WorldWideScience

Sample records for green neighborhoods food

  1. Maximizing Green Infrastructure in a Philadelphia Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Zidar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD is counting on Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GI as a key component of its long-term plan for reducing combined sewer overflows, many community stakeholders are also hoping that investment in greening can help meet other ancillary goals, collectively referred to as sustainable redevelopment. This study investigates the challenges associated with implementation of GI in Point Breeze, a residential neighborhood of South Philadelphia. The project team performed a detailed study of physical, social, legal, and economic conditions in the pilot neighborhood over the course of several years, culminating in the development of an agent-based model simulation of GI implementation. The model evaluates a whether PWD’s GI goals can be met in a timely manner, b what kinds of assumptions regarding participation would be needed under different theoretical GI policies, and c the extent to which GI could promote sustainable redevelopment. The model outcomes underscore the importance of private land in helping PWD achieve its GI goals in Point Breeze. Achieving a meaningful density of GI in the neighborhoods most in need of sustainable redevelopment may require new and creative strategies for GI implementation tailored for the types of land present in those particular communities.

  2. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person’s immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person’s perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence—Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—within that person’s neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant’s neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely

  3. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective

  4. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person’s immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve con...

  5. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food rest...

  6. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Andrea S; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled...

  7. Quality over Quantity: Contribution of Urban Green Space to Neighborhood Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Van den Berg, Agnes E; Van Dijk, Terry; Weitkamp, Gerd

    2017-05-16

    There is increasing evidence that the quality of green space significantly contributes to neighborhood satisfaction and well-being, independent of the mere amount of green space. In this paper, we examined residents' perceptions of the quality and beneficial affordances of green space in relation to objectively assessed accessibility and usability. We used data from a survey in two neighborhoods ( N = 223) of a medium-sized city in the Netherlands, which were similar in the amount of green space and other physical and socio-demographic characteristics, but differed in the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Results show that residents of the neighborhood with a higher availability of accessible and usable green spaces were more satisfied with their neighborhood. This difference was statistically mediated by the higher level of perceived green space quality. Neighborhood satisfaction was significantly positively related to well-being. However, residents of the two neighborhoods did not differ in self-reported well-being and beneficial affordances of green space. These analyses contribute to a further understanding of how the accessibility and usability of green spaces may increase people's neighborhood satisfaction. It highlights the importance of perceived quality in addition to the amount of green space when examining the beneficial effects of green space.

  8. Green Space Attachment and Health: A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; van Dijk, Terry; Tang, Jianjun; van den Berg, Agnes E.

    2015-01-01

    The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents’ emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The present research aimed to examine the links between self-reported health, attachment to green space, and the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Data were collected via paper-mailed surveys in two neighborhoods (n = 223) of a medium-sized Dutch city in the Netherlands. These neighborhoods differ in the perceived and objectively measured accessibility and usability of green spaces, but are matched in the physically available amount of urban green space, as well as in demographic and socio-economic status, and housing conditions. Four dimensions of green space attachment were identified through confirmatory factor analysis: place dependence, affective attachment, place identity and social bonding. The results show greater attachment to local green space and better self-reported mental health in the neighborhood with higher availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The two neighborhoods did not differ, however, in physical and general health. Structural Equation Modelling confirmed the neighborhood differences in green space attachment and mental health, and also revealed a positive path from green space attachment to mental health. These findings convey the message that we should make green places, instead of green spaces. PMID:26569280

  9. Green Space Attachment and Health: A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents’ emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The present research aimed to examine the links between self-reported health, attachment to green space, and the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Data were collected via paper-mailed surveys in two neighborhoods (n = 223 of a medium-sized Dutch city in the Netherlands. These neighborhoods differ in the perceived and objectively measured accessibility and usability of green spaces, but are matched in the physically available amount of urban green space, as well as in demographic and socio-economic status, and housing conditions. Four dimensions of green space attachment were identified through confirmatory factor analysis: place dependence, affective attachment, place identity and social bonding. The results show greater attachment to local green space and better self-reported mental health in the neighborhood with higher availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The two neighborhoods did not differ, however, in physical and general health. Structural Equation Modelling confirmed the neighborhood differences in green space attachment and mental health, and also revealed a positive path from green space attachment to mental health. These findings convey the message that we should make green places, instead of green spaces.

  10. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

    2009-02-16

    To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG) study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better access to more supercenters or supermarkets, grocery

  11. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Daikwon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1 distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2 coverage (number of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Results Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better

  12. Quality over Quantity: Contribution of Urban Green Space to Neighborhood Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yang; Berg, van den A. E.; van Dijk, Theodorus; Weitkamp, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the quality of green space significantly contributes to neighborhood satisfaction and well-being, independent of the mere amount of green space. In this paper, we examined residents' perceptions of the quality and beneficial affordances of green space in relation to

  13. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon-Larsen Penny

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150. Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research.

  14. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2011-07-08

    Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research.

  15. From neighborhood design and food options to residents' weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E; Conway, Terry L; Chapman, James E; Glanz, Karen

    2011-06-01

    This study examined associations of accessibility, availability, price, and quality of food choices and neighborhood urban design with weight status and utilitarian walking. To account for self-selection bias, data on adult residents of a middle-to-high-income neighborhood were used. Participants kept a 2-day activity/travel diary and self-reported socio-demographics, height, and weight. Geographic Information Systems data were used to objectively quantify walking-related aspects of urban design, and number of and distance to food outlets within respondents' 1km residential buffers. Food outlets were audited for availability, price, and quality of healthful food choices. Number of convenience stores and in-store healthful food choices were positively related to walking for errands which, in turn, was predictive of lower risk of being overweight/obese. Negative associations with overweight/obesity unexplained by walking were found for number of grocery stores and healthful food choices in sit-down restaurants. Aspects of urban form and food environment were associated with walking for eating purposes which, however, was not predictive of overweight/obesity. Access to diverse destinations, food outlets and healthful food choices may promote pedestrian activity and contribute to better weight regulation. Accessibility and availability of healthful food choices may lower the risk of overweight/obesity by providing opportunities for healthier dietary patterns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Where they live, how they play: Neighborhood greenness and outdoor physical activity among preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigsby-Toussaint Diana S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging empirical evidence suggests exposure to "green" environments may encourage higher levels of physical activity among children. Few studies, however, have explored this association exclusively in pre-school aged children in the United States. We examined whether residing in neighborhoods with higher levels of greenness was associated with higher levels of outdoor physical activity among preschoolers. In addition, we also explored whether outdoor playing behaviors (e.g., active vs. quiet were influenced by levels of neighborhood greenness independent of demographic and parental support factors. Results Higher levels of neighborhood greenness as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was associated with higher levels of outdoor playing time among preschool-aged children in our sample. Specifically, a one unit increase in neighborhood greenness increased a child's outdoor playing time by approximately 3 minutes. A dose-response relationship was observed between increasing levels of parental support for physical activity (e.g., time spent playing with children and child outdoor physical activity (p Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, neighborhood greenness influences physical activity behavior. However, for preschoolers, parental involvement may be more critical for improving physical activity levels.

  17. Consumer Behavior Analysis of Green Food

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Luo; Guangrong Tong; Yang Pan; Sha Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study uses empirical research methods, based on detailed analysis of the food transaction big data. It use descriptive statistical method to analyze the current situation of cognitive and behavioral characteristics of the green food and it conducted data mining of factors affecting consumer buying green food. Multiple linear regression analysis have shown that the price factor is an important factor affecting consumer buying green food, next are food quality and health awareness and prod...

  18. Green-Roof Effects on Neighborhood Microclimate and Human Thermal Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Jim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have been recognized as an effective sustainable design tool to mitigate urban heat island (UHI effects. Previous studies have identified green-roof benefits in cooling and energy-conservation at the building scale, with limited exploration of the wider influence on neighborhood microclimate and human thermal comfort (HTC. This paper investigated the impacts of community-scale green-roof installation on air temperature and HTC in five typical residential neighborhoods of subtropical Hong Kong. The microclimate models ENVI-met and RayMan permitted studies of two main green-roof scenarios, namely extensive (EGR and intensive (IGR. Microclimatic monitoring data from a local experimental green-roof site validated the modeling methods. The results verified that green-roof cooling effects were not restricted to rooftops, but extended to the ground to improve neighborhood microclimate. EGR reduced pedestrian-level air temperature by 0.4–0.7 °C, and IGR by 0.5–1.7 °C, with maximum effect in open-set low rise sites. Coverage by building footprints and building height dampened lateral and vertical advection of cool air generated by green roofs. Roof greening also improved notably the rooftop-podium level HTC. Diurnal duration of high heat stress was reduced by 6–9 h for EGR scenarios, and 9–11 h for IGR. The findings indicated that large-scale green-roof installation could bring neighborhood-wide cooling, mitigate urban heat island effect, and furnish more comfortable thermal environment for urban residents.

  19. The neighborhood energy balance equation: does neighborhood food retail environment + physical activity environment = obesity? The CARDIA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Boone-Heinonen

    Full Text Available Recent obesity prevention initiatives focus on healthy neighborhood design, but most research examines neighborhood food retail and physical activity (PA environments in isolation. We estimated joint, interactive, and cumulative impacts of neighborhood food retail and PA environment characteristics on body mass index (BMI throughout early adulthood.We used cohort data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA Study [n=4,092; Year 7 (24-42 years, 1992-1993 followed over 5 exams through Year 25 (2010-2011; 12,921 person-exam observations], with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived neighborhood environment measures. Using regression with fixed effects for individuals, we modeled time-lagged BMI as a function of food and PA resource density (counts per population and neighborhood development intensity (a composite density score. We controlled for neighborhood poverty, individual-level sociodemographics, and BMI in the prior exam; and included significant interactions between neighborhood measures and by sex. Using model coefficients, we simulated BMI reductions in response to single and combined neighborhood improvements. Simulated increase in supermarket density (from 25(th to 75(th percentile predicted inter-exam reduction in BMI of 0.09 kg/m(2 [estimate (95% CI: -0.09 (-0.16, -0.02]. Increasing commercial PA facility density predicted BMI reductions up to 0.22 kg/m(2 in men, with variation across other neighborhood features [estimate (95% CI range: -0.14 (-0.29, 0.01 to -0.22 (-0.37, -0.08]. Simultaneous increases in supermarket and commercial PA facility density predicted inter-exam BMI reductions up to 0.31 kg/m(2 in men [estimate (95% CI range: -0.23 (-0.39, -0.06 to -0.31 (-0.47, -0.15] but not women. Reduced fast food restaurant and convenience store density and increased public PA facility density and neighborhood development intensity did not predict reductions in BMI.Findings suggest that

  20. Nanocellulose in green food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarinho, Fernanda; Sanches Silva, Ana; Vaz, M Fátima; Farinha, José Paulo

    2017-01-26

    The development of packaging materials with new functionalities and lower environmental impact is now an urgent need of our society. On one hand, the shelf-life extension of packaged products can be an answer to the exponential increase of worldwide demand for food. On the other hand, uncertainty of crude oil prices and reserves has imposed the necessity to find raw materials to replace oil-derived polymers. Additionally, consumers' awareness toward environmental issues increasingly pushes industries to look with renewed interest to "green" solutions. In response to these issues, numerous polymers have been exploited to develop biodegradable food packaging materials. Although the use of biopolymers has been limited due to their poor mechanical and barrier properties, these can be enhanced by adding reinforcing nanosized components to form nanocomposites. Cellulose is probably the most used and well-known renewable and sustainable raw material. The mechanical properties, reinforcing capabilities, abundance, low density, and biodegradability of nanosized cellulose make it an ideal candidate for polymer nanocomposites processing. Here we review the potential applications of cellulose based nanocomposites in food packaging materials, highlighting the several types of biopolymers with nanocellulose fillers that have been used to form bio-nanocomposite materials. The trends in nanocellulose packaging applications are also addressed.

  1. Characterization of the School Neighborhood Food Environment in Three Mexican Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Erica G; Ortiz Hernández, Luis; Jauregui, Edtna; Lévesque, Lucie; Lopez Y Taylor, Juan; Barquera, Simón; Lee, Rebecca E

    2017-01-01

    Food resources in school neighborhoods can negatively influence diet; however, this environment is understudied. This study characterized the school neighborhood food environment in Guadalajara (n=11), Puerto Vallarta (n=7), and Mexico City (n=14). Convenience stores, table-service restaurants, and taco stands were highly available in all three cities. Grocery stores were highly available in Mexico City school neighborhoods, yet less frequently observed in Guadalajara and Puerto Vallarta. Socioeconomic differences in food cart and grocery store availability were observed in Guadalajara and Puerto Vallarta. Policy and intervention strategies are needed to address the saturation of food resources in Mexico school neighborhoods.

  2. Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology...

  3. The neighborhood food environment: sources of historical data on retail food stores

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Alma A; Wang May C; Ritchie Lorrene D; Winkleby Marilyn A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract With the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States, and the minimal success of education-based interventions, there is growing interest in understanding the role of the neighborhood food environment in determining dietary behavior. This study, as part of a larger study, identifies historical data on retail food stores, evaluates strengths and limitations of the data for research, and assesses the comparability of historical retail food store data from a government...

  4. Fast-Food Consumption, Diet Quality, and Neighborhood Exposure to Fast Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Jacobs, David R.; Franco, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000–2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n = 5,633; aged 45–84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never, <1 time/week, or ≥1 times/week) and consumption near home (yes/no). Healthy diet was defined as scoring in the top quintile of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index or bottom quintile of a Western-type dietary pattern. Neighborhood fast-food exposure was measured by densities of fast-food outlets, participant report, and informant report. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine associations of fast-food consumption and diet; fast-food exposure and consumption near home; and fast-food exposure and diet adjusted for site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Those never eating fast food had a 2–3-times higher odds of having a healthy diet versus those eating fast food ≥1 times/week, depending on the dietary measure. For every standard deviation increase in fast-food exposure, the odds of consuming fast food near home increased 11%–61% and the odds of a healthy diet decreased 3%–17%, depending on the model. Results show that fast-food consumption and neighborhood fast-food exposure are associated with poorer diet. Interventions that reduce exposure to fast food and/or promote individual behavior change may be helpful. PMID:19429879

  5. The association between green neighborhood environments and active transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Urban nature is an important aspect of health-promoting environments. In particular, street trees and green space can provide a low cost approach to improving public health by promoting physical activity, improving mental health, and facilitating social cohesion. Acti...

  6. Integrative Review of the Intersection of Green Space and Neighborhood Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancus, Gibran C; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2018-03-01

    To systematically analyze evidence about the impact of green space on the perception and actual safety of residents of urban neighborhoods. Systematic review of green space and violence based on Broome review criteria. One landmark study prompted the initial hand search and identification of search terms. Twenty-three quantitative, five qualitative, and two mixed-methods studies were found in the urban planning, public health, medical, and psychological literature that met the following criteria: analyzed green space and violence as factors in the perception of safety as an outcome measure, including action taken by being outside for recreation, exercise, or self-report in the survey. Findings were inconsistent regarding the direct relationship between perception of safety and green space when using recreation and exercise as a proxy for perception of safety. Findings regarding perception of safety in surveys were limited but indicated a positive correlation with green space. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that the perception of safety is supported by quality, accessibility, and aesthetic dimensions of neighborhood green space, and the perception of safety is often unrelated to actual crime rates. The science for understanding mechanisms between green space and violence as part of environmental health has been insufficiently developed and requires further study. Environmental health, including green space, is central to health promotion, and understanding is key to preventing the epidemic of violence. This article provides a summary of research related to green space, violence in communities, perception of safety, and violent crime in those communities. It identifies gaps in our knowledge where future research is needed. Nurses have the opportunity to lead the development, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions and policies addressing the inequality of quality and quantity of green space in the built and natural environment and

  7. Food Melt in Consumer Food Environments in Low-income Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapl, Erika S; Pike, Stephanie N; Borawski, Elaine; Flocke, Susan A; Freedman, Darcy A; Walsh, Colleen C; Schneider, Christine; Yoder, Laura

    2017-11-01

    We systematically evaluated changes in availability, price, and quality of perishable food items from the beginning to the end of the month in lowincome, urban neighborhoods. The sample included grocery stores or supermarkets in Cleveland, Ohio, within neighborhoods with >30% of population receiving food assistance. We collected data for 2 sequential months during the first and fourth weeks of each month. Two coders evaluated stores, collecting measures of availability, price, and quality for 50 items. We examined difference in number and proportion of items available at the beginning of the month (BOM) to items remaining available at the end of the month (EOM), as well as quality and price of those items. Across 48 stores, availability at EOM was lower than BOM; as store size increased, reduction in availability (ie, food melt) was significantly (p Food melt differentially affects individuals in neighborhoods without grocery stores. Findings reveal composition of food environments is dynamic rather than static, influencing food-purchasing choices among lowincome consumers.

  8. Neighborhood and home food environment and children's diet and obesity: Evidence from military personnel's installation assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shier, Victoria; Nicosia, Nancy; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-06-01

    Research and policy initiatives are increasingly focused on the role of neighborhood food environment in children's diet and obesity. However, existing evidence relies on observational data that is limited by neighborhood selection bias. The Military Teenagers' Environments, Exercise, and Nutrition Study (M-TEENS) leverages the quasi-random variation in neighborhood environment generated by military personnel's assignment to installations to examine whether neighborhood food environments are associated with children's dietary behaviors and BMI. Our results suggest that neither the actual nor the perceived availability of particular food outlets in the neighborhood is associated with children's diet or BMI. The availability of supermarkets and convenience stores in the neighborhood was not associated with where families shop for food or children's dietary behaviors. Further, the type of store that families shop at was not associated with the healthiness of food available at home. Similarly, availability of fast food and restaurants was unrelated to children's dietary behaviors or how often children eat fast food or restaurant meals. However, the healthiness of food available at home was associated with healthy dietary behaviors while eating at fast food outlets and restaurants were associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children. Further, parental supervision, including limits on snack foods and meals eaten as a family, was associated with dietary behaviors. These findings suggest that focusing only on the neighborhood food environment may ignore important factors that influence children's outcomes. Future research should also consider how families make decisions about what foods to purchase, where to shop for foods and eating out, how closely to monitor their children's food intake, and, ultimately how these decisions collectively impact children's outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Neighborhood food environment role in modifying psychosocial stress-diet relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Schulz, Amy J; Izumi, Betty T; Mentz, Graciela; Israel, Barbara A; Lockett, Murlisa

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to highly palatable foods may increase eating in response to stress, but this behavioral response has not been examined in relation to the neighborhood food environment. This study examined whether the neighborhood food environment modified relationships between psychosocial stress and dietary behaviors. Probability-sample survey (n=460) and in-person food environment audit data were used. Dietary behaviors were measured using 17 snack food items and a single eating-out-of-home item. Chronic stress was derived from five subscales; major life events was a count of nine items. The neighborhood food environment was measured as availability of large grocery stores, small grocery stores, and convenience stores, as well as proportion of restaurants that were fast food. Two-level hierarchical regression models were estimated. Snack food intake was positively associated with convenience store availability and negatively associated with large grocery store availability. The measures of chronic stress and major life events were generally not associated with either dietary behavior overall, although Latinos were less likely to eat out at high levels of major life events than African Americans. Stress-neighborhood food environment interactions were not statistically significant. Important questions remain regarding the role of the neighborhood food environment in the stress-diet relationship that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Impact of WIC Food Package Changes on Access to Healthful Food in 2 Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Amy; McLaughlin, Jacqueline; Cannuscio, Carolyn C.; Chilton, Mariana; Krasny, Sarah; Karpyn, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of the 2009 food package changes for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on the availability of healthful food. Design: Survey of all food stores in the study area before and after the changes were implemented. Setting: Two low-income neighborhoods in Philadelphia, 1…

  11. Fast-Food Consumption, Diet Quality, and Neighborhood Exposure to Fast Food: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Latetia V.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Jacobs, David R.; Franco, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000–2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n = 5,633; aged 45–84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never,

  12. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Food Environment Audit for Diverse Neighborhoods (FEAD-N)

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Betty T.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Mentz, Graciela B.; Sand, Sharon L.; de Majo, Ricardo F.; Wilson, Christine; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that neighborhood food environments are important influences on dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. While instruments with high reliability have been developed to assess food availability, price, and quality, few measures to assess items associated with the physical and social features of food stores have been developed. Yet, recent qualitative studies have documented aspects associated with such features of urban food stores that are barriers to food a...

  13. Obesity and the built environment: does the density of neighborhood fast-food outlets matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J; Bosworth, Mark; Johnson-Shelton, Deb

    2009-01-01

    Examine variation in obesity among older adults relative to the joint influences of density of neighborhood fast food outlets and residents' behavioral, psychosocial, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and multilevel design. Census block groups, used as a proxy for neighborhoods, within the metropolitan region's Urban Growth Boundary in Portland, Oregon. A total of 1221 residents (mean age, 65 years) recruited randomly from 120 neighborhoods (48% response rate). A geographic information system-based measure of fast food restaurant density across 120 neighborhoods was created. Residents within the sampled neighborhoods were assessed with respect to their body mass indices (BMI), frequency of visits to local fast food restaurants, fried food consumption, levels of physical activity, self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables, household income, and race/ethnicity. Multilevel logistic regression analyses. Significant associations were found between resident-level individual characteristics and the likelihood of being obese (BMI > or = 30) for neighborhoods with a high-density of fast food restaurants in comparison with those with a low density: odds ratios for obesity, 95% confidence intervals (CI), were 1.878 (CI, 1.006-3.496) for weekly visits to local fast food restaurants; 1.792 (CI, 1.006-3.190) for not meeting physical activity recommendations; 1.212 (CI, 1.057-1.391) for low confidence in eating healthy food; and 8.057 (CI, 1.705-38.086) for non-Hispanic black residents. Increased density of neighborhood fast food outlets was associated with unhealthy lifestyles, poorer psychosocial profiles, and increased risk of obesity among older adults.

  14. A method for neighborhood-level surveillance of food purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, David L; Charland, Katia; Labban, Alice; Ma, Yu

    2014-12-01

    Added sugar, particularly in carbonated soft drinks (CSDs), represents a considerable proportion of caloric intake in North America. Interventions to decrease the intake of added sugar have been proposed, but monitoring their effectiveness can be difficult due to the costs and limitations of dietary surveys. We developed, assessed the accuracy of, and took an initial step toward validating an indicator of neighborhood-level purchases of CSDs using automatically captured store scanner data in Montreal, Canada, between 2008 and 2010 and census data describing neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics. Our indicator predicted total monthly neighborhood sales based on historical sales and promotions and characteristics of the stores and neighborhoods. The prediction error for monthly sales in sampled stores was low (2.2%), and we demonstrated a negative association between predicted total sales and median personal income. For each $10,000 decrease in median personal income, we observed a fivefold increase in predicted monthly sales of CSDs. This indicator can be used by public health agencies to implement automated systems for neighborhood-level monitoring of an important upstream determinant of health. Future refinement of this indicator is possible to account for factors such as store catchment areas and to incorporate nutritional information about products. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. A Neighborhood-Scale Green Infrastructure Retrofit: Experimental Results, Model Simulations, and Resident Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, A.; Avellaneda, P. M.; Jarden, K. M.; Turner, V. K.; Grieser, J.

    2016-12-01

    Distributed green infrastructure approaches to stormwater management that can be retrofit into existing development are of growing interest, but questions remain about their effectiveness at the watershed-scale. In suburban northeastern Ohio, homeowners on a residential street with 55% impervious surface were given the opportunity for free rain barrels, rain gardens, and bioretention cells. Of 163 parcels, only 22 owners (13.5%) chose to participate, despite intense outreach efforts. After pre-treatment monitoring, 37 rain barrels, 7 rain gardens, and 16 street-side bioretention cells were installed in 2013-2014. Using a paired watershed approach, a reduction in up to 33% of peak flow and 40% of total runoff volume per storm was measured in the storm sewer. Using the monitoring data, a calibrated and validated SWMM model was built to explore the long-term effectiveness of the green infrastructure against a wider range of hydrological conditions. Model results confirm the effectiveness of green infrastructure in reducing surface runoff and increasing infiltration and evaporation. Based on 20 years of historical precipitation data, the model shows that the green infrastructure is capable of reducing flows by >40% at the 1, 2, and 5 year return period, suggesting some resilience to projected increases in precipitation intensity in a changing climate. Further, in this project, more benefit is derived from the street-side bioretention cells than from the rain barrels and gardens that treat rooftop runoff. Substantial hydrological gains were achieved despite low homeowner participation. Surveys indicate that many residents viewed stormwater as the city's problem and had negative perceptions of green infrastructure, despite slightly pro-environment values generally. Overall, this study demonstrates green infrastructure's hydrological effectiveness but raises challenging questions about overcoming social barriers retrofits at the neighborhood scale.

  16. Feasibility of increasing access to healthy foods in neighborhood corner stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Keelia; Gustat, Jeanette; Rice, Janet; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility of working with neighborhood corner stores to increase the availability of fresh fruit and vegetables in low-income neighborhoods in New Orleans was assessed. Household interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls (n = 97), corner store customer intercept interviews (n = 60) and interviews with corner store operators (owners/managers) (n = 12) were conducted in three neighborhoods without supermarkets. Regional produce wholesalers were contacted by phone. Results indicated that the majority of neighborhood residents use supermarkets or super stores as their primary food source. Those who did shop at corner stores typically purchased prepared foods and/or beverages making up nearly one third of their daily energy intake. Most individuals would be likely to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables from the corner stores if these foods were offered. Store operators identified cost, infrastructure and lack of customer demand as major barriers to stocking more fresh produce. Produce wholesalers did not see much business opportunity in supplying fresh produce to neighborhood corner stores on a small scale. Increasing availability of fresh fruit and vegetables in corner stores may be more feasible with the addition of systems changes that provide incentives and make it easier for neighborhood corner stores to stock and sell fresh produce.

  17. Exposure to neighborhood green space and mental health: evidence from the survey of the health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Kaltenbach, Andrea; Szabo, Aniko; Bogar, Sandra; Nieto, F Javier; Malecki, Kristen M

    2014-03-21

    Green space is now widely viewed as a health-promoting characteristic of residential environments, and has been linked to mental health benefits such as recovery from mental fatigue and reduced stress, particularly through experimental work in environmental psychology. Few population level studies have examined the relationships between green space and mental health. Further, few studies have considered the role of green space in non-urban settings. This study contributes a population-level perspective from the United States to examine the relationship between environmental green space and mental health outcomes in a study area that includes a spectrum of urban to rural environments. Multivariate survey regression analyses examine the association between green space and mental health using the unique, population-based Survey of the Health of Wisconsin database. Analyses were adjusted for length of residence in the neighborhood to reduce the impact of neighborhood selection bias. Higher levels of neighborhood green space were associated with significantly lower levels of symptomology for depression, anxiety and stress, after controlling for a wide range of confounding factors. Results suggest that "greening" could be a potential population mental health improvement strategy in the United States.

  18. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: Differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurant availability in the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Meyer, Katie A; Green Howard, Annie; Shikany, James M; Guilkey, David K; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-09-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: β=-0.68 (95% CI: (-0.85, -0.51); 1st tertile: β=-0.22 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.02); p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: β=-1.34 (95% CI: -1.54, -1.14); 1st tertile: β=-0.45 (95% CI: -0.66, -0.25); p-interactionfast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurants in the CARDIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Rummo, Pasquale E.; Meyer, Katie A.; Howard, Annie Green; Shikany, James M.; Guilkey, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: β=−0.68 (95% CI: (−0.85, −0.51); 1st tertile: β=−0.22 (95% CI: −0.42, −0.02) ; p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: β=−1.34 (95% CI: −1.54, −1.14); 1st tertile: β=−0.45 (95% CI: −0.66, −0.25); p-interactionfast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels. PMID:26319447

  20. Neighborhood disparities in access to healthy foods and their effects on environmental justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental justice is concerned with an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. These burdens comprise immediate health hazards as well as subtle inequities, such as limited access to healthy foods. We reviewed the literature on neighborhood disparities in access to fast-food outlets and...

  1. The neighborhood food environment: sources of historical data on retail food stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Alma A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States, and the minimal success of education-based interventions, there is growing interest in understanding the role of the neighborhood food environment in determining dietary behavior. This study, as part of a larger study, identifies historical data on retail food stores, evaluates strengths and limitations of the data for research, and assesses the comparability of historical retail food store data from a government and a commercial source. Five government and commercial listings of retail food stores were identified. The California State Board of Equalization (SBOE database was selected and then compared to telephone business directory listings. The Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to assess the congruency of food store counts per census tract between the SBOE and telephone business directory databases. The setting was four cities in Northern California, 1979–1990. The SBOE and telephone business directory databases listed 127 and 351 retail food stores, respectively. The SBOE listed 36 stores not listed by the telephone business directories, while the telephone business directories listed 260 stores not listed by the SBOE. Spearman's correlation coefficients between estimates of stores per census tract made from the SBOE listings and those made from the telephone business directory listings were approximately 0.5 (p

  2. Measuring food deserts in New York City's low-income neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Cynthia; Purciel-Hill, Marnie; Ghai, Nirupa R; Kaufman, Leslie; Graham, Regina; Van Wye, Gretchen

    2011-03-01

    There has been growing interest in the environmental factors that contribute to poor health outcomes, particularly in areas where health disparities are pronounced. The locations of food deserts, or unhealthy food environments, correspond to areas with the highest proportions of African-American/Black residents, a population suffering from higher rates of many chronic conditions, including obesity and diabetes in our study area. This study seeks to enhance our understanding of the role of the neighborhood environment on residents' health, by examining neighborhood food availability and access in low-income and wealthier neighborhoods of New York City. We documented the neighborhood food environment and areas we call "food deserts" by creating methodological innovations. We calculated the lowest scores within East and Central Harlem and North and Central Brooklyn-areas with the highest proportions of Black residents and the lowest median household incomes. By contrast, the most favorable food desert scores were on the Upper East Side, a predominantly white, middle and upper-income area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Body mass index, neighborhood fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagami, Sanae; Cohen, Deborah A; Brown, Arleen F; Asch, Steven M

    2009-09-01

    Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations are associated with body mass index and whether car ownership might moderate this association. We linked the 2000 US Census data and information on locations of fast food and other restaurants with the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study database, which consists of 2,156 adults sampled from 63 neighborhoods in Los Angeles County. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate associations between body mass index (BMI), fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership after adjustment for individual-level factors and socioeconomic characteristics of residential neighborhoods. A high concentration of local restaurants is associated with BMI. Car owners have higher BMIs than non-car owners; however, individuals who do not own cars and reside in areas with a high concentration of fast food outlets have higher BMIs than non-car owners who live in areas with no fast food outlets, approximately 12 lb more (p = 0.02) for an individual with a height of 5 ft. 5 in. Higher restaurant density is associated with higher BMI among local residents. The local fast food environment has a stronger association with BMI for local residents who do not have access to cars.

  4. The influence of neighborhood food stores on change in young girls' body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cindy W; Laraia, Barbara A; Kelly, Maggi; Nickleach, Dana; Adler, Nancy E; Kushi, Lawrence H; Yen, Irene H

    2011-07-01

    As the prevalence of childhood obesity has risen in past decades, more attention has been given to how the neighborhood food environment affects children's health outcomes. This exploratory study examined the relationship between the presence of neighborhood food stores within a girl's neighborhood and 3-year risk of overweight/obesity and change in BMI, in girls aged 6 or 7 years at baseline. A longitudinal analysis of participants in the Cohort Study of Young Girls' Nutrition, Environment and Transitions (CYGNET) was conducted from 2005 to 2008. Neighborhood food stores were identified from a commercial database and classified according to industry codes in 2006. Generalized linear and logistic models were used to examine how availability of food stores within 0.25-mile and 1.0-mile network buffers of a girl's residence were associated with BMI z-score change and risk of overweight or obesity, adjusting for baseline BMI/weight and family sociodemographic characteristics. Data were analyzed in 2010. Availability of convenience stores within a 0.25-mile network buffer of a girl's residence was associated with greater risk of overweight/obesity (OR=3.38, 95% CI=1.07, 10.68) and an increase in BMI z-score (β=0.13, 95% CI=0.00, 0.25). Availability of produce vendors/farmer's markets within a 1.0-mile network buffer of a girl's residence was inversely associated with overweight/obesity (OR=0.22, 95% CI=0.05, 1.06). A significant trend was observed between availability of produce vendors/farmer's markets and lower risk of overweight/obesity after 3 years. Although food store inventories were not assessed and food store indices were not created, the availability of neighborhood food stores may affect a young girl's weight trajectory over time. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of prepared food sources in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan T; Powell, Lisa M; Newman, Sara; Klassen, Ann Carroll; Frick, Kevin D; Anderson, Jennifer; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources(PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs(N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée salads (21.4%, 7.1%, and 33.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that carry-out-specific interventions are necessary to increase healthy food availability in low-income urban neighborhoods.

  6. What does SNAP benefit usage tell us about food access in low-income neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jerry

    2014-04-01

    Current GIS based research on food access has focused primarily on the proximity of food sources to places of residence in low-income communities, with relatively little attention given to actual practices of food procurement. This project addresses this issue by using dasymetric mapping techniques to develop fine scale estimates of benefit usage for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, drawing from existing zip code level data on benefit distribution and redemptions. Based on this data, this research shows that while supermarkets receive almost all SNAP benefits in suburban areas, these stores have a smaller share of all SNAP redemptions in low-income core neighborhoods. In these latter areas, both convenience stores and mid-sized grocers (e.g., discount grocers, food cooperatives, ethnic markets) play a much larger role in residents' food shopping, even when supermarkets are also present. In addition, these core neighborhoods have a net "outflow" of SNAP dollars, meaning that residents of these areas receive more in benefits than is spent at neighborhood food retailers. This finding confirms existing research showing that low-income residents often travel outside their neighborhoods to get food, regardless of the presence or absence of supermarkets. Rather than simply increasing the number of large food outlets in low-access areas, this research suggests that efforts to improve food access and community health must take into account the geographically complex ways residents interact with the food system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Constrained, Convenient, and Symbolic Consumption: Neighborhood Food Environments and Economic Coping Strategies among the Urban Poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura; Amorim, Mariana

    2015-10-01

    Residents of poor and minority neighborhoods have less access to healthy, affordable food than their counterparts in more advantaged neighborhoods, and these disparities translate into population-level health disparities by race and socioeconomic status. Current research debates the extent of these disparities and how they translate into unequal health outcomes, but it has paid less attention to the micro-level decision-making processes and strategies residents employ to access food in the context of constrained personal and neighborhood resources. We examined this gap in the literature using data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 66 poor residents of three urban neighborhoods with varying nutritional environments. We found that economic and geographic constraints strongly influenced where and how residents shopped, but within those constraints, residents developed a number of adaptive strategies to maximize the quality and variety of their groceries. We also found that higher-quality stores and purchases were important to residents not only for their material benefits-such as health and cost-but also for their symbolic value. The presence of many stores, close stores, and high-quality stores offered opportunities for symbolic consumption and boosted neighborhood reputations but also created settings for social exclusion. These results illuminate how inequalities in nutritional environments shape residents' lived experiences and highlight residents' agency and resourcefulness in responding to such constraints.

  8. Green area loss in San Juan's inner-ring suburban neighborhoods: a multidisciplinary approach to analyzing green/gray area dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Ramos-Santiago

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The loss of green areas and vegetation in suburban neighborhoods poses short- and long-term consequences associated with environmental changes and socioeconomic decline that can propel such developments to an unsustainable state. We summarize an interdisciplinary investigation aimed at identifying the drivers of green area loss, green cover loss, and quantifying the impact on three inner-ring suburban neighborhoods located along the Rio Piedras watershed in San Juan, Puerto Rico. An inductive approach to social-ecological research was undertaken because it provides a flexible platform for interdisciplinary collaboration on this complex and dynamic subject. The three developments selected for the study were constructed in the mid-20th century under paradigms of modernity that included providing conditions for a better and more dignified way of living, among which green areas played a central role. The green area change analysis was undertaken first, by way of using building footprint growth as a proxy, which represents a minimal estimate of change, and transferring the information from aerial photographs, original development plans, construction drawings, and GIS maps to AutoCAD to quantify building footprint change for each neighborhood. The period of analysis started from the time of the construction of each development to the year 2010. The second estimation was performed using orthorectified infrared aerial imagery to quantify green cover in year 2008 and contrast that information with the conditions at the time the developments were constructed. Green-gray area dynamics were thus analyzed together with longitudinal socioeconomic data to help in the assessment of effects. The investigation revealed long-term socioeconomic declining trends in two of the neighborhoods, weak governance of the built environment, substantial increase in automobile ownership, and distinct physical-spatial characteristics as drivers behind the changes observed. The

  9. Is Neighborhood Green Space Protective against Associations between Child Asthma, Neighborhood Traffic Volume and Perceived Lack of Area Safety? Multilevel Analysis of 4447 Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi Feng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy traffic is a source of air pollution and a safety concern with important public health implications. We investigated whether green space lowers child asthma risk by buffering the effects of heavy traffic and a lack of neighborhood safety. Multilevel models were used to analyze affirmative asthma cases in nationally representative cross-sectional data from 4447 children aged 6–7 years old in Australia. Case-finding was based upon a triangulation of affirmative responses to three questions on doctor-diagnosed asthma, asthma-related medications and illness with wheezing lasting for at least 1 week within the 12 months prior. Among children considered to be exposed to high traffic volumes and areas with 0 to 20% green space quantity, the odds ratio of affirmative asthma was 1.87 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.55. However, the association between heavy traffic and asthma was significantly lower for participants living in areas with over 40% green space coverage (odds ratio for interaction 0.32, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.84. No association between affirmative asthma and green space coverage was observed for participants not exposed to heavy traffic, nor for the area safety variable. Protecting existing and investing in new green space may help to promote child respiratory health through the buffering of traffic-related air pollution.

  10. Is Neighborhood Green Space Protective against Associations between Child Asthma, Neighborhood Traffic Volume and Perceived Lack of Area Safety? Multilevel Analysis of 4447 Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2017-05-19

    Heavy traffic is a source of air pollution and a safety concern with important public health implications. We investigated whether green space lowers child asthma risk by buffering the effects of heavy traffic and a lack of neighborhood safety. Multilevel models were used to analyze affirmative asthma cases in nationally representative cross-sectional data from 4447 children aged 6-7 years old in Australia. Case-finding was based upon a triangulation of affirmative responses to three questions on doctor-diagnosed asthma, asthma-related medications and illness with wheezing lasting for at least 1 week within the 12 months prior. Among children considered to be exposed to high traffic volumes and areas with 0 to 20% green space quantity, the odds ratio of affirmative asthma was 1.87 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.55). However, the association between heavy traffic and asthma was significantly lower for participants living in areas with over 40% green space coverage (odds ratio for interaction 0.32, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.84). No association between affirmative asthma and green space coverage was observed for participants not exposed to heavy traffic, nor for the area safety variable. Protecting existing and investing in new green space may help to promote child respiratory health through the buffering of traffic-related air pollution.

  11. Inter-rater reliability of the food environment audit for diverse neighborhoods (FEAD-N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Betty T; Zenk, Shannon N; Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela B; Sand, Sharon L; de Majo, Ricardo F; Wilson, Christine; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that neighborhood food environments are important influences on dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. While instruments with high reliability have been developed to assess food availability, price, and quality, few measures to assess items associated with the physical and social features of food stores have been developed. Yet, recent qualitative studies have documented aspects associated with such features of urban food stores that are barriers to food acquisition. We assessed the reliability of measures to assess multiple components of the food environment-including physical and social store features--in three geographically distinct and diverse communities in Detroit, Michigan, using the Food Environment Audit for Diverse Neighborhoods (FEAD-N). Using the FEAD-N, four trained observers conducted observations of 167 food stores over a 10-week period between October and December 2008. To assess inter-rater reliability, two trained observers independently visited, on the same day, a random subset of 44 food stores. Kappa statistics and percent agreement were used to evaluate inter-rater reliability. Overall, the instrument had mostly high inter-rater reliability with more than 75% of items with kappa scores between 0.80 and 1.00, indicating almost perfect reliability. More than half of the physical store features and 47% of the social store features had almost perfect reliability and about 37% and 47%, respectively, had substantial reliability. Measuring factors associated with the physical and social environment of food stores with mostly high reliability is feasible. Systematic documentation of the physical and social features of food stores using objective measures may promote a more comprehensive understanding of how neighborhood food environments influence health.

