci were highly variable with number of alleles ranging from four to 38. Six of the eight loci were in Hardy¿Weinberg equilibrium. The other two were linked to the

  9. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borders, D.M.; Watts, J.A.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Gregory, S.M.; Moore, T.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes, for the 12-month period (January through December 1992), the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily, on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed along with information collected on the surface flow systems which affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow system; assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance

  10. Geophysical Surveys of a Known Karst Feature, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, W.E.; Nyquist, J.E.; Carpenter, P.J.; Kaufmann, R.D.; Carr, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Geophysical data were acquired at a site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee to determine the characteristics of a mud-filled void and to evaluate the effectiveness of a suite of geophysical methods at the site. Methods that were used included microgravity, electrical resistivity, and seismic refraction. Both microgravity and resistivity were able to detect the void as well as overlying structural features. The seismic data provide bedrock depth control for the other two methods, and show other effects that are caused by the void

  11. Data Sharing Report Characterization of Isotope Row Facilities Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using funds provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a survey approach, focused on characterizing the Isotope Row Facilities located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for future determination of an appropriate disposition pathway for building debris and systems, should the buildings be demolished. The characterization effort was designed to identify and quantify radiological and chemical contamination associated with building structures and process systems. The Isotope Row Facilities discussed in this report include Bldgs. 3030, 3031, 3032, 3033, 3033A, 3034, 3036, 3093, and 3118, and are located in the northeast quadrant of the main ORNL campus area, between Hillside and Central Avenues. Construction of the isotope production facilities was initiated in the late 1940s, with the exception of Bldgs. 3033A and 3118, which were enclosed in the early 1960s. The Isotope Row facilities were intended for the purpose of light industrial use for the processing, assemblage, and storage of radionuclides used for a variety of applications (ORNL 1952 and ORAU 2013). The Isotope Row Facilities provided laboratory and support services as part of the Isotopes Production and Distribution Program until 1989 when DOE mandated their shutdown (ORNL 1990). These facilities performed diverse research and developmental experiments in support of isotopes production. As a result of the many years of operations, various projects, and final cessation of operations, production was followed by inclusion into the surveillance and maintenance (S&M) project for eventual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The

  12. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents

  13. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents.

  14. Selling the green dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the marketing and sales of energy generated from renewable energy sources. To purchase environmental energy in the USA, the consumer need do no more than tick a box on a sheet of paper. But, it is not just households that opt for green energy: businesses are also willing customers. A factor in the success in selling green energy to big business is that the retail price of wind power can be held constant over periods of several years, whereas fossil fuel prices can fluctuate wildly. Details of sources and sales of the top ten companies selling green energy are given

  15. Manufacturing Green Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Ooi, Can Seng

    2014-01-01

    In an increasingly global economy, being green, or having an environmentally sustainbale place brand, provides a competitive advantage. Singapore, long known as the ``garden city´´ has been a leader in green city imaging since the founding of the equatorial city-state, contributing, in large part...... to the city’s profile as the economic giant of Southeast Asia. Using a political ecology lens, the paper aims to uncover the contested socio-economic narratives of green city imaging by examining the evolution of the garden city branding scheme since Singapore’s independence in 1959. Results show...

  16. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  17. Oak Ridge 24URC tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigs, M.J.; Haynes, D.L.; Juras, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report discusses the operation of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) which was dedicated on December 12, 1996, with a formal ceremony followed by a reception and tour. This dedication marked the culmination of the reconfiguration, started in the middle of 1992, and the beginning of full-time operation as an international user facility. Although construction and commissioning are finished, development continues on ion sources and better methods to produce new and more intense radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The first RIB experiment, Coulomb excitation of 69 As, was completed on June 6, 1997. During the time period from June 1-6, 69 As and 67 Ga were provided for seventy-six hours with a maximum of 1.5 x 10 6 particles/sec at the experimental station. Four μA of primary beam, 42 MeV protons from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC), was on the 70 Ge target to produce this maximum beam. The experimenter was not set up to use this much beam, so most of the run was done at reduced levels. A second RIB experiment, again using 69 As beam, was attempted on 9/9/97. Although a beam of about 10 5 particles/second was successfully tuned to the Recoil Mass Spectrometer, the intensity produced by the RIB injector source was inadequate to complete the experiment

  18. Crush Testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic crush test is required in the certification testing of some small Type B transportation packages. International Atomic Energy Agency regulations state that the test article must be 'subjected to a dynamic crush test by positioning the specimen on the target so as to suffer maximum damage.' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Transportation Technologies Group performs testing of Type B transportation packages, including the crush test, at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee (United States). This paper documents ORNL's experiences performing crush tests on several different Type B packages. ORNL has crush tested five different drum-type package designs, continuing its 60 year history of RAM package testing. A total of 26 crush tests have been performed in a wide variety of package orientations and crush plate CG alignments. In all cases, the deformation of the outer drum created by the crush test was significantly greater than the deformation damage caused by the 9 m drop test. The crush test is a highly effective means for testing structural soundness of smaller nondense Type B shipping package designs. Further regulatory guidance could alleviate the need to perform the crush test in a wide range of orientations and crush plate CG alignments.

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's isotope enrichment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Isotope Enrichment Program (IEP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the production and distribution of ∼225 enriched stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. In addition, ORNL distributes enriched actinide isotopes and provides extensive physical- and chemical-form processing of enriched isotopes to meet customer requirements. For more than 50 yr, ORNL has been a major provider of enriched isotopes and isotope-related services to research, medical, and industrial institutions throughout the world. Consolidation of the Isotope Distribution Office (IDO), the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML), and the stable isotope inventories in the Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) have improved operational efficiencies and customer services. Recent changes in the IEP have included adopting policies for long-term contracts, which offer program stability and pricing advantages for the customer, and prorated service charges, which greatly improve pricing to the small research users. The former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Loan Program has been converted to a lease program, which makes large-quantity or very expensive isotopes available for nondestructive research at a nominal cost. Current efforts are being pursued to improve and expand the isotope separation capabilities as well as the extensive chemical- and physical-form processing that now exists. The IEF's quality management system is ISO 9002 registered and accredited in the United States, Canada, and Europe

  20. The most significant fungi: Agents of wood decay in oak forests of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widely distributed oak species in Serbia are Q. petrea (sessile oak, Q. cerris (Turkey oak and Q. frainetto (Hungarian oak and Quercus robur (common oak, and lignicolous fungi are the major agents of wood decay in natural and coppice oak forests. In this research, 33 species of fungi were identified. Eleven species were described, among which the most significant are: Armillaria mellea, Fomes fomentarius, Hypoxylon deustum Laetiporus sulphureus, Lenzites quercina and Phellinus robustus. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the most significant identified fungi, their distribution, host plants and significance.