  12. Characteristics of Prepared Food Sources in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore City

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, SEUNG HEE; ROWAN, MEGAN T.; POWELL, LISA M.; NEWMAN, SARA; KLASSEN, ANN CARROLL; FRICK, KEVIN D.; ANDERSON, JENNIFER; GITTELSOHN, JOEL

    2010-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources (PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs (N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée ...

  13. Consumer agency and food retailer choice in an American urban neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the issue of consumer agency within the food system as manifested by food secure and food insecure households in an urban neighborhood in the United States. Using a self-administered mail survey this study examines food retailer perception and shopping behaviour of food secure and insecure households in Lansing, Michigan. Food security represents a useful lens through which to examine the issue of agency since food, while a necessary part of life, is nonetheless something that is difficult to access for a large sector of the population. By examining both food secure and food insecure households, light is shed on some of the factors that lead to the relative ability of each group to successfully and reliably obtain food. In particular, this study focuses on the perception and behaviour of consumers in relation to the decision to shop, or not to shop, at various food retailers. Some theories of consumer behaviour tend to focus either on class related cultural elements which determine taste preferences while other theories focus on structural elements of the food system which force a limited selection onto various social groups. While certainly class culture influences taste preference to some extent, results from this study suggest that structural elements of the food system and economic differences between food secure and food insecure households have a larger influence on store choice than cultural preferences. In fact, both food secure and insecure households indicated similar sets of criteria used in determining store choices. However, in examination of actual shopping behaviours, this study found that food insecure households are more likely to shop at deep discounters and more likely to travel farther to obtain food. These results suggest that structural elements such as food retailer locations limit the range of shopping options of food insecure households when compared to food secure households. Keywords: food

  14. Beyond Food Access: The Impact of Parent-, Home-, and Neighborhood-Level Factors on Children's Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell Dunaway, Lauren; Carton, Thomas; Ma, Ping; Mundorf, Adrienne R; Keel, Kelsey; Theall, Katherine P

    2017-06-20

    Despite the growth in empirical research on neighborhood environmental characteristics and their influence on children's diets, physical activity, and obesity, much remains to be learned, as few have examined the relationship between neighborhood food availability on dietary behavior in children, specifically. This analysis utilized data from a community-based, cross-sectional sample of children ( n = 199) that was collected in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2010. This dataset was linked to food environment data to assess the impact of neighborhood food access as well as household and parent factors on children's diets. We observed a negligible impact of the neighborhood food environment on children's diets, except with respect to fast food, with children who had access to fast food within 500 m around their home significantly less likely (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8) to consume vegetables. Key parental and household factors did play a role in diet, including receipt of public assistance and cooking meals at home. Children receiving public assistance were 2.5 times (95% CI: 1.1, 5.4) more likely to consume fruit more than twice per day compared with children not receiving public assistance. Children whose family cooked dinner at home more than 5 times per week had significantly more consumption of fruit (64% vs. 58%) and vegetables (55% vs. 39%), but less soda (27% vs. 43%). Findings highlight the need for future research that focuses on the dynamic and complex relationships between built and social factors in the communities and homes of children that impact their diet in order to develop multilevel prevention approaches that address childhood obesity.

  15. Is Neighborhood Green Space Associated With Less Frailty? Evidence From the Mr. and Ms. Os (Hong Kong) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Wang, Dan; Leung, Jason; Lau, Kevin; Kwok, Timothy; Woo, Jean

    2018-02-02

    To examine whether neighborhood green space was related to frailty risk longitudinally and to examine the relative contributions of green space, physical activity, and individual health conditions to the frailty transitions. Four thousand community-dwelling Chinese adults aged ≥65 years participating in the Mr. and Ms. Os (Hong Kong) study in 2001-2003 were followed up for 2 years. The percentage of green space within a 300-meter radial buffer around the participants' place of residence was derived for each participant at baseline based on the normalized difference vegetation index. Frailty status was classified according to the Fried criteria at baseline and after 2 years. Ordinal logistic regression and path analysis were used to examine associations between green space and the frailty transitions, adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, health conditions, and baseline frailty status. At baseline, 53.5% of the participants met the criterion for robust, 41.5% were classified as prefrailty, and 5.0% were frail. After 2 years, 3240 participants completed all the measurements. Among these, 18.6% of prefrail or frail participants improved, 66% remained in their frailty state, and 26.8% of robust or prefrail participants progressed in frailty status. In multivariable models, the frailty status of participants living in neighborhoods with more than 34.1% green space (the highest quartile) at baseline was more likely to improve at the 2-year follow-up than it was for those living in neighborhoods with 0 to 4.5% (the lowest quartile) [odds ratio (OR): 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.60; P for trend: 0.022]. When men and women were analyzed separately, the association between green space and frailty remained significant in men (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03-1.90) but not in women. Path analysis showed that green space directly affects frailty transitions (β = 0.041, P space on the 2-year frailty transitions is comparable to those

  16. Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

  17. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2013-09-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting women purchase intention for green food products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiyanti, Sudiyanti

    2009-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2009 This study investigated the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting women consumers on their intention towards purchasing green food products among 406 participants. Using linear regression, five independent variables had been examined: attitude towards green food products, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and perceived difficulty in predicting purchase intention. The ...

  19. The availability of fast-food and full-service restaurants in the United States: associations with neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Bao, Yanjun

    2007-10-01

    Parallel to the rising obesity epidemic, food consumption patterns and household expenditures show a marked upward trend in total energy intake derived from away-from-home sources. This study conducted cross-sectional multivariate analyses to examine associations between local-area racial, ethnic, and income characteristics and the availability of full-service and fast-food restaurants. Based on a U.S. national census of 28,050 ZIP codes that cover a population of 280,675,874 people, restaurant outlet data were linked to 2000 Census Bureau data based on ZIP code tabulation areas and analyses were undertaken using negative binomial count models and ordinary least squares regression analyses. Study results showed that higher- versus lower-income, predominantly black and racially mixed versus predominantly white and Hispanic versus non-Hispanic neighborhoods had fewer available full-service and fast-food restaurants. Near-low- and middle-income neighborhoods had the highest number of available restaurants with 1.24 and 1.22 times number of full-service restaurants and 1.34 and 1.28 times the number of fast-food restaurants compared to high-income neighborhoods. Predominantly black neighborhoods were found to have 58.2% and 59.3% of the number of full-service and fast-food restaurants available in predominantly white neighborhoods. No statistically significant differences were found in the relative availability of fast-food versus full-service restaurants by income, race, or ethnicity in the national sample used. However, across urban areas, near-low-, middle-, and near-high- versus high-income neighborhoods and predominantly black versus white neighborhoods were found to have moderately higher proportions of fast-food among total restaurants. In urban areas, higher proportions of available fast-food restaurants out of total restaurants in predominantly black versus predominantly white neighborhoods may contribute to racial differences in obesity rates.

  20. Using Social Media to Identify Sources of Healthy Food in Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Iris N; Clarke, Philippa; Hill, Alex B; Romero, Daniel M; Goodspeed, Robert; Berrocal, Veronica J; Vinod Vydiswaran, V G; Veinot, Tiffany C

    2017-06-01

    An established body of research has used secondary data sources (such as proprietary business databases) to demonstrate the importance of the neighborhood food environment for multiple health outcomes. However, documenting food availability using secondary sources in low-income urban neighborhoods can be particularly challenging since small businesses play a crucial role in food availability. These small businesses are typically underrepresented in national databases, which rely on secondary sources to develop data for marketing purposes. Using social media and other crowdsourced data to account for these smaller businesses holds promise, but the quality of these data remains unknown. This paper compares the quality of full-line grocery store information from Yelp, a crowdsourced content service, to a "ground truth" data set (Detroit Food Map) and a commercially-available dataset (Reference USA) for the greater Detroit area. Results suggest that Yelp is more accurate than Reference USA in identifying healthy food stores in urban areas. Researchers investigating the relationship between the nutrition environment and health may consider Yelp as a reliable and valid source for identifying sources of healthy food in urban environments.

  1. Neighborhood and home food environment and Children���s diet and obesity: Evidence from Military Personnel���s Installation Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Shier, Victoria; Nicosia, Nancy; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-01-01

    Research and policy initiatives are increasingly focused on the role of neighborhood food environment in children���s diet and obesity. However, existing evidence relies on observational data that is limited by neighborhood selection bias. The Military Teenagers��� Environments, Exercise, and Nutrition Study (M-TEENS) leverages the quasi-random variation in neighborhood environment generated by military personnel���s assignment to installations to examine whether neighborhood food environment...

  2. Neighborhood Food Environment, Diet, and Obesity Among Los Angeles County Adults, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Nelly; Lightstone, Amy S; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Morales, Douglas M; Sturm, Roland

    2015-09-03

    The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between the number and type of food outlets in a neighborhood and dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) among adults in Los Angeles County. We also assessed whether this association depends on the geographic size of the food environment. We analyzed data from the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. We created buffers (from 0.25 to 3.0 miles in radius) centered in respondents' residential addresses and counted the number of food outlets by type in each buffer. Dependent variables were weekly intake of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fast food; BMI; and being overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m(2)). Explanatory variables were the number of outlets classified as fast-food outlets, convenience stores, small food stores, grocery stores, and supermarkets. Regressions were estimated for all sets of explanatory variables and buffer size combinations (150 total effects). Only 2 of 150 effects were significant after being adjusted for multiple comparisons. The number of fast-food restaurants in nonwalkable areas (in a 3.0-mile radius) was positively associated with fast-food consumption, and the number of convenience stores in a walkable distance (in a 0.25-mile radius) was negatively associated with obesity. Little evidence was found for associations between proximity of respondents' homes to food outlets and dietary intake or BMI among adults in Los Angeles County. A possible explanation for the null finding is that shopping patterns are weakly related to neighborhoods in Los Angeles County because of motorized transportation.

  3. Validation of food store environment secondary data source and the role of neighborhood deprivation in Appalachia, Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafson Alison A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the need for better measurement of the retail food environment in rural settings and to examine how deprivation may be unique in rural settings, the aims of this study were: 1 to validate one commercially available data source with direct field observations of food retailers; and 2 to examine the association between modified neighborhood deprivation and the modified retail food environment score (mRFEI. Methods Secondary data were obtained from a commercial database, InfoUSA in 2011, on all retail food outlets for each census tract. In 2011, direct observation identifying all listed food retailers was conducted in 14 counties in Kentucky. Sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV were compared. Neighborhood deprivation index was derived from American Community Survey data. Multinomial regression was used to examine associations between neighborhood deprivation and the mRFEI score (indicator of retailers selling healthy foods such as low-fat foods and fruits and vegetables relative to retailers selling more energy dense foods. Results The sensitivity of the commercial database was high for traditional food retailers (grocery stores, supermarkets, convenience stores, with a range of 0.96-1.00, but lower for non-traditional food retailers; dollar stores (0.20 and Farmer’s Markets (0.50. For traditional food outlets, the PPV for smaller non-chain grocery stores was 38%, and large chain supermarkets was 87%. Compared to those with no stores in their neighborhoods, those with a supercenter [OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.27. 0.97] or convenience store [OR 0.67 (95% CI 0.51, 0.89] in their neighborhood have lower odds of living in a low deprivation neighborhood relative to a high deprivation neighborhood. Conclusion The secondary commercial database used in this study was insufficient to characterize the rural retail food environment. Our findings suggest that neighborhoods with high neighborhood deprivation are associated with

  4. Green perspective in food industry production line design: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, C. Y.; Sin, T. C.; Liyana, M. R. N.; Awang, A.; Fathullah, M.

    2017-09-01

    The design of green manufacturing process in food industries is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Several process such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, extraction and filtering have been applied efficiency in the food industry. Due to the rapid development of food and peripheral technology, the use of new physical processing or auxiliary processing methods can maintain food inherent nutrients, texture, color, and freshness and also reduce environmental pollution and energy consumption in food processing. Hence, this review paper will study and summarize the effects of green manufacturing process in food industries in term of waste reduction, materials and sustainability manufacturing. In any case, All the food processing equipment must comply with strict standards and regulation, this action will ensure the securing the food quality and safety of food products to consumers.

  5. Disparities in food access: does aggregate availability of key foods from other stores offset the relative lack of supermarkets in African-American neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, J Nicholas; Rice, Janet C; Farley, Thomas A; Swalm, Chris M; Rose, Donald

    2010-07-01

    Recent work demonstrates the importance of in-store contents, yet most food access disparity research has focused on differences in store access, rather than the foods they carry. This study examined in-store shelf space of key foods to test whether other types of stores might offset the relative lack of supermarkets in African-American neighborhoods. New Orleans census tract data were combined with health department information on food stores open in 2004-2005. Shelf space of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snacks was assessed using a measuring wheel and established protocols in a sample of stores. Neighborhood availability of foods was calculated by summing shelf space in all stores within 2km of tract centers. Regression analyses assessed associations between tract racial composition and aggregate food availability. African-American neighborhoods had fewer supermarkets and the aggregate availability of fresh fruits and vegetables was lower than in other neighborhoods. There were no differences in snack food availability. Other store types did not offset the relative lack of supermarkets in African-American neighborhoods in the provision of fresh produce, though they did for snack foods. Altering the mix of foods offered in such stores might mitigate these inequities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Green food development in China : focus on the east

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuang; Xiang, Linjing; Xing, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/aim The aim of our dissertation is to increase consumers’ buying awareness of green food and promote green food consumption in eastern China. Approach We collect data through a questionnaire and present hypotheses through reading related scientific articles. The data analysis includes description of samples and statistical tests in the form of cross tabulations, chi squares and frequency tables. Findings The questionnaire researches consumers’ income and education levels, ages and pri...

  7. The association between neighborhood economic hardship, the retail food environment, fast food intake, and obesity: findings from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxy, Michael; Malecki, Kristen C; Givens, Marjory L; Walsh, Matthew C; Nieto, F Javier

    2015-03-13

    Neighborhood-level characteristics such as economic hardship and the retail food environment are assumed to be correlated and to influence consumers' dietary behavior and health status, but few studies have investigated these different relationships comprehensively in a single study. This work aims to investigate the association between neighborhood-level economic hardship, the retail food environment, fast food consumption, and obesity prevalence. Linking data from the population-based Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, n = 1,570, 2008-10) and a commercially available business database, the Wisconsin Retail Food Environment Index (WRFEI) was defined as the mean distance from each participating household to the three closest supermarkets divided by the mean distance to the three closest convenience stores or fast food restaurants. Based on US census data, neighborhood-level economic hardship was defined by the Economic Hardship Index (EHI). Relationships were analyzed using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. SHOW residents living in neighborhoods with the highest economic hardship faced a less favorable retail food environment (WRFEI = 2.53) than residents from neighborhoods with the lowest economic hardship (WRFEI = 1.77; p-trend fast food restaurants and self-reported fast food consumption (≥ 2 times/week, OR = 0.59-0.62, p = 0.05-0.09) in urban residents. Participants reporting higher frequency of fast food consumption (≥ 2 times vs. food environment. However inconsistent or non-significant relationships between the retail food environment, fast food consumption, and obesity were observed. More research is needed to enhance methodological approaches to assess the retail food environment and to understand the complex relationship between neighborhood characteristics, health behaviors, and health outcomes.

  8. Linking neighborhood characteristics to food insecurity in older adults: the role of perceived safety, social cohesion, and walkability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wai Ting; Gallo, William T; Giunta, Nancy; Canavan, Maureen E; Parikh, Nina S; Fahs, Marianne C

    2012-06-01

    Among the 14.6% of American households experiencing food insecurity, approximately 2 million are occupied by older adults. Food insecurity among older adults has been linked to poor health, lower cognitive function, and poor mental health outcomes. While evidence of the association between individual or household-level factors and food insecurity has been documented, the role of neighborhood-level factors is largely understudied. This study uses data from a representative sample of 1,870 New York City senior center participants in 2008 to investigate the relationship between three neighborhood-level factors (walkability, safety, and social cohesion) and food insecurity among the elderly. Issues relating to food security were measured by three separate outcome measures: whether the participant had a concern about having enough to eat this past month (concern about food security), whether the participant was unable to afford food during the past year (insufficient food intake related to financial resources), and whether the participant experienced hunger in the past year related to not being able to leave home (mobility-related food insufficiency). Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression was performed for each measure of food insecurity. Results indicate that neighborhood walkability is an important correlate of mobility-related food insufficiency and concern about food insecurity, even after controlling the effects of other relevant factors.

  9. Green Space Attachment and Health : A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yang; van Dijk, Theodorus; Tang, Jianjun; van den Berg, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents’ emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of

  10. Health Disparities in the Relationship of Neighborhood Greenness to Mental Health Outcomes in 249,405 U.S. Medicare Beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott C. Brown

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies suggest that exposure to the natural environment may be important for optimal mental health. The present study examines the association between block-level greenness (vegetative presence and mental health outcomes, in a population-based sample of 249,405 U.S. Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years living in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA, whose location did not change from 2010 to 2011. Multilevel analyses examined relationships between greenness, as measured by mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index from satellite imagery at the Census block level, and each of two mental health outcomes; Alzheimer’s disease and depression, respectively, after statistically adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood income level of the individuals. Higher block-level greenness was linked to better mental health outcomes: There was a reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease (by 18% and depression (by 28% for beneficiaries living in blocks that were 1 SD above the mean for greenness, as compared to blocks that were 1 SD below the mean. Planned post-hoc analyses revealed that higher levels of greenness were associated with even greater mental health benefits in low-income neighborhoods: An increase in greenness from 1 SD below to 1 SD above the mean was associated with 37% lower odds of depression in low-income neighborhoods, compared to 27% and 21% lower odds of depression in medium- and high-income neighborhoods, respectively. Greenness may be effective in promoting mental health in older adults, particularly in low-income neighborhoods, possibly as a result of the increased opportunities for physical activity, social interaction, or stress mitigation.

  11. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R; Horel, Scott A

    2011-01-25

    Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR.

  12. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR. PMID:21266055

  13. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities. Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR. The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR.

  14. Neighborhood food retail environment and health outcomes among urban Ghanaian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflin, Helena Janet

    Over the past several decades there has been a global dietary shift, occurring at different rates across time and space. These changes are reflective of the nutrition transition--a series of potentially adverse changes in diet, health and physical activity. These dietary shifts have been associated with significant health consequences, as seen by the global rise in nutrition-related non-communicable diseases (NR-NCDs) such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, coronary heart disease as well as obesity. Clinical studies have confirmed that overweight and obese individuals are at increased risk for diabetes and hypertension, among other cardiovascular diseases. However, these linkages between the nutrition transition and health are not spatially random. They vary according to personal characteristics ("who you are") and the neighborhood environment in which you live ("where you are"). Leveraging existing demographic and health resources, in this project I aim to investigate the relationship between the food retail environment and health outcomes among a representative sample of urban Ghanaian women ages 18 and older, normally resident in the Accra Metropolitan Area (AMA), using a mixed methods spatial approach. Data for this study are drawn primarily from the 2008-09 Women's Health Study of Accra (WHSA II) which was funded by the U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (John R. Weeks, Project Director/Principal Investigator). It was conducted as a joint collaboration between the Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) at the University of Ghana, the Harvard School of Public Health and San Diego State University. Results from this study highlights the importance of addressing the high prevalence of hypertension among adult women in Accra and should be of concern to both stakeholders and the public. Older populations, overweight and obese individuals, those with partners living at home, limited number of food retailers

  15. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixia Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its thermal and mechanical properties, and applies it to the design of food packaging. The results demonstrate that the thermal and mechanical properties of the material could satisfy the requirements of food packaging and that the material is applicable to the design of food packaging in the future. This work provides a reference for the application of green, environment-friendly materials in the design of food packaging.

  16. Neighborhood blight, stress, and health: a walking trial of urban greening and ambulatory heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenia C. South; Michelle C. Kondo; Rose A. Cheney; Charles C. Branas

    2015-01-01

    We measured dynamic stress responses using ambulatory heart rate monitoring as participants in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania walked past vacant lots before and after a greening remediation treatment of randomly selected lots. Being in view of a greened vacant lot decreased heart rate significantly more than did being in view of a nongreened vacant lot or not in view of...

  17. Food Shopping Venues, Neighborhood Food Environment, and Body Mass Index Among Guyanese, Black, and White Adults in an Urban Community in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Akiko S; Michaels, Isaac H; Buckenmeyer, Erin M

    2016-06-01

    To investigate relationships among food shopping venues, food environment, and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional survey data and directly assessed food environment data were linked at the neighborhood level. Schenectady, NY. A sample of Guyanese, black, and white adults (n = 226, 485, and 908, respectively). BMI. Linear regression models were constructed with 10 food shopping venues and neighborhood food environment as explanatory variables, controlling for sociodemographics, dietary behavior, physical activity, and perception of healthy food access. On average, respondents used 3.5 different food shopping venues. Supermarkets and ethnic markets were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Among black adults, farmers' markets were associated with a lower BMI, whereas supermarkets, wholesale clubs, and food pantries were associated with a higher BMI. Among white adults, food coops and supermarkets were associated with a lower BMI and wholesale clubs were associated with a higher BMI. Neighborhoods with less a favorable food environment (longer travel distance to a supermarket) were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Both primary (ie, supermarkets) and secondary food shopping venues could be independent determinants of BMI. The observed variations by race and ethnicity provided insights into a culturally tailored approach to address obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The moderating role of food cue sensitivity in the behavioral response of children to their neighborhood food environment: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Catherine; de Montigny, Luc; Labban, Alice; Buckeridge, David; Ma, Yu; Arora, Narendra; Dubé, Laurette

    2017-07-05

    Neighborhood food cues have been inconsistently related to residents' health, possibly due to variations in residents' sensitivity to such cues. This study sought to investigate the degree to which children's predisposition to eat upon exposure to food environment and food cues (external eating), could explain differences in strength of associations between their food consumption and the type of food outlets and marketing strategies present in their neighborhood. Data were obtained from 616 6-12 y.o. children recruited into a population-based cross-sectional study in which food consumption was measured through a 24-h food recall and responsiveness to food cues measured using the external eating scale. The proportion of food retailers within 3 km of residence considered as "healthful" was calculated using a Geographical Information System. Neighborhood exposure to food marketing strategies (displays, discount frequency, variety, and price) for vegetables and soft drinks were derived from a geocoded digital marketing database. Adjusted mixed models with spatial covariance tested interaction effects of food environment indicators and external eating on food consumption. In children with higher external eating scores, healthful food consumption was more positively related to vegetable displays, and more negatively to the display and variety of soft drinks. No interactions were observed for unhealthful food consumption and no main effects of food environment indicators were found on food consumption. Children differ in their responsiveness to marketing-related visual food cues on the basis of their external eating phenotype. Strategies aiming to increase the promotion of healthful relative to unhealthful food products in stores may be particularly beneficial for children identified as being more responsive to food cues.

  19. Food in My Neighborhood: Exploring the Food Environment through Photovoice with Urban, African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine Abowd; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Gewanter, Zoë Reznick; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-01-01

    This study adapted Photovoice methodology for younger participants to better understand the perceptions of urban African American youth on their food environments and diets. Youth ( n = 17, ages 10-13 years) photographed and described, using novel narrative-based activities, the myriad places they regularly acquired "junk food" from environments saturated with such but differed in their assessments of the availability and desirability of more nutritious alternative foods. Youth often discussed specific foods as well as peers and adults in their lives as either entirely "healthy" or "unhealthy." This concrete thinking should be considered when designing messaging strategies to improve diets in similar populations. Overall, Photovoice is an engaging and effective method to engage youth in efforts to improve food environments and diets.

  20. Food Safety Posters for Safe Handling of Leafy Greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshman; Arendt, Susan W.; Shaw, Angela M.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.; Sauer, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes food safety educational tools depicting safe handling of leafy greens that are available as downloadable posters to Extension educators and practitioners (www.extension.iastate.edu). Nine visual-based minimal-text colored posters in English, Chinese, and Spanish were developed for use when formally or informally educating…

  1. Dynamics of Eco-innovation in Emerging Economies: the Case of Green Food Production in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Lucas Ferreira; Andersen, Maj Munch

    , discuss data availability and formulate research questions and hypothesis. Key questions addressed in order to understand the emergence of the green food market and the industrial dynamics of green food production behind it in Brazil are: (i) Which type (size, age) of companies are forwarding the green...... food agenda in Brazil? Particularly what is the role of the big international companies to induce eco-innovation in green food? (ii) To what degree is the green food agenda forwarded by Brazilian versus international companies? (iii) How does the organic chain work? More specifically, to what degree do...... we see upstream versus downstream green movements? A hypothesis is that Brazil, as the other BRICs rapidly emerging economies, may leapfrog the green economy and more quickly develop well-functioning green food markets as compared to the slow learning curves experienced in the green food market...

  2. Neighborhood characteristics, food deserts, rurality, and type 2 diabetes in youth: Findings from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Lamichhane, Archana P; Garzia, Sara C A; Puett, Robin C; Porter, Dwayne E; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Standiford, Debra; Liu, Lenna

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about the influence of neighborhood characteristics on risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among youth. We used data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Case-Control Study to evaluate the association of neighborhood characteristics, including food desert status of the census tract, with T2D in youth. We found a larger proportion of T2D cases in tracts with lower population density, larger minority population, and lower levels of education, household income, housing value, and proportion of the population in a managerial position. However, most associations of T2D with neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics were attributable to differences in individual characteristics. Notably, in multivariate logistic regression models, T2D was associated with living in the least densely populated study areas, and this finding requires further exploration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Beyond Food Access: The Impact of Parent-, Home-, and Neighborhood-Level Factors on Children’s Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Futrell Dunaway

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth in empirical research on neighborhood environmental characteristics and their influence on children’s diets, physical activity, and obesity, much remains to be learned, as few have examined the relationship between neighborhood food availability on dietary behavior in children, specifically. This analysis utilized data from a community-based, cross-sectional sample of children (n = 199 that was collected in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2010. This dataset was linked to food environment data to assess the impact of neighborhood food access as well as household and parent factors on children’s diets. We observed a negligible impact of the neighborhood food environment on children’s diets, except with respect to fast food, with children who had access to fast food within 500 m around their home significantly less likely (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8 to consume vegetables. Key parental and household factors did play a role in diet, including receipt of public assistance and cooking meals at home. Children receiving public assistance were 2.5 times (95% CI: 1.1, 5.4 more likely to consume fruit more than twice per day compared with children not receiving public assistance. Children whose family cooked dinner at home more than 5 times per week had significantly more consumption of fruit (64% vs. 58% and vegetables (55% vs. 39%, but less soda (27% vs. 43%. Findings highlight the need for future research that focuses on the dynamic and complex relationships between built and social factors in the communities and homes of children that impact their diet in order to develop multilevel prevention approaches that address childhood obesity.

  4. Neighborhoods and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Macinko, James

    2008-01-01

    This review critically summarizes the literature on neighborhood determinants of obesity and proposes a conceptual framework to guide future inquiry. Thirty-seven studies met all inclusion criteria and revealed that the influence of neighborhood-level factors appears mixed. Neighborhood-level measures of economic resources were associated with obesity in 15 studies, while the associations between neighborhood income inequality and racial composition with obesity were mixed. Availability of healthy versus unhealthy food was inconsistently related to obesity, while neighborhood features that discourage physical activity were consistently associated with increased body mass index. Theoretical explanations for neighborhood-obesity effects and recommendations for strengthening the literature are presented.

  5. Why the Neighborhood Social Environment Is Critical in Obesity Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Shelton, Rachel C.; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y. Claire; Rundle, Andrew; Link, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    The continuing obesity epidemic in the USA calls for the examination of antecedents to the well-known risk factors of physical activity and diet. The neighborhood built environment has been extensively studied in relation to obesity noting an increased risk of development and prevalence of obesity in relation to numerous built environment characteristics (lack of green spaces, higher number of fast food restaurants, low walkability indices). The neighborhood social environment, however, has b...

  6. Correlates of Food Security among Low-Resource Young People: An Assessment of Community Protective Factors within Public Housing Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von E; Lombe, Margaret; Chu, Yoosun; Sinha, Aakanksha; Tirmazi, Tagi

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses how and/or whether household and community factors are associated with self-reported food security among young people living in public housing (N=151). Results suggest that food security was negatively related to age, particularly to older youth. Also, household size-have many people in the household, household hardships, and household conflict were negatively related to food security. On the contrary, food security was positively related to community cohesion and the presence of the extended family within the public housing neighborhood. Findings seem to suggest that non-specialty food previsions (e.g., community cohesion and family networks) may be important in understanding food security among families living in public housing. A number of program and policy implications are presented.

  7. Neighborhood price of healthier food relative to unhealthy food and its association with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, David M; Auchincloss, Amy H; Stehr, Mark F; Diez Roux, Ana V; Moore, Kari A; Kanter, Genevieve P; Robinson, Lucy F

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the association between the price of healthier food relative to unhealthy food and type 2 diabetes prevalence, incidence and insulin resistance (IR). Data came from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis exam 5 administered 2010-2012 (exam 4, five years prior, was used only for diabetes incidence) and supermarket food/beverage prices derived from Information Resources Inc. For each individual, average price of a selection of healthier foods, unhealthy foods and their ratio was computed for supermarkets within 3miles of the person's residential address. Diabetes status was confirmed at each exam and IR was assessed via the homeostasis model assessment index. Multivariable-adjusted logistic, modified Poisson and linear regression models were used to model diabetes prevalence, incidence and IR, respectively as a function of price and covariates; 2353 to 3408 participants were included in analyses (depending on the outcome). A higher ratio of healthy-to-unhealthy neighborhood food price was associated with greater IR (4.8% higher HOMA-IR score for each standard deviation higher price ratio [95% CI -0.2% to 10.1%]) after adjusting for region, age, gender, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, income/wealth index, education, smoking status, physical activity, and neighborhood socioeconomic status. No association with diabetes incidence (relative risk=1.11, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.44) or prevalence (odds ratio=0.95, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.11) was observed. Higher neighborhood prices of healthier food relative to unhealthy food were positively associated with IR, but not with either diabetes outcome. This study provides new insight into the relationship between food prices with IR and diabetes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Trends of fresh green food for lactating roe deer females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Stahl, Benjamin; Laube, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns as well as more intense and frequent extreme events will alter the phenology of both flora and fauna and shift species distributions. Moreover, farmers respond to climate change by adapting land use and management, and thus the cultural landscape is changing. Therefore, the health and fitness of wild animals will be largely affected by factors directly and indirectly linked to climate change. Familiar examples of mismatch due to loss of temporal synchrony in food webs are known from birds (timing of migration or egg laying in relation to food resources) and insect pollination (timing of first flights in relation to plant flowering). However, also large herbivory mammals may suffer from climate change induced phenological mismatch if they are not able to "surf on the green wave" any more. Taking roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) as key example, we studied changes in the spring phenology of potential food plants during the last four decades in southern Germany. Our analysis is based on the phenological observations of the German Meteorological Service as well as on the comprehensive multi-species dataset of a dedicated citizen scientist. Roe deer is sensitive to slight phenological changes of food plants, since only the first fresh green contains maximal protein contents which are needed by the females to suckle their fawns born mid of May till mid of June. We find indications for an increasing number of food plant species available in the lactation period, however probably with a decreasing food quality over the decades. Since females have delayed implantation it may be difficult to well synchronise the postnatal period to the vegetation development. A unique dataset of marked fawns suggests that also the timing of birth has slightly advanced in recent decades. We discuss these changes in the match-mismatch of lactation period of roe deer and spring leaf phenology and their driving factors in detail.

  9. The rationale behind small food store interventions in low-income urban neighborhoods: insights from New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, J Nicholas; Ulmer, Vanessa M; Dunaway, Lauren Futrell; Farley, Thomas A; Rose, Donald

    2010-06-01

    Environmental approaches to the obesity problem in the US have garnered favor due to growing evidence that changes to the environment are at the root of the epidemic. Low-income urban neighborhoods, where obesity rates are disproportionately high, typically lack supermarkets yet have a high density of small food stores. This may increase the risk for unhealthy diets and obesity for neighborhood residents, because small stores carry mostly energy-dense foods and few fruits and vegetables. This paper pulls together various studies and pilot work conducted in New Orleans to explore the rationale behind small store interventions. Many low-income residents in New Orleans live within walking distance of small food stores and shop at them frequently. Marketing research has documented that changes to in-store shelf space and displays of specific foods affect the sales of these foods. Initiatives in New Orleans and elsewhere have demonstrated some success with improving healthy food availability in small stores, and an intercept survey of customers at small stores suggests that customers would purchase more fruits and vegetables if available. Efforts to encourage small store operators to offer a healthier mix of foods may, in the end, depend on the profitability of such changes. Evidence from a typical small store in New Orleans indicates that a greater percentage of gross profits come from snack foods and beverages than from fruits and vegetables. More research is needed to better understand the financial operations of small food stores and whether altering the mix of foods is economically feasible.

  10. Multiple pathways from the neighborhood food environment to increased body mass index through dietary behaviors: A structural equation-based analysis in the CARDIA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Meyer, Katie A.; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Shikany, James M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine longitudinal pathways from multiple types of neighborhood restaurants and food stores to BMI, through dietary behaviors. Methods We used data from participants (n=5114) in the United States-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study and a structural equation model to estimate longitudinal (1985–86 to 2005–06) pathways simultaneously from neighborhood fast food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, supermarkets, and convenience stores to BMI through dietary behaviors, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity. Results Higher numbers of neighborhood fast food restaurants and lower numbers of sit-down restaurants were associated with higher consumption of an obesogenic fast food-type diet. The pathways from food stores to BMI through diet were inconsistent in magnitude and statistical significance. Conclusions Efforts to decrease the numbers of neighborhood fast food restaurants and to increase the numbers of sit-down restaurant options could influence diet behaviors. Availability of neighborhood fast food and sit-down restaurants may play comparatively stronger roles than food stores in shaping dietary behaviors and BMI. PMID:26454248

  11. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Undernutrition but Not Overnutrition in Ecuadorian Women from Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Weigel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Household food insecurity (HFI is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin. Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81% among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact.

  12. Neighborhood safety and green space as predictors of obesity among preschool children from low-income families in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovasi, Gina S; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Quinn, James W; Berger, Diana K; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Jaslow, Risa; Lee, Karen K; Rundle, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    Neighborhood safety, green space, walkability, and sociodemographics may influence physical activity and childhood obesity. Data on measured height and weight, demographic characteristics, and home ZIP code were collected from year 2004 enrollees in a means-tested preschool program in New York City. Each ZIP code was surrounded by a 400-m buffer and characterized using data from the US census, local government departments, New York Times website, and Transportation Alternatives. Linear and Poisson models were constructed using cluster robust standard errors and adjusting for child's sex, race, ethnicity, age, and neighborhood characteristics. Analyses included 11,562 children ages 3-5 years living in 160 residential ZIP codes. A higher homicide rate (at the 75th vs 25th percentile) was associated with a 22% higher prevalence of obesity (95% CI for the prevalence ratio (PR): 1.05 to 1.41). A higher density of street trees (at the 75th vs 25th percentile) was associated with 12% lower prevalence of obesity (95% CI for the PR: 0.79 to 0.99). Other neighborhood characteristics did not have significant associations with childhood obesity. Among preschool children from low-income families, neighborhood homicide rate was associated with more obesity and street tree density was associated with less obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In-store marketing of inexpensive foods with good nutritional quality in disadvantaged neighborhoods: increased awareness, understanding, and purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamburzew, Axel; Darcel, Nicolas; Gazan, Rozenn; Dubois, Christophe; Maillot, Matthieu; Tomé, Daniel; Raffin, Sandrine; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-09-27

    Consumers often do not understand nutrition labels or do not perceive their usefulness. In addition, price can be a barrier to healthy food choices, especially for socio-economically disadvantaged individuals. A 6-month intervention combined shelf labeling and marketing strategies (signage, prime placement, taste testing) to draw attention to inexpensive foods with good nutritional quality in two stores located in a disadvantaged neighborhood in Marseille (France). The inexpensive foods with good nutritional quality were identified based on their nutrient profile and their price. Their contribution to customers' spending on food was assessed in the two intervention stores and in two control stores during the intervention, as well as in the year preceding the intervention (n = 6625). Exit survey (n = 259) and in-depth survey (n = 116) were used to assess customers' awareness of and perceived usefulness of the program, knowledge of nutrition, understanding of the labeling system, as well as placement-, taste- and preparation-related attractiveness of promoted products. Matched purchasing data were used to assess the contribution of promoted products to total food spending for each customer who participated in the in-depth survey. The contribution of inexpensive foods with good nutritional quality to customers' total food spending increased between 2013 and 2014 for both the control stores and the intervention stores. This increase was significantly higher in the intervention stores than in the control stores for fruits and vegetables (p = 0.001) and for starches (p = 0.011). The exit survey revealed that 31 % of customers had seen the intervention materials; this percentage increased significantly at the end of the intervention (p customers who had seen the intervention materials scored significantly higher on quizzes assessing nutrition knowledge (p marketing intervention aimed at increasing the visibility and attractiveness of inexpensive

  14. Does neighborhood fast-food outlet exposure amplify inequalities in diet and obesity? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoine, Thomas; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Greater exposures to fast-food outlets and lower levels of education are independently associated with less healthy diets and obesity. Little is known about the interplay between these environmental and individual factors. The purpose of this study was to test whether observed differences in fast-food consumption and obesity by fast-food outlet exposure are moderated by educational attainment. In a population-based cohort of 5958 adults aged 29-62 y in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, we used educational attainment-stratified regression models to estimate the food-frequency questionnaire-derived consumption of energy-dense "fast foods" (g/d) typically sold in fast-food restaurants and measured body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) across geographic information system-derived home and work fast-food exposure quartiles. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds of obesity (BMI ≥30) and calculated relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) on an additive scale. Participant data were collected during 2005-2013 and analyzed in 2015. Greater fast-food consumption, BMI, and odds of obesity were associated with greater fast-food outlet exposure and a lower educational level. Fast-food consumption and BMI were significantly different across education groups at all levels of fast-food outlet exposure (P fast-food outlet exposure amplified differences in fast-food consumption across levels of education. The relation between fast-food outlet exposure and obesity was only significant among those who were least educated (OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.08, 3.87; RERI = 0.88), which suggested a positive additive interaction between education and fast-food outlet exposure. These findings suggest that efforts to improve diets and health through neighborhood-level fast-food outlet regulation might be effective across socioeconomic groups and may serve to reduce observed socioeconomic inequalities in diet and obesity.

  15. Does neighborhood fast-food outlet exposure amplify inequalities in diet and obesity? A cross-sectional study12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Greater exposures to fast-food outlets and lower levels of education are independently associated with less healthy diets and obesity. Little is known about the interplay between these environmental and individual factors. Objective: The purpose of this study was to test whether observed differences in fast-food consumption and obesity by fast-food outlet exposure are moderated by educational attainment. Design: In a population-based cohort of 5958 adults aged 29–62 y in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, we used educational attainment–stratified regression models to estimate the food-frequency questionnaire–derived consumption of energy-dense “fast foods” (g/d) typically sold in fast-food restaurants and measured body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) across geographic information system–derived home and work fast-food exposure quartiles. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds of obesity (BMI ≥30) and calculated relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) on an additive scale. Participant data were collected during 2005–2013 and analyzed in 2015. Results: Greater fast-food consumption, BMI, and odds of obesity were associated with greater fast-food outlet exposure and a lower educational level. Fast-food consumption and BMI were significantly different across education groups at all levels of fast-food outlet exposure (P fast-food outlet exposure amplified differences in fast-food consumption across levels of education. The relation between fast-food outlet exposure and obesity was only significant among those who were least educated (OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.08, 3.87; RERI = 0.88), which suggested a positive additive interaction between education and fast-food outlet exposure. Conclusion: These findings suggest that efforts to improve diets and health through neighborhood-level fast-food outlet regulation might be effective across socioeconomic groups and may serve to reduce observed socioeconomic inequalities in diet and obesity. PMID

  16. Green tea as a source of food antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Jie

    . The present study focuses on lipid oxidation and the Maillard reaction (known as nonenzymatic browning). Lipid oxidation in foods is mainly related to the unsaturated lipids, and the Maillard reactions is a ubiquitous reaction between reducing sugars and amino groups as found in amino acids, peptides...... and proteins. Lipid oxidation as well as the Maillard reactions can affect the quality of foods. An efficient way to retard or inhibit both types of reactions can be achieved by utilizing natural antioxidants, which are normally presumed to be safe when the source is plant material, “Generally Recognized...... during the Maillard reactions by ESR. A mechanistic study of influencing Maillard reaction products by green tea catechins was mainly explored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results revealed that the quinone form of EC can undergo either a Michael type addition or a “Strecker...

  17. Do minority and poor neighborhoods have higher access to fast-food restaurants in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Arcaya, Mariana C; Parker, Devin M; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Subramanian, S V

    2014-09-01

    Disproportionate access to unhealthy foods in poor or minority neighborhoods may be a primary determinant of obesity disparities. We investigated whether fast-food access varies by Census block group (CBG) percent black and poverty. We measured the average driving distance from each CBG population-weighted centroid to the five closest top ten fast-food chains and CBG percent black and percent below poverty. Among 209,091 CBGs analyzed (95.1% of all US CBGs), CBG percent black was positively associated with fast-food access controlling for population density and percent poverty (average distance to fast-food was 3.56 miles closer (95% CI: -3.64, -3.48) in CBGs with the highest versus lowest quartile of percentage of black residents). Poverty was not independently associated with fast-food access. The relationship between fast-food access and race was stronger in CBGs with higher levels of poverty (p for interaction fast-food while poverty was not an independent predictor of fast-food access. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES, conducted in 2006 and 2007. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS, we mapped respondents' access to supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food outlets, based on a street network (both the distance to the nearest stores and the number of stores within 500 m of the respondents' home. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food environment and BMI. Results In contrast to previous reports, we found that better access to supermarkets was related to higher BMI. Better access to fast food outlets or convenience stores was also associated with higher BMI, but only among those living alone. The logistic regression analysis, using categorized BMI, showed that the access to supermarkets was only related to being overweight or obese, but not related to being underweight. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the types of food environment measures previously used in western settings. Importantly, our results suggest the need to develop culture-specific approaches to characterizing neighborhood contexts when hypotheses are extrapolated across national borders.

  19. Faith, Food and Fettle: Is Individual and Neighborhood Religiosity/Spirituality Associated with a Better Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Min Tan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diet is an important contributor to many non-communicable diseases. Religion and spirituality (R/S has a salutary effect on physical health, and one of the possible links between R/S and positive health outcomes is a better diet. Religious neighborhoods might also play a role in influencing the adoption of a healthier diet. Suggestions for future research in R/S and diet are included.

  20. Low-Income Housing Rental Assistance, Perceptions of Neighborhood Food Environment, and Dietary Patterns among Latino Adults: the AHOME Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Rosenbaum, Emily; Yama, Cecile; Chambers, Earle

    2017-06-01

    Federal rental assistance programs, in the form of the traditional public housing program and the Housing Choice Voucher Program (HCVP-formerly known as Section 8), are designed to reduce the economic rental burden for low-income residents. While residents using federal housing vouchers, which allow low-income residents in public housing to move out of public housing to rent-subsidized homes, have been found to be have better cardiovascular outcomes compared to the cardiovascular outcomes of low-income public housing residents, the mechanisms explaining these associations remains an understudied area. The aim of this study is to assess whether residents participating in HCVP or unassisted residents had greater access to healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables, and less access to unhealthy foods such as fast food and sugar sweetened beverages, when compared to residents living in public housing (referent group). The Affordable Housing as an Obesity Mediating Environment (AHOME) study is a cross-sectional study of Latinos residing in low-income housing in the Bronx, NY (n = 362). Participants were interviewed to assess food patterns and perceptions of neighborhood environment. The analytic sample was primarily female (74.5 %) with a mean age of 46.4 years (SD = 14.68). Residents participating in HCVP had similar availability of fruits and vegetables in the home compared to residents receiving no assistance or public housing residents. HCVP participants consumed more fast food (β = 0.34; CI = 0.10-0.58) but had similar sugar sweetened beverage consumption compared to public housing residents. Unassisted residents had more fast food consumption (β = 0.25; CI = 0.01-0.49) but less sugar sweetened beverage consumption (β = -0.52; CI = -0.76--0.28) than public housing residents. Perceptions of neighborhood food environment were not significantly associated with dietary patterns. This study shows variability in consumption of sugar sweetened

  1. Durham Neighborhood Compass Neighborhoods

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...

  2. Why the Neighborhood Social Environment Is Critical in Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F; Shelton, Rachel C; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y Claire; Rundle, Andrew; Link, Bruce G

    2016-02-01

    The continuing obesity epidemic in the USA calls for the examination of antecedents to the well-known risk factors of physical activity and diet. The neighborhood built environment has been extensively studied in relation to obesity noting an increased risk of development and prevalence of obesity in relation to numerous built environment characteristics (lack of green spaces, higher number of fast food restaurants, low walkability indices). The neighborhood social environment, however, has been less extensively studied but is perhaps an equally important component of the neighborhood environment. The neighborhood social environment, particularly constructs of social capital, collective efficacy, and crime, is associated with obesity among both adults and children. Several studies have identified physical activity as a potential pathway of the neighborhood social environment and obesity association. Further work on social networks and norms and residential segregation, as well as the examination of dietary behaviors and mental health as potential mediating pathways, is necessary. Given the existing evidence, intervening on the neighborhood social environment may prove to be an effective target for the prevention on obesity. Intervention studies that promote healthy behaviors and prevent obesity while addressing aspects of the neighborhood social environment are necessary to better identify targets for obesity prevention.

  3. Green Pea and Garlic Puree Model Food Development for Thermal Pasteurization Process Quality Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Liu, Fang

    2017-07-01

    Development and selection of model foods is a critical part of microwave thermal process development, simulation validation, and optimization. Previously developed model foods for pasteurization process evaluation utilized Maillard reaction products as the time-temperature integrators, which resulted in similar temperature sensitivity among the models. The aim of this research was to develop additional model foods based on different time-temperature integrators, determine their dielectric properties and color change kinetics, and validate the optimal model food in hot water and microwave-assisted pasteurization processes. Color, quantified using a * value, was selected as the time-temperature indicator for green pea and garlic puree model foods. Results showed 915 MHz microwaves had a greater penetration depth into the green pea model food than the garlic. a * value reaction rates for the green pea model were approximately 4 times slower than in the garlic model food; slower reaction rates were preferred for the application of model food in this study, that is quality evaluation for a target process of 90 °C for 10 min at the cold spot. Pasteurization validation used the green pea model food and results showed that there were quantifiable differences between the color of the unheated control, hot water pasteurization, and microwave-assisted thermal pasteurization system. Both model foods developed in this research could be utilized for quality assessment and optimization of various thermal pasteurization processes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-08-01

    The affordability of food is considered as an important factor influencing people's diet and hence health status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood food store availability is associated with some aspects of dietary intake and thus possibly with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. Subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 years of age. Neighborhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (meat stores, fish stores, fruit and vegetable stores, confectionery stores/bakeries, rice stores, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores). Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire. No association was seen between any measure of neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, except for a positive association between confectionery and bread availability (based on confectionery stores/bakeries, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores) and intake of these items (P for trend = .02). Further, no association was seen for BMI or waist circumference, except for an inverse relationship between availability of convenience stores and BMI and a positive relationship between store availability for meat (meat stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and fish (fish stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and waist circumference. In conclusion, this study of young Japanese women found no meaningful association between neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, BMI, or waist circumference, with the exception of a positive relationship between availability and intake for confectionery and bread. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The evolution of green food products and retailers’ eco-strategizing and green competitiveness in the Danish and Brazilian grocery sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzero, Marcelo Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Grounded on the evolutionary approach, this thesis adds an understanding about the dynamics of the greening of the economy, particularly highlighting the neglected demand side aspect of the greening of markets. Since the emergence of green food markets in the 1980s and 1990s, this study...... investigates the role of retail groups in the development of the green food market in Denmark and Brazil. Accordingly, it investigates the rate and direction of the greening of this process in those markets as well as their sectoral convergence of retailers’ eco-strategizing. Using the dynamic capabilities...... framework, it examines why, how and when the eco-strategizing, green performance and competitiveness of grocery retail groups co-evolved with the development of the green food market in Denmark and Brazil. This thesis contributes innovatively to research on at least three more aspects. Firstly, it advances...

  6. Healthy versus Unhealthy Suppliers in Food Desert Neighborhoods: A Network Analysis of Corner Stores’ Food Supplier Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeeli Mui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Products in corner stores may be affected by the network of suppliers from which storeowners procure food and beverages. To date, this supplier network has not been well characterized. Methods: Using network analysis, we examined the connections between corner stores (n = 24 in food deserts of Baltimore City (MD, USA and their food/beverage suppliers (n = 42, to determine how different store and supplier characteristics correlated. Results: Food and beverage suppliers fell into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods/beverages (n = 15 in the healthy supplier network (HSN and those providing primarily unhealthy food/beverages (n = 41 in the unhealthy supplier network (UHSN. Corner store connections to suppliers in the UHSN were nearly two times greater (t = 5.23, p < 0.001, and key suppliers in the UHSN core were more diverse, compared to the HSN. The UHSN was significantly more cohesive and densely connected, with corner stores sharing a greater number of the same unhealthy suppliers, compared to HSN, which was less cohesive and sparsely connected (t = 5.82; p < 0.001. Compared to African Americans, Asian and Hispanic corner storeowners had on average −1.53 (p < 0.001 fewer connections to suppliers in the HSN (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Our findings indicate clear differences between corner stores’ HSN and UHSN. Addressing ethnic/cultural differences of storeowners may also be important to consider.

  7. Healthy versus Unhealthy Suppliers in Food Desert Neighborhoods: A Network Analysis of Corner Stores' Food Supplier Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Yeeli; Lee, Bruce Y; Adam, Atif; Kharmats, Anna Y; Budd, Nadine; Nau, Claudia; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-11-30

    Products in corner stores may be affected by the network of suppliers from which storeowners procure food and beverages. To date, this supplier network has not been well characterized. Using network analysis, we examined the connections between corner stores (n = 24) in food deserts of Baltimore City (MD, USA) and their food/beverage suppliers (n = 42), to determine how different store and supplier characteristics correlated. Food and beverage suppliers fell into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods/beverages (n = 15) in the healthy supplier network (HSN) and those providing primarily unhealthy food/beverages (n = 41) in the unhealthy supplier network (UHSN). Corner store connections to suppliers in the UHSN were nearly two times greater (t = 5.23, p suppliers in the UHSN core were more diverse, compared to the HSN. The UHSN was significantly more cohesive and densely connected, with corner stores sharing a greater number of the same unhealthy suppliers, compared to HSN, which was less cohesive and sparsely connected (t = 5.82; p suppliers in the HSN (p < 0.001). Our findings indicate clear differences between corner stores' HSN and UHSN. Addressing ethnic/cultural differences of storeowners may also be important to consider.

  8. Healthy versus Unhealthy Suppliers in Food Desert Neighborhoods: A Network Analysis of Corner Stores’ Food Supplier Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Yeeli; Lee, Bruce Y.; Adam, Atif; Kharmats, Anna Y.; Budd, Nadine; Nau, Claudia; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Products in corner stores may be affected by the network of suppliers from which storeowners procure food and beverages. To date, this supplier network has not been well characterized. Methods: Using network analysis, we examined the connections between corner stores (n = 24) in food deserts of Baltimore City (MD, USA) and their food/beverage suppliers (n = 42), to determine how different store and supplier characteristics correlated. Results: Food and beverage suppliers fell into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods/beverages (n = 15) in the healthy supplier network (HSN) and those providing primarily unhealthy food/beverages (n = 41) in the unhealthy supplier network (UHSN). Corner store connections to suppliers in the UHSN were nearly two times greater (t = 5.23, p suppliers in the UHSN core were more diverse, compared to the HSN. The UHSN was significantly more cohesive and densely connected, with corner stores sharing a greater number of the same unhealthy suppliers, compared to HSN, which was less cohesive and sparsely connected (t = 5.82; p suppliers in the HSN (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings indicate clear differences between corner stores’ HSN and UHSN. Addressing ethnic/cultural differences of storeowners may also be important to consider. PMID:26633434

  9. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jixia Li

    2017-01-01

    With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid)/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its therm...

  10. Green tea as a source of food antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Jie

    In modern food industry a major challenge is to maintain the quality and extend the shelf-life of processed foods. Multiple types of chemical reactions have been found to cause quality loss of processed foods. Oxidation and browning reactions have been identified as the two well-known types. The ...

  11. The evolution of green food products and retailers’ eco-strategizing and green competitiveness in the Danish and Brazilian grocery sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzero, Marcelo Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Grounded on the evolutionary approach, this thesis adds an understanding about the dynamics of the greening of the economy, particularly highlighting the neglected demand side aspect of the greening of markets. Since the emergence of green food markets in the 1980s and 1990s, this study investiga......Grounded on the evolutionary approach, this thesis adds an understanding about the dynamics of the greening of the economy, particularly highlighting the neglected demand side aspect of the greening of markets. Since the emergence of green food markets in the 1980s and 1990s, this study...... investigates the role of retail groups in the development of the green food market in Denmark and Brazil. Accordingly, it investigates the rate and direction of the greening of this process in those markets as well as their sectoral convergence of retailers’ eco-strategizing. Using the dynamic capabilities...... framework, it examines why, how and when the eco-strategizing, green performance and competitiveness of grocery retail groups co-evolved with the development of the green food market in Denmark and Brazil. This thesis contributes innovatively to research on at least three more aspects. Firstly, it advances...

  12. Comparison of high-solids to liquid anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and green waste

    OpenAIRE

    Sanati, Mehri; Chen, Xiang; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and green waste was conducted with six feedstock mixing ratios to evaluate biogas production. Increasing the food waste percentage in the feedstock resulted in an increased methane yield, while shorter retention time was achieved by increasing the green waste percentage. Food waste/green waste ratio of 40:60 was determined as preferred ratio for optimal biogas production. About 90% of methane yield was obtained after 24.5 days of digestion, with total methane yield ...

  13. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  14. Promoting Productive Urban Green Open Space Towards Food Security: Case Study Taman Sari, Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwan, M.; Sinatra, Fran; Natalivan, Petrus

    2017-10-01

    The common trend of urban population has been growing significantly in Indonesia for decades, are affected by urban green space conversion. Generally, this area is utilized for urban infrastructures and residences. Furthermore, urban area has grown uncontrollably that could enhance the phenomenon of urban sprawl. The conversion of green urban area and agricultural area will significantly decrease urban food security and quality of urban environment. This problem becomes a serious issue for urban sustainability. Bandung is a city with dense population where there are many poor inhabitants. Families living in poverty are subjected to food insecurity caused by the rise of food prices. Based on the urgency of urban food security and urban environment quality the local government has to achieve comprehensive solutions. This research aims to formulate the policy of productive green open space towards food security for poor people in Bandung. This research not only examines the role played by productive green open space to supply food for the urban poor but also how to govern urban areas sustainably and ensure food security. This research uses descriptive explanatory methodology that describes and explains how to generate policy and strategic planning for edible landscape to promote urban food security. Taman Sari is the location of this research, this area is a populous area that has amount of poor people and has a quite worse quality of urban environment. This study shows that urban green open space has the potential to be utilized as an urban farming land, which poor inhabitants could be main actors to manage urban agriculture to provide their food. Meanwhile, local government could contribute to subsidize the financial of urban farming activities.

  15. Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mechanisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food. In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food

  16. Antioxidant Activities and Food Value of Five Underutilized Green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... iron, calcium and vitamin C. The antioxidant activities and phenolic antioxidant contents of the vegetables were also high. The health claims associated with some of these food values and bioactive compounds are noteworthy, thereby underlining the potential role of these underutilized vegetables as functional foods.

  17. Neighborhood Prices of Healthier and Unhealthier Foods and Associations with Diet Quality: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Kern

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the price of food influences the purchasing and consumption decisions of individuals; however, little work has examined if the price of healthier food relative to unhealthier food in an individual’s neighborhood is associated with overall dietary quality while using data from multiple regions in the United States. Cross-sectional person-level data came from The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (exam 5, 2010–2012, n = 2765; a food frequency questionnaire assessed diet. Supermarket food/beverage prices came from Information Resources Inc. (n = 794 supermarkets. For each individual, the average price of select indicators of healthier foods (vegetables, fruits, dairy and unhealthier foods (soda, sweets, salty snacks, as well as their ratio, was computed for supermarkets within three miles of the person’s residential address. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios of a high-quality diet (top quintile of Healthy Eating Index 2010 associated with healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio, adjusted for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Sensitivity analyses used an instrumental variable (IV approach. Healthier foods cost nearly twice as much as unhealthier foods per serving on average (mean healthy-to-unhealthy ratio = 1.97 [SD 0.14]. A larger healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio was associated with lower odds of a high-quality diet (OR = 0.76 per SD increase in the ratio, 95% CI = [0.64–0.9]. IV analyses largely confirmed these findings although—as expected with IV adjustment—confidence intervals were wide (OR = 0.82 [0.57–1.19]. Policies to address the large price differences between healthier and unhealthy foods may help improve diet quality in the United States.

  18. Changing pollutants to green biogases for the crop food cycle chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, B Y; Xu, F J; Zong, B D; Zhang, Z G

    2012-09-01

    When fossil fuels on the Earth are used up, which kind of green energy can be used to replace them? Do every bioenergy generation or crop food chain results in environmental pollution? These questions are major concerns in a world facing restricted supplies of energy and food as well as environmental pollutions. To alleviate these issues, option biogases are explored in this paper. Two types of biogas generators were used for modifying the traditional crop food chain [viz. from atmospheric CO(2) photosynthesis to crops, crop stem/husk biowastes (burnt in cropland or as home fuels), to livestock droppings (dumping away), pork and people foods, then to CO(2)], via turning the biowaste pollutants into green bioenergies. By analyzing the traditional food chain via observation method, the drawbacks of by-product biowastes were revealed. Also, the whole cycle chain was further analyzed to assess its "greenness," using experimental data and other information, such as the material balance (e.g., the absorbed CO(2), investment versus generated food, energy, and wastes). The data show that by using the two types of biogas generators, clean renewable bioenergy, crop food, and livestock meat could be continuously produced without creating any waste to the world. The modification chain largely reduced CO(2) greenhouse gas and had a low-cost investment. The raw materials for the gas generators were only the wastes of crop stems and livestock droppings. Thus, the recommended CO(2) bioenergy cycle chain via the modification also greatly solved the environmental biowaste pollutions in the world. The described two type biogases effectively addressed the issues on energy, food, and environmental pollution. The green renewable bioenergy from the food cycle chain may be one of suitable alternatives to fossil and tree fuels for agricultural countries.

  19. Aerobic Food Waste Composting: Measurement of Green House Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J.

    2016-12-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are a major cause of global warming. While food waste composting can reduce the amount of waste being sent to traditional landfills, it also produces GHGs during the process. The objective of this research is to evaluate the GHGs emitted from an aerobic food composting machine, which is used in ISF. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy is a private independent school in Hong Kong with approximately 1500 students. Each academic year, the school produces 27 metric tons of food waste. In November 2013, the school installed a food waste composting system. Over the past 3 years, various improvements, such as installing a bio-filter to reduce the smell of the compost, have been made to the composting process. Meanwhile the compost is used by the primary students, as part of their experiential learning curriculum and organic farming projects. The composting process employs two machines: the Dehydra and A900 Rocket. The Dehydra reduces the mass of the food waste by separating the ground food waste and excessive water. The A900 Rocket, a composter made by Tidy Planet, processes food waste into compost in 14 days. This machine runs in an aerobic process, in which oxygen is used as an input gas and gases, such as carbon dioxide, are released. Carbon Dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research focuses on GHGs that are emitted from the A900 Rocket. The data is collected by the Gasmet DX 4015, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) multi gas analyser. This equipment measures the concentration (ppm) of different GHGs, including N2O, CO2, CH4, NH3 and CO.

  20. Greening America's Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical assistance program to help cities and towns develop an implementable vision of distinctive, environmentally friendly neighborhoods using green infrastructure and other sustainable design strategies.

  1. Valorisation of food residues: waste to wealth using green chemical technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, James H.; Luque, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Waste valorisation practises have attracted a significant amount of attention in recent years with the aim of managing waste in the most sustainable way. Food waste constitutes a largely under-exploited residue from which a variety of valuable chemicals can be derived. This contribution is aimed to set the scene for a further development and promotion of sustainable food waste valorisation practises to different end products using green chemical technologies

  2. Criteria definition and approaches in green supplier selection – a case study for raw material and packaging of food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Banaeian; Hossein Mobli; Izabela Ewa Nielsen; Mahmoud Omid

    2015-01-01

    This paper formulates an integrated framework for deciding about the green supplier selection criteria in food supply chain and also proposes different methods that account for single and multiple sourcing of supplier selection. Green supplier selection relies on green criteria, so determination of suitable set of criteria will affect decision-maker results directly. In this research, an operational model including combination of general and environmental criteria is introduced for green supp...

  3. Application of microencapsulation for the safe delivery of green tea polyphenols in food systems: Review and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massounga Bora, Awa Fanny; Ma, Shaojie; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Lu

    2018-03-01

    Green tea has been associated with the prevention and reduction of a wide range of severe health conditions such as cancer, immune, and cardiovascular diseases. The health benefits associated with green tea consumption have been predominantly attributed to green tea polyphenols. The functional properties of green tea polyphenols are mainly anti-oxidative, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, anti-microbial, etc. These excellent properties have recently gained considerable attention in the food industry. However, their application is limited by their sensitivity to factors like temperature, light, pH, oxygen, etc. More, studies have reported the occurrence of unpleasant taste and color transfer during food processing. Lastly, the production of functional food requires to maintain the stability, bioactivity, and bioavailability of the active compounds. To tackle these obstacles, technological approaches like microencapsulation have been developed and applied for the formulation of green tea-enriched food products. The present review discusses the novelty in microencapsulation techniques for the safe delivery of green tea polyphenols in food matrices. After a literature on the green tea polyphenols composition, and their health attributes, the encapsulation methods and the coating materials are presented. The application of green tea encapsulates in food matrices as well as their effect on food functional and sensory properties are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2016. Scientific opinion on malachite green in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Malachite green (MG) has been used globally in aquaculture but is not registered for use infood-producing animals in the European Union. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluatewhether a reference point for action (RPA) of 2 lg/kg for the sum of MG and its major metaboliteleucomalachite...... concluded that it isunlikely that exposure to food contaminated with MG/LMG at or below the RPA of 2 lg/kg representsa health concern....

  5. Green tea: a novel functional food for the oral health of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Sumit; Agnihotri, Rupali

    2014-04-01

    Functional foods are foods with positive health effects that extend beyond their nutritional value. They affect the function of the body and help in the management of specific health conditions. Green tea, a time-honoured Chinese herb, might be regarded as a functional food because of its inherent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antimutagenic properties. They are attributed to its reservoir of polyphenols, particularly the catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Owing to these beneficial actions, this traditional beverage was used in the management of chronic systemic diseases including cancer. Recently, it has been emphasized that the host immuno-inflammatory reactions destroy the oral tissues to a greater extent than the microbial activity alone. Green tea with its wide spectrum of activities could be a healthy alternative for controlling these damaging reactions seen in oral diseases, specifically, chronic periodontitis, dental caries and oral cancer, which are a common occurrence in the elderly population. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Green-Lean Synergy - Root-Cause Analysis in Food Waste Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Amani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose_The goal of this paper is to explore the possible synergetic effects between lean philosophy and green endeavors in improving resource efficiency in the food sector. To that end, it is investigated how a proper and tailor-made adaptation of the lean six sigma root cause analysis method could help in overcoming the complexities of increased resource efficiency in food production.Design/methodology/approach_The case study concerned reduction of waste at an industrial production line of a dough-based product, through the implementation of the lean six sigma tool.Findings_An achievement of a 50% reduction of waste on the studied process line was reached, thus exceeding the initial improvement goal.Research limitations/implications (if applicable_While the explicit findings on the specific root causes of waste on this actual production line are not immediately transferrable to other cases, they show that applying this method to identifying and eliminating root causes of waste for other products and processes in the food sector could not only reduce costs but also contribute to more resource-efficient and sustainable industrial food production.Practical implications (if applicable_ Political and public high interest in environmental and social sustainability associated with food waste render this an important development.Originality/value_ While the potential of linking green and lean efforts has been acknowledged, the application of the lean six sigma methodology for more sustainable food production has not yet been explored. This paper contributes to this research

  7. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  9. Testing and Validation of a Hierarchical Values-Attitudes Model in the Context of Green Food in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Values-attitudes hierarchical models are quite frequent in the consumer behaviour literature. In attitudinal models specific to food produced in an environmentally friendly way (i.e. “green” food), past research evidence mainly originating in Western cultures posits that the strongest path...... of the model can be found among collectivistic consumer values, general environmental attitudes, and attitudes specific to green food. On the other hand, in non-Western cultures (i.e. China), green food (e.g. organic) is perceived by consumers as safer to consume. With this as point of departure, the present...... 2009 through a mall-intercept method. A total number of 479 respondents were recruited, equally distributed among the six cities. Findings – Collectivistic values and environmental attitudes were still found to be strong determinants of Chinese consumers’ attitudes towards green foods; contrary...

  10. Evaluating the green practice of food service supply chain management based on fuzzy DEMATEL-ANP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoying; Zhu, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    The question on how to evaluate a company's green practice has recently become a key strategic consideration for the food service supply chain management. This paper proposed a novel hybrid model that combines a fuzzy Decision Making Trial And Evaluation Laboratory(DEMATEL) and Analysis Network Process(ANP) methods, which developed the green restaurant criteria and demonstrated the complicated relations among various criteria to help the food service operation to better analyze the real-world situation and determine the different weight value of the criteria .The analysis of the evaluation of green practices will help the food service operation to be clear about the key measures of green practice to improve supply chain management.

  11. Neighborhoods and obesity in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Macinko, James; Dixon, L Beth; Fryer, George E

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies reveal disparities in neighborhood access to food and fitness facilities, particularly in US cities; but few studies assess the effects of multiple neighborhood factors on obesity. This study measured the multilevel relations between neighborhood food availability, opportunities and barriers for physical activity, income and racial composition with obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) in New York City, controlling for individual-level factors. Obesity rates varied widely between neighborhoods, ranging from 6.8% to 31.7%. Obesity was significantly (p<0.01) associated with neighborhood-level factors, particularly the availability of supermarkets and food stores, fitness facilities, percent of commercial land use and area income. These findings are consistent with the growing literature showing that area income and availability of food and physical activity resources are related to obesity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme- iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samman, S.; Sandstrøm, B.; Toft, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Phenolic compounds act as food antioxidants. One of the postulated mechanisms of action is chelation of prooxidant metals, such as iron. Although the antioxidative effect is desirable, this mechanism may impair the utilization of dietary iron. Objective: We sought to determine the eff.......5 +/- 4.0% to 6.4 +/- 4.7% (P extract. Conclusion: Phenolic-rich extracts used as antioxidants in foods reduce the utilization of dietary iron.......Background: Phenolic compounds act as food antioxidants. One of the postulated mechanisms of action is chelation of prooxidant metals, such as iron. Although the antioxidative effect is desirable, this mechanism may impair the utilization of dietary iron. Objective: We sought to determine...... the effect of phenolic-rich extracts obtained from green tea or rosemary on nonheme-iron absorption. Design: Young women aged 19-39 y consumed test meals on 4 separate occasions. The meals were identical except for the absence (meal A) or presence (meal B) of a phenolic-rich extract from green tea (study 1...

  13. The Food Retail Environment in School Neighborhoods and its Relation to Lunchtime Eating Behaviors in Youth from Three Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Mariane; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Currie, Dorothy; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the chain food retail environment surrounding schools, youths’ lunchtime eating behavior, and youths’ obesity levels across three countries. Participants consisted of 26,778 students 13–15 years old from 687 schools across Canada, Scotland and the US. The density of convenience stores, chain fast food restaurants, and chain cafés within 1 km of each school was measured. Lunchtime eating behaviors, weight, and height were self-reported. Although the density of chain food retailers was highest in the US, fewer American students (2.6%) routinely ate their lunch at a food retailer during the school week than did Canadian (7.7%) and Scottish (43.7%) students. The density of chain food retailers was associated with eating lunch at a food retailer in Canada only whereby students attending schools with 1–2, 3–4, and 5+ chain food retailers within 1 km from their schools were 1.39 (95% CI: 0.84–2.29), 1.87 (95% CI: 1.10–3.20), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.56–4.01) times more likely to eat at a chain food retailer compared to students attending schools with no nearby chain food retailers. No associations were found between chain food retailer density and obesity. PMID:23041489

  14. Does neighborhood fast-food outlet exposure amplify inequalities in diet and obesity? A cross-sectional study 1 2

    OpenAIRE

    Burgoine, Thomas; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Brage, S?ren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Greater exposures to fast-food outlets and lower levels of education are independently associated with less healthy diets and obesity. Little is known about the interplay between these environmental and individual factors. Objective: The purpose of this study was to test whether observed differences in fast-food consumption and obesity by fast-food outlet exposure are moderated by educational attainment. Design: In a population-based cohort of 5958 adults aged 29?62 y in Cambridge...

  15. Separate and unequal: the influence of neighborhood and school characteristics on spatial proximity between fast food and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng

    2010-08-01

    Social science and health literature have identified residential segregation as a critical factor in exposure to health-related resources, including food environments. Differential spatial patterning of food environments surrounding schools has significant import for youth. We examined whether fast food restaurants clustered around schools in New York City, and whether any observed clustering varied as a function of school type, school racial demographics, and area racial and socioeconomic demographics. We geocoded fast food locations from 2006 (n=817) and schools from 2004-2005 (n=2096; public and private, elementary and secondary) in the five boroughs of New York City. A point process model (inhomogeneous cross-K function) examined spatial clustering. A minimum of 25% of schools had a fast food restaurant within 400 m. High schools had higher fast food clustering than elementary schools. Public elementary and high schools with large proportions of Black students or in block groups with large proportions of Black residents had higher clustering than White counterparts. Finally, public high schools had higher clustering than private counterparts, with 1.25 to 2 times as many restaurants than expected by chance. The results suggest that the geography of opportunity as it relates to school food environments is unequal in New York City. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Determination of feeding value on simple food characteristics. 2. Determination of food energy value of green feeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, K

    1975-06-01

    Regression analyses had been made to find interrelationships between the crude fibre content and the EFr content of green feeds. Regression equations were obtained from these analyses which were used to calculate the EFr values, with a sufficient degree of accuracy, from data on the crude fibre content. In these equations the b values were found to be by far more clearly differentiated than in the equations used for calculating digestibility values. These are apparently influenced by the composition of the feeds. The range of variations appears to be only slightly affected when we compare the data with those obtained in calculations made to established the total digestibility values. This is a fact that applies to both the green feeds and their conservation products. Studies investigating the relationships between the content of digestible organic matter (VOS) and EFr (as expressed by the conversion factor (see article) showed that the EFr data could be established, with a fair degree of accuracy, from the VOS values. The f values of the different feeds that were classified into particular groups of feeding-stuffs, were shown to agree fairly well; moreover, they were found to be largely independent of exogenic factors (such as vegetation and N fertilizing). Characteristic differences between the f values of the different conservation products and those of the green feeds were observed although these differences remained within narrow limits (1-3%), so that calculations can be made using only a few factors. When starch equivalents were taken into account it was found that the f values used in calculations for starch equivalents were clearly influenced by feed composition, which, in turn, was influenced by the particular effect of crude values in SE calculations. It is at this point that differences between the two systems of Food Evaluation become particularly apparent. The close relations existing between VOS and EFr values apply, first and foremost, to green feeds

  17. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R; Horel, Scott A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed da...

  18. Neighborhood and Network Disadvantage among Urban Renters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Desmond

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on novel survey data, this study maps the distribution of neighborhood and network disadvantage in a population of Milwaukee renters and evaluates the relationship between each disadvantage and multiple social and health outcomes. We find that many families live in neighborhoods with above average disadvantage but are embedded in networks with below average disadvantage, and vice versa. Neighborhood (but not network disadvantage is associated with lower levels of neighborly trust but also with higher levels of community support (e.g., providing neighbors with food. Network (but not neighborhood disadvantage is associated with lower levels of civic engagement. Asthma and diabetes are associated exclusively with neighborhood disadvantage, but depression is associated exclusively with network disadvantage. These findings imply that some social problems may be better addressed by neighborhood interventions and others by network interventions.

  19. Neighborhood change and the role of environmental stewardship: a case study of green infrastructure for stormwater in the City of Portland, Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Shandas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of cities, the ecological landscape has often been buried, removed, or taken for granted. A recent recognition that humans are part of the global ecosystem, and that human actions both cause and are affected by ecological change, brings with it an awareness of the value of nature in cities and of natural systems on which cities depend. The feedbacks between humans and their environment within an urban context can have profound implications for the growth of and change in cities, yet there is a limited understanding of the interactions between biophysical changes in cities and the implications of these changes on the quality of life for residents. The application of a coupled human and natural systems (CHANS framework provides a timely and fruitful opportunity to enrich the theory, methods, and understanding of these feedbacks and interconnections. Here, I integrated biophysical and social dimensions relevant to managing urban stormwater by examining a case study of Portland, Oregon, USA. I used empirical data from a pre-post survey (2-yr span of residents in eight urban neighborhoods to describe feedbacks and interactions between a localized biophysical change in the form of a large-scale decentralized stormwater program and the resulting changes in resident's perceptions in neighborhoods undergoing rapid change. My findings corroborate earlier findings suggesting that people with higher income and education levels are more likely to participate in stewardship actions. The results also suggest an overall and initial negative perception of neighborhoods facilities and services immediately following the construction of decentralized stormwater facilities, but conversely, high levels of anticipation for their construction. By describing these findings through a CHANS framework, I make explicit the importance of integrating scientific understanding, governance efforts, and human behaviors to address acute urban environmental

  20. Green Synthesis of Fluorescent Carbon Dots for Selective Detection of Tartrazine in Food Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Yang, Xiupei; Li, Gu; Zhao, Chuan; Liao, Xiangjun

    2015-08-05

    A simple, economical, and green method for the preparation of water-soluble, high-fluorescent carbon quantum dots (C-dots) has been developed via hydrothermal process using aloe as a carbon source. The synthesized C-dots were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorescence spectrophotometer, UV-vis absorption spectra as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results reveal that the as-prepared C-dots were spherical shape with an average diameter of 5 nm and emit bright yellow photoluminescence (PL) with a quantum yield of approximately 10.37%. The surface of the C-dots was rich in hydroxyl groups and presented various merits including high fluorescent quantum yield, excellent photostability, low toxicity and satisfactory solubility. Additionally, we found that one of the widely used synthetic food colorants, tartrazine, could result in a strong fluorescence quenching of the C-dots through a static quenching process. The decrease of fluorescence intensity made it possible to determine tartrazine in the linear range extending from 0.25 to 32.50 μM, This observation was further successfully applied for the determination of tartrazine in food samples collected from local markets, suggesting its great potential toward food routine analysis. Results from our study may shed light on the production of fluorescent and biocompatible nanocarbons due to our simple and environmental benign strategy to synthesize C-dots in which aloe was used as a carbon source.

  1. Assessing self-reported green tea and coffee consumption by food frequency questionnaire and food record and their association with polyphenol biomarkers in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Harrison, Amy; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H

    2018-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated protective effects of green tea and coffee intake against several chronic diseases, finding between studies have not been consistent. One potential reason of this discrepancy is the imprecision in the measurement of tea or coffee consumption using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and food record (FR) in epidemiological studies. In a sample of 57 healthy Japanese women, intake of green tea and coffee was estimated by a validated FFQ and a 3-day FR, while their plasma and urine concentrations of polyphenol biomarkers were measured by HPLC. The polyphenols assessed included (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)- epicatechin (EC), caffeic acid (CA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA). Green tea consumption estimated by FFQ and FR showed moderate association, while strong association was detected for coffee consumption. Urinary green tea polyphenol concentrations were moderately-strongly associated with FR-estimated intake, while the associations were weak with FFQ. Similarly, coffee polyphenols in urine were moderately associated with FR-estimated coffee intake, whereas FFQ showed poor correlation. The associations between urinary and plasma polyphenols ranged from moderate to high. The results indicated that firstly, the FFQ tends to overestimate green tea intake. Secondly, the urinary polyphenols are preferred over plasma polyphenols as a potential surrogate marker of the short-term green tea and coffee intake, while their use as an indicator of long-term consumption is not reliable.

  2. Toward Food System Sustainability through School Food System Change: Think&EatGreen@School and the Making of a Community-University Research Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Harlap

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the theoretical and conceptual framework and the research and practice model of Think&EatGreen@School, a community-based action research project aiming to foster food citizenship in the City of Vancouver and to develop a model of sustainable institutional food systems in public schools. The authors argue that educational and policy interventions at the school and school board level can drive the goals of food system sustainability, food security, and food sovereignty. The complex relationship between food systems, climate change and environmental degradation require that international initiatives promoting sustainability be vigorously complemented by local multi-stakeholder efforts to preserve or restore the capacity to produce food in a durable manner. As a step towards making the City of Vancouver green, we are currently involved in attempts to transform the food system of the local schools by mobilizing the energy of a transdisciplinary research team of twelve university researchers, over 300 undergraduate and graduate students, and twenty community-based researchers and organizations working on food, public health, environmental and sustainability education.

  3. Green and lean: Is neighborhood park and playground availability associated with youth obesity? Variations by gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Hughey, S; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Child, Stephanie; Moore, Justin B; Porter, Dwayne; Hibbert, James

    2017-02-01

    Parks and park features are important for promoting physical activity and healthy weight, especially for low-income and racial/ethnic minority youth who have disproportionately high obesity rates. This study 1) examined associations between neighborhood park and playground availability and youth obesity, and 2) assessed whether these associations were moderated by youth race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). In 2013, objectively measured height and weight were collected for all 3rd-5th grade youth (n=13.469) in a southeastern US county to determine body mass index (BMI) percentiles. Enumeration and audits of the county's parks (n=103) were concurrently conducted. Neighborhood park and playground availability were calculated as the number of each facility within or intersecting each youth's Census block group. Multilevel linear regression models were utilized to examine study objectives. For boys, no main effects were detected; however, SES moderated associations such that higher park availability was associated with lower BMI percentile for low-SES youth but higher BMI percentile for high-SES youth. For girls, the number of parks and playgrounds were significantly associated with lower BMI (b=-2.2, b=-1.1, pyouth obesity by SES and race/ethnicity, highlighting the importance of studying the intersection of these characteristics when exploring associations between built environment features and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Criteria definition and approaches in green supplier selection – a case study for raw material and packaging of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Banaeian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an integrated framework for deciding about the green supplier selection criteria in food supply chain and also proposes different methods that account for single and multiple sourcing of supplier selection. Green supplier selection relies on green criteria, so determination of suitable set of criteria will affect decision-maker results directly. In this research, an operational model including combination of general and environmental criteria is introduced for green supplier selection criteria in raw material and packaging of food industry. This model reviewed a literature on general and environmental criteria that help us to know and make a set of common green criteria. Afterward, weighting criteria and collecting of sub-criteria are done by an expert team using the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Delphi method. The expert team tried to propose important and practical sub-criteria which are well fitted to food industry. Finally, in the section of supplier selection, two kinds of qualitative and quantitative data are discussed when single and multiple sourcing are required, respectively. Fuzzy Grey Relational Analysis is proposed to ranking suppliers in presence of qualitative and imprecise data. Also linear programming is used to present a model which can select the best suppliers and allocate the orders among them optimally.

  5. The use of green criteria in the public procurement of food products and catering services: a review of EU schemes

    OpenAIRE

    DE ALMEIDA FERREIRA NETO BELMIRA; DE OLIVEIRA GAMA CALDAS MIGUEL NUNO

    2016-01-01

    Green Public Procurement (GPP) is currently being used to influence the market to shift to a supply of goods and services to the public sector that have a reduced environmental impact. The food service sector plays a major role in the purchases made by the public sector and due to that relevance deserves attention. The GPP schemes reviewed were those that provide details of the specific environmental criteria used (or recommended) for public tendering of food products and catering services pr...