  1. Sustainable green urban planning: the Green Credit Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The Green Credit Tool is evaluated as a method to quantify the value of green-spaces and to determine how these green-space-values can be replaced or compensated for within urban spatial planning projects. Design/methodology/approach – Amersfoort Local Municipality created the Green Credit

  2. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Township Cadres in a Specific Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang Guan, Chang-Yue; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results: In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = −0.372, p job satisfaction in township cadres (r = 0.587, p job stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort studies. PMID:28846644

  3. Using Green Water Farm to Improve Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hsiou Chang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs are human-made floating structures capable of supporting aquatic vegetation. Previous studies pointed out that most AFIs use aquatic plants to carry out improvement of water quality and ecological conservation. This study proposed a modified AFI system, named Green Water Farm (GWF, to increase the practical application value of traditional AFIs, and added a special design to create an environment that allows for terrestrial plants (including vegetables and flowers to grow and to carry out improvement of water quality and ecological conservation. The research site was located at the waterfront of Li-tze Lake in Pitou Township, Taiwan. A GWF was established to evaluate the improvement of water quality and ecological conservation. During one year, water quality and ecological conservation assessments were recorded to investigate the performance of GWF system. The research results showed that GWF could improve water quality and ecological conservation. In addition, the results of this study can provide useful information for more food sources for humans and animals, and increase biodiversity and ecological conservation.

  4. Characterization plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area-Wide Groundwater Program, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This characterization plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the characterization plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide subsequent GWOU remedial investigations. The plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It is important to note that the characterization plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. As such, remedial investigations will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This characterization plan outlines the overall strategy for the remedial investigations and defines tasks that are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow.

  5. Microgravity survey of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.D.

    1996-05-01

    Karst features are known to exist within the carbonate bedrock of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and may play an important role in groundwater flow and contaminant migration. This report discusses the results of a microgravity survey of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The main objective of the survey is to identify areas containing bedrock cavities. Secondary objectives included correlating the observed gravity to the geology and to variations in overburden thickness. The analysis includes 11 profile lines that are oriented perpendicular to the geologic strike and major structures throughout the K-25 Site. The profile lines are modeled in an effort to relate gravity anomalies to karst features such as concentrations of mud-filled cavities. Regolith thickness and density data provided by boreholes constrain the models. Areally distributed points are added to the profile lines to produce a gravity contour map of the site. In addition, data from the K-901 area are combined with data from previous surveys to produce a high resolution map of that site. The K-25 Site is located in an area of folded and faulted sedimentary rocks within the Appalachian Valley and Ridge physiographic province. Paleozoic age rocks of the Rome Formation, Knox Group, and Chickamauga Supergroup underlie the K-25 Site and contain structures that include the Whiteoak Mountain Fault, the K-25 Fault, a syncline, and an anticline. The mapped locations of the rock units and complex structures are currently derived from outcrop and well log analysis

  6. Characterization plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area-Wide Groundwater Program, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This characterization plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the characterization plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide subsequent GWOU remedial investigations. The plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It is important to note that the characterization plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. As such, remedial investigations will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This characterization plan outlines the overall strategy for the remedial investigations and defines tasks that are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow

  7. Inactive tanks remediation program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents plans and strategies for remediation of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service (also known as inactive tanks) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These plans and strategies will be carried out by the Environmental Restoration Program's Inactive LLLW Tank Program at ORNL. These tanks are defined as Category D tanks because they are existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. The approach to remediation of each tank or tank farm must be adapted in response to the specific circumstances of individual tank sites. The approach will be tailored to accommodate feedback on lessons learned from previous tank remediation activities and will not be a rigid step-by-step approach that must be conducted identically for every tank system. However, the approach will follow a multistep decision process. The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed from service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA requirements. The Inactive Tank Program will focus on the remediation of the tank residues (i.e., contents after tank has been emptied) and tank shell. This strategy is discussed in detail in this report

  8. Inactive tanks remediation program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents plans and strategies for remediation of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service (also known as inactive tanks) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These plans and strategies will be carried out by the Environmental Restoration Program's Inactive LLLW Tank Program at ORNL. The approach to remediation of each tank or tank farm must be adapted in response to the specific circumstances of individual tank sites. The approach will be tailored to accommodate feedback on lessons learned from previous tank remediation activities and will not be a rigid step-by-step approach that must be conducted identically for every tank system. However, the approach will follow a multistep decision process. The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed from service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA requirements. The Inactive Tank Program will focus on the remediation of the tank residues and tank shell. This strategy is discussed in detail in this report

  9. Quality assurance plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) is concerned with design and construction (Sect. 2) and characterization and monitoring (Sect. 3). The basis for Sect. 2 is the Quality Assurance Plan for the Design and Construction of Waste Area Grouping 6 Closure at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the basis for Sect. 3 is the Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan. Combining the two areas into one plan gives a single, overall document that explains the requirements and from which the individual QAPs and quality assurance project plans can be written. The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 QAP establishes the procedures and requirements to be implemented for control of quality-related activities for the WAG 6 project. Quality Assurance (QA) activities are subject to requirements detailed in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), QA Program and the Environmental Restoration (ER) QA Program, as well as to other quality requirements. These activities may be performed by Energy Systems organizations, subcontractors to Energy Systems, and architect-engineer (A-E) under prime contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), or a construction manager under prime contract to DOE. This plan specifies the overall Energy Systems quality requirements for the project. The WAG 6 QAP will be supplemented by subproject QAPs that will identify additional requirements pertaining to each subproject

  10. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  11. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  12. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  13. Green certificates causing inconvenience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    From early 2002, producers of green energy in selected countries have been able to benefit from generous financial support in the Netherlands. Thus, there has been increased sale of green certificates from Norway and Sweden. But the condition that physical energy delivery should accompany the certificates has caused a marked rise in the price of energy in transit through Germany to the Netherlands. This article discusses the green certificate concept and the experience gained from the Netherlands. One conclusion is that if large-scale trade with green certificates is introduced in Europe without the condition of accompanying energy delivery, then producers of hydro-electric power in Norway and Sweden may be the losers

  14. Green space as classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Peter; Schipperijn, Jasper; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    More and more Danish teachers have started introducing curriculum-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly ‘outdoor school’ day for school children. This move towards schooling in non-classroom spaces presents a challenge for green space managers. Basic managerial knowledge related to what......, who, when and where has thus far only been supported by anecdotal evidence, but seems fundamental to the decision-making of a range of green space providers. The present study aims to describe, characterise and discuss outdoor teachers’ use, preferences and ecostrategies in relation to green space....... A nationwide survey was conducted among Danish teachers practising outdoor teaching (107 respondents), and it showed that a majority used and preferred forest areas. The outdoor teachers used mainly school grounds and local green space for their outdoor teaching with a majority using the same place or mostly...