  6. Government intervention in green industries: lessons from the wind turbine and the organic food industries in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    . While the electricity market share of wind energy reached 20% in 2007, organic food consumption lags behind with a food market share of approximately 8.5% in 2007. This paper compares the packages of policy instruments applied in the two industrial sectors and assesses whether differences in instrument......Government intervention in green infant industries may be justified as a strategy to increase the provision of public goods. How should government policies be designed to promote such industries? One way to analyse this question is to compare government intervention in green infant industries...... in which it has been successful with green infant industries in which it has been less successful. The Danish government has intervened intensively in the wind turbine industry and organic farming sector mainly for environmental reasons since 1992 and 1987 respectively, but with very different impacts...

  7. Comparison of high-solids to liquid anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Yan, Wei; Sheng, Kuichuan; Sanati, Mehri

    2014-02-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and green waste was conducted with six feedstock mixing ratios to evaluate biogas production. Increasing the food waste percentage in the feedstock resulted in an increased methane yield, while shorter retention time was achieved by increasing the green waste percentage. Food waste/green waste ratio of 40:60 was determined as preferred ratio for optimal biogas production. About 90% of methane yield was obtained after 24.5 days of digestion, with total methane yield of 272.1 mL/g VS. Based the preferred ratio, effect of total solids (TS) content on co-digestion of food waste and green waste was evaluated over a TS range of 5-25%. Results showed that methane yields from high-solids anaerobic digestion (15-20% TS) were higher than the output of liquid anaerobic digestion (5-10% TS), while methanogenesis was inhibited by further increasing the TS content to 25%. The inhibition may be caused by organic overloading and excess ammonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of green, blue and yellow artificial food colorants and their abuse in herb-coloured green Easter beers on tap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachová, Ivana; Lhotská, Ivona; Solich, Petr; Šatínský, Dalibor

    2016-07-01

    Beer is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages worldwide. For consumer acceptance, significant factors are its taste, flavour and colour. This study determines selected synthetic green, blue and yellow food colorants in popular Easter herb-coloured green beers on tap produced in breweries on Holy Thursday. The abuse of beer colouring with Tartrazine (E 102), Quinoline yellow (E 104), Sunset yellow (E 110), Patent blue (E 131), Indigo carmine (E 132), Brilliant blue FCF (E 133), Green S (E 142) and Fast green FCF (E 143) was assessed in 11 green beer samples purchased in local restaurants. HPLC was used for the separation and detection of artificial colorants with diode-array detection and a Chromolith Performance CN 100 × 4.6 mm column with guard pre-column Chromolith CN 5 × 4.6 mm. Separation was performed in gradient elution with mobile phase containing methanol-aqueous 2% ammonium acetate at pH 7.0. The study showed that eight beers (70%) marketed in the Czech Republic contained artificial colorants (Tartrazine and Brilliant blue FCF). The concentration of colorants found in analysed green herb-coloured beers ranged from 1.58 to 3.49 mg l(-)(1) for Tartrazine, 0.45-2.18 mg l(-)(1) for Brilliant blue, while Indigo carmine was detected only once at concentration 2.36 mg l(-)(1). Only three beers showed no addition of the synthetic colorants. However, the levels of artificial colorants found in beers marketed in the Czech region were very low and did not show a serious risk for consumers' health.

  9. Large Neighborhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better...... candidate solutions in each iteration and hence traverse a more promising search path. Starting from the large neighborhood search method,we give an overview of very large scale neighborhood search methods and discuss recent variants and extensions like variable depth search and adaptive large neighborhood...... search....

  10. Enhancing Sustainable Communities With Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication aims to help local governments, water utilities, nonprofit organizations, neighborhood groups, and other stakeholders integrate green infrastructure strategies into plans that can transform their communities.

  11. Comparing the Ecological Stoichiometry in Green and Brown Food Webs – A Review and Meta-analysis of Freshwater Food Webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Evans-White

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The framework of ecological stoichiometry was developed primarily within the context of “green” autotroph-based food webs. While stoichiometric principles also apply in “brown” detritus-based systems, these systems have been historically understudied and differ from green ones in several important aspects including carbon (C quality and the nutrient [nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P] contents of food resources for consumers. In this paper, we review work over the last decade that has advanced the application of ecological stoichiometry from green to brown food webs, focusing on freshwater ecosystems. We first review three focal areas where green and brown food webs differ: (1 bottom–up controls by light and nutrient availability, (2 stoichiometric constraints on consumer growth and nutritional regulation, and (3 patterns in consumer-driven nutrient dynamics. Our review highlights the need for further study of how light and nutrient availability affect autotroph–heterotroph interactions on detritus and the subsequent effects on consumer feeding and growth. To complement this conceptual review, we formally quantified differences in stoichiometric principles between green and brown food webs using a meta-analysis across feeding studies of freshwater benthic invertebrates. From 257 datasets collated across 46 publications and several unpublished studies, we compared effect sizes (Pearson’s r of resource N:C and P:C on growth, consumption, excretion, and egestion between herbivorous and detritivorous consumers. The meta-analysis revealed that both herbivore and detritivore growth are limited by resource N:C and P:C contents, but effect sizes only among detritivores were significantly above zero. Consumption effect sizes were negative among herbivores but positive for detritivores in the case of both N:C and P:C, indicating distinct compensatory feeding responses across resource stoichiometry gradients. Herbivore P excretion rates responded

  12. Multiplex real-time PCR using SYBR® GreenER™ for the detection of DNA allergens in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafundo, Simona; Gullì, Mariolina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2010-03-01

    We describe the development of a six-target real-time multiplex PCR assay with the SYBR® GreenER™ fluorescent dye, targeted to genes encoding for allergenic proteins commonly present in many processed food products (patent application pending). The assay was successfully trialled on reconstructed food matrices and on a range of commercial foodstuffs, and is proposed as a ready-to-use analytical tool for food manufacturers to detect the presence or confirm the absence of sequences encoding for important allergenic proteins of plant origin.

  13. Obesogenic and youth oriented restaurant marketing in public housing neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Heinrich, Katie M; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Regan, Gail R; Adamus-Leach, Heather J

    2014-03-01

    To compare restaurant marketing by restaurant and neighborhood type. All restaurants (61=fast food, FF; 72=table service, TS) within an 800-meter radius of 13 public housing developments (HD) and 4 comparison neighborhoods were audited using the Restaurant Assessment Tool©2010. HD neighborhoods were lower income and higher minority than comparison neighborhoods with similar density and street connectivity. Restaurants in HD neighborhoods had fewer healthy entrées than comparison neighborhoods. FF restaurants had cheaper beverages and more children's meals, supersize drinks, free prize with purchase, super-size items, special characters, and more items geared to driving than TS restaurants. Residents of lower socioeconomic neighborhoods may be differentially exposed to unhealthy food options.

  14. Green Extraction from Pomegranate Marcs for the Production of Functional Foods and Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Boggia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of retrieving polyphenolic antioxidants directly from wet pomegranate marcs: the fresh by-products obtained after pomegranate juice processing. These by-products mainly consist of internal membranes (endocarp and aril residues. Even if they are still edible, they are usually discharged during juice production and, thus, they represent a great challenge in an eco-sustainable industrial context. Green technologies, such as ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE and microwave assisted extraction (MAE, have been employed to convert these organic residues into recycled products with high added value. UAE and MAE were used both in parallel and in series in order to make a comparison and to ensure exhaustive extractions, respectively. Water, as an environmentally friendly extraction solvent, has been employed. The results were compared with those ones coming from a conventional extraction. The most promising extract, in terms of total polyphenol yield and radical scavenging activity, has been tested both as a potential natural additive and as a functional ingredient after its incorporation in a real food model and in a real cosmetic matrix, respectively. This study represents a proposal to the agro-alimentary sector given the general need of environmental “responsible care”.

  15. Detecting neighborhood vacancy level in Detroit city using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Wang, R.; Yang, A.; Vojnovic, I.

    2015-12-01

    With the decline of manufacturing industries, many Rust Belt cities, which enjoyed prosperity in the past, are now suffering from financial stress, population decrease and urban poverty. As a consequence, urban neighborhoods deteriorate. Houses are abandoned and left to decay. Neighborhood vacancy brings on many problems. Governments and agencies try to survey the vacancy level by going through neighborhoods and record the condition of each structure, or by buying information of active mailing addresses to get approximate neighborhood vacancy rate. But these methods are expensive and time consuming. Remote sensing provides a quick and comparatively cost-efficient way to access spatial information on social and demographical attributes of urban area. In our study, we use remote sensing to detect a major aspect of neighborhood deterioration, the vacancy levels of neighborhoods in Detroit city. We compared different neighborhoods using Landsat 8 images in 2013. We calculated NDVI that indicates the greenness of neighborhoods with the image in July 2013. Then we used thermal infrared information from image in February to detect human activities. In winter, abandoned houses will not consume so much energy and therefore neighborhoods with more abandoned houses will have smaller urban heat island effect. Controlling for the differences in terms of the greenness obtained from summer time image, we used thermal infrared from winter image to determine the temperatures of urban surface. We find that hotter areas are better maintained and have lower house vacancy rates. We also compared the changes over time for neighborhoods using Landsat 7 images from 2003 to 2013. The results show that deteriorated neighborhoods have increased NDVI in summer and get colder in winter due to abandonment of houses. Our results show the potential application of remote sensing as an easily accessed and efficient way to obtain data about social conditions in cities. We used the neighborhood

  16. Improving yield and composition of protein concentrates from green tea residue in an agri-food supply chain: Effect of pre-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Krimpen, Van Marinus M.; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Rather than improving crop-production yield, developing biorefinery technology for unused biomass from the agri-food supply chain may be the crucial factor to reach sustainable global food security. A successful example of food-driven biorefinery is the extraction of protein from green tea residues,

  17. Using geographic information systems and local food store data in California's low-income neighborhoods to inform community initiatives and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Foerster, Susan B

    2010-11-01

    We examined conditions in California low-income neighborhoods that affect obesity to inform program planning, nutrition education, community participation, investment of resources, and involvement of stakeholders. Staff members in 18 local health departments were trained to use an online geographic information system (GIS) and conduct field surveys. GIS data were aggregated from 68 low-income neighborhoods of 1 or more census tracts. Data were collected in 2007 to 2009 from 473 grocery stores in 62 neighborhoods. Thirty-one percent of neighborhoods mapped had no supermarket within any of their census tract boundaries, but health department staff members estimated that 74.2% of residents had access to a large grocery store within 1 mile. Eighty-one percent of small markets sold produce, and 67.6% offered 4 or more types of fresh vegetables. Small markets and corner stores in California's low-income neighborhoods often have fresh produce available for sale. Stores providing healthy options in typically underserved areas can be part of community efforts to promote healthy eating behaviors.

  18. The Green/Sustainability Movement, Food Culture, and the Music Scene within Youth Culture in Portland, Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Flood

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper was written after a presentation at the American Embassy’s 2009 conference in Bonn for teachers of English and American Studies at German High Schools. Its aim is to offer these teachers a look at how young people (in their 20s and 30s in the author’s home town of Portland, Oregon, are participating in three areas which improve community life: the green/sustainability movement, food culture, and the music scene.

  19. Volatile emissions during storing of green food waste under different aeration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapiou, A; Vamvakari, J P; Andrianopoulos, A; Pappa, A

    2016-05-01

    Controlled field experiments were carried out for monitoring the emissions of three plastic commercial household waste bins, which were adapted for studying the effect of aeration process in the evolved volatiles, during house storing of green food waste for 2 weeks, prior to collection. Three experimental scenarios were examined based on no aeration ("NA," closed commercial waste bin), diffusion-based aeration ("DA," closed commercial waste bin with tiny holes), and enforced aeration ("EA," closed commercial waste bin with tiny holes and enforced aeration). The monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from organic household kitchen waste was performed using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analysis. Portable sensors were also used for monitoring selected gases and parameters of environmental, bioprocess, and health interest (e.g., CO2, O2, H2S, CH4, NH3, % RH, waste temperatures). VOC emissions are strongly dependent on the waste material. The most frequent VOCs identified over the storing waste, showing over 50 % appearance in all examined samples, were terpenes (e.g., di-limonene, beta-myrcene, delta-3-carene, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinolene, linalool, etc.), sulfides (dimethyl disulfide), aromatics (benzene, 1-methyl-2-(2-propenyl)), alkanes (e.g., decane, dodecane), ketones (2-propanone), esters (e.g., acetic acid ethyl ester, acetic acid methyl ester), and alcohols (e.g., 3-cyclohexen-1-ol, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)). The prominent role of terpenes in the "pre-compost" odor and especially that of di-limonene was highlighted. In all examined scenarios, the emitted volatiles were increased at raised temperatures and later decreased in time. Aeration of waste bins slightly affected the volatilization process resulting in higher profiles of VOCs; uniformity in the composition of VOCs was also noted. Slight modifications of commercial waste bins may favor the initiation of home composting.

  20. Green Fluorescent Protein as a Reporter To Monitor Gene Expression and Food Colonization by Aspergillus flavus

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Wanglei; Huang, Zhengyu; Flaherty, Joseph E.; Wells, Kevin; Payne, Gary A.

    1999-01-01

    Transformants of Aspergillus flavus containing the Aequorea victoria gfp gene fused to a viral promoter or the promoter region and 483 bp of the coding region of A. flavus aflR expressed green fluorescence detectable without a microscope or filters. Expression of green fluorescent protein fluorescence was correlated with resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in five corn genotypes inoculated with these transformants.

  1. Real-time PCR using SYBR Green for the detection of Shigella spp. in food and stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, W; Nsaibia, S; Gharbi, A; Aouni, M

    2013-02-01

    Shigella spp are exquisitely fastidious Gram negative organisms that frequently get missed in the detection by traditional culture methods. For this reason, this work has adapted a classical PCR for detection of Shigella in food and stool specimens to real-time PCR using the SYBR Green format. This method follows a melting curve analysis to be more rapid and provide both qualitative and quantitative data about the targeted pathogen. A total of 117 stool samples with diarrhea and 102 food samples were analyzed in Public Health Regional Laboratory of Nabeul by traditional culture methods and real-time PCR. To validate the real-time PCR assay, an experiment was conducted with both spiked and naturally contaminated stool samples. All Shigella strains tested were ipaH positive and all non-Shigella strains yielded no amplification products. The melting temperature (T(m) = 81.5 ± 0.5 °C) was consistently specific for the amplicon. Correlation coefficients of standard curves constructed using the quantification cycle (C(q)) versus copy numbers of Shigella showed good linearity (R² = 0.995; slope = 2.952) and the minimum level of detection was 1.5 × 10³ CFU/g feces. All food samples analyzed were negative for Shigella by standard culture methods, whereas ipaH was detected in 8.8% culture negative food products. Moreover, the ipaH specific PCR system increased the detection rate over that by culture alone from 1.7% to 11.1% among patients with diarrhea. The data presented here shows that the SYBR Green I was suitable for use in the real-time PCR assay, which provided a specific, sensitive and efficient method for the detection and quantification of Shigella spp in food and stool samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chinese consumers' adoption of a "green" innovation - the case of organic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    Little research has been published on Chinese consumer-citizens’ adoption of or willingness to adopt sustainable lifestyle elements. A case in point is organic food – a more sustainable alternative to conventional food. Organic food is a Western invention. However, organic food products are now...... available in upscale supermarkets in East and South-east China metropolises such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. This paper reports the results of a study investigating what motivates early adopters of organic food in China. The data were collected in Guangzhou by means of a mallintercept survey....... As in Western Europe, the early adoption of organic food in China is positively related to what Schwartz termed “universalism values.” Also as in the West, the personal attitude towards buying organic food in China is strongly linked to beliefs about its healthiness, taste and environmental friendliness. Social...

  3. Chinese consumers' adoption of a "green" innovation - the case of organic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been published on Chinese consumer-citizens’ adoption of or willingness to adopt sustainable lifestyle elements. A case in point is organic food – a more sustainable alternative to conventional food. Organic food is a Western invention. However, organic food products are now...... available in upscale supermarkets in East and South-east China metropolises such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. This paper reports the results of a study investigating what motivates early adopters of organic food in China. The data were collected in Guangzhou by means of a mallintercept survey....... As in Western Europe, the early adoption of organic food in China is positively related to what Schwartz termed “universalism values.” Also as in the West, the personal attitude towards buying organic food in China is strongly linked to beliefs about its healthiness, taste and environmental friendliness. Social...

  4. Vegetable Oils as Alternative Solvents for Green Oleo-Extraction, Purification and Formulation of Food and Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara-Varón, Edinson; Li, Ying; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Chemat, Farid

    2017-09-05

    Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. This review presents an overview of vegetable oils as solvents enriched with various bioactive compounds from natural resources, as well as the relationship between dissolving power of non-polar and polar bioactive components with the function of fatty acids and/or lipid classes in vegetable oils, and other minor components. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.

  5. Anatoxin-a and its metabolites in blue-green algae food supplements from Canada and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Niedzwiadek, Barbara; Lau, Benjamin P Y; Saker, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Blue-green algae and spirulina are marketed in health food stores and over the Internet as food supplements in Canada, the United States, and Europe. The reported benefits of consuming these products include improved digestion, strengthening of the immune system, and relief from the symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Some of these products have been found to contain elevated concentrations of microcystins, which are known hepatotoxins. In addition to producing microcystins, Anabaena sp. and Aphanizomenon sp. also produce the potent neurotoxin anatoxin-a. Samples of food supplements containing blue-green algae and spirulina were collected in Portugal and from urban centers across Canada in 2005. Extracts of these supplements were analyzed to determine the presence and concentrations of anatoxin-a and its two main metabolites, dihydroanatoxin-a and epoxyanatoxin-a. Initial analyses were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, and confirmation required the use of LC with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The HPLC with fluorescence detection indicated no anatoxin-a, but four samples were suspected to contain either dihydroanatoxin-a or epoxyanatoxin-a at 0.1 to 0.2 microg/g. LC-MS-MS results, however, indicated no trace of either transformation product in any sample analyzed. The detection limits for anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, and epoxyanatoxin-a were similar for both fluorescence detection (0.2 to 0.3, 0.4 to 1.4, and 0.2 to 1.5 pg on the column, respectively) and mass spectrometry (0.3 to 1.5, 0.3 to 0.8, and 0.5 to 0.8 pg on the column, respectively). Because of the higher specificity of the LC-MS-MS analysis, all tested food supplement samples were considered free of anatoxin-a and its transformation products.

  6. Effect of food on specific dynamic action (SDA) of green and red types of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Jiang, Hongbo; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli

    2017-10-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the energy expended on all physiological processes that is associated with meal digestion and absorption, is strongly affected by food type. Effects of formulated diet (FMD), macroalgae (ALG) and sea mud (SMD) diets on the postprandial metabolic response of the green type and the red type of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were studied in order to understand their feeding physiology. Food offered to A. japonicus was different in protein, lipid content and energy but not in meal mass. SDA of A. japonicus resulted in a 1.3-2.7 folds of increase in oxygen consumption that can persist for up to 4.8-31.7 h after digesting three different diets. In a given type of sea cucumber, the magnitude of SDA was the highest when fed with FMD, medium with ALG, and the lowest with SMD, which is probably due to the differences in diet components and protein contents. The red type sea cucumber showed greater SDA magnitude than the green type with each diet treatment, which might result from the difference in factorial scope between the two types of sea cucumber. However, the smallest magnitude or even no difference was observed between the two types of A. japonicus in SMD group, perhaps owing to the poor nutrition and digestion of sea mud.

  7. Invasive plants have different effects on trophic structure of green and brown food webs in terrestrial ecosystems: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCary, Matthew A; Mores, Robin; Farfan, Monica A; Wise, David H

    2016-03-01

    Although invasive plants are a major source of terrestrial ecosystem degradation worldwide, it remains unclear which trophic levels above the base of the food web are most vulnerable to plant invasions. We performed a meta-analysis of 38 independent studies from 32 papers to examine how invasive plants alter major groupings of primary and secondary consumers in three globally distributed ecosystems: wetlands, woodlands and grasslands. Within each ecosystem we examined if green (grazing) food webs are more sensitive to plant invasions compared to brown (detrital) food webs. Invasive plants have strong negative effects on primary consumers (detritivores, bacterivores, fungivores, and/or herbivores) in woodlands and wetlands, which become less abundant in both green and brown food webs in woodlands and green webs in wetlands. Plant invasions increased abundances of secondary consumers (predators and/or parasitoids) only in woodland brown food webs and green webs in wetlands. Effects of invasive plants on grazing and detrital food webs clearly differed between ecosystems. Overall, invasive plants had the most pronounced effects on the trophic structure of wetlands and woodlands, but caused no detectable changes to grassland trophic structure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme- iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samman, S.; Sandstrøm, B.; Toft, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    the effect of phenolic-rich extracts obtained from green tea or rosemary on nonheme-iron absorption. Design: Young women aged 19-39 y consumed test meals on 4 separate occasions. The meals were identical except for the absence (meal A) or presence (meal B) of a phenolic-rich extract from green tea (study 1......-body retention of 59Fe and the ratio of Fe-55 to 59Fe activity in blood samples. Results: The presence of the phenolic-rich extracts resulted in decreased nonheme-iron absorption. Mean (+/-SD) iron absorption decreased from 12.1 +/- 4.5% to 8.9 +/- 5.2% (P tea extract and from 7...

  9. Associations Between the Neighborhood Environment and Moderate-to-Vigorous Walking in New Zealand Children: Findings from the URBAN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Leslie J; Hinckson, Erica A; Hopkins, Will G; Mavoa, Suzanne; Witten, Karen; Schofield, Grant

    2016-07-01

    Urban design may affect children's habitual physical activity by influencing active commuting and neighborhood play. Our objective was to examine associations between neighborhood built-environment features near children's homes and objectively measured physical activity. We used geographical information system (GIS) protocols to select 2016 households from 48 low- and high-walkability neighborhoods within four New Zealand cities. Children (n = 227; mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 9.3 ± 2.1 years) from the selected households wore accelerometers that recorded physical activity in the period 2008-2010. We used multilevel linear models to examine the associations of GIS and street-audit measures, using the systematic pedestrian and cycling environmental scan (SPACES), of the residential environment (ranked into tertiles) on children's hourly step counts and proportions of time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity on school and non-school days. During school-travel times (8:00-8:59 a.m. and 15:00-15:59 p.m.), children in the mid-tertile distance from school (~1 to 2 km) were more active than children with shorter or longer commute distances (1290 vs. 1130 and 1140 steps·h(-1); true between-child SD 440). After school (16:00-17:59 p.m.), children residing closest to school were more active (890 vs. 800 and 790 steps·h(-1); SD 310). Neighborhoods with more green space, attractive streets, or low-walkability streets showed a moderate positive association on non-school day moderate-to-vigorous steps, whereas neighborhoods with additional pedestrian infrastructure or more food outlets showed moderate negative associations. Other associations of residential neighborhoods were unclear but, at most, small. Designing the urban environment to promote safe child-pedestrian roaming may increase children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  10. Treatment of fish parasites. 9. Effects of a medicated food containing malachite green on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Hymenostomatida, Ciliophora) in ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmahl, G; Ruider, S; Mehlhorn, H; Schmidt, H; Ritter, G

    1992-01-01

    For systemic therapy against trophozoites of the skin-inhabiting stage of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in ornamental fish, the latter were fed medicated food flakes containing malachite green once daily for 1-11 days ad libitum. Naturally or artificially infected cardinal tetras (Paracheirodon axelrodi), blue gouramis (Trichogaster trichopterus), or clown loach (Botia macracantha) were used in the trials. The fish were maintained in aerated 12.5- or 60-1 aquaria at 23 degrees C. Ultrastructural investigations (scanning and transmission electron microscopy) revealed clear deleterious effects of malachite green on the parasitic stages. Following the initial application, the inner membrane of the mitochondria was destroyed. In fish fed for 2 days, aggregation of the mucocysts and polymerization the microtubules within the macronucleus occurred. Finally, the trophozoite's membrane was completely destroyed. In fish fed for 4 days, the medicated food killed all trophozoites of I. multifiliis. Sensitive ornamental fish (e.g., P. axelrodi) showed no adverse effects after they had been fed with only the medicated food flakes for 2 months. Therefore, the oral administration of malachite green using this newly developed medicated food considerably reduces the risk of toxic effects on the fish hosts, which are sometimes caused by malachite green following its application by immersion therapy. The feeding of flakes medicated with malachite green provides and easy-to-handle and highly effective treatment of I. multifiliis in ornamental fish.

  11. Green Tea as an Agricultural Based Health Promoting Food: The Past Five to Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-Yin Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of tea originated in ancient China over 4000 years ago and is currently the second most popular beverage in the world after water. Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. The link between tea intake, most notably green tea, and health has resulted in intense research on the components responsible for preventing the onset of several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity and diabetes. In particular, the high levels of chemically diverse phenols (e.g., phenolic acids, flavonoids present in tea exhibit potent protective properties against many of these diseases. Although health related research on green tea and its predominant phenol (catechins has been on-going for decades, major advances have occurred in the last 5–10 years. Therefore, this review focuses on seminal studies reported primarily within the last five years but not extending past ten years on the link between health and green tea with an emphasis on the catechins.

  12. Food insecurity and food deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Nadine L

    2015-08-15

    Food insecurity has been steadily increasing in the United States with prevalence at nearly 15% of all households. Nurse practitioners can assess for food insecurity and provide local resources for families living in neighborhoods without easy access to healthy foods, otherwise known as food deserts.

  13. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi My Dieu

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become one of the top agricultural countries in the world by the year 2010. However, it is not difficult to recognize that the rapid growth of food processing industry in Vietnam goes together with environm...

  14. Summer foods of American widgeon, mallards, and a green-winged teal near Great Slave Lake, N.W.T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonek, J.C.

    1972-01-01

    Foods found in three species of dabbling ducks collected during summer from bog ponds, and sedge pools in taiga on the north side of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, are described. Animal material in the esophageal contents of 10 adult American Widgeons (Mareca americana) averaged 31 i?? 34 per cent (P<0.05) by volume. A significantly higher percentage of animal material was found in Class I and II widgeon ducklings (66 i?? 22 per cent) than in Class IIIa ducklings and flying juveniles (12 i?? 20 per cent) of this species. Animal material comprised 87 i?? 35 per cent of esophageal contents from five Class II and flying juvenile Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 100 per cent of that from an adult female Green-winged Teal (A. carolinensis).

  15. Neighborhood Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists the public and Choice Neighborhoods applicants to prepare data to submit with their grant application by allowing applicants to draw the exact...

  16. Chinese consumers' adoption of a "green" innovation - the case of organic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to analyse citizens' sustainability attitudes towards food production in the EU, Brazil, and China (n = 2885), using pork as an exemplary production system. The objective is to map citizens' attitudes towards sustainable characteristics of pig production systems, and investigate....... Conjoint analysis results were then used for a subsequent cluster analysis in order to identify international citizen clusters across the three continents. Respondents' sociodemographic profile, attitudes towards sustainability issues, and consumption frequency of various pork products are used to profile....... This study therefore provides valuable insights to policymakers and practitioners for improvements in an integrated management of food chains to meet consumer sustainability-related expectations better....

  17. Processing concepts for the use of green leaves as raw materials for the food industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, A.; Schreuders, F.K.G.; Zisopoulos, F.K.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale processing of leaves for food applications requires quick processing or stabilisation to avoid perishability, due to the high moisture content in this biomass. Leaf perishability is compounded by the seasonal availability of crops, like sugar beet plants, of which the leaves are regarded

  18. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become

  19. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become

  20. Application of a novel PROMETHEE-based method for construction of a group compromise ranking to prioritization of green suppliers in food supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kadziński, Miłosz; Sivakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    , the evaluation and selection of the green supplier is a vital issue due to several tangible and intangible criteria involved. Accordingly, we apply multiple criteria decision aiding techniques.We propose a hybrid approach that combines the revised Simos procedure, PROMETHEE methods, algorithms for constructing...... green supply chain management (GSCM) elements is essential for utilizing the food supply chain in an environmentally benign way. As a solution to the above challenge, the economic and green characteristics for supplier selection in green purchasing are studied in this paper. For an organization...... a group compromise ranking, and robustness analysis. At first, the revised Simos procedure is used to derive the criteria weights. Next, the PROMETHEE method is applied to rank the suppliers according to each Decision Maker's (DM's) preferences. Then, the compromise ranking is constructed to minimize...

  1. Dangerous assumptions : the agroecology and ethnobiology of traditional polyculture cassava systems in rural Cameroon and implications of green revolution technologies for sustainability, food security, and rural welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nchang Ntumngia, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Alliance for a New Green Revolution in Africa and African government and CGIAR programmes oriented toward improving cassava production through intensification and the use of external inputs have the ultimate goals to improve food production, promote market integration, and increase incomes of

  2. Stable Benzacridine Pigments by Oxidative Coupling of Chlorogenic Acid with Amino Acids and Proteins: Toward Natural Product-Based Green Food Coloring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacomino, Mariagrazia; Weber, Fabian; Gleichenhagen, Maike; Pistorio, Valeria; Panzella, Lucia; Pizzo, Elio; Schieber, Andreas; d'Ischia, Marco; Napolitano, Alessandra

    2017-08-09

    The occasional greening of sweet potatoes and other plant tissues observed during cooking or other food processing has been shown to arise from the autoxidative coupling of chlorogenic acid (CGA, 5-caffeoylquinic acid) with amino acid components, leading to trihydroxybenzacridine pigments. To explore the potential of this reaction for food coloring, we report herein the optimized biomimetic preparation of trihydroxybenzacridine pigments from CGA and amino acids such as glycine and lysine, their straightforward purification by gel filtration chromatography, the UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of the purified pigment fraction, and a detailed characterization of the pH-dependent trihydroxybenzacridine chromophore. Similar green pigments were also obtained by analogous reaction of CGA with a low-cost protein, bovine serum albumin, and by simply adding CGA to chicken egg white (CEW) under stirring. Neither the purified pigments from amino acids nor the pigmented CEW exerted significant toxicity against two human cell lines, Caco-2 and HepG2, at doses compatible with common use in food coloring. Additions of the pure pigments or pigmented CEW to different food matrices imparted intense green hues, and the thermal stability of these preparations proved satisfactory up to 90 °C. The potential application of the greening reaction for the sensing of fish deterioration is also disclosed.

  3. Dangerous assumptions : the agroecology and ethnobiology of traditional polyculture cassava systems in rural Cameroon and implications of green revolution technologies for sustainability, food security, and rural welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nchang Ntumngia, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Alliance for a New Green Revolution in Africa and African government and
    CGIAR programmes oriented toward improving cassava production through intensification
    and the use of external inputs have the ultimate goals to improve food production, promote
    market integration, and

  4. Heterocyclic aromatic amine content in chicken burgers and chicken nuggets sold in fast food restaurants and effects of green tea extract and microwave thawing on their formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in chicken burgers (CBs) and chicken nuggets (CNs) purchased from fast food restaurants and the effects of green tea extract addition (GTE) to the covering material as wel...

  5. The growing season, but not the farming system, is a food safety risk determinant for leafy greens in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, Sasha C; Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Wang, Fei; Pahl, Donna M; Melendez, Meredith V; Kline, Wesley L; Oni, Ruth A; Walsh, Christopher S; Everts, Kathryne L; Buchanan, Robert L; Micallef, Shirley A

    2015-04-01

    Small- and medium-size farms in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States use varied agricultural practices to produce leafy greens during spring and fall, but the impact of preharvest practices on food safety risk remains unclear. To assess farm-level risk factors, bacterial indicators, Salmonella enterica, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from 32 organic and conventional farms were analyzed. A total of 577 leafy greens, irrigation water, compost, field soil, and pond sediment samples were collected. Salmonella was recovered from 2.2% of leafy greens (n = 369) and 7.7% of sediment (n = 13) samples. There was an association between Salmonella recovery and growing season (fall versus spring) (P = 0.006) but not farming system (organic or conventional) (P = 0.920) or region (P = 0.991). No STEC was isolated. In all, 10% of samples were positive for E. coli: 6% of leafy greens, 18% of irrigation water, 10% of soil, 38% of sediment, and 27% of compost samples. Farming system was not a significant factor for levels of E. coli or aerobic mesophiles on leafy greens but was a significant factor for total coliforms (TC) (P organic farm samples. Growing season was a factor for aerobic mesophiles on leafy greens (P = 0.004), with higher levels in fall than in spring. Water source was a factor for all indicator bacteria (P factors contributing to microbial contamination on farms growing leafy greens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. EVA GREEN REAL-TIME PCR USED TO DETECT CELERY AS AN ALLERGEN IN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Škultéty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available EvaGreen®  Real-Time PCR method has been used for celery(Apium graveolens allergen detection. A primer designed in mannitol dehydrogenase gene region has been used for specific celery identification in sample. The results show possibility to create calibration curve using artificially adulterated samples. The increasing variability between parallel calibration of celery samples has been observed from 0.1 % to 100%. Detection limit has been set to value 0.1% in celery representing 1000 ppm. Fluorescent signal has been presented even in samples with lower percentage addition of celery but these samples have been excluded according to unspecific melting curve.doi:10.5219/138

  7. Evaluation of the New York City Green Carts program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M Farley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to fresh fruits and vegetables is a concern, particularly among low-income populations. Mobile vending is one strategy to expand produce availability and access to increase consumption. In 2008, New York City launched a mobile vending initiative, Green Carts. We report on the evaluation. Three waves of cross-sectional observational surveys of produce availability, variety, and quality were conducted during the summers of 2008, 2009, and 2011 in a stratified random sample of stores and carts comparing establishments in Green Cart neighborhoods (n = 13 with comparison neighborhoods (n = 3. Bivariate analyses for availability, variety, and quality comparing Green Cart and comparison neighborhoods were presented across years, and logistic and negative binomial regressions were used to test whether fruit and vegetable availability, variety, and quality increased in Green Cart compared with comparison neighborhoods, adjusting for clustering and neighborhood demographics. Establishments selling fruits and vegetables in Green Cart neighborhoods increased between 2008 and 2011 (50% to 69%, p <0.0001; there was no comparable increase in comparison neighborhoods. Establishments selling more than 10 fruits and vegetables types increased from 31% to 38% (p = 0.0414 in Green Cart neighborhoods; there was no change in comparison neighborhoods. Produce quality was high among comparison establishments, with 95% and 94% meeting the quality threshold in 2008 and 2011, while declining in Green Cart neighborhood establishments from 96% to 88% (p < 0.0001. Sustained produce availability was found in Green Cart neighborhoods between 2008–2011. Green Carts are one strategy contributing to improving produce access among New Yorkers.

  8. Journeys to Crime: Assessing the Effects of a Light Rail Line on Crime in the Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Liggett, Robin; Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of new transit lines is some times dogged by concerns that such lines may increase crime rates in station neighborhoods. Affluent communities have often complained that transit lines transport crime to the suburbs. This study focuses on the Green Line transit system in Los Angeles and examines its effects on crime in the adjacent areas. The Green Line light rail system passes through some high-crime inner city neighborhoods and terminates at its western end in affluent subu...

  9. Do Neighborhood Characteristics in Amsterdam Influence Adiposity at Preschool Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, E. Jessica; Kunst, Anton E.; Stronks, Karien; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neighborhood characteristics may contribute to adiposity in young children, but results in the current literature are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate whether objective (socioeconomic status (SES)) and subjective (perceived safety, satisfaction with green spaces and perceived physical disorder) neighborhood characteristics directly influence child adiposity (as measured by BMI, percent body fat (%BF) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)). Methods: Data on child BMI, %BF and WHtR were obtained from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort at 5–6 years of age. Three thousand four hundred and sixty nine (3469) children were included in the analyses. Mixed models, using random intercepts for postal code area to account for neighborhood clustering effects, were used to analyze the relationships of interest. Results: Associations were observed for both perceived safety and neighborhood SES with %BF after adjustment for maternal education and ethnicity. All relationships were eliminated with the inclusion of individual covariates and parental BMI into the models. Conclusions: In general, child adiposity at age 5–6 years was not independently associated with neighborhood characteristics, although a small relationship between child %BF and both neighborhood SES and perceived safety cannot be ruled out. At this young age, familial and individual factors probably play a more important role in influencing child adiposity than neighborhood characteristics. PMID:26006128

  10. Do Neighborhood Characteristics in Amsterdam Influence Adiposity at Preschool Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jessica Hrudey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neighborhood characteristics may contribute to adiposity in young children, but results in the current literature are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate whether objective (socioeconomic status (SES and subjective (perceived safety, satisfaction with green spaces and perceived physical disorder neighborhood characteristics directly influence child adiposity (as measured by BMI, percent body fat (%BF and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. Methods: Data on child BMI, %BF and WHtR were obtained from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort at 5–6 years of age. Three thousand four hundred and sixty nine (3469 children were included in the analyses. Mixed models, using random intercepts for postal code area to account for neighborhood clustering effects, were used to analyze the relationships of interest. Results: Associations were observed for both perceived safety and neighborhood SES with %BF after adjustment for maternal education and ethnicity. All relationships were eliminated with the inclusion of individual covariates and parental BMI into the models. Conclusions: In general, child adiposity at age 5–6 years was not independently associated with neighborhood characteristics, although a small relationship between child %BF and both neighborhood SES and perceived safety cannot be ruled out. At this young age, familial and individual factors probably play a more important role in influencing child adiposity than neighborhood characteristics.

  11. The Growing Season, but Not the Farming System, Is a Food Safety Risk Determinant for Leafy Greens in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, Sasha C.; Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Wang, Fei; Pahl, Donna M.; Melendez, Meredith V.; Kline, Wesley L.; Oni, Ruth A.; Walsh, Christopher S.; Everts, Kathryne L.; Buchanan, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Small- and medium-size farms in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States use varied agricultural practices to produce leafy greens during spring and fall, but the impact of preharvest practices on food safety risk remains unclear. To assess farm-level risk factors, bacterial indicators, Salmonella enterica, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from 32 organic and conventional farms were analyzed. A total of 577 leafy greens, irrigation water, compost, field soil, and pond sediment samples were collected. Salmonella was recovered from 2.2% of leafy greens (n = 369) and 7.7% of sediment (n = 13) samples. There was an association between Salmonella recovery and growing season (fall versus spring) (P = 0.006) but not farming system (organic or conventional) (P = 0.920) or region (P = 0.991). No STEC was isolated. In all, 10% of samples were positive for E. coli: 6% of leafy greens, 18% of irrigation water, 10% of soil, 38% of sediment, and 27% of compost samples. Farming system was not a significant factor for levels of E. coli or aerobic mesophiles on leafy greens but was a significant factor for total coliforms (TC) (P bacteria (P < 0.001), and end-of-line groundwater had marginally higher TC counts than source samples (P = 0.059). Overall, the data suggest that seasonal events, weather conditions, and proximity of compost piles might be important factors contributing to microbial contamination on farms growing leafy greens. PMID:25616798

  12. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (spirulina) for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    1987-01-01

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself was conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6 liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46 percent) at a rate of 100 to approx. 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  13. Quantification of ochratoxin A-producing molds in food products by SYBR Green and TaqMan real-time PCR methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Mar; Luque, M. Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin synthesized by a variety of different fungi, most of them from the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. Early detection and quantification of OTA producing species is crucial to improve food safety. In the present work, two protocols of real-time qPCR based on SYBR...... 1 and 10 conidia/g for SYBR Green assay and TaqMan. No significant differences were found between the Ct values obtained from pure mold DNA and pure mold DNA mixed with food DNA. The ability of the designed qPCR methods to quantify two known conidial suspensions inoculated on several foods...... was evaluated. The amount of conidia assessed by both qPCR methods was close to the inoculated amount for most foods and indicates that the described procedure holds potential for use for the detection and quantification of OTA producing molds in foods....

  14. Neighborhoods, US, 2017, Zillow, SEGS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service depicts nearly 17,000 neighborhood boundaries in over 650 U.S. cities. Zillow created the neighborhood boundaries and is sharing them with the...