  15. Green by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on the two sources of energy including green energy and gray energy. It discusses several facts which includes lower levels of greenhouse gases and conventional pollutants, relationship between economic incentives and underlying preferences and potential effects...

  16. Green Sturgeon Acoustic Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is used to hold tracking data for green sturgeon tagged in Central California. The data collection began in late 2002 and is ongoing.

  17. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  18. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  19. Decon Green (trademark)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Procell, Lawrence R; Henderson, Vikki D; Sorrick, David C; Hess, Zoe A; Gehring, David G; Brickhouse, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    ...; it affords the broad-spectrum decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. Composed entirely of ingredients commonly found in cosmetics, detergents, laundry boosters, and vitamins, Decon Green (trademark...

  20. Superfund Green Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  1. Effects of declining oak vitality on ecosystem functions: Lessons from a Spanish oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Aida; Bareth, Georg; Bolten, Andreas; Linstädter, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean oak woodlands have a great ecological and socio-economic importance. Today, these fragile ecosystems are facing unprecedented degradation threats from Novel Oak Diseases (NODs). Among NOD drivers, maladapted land management practices and climate change are most important. Although it is generally believed that NOD-related declines in tree vitality will have detrimental effects on ecosystem functions, little is known on the magnitude of change, and whether different functions are affected in a similar way. Here we analyzed effects of tree vitality on various ecosystem functions, comparing subcanopy and intercanopy habitats across two oak species (Quercus ilex and Q. suber) in a Spanish oak woodland. We asked how functions - including aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), taxonomic diversity, and litter decomposition rates - were affected by oak trees' size and vitality. We also combined measurements in the ecosystem function habitat index (MEFHI), a proxy of ecosystem multifunctionality. Field research was carried out in 2016 on a dehesa in southern Spain. We used a stratified random sampling to contrast trees of different species affiliation, size and vitality. Tree vitality was estimated as crown density (assessed via hemispherical photography), and as tree vigor, which combines the grade of canopy defoliation with proxies for tree size (dbh, height, crown height and crown radius). For each tree (n = 34), two plots (50 x 50 cm) were located; one in the subcanopy habitat, and the other in the intercanopy area beyond the tree crown's influence. On all 68 plots, moveable cages were placed during the main growth period (March to May) to estimate ANPP under grazed conditions. Litter decomposition rates were assessed via the tea bag index. ANPP and the biomass of grasses, forbs and legumes were recorded via destructive sampling. To take plots' highly variable environmental conditions into account, we recorded a suite of abiotic and biotic

  2. ADVANTAGES OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanshyam Das Soni

    2017-01-01

    Technology is application of knowledge to practical requirements. Green technologies encompass various aspects of technology which help us reduce the human impact on the environment and create ways of sustainable development. Social equitability, economic feasibility and sustainability are the key parameters for green technologies. Today the environment is racing towards the tipping point at which we would have done permanent irreversible damage to the planet earth. Our current actions are pu...

  3. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy`s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings.

  4. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy's Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings

  5. What is a green building?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreenegoor, R.C.P.; Krikke, T.; Mierlo, van B.P.; Pluijm, van der W.M.P.; Poortvliet, R.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2009-01-01

    What is a green building? A large amount of definitions and green rating tools prove that an exact definition is still a point of discussion. To research the differences between green rating tools, four different buildings are assessed with: EPN, BREEAM, LEED, GreenCalc+ and EcoQuantum. These tools

  6. Oak kombucha protects against oxidative stress and inflammatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cabral, B D; Larrosa-Pérez, M; Gallegos-Infante, J A; Moreno-Jiménez, M R; González-Laredo, R F; Rutiaga-Quiñones, J G; Gamboa-Gómez, C I; Rocha-Guzmán, N E

    2017-06-25

    Black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha; however other sources such as oak leaves infusions can be used for the same purpose. Almost any white oak species have been used for medicinal applications by some ethnic groups in Mexico and could be also suitable for preparing kombucha analogues from oak (KAO). The objective of this research was to investigate the antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects of KAO by examining its modulation ability on macrophage-derived TNF-alpha and IL-6. Herbal infusions from oak and black tea were fermented by kombucha consortium during seven days at 28 °C. Chemical composition was determined by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity of samples against oxidative damage caused by H 2 O 2 in monocytes activated (macrophages) was explored. Additionally, it was determined the anti-inflammatory activity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages; in particular, the nitric oxide (NO), TNF-alpha, and IL-6 production was assessed. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly reduced by the sample treatment. Likewise, NO production was lower in treatment with kombucha and KAO compared with LPS-stimulated macrophages. Fermented beverages of oak effectively down-regulated the production of NO, while pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) in macrophages were stimulated with LPS. Additionally, phytochemical compounds present in KAO decrease oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Interspecific gene flow and maintenance of species integrity in oaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gailing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oak species show a wide variation in morphological and physiological characters, and species boundaries between closely related species are often not clear-cut. Still, despite frequent interspecific gene flow, oaks maintain distinct morphological and physiological adaptations. In sympatric stands, spatial distribution of species with different ecological requirements is not random but constrained by soil and other microenvironmental factors. Pre-zygotic isolation (e.g. cross incompatibilities, asynchrony in flowering, pollen competition and post-zygotic isolation (divergent selection contribute to the maintenance of species integrity in sympatric oak stands. The antagonistic effects of interspecific gene flow and divergent selection are reflected in the low genetic differentiation between hybridizing oak species at most genomic regions interspersed by regions with signatures of divergent selection (outlier regions. In the near future, the availability of high-density genetic linkage maps anchored to scaffolds of a sequenced Q. robur genome will allow to characterize the underlying genes in these outlier regions and their putative role in reproductive isolation between species. Reciprocal transplant experiments of seedlings between parental environments can be used to characterize selection on outlier genes. High transferability of gene-based markers will enable comparative outlier screens in different oak species.

  8. Red oak and black walnut growth increased with minesoil ripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Red oak, black walnut, and black walnut with autumn olive, a 'nitrogen-fixing' shrub, were planted on graded, compacted cast overburden (topsoil substitute) coal mining minesoil with a dense ground cover consisting chiefly of all fescue grass. Compaction was mitigated by ripping on half the plots. Year 1 establishment of all species was equal or lower on the graded versus graded/ripped plots. After 12 years red oak survival was 9% where unripped versus 61% where ripped. Black walnut survival was respectively 41% and 74%. Red oak 12-year heights were 2.2 m on the graded and 4.5 m on the graded/ripped plots. Black walnut heights averaged 2.6 m and 5.5 m respectively. Diameter breast height similarly was greater with ripping for the oak and walnut. Deer damage was substantially greater on the red oak than on the black walnut trees. Black walnut was interplanted a year later with autumn olive on unripped and ripped graded minesoils. After 12 years survival of black walnut interplanted with autumn olive was 42% where unripped and 85% in two ripped plots. Corresponding heights averaged 3.8 m where graded and 5.7 to 6.4 m where graded/ripped. 16 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  9. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selekane A. Motadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. Setting: The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Aim: The main objective was to determine the women’s knowledge on food fortification. Methods: The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women’s knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. Results: The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0% of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0% of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%] of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Conclusion: Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme.

  10. Perceived stigma among attendees of psychiatric and nonpsychiatric outpatients department in an industrial township: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Context: Stigma associated with psychiatric disorders and few somatic disorders such as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, tuberculosis and leprosy, adversely effects treatment seeking behavior, leads to concealment, and poor compliance with treatment. In busy outpatient departments (OPDs, the issue of stigma is likely to be overlooked. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study collecting data on an 8-item stigma scale from patients attending psychiatry and other OPDs of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in an industrial township. Information was collected by face to face interview from 400 patients attending psychiatry OPD and 401 patients attending other OPDs. Validations of the scale were done by face, content, and construct validity. Reliability was appraised by Cronbach′s alpha and Guttmann split-half coefficients. Significant differences in answers to the 8-item questionnaire were explored by Chi-square test for individual responses and Kruskal-Wallis test for difference in total stigma score. Results: Patients attending psychiatry OPD consistently gave responses indicating a greater degree of perceived stigma than those attending OPD for somatic disorders. This difference was almost 3-4 times more on most of the items (P < 0.001. Among somatic disorders, stigma was highest (even higher than psychiatric disorders among STDs, tuberculosis and leprosy patients among these and psychiatric disorders the score was almost 3 times more compared to other somatic disorders (P < 0.001. The scale demonstrated good face, content, and construct validity. Reliability was also very high with Cronbach′s alpha coefficient and Guttmann split-half reliability coefficient 0.932 and 0.901 indicating very good internal consistency of the 8-item scale. Conclusion: Stigma was higher among STD patients, tuberculosis, leprosy, and psychiatry patients as compared to patients suffering from somatic disorders. Assessment of

  11. Mapping the Distribution and Flora of the Weeds in Canola Fields of Gorgan Township by Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sahar jannati ataie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil seeds are the second world’s food supply after cereals. These crops are grown primarily for the oil contained in the seeds. The major world sources of edible seed oils are soybeans, sunflowers, canola, cotton and peanuts. Canola is one of the most important plants in the world that has great importance. The plant belongs to the Brassica genus, the botanical family that includes cauliflower and cabbages. Weeds are one of the major problems in canola production that reduce yield and its quality. In general, one of the most important factors in development of management plans is information about the weed’s flora and geographic distribution. Knowledge of weed flora enables one to use the required herbicide and formulate other suitable management strategies. It is also useful in exploiting abundant weeds as a cover crop or pasture and for other economic uses. The geographic information system has the proper use in weed science and management of agricultural information and their analysis. In this study, distribution and flora of the weeds in canola fields of Gorgan Township investigated by Geographic Information System. Material and Methods: Crop sampling was conducted during May and June 2014, in 58 canola fields in Gorgan Township (Golestan province and the weed species were sampled and detected using a W method and by specific formula of density, frequency, uniformity, and abundance of each weed species was calculated. Also, geographic coordinates of fields (latitude, altitude and elevation were determined by using GPS model Garmin map 60. After collecting data, in order to create a database of weed distribution, the data was transferred from GPS to ArcGIS 9/3.1 software. From all information obtained, consistently a database with location was created and after separation of data based on present or absence of weeds on fields, distribution maps were produced. Results and Discussion: The results showed that there are 35 weed

  12. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positively affects green product development performance. In addition, our findings also indicate that the relationship between proactive green innovation and green product development performance is partially mediated by green creativity. Accordingly, green creativity plays a critical role for companies to achieve a great green product development performance. However, reactive green innovation does not significantly influence green creativity and green product development performance. Companies should develop proactive green innovation rather than reactive green innovation in order to enhance their green creativity and increase their product development performance.

  13. TESTING BAYESIAN ALGORITHMS TO DETECT GENETIC STRUCTURE IN TWO CLOSELY RELATED OAK TAXA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Mihai Enescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the Bayesian algorithm implemented in the software STRUCTURE in order to detect the number of clusters, by using microsatellite data from four oak species. Several assignment models, with or without a priori grouping of individuals to species, were proposed. Better results were obtained by using the sampling location information and when only two taxa were analyzed. Particularly, pedunculate oak and sessile oak formed distinct clusters whatever the assignment model we use. By contrast, no separation between the two oaks from series Lanuginosae was observed. This can be explained, on one hand, by the small sampling size for Italian oak, or by the genetic similarities of the two pubescent oaks, namely Quercus pubescens and Q. virgiliana, on the other hand. Our findings support the hypothesis according which Italian oak is an intraspecific taxonomic unit of pubescent oak.