  15. Neighborhood Change: Theories, Realities, Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Juliet

    This study of one neighborhood stabilization effort is based on interviews with 312 residents of an Akron (Ohio) neighborhood which changed from 11 percent to 57 percent black in the past decade. The results of the survey of residents' concerns in this racially changing neighborhood confirmed Hunter's theory that organizations (in this case, The…

  16. Community, Democracy, and Neighborhood News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Elizabeth Blanks

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on democracy, community, and journalism by examining the interplay between communication, democracy, and community at an inner-city neighborhood newspaper. Concludes that, through its focus on neighborhood culture, acknowledgment of conflict, and attempts to provide a forum for the neighborhood's self-definition, the…

  17. Soymilk enriched with green coffee phenolics - Antioxidant and nutritional properties in the light of phenolics-food matrix interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-05-15

    This study investigated the effect of soymilk fortification with green coffee extract (GCE) on phenolic contents, antioxidant capacity, relative in vitro digestibility of proteins and starch, and consumer acceptance. Special attention was paid to the effect of phenolics-food matrix interactions on fortification efficiency. Soymilk was enriched with GCE extracts containing 0.025-1mg of phenolics per 1mL-samples M1-M6. Compared to control, an increase in phenolic contents of up to 70% (M6) was observed for potentially bioaccessible fractions (AD). The antiradical activity and reducing power were also about 1.9 and 10.1 times higher, respectively. However, the determined phenolic and antioxidant activities differed from those predicted. Fortification improved the digestibility of nutrients when higher doses of GCE was introduced (M4-M6). The addition of GCE at an adequate dose allowed the production of a beverage with elevated hedonic properties. In conclusion, fortification was a successful in improving the pro-health status of soymilk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reacting to Neighborhood Cues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danckert, Bolette; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2017-01-01

    is founded on politically sophisticated individuals having a greater comprehension of news and other mass-mediated sources, which makes them less likely to rely on neighborhood cues as sources of information relevant for political attitudes. Based on a unique panel data set with fine-grained information...

  19. In What Form Does Global Capital Flow Leave Behind Memories? The Story of the Apple Snail Caught Between the Green Revolution and the Organic Food Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chingling Wo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a study of Taiwan’s United News Daily archive and the shifting discourses of the Green Revolution and the organic food movement, the project analyzes the narrative frameworks produced on the apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan. Apple snail has become invasive to many East Asian countries since the 1980s; it is considered among the world’s 100 most invasive species. During the era of the Green Revolution, the economy of killing the apple snail with pesticide was generated by a narrative of how greedy merchants imported invasive apple snail and led to the systematic disruption of Taiwan’s ecology. The paper explores how the organic food movement responded to and was shaped by such a narrative of innocence lost, and emphasizes the importance of going beyond the hyper-real narratives of irreparable ecological destructions by recognizing sites of memories left behind by global capital flow.

  20. Dangerous assumptions : the agroecology and ethnobiology of traditional polyculture cassava systems in rural Cameroon and implications of green revolution technologies for sustainability, food security, and rural welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Nchang Ntumngia, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Alliance for a New Green Revolution in Africa and African government and CGIAR programmes oriented toward improving cassava production through intensification and the use of external inputs have the ultimate goals to improve food production, promote market integration, and increase incomes of small farm households. Essentially, AGRA’s arguments, which are either implicit or explicit in the policies and programmes of the Government of Cameroon and of several CGIAR institutes that the Gover...

  1. A Novel Integrated Approach for Green Supplier Selection with Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Uncertain Linguistic Information: A Case Study in the Agri-Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Shi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With strengthening global consciousness of environmental protection, green supply chain management plays an increasingly important role in modern enterprise production operation management. A critical means to implement green supply chain management is incorporating environmental requirements into the supplier selection practices. In this paper, we put forward a novel integrated approach by using interval-valued intuitionistic uncertain linguistic sets (IVIULSs and grey relational analysis (GRA-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS method for the evaluation and selection of green suppliers. First, various qualitative assessments of alternatives provided by decision makers are described by the IVIULSs. Then, the GRA-TOPSIS method is extended and employed to prioritize the alternative suppliers. The proposed model can handle the uncertainty and fuzziness of decision makers’ subjective evaluations more easily and get a more realistic and accurate ranking of green suppliers. Finally, an illustrative example in the agri-food industry is presented to verify the proposed green supplier selection model and demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  2. Walks on SPR neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Alan Joseph J; Castillo, Juan; Lee, Jinnie; St John, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    A nearest-neighbor-interchange (NNI)-walk is a sequence of unrooted phylogenetic trees, T1, T2, . . . , T(k) where each consecutive pair of trees differs by a single NNI move. We give tight bounds on the length of the shortest NNI-walks that visit all trees in a subtree-prune-and-regraft (SPR) neighborhood of a given tree. For any unrooted, binary tree, T, on n leaves, the shortest walk takes Θ(n²) additional steps more than the number of trees in the SPR neighborhood. This answers Bryant’s Second Combinatorial Challenge from the Phylogenetics Challenges List, the Isaac Newton Institute, 2011, and the Penny Ante Problem List, 2009.

  3. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in leafy greens eaten raw as salads)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    Leafy greens eaten raw as salads are minimally processed and widely consumed foods. Risk factors for leafy greens contamination by Salmonella spp. and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain including agricultural production and processing. Available estimates of the prev......Leafy greens eaten raw as salads are minimally processed and widely consumed foods. Risk factors for leafy greens contamination by Salmonella spp. and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain including agricultural production and processing. Available estimates...... of the prevalence of these pathogens (together with the use of Escherichia coli as an indicator organism) in leafy greens were evaluated. Specific mitigation options relating to contamination of leafy greens were considered and qualitatively assessed. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique...... combination of numerous characteristics that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in leafy greens production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems, including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), should...

  4. The green political food consumer Le consommateur politique vert – une analyse critique de la recherché et des politiques en cours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Boström

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current literature on political and ethical consumers, and relates it to the topic of sustainable food consumption. A first aim is to problematise a somewhat simplistic view of the political and ethical consumer found in the literature. The paper sheds light on some of the dilemmas that confront green political consumers. We indicate that most existing studies say very little about consumers’ thoughts, assumptions, and reflections about green consumerism in general, and about green consumerist tools, such as green labels, more specifically. Based on a literature review, we draw a picture of the typical concerned consumer as reflective, uncertain and ambivalent. This is connected to a second aim of the paper: to discuss a gap or mismatch between the production side and consumption side of green (food labels. We conclude the paper by suggesting that green and ethical information schemes could become much more in line with the reflective nature of green, political consumers. We relate this discussion to concepts such as sub-politics and meta-politics.Cet article dresse un panorama de la littérature actuelle concernant les consommateurs éthiques et militants, en faisant le lien avec le thème d’une consommation alimentaire durable. Un premier objectif est de problématiser la vision quelque peu simpliste que présente la littérature. L’article met en lumière quelques uns des dilemmes auxquels font face les consommateurs militants « verts » en soulignant combien les études existantes disent peu sur les pensées, les certitudes et les réflexions de ces consommateurs quant à la consommation « verte » en général, et sur les outils de consommations tels que les labels bio tout particulièrement. Sur ces bases, nous dessinons le portrait d’un consommateur militant typique, réflexif, indécis et ambivalent. Le deuxième objectif de cet article est de mettre en valeur le fossé creusé entre la production et

  5. Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p meal tests performed on day 1 and day 90 demonstrated an increased postprandial release of GLP-1 and decreased urge for sweet and chocolate on both occasions in individuals supplemented with green-plant membranes compared to control. Waist circumference, body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed increased release of GLP-1. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  6. Global Croplands and their Importance for Water and Food Security in the Twenty-first Century: Towards an Ever Green Revolution that Combines a Second Green Revolution with a Blue Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad S. Thenkabail

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly food insecure world, there is a critical need for us to have a comprehensive understanding of global croplands. The reality that the “green revolution” has ended is beginning to be felt around the World. Whereas, global population continues to increase at a rate of about 100 million per year and is expected to reach around 10 billion by 2050, cropland areas are not increasing and have stagnated around 1.5 billion hectares globally. Indeed, cropland areas have even begun to decrease in some countries with important food contribution (e.g., USA due to increasing demand of fertile arable lands for alternative uses such as bio-fuels, encroachment from urbanization, and industrialization. [...

  7. Urban Green Space and the Pursuit of Health Equity in Parts of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viniece Jennings

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that inequitable access to green space can relate to health disparities or inequalities. This commentary aims to shift the dialogue to initiatives that have integrated green spaces in projects that may promote health equity in the United States. Specifically, we connect this topic to factors such as community revitalization, affordable housing, neighborhood walkability, food security, job creation, and youth engagement. We provide a synopsis of locations and initiatives in different phases of development along with characteristics to support effectiveness and strategies to overcome challenges. The projects cover locations such as Atlanta (GA, Los Angeles (CA, the District of Columbia (Washington D.C., South Bronx (NY, and Utica (NY. Such insight can develop our understanding of green space projects that support health equity and inform the dialogue on this topic in ways that advance research and advocacy.

  8. Neighborhood factors and six-month weight change among overweight individuals in a weight loss intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara D. Mendez, PhD, MPH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the neighborhood environment and the association with weight change among overweight/obese individuals in the first six months of a 12-month weight loss intervention, EMPOWER, from 2011 to 2015. Measures of the neighborhood environment included neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood income, and neighborhood food retail stores density (e.g., grocery stores. Weight was measured at baseline and 6 months and calculated as the percent weight change from baseline to 6 months. The analytic sample (N = 127 was 91% female and 81% white with a mean age of 51 (±10.4 years. At 6 months, the mean weight loss was 8.0 kg (±5.7, which was equivalent to 8.8% (±6% of baseline weight. Participants living in neighborhoods in which 25–75% of the residents identified as black had the greatest percentage of weight loss compared to those living in neighborhoods with 75% black residents. No other neighborhood measures were associated with weight loss. Future studies testing individual-level behavioral weight loss interventions need to consider the influence of neighborhood factors, and how neighborhood-level interventions could be enhanced with individual-level interventions that address behaviors and lifestyle changes.

  9. Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Deurzen, Ioana; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Christensen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    An influential argument explaining why living in certain neighborhoods can become harmful to one's health maintains that individuals can perceive certain characteristics of the neighborhood as threatening and the prolonged exposure to a threatening environment could induce chronic stress. Followi...... related to AL and this relationship was particularly robust for women....

  10. Neighborhood Environmental Watch Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Neighborhood Environmental Watch Network (NEWNET) is a regional network of environmental monitoring stations and a data archival center that supports collaboration between communities, industry, and government agencies to solve environmental problems. The stations provide local displays of measurements for the public and transmit measurements via satellite to a central site for archival and analysis. Station managers are selected from the local community and trained to support the stations. Archived data and analysis tools are available to researchers, educational institutions, industrial collaborators, and the public across the nation through a communications network. Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Environmental Protection Agency have developed a NEWNET pilot program for the Department of Energy. The pilot program supports monitoring stations in Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, and California. Additional stations are being placed in Colorado and New Mexico. Pilot stations take radiological and meteorological measurements. Other measurements are possible by exchanging sensors

  11. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

  12. Neighborhood Context and Immigrant Young Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based,…

  13. Kids in space: Measuring children's residential neighborhoods and other destinations using activity space GPS and wearable camera data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T; Pearson, A L; Kawachi, I; Rzotkiewicz, Z; Stanley, J; Smith, M; Barr, M; Ni Mhurchu, C; Signal, L

    2017-11-01

    Defining the boundary of children's 'neighborhoods' has important implications for understanding the contextual influences on child health. Additionally, insight into activities that occur outside people's neighborhoods may indicate exposures that place-based studies cannot detect. This study aimed to 1) extend current neighborhood research, using data from wearable cameras and GPS devices that were worn over several days in an urban setting; 2) define the boundary of children's neighborhoods by using leisure time activity space data; and 3) determine the destinations visited by children in their leisure time, outside their neighborhoods. One hundred and fourteen children (mean age 12y) from Wellington, New Zealand wore wearable cameras and GPS recorders. Residential Euclidean buffers at incremental distances were paired with GPS data (thereby identifying time spent in different places) to explore alternative definitions of neighborhood boundaries. Children's neighborhood boundary was at 500 m. A newly developed software application was used to identify 'destinations' visited outside the neighborhood by specifying space-time parameters. Image data from wearable cameras were used to determine the type of destination. Children spent over half of their leisure time within 500 m of their homes. Children left their neighborhood predominantly to visit school (for leisure purposes), other residential locations (e.g. to visit friends) and food retail outlets (e.g. convenience stores, fast food outlets). Children spent more time at food retail outlets than at structured sport and in outdoor recreation locations combined. Person-centered neighborhood definitions may serve to better represent children's everyday experiences and neighborhood exposures than previous methods based on place-based measures. As schools and other residential locations (friends and family) are important destinations outside the neighborhood, such destinations should be taken into account. The

  14. Neighborhood perceptions and hypertension among low-income black women: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliyhah Al-Bayan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of studies examining the role of neighborhoods and hypertension-related outcomes have been quantitative in nature and very few studies have examined specific disadvantaged populations, including low-income housing residents. The objective of this study was to use qualitative interviews to explore low-income Black women’s perceptions of their neighborhoods and to understand how those perceptions may affect their health, especially as it relates to blood pressure. Methods Seventeen Black female participants, living in public housing communities in New York City, completed one semi-structured, audiotaped interview in July of 2014. All interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes using N’Vivo 10 software. Results Three major themes emerged: (1 social connectedness, (2 stress factors, and (3 availability of food options. For example, factors that caused stress varied throughout the study population. Sources of stress included family members, employment, and uncleanliness within the neighborhood. Many participants attributed their stress to personal issues, such as lack of employment and relationships. In addition, the general consensus among many participants was that there should be a greater density of healthy food options in their neighborhoods. Some believed that the pricing of fresh foods in the neighborhoods should better reflect the financial status of the residents in the community. Conclusions Various neighborhood influences, including neighborhood disorder and lack of healthy food options, are factors that appear to increase Black women’s risk of developing high blood pressure. Implications of this research include the need to develop interventions that promote good neighborhood infrastructure (e.g. healthy food stores to encourage good nutrition habits and well-lit walking paths to encourage daily exercise, in addition to interventions that increase hypertension awareness in

  15. DIGESTION IN AN ECTOTHERMIC HERBIVORE, THE GREEN IGUANA (IGUANA-IGUANA) - EFFECT OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND BODY-TEMPERATURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LICHTENBELT, WDV

    1992-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, the effect of food composition and body temperature on digestive efficiency was investigated in the lizard Iguana iguana on Curacao (Netherlands Antilles). In a series of experiments the animals were kept in cages with a temperature gradient and different foods were

  16. Measuring physical neighborhood quality related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Kimberly A; Wells, Nancy M; Evans, Gary W

    2015-04-29

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work.

  17. VT Designated Neighborhood Development Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Neighborhood Development Area designation encourages municipalities and/or developers to plan for new and infill housing in the area within walking distance of...

  18. Durham Neighborhood Compass Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...

  19. Evaluation of the placement of mobile fruit and vegetable vendors to alleviate food deserts in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kathleen Y; Cromley, Ellen K; Fox, Ashley M; Horowitz, Carol R

    2014-09-11

    In 2008, the New York City (NYC) health department licensed special mobile produce vendors (Green Carts) to increase access to fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods with the lowest reported fruit and vegetable consumption and the highest obesity rates. Because economic incentives may push vendors to locate in more trafficked, less produce-deprived areas, we examined characteristics of areas with and without Green Carts to explore whether Carts are positioned to reach the intended populations. Using ArcGIS software, we mapped known NYC Green Cart locations noted through 2013 and generated a list of potential (candidate) sites where Carts could have located. We compared the food environment (via categorizing "healthy" or "unhealthy" food stores using federal classification codes corroborated by online storefront images) and other factors that might explain Cart location (eg, demographic, business, neighborhood characteristics) near actual and candidate sites descriptively and inferentially. Seven percent of Green Carts (n = 265) were in food deserts (no healthy stores within one-quarter mile) compared with 36% of candidate sites (n = 644, P locating near subway stops (P locate in still-deprived places may increase program impact.

  20. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Irwin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810 at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p < 0.05. High fast-food outlet density in both home and school neighborhoods was associated with increased fast-food purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05. In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school.

  1. Effect of neighborhood factors on diabetes self-care behaviors in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalls, Brittany L; Gregory, Chris M; Zoller, James S; Egede, Leonard E

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify latent variables for neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care and examine the effect of neighborhood factors on diabetes self-care in adults with type 2 diabetes. 615 subjects were recruited from an academic medical center and a Veterans affairs medical center in the southeastern United States. Validated scales were used to assess neighborhood factors and diabetes-related self-care. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine the latent constructs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to assess the relationship between neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care. Based on a theoretical framework, CFA yielded four latent variables for neighborhood factors (neighborhood violence, access to healthy food, social support, and neighborhood esthetics) and one latent variable diabetes self-care (including diet, exercise, foot care, blood sugar testing and medication adherence). SEM showed that social support (r=0.28, paccess to healthy foods (r=-0.16, p=0.003) were significantly associated with self-care behaviors, while neighborhood violence (r=-0.06, paccess to healthy foods (r=-0.20, pself-care behaviors χ(2) (76, N=611)=60, p=0.91, RMSEA=0.00, CFI=1.0). This study developed latent factors for neighborhood characteristics and diabetes self-care and found that social support and access to healthy foods were significantly associated with diabetes self-care and should be considered as targets for future interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Annual abundance of salps and doliolids (Tunicata around Gorgona Island (Colombian Pacific, and their importance as potential food for green sea turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sampson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gorgona National Park protects fertile waters that support large vertebrates, including green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, and for them, gelatinous zooplankton constitute a food resource that can be found year-round in Gorgona Island´s coastal waters. This study was carried out to determine the abundance of salps and doliolids around Gorgona Island over a year, and to determine whether this is a resource that could be used reliably year-round by green turtles and other large plankton-feeding predators. The monthly abundance of salps and doliolids at eight coastal stations around Gorgona Island (Colombian Pacific was determined between September 2005 and August 2006. Oblique tows were carried out from 50m to the surface, total zooplankton biomass was measured and the number of salps and doliolids per tow, and frequency of occurrence per station and month were determined. Superficial and bottom sea temperature, superficial and bottom salinity, and chlorophyll-a concentration were recorded at each station. There were tunicate abundance peaks in September 2005 and March 2006. The high abundances in March were probably due to a cold water intrusion into the study area, which resulted in colder saltier water and a shallower thermocline. Tunicates were probably advected to the area by currents from the southwest and aggregated due to the underwater topography. In September, the influence of continental river discharge as well as inputs from rainfall over the island could have provided increased nutrients and resulted in higher abundances. The large filter-feeding vertebrates that feed on tunicates include green sea turtle juveniles, which use coastal waters of Gorgona Island as feeding grounds, as part of their migration route in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. These turtles could be using tunicates opportunistically, as a sporadic resource that is available at certain times of the year. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 1: 149-159. Epub 2014 February 01.

  3. Laboratory based experiments to assess the use of green and food based compost to improve water quality in a Sustainable Drainage (SUDS) device such as a swale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, S M; Nnadi, E; Oyelola, O; Bennett, J; Warwick, F; Jackson, R; Lawson, D

    2012-05-01

    Many tonnes of compost are generated per year due to door step composting of both garden and kitchen waste. Whilst there are commercial outlets for the finer grade of compost (25 mm). This paper reports part of a WRAP-sponsored (Waste Resources Action Programme) study which investigated the potential for green (GC) and mixed green and food (MC) composts to be incorporated into Sustainable Drainage (SUDS) devices such as swales, and replace the topsoil (TS) onto which turf is laid or grass seed distributed. However, it is not known whether compost can replace TS in terms of pollutant remediation, both the trapping of polluted particulates and in dealing with hydrocarbons such as oil, but also from a biofilm development and activity perspective. Using laboratory based experiments utilising leaching columns and an investigation of microbiological development in the composts studied, it was found that many of the differences in performance between MC and GC were insignificant, whilst both composts performed better in terms of pollutant retention than TS. Mixed compost in particular could be used in devices where there may be oil spillages, such as the lorry park of a Motorway Service Area due to its efficiency in degrading oil. Samples of GC and MC were found to contain many of the bacteria and fungi necessary for an active and efficient biofilm which would be an argument in their favour for replacement of TS and incorporation in swales. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender differences in the effects of urban neighborhood on depressive symptoms in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasneth Asher Mullings

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the mental health effects of the urban neighborhood on men and women in Jamaica and the implications for urban planning and social development. METHODS: A cross-sectional household sample of 2 848 individuals 15-74 years of age obtained from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008 was analyzed. Secondary analysis was undertaken by developing composite scores to describe observer recorded neighborhood features, including infrastructure, amenities/services, physical conditions, community socioeconomic status, and green spaces around the home. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to explore the associations among gender, neighborhood factors, and risk of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: While no associations were found among rural residents, urban neighborhoods were associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. Among males, residing in a neighborhood with poor infrastructure increased risk; among females, residing in an informal community/unplanned neighborhood increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: The urban neighborhood contributes to the risk of depression symptomatology in Jamaica, with different environmental stressors affecting men and women. Urban and social planners need to consider the physical environment when developing health interventions in urban settings, particularly in marginalized communities.

  5. Stigmatized neighborhoods, social bonding, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, Amber; Ruth, Alissa; Brewis, Alexandra; Boone, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between living in impoverished neighborhoods and poor health is well established, but impacts of neighborhood stigma on health are not well understood. Drawing on long-term research with Latino immigrants, we examine how neighborhood stigma and social bonding affect health in Phoenix, Arizona. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, we developed a novel neighborhood stigma scale. In survey research, we examined effects of neighborhood stigma and social bonding on self-reported physical and mental health. Regression models show that perceived neighborhood stigma and low social bonding are associated with poorer physical and mental health, controlling for other factors. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  6. Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Charles

    2012-11-21

    There is one commodity the world over that unites mankind-food. In 2011 the United Nations claimed that the world's population had reached the seven billion mark, a number which is set to increase dramatically in the decades to come. Food security, supply and sustainability are of paramount concern to the future economic and social progress of humanity. It is the responsibility of the food industry, together with food scientists and technologists, to shoulder the burden of ensuring an adequate supply of nutritious, safe and sensorially acceptable foods for a range of demanding consumers. In responding to this challenge, we need to understand the link between agriculture, engineering, food processing, molecular biosciences, human nutrition, commercialisation and innovation. Access to information concerning the composition and quality of foods has never been so easy for consumers and technologists alike. A plethora of research publications are made available each month to scientists and associated interested parties. The outcomes of these research manuscripts are often distilled and disseminated into messages available to everyone through bulletin boards, forums and the popular press. Newspapers and new agencies constantly report on the latest pharma-medical finding, or news regarding food safety and security concerns. We live in an age where information is so readily available to everyone that the task of finding credible and reputable data can be difficult at times. Providing sound evidenced based research is where a peer-reviewed journal can provide clarity. [...].

  7. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.

  8. Marriage and parenthood in relation to obesogenic neighborhood trajectories: The CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Howard, Annie Green; Meyer, Katie; Lewis, Cora E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Laroche, Helena H; Gunderson, Erica P; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-07-01

    Marriage and parenthood are associated with weight gain and residential mobility. Little is known about how obesity-relevant environmental contexts differ according to family structure. We estimated trajectories of neighborhood poverty, population density, and density of fast food restaurants, supermarkets, and commercial and public physical activity facilities for adults from a biracial cohort (CARDIA, n=4,174, aged 25-50) over 13 years (1992-93 through 2005-06) using latent growth curve analysis. We estimated associations of marriage, parenthood, and race with the observed neighborhood trajectories. Married participants tended to live in neighborhoods with lower poverty, population density, and availability of all types of food and physical activity amenities. Parenthood was similarly but less consistently related to neighborhood characteristics. Marriage and parenthood were more strongly related to neighborhood trajectories in whites (versus blacks), who, in prior studies, exhibit weaker associations between neighborhood characteristics and health. Greater understanding of how interactive family and neighborhood environments contribute to healthy living is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution of green infrastructure along walkable roads ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-income and minority neighborhoods frequently lack healthful resources to which wealthier communities have access. Though important, the addition of facilities such as recreation centers can be costly and take time to implement. Urban green infrastructure, such as street trees and other green space, can be a low-cost alternative to promote frequency and duration of outdoor physical activity. Street trees and other green space may increase outdoor physical activity levels by providing shade, improving aesthetics, and promoting social engagement. Though street trees and green space provide many benefits and are publicly accessible at all times, these resources are not evenly distributed between neighborhoods. An objective analysis of street tree cover and green space in 6,407 block groups across 10 urban areas was conducted using fine-scale land cover data. Distribution of green infrastructure was then analyzed by minority status, income, car ownership, housing density, and employment density. The objective measure of street tree cover and green space is based on 1-meter resolution land cover data from the U.S. EPA-led EnviroAtlas. Tree cover was analyzed along each side of walkable road centerlines in the areas where sidewalks are estimated to be. Green space was calculated within 25 meters of road centerlines. Percent tree cover and green space per city block were then summarized to census block group (CBG). CBG demographics from the U.S. Census and built env

  10. Impact of neighborhood design on energy performance and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy use and GHG emissions of different neighborhood designs are investigated. • Improving buildings energy performance reduces energy use and GHG emissions by 75%. • Density as isolated factor has limited effect on transport on per capita basis. • Distance to central business district impacts transport GHG emission significantly. - Abstract: This paper presents an innovative and holistic approach to the analysis of the impact of selected design parameters of a new solar community on its environmental performance, in terms of energy efficiency and carbon footprint (green-house gas (GHG) emissions). The design parameters include energy performance level of buildings, density, type of the neighborhood (mixed-use vs residential), location of the commercial center relative to residential areas and the design of the streets. Energy performance is measured as the balance between overall energy consumption for building operations (assuming an all-electric neighborhood) and electricity generation potential through integration of PV panels on available roof surfaces. Greenhouse gas emissions are those associated with building operations and transport. Results of simulations carried out on prototype neighborhoods located in the vicinity of Calgary, Alberta, Canada indicate that, while adopting high-energy efficiency measures can reduce the buildings’ impact by up to 75% in terms of energy consumption and GHG emissions, transport still has a large environmental impact. The parameters of highest impact on transport and its associated GHG emissions are the design of the neighborhood and the distance to the business center. Density, as isolated parameter, has a modest effect on the selected mode of transportation, in terms of using private or public transportation. While this study relates to a specific location and a range of design assumptions, the methodology employed can serve as a template for evaluating design alternatives of new sustainable

  11. Obesity and its related factors among women from popular neighborhoods in Casablanca, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Ali; Jabari, Mohamed; Dahhak, Mohammed; Saile, Rachid; Derouiche, Abdelfettah

    2013-01-01

    Study of overweight and obesity among women from modest neighborhoods in Casablanca and the related factors influencing this phenomenon. A survey was conducted in 6 neighborhoods of Casablanca using multistage cluster sampling. Anthropometric parameters and body composition were measured, and information about food habits, sociodemographic situation and body image perception were collected using a questionnaire. 425 adult women from popular neighborhoods in Casablanca. We found a prevalence of 47% obesity and 36% overweight. Obesity and overweight exceeded 80% in all age categories except among women educated women.

  12. The global financial crisis and neighborhood decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, M.D.; Bolt, G.; Van Ham, M.; Van Kempen, R.

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood decline is a complex and multidimensional process. National and regional variations in economic and political structures (including varieties in national welfare state arrangements), combined with differences in neighborhood history, development, and population composition, make it

  13. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  14. Schools, Neighborhood Risk Factors, and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…

  15. Neighborhood Racial Isolation, Disorder and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Virginia W.; Hillier, Amy E.; Mehta, Neil K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that racial residential segregation may be detrimental to health. This study investigates the influence of neighborhood racial isolation on obesity and considers the role of neighborhood disorder as a mediator in this relationship. For the city of Philadelphia, we find that residence in a neighborhood with high black…

  16. Internet Bad Neighborhoods temporal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    2014-01-01

    Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In

  17. Bad Neighborhoods on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article, we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  18. Bad neighborhoods on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  19. Urbanism, Neighborhood Context, and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Erin York; Behler, Rachel L

    2015-09-01

    Theories of urbanism suggest that the urban context erodes individuals' strong social ties with friends and family. Recent research has narrowed focus to the neighborhood context, emphasizing how localized structural disadvantage affects community-level cohesion and social capital. In this paper, we argue that neighborhood context also shapes social ties with friends and family- particularly for community-dwelling seniors. We hypothesize that neighborhood disadvantage, residential instability, and disorder restrict residents' abilities to cultivate close relationships with neighbors and non-neighbor friends and family. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), we find that older adults who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods have smaller social networks. Neighborhood disadvantage is also associated with less close network ties and less frequent interaction - but only among men. Furthermore, residents of disordered neighborhoods have smaller networks and weaker ties. We urge scholars to pay greater attention to how neighborhood context contributes to disparities in network-based access to resources.

  20. The influence of local food environments on adolescents' food purchasing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students' home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students' food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students' food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth's home and school.

  1. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school. PMID:22690205

  2. Shift in performance of food safety management systems in supply chains: case of green bean chain in Kenya versus hot pepper chain in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, Jessica; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Kirezieva, Klementina; Kaaya, Archileo N; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Luning, Pieternel A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the level of design and operation of food safety management systems (FSMS) of farmers and export traders in Kenya and Uganda. FSMS diagnostic tools developed for the fresh produce chain were used to assess the levels of context riskiness, FSMS activities and system output in primary production (n = 60) and trade (n = 60). High-risk context characteristics combined with basic FSMS are expected to increase the risk on unsafe produce. In Uganda both farmers and export traders of hot peppers operate in a high- to moderate-risk context but have basic FSMS and low systems output. In Kenya, both farmers and export traders of green beans operate in a low- to moderate-risk context. The farmers have average performing FSMS, whereas export trade companies showed more advanced FSMS and system output scores ranging from satisfactory to good. Large retailers supplying the EU premium market play a crucial role in demanding compliance with strict voluntary food safety standards, which was reflected in the more advanced FSMS and good system output in Kenya, especially traders. In Kenya, a clear shift in more fit-for-purpose FSMS and higher system output was noticed between farms and trade companies. In the case of Uganda, traders commonly supply to the less demanding EU wholesale markets such as ethnic specialty shops. They only have to comply with the legal phytosanitary and pesticide residue requirements for export activities, which apparently resulted in basic FSMS and low system output present with both farmers and traders. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Crime, neighborhood deprivation, and asthma: a GIS approach to define and assess neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Sara L; Magzamen, Sheryl L; Radke, John D; Tager, Ira B

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to neighborhood factors remains difficult to quantify when neighborhoods are often predefined and imprecisely measured. This study examines the association between neighborhood deprivation and participation in a community-based asthma case management (CM) program in Oakland, CA. We estimated neighborhoods by calculating walking distances of , and miles around each child's (n=2892) residence. The model assesses deprivation by the addition of weighted factors within a child's neighborhood-crime rates, alcohol outlets, and eight 2000 US Census characteristics. The results illustrate that neighborhood deprivation is weakly associated with greater levels of program participation, but neighborhood education level, measured by percentage of residents with less than a high school education, is strongly associated with greater program participation (OR: 4.43, 95% CI: [1.23, 15.99]). Neighborhood deprivation factors were significantly different between neighborhoods defined by walking distances and census blockgroups (Wilcoxon-signed rank test: p<0.05). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neighborhood-based PA and its environmental correlates: a GIS- and GPS based cross-sectional study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Marijke; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Pierik, Frank H; Ettema, Dick F; Dijst, Martin J

    2018-02-09

    To improve our understanding of the neighborhood environment - physical activity (PA) relationship, it is of importance to assess associations between neighborhood environmental characteristics and neighborhood-based PA. Participants' (N = 308; 45-65 years) light PA (LPA) and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) within a 400, 800, and 1600 m buffer around adults' homes was measured using accelerometers and GPS-devices. Land use data in ArcGIS provided neighborhood characteristics for the same buffers. Multilevel linear regression models, adjusted for socio-demographic variables and attitude towards PA, were used to assess associations of objective neighborhood characteristics with neighborhood-based LPA and MVPA. LPA was positively associated with the proportions of roads (within a 400 m buffer), and negatively associated with the proportions of recreational areas (within an 800 m buffer), and the proportion of green space (within the 800 m and 1600 m buffers). Multiple characteristics of 400 m buffers were positively associated with MVPA, i.e. proportions of green space, blue space, residences, shops and foodservice industry, sports terrain, and public social-cultural facilities. Also, characteristics of larger buffers were positively associated with MVPA, i.e. the proportions of shops and foodservice industry, sports terrain, and blue space (within an 800 m buffer), and the proportion of public social-cultural facilities (within the 800 m and 1600 m buffers). Objective neighborhood characteristics of smaller as well as larger sized buffers were associated with neighborhood-based LPA and MVPA. Green and blue spaces seem to be of particular importance for PA in the smallest buffer, i.e. in the direct surrounding of adults' homes.

  5. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Krayenhoff and Bass, 2003; Foster, Lowe and Winkelman, 2012; Gill, 2007).spell out all authors first time referenced Biophilic urbanism and green infrastructure Harvard biologist E. O. Wilson popularised the concept of biophilia, describing it as “the...

  6. Neighborhood Environments: Links to Health Behaviors and Obesity Status in Vulnerable Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jina; Kim, Hye-Jin; Park, Sooyeon

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to identify the actual and perceived features of neighborhood environments linked to health behaviors and obesity status in vulnerable children by using geographic information systems, walking surveys, and focus group interviews. The participants were 126 children registered at community child centers and 10 mothers of study participants. Increased availability of fast food outlets and convenience stores was significantly and positively associated with fast food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and inversely with physical activity. Reduced availability of physical activity outlets was significantly and positively associated with sedentary behaviors. Mothers' perceptions of their neighborhoods fell into three content categories: (a) changed to be unfriendly for children, (b) adapted to fast food and convenience eating, and (c) confined to physically inactive living. Based on these findings, community-level environmental strategies for reducing unhealthy behaviors linked to neighborhood environments should be prioritized to prevent childhood obesity in vulnerable populations.

  7. Living environment matters: relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health of the residents in a Dutch municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putrik, Polina; de Vries, Nanne K; Mujakovic, Suhreta; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Kant, Ijmert; Kunst, Anton E; van Oers, Hans; Jansen, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Characteristics of an individual alone cannot exhaustively explain all the causes of poor health, and neighborhood of residence have been suggested to be one of the factors that contribute to health. However, knowledge about aspects of the neighborhood that are most important to health is limited. The main objective of this study was to explore associations between certain features of neighborhood environment and self-rated health and depressive symptoms in Maastricht (The Netherlands). A large amount of routinely collected neighborhood data were aggregated by means of factor analysis to 18 characteristics of neighborhood social and physical environment. Associations between these characteristics and self-rated health and presence of depressive symptoms were further explored in multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographic and socio-economic factors. The study sample consisted of 9,879 residents (mean age 55 years, 48 % male). Residents of unsafe communities were less likely to report good health (OR 0.88 95 % CI 0.80-0.97) and depressive symptoms (OR 0.81 95 % CI 0.69-0.97), and less cohesive environment was related to worse self-rated health (OR 0.81 95 % CI 0.72-0.92). Residents of neighborhoods with more car traffic nuisance and more disturbance from railway noise reported worse mental health (OR 0.79 95 % CI 0.68-0.92 and 0.85 95 % CI 0.73-0.99, respectively). We did not observe any association between health and quality of parking and shopping facilities, facilities for public or private transport, neighborhood aesthetics, green space, industrial nuisance, sewerage, neighbor nuisance or satisfaction with police performance. Our findings can be used to support development of integrated health policies targeting broader determinants of health. Improving safety, social cohesion and decreasing traffic nuisance in disadvantaged neighborhoods might be a promising way to improve the health of residents and reduce health inequalities.

  8. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  9. Neighborhood Effects on Youth Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles

    We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... mechanisms suggests youth interaction in proximate residential context with older adults with drug crime experience as the most plausible source of neighborhood effects....

  10. Neighborhood and weight-related health behaviors in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Sunyer F Xavier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that neighborhood factors are associated with obesity, but few studies have evaluated the association with weight control behaviors. This study aims to conduct a multi-level analysis to examine the relationship between neighborhood SES and weight-related health behaviors. Methods In this ancillary study to Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes a trial of long-term weight loss among individuals with type 2 diabetes, individual-level data on 1219 participants from 4 clinic sites at baseline were linked to neighborhood-level data at the tract level from the 2000 US Census and other databases. Neighborhood variables included SES (% living below the federal poverty level and the availability of food stores, convenience stores, and restaurants. Dependent variables included BMI, eating patterns, weight control behaviors and resource use related to food and physical activity. Multi-level models were used to account for individual-level SES and potential confounders. Results The availability of restaurants was related to several eating and weight control behaviors. Compared to their counterparts in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants, participants in neighborhoods with more restaurants were more likely to eat breakfast (prevalence Ratio [PR] 1.29 95% CI: 1.01-1.62 and lunch (PR = 1.19, 1.04-1.36 at non-fast food restaurants. They were less likely to be attempting weight loss (OR = 0.93, 0.89-0.97 but more likely to engage in weight control behaviors for food and physical activity, respectively, than those who lived in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants. In contrast, neighborhood SES had little association with weight control behaviors. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, restaurant availability was associated with some weight control practices, but neighborhood SES was not. Future studies should give attention to other populations and to evaluating various aspects of

  11. Functional Interpretation of Neighborhood Public Spaces in Terms of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Majedi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of neighborhood public space transformation due to rapid urbanization in Tehran since 1960s, on the formation of neighborhood identity. In order to find the role of public spaces in enhancing neighborhood identities, two middle class neighborhoods with different spatial organizations are compared with each other: Nazi Abad a planned neighborhood and Mehran a typical unplanned neighborhood which developed through rapid urbanization.   Next, the effect of neighborhood public spaces on neighborhood inhabitants is evaluated from two perspectives: Perceptual dimension and social dimension. The findings indicate that planned spatial organization and various neighborhood public spaces result in stronger neighborhood identity. It enhances both perceptual dimension of neighborhood identity(place attachment and its social dimension (sense of community. In contrast unplanned spatial organization which is the typical feature of Tehran neighborhoods leads to weak neighborhood identity.

  12. Systematic social observation of children’s neighborhoods using Google Street View: a reliable and cost-effective method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Bates, Christopher J.; Sampson, Robert J.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Children growing up in poor versus affluent neighborhoods are more likely to spend time in prison, develop health problems and die at an early age. The question of how neighborhood conditions influence our behavior and health has attracted the attention of public health officials and scholars for generations. Online tools are now providing new opportunities to measure neighborhood features and may provide a cost effective way to advance our understanding of neighborhood effects on child health. Method A virtual systematic social observation (SSO) study was conducted to test whether Google Street View could be used to reliably capture the neighborhood conditions of families participating in the Environmental-Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study. Multiple raters coded a subsample of 120 neighborhoods and convergent and discriminant validity was evaluated on the full sample of over 1,000 neighborhoods by linking virtual SSO measures to: (a) consumer based geo-demographic classifications of deprivation and health, (b) local resident surveys of disorder and safety, and (c) parent and teacher assessments of children’s antisocial behavior, prosocial behavior, and body mass index. Results High levels of observed agreement were documented for signs of physical disorder, physical decay, dangerousness and street safety. Inter-rater agreement estimates fell within the moderate to substantial range for all of the scales (ICCs ranged from .48 to .91). Negative neighborhood features, including SSO-rated disorder and decay and dangerousness corresponded with local resident reports, demonstrated a graded relationship with census-defined indices of socioeconomic status, and predicted higher levels of antisocial behavior among local children. In addition, positive neighborhood features, including SSO-rated street safety and the percentage of green space, were associated with higher prosocial behavior and healthy weight status among children. Conclusions Our results

  13. Systematic social observation of children's neighborhoods using Google Street View: a reliable and cost-effective method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L; Caspi, Avshalom; Bates, Christopher J; Sampson, Robert J; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-10-01

    Children growing up in poor versus affluent neighborhoods are more likely to spend time in prison, develop health problems and die at an early age. The question of how neighborhood conditions influence our behavior and health has attracted the attention of public health officials and scholars for generations. Online tools are now providing new opportunities to measure neighborhood features and may provide a cost effective way to advance our understanding of neighborhood effects on child health. A virtual systematic social observation (SSO) study was conducted to test whether Google Street View could be used to reliably capture the neighborhood conditions of families participating in the Environmental-Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study. Multiple raters coded a subsample of 120 neighborhoods and convergent and discriminant validity was evaluated on the full sample of over 1,000 neighborhoods by linking virtual SSO measures to: (a) consumer based geo-demographic classifications of deprivation and health, (b) local resident surveys of disorder and safety, and (c) parent and teacher assessments of children's antisocial behavior, prosocial behavior, and body mass index. High levels of observed agreement were documented for signs of physical disorder, physical decay, dangerousness and street safety. Inter-rater agreement estimates fell within the moderate to substantial range for all of the scales (ICCs ranged from .48 to .91). Negative neighborhood features, including SSO-rated disorder and decay and dangerousness corresponded with local resident reports, demonstrated a graded relationship with census-defined indices of socioeconomic status, and predicted higher levels of antisocial behavior among local children. In addition, positive neighborhood features, including SSO-rated street safety and the percentage of green space, were associated with higher prosocial behavior and healthy weight status among children. Our results support the use of Google Street View as a

  14. Does neighborhood collective efficacy for families change over time? The Boston Neighborhood Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Nicole M.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Ehntholt, Amy; Almeida, Joanna; Nguyen, Quynh C.; Molnar, Beth E.; Azrael, Deborah; Osypuk, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increased interest in how neighborhood social processes, such as collective efficacy, may protect mental health. Yet little is known about how stable these neighborhood processes are over time, or how to change them to influence other downstream factors. We used a population-based, repeat cross-sectional study of adults (n=5135) to assess stability of collective efficacy for families in 38 Boston neighborhoods across 4 years (2006, 2008, 2010) (the Boston Neighborhood Survey). We test temporal stability of collective efficacy for families across and within neighborhoods using 2-level random effects linear regression, fixed effects linear regression, T-tests, and Wilcoxon rank tests. Across the different methods, neighborhood collective efficacy for families remained stable across 4 years, after adjustment for neighborhood composition. If neighborhood collective efficacy is measured within 4 years of the exposure period of interest, assuming temporal stability may be valid. PMID:24976653

  15. Neighborhood crime and transit station access mode choice - phase III of neighborhood crime and travel behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report provides the findings from the third phase of a three-part study about the influences of neighborhood crimes on travel : mode choice. While previous phases found evidence that high levels of neighborhood crime discourage people from choos...