  14. Monitoring drought impact on Mediterranean oak savanna vegetation using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Dugo, Maria P.; Carpintero, Elisabet; Andreu, Ana

    2015-04-01

    A holm oak savanna, known as dehesa in Spain and montado in Portugal, is the largest agroforest ecosystem in Europe, covering about 3 million hectares in the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Papanastasis et al., 2004). It is considered an example of sustainable land use, supporting a large number of species and diversity of habitats and for its importance in rural development and economy (Plieninger et al., 2001). It is a combination between an agricultural and a naturally vegetated ecosystem, consisting of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus Ilex and Quercus suber) combined with a sub-canopy composed by crops, annual grassland and/or shrubs. It has a Mediterranean climate with severe periodic droughts. In the last decades, this system is being exposed to multiple threats derived from socio-economic changes and intensive agricultural use, which have caused environmental degradation, including tree decline, changes in soil properties and hydrological processes, and an increase of soil erosion (Coelho et al., 2004). Soil water dynamics plays a central role in the current decline and reduction of forested areas that jeopardizes the preservation of the system. In this work, a series of remotely sensed images since 1990 to present was used to evaluate the effect of several drought events occurred in the study area (1995, 2009, 2010/2011) on the tree density and water status. Data from satellites Landsat and field measurements have been combined in a spectral mixture model to assess separately the evolution of tree, dry grass and bare soil ground coverage. Only summer images have been used to avoid the influence of the green herbaceous layer on the analysis. Thermal data from the same sensors and meteorological information are integrated in a two source surface energy balance model to compute the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) and evaluate the vegetation water status. The results have provided insights about the severity of each event and the spatial distribution of

  15. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  16. Microevolution of European temperate oaks in response to environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This review reconstructs microevolutionary processes that allowed long-lived species as temperate oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) to cope with climate change since the last glacial maximum, by assembling insights from complementary synchronic and allochronic approaches. Paleobotanical and genetic investigations show that oaks migrated at larger velocities than expected, thanks to long-distance rare events and most likely human interferences. Hybridization was a key mechanism accelerating migration and enhancing species succession. Common garden experiments and genome wide association studies demonstrated that diversifying selection across large environmental gradients contributed to rapid local adaptation. Finally the review explores how lessons taken from past evolutionary scenarios may help to predict future responses of oaks to ongoing climate change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction annual report for calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Calendar year 1997 was the third full year of work on the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction. Activities are summarized on the following individual project tasks: Task 1 -- Investigation of radioiodine releases from X-10 radioactive lanthanum processing; Task 2 -- Investigation of mercury releases from Y-12 lithium enrichment; Task 3 -- Investigation of PCBs in the environment near Oak Ridge; Task 4 -- Investigation of radionuclides released from White Oak Creek to the Clinch River; Task 5 -- Systematic searching of records repositories; Task 6 -- Evaluation of the quality of uranium monitoring data and a screening evaluation of potential off-site health risks; and Task 7 -- Performance of screening for additional materials not evaluated in the feasibility study.

  18. Antioxidant Characterization of Oak Extracts Combining Spectrophotometric Assays and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris M. Popović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant characteristics of leaves, twigs, and acorns from two Serbian oak species Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea L. from Vojvodina province (northern Serbia were investigated. 80% ethanol (in water extracts were used for antiradical power (ARP determinations against DPPH•, NO•, and O2∙- radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, total phenol, tannin, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents. Permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity (PRAC was determined using water extracts. Beside, mentioned parameters, soluble proteins, lipid peroxidation (LP, pigments and proline contents were also determined. The data of different procedures were compared and analyzed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA. PCA found that investigated organs of two different oak tree species possess similar antioxidant characteristics. The superior antioxidant characteristics showed oak leaves over twigs and acorns and seem to be promising source of antioxidants with possible use in industry and pharmacy.

  19. Contaminated scrap metal management on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, H.W.; Stephenson, M.J.; Bailey, J.K.; Weir, J.R.; Gilbert, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Large quantities of scrap metal are accumulating at the various Department of Energy (DOE) installations across the country as a result of ongoing DOE programs and missions in concert with present day waste management practices. DOE Oak Ridge alone is presently storing around 500,000 tons of scrap metal. The local generation rate, currently estimated at 1,400 tons/yr, is expected to increase sharply over the next couple of years as numerous environmental restoration and decommissioning programs gain momentum. Projections show that 775,000 tons of scrap metal could be generated at the K-25 Site over the next ten years. The Y-12 Plant and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have similar potentials. The history of scrap metal management at Oak Ridge and future challenges and opportunities are discussed

  20. Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction annual report for calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Calendar year 1997 was the third full year of work on the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction. Activities are summarized on the following individual project tasks: Task 1 -- Investigation of radioiodine releases from X-10 radioactive lanthanum processing; Task 2 -- Investigation of mercury releases from Y-12 lithium enrichment; Task 3 -- Investigation of PCBs in the environment near Oak Ridge; Task 4 -- Investigation of radionuclides released from White Oak Creek to the Clinch River; Task 5 -- Systematic searching of records repositories; Task 6 -- Evaluation of the quality of uranium monitoring data and a screening evaluation of potential off-site health risks; and Task 7 -- Performance of screening for additional materials not evaluated in the feasibility study

  1. Water quality monitoring report for the White Oak Creek Embayment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.J.; Wefer, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    Water quality monitoring activities that focused on the detection of resuspended sediments in the Clinch River were conducted in conjunction with the White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE) time-critical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to construct a sediment-retention structure at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC). Samples were collected by use of a 24-h composite sampler and through real-time water grab sampling of sediment plumes generated by the construction activities. Sampling stations were established both at the WOC mouth, immediately adjacent to the construction site, and at K-1513, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site drinking water intake approximately 9.6 km downstream in the Clinch River. Results are described

  2. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Joan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, Sharon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Page, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-09-30

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) consists of three major government-owned, contractor-operated facilities: the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and East Tennessee Technology Park. The ORR was established in the early 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project, a secret undertaking that produced materials for the first atomic bombs. The reservation’s role has evolved over the years, and it continues to adapt to meet the changing defense, energy, and research needs of the United States. Both the work carried out for the war effort and subsequent research, development, and production activities have involved, and continue to involve, the use of radiological and hazardous materials. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report and supporting data are available at Http://www.ornl.gov/sci/env_rpt or from the project director.

  3. Leaf elemental analysis in mycorrhizal post oak seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boling, B.C. [Department of Biology, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 305220, Denton, TX 76203-5220 (United States); Naab, F.U. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States)]. E-mail: fun001@unt.edu; Smith, D. [Department of Biology, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 305220, Denton, TX 76203-5220 (United States); Duggan, J.L. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); McDaniel, F.D. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Growth and element assimilation was investigated in the leaves of post oak seedlings exposed to four different treatment combinations of fertilization and ectomycorrhizal inoculation. Element concentration was analyzed via particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE). PIXE detected 10 of the 13 essential macro and micronutrients: P, S, Mg, Ca, K, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Cl. Mean growth and dry weight was significantly different across the treatment groups as well as the mean concentration of Mg, Al, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn. The data suggest that fertilization rather than mycorrhizal inoculation had a stronger influence on nutrient uptake. This study is the first to analyze element concentration in post oak and to investigate the potential benefits of mycorrhizal symbiosis in post oak seedlings in terms of nutrient uptake.

  4. HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections and associated risk factors among drug users in southwestern China: a township-level ecological study incorporating spatial regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Biao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are major public health problems. Many studies have been performed to investigate the association between demographic and behavioral factors and HIV or HCV infection. However, some of the results of these studies have been in conflict. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data of all entrants in the 11 national methadone clinics in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected from the national database. Several spatial regression models were used to analyze specific community characteristics associated with the prevalence of HIV and HCV infection at the township level. The study enrolled 6,417 adult patients. The prevalence of HIV infection, HCV infection and co-infection was 25.4%, 30.9%, and 11.0%, respectively. Prevalence exhibited stark geographical variations in the area studied. The four regression models showed Yi ethnicity to be associated with both the prevalence of HIV and of HIV/HCV co-infection. The male drug users in some northwestern counties had greater odds of being infected with HIV than female drug users, but the opposite was observed in some eastern counties. The 'being in drug rehabilitation variable was found to be positively associated with prevalence of HCV infection in some southern townships, however, it was found to be negatively associated with it in some northern townships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The spatial modeling creates better representations of data such that public health interventions must focus on areas with high frequency of HIV/HCV to prevent further transmission of both HIV and HCV.

  5. Management of spent nuclear fuel on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    On June 1, 1995, DOE issued a Record of Decision [60 Federal Register 28680] for the Department-wide management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF); regionalized storage of SNF by fuel type was selected as the preferred alternative. The proposed action evaluated in this environmental assessment is the management of SNF on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) to implement this preferred alternative of regional storage. SNF would be retrieved from storage, transferred to a hot cell if segregation by fuel type and/or repackaging is required, loaded into casks, and shipped to off-site storage. The proposed action would also include construction and operation of a dry cask SNF storage facility on ORR, in case of inadequate SNF storage. Action is needed to enable DOE to continue operation of the High Flux Isotope Reactor, which generates SNF. This report addresses environmental impacts

  6. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. This volume contains the data from the Background Soil Characterization Project. When available, the following validation qualifiers are used in the appendixes. When validation qualifiers are not available, the corresponding contract laboratory data qualifiers appearing on the next page are used

  7. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented.

  8. Resource Management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 28, Wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pounds, Larry [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A survey of wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted in 1990. Wetlands occurring on ORR were identified using National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps and field surveys. More than 120 sites were visited and 90 wetlands were identified. Wetland types on ORR included emergent communities in shallow embayments on reservoirs, emergent and aquatic communities in ponds, forested wetland on low ground along major creeks, and wet meadows and marshes associated with streams and seeps. Vascular plant species occurring on sites visited were inventoried, and 57 species were added to the checklist of vascular plants on ORR. Three species listed as rare in Tennessee were discovered on ORR during the wetlands survey. The survey provided an intensive ground truth of the wetlands identified by NWI and offered an indication of wetlands that the NWI remote sensing techniques did not detect.

  9. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.2.01 (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D&D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report.

  10. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.2.01 (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D ampersand D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report

  11. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented

  12. Impacts of Potential Oak Forest Change on Breeding Birds in Northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas A. James

    2004-01-01

    Birds found on existing census routes in the Ozark region of northwestern Arkansas were used to predict avifaunal changes that could occur in the area due to oak-hickory forest degradation caused by red oak borer beetle infestations. The two census routes used passed through high elevation forests where red oaks thrive the best. Analysis showed that 21 bird species...

  13. Sudden oak death: disease trends in Marin county plots after one year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; David L. Wood; Andrew J. Storer; Nina Maggi Kelly; Richard B. Standiford

    2002-01-01

    Sudden oak death has emerged as a major threat to the oak forests of California. In oaks and tanoak, this disease complex consists of a previously unreported fungus-like pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, insects (bark and ambrosia beetles), and a secondary fungus, Hypoxylon thouarsianum. Species monitored in this study were coast...

  14. Goldspotted oak borer in California: Invasion history, biology, impact, management, and implications for Mediterranean forests worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Coleman; Steven Seybold

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was fi rst linked to elevated levels of oak mortality in southern California (CA), but it appears to have impacted oak woodlands and mixed conifer forests across all land ownerships in this region for nearly two decades. This unexpectedly damaging...

  15. Outreach and education efforts to counter the spread and impact of goldspotted oak borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis G. Gonzales; Thomas A. Scott; Kevin W. Turner; Lorin L. Lima

    2015-01-01

    The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB) Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed over 80,000 oaks across all land ownerships, costing over $8 million in public and private funds for mitigation and response. Linked to oak mortality in San Diego County in 2008, this exotic beetle likely arrived in California through infested firewood from...

  16. Site factors influencing oak decline in the interior highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward A. Poole; Eric Heitzman; James M. Guldin

    2006-01-01

    Oak decline is affecting the forests in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. In 2002 and 2003, field plots were established throughout the region to evaluate the influence of topographic position and aspect on oak decline. Density and basal area of dead and dying oaks did not significantly differ by either topographic position or aspect. Lack of...

  17. Regeneration of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) using shelterwood systems: Ecophysiology, silviculture and management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; William C. parker

    1996-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing relaible methods for regenerating red oak (Quercus rubra) in Ontario. Traditional silviculture methods have not been successful in maintaining the curent levels of oak growing stock. In this paper, we review the ecology, physiology and reproductive biology of red oak. This discussion stresses the...