  16. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    neighborhood may, therefore, hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experiment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to municipalities quasirandomly, which...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  17. Neighborhood influences on girls' obesity risk across the transition to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Lindsay T; Kushi, Lawrence H; Leung, Cindy W; Nickleach, Dana C; Adler, Nancy; Laraia, Barbara A; Hiatt, Robert A; Yen, Irene H

    2014-11-01

    The neighborhoods in which children live, play, and eat provide an environmental context that may influence obesity risk and ameliorate or exacerbate health disparities. The current study examines whether neighborhood characteristics predict obesity in a prospective cohort of girls. Participants were 174 girls (aged 8-10 years at baseline), a subset from the Cohort Study of Young Girls' Nutrition, Environment, and Transitions. Trained observers completed street audits within a 0.25-mile radius around each girl's residence. Four scales (food and service retail, recreation, walkability, and physical disorder) were created from 40 observed neighborhood features. BMI was calculated from clinically measured height and weight. Obesity was defined as BMI-for-age ≥ 95%. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to examine neighborhood influences on obesity risk over 4 years of follow-up, controlling for race/ethnicity, pubertal status, and baseline BMI. Fully adjusted models also controlled for household income, parent education, and a census tract measure of neighborhood socioeconomic status. A 1-SD increase on the food and service retail scale was associated with a 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.42 to 3.61; P obese. A 1-SD increase in physical disorder was associated with a 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 4.44; P = .005) increased odds of being obese. Other neighborhood scales were not associated with risk for obesity. Neighborhood food and retail environment and physical disorder around a girl's home predict risk for obesity across the transition from late childhood to adolescence. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Child Maltreatment, Problem Behaviors, and Neighborhood Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Preeti; Schuck, Amie M; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2017-12-01

    Using data from a prospective cohort design study of a group of children with documented histories of abuse and neglect (n = 908) and matched controls (n = 667), this paper examines whether problem behaviors (e.g., prostitution, crime, school problems, and homelessness) in young adulthood explain the link between maltreatment in childhood and living in high-risk neighborhoods in middle adulthood. Problem behaviors were assessed at mean age of 29 and neighborhood characteristics were assessed at mean age of 40. Child maltreatment predicted living in less desirable neighborhoods in middle adulthood. Problem behaviors in young adulthood partially mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and residence in less desirable neighborhoods in middle adulthood. The direct paths from child maltreatment to neighborhoods were not significant for Black children. For White children, there was a direct relationship between child maltreatment and living in an economically disadvantaged neighborhood. Problem behaviors were a stronger mediator between child maltreatment and living in more disordered and less socially cohesive neighborhoods for Black children, while the problem behaviors were a stronger mediator for living in more economically disadvantaged and less socially cohesive neighborhoods for White children. Further research is needed to understand these racial differences. Interventions should focus on preventing problem behaviors to minimize the risk of residency in high-risk neighborhoods. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  19. The Food Environment in an Urban Mexican American Community

    OpenAIRE

    Lisabeth, Lynda D; Sánchez, Brisa N; Escobar, James; Hughes, Rebecca; Meurer, William J; Zuniga, Belinda; Garcia, Nelda; Brown, Devin L; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether ethnic composition of neighborhoods is associated with number and type of food stores in an urban, Mexican American US community. Data were from a commercial food store data source and the US Census. Multivariate count models were used to test associations with adjustment for neighborhood demographics, income, and commercialization. Neighborhoods at the 75th percentile of percent Mexican American (76%) had nearly four times the number of convenience stor...

  20. Neighborhood context and health: How neighborhood social capital affects individual health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Does it matter for my health in which neighborhood I live? The fact is, health is determined not only by individual characteristics but also by the neighborhood in which someone lives. This thesis shows that health clusters in Dutch neighborhoods and that this is not only a composition effect (that

  1. Neighborhood-Specific and General Social Support: Which Buffers the Effect of Neighborhood Disorder on Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joongbaeck; Ross, Catherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Is neighborhood-specific social support the most effective type of social support for buffering the effect of neighborhood disorder on depression? Matching theory suggests that it is. The authors extend the research on neighborhood disorder and adult depression by showing that individuals who have higher levels of both general and…

  2. Relationships between Vacant Homes and Food Swamps: A Longitudinal Study of an Urban Food Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeeli Mui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of boarded-up vacant homes is associated with premature mortality due to cancer and diabetes, but the mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Boarded-up housing may indirectly impact residents’ health by affecting their food environment. We evaluated the association between changes in vacancy rates and changes in the density of unhealthy food outlets as a proportion of all food outlets, termed the food swamp index, in Baltimore, MD (USA from 2001 to 2012, using neighborhood fixed-effects linear regression models. Over the study period, the average food swamp index increased from 93.5 to 95.3 percentage points across all neighborhoods. Among non-African American neighborhoods, increases in the vacancy rate were associated with statistically significant decreases in the food swamp index (b = −0.38; 90% CI, −0.64 to −0.12; p-value: 0.015, after accounting for changes in neighborhood SES, racial diversity, and population size. A positive association was found among low-SES neighborhoods (b = 0.15; 90% CI, 0.037 to 0.27; p-value: 0.031. Vacant homes may influence the composition of food outlets in urban neighborhoods. Future research should further elucidate the mechanisms by which more distal, contextual factors, such as boarded-up vacant homes, may affect food choices and diet-related health outcomes.

  3. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  4. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  5. What constitutes a health-enabling neighborhood? A grounded theory situational analysis addressing the significance of social capital and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Malin; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Variations in health between neighborhoods are well known and the conceptualization of social capital has contributed to an understanding of how contextual factors influence these differences. Studies show positive health-effects from living in high social capital areas, at least for some population sub-groups. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand what constitutes a 'health-enabling' neighborhood. It follows up results from a social capital survey in northern Sweden indicating that the health effects of living in a high social capital neighborhood is gendered in favor of women. A grounded theory situational analysis of eight focus group discussions--four with men and four with women--illustrated similar and different positions on how neighborhood characteristics influence health. A neighborhood, where people say hi to each other ("hi-factor") and where support between neighbors exist, were factors perceived as positive for health by all, as was a good location, neighborhood greenness and proximity to essential arenas. Women perceived freedom from demands, feeling safe and city life as additional health enabling factors. For men freedom to do what you want, a sense of belonging, and countryside life were important. To have burdensome neighbors, physical disturbances and a densely living environment were perceived as negative for health in both groups while demands for a well styled home and feeling unsafe were perceived as negative for health among women. Neighborhood social capital, together with other elements in the living environment, has fundamental influence on people's perceived health. Our findings do not confirm that social capital is more important for women than for men but that distinctive form of social capital differ in impact. Investing in physical interventions, such as planning for meeting places, constructing attractive green areas, and making neighborhoods walking-friendly, may increase human interactions that is instrumental for

  6. Green Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Brianne; Inman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Green beans are thought to have originated in Peru and spread through South and Central America by Indian tribes. Spanish explorers introduced them into Europe in the 16th century. Surveys indicate that 60% of commercially grown green beans are produced in the United States. Particularly, Illinois, Michigan, New York, and Wisconsin produce the greatest amount of green beans in the United States.

  7. Tensor Train Neighborhood Preserving Embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqi; Aggarwal, Vaneet; Aeron, Shuchin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a Tensor Train Neighborhood Preserving Embedding (TTNPE) to embed multi-dimensional tensor data into low dimensional tensor subspace. Novel approaches to solve the optimization problem in TTNPE are proposed. For this embedding, we evaluate novel trade-off gain among classification, computation, and dimensionality reduction (storage) for supervised learning. It is shown that compared to the state-of-the-arts tensor embedding methods, TTNPE achieves superior trade-off in classification, computation, and dimensionality reduction in MNIST handwritten digits and Weizmann face datasets.

  8. Comprehensive Neighborhood Portraits and Child Asthma Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley W; Kimbro, Rachel T; Denney, Justin T; Osiecki, Kristin M; Moffett, Brady S; Lopez, Keila N

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Previous research has established links between child, family, and neighborhood disadvantages and child asthma. We add to this literature by first characterizing neighborhoods in Houston, TX by demographic, economic, and air quality characteristics to establish differences in pediatric asthma diagnoses across neighborhoods. Second, we identify the relative risk of social, economic, and environmental risk factors for child asthma diagnoses. Methods We geocoded and linked electronic pediatric medical records to neighborhood-level social and economic indicators. Using latent profile modeling techniques, we identified Advantaged, Middle-class, and Disadvantaged neighborhoods. We then used a modified version of the Blinder-Oaxaca regression decomposition method to examine differences in asthma diagnoses across children in these different neighborhoods. Results Both compositional (the characteristics of the children and the ambient air quality in the neighborhood) and associational (the relationship between child and air quality characteristics and asthma) differences within the distinctive neighborhood contexts influence asthma outcomes. For example, unequal exposure to PM 2.5 and O 3 among children in Disadvantaged and Middle-class neighborhoods contribute to asthma diagnosis disparities within these contexts. For children in Disadvantaged and Advantaged neighborhoods, associational differences between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and asthma diagnoses explain a significant proportion of the gap. Conclusions for Practice Our results provide evidence that differential exposure to pollution and protective factors associated with non-Hispanic White children and children from affluent families contribute to asthma disparities between neighborhoods. Future researchers should consider social and racial inequalities as more proximate drivers, not merely as associated, with asthma disparities in children.

  9. The changing distribution and determinants of obesity in the neighborhoods of New York City, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Macinko, James

    2010-04-01

    Obesity (body mass index >or=30 kg/m(2)) is a growing urban health concern, but few studies have examined whether, how, or why obesity prevalence has changed over time within cities. This study characterized the individual- and neighborhood-level determinants and distribution of obesity in New York City from 2003 to 2007. Individual-level data from the Community Health Survey (n = 48,506 adults, 34 neighborhoods) were combined with neighborhood measures. Multilevel regression assessed changes in obesity over time and associations with neighborhood-level income and food and physical activity amenities, controlling for age, racial/ethnic identity, education, employment, US nativity, and marital status, stratified by gender. Obesity rates increased by 1.6% (P < 0.05) each year, but changes over time differed significantly between neighborhoods and by gender. Obesity prevalence increased for women, even after controlling for individual- and neighborhood-level factors (prevalence ratio = 1.021, P < 0.05), whereas no significant changes were reported for men. Neighborhood factors including increased area income (prevalence ratio = 0.932) and availability of local food and fitness amenities (prevalence ratio = 0.889) were significantly associated with reduced obesity (P < 0.001). Findings suggest that policies to reduce obesity in urban environments must be informed by up-to-date surveillance data and may require a variety of initiatives that respond to both individual and contextual determinants of obesity.

  10. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...

  11. Neighborhood social capital and individual health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.; Flap, H.

    2011-01-01

    Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual's health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual's self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on

  12. Neighborhood social capital and individual health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.G.M.; Flap, H.D.

    2010-01-01

    Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual’s health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual’s self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on

  13. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  14. Who Gentrifies Low-Income Neighborhoods?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnish, Terra; Walsh, Randall; White, T. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses confidential Census data, specifically the 1990 and 2000 Census Long Form data, to study demographic processes in neighborhoods that gentrified during the 1990’s. In contrast to previous studies, the analysis is conducted at the more refined census-tract level, with a narrower definition of gentrification and more closely matched comparison neighborhoods. Furthermore, our access to individual-level data with census tract identifiers allows us to separately identify recent in-migrants and long-term residents. Our results indicate that, on average, the demographic flows associated with the gentrification of urban neighborhoods during the 1990’s are not consistent with displacement and harm to minority households. In fact, taken as a whole, our results suggest that gentrification of predominantly black neighborhoods creates neighborhoods that are attractive to middle-class black households. PMID:20161532

  15. Who Gentrifies Low-Income Neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnish, Terra; Walsh, Randall; White, T Kirk

    2010-03-01

    This paper uses confidential Census data, specifically the 1990 and 2000 Census Long Form data, to study demographic processes in neighborhoods that gentrified during the 1990's. In contrast to previous studies, the analysis is conducted at the more refined census-tract level, with a narrower definition of gentrification and more closely matched comparison neighborhoods. Furthermore, our access to individual-level data with census tract identifiers allows us to separately identify recent in-migrants and long-term residents. Our results indicate that, on average, the demographic flows associated with the gentrification of urban neighborhoods during the 1990's are not consistent with displacement and harm to minority households. In fact, taken as a whole, our results suggest that gentrification of predominantly black neighborhoods creates neighborhoods that are attractive to middle-class black households.

  16. Ecological Networks and Neighborhood Social Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Christopher R; Calder, Catherine A; Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L; Dirlam, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    Drawing on the social disorganization tradition and the social ecological perspective of Jane Jacobs, the authors hypothesize that neighborhoods composed of residents who intersect in space more frequently as a result of routine activities will exhibit higher levels of collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social network interaction and exchange. They develop this approach employing the concept of ecological networks-two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through spatial overlap in routine activities. Using data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, they find evidence that econetwork extensity (the average proportion of households in the neighborhood to which a given household is tied through any location) and intensity (the degree to which household dyads are characterized by ties through multiple locations) are positively related to changes in social organization between 2000-2001 and 2006-2008. These findings demonstrate the relevance of econetwork characteristics-heretofore neglected in research on urban neighborhoods-for consequential dimensions of neighborhood social organization.

  17. Associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity, and support for obesity prevention polices among rural adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Johnston, Larry F; Smith, Tosha W; McGuirt, Jared T; Evenson, Kelly R; Rafferty, Ann P; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A; Ammerman, Alice S

    2015-04-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations among neighborhood- and individual-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and support for obesity prevention polices in rural eastern North Carolina adults. We examined perceived neighborhood barriers to a healthful lifestyle, and associations between neighborhood barriers to healthy eating and PA, participants' support for seven obesity prevention policies, and dependent variables of self-reported dietary and PA behaviors, and measured body mass index (BMI) (n = 366 study participants). We then used participants' residential addresses and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software to assess neighborhood-level factors related to access to healthy food and PA opportunities. Correlational analyses and adjusted linear regression models were used to examine associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary and PA behaviors, BMI, and obesity prevention policy support. The most commonly reported neighborhood barriers (from a list of 18 potential barriers) perceived by participants included: not enough bicycle lanes and sidewalks, not enough affordable exercise places, too much crime, and no place to buy a quick, healthy meal to go. Higher diet quality was inversely related to perceived and GIS-assessed neighborhood nutrition barriers. There were no significant associations between neighborhood barriers and PA. More perceived neighborhood barriers were positively associated with BMI. Support for obesity prevention policy change was positively associated with perceptions of more neighborhood barriers. Neighborhood factors that promote a healthful lifestyle were associated with higher diet quality and lower BMI. Individuals who perceived more neighborhood-level barriers to healthy eating and PA usually supported policies to address those barriers. Future studies should examine mechanisms to garner such support for health

  18. Food Environments and Obesity: Household Diet Expenditure Versus Food Deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danhong; Jaenicke, Edward C; Volpe, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    To examine the associations between obesity and multiple aspects of the food environments, at home and in the neighborhood. Our study included 38,650 individuals nested in 18,381 households located in 2104 US counties. Our novel home food environment measure, USDAScore, evaluated the adherence of a household's monthly expenditure shares of 24 aggregated food categories to the recommended values based on US Department of Agriculture food plans. The US Census Bureau's County Business Patterns (2008), the detailed food purchase information in the IRi Consumer Panel scanner data (2008-2012), and its associated MedProfiler data set (2012) constituted the main sources for neighborhood-, household-, and individual-level data, respectively. After we controlled for a number of confounders at the individual, household, and neighborhood levels, USDAScore was negatively linked with obesity status, and a census tract-level indicator of food desert status was positively associated with obesity status. Neighborhood food environment factors, such as food desert status, were associated with obesity status even after we controlled for home food environment factors.

  19. Assessing mediation of behavioral and stress pathways in the association between neighborhood environments and obesity outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaah M. Sullivan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies have reported associations between characteristics of the neighborhood environment and obesity, little is understood about the pathways or mechanisms through which these associations operate. The purpose of this study was to examine possible behavioral and stress pathways hypothesized to mediate the association between neighborhood environments and obesity and whether pathways contribute to different obesity outcomes. Cross-sectional data were used from the 2012–2014 Women and Their Children's Health Study (WaTCH in Louisiana (N = 909. Participants' neighborhoods, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC were objectively measured. The causal inference approach to mediation analysis was used to obtain indirect estimates for self-reported measures of physical activity, low access to food, and depression. The mean BMI was 32.0 kg/m2 and the mean WC was 98.6 cm. The (adverse neighborhood environment was significantly associated BMI (β = 0.17 kg/m2; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.03, 0.31 and WC (β = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.95, after adjusting for covariates. Neither depression, physical activity, nor low food access mediated those associations. Further research that investigates and uses better measures of the behavioral and stress pathways through which the neighborhood environment influences obesity is warranted.

  20. Obesogenic neighborhood environments, child and parent obesity: the Neighborhood Impact on Kids study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F; Frank, Lawrence D; Couch, Sarah C; Zhou, Chuan; Colburn, Trina; Cain, Kelli L; Chapman, James; Glanz, Karen

    2012-05-01

    Identifying neighborhood environment attributes related to childhood obesity can inform environmental changes for obesity prevention. To evaluate child and parent weight status across neighborhoods in King County (Seattle metropolitan area) and San Diego County differing in GIS-defined physical activity environment (PAE) and nutrition environment (NE) characteristics. Neighborhoods were selected to represent high (favorable) versus low (unfavorable) on the two measures, forming four neighborhood types (low on both measures, low PAE/high NE, high PAE/low NE, and high on both measures). Weight and height of children aged 6-11 years and one parent (n=730) from selected neighborhoods were assessed in 2007-2009. Differences in child and parent overweight and obesity by neighborhood type were examined, adjusting for neighborhood-, family-, and individual-level demographics. Children from neighborhoods high on both environment measures were less likely to be obese (7.7% vs 15.9%, OR=0.44, p=0.02) and marginally less likely to be overweight (23.7% vs 31.7%, OR=0.67, p=0.08) than children from neighborhoods low on both measures. In models adjusted for parent weight status and demographic factors, neighborhood environment type remained related to child obesity (high vs low on both measures, OR=0.41, pobese (20.1% vs 27.7%, OR=0.66, p=0.08), although parent overweight did not differ by neighborhood environment. The lower odds of parent obesity in neighborhoods with environments supportive of physical activity and healthy eating remained in models adjusted for demographics (high vs low on the environment measures, OR=0.57, p=0.053). Findings support the proposed GIS-based definitions of obesogenic neighborhoods for children and parents that consider both physical activity and nutrition environment features. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The neighborhood context of homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Pollio, David E; North, Carol S

    2013-04-01

    We examined and compared the changing neighborhood characteristics of a group of homeless adults over time. We collected the addresses of previous housing and sleep locations from a longitudinal study of 400 homeless adults in the St. Louis, Missouri, region and compared census measures of housing and economic opportunities at different points along individual pathways from housing to homelessness and at 1- and 2-year follow-up interviews. Sleep locations of homeless adults were much more concentrated in the urban core at baseline than were their previous housed and follow-up locations. These core areas had higher poverty, unemployment, and rent-to-income ratios and lower median incomes. The spatial concentration of homeless adults in areas with fewer opportunities and more economic and housing distress may present additional barriers to regaining stable housing and employment. A big-picture spatial and time-course viewpoint is critical for both policymakers and future homelessness researchers.

  2. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  3. Geometrical tile design for complex neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizler, Eugen; Kari, Lila

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has showed that tile systems are one of the most suitable theoretical frameworks for the spatial study and modeling of self-assembly processes, such as the formation of DNA and protein oligomeric structures. A Wang tile is a unit square, with glues on its edges, attaching to other tiles and forming larger and larger structures. Although quite intuitive, the idea of glues placed on the edges of a tile is not always natural for simulating the interactions occurring in some real systems. For example, when considering protein self-assembly, the shape of a protein is the main determinant of its functions and its interactions with other proteins. Our goal is to use geometric tiles, i.e., square tiles with geometrical protrusions on their edges, for simulating tiled paths (zippers) with complex neighborhoods, by ribbons of geometric tiles with simple, local neighborhoods. This paper is a step toward solving the general case of an arbitrary neighborhood, by proposing geometric tile designs that solve the case of a "tall" von Neumann neighborhood, the case of the f-shaped neighborhood, and the case of a 3 x 5 "filled" rectangular neighborhood. The techniques can be combined and generalized to solve the problem in the case of any neighborhood, centered at the tile of reference, and included in a 3 x (2k + 1) rectangle.

  4. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...

  5. Availability of commonly consumed and culturally specific fruits and vegetables in African-american and Latino neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Zenk, Shannon N; Odoms-Young, Angela; Ruggiero, Laurie; Moise, Imelda

    2010-05-01

    Although the importance of culture in shaping individual dietary behaviors is well-documented, cultural food preferences have received limited attention in research on the neighborhood food environment. The purpose of this study was to assess the availability of commonly consumed and culturally specific fruits and vegetables in retail food stores located in majority African-American and Latino neighborhoods in southwest Chicago, IL. A cross-sectional survey of 115 stores (15% grocery stores, 85% convenience/corner stores) in African-American neighborhoods and 110 stores (45% grocery stores, 55% convenience/corner stores) in Latino neighborhoods was conducted between May and August of 2006. chi(2) tests were used to assess differences in the availability (presence/absence) of commonly consumed (n=25) and culturally specific fruits and vegetables for African Americans (n=16 varieties) and Latinos (n=18 varieties). Stores located in neighborhoods in which the majority of residents were African American or Latino were more likely to carry fresh fruits and vegetables that were culturally relevant to the dominant group. For example, grocery stores located in Latino neighborhoods were more likely to carry chayote (82.0% vs 17.6%, P<0.05), whereas grocery stores located in African-American neighborhoods were more likely to carry black-eyed peas (52.9% vs 20%, P<0.05). Most stores, however, carried fewer than 50% of commonly consumed or culturally specific fruits and vegetables. Findings from this study highlight that limited availability of culturally specific as well as commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in the neighborhood may be a barrier to fruit and vegetable consumption among African Americans and Latinos. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct and indirect effects of neighborhood factors and self-care on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalls, Brittany L; Gregory, Chris M; Zoller, James S; Egede, Leonard E

    2015-03-01

    To determine whether neighborhood factors have direct or indirect effects, via self-care behaviors on glycemic control. Adult patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from an academic medical center and Veterans Affairs Medical Center in the southeastern United States. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to create latent variables for neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to test direct and indirect effects between neighborhood factors and glycemic control as assessed by HbA1c levels. CFA yielded four latent variables for neighborhood factors (neighborhood violence, access to healthy food, social support, and neighborhood aesthetics) and one latent variable diabetes self-care. We found that social support (β=0.28, z=4.86, paccess to healthy foods (β=-0.17, z=-2.95, p=0.003) had direct effects on self-care; self-care (β=-0.15, z=-2.48, p=0.013) and neighborhood aesthetics (β=0.12, z=2.19, p=0.03) had direct effects on glycemic control; while social support (β=-0.04, z=-2.26, p=0.02) had an indirect effect on glycemic control via self-care. This study showed that self-care behaviors and neighborhood aesthetics have direct effects on glycemic control, social support and access to health foods had direct effects on self-care, and social support had an indirect effect on glycemic control via self-care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neighborhood quality and labor market outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2014-01-01

    Settlement in a socially deprived neighborhood may hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed or highly skilled contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were...... of refugee men. Their labor market outcomes are also not affected by the overall employment rate and the overall average skill level in the neighborhood. However, an increase in the average skill level of non-Western immigrant men living in the neighborhood raises their employment probability, while...

  8. Batch adsorption technique for the removal of malachite green and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... 2001), used tea leaves. (Tahir et al., 2009), montmorillonite clay powder (Tahir et al., 2008), algea (Tahir et al., 2008) which can be utili- zed to remove dyes and colorants from waste water. Fast green FCF is a sea green triarylmethane food color dye, which is also known as food green with maxi- ...

  9. Neighborhoods and Child Maltreatment: A Multi-Level Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulton, Claudia J.; Korbin, Jill E.; Su, Marilyn

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated how neighborhood and individual factors affected 400 parents from neighborhoods with different risk profiles for child maltreatment report rates. Neighborhood factors of impoverishment and child care burden significantly affected child abuse potential. Variation in child abuse potential within neighborhoods was greater than…

  10. Can money buy green? Demographic and socioeconomic predictors of lawn-care expenditures and lawn greenness in urban residential areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiqi Zhou; Austin Troy; J. Morgan Grove; Jennifer C. Jenkins

    2009-01-01

    It is increasingly important to understand how household characteristics influence lawn characteristics, as lawns play an important ecological role in human-dominated landscapes. This article investigates household and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics as predictors of residential lawn-care expenditures and lawn greenness. The study area is the Gwynns Falls...

  11. Green thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Green components of thermodynamics were identified and general aspects of green practices associated with thermodynamics were assessed. Energy uses associated with fossil fuels were reviewed. Green energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower were discussed, as well as biomass plantations. Ethanol production practices were reviewed. Conservation practices in the United States were outlined. Energy efficiency and exergy analyses were discussed. Energy intensity measurements and insulation products for houses were also reviewed. Five case studies were presented to illustrate aspects of green thermodynamics: (1) light in a classroom; (2) fuel saved by low-resistance tires; and (3) savings with high-efficiency motors; (4) renewable energy; and (5) replacing a valve with a turbine at a cryogenic manufacturing facility. It was concluded that the main principles of green thermodynamics are to ensure that all material and energy inputs minimize the depletion of energy resources; prevent waste; and improve or innovate technologies that achieve sustainability. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also...

  13. Neighborhood Stabilization Program Data NSP3

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (www.HUD.gov/nsp) provides emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed...

  14. Neighborhood Stabilization Program Data NSP1 (Statewide)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (www.HUD.gov/nsp) provides emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed...

  15. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  16. Neighborhood and Friendship Composition in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The social surroundings in which an individual grows up and spends his or her everyday life have an effect on his or her life chances. Much of the research into this phenomenon focuses on so-called neighborhood effects and has put particular emphasis on the negative effects of growing up in a poor neighborhood. Originating from the sociological study of inner-city problems in the United States, the research has recentl...

  17. Dimensionality Reduction by Weighted Connections between Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Fuding; Fan, Yutao; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction is the transformation of high-dimensional data into a meaningful representation of reduced dimensionality. This paper introduces a dimensionality reduction technique by weighted connections between neighborhoods to improve $K$ -Isomap method, attempting to preserve perfectly the relationships between neighborhoods in the process of dimensionality reduction. The validity of the proposal is tested by three typical examples which are widely employed in the algorithms bas...

  18. Prostate Cancer Severity Associations with Neighborhood Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charnita M. Zeigler-Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this paper was to examine neighborhood deprivation and prostate cancer severity. Methods. We studied African American and Caucasian prostate cancer cases from the Pennsylvania State Cancer Registry. Census tract-level variables and deprivation scores were examined in relation to diagnosis stage, grade, and tumor aggressiveness. Results. We observed associations of low SES with high Gleason score among African Americans residing in neighborhoods with low educational attainment (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.13–1.60, high poverty (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.15–1.67, low car ownership (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.20–1.78, and higher percentage of residents on public assistance (OR = 1.32, 95% = 1.08–1.62. The highest quartile of neighborhood deprivation was also associated with high Gleason score. For both Caucasians and African Americans, the highest quartile of neighborhood deprivation was associated with high Gleason score at diagnosis (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.19–1.52; OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.21–2.40, resp.. Conclusion. Using a neighborhood deprivation index, we observed associations between high-grade prostate cancer and neighborhood deprivation in Caucasians and African-Americans.

  19. Impact of neighborhood resources on cardiovascular disease: a nationwide six-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Calling

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Living in a socially deprived neighborhood is associated with lifestyle risk factors, e.g., smoking, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet, as well as an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, i.e., coronary heart disease and stroke. The aim was to study whether the odds of cardiovascular disease vary with the neighbourhood availability of potentially health-damaging and health-promoting resources. Methods A nationwide sample of 2 040 826 men and 2 153 426 women aged 35–80 years were followed for six years for first hospitalization of coronary heart disease or stroke. Neighborhood availability of health-damaging resources (i.e., fast-food restaurants and bars/pubs and health-promoting resources (i.e., health care facilities and physical activity facilities were determined by use of geographic information systems (GIS. Results We found small or modestly increased odds ratios (ORs for both coronary heart disease and stroke, related to the availability of both health-damaging and health-promoting resources. For example, in women, the unadjusted OR (95 % confidence interval for stroke in relation to availability of fast-food restaurants was 1.18 (1.15–1.21. Similar patterns were observed in men, with an OR = 1.08 (1.05–1.10. However, the associations became weaker or disappeared after adjustment for neighborhood-level deprivation and individual-level age and income. Conclusions This six year follow-up study shows that neighborhood availability of potentially health-damaging as well as health-promoting resources may make a small contribution to the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. However, most of these associations were attenuated or disappeared after adjustment for neighborhood-level deprivation and individual-level age and income. Future studies are needed to further examine factors in the causal pathway between neighborhood deprivation and cardiovascular disease.

  20. Neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior among Latino adults in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Silfee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background U.S. Latinos experience high rates of cardio-metabolic diseases and have high rates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. Understanding the environmental factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviors among Latinos could inform future interventions. The purpose of this study is to explore the neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in a sample of U.S. Latino adults. Methods Cross-sectional study of 602 Latino adults in Lawrence, MA. Survey assessments of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and neighborhood environment were verbally administered. The neighborhood environment scale assessed violence, safety, aesthetic quality, walkability, availability of healthy foods, social cohesion, and activities with neighbors. Results After controlling forage, gender, education, body mass index (BMI, and smoking status, two variables were associated with the outcomes of interest. Living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in adequate levels of physical activity (>150 min per week, as recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM (OR = 1.403, p = .018; and greater frequency of activities with neighbors was associated with greater sedentary behavior (β = .072, p = .05. Conclusions There were different neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in this Latino community. Focusing on a greater understanding of the distinct social and physical environmental correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior may provide important insights for reducing CVD risk and health disparities among Latinos.

  1. Redes de cooperação no varejo alimentar de vizinhança: percepções dos associados Cooperative networks in the neighborhood food retail market: perceptions of the associates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario de Oliveira Lima Filho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar os impactos da incorporação de empresas varejistas a uma rede de cooperação de pequenos supermercados no que tange a sua identidade e à gestão operacional, bem como as perspectivas desses associados em relação à essa aliança estratégica. Para tanto, foi conduzido um desk research e um estudo multicaso junto a três empresas supermercadistas associadas à uma rede de cooperação de Campo Grande (MS. Os resultados mostram que uma maior eficiência operacional, um melhor posicionamento coletivo das empresas e uma maior alavancagem dos negócios sobrepõem a perda de imagem (marca das empresas individuais.This study aimed to identify how the incorporation of retailers into a cooperative network affects the individual identity of small supermarkets and what the associates' views are regarding this strategic alliance. A desk research was therefore carried out, as well as a multicase study at three associates of a cooperative food retail network in Brazil. The findings of this study indicate that the benefits of greater operational efficiency, better positioning and increased business leverage of the companies in the network compensate for the loss of their individual image (brand.

  2. Community-Based Soil Quality Assessment As a Tool for Designing an Urban Green Infrastructure Network to Manage Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, C.; Montgomery, J.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) may be the most practical approach for reducing contaminated runoff, providing ecosystem services, mitigating food deserts and creating community open spaces in urban areas. This project was funded by the USEPA's People-Prosperity-Planet (P3) program and was a partnership between a team of DePaul University undergraduates (the P3 team) and high school interns (Green Teens) and staff from the Gary Comer Youth Center (GCYC). GCYC is located in a low-income African-American community on Chicago's south side characterized by high crime, abandoned buildings, lack of green space and a food desert. The overaching project goal was to develop a network of Green Teens qualified to conduct soil quality assessment using USDA-NRCS protocols in order to let them develop GI plans to minimize storm water runoff and contaminant loadings, improve community and environmental health, and provide more equitable access to green space. Working with a USDA-ARS soil scientist from Washington State University, the P3 team conducted soil quality assessment on 116 soil samples collected among four abandoned residential lots owned by GCYC. Analytes included infiltration, bulk density, texture, pH, conductivity, aggregate stability, available nutrients, and total and bioavailable (PBET) lead. Soil pH on all lots is greater than 8.0, are low in organic matter, have little microbial respiration activity, are enriched in available phosphorus, and have average total lead values ranging from 24-2,700 mg/kg. PBET lead was less than 40% on most lots. Regardless, these soils will need to be remediated by adding carbon-rich materials such as biosolids prior to GI installation. Students enrolled in a landscape design course at DePaul developed 3-D models representing potential GI designs for one of the vacant lots that include strategies for immobilizing heavy metals, reducing runoff, and which are tied into an educational module for neighborhood school children.

  3. Beyond supermarkets: Food outlet location selection in four U.S. cities over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E.; Guilkey, David K.; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Gordon-Larsen, P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Understanding what influences where food outlets locate is important for mitigating disparities in access to healthy food outlets. However, few studies have examined how neighborhood characteristics influence the neighborhood food environment over time, and whether these relationships differ by neighborhood-level income. Methods Neighborhood-level data from four U.S. cities (Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; Oakland, CA) from 1986, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011 were used with two-step econometric models to estimate longitudinal associations between neighborhood-level characteristics (z-scores) and the log-transformed count/km2 (density) of food outlets within real-estate-derived neighborhoods. We examined associations with lagged neighborhood-level sociodemographics and lagged density of food outlets, with interaction terms for neighborhood-level income. Data were analyzed in 2016. Results Neighborhood-level income at earlier years was negatively associated with the current density of convenience stores (β= −0.27; 95% CI: −0.16, −0.38; p<0.001). The percentage of neighborhood white population was negatively associated with fast food restaurant density in low income neighborhoods (10th percentile of income: β= −0.17; 95% CI: −0.34, −0.002; p=0.05), and the density of smaller grocery stores across all income levels (β= −0.27; 95% CI: −0.45, −0.09; p=0.003). There was a lack of policy-relevant associations between the pre-existing food environment and the current density of food outlet types, including supermarkets. Conclusions Socioeconomically-disadvantaged populations and minority populations may attract ‘unhealthy’ food outlets over time. To support equal access to healthy food outlets, the availability of ‘less healthy’ food outlets types may be relatively more important than the potential lack of supermarkets or full-service restaurants. PMID:27865651

  4. Neighborhood Economic Enterprises: An Analysis, Survey, and Guide to Resources in Starting Up Neighborhood Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Neil G.

    This pamphlet provides information on the history of and current trends toward neighborhood economic enterprises and provides guidance for setting up such enterprises. A bibliography of books, articles, and newsletters that have information on how to start and sustain neighborhood businesses and cooperatives is provided. Also included is a list of…

  5. Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    To promote the benefits of green infrastructure, help communities overcome barriers to using GI, and encourage the use of GI to create sustainable and resilient water infrastructure that improves water quality and supports and revitalizes communities.

  6. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  7. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on April 16, 2015. [Database subscription]. Hartley L, Flowers N, Holmes J, et al. Green and black ... health care provider. The mention of any product, service, or therapy is not an endorsement by NCCIH. ...

  8. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  9. A qualitative examination of home and neighborhood environments for obesity prevention in rural adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballard Denise

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The home and neighborhood environments may be important in obesity prevention by virtue of food availability, food preparation, cues and opportunities for physical activity, and family support. To date, little research has examined how home and neighborhood environments in rural communities may support or hinder healthy eating and physical activity. This paper reports characteristics of rural homes and neighborhoods related to physical activity environments, availability of healthy foods, and family support for physical activity and maintaining an ideal body weight. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 African American and White adults over 50 years of age in two rural counties in Southwest Georgia. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two members of the research team using standard methods of qualitative analysis. Themes were then identified and data matrices were used to identify patterns by gender or race. Results Neighborhood features that supported physical activity were plenty of land, minimal traffic and living in a safe and friendly neighborhood. The major barrier was lack of recreational facilities. The majority of participants were not physically active with their family members due to schedule conflicts and lack of time. Family member-initiated efforts to encourage physical activity met with mixed results, with refusals, procrastination, and increased activity all reported. Participants generally reported it was easy to get healthy foods, although cost barriers and the need to drive to a larger town for a supermarket with good variety were noted as obstacles. Family conversations about weight had occurred for about half of the participants, with reactions ranging from agreement about the need to lose weight to frustration. Conclusion This study suggests that successful environmental change strategies to promote physical activity and healthy eating in rural neighborhoods may

  10. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  11. No neighborhood is an island: incorporating distal neighborhood effects into multilevel studies of child developmental competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hayslett-McCall, Karen L; O'Campo, Patricia J

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether incorporating information regarding neighborhoods which were more distal to the child's neighborhood added any explanatory power to models of child cognitive competence. Participants included a sample of young African-American children living in an urban setting in the northeast United States. Spatial geographic methods were used to estimate the concentration of economic disadvantage, population instability, and crime in the neighborhoods surrounding the child's residence, and multilevel modeling methods were used to estimate the contribution of these factors to between-neighborhood variance in child cognitive scores. Results indicated that the conditions of distal neighborhoods were related to cognitive scores among the preschooler-age children in this sample.

  12. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI-FRAKSI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle Linn TERHADAP PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Fractionated Green Sirih (Piper betle Linn Extract Against Food Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggy T. Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of green sirih (Piper betle Linn extract by chromatography colom using the mixture of several solvents i.e. chloroform, ethanol and acetic acid (4:1:1 resulted in 17 fractions. All fractions showed antibacterial activities but only 2 fractions (fraction 3 and fraction 4 showed the highest inhibition towards the six tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Among the tested bacteria, all fractions of green sirih extracts showed the most effective inhibition against, Salmonella Typhimurium with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 10 mm to 26 mm. Identification using GC-MS found that fraction 3 and fraction 4 contained chavicol; dodecanoic acid, myristic, palmitic and oleic acid.

  13. Evaluating street view exposure measures of visible green space for health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Andrew; Hystad, Perry

    2018-01-19

    Urban green space, or natural environments, are associated with multiple physical and mental health outcomes. Several proposed pathways of action for these benefits (e.g., stress reduction and attention restoration) require visual perception of green space; however, existing green space exposure measures commonly used in epidemiological studies do not capture street-scale exposures. We downloaded 254 Google Street View (GSV) panorama images from Portland, Oregon and calculated percent of green in each image, called Green View Index (GVI). For these locations we also calculated satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), % tree cover, % green space, % street tree buffering, distance to parks, and several neighborhood socio-economic variables. Correlations between the GVI and other green space measures were low (-0.02 to 0.50), suggesting GSV-based measures captured unique information about green space exposures. We further developed a GVI:NDVI ratio, which was associated with the amount of vertical green space in an image. The GVI and GVI:NDVI ratio were weakly related to neighborhood socioeconomic status and are therefore less susceptible to confounding in health studies compared to other green space measures. GSV measures captured unique characteristics of the green space environment and offer a new approach to examine green space and health associations in epidemiological research.