  18. Dendrochronological analysis of white oak growth patterns across a topographic moisture gradient in southern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander K. Anning; Darrin L. Rubino; Elaine K. Sutherland; Brian C. McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    Moisture availability is a key factor that influences white oak (Quercus alba L.) growth and wood production. In unglaciated eastern North America, available soil moisture varies greatly along topographic and edaphic gradients. This study was aimed at determining the effects of soil moisture variability and macroclimate on white oak growth in mixed-oak forests of...

  19. The state of mixed shortleaf pine-upland oak management in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth M. Blizzard; David R. Larsen; Daniel C. Dey; John M. Kabrick; David Gwaze

    2007-01-01

    Mixed shortleaf pine-upland oak stands allow flexibility in type and timing of regeneration, release, and harvesting treatments for managers; provide unique wildlife and herbaceous community niches; and increase visual diversity. Most of the research to date focused on growing pure pine or oak stands, with little research on today's need to grow pine-oak mixtures...

  20. Abundance of birds in the oak savannas of the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendy D. Jones; Carlton M. Jones; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2005-01-01

    Oak ecosystems of the Southwestern United States are important habitats for a variety of wildlife species. Information is available on the abundance and habitat preferences of some species inhabiting the more densely structured oak woodlands, but little information is available on these topics for the comparatively open oak savannas. Studies are underway to alleviate...

  1. Evidence of the dynamic response of housing values to a sudden oak death infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent F. Kovacs; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey E. Englin; Janice. Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the non-indigenous forest pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, causes substantial mortality in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and several other oak species on the Pacific Coast of the United States. Quasi-experimental hedonic models examine the effect of SOD on property...

  2. Effect of firewood harvesting on birds in a California oak-pine woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Aigner; William M. Block; Michael L. Morrison

    1998-01-01

    Despite a history of oak clearing and thinning in California, little is known about the effects of firewood harvesting on wildlife in oak woodlands. We studied the effect of firewood harvesting on population trends of birds during the breeding season in an oak-pine woodland in the foothills of the northern Sierra Nevada, California. During fall-winter of 1993-94, total...

  3. The role of large container seedlings in afforesting oaks in bottomlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; John M. Kabrick; Michael Gold

    2006-01-01

    We planted large container (RPM®) and 1-0 bareroot seedlings of pin oak (Quercus palustris Muenchh.) and swamp white oak (Q. bicolor Willd.) in crop fields in the Missouri River floodplain. We also evaluated the benefits of soil mounding and a grass (Agrostis gigantea Roth) cover crop. RPM®) oak seedlings had significantly greater...

  4. The role of environmental factors in oak decline and mortality in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; Randy G. Jensen; Michael Wallendorf

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline is a chronic problem in Missouri Ozark forests. Red oak group species are most susceptible and decline is reportedly more severe on droughty, nutrient-poor sites. However, it was not clear whether greater decline severity was caused by poor site conditions or is simply due to the greater abundance of red oak group species found on poorer sites. We conducted...

  5. Comparison of three sampling methods in the characterization of cork oak stands for management purpose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, M.J.; Tomé, M.; Otten, A.; Stein, A.

    2005-01-01

    The cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is an evergreen oak that has the ability to produce a continuous layer of cork tissue which regenerates after being removed. Cork oak stands can be diverse in structure. Young stands are often regularly spaced, whereas older stands usually show clustering and can be

  6. Likeliness to pay for oak woodlands by the residents of San Luis Obispo county

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah P. Cross

    2002-01-01

    The golden hillsides with scattered oaks, known throughout California, are decreasing each day. Some oak woodlands are being developed into residential and commercial communities while other woodlands are being converted into intensive agriculture, such as wine grape production. This continued decrease in oak woodlands has led some lawmakers to create preservation...

  7. The Influence of Epiphytic Lichens on the Nutrient Cycling of a Blue Oak Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes M. Knops; Thomas H. H. Nash III; William H. Schlesinger

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the importance of epiphytic lichens in the nutrient cycling of a blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodland in California. Each oak tree contained an average of 3.8 kg lichen biomass, totaling 590 kg per ha. For comparison, oak leaf biomass was 958 kg per ha. We compared tree growth, volume and composition of throughfall (rainfall falling...

  8. Short-term response of small mammals following oak regeneration silviculture treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Raybuck; Christopher E. Moorman; Christopher S. DePerno; Kevin Gross; Dean M. Simon; Gordon S. Warburton

    2012-01-01

    Upland, mixed-oak forests in the eastern United States have experienced widespread oak regeneration failure, largely due to cessation of anthropogenic disturbance. Silvicultural practices used to promote advance oak regeneration may affect ground-dwelling mammals. From May to August 2008 (pre-treatment), 2010 (first year post-treatment), and 2011 (second year post-...

  9. Genetic hitch-hiking extends the range of coast live oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard S. Dodd; Zara Afzal-Rafii; Wasima Mayer

    2006-01-01

    The northernmost range of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) is reported from the Ukiah Valley (Mendocino County, California). Here, field observations suggest that hybridization with interior live oak (Q. wislizeni) is important. Elsewhere in northern California, morphology of coast live oak can be highly variable (particularly...

  10. Green technology meets ecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Radošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying concept and principles of green chemistry into different technological processes, green technologies are developed. The environmental and economic benefits of “green” approach is achieved through several directions, such as the use of renewable raw materials, creation of economic efficiency, the use of alternative reaction conditions, as well as the application of non-conventional solvents. From the point view of green chemistry, alternative solvents, in order to be a “green“ substitution to hazardous organic solvents, should be: non-volatile, non-flammable, stabile, synthesized by an environmentally friendly procedure, nontoxic and biodegradable. The toxic impact of all newly synthesized chemicals, such as alternative solvents, could be determined by methods and techniques of ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology, an interdisciplinary scientific field, can serve as a way of monitoring the greenness of the processes. In vivo and in vitro experiments are used to study the effects of chemicals on different levels of organizations, from molecules to communities and ecosystem. The usage of in vitro methods is encouraged by a scientific community and regulatory agencies as an alternative to in vivo studies in order to reduce the number of laboratory animals used in the toxicological studies. Therefore, in this paper we gave a brief overview on the usage of animal cell cultures within the field of green chemistry and technology.

  11. Labelling it green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.; Brocklehurst, F. [ETSU, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The first two rounds of contracts awarded through the NFFO will expire in December 1998. These generators will then be looking for new contracts to supply renewable electricity. Since these projects were initiated the renewable energy market has grown steadily, but it is still mainly restricted to the protected market within NFFO. Consumer interest has grown steadily too, fuelled by the emergence of green energy supply companies. Market research has indicated that consumers would like the choice of green electricity, what remains unclear is if they would exercise this choice and to what extent they might pay a premium price for the privilege. From September 1998 the phased introduction of domestic sector franchise de-regulation commences. In principle, consumers can purchase their electricity from any supplier. This provides a golden opportunity for green generation. To make the most of this opportunity generators and suppliers will need to clearly explain to the public what their product is, how it is different and how everyone benefits from its use. A major marketing issue will be to provide assurance to the general public, that for example, they can indeed purchase energy from a windfarm in Wales, despite living in areas other than Wales. The DTI is assisting the expansion of the green market into the domestic sector via funding a project which plans to deliver an accreditation scheme in September 1998. This will provide a means of verifying the green claims of generators/supply companies. (Author)

  12. Process data in safeguards at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The desire to improve timeliness and sensitivity of material control and accounting capabilities is the basis for evaluation and upgrade of regulatory requirements throughout the nuclear industry. Improvements invariably require better measurement capabilities and more frequent measurements. Operating plants typically include a broad range of measurements and equipment devoted to process control. How can these measurements be used to benefit safeguards? A part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has focused on the use of process data for safeguards. This report discusses recent safeguards demonstrations and current activities in a test facility at Oak Ridge

  13. Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1996-06-01

    Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T&E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T&E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T&E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, {open_quotes}T&E species{close_quotes} include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T&E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their long-term survival.

  14. Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1996-06-01

    Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T ampersand E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T ampersand E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T ampersand E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T ampersand E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T ampersand E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, open-quotes T ampersand E speciesclose quotes include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T ampersand E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their

  15. Surface radiological investigation of Trench 5 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, D.D.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of areas encompassing Trench 5 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted from May 1990 through November 1990. This survey was led by the author, assisted by various members of the Measurement Applications and Development (MAD) group of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination at Trench 5, the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment fuel wells, and surrounding areas. Based on the data obtained in the field, interim corrective measures were recommended to limit human exposure to radioactivity and to minimize insult to the environment. It should be stressed that this project was not intended to be a complete site characterization but rather to be a preliminary investigation into the potential contamination problem that might exist as a result of past operations at Trench 5

  16. Decision Making on Allocating Urban Green Spaces Based upon Spatially-Varying Relationships between Urban Green Spaces and Urban Compaction Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Sheng Chang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The compact city is becoming a prevailing paradigm in the world to control urban sprawl and achieve a pattern of sustainable urban development. However, discussions of the area's overcrowded neighborhoods, its health problems, and the destruction of its green areas have inspired self-examination with respect to the compact city paradigm. High population density attracts even more residents and frequently renders the existing urban green space (UGS insufficient for use as part of a living environment. Due to the unique benefits that these qualities confer, UGS allocation is now considered a significant contributing factor to urban livability. In addition, the UGS allocation may be different due to the presence of many spatial non-stationarity processes. Therefore, this study employs geographically-weighted regression (GWR to explore the unique and spatially-explicit relationships between the degree of urban compaction and UGS within the Taipei metropolitan area. Maps summarizing the GWR results demonstrate that there is significantly insufficient UGS allocation in the central area, which consists mainly of Taipei City. Townships with higher parameters contain UGS levels that better meet the needs of their residents. Overall, the exploration of conceptualizing spatial heterogeneity of relationships between the degree of urban compaction and UGS can provide insightful analyses for decision-making on allocating UGS.

  17. Instrument development continues in Oak Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekkebus, Allen E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer review panels composed of 80 external scientists recently visited Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review almost 700 proposals for experiments on 23 instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). These were proposed for the time period from January-June 2012. About 40% of the proposals were approved for beam time and 20% were placed on an alternate list if time becomes available. The Hybrid Spectrometer HYSPEC at SNS began its commissioning in September 2011. HYSPEC is otpimized for studying low energy dynamics in single-crystal samples using a broad variety of sample environments, and is equipped with a polarization analysis capability. It is expected to be available for users on a limited basis in the second half of 2012. The detector tank of CORELLI has been installed on beamline 9 at SNS. Now that the tank is in place, banks of neutron detectors and boron carbide shielding will be installed around the interior. CORELLI is optimized to probe complex disorder in crystalline materials through diffuse scattering from single-crystal samples. It will begin commissioning in 2014. CORELLI is one of four instruments being developed under the SING II (SNS Instruments Next Generation II) project. The others are the Macromolecular Neutron Diffractometer (MANDI), the Vibrational Spectrometer (VISION, scheduled to begin commissioning in 2012), and the Time of Flight Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering Instrument (TOF-USANS). The single crystal neutron diffractometer IMAGINE, was deliverd to HFIR in October 2011. Preliminary testing has been carried out. IMAGINE will provide atomic resolution information on chemical, organic, metallo-organic and protein single crystals that will enable their chemical, physical and biological structure and function to be understood. This instrument will benefit scientists with interests in pharmaceuticals, minerals and other inorganic crystals, small molecules, molecular organo

  18. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  19. Trading green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out into the feasibility of developing an electricity trading mechanism which would allow consumers to purchase electricity which has been derived from renewable energy resources. This study was part funded by the European Commission (ALTENER), the Department of Trade and Industry and a number of private sector companies. The trading mechanism is known as the Green Pool. As a result of the findings of this study discussions are being held with potential generators and suppliers to establish a Green Pool plc. The aim is to encourage the development of new renewable energy projects outside the NFFO and SRO schemes. The Green Pool plc will be owned by the generators and its main objective will be to market the electricity produced by its members. (Author)

  20. Certified: green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, S.; Brown, L.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the energy industry in the USA may be a force favouring the environment but for the consumer it is something of a nightmare since there are so many options with respect to both price, service and environmental awareness. However, there is now a marked tendency for companies wishing to be seen as 'green' to favour environmentally aware suppliers. Indeed, some suppliers holding formal qualifications in 'greenness' believe they are justified in charging a premium for their energy. The question is asked 'what is green?' and the authors discuss the answers at some length: the hydro industry fares well in such a discussion. The authors (from Scientific Certification Systems) believe that certification provides a rational explanation of prices and why charging a premium may be justifiable.(UK)