  14. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  15. Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

  16. Confirmatory factor analysis of Post-Occupancy Evaluation Model (POEM) for sustainable neighborhood development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, R.; Thadaniti, S.; Abdullah, J.; Ahmad, N.; Ishak, N. M.

    2018-02-01

    The sustainable urban development growth in the ASEAN region has accelerated tremendously. More demand on the sustainable development has led to bigger market driven certified green neighborhood and buildings. However, there is a lack of post-occupancy evaluation study conducted in assessing the end-users perspective on the certified sustainable neighborhood development. This paper aims to investigate the end-users point of view on sustainable dimension pillar (SDP) adaptation based on environment dimension, social dimension and economic dimension using Post-Occupancy Evaluation Model (POEM) framework. The research methodology employed stakeholders-Inclusion Approach survey questionnaires in order to obtained the sustainable dimensional adaptation score. The results show that there is sustainable dimension gap in POEM evaluation, hence, suggested the pre- occupancy criteria did not fulfill the SDP adaptation and pre-occupancy criteria and variables if differ from post-occupancy criteria and variables.

  17. Exploring obesogenic food environments in Edmonton, Canada: the association between socioeconomic factors and fast-food outlet access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Eric; Raine, Kim; Spence, John C; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E

    2008-01-01

    To explore the relationship between the placement of fast-food outlets and neighborhood-level socioeconomic variables by determining if indicators of lower socioeconomic status were predictive of exposure to fast food. A descriptive analysis of the fast-food environment in a Canadian urban center, using secondary analysis of census data and Geographic Information Systems technology. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Neighborhoods were classified as High, Medium, or Low Access based on the number of fast-food opportunities available to them. Neighborhood-level socioeconomic data (income, education, employment, immigration status, and housing tenure) from the 2001 Statistics Canada federal census were obtained. A discriminant function analysis was used to determine if any association existed between neighborhood demographic characteristics and accessibility of fast-food outlets. Significant differences were found between the three levels of fast-food accessibility across the socioeconomic variables, with successively greater percentages of unemployment, low income, and renters in neighborhoods with increasingly greater access to fast-food restaurants. A high score on several of these variables was predictive of greater access to fast-food restaurants. Although a causal inference is not possible, these results suggest that the distribution of fast-food outlets relative to neighborhood-level socioeconomic status requires further attention in the process of explaining the increased rates of obesity observed in relatively deprived populations.

  18. Comparison of green sample preparation techniques in the analysis of pyrethrins and pyrethroids in baby food by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrarca, Mateus Henrique; Ccanccapa-Cartagena, Alexander; Masiá, Ana; Godoy, Helena Teixeira; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-05-12

    A new selective and sensitive liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous analysis of natural pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids residues in baby food. In this study, two sample preparation methods based on ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) and salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) were optimized, and then, compared regarding the performance criteria. Appropriate linearity in solvent and matrix-based calibrations, and suitable recoveries (75-120%) and precision (RSD values≤16%) were achieved for selected analytes by any of the sample preparation procedures. Both methods provided the analytical selectivity required for the monitoring of the insecticides in fruit-, cereal- and milk-based baby foods. SALLE, recognized by cost-effectiveness, and simple and fast execution, provided a lower enrichment factor, consequently, higher limits of quantification (LOQs) were obtained. Some of them too high to meet the strict legislation regarding baby food. Nonetheless, the combination of ultrasound and DLLME also resulted in a high sample throughput and environmental-friendly method, whose LOQs were lower than the default maximum residue limit (MRL) of 10μgkg -1 set by European Community for baby foods. In the commercial baby foods analyzed, cyhalothrin and etofenprox were detected in different samples, demonstrating the suitability of proposed method for baby food control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nirvana Neighborhood: Public/private tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Ardenghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our object of study is the neighborhood called Nirvana [in City Bell, district of La Plata], and our aim is to describe the traces left by the landscape dynamics which mark different historical periods, and to relate the concept of landscape with this neighborhood's current territorial configuration. Framed in Cultural Geography, we go back to Milton Santos, Paul Claval and Mario Margulis' perspective, from the category of landscape. The methodology used was qualitative, and it entailed observation and photographic records of the area, informal talks with neighbors, compilation of documents and journalistic material about the area, all of which allowed us to dig deep into what is "public" and what is "private" in this neighborhood, where and how the "outside" and the "inside" are established and to decide whether its aim is being an open and including landscape or if what they are actually after is pushing strangers away by means of invisible barriers

  20. The Effect of Neighborhood Recorded Crime on Fear: Does Neighborhood Social Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Breetzke, Gregory; Ivory, Vivienne

    2015-09-01

    A number of individual and neighborhood-level factors may influence the relationship between recorded crime in one's neighborhood and fear of crime. Understanding these factors may assist in reducing fear, which has been associated with poorer physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of recorded crime rates on fear differs based on the neighborhood social context (social fragmentation) using hierarchical regression modelling, with separate analyses by crime type. Recorded crimes (2008-2010) and national (New Zealand) survey data were used. Higher crime in a neighborhood was associated with higher fear of crime, with only small effect size differences in feelings of fear by recorded type of crime. However, when stratified, the associations between violent and drug/alcohol crimes and fear of crime were larger for those living in highly fragmented neighborhoods compared with less fragmented neighborhoods. Efforts to alleviate fear of crime should focus on the broader neighborhood social context in which these feelings are espoused.

  1. Neighborhood Concentrated Disadvantage and Dating Violence among Urban Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Neighborhood Social Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Gregory, Joshua; E Schoeny, Michael

    2018-03-14

    The link between relationship violence and aspects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (e.g., percent of unemployed adults, percent of families below poverty level), has been established. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology. Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context. Participants included 605 adult residents in 30 census tracts and 203 adolescents from neighborhoods on the West and South sides of Chicago. Neighborhood-level concentrated disadvantage was measured via Census data, adult residents reported on neighborhood social processes, and youth reported on dating violence. Informal social control was negatively associated with dating violence, and social cohesion was positively associated with dating violence. A multilevel mediation model showed that concentrated disadvantage was related to higher levels of dating violence via lower levels of informal social control. These results extend social disorganization theory to dating violence within an urban context, while also highlighting the important role of neighborhood processes on relationship violence. Implications for research and intervention programming are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  2. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city-wide assessment of student’s perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3rd-8th graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students’ self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2%-8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16%-22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children’s academic performance. PMID:21197388

  3. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  4. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of the Neighborhood Environment on Recreational Walking within the Neighborhood: Results from RESIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley; Knuiman, Matthew; Divitini, Mark; Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Boruff, Bryan; Bull, Fiona; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-07-12

    There is limited longitudinal evidence confirming the role of neighborhood environment attributes in encouraging people to walk more or if active people simply choose to live in activity-friendly neighborhoods. Natural experiments of policy changes to create more walkable communities provide stronger evidence for a causal effect of neighborhood environments on residents' walking. We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between objective and perceived neighborhood environment measures and neighborhood recreational walking. We analyzed longitudinal data collected over 8 yr (four surveys) from the RESIDential Environments (RESIDE) Study (Perth, Australia, 2003-2012). At each time point, participants reported the frequency and total minutes of recreational walking/week within their neighborhood and neighborhood environment perceptions. Objective measures of the neighborhood environment were generated using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Local recreational walking was influenced by objectively measured access to a medium-/large-size park, beach access, and higher street connectivity, which was reduced when adjusted for neighborhood perceptions. In adjusted models, positive perceptions of access to a park and beach, higher street connectivity, neighborhood esthetics, and safety from crime were independent determinants of increased neighborhood recreational walking. Local recreational walking increased by 9 min/wk (12% increase in frequency) for each additional perceived neighborhood attribute present. Our findings provide urban planners and policy makers with stronger causal evidence of the positive impact of well-connected neighborhoods and access to local parks of varying sizes on local residents' recreational walking and health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP823.

  5. Dimensionality Reduction by Weighted Connections between Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuding Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensionality reduction is the transformation of high-dimensional data into a meaningful representation of reduced dimensionality. This paper introduces a dimensionality reduction technique by weighted connections between neighborhoods to improve K-Isomap method, attempting to preserve perfectly the relationships between neighborhoods in the process of dimensionality reduction. The validity of the proposal is tested by three typical examples which are widely employed in the algorithms based on manifold. The experimental results show that the local topology nature of dataset is preserved well while transforming dataset in high-dimensional space into a new dataset in low-dimensionality by the proposed method.

  6. Green Power Partnership Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  7. Beyond Supermarkets: Food Outlet Location Selection in Four U.S. Cities Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Guilkey, David K; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-03-01

    Understanding what influences where food outlets locate is important for mitigating disparities in access to healthy food outlets. However, few studies have examined how neighborhood characteristics influence the neighborhood food environment over time, and whether these relationships differ by neighborhood-level income. Neighborhood-level data from four U.S. cities (Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; Oakland, CA) from 1986, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011 were used with two-step econometric models to estimate longitudinal associations between neighborhood-level characteristics (z-scores) and the log-transformed count/km 2 (density) of food outlets within real estate-derived neighborhoods. Associations were examined with lagged neighborhood-level sociodemographics and lagged density of food outlets, with interaction terms for neighborhood-level income. Data were analyzed in 2016. Neighborhood-level income at earlier years was negatively associated with the current density of convenience stores (β= -0.27, 95% CI= -0.16, -0.38, pfast food restaurant density in low-income neighborhoods (10th percentile of income: β= -0.17, 95% CI= -0.34, -0.002, p=0.05), and the density of smaller grocery stores across all income levels (β= -0.27, 95% CI= -0.45, -0.09, p=0.003). There was a lack of policy-relevant associations between the pre-existing food environment and the current density of food outlet types, including supermarkets. Socioeconomically disadvantaged and minority populations may attract "unhealthy" food outlets over time. To support equal access to healthy food outlets, the availability of "less healthy" food outlets types may be relatively more important than the potential lack of supermarkets or full-service restaurants. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Restaurants in the Neighborhood, Eating Away from Home and BMI in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xu; Zhong, Li; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Tu, Huakang; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between environmental risk factors, eating away from home, and increasing BMI of Chinese adults. Participants were selected from the recent four waves (2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). 10633 participants, including 5084 men and 5549 women, were used in the analysis. 24-h dietary recall data for three consecutive days with information on the time and place of consumption were collected. Nearby restaurants were measured by the number of fast food outlets, indoor restaurants, and food stands in the neighborhood. Random effects multivariable regression was used to assess associations between these variables. People living in neighborhoods with large numbers of indoor restaurants are more likely to eat away from home (pbreakfast away from home contributes to BMI increase for men (pbreakfast away from home is positively associated with BMI for Chinese men. Labeling energy and portion size for the dishes served in indoor restaurants is recommended in China.

  9. A Picture of the Healthful Food Environment in Two Diverse Urban Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Local food environments influence fresh produce purchase and consumption, and previous research has found disparities in local food environments by income and ethnicity. Other existing studies have begun to quantify the distribution of food sources, but there has been limited attention to important features or types of healthful food that are available or their quality or cost. Two studies assessed the type, quantity, quality and cost of healthful food from two diverse urban cities, Kansas City, Kansas and Missouri and Honolulu, Hawaii, and evaluated differences by neighborhood income and ethnic composition. Method A total of 343 food stores in urban neighborhoods were assessed using the one-page Understanding Neighborhood Determinants of Obesity (UNDO Food Stores Assessment (FSA measuring healthful foods. US Census data were used to define median household income and ethnic minority concentration. Results In Study 1, most low socioeconomic status (SES, high ethnic minority neighborhoods had primarily convenience, liquor or small grocery stores. Quality of produce was typically lower, and prices of some foods were more than in comparison neighborhoods. In Study 2, low SES neighborhoods had more convenience and grocery stores. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets had the best produce availability and quality, and farmers’ markets and pharmacies had the lowest prices. Conclusions Messages emphasizing eating more fruits and vegetables are not realistic in urban, low SES, high ethnic concentration neighborhoods. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets provided the best opportunities for fresh produce. Increasing access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets or reducing prices could improve the local food environment.

  10. A Picture of the Healthful Food Environment in Two Diverse Urban Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local food environments influence fresh produce purchase and consumption, and previous research has found disparities in local food environments by income and ethnicity. Other existing studies have begun to quantify the distribution of food sources, but there has been limited attention to important features or types of healthful food that are available or their quality or cost. Two studies assessed the type, quantity, quality and cost of healthful food from two diverse urban cities, Kansas City, Kansas and Missouri and Honolulu, Hawaii, and evaluated differences by neighborhood income and ethnic composition. Method: A total of 343 food stores in urban neighborhoods were assessed using the one-page Understanding Neighborhood Determinants of Obesity (UNDO Food Stores Assessment (FSA measuring healthful foods. US Census data were used to define median household income and ethnic minority concentration. Results: In Study 1, most low socioeconomic status (SES, high ethnic minority neighborhoods had primarily convenience, liquor or small grocery stores. Quality of produce was typically lower, and prices of some foods were more than in comparison neighborhoods. In Study 2, low SES neighborhoods had more convenience and grocery stores. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets had the best produce availability and quality, and farmers’ markets and pharmacies had the lowest prices. Conclusions: Messages emphasizing eating more fruits and vegetables are not realistic in urban, low SES, high ethnic concentration neighborhoods. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets provided the best opportunities for fresh produce. Increasing access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets or reducing prices could improve the local food environment.

  11. Aging, Neighborhood Attachment, and Fear of Crime: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Sangmoon

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the reciprocal effects between fear of crime and neighborhood attachment because aging is a critical factor in both discussions of fear of crime and neighborhood attachment (friendship, neighboring, social cohesion and trust, informal social control, and participation in neighborhood watch program). Using data from…

  12. A note on neighborhood total domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The minimum cardinality of a NTDS of is called the neighborhood total domination number of and is denoted by nt(). In this paper, we obtain sharp bounds for the neighborhood total domination number of a tree. We also prove that the neighborhood total domination number is equal to the domination number in ...

  13. India and the Green Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  14. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  15. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  16. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  17. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  18. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  19. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  20. Greening infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available , and coal, with a concomitant release of greenhouse gases. Green infrastructure seeks to perform those functions in a manner that, at the very least, minimises its impact on the natural environment and, at best, enhances the quality of the natural...

  1. Neighborhood Interventions to Reduce Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; Andreyeva, Elena; South, Eugenia C; MacDonald, John M; Branas, Charles C

    2018-01-12

    Violence is a widespread problem that affects the physical, mental, and social health of individuals and communities. Violence comes with an immense economic cost to its victims and society at large. Although violence interventions have traditionally targeted individuals, changes to the built environment in places where violence occurs show promise as practical, sustainable, and high-impact preventive measures. This review examines studies that use quasi-experimental or experimental designs to compare violence outcomes for treatment and control groups before and after a change is implemented in the built environment. The most consistent evidence exists in the realm of housing and blight remediation of buildings and land. Some evidence suggests that reducing alcohol availability, improving street connectivity, and providing green housing environments can reduce violent crimes. Finally, studies suggest that neither transit changes nor school openings affect community violence. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 39 is April 1, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  2. 76 FR 13152 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... to attain an excellent education and successfully transition to college and a career. A Promise... parents or family members who report talking with their child about the importance of college and career... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION RIN 1855-ZA07 Promise Neighborhoods Program Catalog of Federal Domestic...

  3. Neighborhood Bridges: 2012-2013 Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood Bridges is a nationally recognized literacy program using storytelling and creative drama to help children develop their critical literacy skills and to transform them into storytellers of their own lives. In 2012-2013, a total of 640 students in grades three through six from twenty-three classrooms in eleven schools across the…

  4. Neighborhood Bridges: 2010-2011 Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Debra

    2011-01-01

    In 2010-2011, students in twenty-five classrooms from eleven schools in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan area participated in The Children's Theatre Company's Neighborhood Bridges (Bridges) program. The Children's Theatre Company contracted with the University of Minnesota's Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement (CAREI) to…

  5. 76 FR 39589 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of final priorities, requirements... Dropout/Graduation Crisis Among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Failure to Respond Places the... success of Promise Neighborhoods will require the use of both short-term and long-term goals to measure...

  6. Neighborhood Characteristics and Disability in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magda; Frye, Victoria; Lovasi, Gina S.; Ompad, Danielle; Rundle, Andrew; Vlahov, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the influence of the residential neighborhood of older adults on the prevalence of disability. Methods We combined Census data on disability in older adults living in New York City with environmental information from a comprehensive geospatial database. We used factor analysis to derive dimensions of compositional and physical neighborhood characteristics and linear regression to model their association with levels of disability. Measures of neighborhood collective efficacy were added to these models to explore the impact of the social environment. Results Low neighborhood socioeconomic status, residential instability, living in areas with low proportions of foreign born and high proportions of Black residents, and negative street characteristics were associated with higher prevalence of both “physical” disability and “going outside the home” disability. High crime levels were additionally associated with physical disability, although this relationship disappeared when misdemeanor arrests were removed from the crime variable. Low levels of collective efficacy were associated with more going-outside-the-home disability, with racial/ethnic composition dropping out of this model to be replaced by an interaction term. Conclusion The urban environment may have a substantial impact on whether an older adult with a given level of functional impairment is able to age actively and remain independent. PMID:19181694

  7. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  8. Social Norms and the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables across New York City Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Donglan; Pagán, José A

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of developing many chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While five or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day are recommended, only 50 % of New York City (NYC) residents consume two or more servings per day. In addition, there is wide variation in dietary behaviors across different neighborhoods in NYC. Using a validated agent-based model and data from 34 NYC neighborhoods, we simulate how a mass media and nutrition education campaign strengthening positive social norms about food consumption may potentially increase the proportion of the population who consume two or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day in NYC. We found that the proposed intervention results in substantial increases in daily fruit and vegetable consumption, but the campaign may be less effective in neighborhoods with relatively low education levels or a relatively high proportion of male residents. A well-designed, validated agent-based model has the potential to provide insights on the impact of an intervention targeting social norms before it is implemented and shed light on the important neighborhood factors that may affect the efficacy of the intervention.

  9. Association between the neighborhood obesogenic environment and colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canchola, Alison J; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Yang, Juan; Albright, Cheryl; Hertz, Andrew; Park, Song-Yi; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Monroe, Kristine R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Wilkens, Lynne R; Cheng, Iona

    2017-10-01

    Information on the role of the neighborhood environment and colorectal cancer risk is limited. We investigated the association between a comprehensive suite of possible obesogenic neighborhood attributes (socioeconomic status, population density, restaurant and retail food environments, numbers of recreational facilities and businesses, commute patterns, traffic density, and street connectivity) and colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Among 81,197 eligible participants living in California (35,397 males and 45,800 females), 1973 incident cases (981 males and 992 females) of invasive colorectal cancer were identified between 1993 and 2010. Separately for males and females, multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for colorectal cancer risk overall and by racial/ethnic group (African American, Japanese American, Latino, white). In males, higher traffic density was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (HR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.61, p=0.03, for quintile 5 vs. quintile 1; p-trend=0.06). While this association may be due to chance, this pattern was seen (albeit non-statistically significant) in all racial/ethnic groups except whites. There were no other significant associations between other neighborhood obesogenic attributes and colorectal cancer risk. Findings from our large racial/ethnically diverse cohort suggest neighborhood obesogenic characteristics are not strongly associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Healthy food access for urban food desert residents: examination of the food environment, food purchasing practices, diet, and body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Zenk, Shannon N.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Collins, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Provide a richer understanding of food access and purchasing practices among U.S. urban food desert residents and their association with diet and body mass. Design Data on food purchasing practices, dietary intake, height, and weight from the primary food shopper in randomly selected households (n=1372) was collected. Audits of all neighborhood food stores (n=24) and the most-frequented stores outside the neighborhood (n=16) were conducted. Aspects of food access and purchasing practices and relationships among them were examined and tests of their associations with dietary quality and body mass index (BMI) were conducted. Setting Two low-income predominantly African-American neighborhoods with limited access to healthy food in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Subjects Household food shoppers. Results Only one neighborhood outlet sold fresh produce; nearly all respondents did major food shopping outside the neighborhood. Although the nearest full-service supermarket was an average of 2.6 km from their home, respondents shopped an average of 6.0 km from home. The average trip was by car, took approximately two hours roundtrip, and occurred two to four times per month. Respondents spent approximately $37 per person per week on food. Those who made longer trips had access to cars, shopped less often, and spent less money per person. Those who traveled further when they shopped had higher BMIs, but most residents already shopped where healthy foods were available, and physical distance from full service groceries was unrelated to weight or dietary quality. Conclusions Improved access to healthy foods is the target of current policies meant to improve health. However, distance to the closest supermarket might not be as important as previously thought and thus policy and interventions that focus merely on improving access may not be effective. PMID:25475559

  11. 21 CFR 73.2327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.2327 Section 73.2327... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens shall conform in identify and specifications to the...

  12. 21 CFR 73.1327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.1327 Section 73.1327... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium oxide greens is principally chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3). (2) Color additive...

  13. 21 CFR 73.3111 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.3111 Section 73.3111... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3111 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens (chromic oxide) (CAS Reg. No. 1308-38-9...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3·XH2O...

  15. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  16. Does neighborhood environment differentiate intimate partner femicides from other femicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Layde, Peter M; Hamberger, L Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared with other femicides, whereas neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. In silico genomic insights into aspects of food safety and defense mechanisms of a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10 isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmate Abriouel

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10, isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives, exhibited high probiotic potential. The genome sequence of L. pentosus MP-10 is currently considered the largest genome among lactobacilli, highlighting the microorganism's ecological flexibility and adaptability. Here, we analyzed the complete genome sequence for the presence of acquired antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants to understand their defense mechanisms and explore its putative safety in food. The annotated genome sequence revealed evidence of diverse mobile genetic elements, such as prophages, transposases and transposons involved in their adaptation to brine-associated niches. In-silico analysis of L. pentosus MP-10 genome sequence identified a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/cas (CRISPR-associated protein genes as an immune system against foreign genetic elements, which consisted of six arrays (4-12 repeats and eleven predicted cas genes [CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 consisted of 3 (Type II-C and 8 (Type I genes] with high similarity to L. pentosus KCA1. Bioinformatic analyses revealed L. pentosus MP-10 to be absent of acquired antibiotic resistance genes, and most resistance genes were related to efflux mechanisms; no virulence determinants were found in the genome. This suggests that L. pentosus MP-10 could be considered safe and with high-adaptation potential, which could facilitate its application as a starter culture and probiotic in food preparations.

  18. In silico genomic insights into aspects of food safety and defense mechanisms of a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10 isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Pérez Montoro, Beatriz; Casado Muñoz, María Del Carmen; Knapp, Charles W; Gálvez, Antonio; Benomar, Nabil

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10, isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives, exhibited high probiotic potential. The genome sequence of L. pentosus MP-10 is currently considered the largest genome among lactobacilli, highlighting the microorganism's ecological flexibility and adaptability. Here, we analyzed the complete genome sequence for the presence of acquired antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants to understand their defense mechanisms and explore its putative safety in food. The annotated genome sequence revealed evidence of diverse mobile genetic elements, such as prophages, transposases and transposons involved in their adaptation to brine-associated niches. In-silico analysis of L. pentosus MP-10 genome sequence identified a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/cas (CRISPR-associated protein genes) as an immune system against foreign genetic elements, which consisted of six arrays (4-12 repeats) and eleven predicted cas genes [CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 consisted of 3 (Type II-C) and 8 (Type I) genes] with high similarity to L. pentosus KCA1. Bioinformatic analyses revealed L. pentosus MP-10 to be absent of acquired antibiotic resistance genes, and most resistance genes were related to efflux mechanisms; no virulence determinants were found in the genome. This suggests that L. pentosus MP-10 could be considered safe and with high-adaptation potential, which could facilitate its application as a starter culture and probiotic in food preparations.

  19. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  20. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    of green architecture. The paper argues that this greenification of facades is insufficient. The green is only a skin cladding the exterior envelope without having a spatial significance. Through the paper it is proposed to flip the order of words from green architecture to architectural green....... Architectural green could signify green architecture with inclusive interrelations between green and space, built and unbuilt, inside and outside. The aim of the term is to reflect a new focus in green architecture – its architectural performance. Ecological issues are not underestimated or ignored, but so far...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One...

  1. Race, Ethnicity, Income Concentration and 10-Year Change in Urban Greenness in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan A. Casey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cross-sectional studies suggest urban greenness is unequally distributed by neighborhood demographics. However, the extent to which inequalities in greenness have changed over time remains unknown. Methods: We estimated 2001 and 2011 greenness using Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite-derived normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI in 59,483 urban census tracts in the contiguous U.S. We fit spatial error models to estimate the association between baseline census tract demographic composition in 2000 and (1 2001 greenness and (2 change in greenness between 2001 and 2011. Results: In models adjusted for population density, climatic factors, housing tenure, and Index of Concentration at the Extremes for income (ICE, an SD increase in percent White residents (a 30% increase in 2000 was associated with 0.021 (95% CI: 0.018, 0.023 higher 2001 NDVI. We observed a stepwise reduction in 2001 NDVI with increased concentration of poverty. Tracts with a higher proportion of Hispanic residents in 2000 lost a small, statistically significant amount of greenness between 2001 and 2011 while tracts with higher proportions of Whites experienced a small, statistically significant increase in greenness over the same period. Conclusions: Census tracts with a higher proportion of racial/ethnic minorities, compared to a higher proportion of White residents, had less greenness in 2001 and lost more greenness between 2001 and 2011. Policies are needed to increase greenness, a health-promoting neighborhood asset, in disadvantaged communities.

  2. Building a National Neighborhood Dataset From Geotagged Twitter Data for Indicators of Happiness, Diet, and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Li, Dapeng; Meng, Hsien-Wen; Kath, Suraj; Nsoesie, Elaine; Li, Feifei; Wen, Ming

    2016-10-17

    Studies suggest that where people live, play, and work can influence health and well-being. However, the dearth of neighborhood data, especially data that is timely and consistent across geographies, hinders understanding of the effects of neighborhoods on health. Social media data represents a possible new data resource for neighborhood research. The aim of this study was to build, from geotagged Twitter data, a national neighborhood database with area-level indicators of well-being and health behaviors. We utilized Twitter's streaming application programming interface to continuously collect a random 1% subset of publicly available geolocated tweets for 1 year (April 2015 to March 2016). We collected 80 million geotagged tweets from 603,363 unique Twitter users across the contiguous United States. We validated our machine learning algorithms for constructing indicators of happiness, food, and physical activity by comparing predicted values to those generated by human labelers. Geotagged tweets were spatially mapped to the 2010 census tract and zip code areas they fall within, which enabled further assessment of the associations between Twitter-derived neighborhood variables and neighborhood demographic, economic, business, and health characteristics. Machine labeled and manually labeled tweets had a high level of accuracy: 78% for happiness, 83% for food, and 85% for physical activity for dichotomized labels with the F scores 0.54, 0.86, and 0.90, respectively. About 20% of tweets were classified as happy. Relatively few terms (less than 25) were necessary to characterize the majority of tweets on food and physical activity. Data from over 70,000 census tracts from the United States suggest that census tract factors like percentage African American and economic disadvantage were associated with lower census tract happiness. Urbanicity was related to higher frequency of fast food tweets. Greater numbers of fast food restaurants predicted higher frequency of fast

  3. Neighborhood Influences on Late Life Cognition in the ACTIVE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Sisco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low neighborhood-level socioeconomic status has been associated with poorer health, reduced physical activity, increased psychological stress, and less neighborhood-based social support. These outcomes are correlates of late life cognition, but few studies have specifically investigated the neighborhood as a unique source of explanatory variance in cognitive aging. This study supplemented baseline cognitive data from the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study with neighborhood-level data to investigate (1 whether neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP predicts cognitive level, and if so, whether it differentially predicts performance in general and specific domains of cognition and (2 whether neighborhood SEP predicts differences in response to short-term cognitive intervention for memory, reasoning, or processing speed. Neighborhood SEP positively predicted vocabulary, but did not predict other general or specific measures of cognitive level, and did not predict individual differences in response to cognitive intervention.

  4. Neighborhood selection and the social reproduction of concentrated racial inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Robert J; Sharkey, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we consider neighborhood selection as a social process central to the reproduction of racial inequality in neighborhood attainment. We formulate a multilevel model that decomposes multiple sources of stability and change in longitudinal trajectories of achieved neighborhood income among nearly 4000 Chicago families followed for up to seven years wherever they moved in the United States. Even after we adjust for a comprehensive set of fixed and time-varying covariates, racial inequality in neighborhood attainment is replicated by movers and stayers alike. We also study the emergent consequences of mobility pathways for neighborhood-level structure. The temporal sorting by individuals of different racial and ethnic groups combines to yield a structural pattern offlows between neighborhoods that generates virtually nonoverlapping income distributions and little exchange between minority and white areas. Selection and racially shaped hierarchies are thus mutually constituted and account for an apparent equilibrium of neighborhood inequality.

  5. Community adaptations to an impending food desert in rural Appalachia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne C; Rogalla, Denver; Spencer, Dustin; Zia, Nida; Griffith, Brian N; Heinsberg, Haylee B

    2016-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) describes a food desert as an urban neighborhood or rural town without ready access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food. An estimated 2.3 million rural Americans live in food deserts. One goal of the USDA is to eliminate food deserts. However, at a time when some food deserts are being eliminated, hundreds of grocery stores are closing, causing other food deserts to arise. The literature is scarce on how a community adapts to an impending food desert. Alderson, West Virginia, USA (population 1184) rallied to face an impending food desert when the only grocery store in town closed in December 2014. This study investigated how this small rural community adapted to its oncoming food desert. A community member survey was administered to 155 Alderson families (49%) to determine how the new food desert affected family food acquisition and storage behaviors. A restaurant survey was given to the town's four restaurants to determine how the food desert affected their businesses. Sales data for a new food hub (Green Grocer) was obtained to see if this new initiative offset the negative effects of the food desert. ANOVA and t-tests were used to compare group numerical data. Two group response rates were compared by testing the equality of two proportions. Categorical data were analyzed with the χ2 or frequency distribution analysis. Group averages are reported as mean ± standard error of the mean. Significance for all analyses was set at pp=0.16) from the number before the food desert (2.8±0.3). Price comparisons among the Green Grocer and three distant supermarkets showed a 30% savings by traveling to distant supermarkets. Frequency of monthly restaurant visits did not change after the emergence of the food desert (2.98±0.54 vs 3.05±0.51, p=0.85). However, restaurant patrons requested to buy fresh produce and dairy from the restaurants to use for their own home cooking. Food pantry use increased by 43%, with

  6. Neighborhood walkability, physical activity, and walking behavior: the Swedish Neighborhood and Physical Activity (SNAP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Kristina; Eriksson, Ulf; Kawakami, Naomi; Skog, Lars; Ohlsson, Henrik; Arvidsson, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    More knowledge concerning the association between physical activity and objectively measured attributes of the built environment is needed. Previous studies on the association between objectively measured neighborhood walkability, physical activity, and walking have been conducted in the U.S. or Australia and research findings are available from only one country in Europe - Belgium. The first aim of this Swedish study of 2269 adults was to examine the associations between neighborhood walkability and walking for active transportation or leisure, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and whether these hypothesized associations are moderated by age, gender, income, marital status and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status. The second aim was to determine how much of the total variance of the walking and physical activity outcomes can be attributed to neighborhood-level differences. Neighborhood walkability was objectively measured by GIS methods. An index consisting of residential density, street connectivity, and land use mix was constructed to define 32 highly and less walkable neighborhoods in Stockholm City. MVPA was measured objectively during 7 days with an accelerometer and walking was assessed using the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Multilevel linear as well as logistic models (mixed-effects, mixed-distribution models) were used in the analysis. The statistically significant and "adjusted" results for individuals living in highly walkable neighborhoods, as compared to those living in less walkable neighborhoods, were: (1) 77% and 28% higher odds for walking for active transportation and walking for leisure, respectively, (2) 50 min more walking for active transportation/week, and (3) 3.1 min more MVPA/day. The proportion of the total variance at the neighborhood level was low and ranged between 0.0% and 2.1% in the adjusted models. The findings of the present study stress that future policies concerning the

  7. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  8. Greening the Hotel Operations: Puerto Princesa Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina S. Viernes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available - The study was conducted to assess the extent of implementation of green practices in the housekeeping and food and beverage departments among standard hotels in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan with respect to solid waste management, water conservation and energy utilization. The descriptive design was utilized in this research. Respondents of this study were the supervisors and staff of the Housekeeping and Food and Beverage Departments of the 13 standard hotels in Puerto Princesa City. Using total enumeration, 52 hoteliers were asked to answer the survey questionnaire to be able to come up with data needed in the study. Frequency counts, percentages, means and Analysis of Variance were used to interpret and analyze the data gathered. Among the three groups of green practices included in the study, solid waste management obtained the highest mean for both the housekeeping department and food and beverage department which indicates that green practices under this category are the most extensively implemented. Conversely, respondents from the housekeeping department rated green practices related to energy utilization as the least implemented while food and beverage department respondents revealed that green practices pertaining to water conservation are the least implemented. Using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA, the responses revealed that there is no significant difference in the extent of implementation of green practices in all the three categories that were studied within hotels. However, a significant difference among hotels was found out when it comes to the extent of implementation of green practices for the same categories.

  9. Can the Neighborhood Built Environment Make a Difference in Children's Development? Building the Research Agenda to Create Evidence for Place-Based Children's Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Karen; Badland, Hannah; Kvalsvig, Amanda; O'Connor, Meredith; Christian, Hayley; Woolcock, Geoffrey; Giles-Corti, Billie; Goldfeld, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Healthy child development is determined by a combination of physical, social, family, individual, and environmental factors. Thus far, the majority of child development research has focused on the influence of individual, family, and school environments and has largely ignored the neighborhood context despite the increasing policy interest. Yet given that neighborhoods are the locations where children spend large periods of time outside of home and school, it is plausible the physical design of neighborhoods (built environment), including access to local amenities, can affect child development. The relatively few studies exploring this relationship support associations between child development and neighborhood destinations, green spaces, interaction with nature, traffic exposure, and housing density. These studies emphasize the need to more deeply understand how child development outcomes might be influenced by the neighborhood built environment. Pursuing this research space is well aligned with the current global movements on livable and child-friendly cities. It has direct public policy impact by informing planning policies across a range of sectors (urban design and planning, transport, public health, and pediatrics) to implement place-based interventions and initiatives that target children's health and development at the community level. We argue for the importance of exploring the effect of the neighborhood built environment on child development as a crucial first step toward informing urban design principles to help reduce developmental vulnerability in children and to set optimal child development trajectories early. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Space, race, and poverty: Spatial inequalities in walkable neighborhood amenities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Whalen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Multiple and varied benefits have been suggested for increased neighborhood walkability. However, spatial inequalities in neighborhood walkability likely exist and may be attributable, in part, to residential segregation. OBJECTIVE Utilizing a spatial demographic perspective, we evaluated potential spatial inequalities in walkable neighborhood amenities across census tracts in Boston, MA (US. METHODS The independent variables included minority racial/ethnic population percentages and percent of families in poverty. Walkable neighborhood amenities were assessed with a composite measure. Spatial autocorrelation in key study variables were first calculated with the Global Moran's I statistic. Then, Spearman correlations between neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics and walkable neighborhood amenities were calculated as well as Spearman correlations accounting for spatial autocorrelation. We fit ordinary least squares (OLS regression and spatial autoregressive models when appropriate as a final step. RESULTS Significant positive spatial autocorrelation was found in neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. census tract percent Black, but not walkable neighborhood amenities or in the OLS regression residuals. Spearman correlations between neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics and walkable neighborhood amenities were not statistically significant, nor were neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics significantly associated with walkable neighborhood amenities in OLS regression models. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that there is residential segregation in Boston and that spatial inequalities do not necessarily show up using a composite measure. COMMENTS Future research in other geographic areas (including international contexts and using different definitions of neighborhoods (including small-area definitions should evaluate if spatial inequalities are found using composite measures, but also should

  11. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  12. Greening the global water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Falkenmark, M.; Gerten, D.; Gordon, L.; Karlberg, L.; Rockström, J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryRecent developments of global models and data sets enable a new, spatially explicit and process-based assessment of green and blue water in food production and trade. An initial intercomparison of a range of different (hydrological, vegetation, crop, water resources and economic) models, confirms that green water use in global crop production is about 4-5 times greater than consumptive blue water use. Hence, the full green-to-blue spectrum of agricultural water management options needs to be used when tackling the increasing water gap in food production. The different models calculate considerable potentials for complementing the conventional approach of adding irrigation, with measures to increase water productivity, such as rainwater harvesting, supplementary irrigation, vapour shift and soil and nutrient management. Several models highlight Africa, in particular sub-Saharan Africa, as a key region for improving water productivity in agriculture, by implementing these measures. Virtual water trade, mostly based on green water, helps to close the water gap in a number of countries. It is likely to become even more important in the future, when inequities in water availability are projected to grow, due to climate, population and other drivers of change. Further model developments and a rigorous green-blue water model intercomparison are proposed, to improve simulations at global and regional scale and to enable tradeoff analyses for the different adaptation options.

  13. Progress report on Green Deals 2013; Voortgangsrapportage Green Deals 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    In the Dutch governmental coalition agreement the Green Deal approach was announced in the autumn of 2010. The focus of the Green Deals is for people and companies to develop sustainable initiatives that contribute to economic growth. The Green Deal approach started with the theme energy, but has been extended with the themes biobased economy, climate, resources, buildings, food, mobility, water and biological diversity. This progress report provides an overview of the deals that this bottom-up approach has yielded. The report also provides information on the progress of the deals and the interim results of the approach and the individual deals. Also attention is paid to how the 146 Green Deals score on innovation and entrepreneurship [Dutch] In het regeerakkoord van het kabinet is in het najaar van 2010 de Green Deal-aanpak aangekondigd. Centraal in de aanpak staat dat mensen en bedrijven zoveel mogelijk ruimte krijgen voor eigen duurzame initiatieven die bijdragen aan economische groei. De aanpak is gestart vanuit het thema energie, maar beslaat inmiddels ook de thema's biobased economy, klimaat, grondstoffen, bouw, voedsel, mobiliteit, water en biodiversiteit. Deze voortgangsrapportage geeft een overzicht van de deals die deze bottom-up aanpak heeft opgeleverd. De rapportage informeert bovendien over de voortgang van de deals en over de tussentijdse resultaten van zowel de aanpak als de afzonderlijke deals. Ook wordt gekeken hoe de 146 Green Deals scoren op innovatief vermogen en ondernemerschap.

  14. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  15. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    of green architecture. The paper argues that this greenification of facades is insufficient. The green is only a skin cladding the exterior envelope without having a spatial significance. Through the paper it is proposed to flip the order of words from green architecture to architectural green...... that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...

  16. "The Good Thing": Mister Rogers' Neighborhood [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelevansky, Paul

    2004-06-01

    This article considers aspects of the methodology behind the PBS children's show Mister Rogers' Neighborhood. Too easily sentimentalized--and sometimes satirized--for his exploration of feelings and empathy, Fred Rogers in fact carefully structured each show around an investigation of semiotic, phenomenological, and epistemological concerns: the interpretation of images, words, things, events, and kinesthetic sensation that allows children (and adults) to locate themselves in their everyday experience. Mister Rogers explored both the tools and the considerations that facilitate our ability to negotiate relationships, navigate in space, assimilate desires and fears, and ultimately manifest thoughts, projects, and ideals in concrete form. The periodic insertion of graphic clip art in this essay is meant to enact examples of the kind of reflexive thinking that Mister Rogers' Neighborhood proposes and presents.

  17. Defensible Spaces in Philadelphia: Exploring Neighborhood Boundaries Through Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Kramer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Few spatial scales are as important to individual outcomes as the neighborhood. However, it is nearly impossible to define neighborhoods in a generalizable way. This article proposes that by shifting the focus to measuring neighborhood boundaries rather than neighborhoods, scholars can avoid the problem of the indefinable neighborhood and better approach questions of what predicts racial segregation across areas. By quantifying an externality space theory of neighborhood boundaries, this article introduces a novel form of spatial analysis to test where potential physical markers of neighborhood boundaries (major roads, rivers, railroads, and the like are associated with persistent racial boundaries between 1990 and 2010. Using Philadelphia as a case study, the paper identifies neighborhoods with persistent racial boundaries. It theorizes that local histories of white reactions to black in-migration explain which boundaries persistently resisted racial turnover, unlike the majority of Philadelphia’s neighborhoods, and that those racial boundaries shape the location, progress, and reaction to new residential development in those neighborhoods.

  18. Multiple dimensions of residential environments, neighborhood experiences, and jogging behavior in the RECORD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karusisi, Noëlla; Bean, Kathy; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Pannier, Bruno; Chaix, Basile

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between a broad range of environmental characteristics and jogging behavior while taking into account different complementary outcomes to describe the behavior. Using the RECORD Cohort Study (7290 participants, 2007-2008, Paris region, France), multilevel models were used to investigate individual/neighborhood variables associated with the probability of jogging; the time spent jogging; and the location of the practice. The presence and quality of green and open spaces was associated both with a greater probability of jogging [risk ratio (RR) for the first vs. the fourth quartile=1.22, 95% credible interval (CrI): 1.03-1.44] and with the practice of jogging within rather than outside the neighborhood (RR=1.29; 95% CrI: 1.10-1.53). Moreover, a high social cohesion and the presence of enjoyable places were associated with a higher probability of jogging (RR=1.15; 95% CrI: 1.00-1.31; RR=1.22; 95% CrI: 1.03-1.44) while the presence of parks or a lake increased the probability of jogging inside rather than outside the neighborhood (RR=1.29; 95% CrI: 1.10-1.53; RR=1.14; 95% CrI: 1.03-1.26). Paying attention to physical and social environments, related neighborhood experiences, and attitudes toward health may be an effective approach to promote outdoor physical activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neighborhood scale quantification of ecosystem goods and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services are those ecological structures and functions that humans can directly relate to their state of well-being. Ecosystem goods and services include, but are not limited to, a sufficient fresh water supply, fertile lands to produce agricultural products, shading, air and water of sufficient quality for designated uses, flood water retention, and places to recreate. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Office of Research and Development’s Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services Demonstration Project (TBESDP) modeling efforts organized existing literature values for biophysical attributes and processes related to EGS. The goal was to develop a database for informing mapped-based EGS assessments for current and future land cover/use scenarios at multiple scales. This report serves as a demonstration of applying an EGS assessment approach at the large neighborhood scale (~1,000 acres of residential parcels plus common areas). Here, we present mapped inventories of ecosystem goods and services production at a neighborhood scale within the Tampa Bay, FL region. Comparisons of the inventory between two alternative neighborhood designs are presented as an example of how one might apply EGS concepts at this scale.

  20. Solar Urban Neighborhood (SUN). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellertson, J.

    1984-07-10

    The Solar Urban Neighborhood (SUN) project was conceived to demonstrate a widely applicable cooperative procedure for low and moderate income urban residents to conserve energy and promote neighborhood revitalization through installing affordable energy conservation and solar retrofit measures on their homes. The self-help retrofit systems demonstrated fan-assisted air panels for walls and a mansard roof as well as vented Trombe wall and a sunspace. Building upon a strong tradition of cooperation within their neighborhood (security watches, community gardening, bartering of skills for do-it-yourself projects), these Roxbury neighbors were able to use the DOE grant as a catalyst for doing a far more ambitious undertaking. Additionally, the project used elements of a private-public partnership since the project director was also an energy retrofit contractor with specialized equipment and skills to share, wholesale purchase access, etc. Countervailing negative forces which impeded the progress of the project were the very ambitiousness of the solar retrofit itself, the delays in receiving the initial start up grant advance and in overcoming zoning restrictions which required design modifications; and discovery of building defects (dry rot, carpenter ants) within the structures at the time of retrofit. Nevertheless, the SUN project did have a wide impact through formal and informal outreach; through an associated project, SUN-TECH, which promoted solar retrofit awareness and involvement of City of Boston building, energy, and housing officials; and through evolvement of a grass roots level public-private partnership.

  1. The Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buman, Matthew P.; Winter, Sandra J.; Sheats, Jylana L.; Hekler, Eric B.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Grieco, Lauren A.; King, Abby C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The built environment can influence physical activity, particularly among older populations with impaired mobility. Existing tools to assess environmental features associated with walkability are often cumbersome, require extensive training, and are not readily available for use by community residents. Purpose This project aimed to develop and evaluate the utility of a computerized, tablet-based participatory tool designed to engage older residents in identifying neighborhood elements that affect active living opportunities. Methods Following formative testing, the tool was used by older adults (aged ≥65 years, in 2011) to record common walking routes (tracked using built-in GPS) and geocoded audio narratives and photographs of the local neighborhood environment. Residents (N=27; 73% women; 77% with some college education; 42% used assistive devices) from three low-income communal senior housing sites used the tool while navigating their usual walking route in their neighborhood. Data were analyzed in 2012. Results Elements (from 464 audio narratives and photographs) identified as affecting active living were commensurate with the existing literature (e.g., sidewalk features, aesthetics, parks/playgrounds, crosswalks). However, within each housing site, the profile of environmental elements identified was distinct, reflecting the importance of granular-level information collected by the tool. Additionally, consensus among residents was reached regarding which elements affected active living opportunities. Conclusions This tool serves to complement other assessments and assist decision makers in consensus-building processes for environmental change. PMID:23498112

  2. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available for green roofs. A typical method makes use of a studded membrane (resembling an egg box) laid on a suitable waterproofing which, together, provides the waterproofing and the water drainage. A Geotextile blanket is then laid on top of the studded... be advisable to lay a supporting layer between the insulation and the studded membrane to protect the insulation. A further variation is to replace the studded membrane with a gravel drainage layer followed by the growing medium. In this instance it would...

  3. The Urban Food Hubs Solution: Building Capacity in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Access to affordable fresh food is an ongoing challenge for underserved urban neighborhoods across the United States. Several are designated food deserts with no access to a full-service grocery store within a one-mile radius. The Urban Food Hubs of the College of Agriculture, Urban Sustainability, and Environmental Sciences (CAUSES) of the…

  4. Using Google Earth to conduct a neighborhood audit: reliability of a virtual audit instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa; Ailshire, Jennifer; Melendez, Robert; Bader, Michael; Morenoff, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    Over the last two decades, the impact of community characteristics on the physical and mental health of residents has emerged as an important frontier of research in population health and health disparities. However, the development and evaluation of measures to capture community characteristics is still at a relatively early stage. The purpose of this work was to assess the reliability of a neighborhood audit instrument administered in the city of Chicago using Google Street View by comparing these "virtual" data to those obtained from an identical instrument administered "in-person". We find that a virtual audit instrument can provide reliable indicators of recreational facilities, the local food environment, and general land use. However, caution should be exercised when trying to gather more finely detailed observations. Using the internet to conduct a neighborhood audit has the potential to significantly reduce the costs of collecting data objectively and unobtrusively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  6. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Quasi-Random Neighborhood Assignment of Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2012-01-01

    Using survey information about characteristics of personal contacts linked with administrative register information on employment status one year later, I show that unemployed survey respondents with many employed acquaintances have a higher job finding rate. Settlement in a socially deprived...... neighborhood may, therefore, hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experiment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to municipalities quasirandomly, which...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  7. Neighborhood walkability: older people's perspectives from four neighborhoods in Ottawa, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Theresa L; Edwards, Nancy; Sveistrup, Heidi; Andrew, Caroline; Egan, Mary

    2010-07-01

    This qualitative study examined older people's walking experiences in 4 Ottawa neighborhoods. Seventy-five adults age 65 years and older who had lived in their neighborhoods for at least 2 yr participated in focus groups and individual interviews. Four themes were identified through data analysis: multidimensional personal meanings, navigating hostile walking environments, experiencing ambiguity, and getting around. Neighborhood walking was experienced within the continuum of personal and environmental change. Findings indicated that the concept of pedestrian connectivity must incorporate aspects of both intersection regulation and design to ensure relevance for an aging population. Participants called for more clarity about policies that affect pedestrian safety for older people. The overarching theme of getting around indicated that walkability assessments must consider how walking fits within an integrated transportation system and how accessible this system is for older people.

  8. Urban green space and vibrant communities: exploring the linkage in the Portland Vancouver area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward A. Stone; JunJie Wu; Ralph Alig

    2015-01-01

    This report investigates the interactions between household location decisions and community characteristics, including green space. Household location decisions are a primary driver of land-use change, and collective location decisions affect community characteristics. At the same time, community characteristics affect location decisions. Neighborhoods or communities...

  9. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  10. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, P.

    2006-01-01

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  11. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  12. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  13. Opportunities for green growth; Vihreaen kasvun mahdollisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antikainen, R.; Mickwitz, P.; Seppaelae, J. [and others

    2013-03-15

    The report seeks an answer to the question as to the kind of policy decisions (steps) by which preconditions for green growth may be created in Finland. The proposed steps are based on a review of earlier research and studies relating to Finland's key consumption and production systems (food, housing, transport and energy) and to certain path finding countries in terms of the green economy (the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Brazil). In addition, the report examines various models by which systemic change towards a green economy may be supported. The report also highlights successful examples of green business activity and measures to promote green growth. Green Growth is defined as low-carbon, resource-efficient economic growth based on safeguarding the functional capacity of ecosystems while promoting wellbeing and social justice. Green growth is considered to have significant worldwide potential, which is currently evident particularly in the rapid growth of cleantech demand. Successful future actors will be more material- and energy-efficient than their competitors, and they will be able to provide services and products flexibly for a low-carbon society. There are opportunities for green growth in all sectors of society. Green growth may consist of an entirely new kind of business activity and create new companies, but there are also opportunities in our traditional energy- and resource-intensive industries. Companies have a key role in growth, but realising green growth also requires changes in consumption. Central, regional and local government will act as facilitators in creating the preconditions for green growth. The report presents a number of policy measures and processes by which Finland can support green growth. Proposals for steps towards green growth include: (A.) Creating preconditions for green growth through a joint vision and political commitment. (B.) Stimulating companies' green growth potential and boosting green demand. (C

  14. Neighborhood Risk, Parental Socialization Styles, and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gracia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful, and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use. The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent families showed lower conduct problems than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. Also, higher levels of perceived neighborhood risk were significantly associated with more conduct problems. There were no significant interaction effects between parenting styles and perceived neighborhood risk, but results yielded a significant interaction effect between neighborhood risk and sex. Overall, results do not support the idea that parenting styles are more effective under certain neighborhood risk conditions, and suggest that neighbourhood risk influences adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment beyond the influence of parental socialization styles.

  15. A Social Marketing Approach for Developing a Neighborhood Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Sequeira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a social marketing project proposal for a community in a social housing neighborhood in Faro, in southern Portugal. The aim of the research is to discuss the possibility of the implementation of a neighborhood network, using a social marketing approach with the goal of strengthening the ties of cooperation, solidarity and friendship between the inhabitants of the neighborhood with a view to fostering social cohesion in the city. The paper offers a theoretical and empirical discussion about the characteristics of particular areas designated as social housing neighborhoods. Data collection was performed in loco by giving a questionnaire to the inhabitants of the neighborhood and by direct observation. The results facilitated a balance between the needs of the residents and their ability to help their neighbors. The results are followed by a discussion and a proposal for a social marketing project targeted to the neighborhood under study.

  16. Workplace Neighborhoods, Walking, Physical Activity, Weight Status, and Perceived Health

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Ann; Oakes, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent interest has focused on how the built environment in residential neighborhoods affects walking and other physical activity. The neighborhood around the workplace has been examined far less. This study explored the neighborhood around the workplace and its correlation with the amount of walking, level of physical activity, body mass index, and perceived health of those who (a) worked away from home (N = 446) and (b) were retired or unemployed (N = 207). Study participants were recruited...

  17. Arid Green Infrastructure for Water Control and Conservation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure is an approach to managing wet weather flows using systems and practices that mimic natural processes. It is designed to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible and protect the quality of receiving waters. Although most green infrastructure practices were first developed in temperate climates, green infrastructure also can be a cost-effective approach to stormwater management and water conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, such as those found in the western and southwestern United States. Green infrastructure practices can be applied at the site, neighborhood and watershed scales. In addition to water management and conservation, implementing green infrastructure confers many social and economic benefits and can address issues of environmental justice. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commissioned a literature review to identify the state-of-the science practices dealing with water control and conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, with emphasis on these regions in the United States. The search focused on stormwater control measures or practices that slow, capture, treat, infiltrate and/or store runoff at its source (i.e., green infrastructure). The material in Chapters 1 through 3 provides background to EPA’s current activities related to the application of green infrastructure practices in arid and semi-arid regions. An introduction to the topic of green infrastructure in arid and semi-arid regions i

  18. Green shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    Findings suggesting that consumers buy “green” products, such as organic foods, for selfish reasons are usually accepted at face value. In this article, the author argues that the evidence backing this claim is questionable and that it reflects post hoc rationalizations and self-presentation biases...

  19. Neighborhood Integration and Connectivity Predict Cognitive Performance and Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Watts PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neighborhood characteristics may be important for promoting walking, but little research has focused on older adults, especially those with cognitive impairment. We evaluated the role of neighborhood characteristics on cognitive function and decline over a 2-year period adjusting for measures of walking. Method: In a study of 64 older adults with and without mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD, we evaluated neighborhood integration and connectivity using geographical information systems data and space syntax analysis. In multiple regression analyses, we used these characteristics to predict 2-year declines in factor analytically derived cognitive scores (attention, verbal memory, mental status adjusting for age, sex, education, and self-reported walking. Results : Neighborhood integration and connectivity predicted cognitive performance at baseline, and changes in cognitive performance over 2 years. The relationships between neighborhood characteristics and cognitive performance were not fully explained by self-reported walking. Discussion : Clearer definitions of specific neighborhood characteristics associated with walkability are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which neighborhoods may impact cognitive outcomes. These results have implications for measuring neighborhood characteristics, design and maintenance of living spaces, and interventions to increase walking among older adults. We offer suggestions for future research measuring neighborhood characteristics and cognitive function.

  20. Community context of food justice: reflections on a free local produce program in a New Orleans food desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura McKinney

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Food justice discourse has emerged partly in response to the critique of alternative food networks during the last decade, but its justice conceptualization tends to be too narrowly focused on food-related injustices rather than broader social injustices that shape food access and food sovereignty, a gap we address. Our analysis of a semi-experimental free local food program we administered in a New Orleans food desert demonstrates that several community context factors shape the residents’ access to a local food market in this neighborhood: fragmented social ties, digital and generational divides, perpetual infrastructural failure, and the location of the market within the neighborhood. We argue that food justice discourse needs to incorporate social and cultural community contexts in its operationalization of food access and sovereignty, especially regarding how the latter concept is defined and executed in practice.

  1. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  2. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  3. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  4. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of the Neighborhood Environment on Recreational Walking within the Neighborhood: Results from RESIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Hayley; Knuiman, Matthew; Divitini, Mark; Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Boruff, Bryan; Bull, Fiona; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is limited longitudinal evidence confirming the role of neighborhood environment attributes in encouraging people to walk more or if active people simply choose to live in activity-friendly neighborhoods. Natural experiments of policy changes to create more walkable communities provide stronger evidence for a causal effect of neighborhood environments on residents’ walking. Objectives: We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between objective and perceived neighbor...

  5. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  6. Outdoor play among children in relation to neighborhood characteristics : A cross-sectional neighborhood observation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; de Vries, Sanne I; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children's outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to

  7. Parental and Adolescent Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety Related to Adolescents' Physical Activity in Their Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Carlson, Jordan A.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Glanz, Karen; Roman, Caterina G.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescent and parental perceptions of neighborhood safety and adolescents' physical activity in multiple locations and to investigate the moderating effect of sex within this association. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 928 adolescents aged 12 to 16…

  8. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  9. The Determinants of Green Radical and Incremental Innovation Performance: Green Shared Vision, Green Absorptive Capacity, and Green Organizational Ambidexterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new concept, green organisational ambidexterity, that integrates green exploration learning and green exploitation learning simultaneously. Besides, this study argues that the antecedents of green organisational ambidexterity are green shared vision and green absorptive capacity and its consequents are green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance. The results demonstrate that green exploration learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green radical innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. In addition, this study indicates that green exploitation learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green incremental innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. Hence, firms have to increase their green shared vision, green absorptive capacity, and green organisational ambidexterity to raise their green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance.

  10. Metric propositional neighborhood logics on natural numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logic (MPNL) over natural numbers. MPNL features two modalities referring, respectively, to an interval that is “met by” the current one and to an interval that “meets” the current one, plus an infinite set of length constraints, regarded as atomic propositions...... is decidable in double exponential time and expressively complete with respect to a well-defined sub-fragment of the two-variable fragment FO2[N,=,numbers. Moreover, we show that MPNL can be extended in a natural way...

  11. Neighborhood-preserving mapping between trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Ibragimov, R.; Guo, Jian-Ying

    2013-01-01

    (v)). Here, for a graph G and a vertex v, we use N(v) to denote the set of vertices which have distance at most i to v in G. We call this problem Neighborhood-Preserving Mapping (NPM). The main result of this paper is a complete dichotomy of the classical complexity of NPM on trees with respect to different...... values of l,d,k. Additionally, we present two dynamic programming algorithms for the case that one of the input trees is a path....

  12. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2015 Specific Environmental Benefit: Climate Change Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2015 award winner, Algenol, blue-green algae to produce ethanol and other fuels, uses CO2 from air or industrial emitters, reduces the carbon footprint, costs and water usage, no reliance on food crops

  13. Neighborhood deprivation and childhood autism: a nationwide study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjun; Sjöstedt, Cecilia; Sundquist, Kristina; Zöller, Bengt; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-06-01

    To examine whether there is an association between neighborhood deprivation and childhood autism, after accounting for family- and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics. An open cohort of all children aged 2-11 years was followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Childhood residential locations were geocoded and classified according to neighborhood deprivation (an index of low education, low income, unemployment, and receipt of welfare assistance). Data were analyzed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighborhood deprivation at the second level. During the study period, among a total of 643,456 children, 1699 (0.3%) were diagnosed with childhood autism. Age-standardized cumulative incidence, defined as first registration for childhood autism during the study period, increased with increasing level of neighborhood deprivation. In the study population, 2.2 per 1000 and 3.6 per 1000 children in the least and most deprived neighborhoods, respectively, were diagnosed with childhood autism. Incidence of childhood autism increased with increasing neighborhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level sociodemographic categories. The odds ratio (OR) for childhood autism for those living in high-deprivation neighborhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighborhoods was 1.59 (95% confidence interval = 1.35-1.88). High neighborhood deprivation remained significantly associated with odds of childhood autism after adjustment for family- and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics (OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.53, P = 0.007). This study is the largest so far on potential neighborhood influences on childhood autism. Our results show that neighborhood deprivation is associated with childhood autism, independently of family- and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    The ambition of the Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) project is to manufacture a fully biodegradable bottle. Carlsberg is the intended end user, and they aim to package their beer in the new bottle. The new product is intended to replace the existing plastic and glass bottles, and thus reducing...... their impact on the environment, especially the oceans. For example, the life span of a plastic bottle in the ocean is 500 years, and during its degradation, the plastic is reduced to micro pieces, which causes the starvation of several marine animals. The new bottle is completely made from molded paper pulp......, which is a renewable resource. Nevertheless, due to food and drugs limitations, only virgin paper fibers must be employed in the production. The bottle could then be left to biodegrade in nature or enter a recycle system, along with other paper-based product. In order to contain the liquid, the bottle...

  16. Characterizing the neighborhood obesogenic environment in the Multiethnic Cohort: a multi-level infrastructure for cancer health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Shannon M; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Yang, Juan; Hertz, Andrew; Cockburn, Myles; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Clarke, Christina A; Abright, Cheryl L; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Kolonel, Laurence N; Monroe, Kristine R; Wilkens, Lynne R; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Cheng, Iona

    2018-01-01

    We characterized the neighborhood obesogenic environment in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) by examining the associations of obesity with attributes of the social and built environment, establishing a multi-level infrastructure for future cancer research. For 102,906 African American, Japanese American, Latino, and white MEC participants residing predominately in Los Angeles County, baseline residential addresses (1993-1996) were linked to census and geospatial data, capturing neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), population density, commuting, food outlets, amenities, walkability, and traffic density. We examined neighborhood attributes and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) associations using multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for individual-level (e.g., demographics, physical activity, and diet) and neighborhood-level factors. NSES was associated with obesity among African Americans, Latinos, and whites (p-trend ≤ 0.02), with twofold higher odds (adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals) for living in the lowest versus highest quintile among African American women (2.07, 1.62-2.65), white men (2.11, 1.29-3.44), and white women (2.50, 1.73-3.61). Lower density of businesses among African American and white women and lower traffic density among white men were also associated with obesity (p-trends ≤ 0.02). Our study highlights differential impacts of neighborhood factors across racial/ethnic groups and establishes the foundation for multi-level studies of the neighborhood context and obesity-related cancers.

  17. School food environments associated with adiposity in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C; Datta, G D; Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Kestens, Y; Barnett, T A

    2017-07-01

    Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school. As part of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study, we assessed features of school indoor dietary environment and the surrounding school neighborhoods, when children were aged 8-10 years (2005-2008). School principals reported on food practices and policies within the schools. The density of convenience stores and fast-food outlets surrounding the school was computed using a Geographical Information System. Indicators of school neighborhood deprivation were derived from census data. Adiposity outcomes were measured in a clinical setting 2 years later, when participants were aged 10-12 years (2008-2011). We conducted cluster analyses to identify school food environment types. Associations between school types and adiposity were estimated in linear regression models. Cluster analysis identified three school types with distinct food environments. Schools were characterized as: overall healthful (45%); a healthful food environment in the surrounding neighborhood, but an unhealthful indoor food environment (22%); or overall unhealthful (33%). Less healthful schools were located in more deprived neighborhoods and were associated with greater child adiposity. Despite regulatory efforts to improve school food environments, there is substantial inequity in dietary environments across schools. Ensuring healthful indoor and outdoor food environments across schools should be included in comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity-related health disparities.

  18. Counseling in the Gentrified Neighborhood: What School Counselors Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lauren E.; Van Velsor, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Gentrification occurs when the prevailing demographic and economic environment of an urban neighborhood changes in ways related to social class and physical renewal. Gentrification effects are both positive and negative; however, low-income residents may be disproportionately negatively affected. As neighborhoods transform, schools also change.…

  19. Growing Up in Poor Neighborhoods: How Much Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Susan E.; Jencks, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    Reviews research on how much the life chances of children are affected by the socioeconomic and racial mix of their schools and neighborhoods. Reports that the effect on students' chances of attending college or on White students' academic achievement is small. Black teenage pregnancy rates increase in poor neighborhoods. (Author/RT)

  20. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: An Update--Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    "From Neurons to Neighborhoods: An Update: Workshop Summary" is based on the original study "From Neurons to Neighborhoods: Early Childhood Development," which was released in October of 2000. From the time of the original publication's release, much has occurred to cause a fundamental reexamination of the nation's…

  1. Perceptions of the food environment are associated with fast-food (not fruit-and-vegetable) consumption: findings from multi-level models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Mitra, Nandita

    2012-06-01

    Diets low in fruits and vegetables and/or high in fast foods are associated with obesity and chronic diseases. Such diets may relate to different aspects of neighborhood food environments. We sought to evaluate if people's perceptions of their neighborhood food environment are associated with reported fruit-and-vegetable and fast-food consumption. Cross-sectional analysis of a community health survey from Philadelphia, PA and four surrounding suburban counties (n = 10,450 individuals). We used mixed-effects multi-level Poisson models, nesting individuals within neighborhoods-i.e. census tracts (n = 991). Negative perceptions of the food environment (perceived difficulty finding fruits and vegetables, having to travel outside of one's neighborhood to get to a supermarket, and perceived poor grocery quality) were each directly associated with fast-food consumption (incident rate ratios [IRRs] 1.31, 1.06, 1.20; p fast food. Neighborhoods where food-environment perceptions are worst might benefit from interventions to improve availability, accessibility, and quality of healthy foods, towards shifting consumption away from fast foods.

  2. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Hackman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.

  3. Neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Lauren H; Carrazza, Cristina; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-11-01

    Infants' direct interactions with caregivers have been shown to powerfully influence social and cognitive development. In contrast, little is known about the cognitive influence of social contexts beyond the infant's immediate interactions with others, for example, the communities in which infants live. The current study addressed this issue by asking whether neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' propensity to learn from diverse social partners. Data were taken from a series of experiments in which 19-month-old infants from monolingual, English-speaking homes were tested in paradigms that assessed their tendency to imitate the actions of an adult who spoke either English or Spanish. Infants who lived in more linguistically diverse neighborhoods imitated more of the Spanish speaker's actions. This relation was observed in two separate datasets and found to be independent from variation in infants' general imitative abilities, age, median family income and population density. These results provide novel evidence suggesting that infants' social learning is predicted by the diversity of the communities in which they live. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative Study of Green Area for Climate Sensitive Terraced Housing Area Design in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, O T S; Saito, K; Said, I

    2014-01-01

    Neighbourhood plays a significant role in peoples' daily lives. Nowadays, terraced housing is common in Malaysia, and green areas in the neighborhood are not used to their maximum. The aim of the research is to quantify the types of green area that are most efficient for cooling the environment for thermal comfort and mitigation of Urban Heat Island. Spatial and environmental inputs are manipulated for the simulation using Geographic Information System (GIS) integrated with computational microclimate simulation. The outcome of this research is a climate sensitive housing environment model framework on the green area to solve the problem of Urban Heat Island

  5. Research Progresses of Halo Streams in the Solar Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi-long, Liang; Jing-kun, Zhao; Yu-qin, Chen; Gang, Zhao

    2018-01-01

    The stellar streams originated from the Galactic halo may be detected when they pass by the solar neighborhood, and they still keep some information at their birth times. Thus, the investigation of halo streams in the solar neighborhood is very important for understanding the formation and evolution of our Galaxy. In this paper, the researches of halo streams in the solar neighborhood are briefly reviewed. We have introduced the methods how to detect the halo streams and identify their member stars, summarized the progresses in the observation of member stars of halo streams and in the study of their origins, introduced in detail how to analyze the origins of halo streams in the solar neighborhood by means of numerical simulation and chemical abundance, and finally discussed the prospects of the LAMOST and GAIA in the research of halo streams in the solar neighborhood.

  6. Social networks, social satisfaction and place attachment in the neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minou Weijs-Perrée

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Feeling socially integrated and being satisfied with one’s social life are important indicators for happiness and well-being of individuals and for the strength of local communities. The effect of the living environment on social networks and the importance of local social contacts in the neighborhood has been addressed by many studies. However, social satisfaction has received little attention in these studies. The aim of this study is to describe and predict the effect of personal and neighborhood characteristics on social satisfaction mediated by the impact of place attachment and neighborhood networks. A path analysis is used based on survey and diary data collected between April and May 2014 in Eindhoven and surroundings in the Netherlands among 177 respondents. Results show that social characteristics of the neighborhood play an important role in explaining social satisfaction of individuals. In addition, results confirm the importance of participating in social activities and walking or cycling in the neighborhood.

  7. a Curvature Based Adaptive Neighborhood for Individual Point Cloud Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, E.; Chen, Q.; Wang, H.; Liu, X.

    2017-09-01

    As a key step in 3D scene analysis, point cloud classification has gained a great deal of concerns in the past few years. Due to the uneven density, noise and data missing in point cloud, how to automatically classify the point cloud with a high precision is a very challenging task. The point cloud classification process typically includes the extraction of neighborhood based statistical information and machine learning algorithms. However, the robustness of neighborhood is limited to the density and curvature of the point cloud which lead to a label noise behavior in classification results. In this paper, we proposed a curvature based adaptive neighborhood for individual point cloud classification. Our main improvement is the curvature based adaptive neighborhood method, which could derive ideal 3D point local neighborhood and enhance the separability of features. The experiment result on Oakland benchmark dataset shows that the proposed method can effectively improve the classification accuracy of point cloud.

  8. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics, the retail environment, and alcohol consumption: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotsu, Scott T; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J; MacLehose, Richard F; Nelson, Toben F; Forster, Jean L; Lytle, Leslie A

    2013-10-01

    The neighborhoods where people live can influence their drinking behavior. We hypothesized that living in a neighborhood with lower median income, higher alcohol outlet density, and only liquor stores and no grocery stores would be associated with higher alcohol consumption after adjusting for individual demographic and lifestyle factors. We used two self-report measures to assess alcohol consumption in a sample of 9959 adults living in a large Midwestern county: volume of alcohol consumed (count) and binge drinking (5 or more drinks vs.outlet density was measured using the number of liquor stores divided by the census tract roadway miles. The mix of liquor and food stores in census tracts was assessed using a categorical variable based on the number of liquor and number of food stores using data from InfoUSA. Weighted hierarchical linear and Poisson regression were used to test our study hypothesis. Retail mix was associated with binge drinking. Individuals living in census tracts with only liquor stores had a 46% higher risk of binge drinking than individuals living in census tracts with food stores only after controlling for demographic and lifestyle factors. Census tract characteristics such as retail mix may partly explain variability in drinking behavior. Future research should explore the mix of stores, not just the over-concentration of liquor stores in census tracts. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Leveraging geotagged Twitter data to examine neighborhood happiness, diet, and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Kath, Suraj; Meng, Hsien-Wen; Li, Dapeng; Smith, Ken Robert; VanDerslice, James A.; Wen, Ming; Li, Feifei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Using publicly available, geotagged Twitter data, we created neighborhood indicators for happiness, food and physical activity for three large counties: Salt Lake, San Francisco and New York. Methods We utilize 2.8 million tweets collected between February-August 2015 in our analysis. Geo-coordinates of where tweets were sent allow us to spatially join them to 2010 census tract locations. We implemented quality control checks and tested associations between Twitter-derived variables and sociodemographic characteristics. Results For a random subset of tweets, manually labeled tweets and algorithm labeled tweets had excellent levels of agreement: 73% for happiness; 83% for food, and 85% for physical activity. Happy tweets, healthy food references, and physical activity references were less frequent in census tracts with greater economic disadvantage and higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities and youths. Conclusions Social media can be leveraged to provide greater understanding of the well-being and health behaviors of communities—information that has been previously difficult and expensive to obtain consistently across geographies. More open access neighborhood data can enable better design of programs and policies addressing social determinants of health. PMID:28533568

  10. Short- and Long-Term Impacts of Neighborhood Built Environment on Self-Rated Health of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Amy

    2018-01-18

    Proximity to health care, healthy foods, and recreation is linked to improved health in older adults while deterioration of the built environment is a risk factor for poor health. Yet, it remains unclear whether individuals prone to good health self-select into favorable built environments and how long-term exposure to deteriorated environments impacts health. This study uses a longitudinal framework to address these questions. The study analyzes 3,240 Americans aged 45 or older from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with good self-reported health at baseline, and follows them from 1999 to 2013. At each biennial survey wave, individual data are combined with data on services in the neighborhood of residence (defined as the zip code) from the Economic Census. The analysis overcomes the problem of residential self-selection by employing marginal structural models and inverse probability of treatment weights. Logistic regression estimates indicate that long-term exposure to neighborhood built environments that lack health-supportive services (e.g., physicians, pharmacies, grocery stores, senior centers, and recreational facilities) and are commercially declined (i.e., have a high density of liquor stores, pawn shops, and fast food outlets) increases the risk of fair/poor self-rated health compared to more average neighborhoods. Short-term exposure to the same environments as compared to average neighborhoods has no bearing on self-rated health after adjusting for self-selection. Results highlight the importance of expanding individuals' access to health-supportive services prior to their reaching old age, and expanding access for people unlikely to attain residence in service-dense neighborhoods. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel......In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  12. The role of neighborhood characteristics in racial/ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes: results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Duncan, Dustin T; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2015-04-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are well documented and until recently, research has focused almost exclusively on individual-based determinants as potential contributors to these disparities (health behaviors, biological/genetic factors, and individual-level socio-demographics). Research on the role of neighborhood characteristics in relation to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM is very limited. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify and estimate the contribution of specific aspects of neighborhoods that may be associated with racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM. Data from the Boston Area Community Health III Survey (N = 2764) was used in this study, which is a community-based random-sample survey of adults in Boston, Massachusetts from three racial/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, and White). We applied two-level random intercepts logistic regression to assess the associations between race/ethnicity, neighborhood characteristics (census tract socioeconomic status, racial composition, property and violent crime, open space, geographic proximity to grocery stores, convenience stores, and fast food, and neighborhood disorder) and prevalent T2DM (fasting glucose > 125 mg/dL, HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, or self-report of a T2DM diagnosis). Black and Hispanic participants had 2.89 times and 1.48 times the odds of T2DM as White participants, respectively. Multilevel models indicated a significant between-neighborhood variance estimate of 0.943, providing evidence of neighborhood variation. Individual demographics (race/ethnicity, age and gender) explained 22.3% of the neighborhood variability in T2DM. The addition of neighborhood-level variables to the model had very little effect on the magnitude of the racial/ethnic disparities and on the between-neighborhood variability. For example, census tract poverty explained less than 1% and 6% of the excess odds of T2DM among Blacks and Hispanics and only 1.8% of the neighborhood

  13. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 82.203 - FD&C Green No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Green No. 3. 82.203 Section 82.203 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.203 FD&C Green No. 3. The color additive FD&C Green No. 3 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.203(a)(1...

  15. Modifiable Neighborhood Features Associated With Adolescent Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyba, Alison J; Jacoby, Sara F; Richmond, Therese S; Fein, Joel A; Hohl, Bernadette C; Branas, Charles C

    2016-05-01

    Homicide is a leading cause of adolescent mortality. To our knowledge, relatively little has been studied in terms of the association between environmental neighborhood features, such as streets, buildings, and natural surroundings, and severe violent injury among youth. To assess associations between environmental neighborhood features and adolescent homicide in order to identify targets for future place-based interventions. Population-based case-control study conducted in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from April 15, 2008, to March 31, 2014. We identified adolescents who died by homicide at 13 to 20 years of age from 2010 to 2012 while residing in Philadelphia. We used incidence-density sampling and random-digit dialing to recruit control participants ages 13 to 20 years matched on sex and indoor-outdoor location at the time of each index case participant's homicide. To obtain environmental data about modifiable features that were present in the immediate surroundings of our case and control participants, blinded field researchers used standardized techniques to photograph case and control participant outdoor locations. Photographic data were stitched together to create 360° panoramic images that were coded for 60 elements of the visible environment. Adolescent homicide. We enrolled 143 homicide case participants (mean [SD] age, 18.4 [1.5] years) and 155 matched control participants (mean [SD] age, 17.2 [2.1] years) who were both outdoors at the time of the homicide. In adjusted analyses, multiple features of Philadelphia streets, buildings, and natural surroundings were associated with adolescent homicide. The presence of street lighting (odds ratio [OR], 0.24; 95% CI, 0.09-0.70), illuminated walk/don't walk signs (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.92), painted marked crosswalks (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.04-0.63), public transportation (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.03-0.49), parks (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.88), and maintained vacant lots (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03-0.81) were significantly

  16. Longitudinal Associations Between Neighborhood Physical and Social Environments and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine, Paul J; Auchincloss, Amy H; Bertoni, Alain G; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Sánchez, Brisa N; Moore, Kari; Adar, Sara D; Horwich, Tamara B; Watson, Karol E; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2015-08-01

    Neighborhood environments may influence the risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but, to our knowledge, no longitudinal study has evaluated specific neighborhood exposures. To determine whether long-term exposures to neighborhood physical and social environments, including the availability of healthy food and physical activity resources and levels of social cohesion and safety, are associated with incident T2DM during a 10-year period. We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based cohort study of adults aged 45 to 84 years at baseline (July 17, 2000, through August 29, 2002). A total of 5124 participants free of T2DM at baseline underwent 5 clinical follow-up examinations from July 17, 2000, through February 4, 2012. Time-varying measurements of neighborhood healthy food and physical activity resources and social environments were linked to individual participant addresses. Neighborhood environments were measured using geographic information system (GIS)- and survey-based methods and combined into a summary score. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of incident T2DM associated with cumulative exposure to neighborhood resources using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, sex, income, educational level, race/ethnicity, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Data were analyzed from December 15, 2013, through September 22, 2014. Incident T2DM defined as a fasting glucose level of at least 126 mg/dL or use of insulin or oral antihyperglycemics. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years (37,394 person-years), 616 of 5124 participants (12.0%) developed T2DM (crude incidence rate, 16.47 [95% CI, 15.22-17.83] per 1000 person-years). In adjusted models, a lower risk for developing T2DM was associated with greater cumulative exposure to indicators of neighborhood healthy food (12%; HR per interquartile range [IQR] increase in summary score, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.79-0.98]) and physical activity resources (21%; HR per

  17. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in neighborhoods adjacent to a commercial airport: a land use regression modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spengler John D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing concern in communities surrounding airports regarding the contribution of various emission sources (such as aircraft and ground support equipment to nearby ambient concentrations. We used extensive monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 in neighborhoods surrounding T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI, and land-use regression (LUR modeling techniques to determine the impact of proximity to the airport and local traffic on these concentrations. Methods Palmes diffusion tube samplers were deployed along the airport's fence line and within surrounding neighborhoods for one to two weeks. In total, 644 measurements were collected over three sampling campaigns (October 2007, March 2008 and June 2008 and each sampling location was geocoded. GIS-based variables were created as proxies for local traffic and airport activity. A forward stepwise regression methodology was employed to create general linear models (GLMs of NO2 variability near the airport. The effect of local meteorology on associations with GIS-based variables was also explored. Results Higher concentrations of NO2 were seen near the airport terminal, entrance roads to the terminal, and near major roads, with qualitatively consistent spatial patterns between seasons. In our final multivariate model (R2 = 0.32, the local influences of highways and arterial/collector roads were statistically significant, as were local traffic density and distance to the airport terminal (all p Conclusion Our study has shown that there are clear local variations in NO2 in the neighborhoods that surround an urban airport, which are spatially consistent across seasons. LUR modeling demonstrated a strong influence of local traffic, except the smallest roads that predominate in residential areas, as well as proximity to the airport terminal.

  18. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in neighborhoods adjacent to a commercial airport: a land use regression modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, Gary; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Vallarino, Jose; Melly, Steven J; Spengler, John D; Levy, Jonathan I

    2010-11-17

    There is growing concern in communities surrounding airports regarding the contribution of various emission sources (such as aircraft and ground support equipment) to nearby ambient concentrations. We used extensive monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in neighborhoods surrounding T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI, and land-use regression (LUR) modeling techniques to determine the impact of proximity to the airport and local traffic on these concentrations. Palmes diffusion tube samplers were deployed along the airport's fence line and within surrounding neighborhoods for one to two weeks. In total, 644 measurements were collected over three sampling campaigns (October 2007, March 2008 and June 2008) and each sampling location was geocoded. GIS-based variables were created as proxies for local traffic and airport activity. A forward stepwise regression methodology was employed to create general linear models (GLMs) of NO2 variability near the airport. The effect of local meteorology on associations with GIS-based variables was also explored. Higher concentrations of NO2 were seen near the airport terminal, entrance roads to the terminal, and near major roads, with qualitatively consistent spatial patterns between seasons. In our final multivariate model (R2 = 0.32), the local influences of highways and arterial/collector roads were statistically significant, as were local traffic density and distance to the airport terminal (all p GIS variables, and the regression model structure was robust to various model-building approaches. Our study has shown that there are clear local variations in NO2 in the neighborhoods that surround an urban airport, which are spatially consistent across seasons. LUR modeling demonstrated a strong influence of local traffic, except the smallest roads that predominate in residential areas, as well as proximity to the airport terminal.

  19. Serosurvey for Leishmania spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi and Neospora caninum in neighborhood dogs in Curitiba-Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Constantino

    Full Text Available Abstract Neighborhood dogs may act as reservoirs for several zoonotic protozoan infections, particularly in urban areas, thus constituting a potential public health threat. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the exposure of neighborhood dogs to four protozoan pathogens in public areas with high levels of human movement in Curitiba, southern Brazil. Blood samples from 26 neighborhood dogs were screened by means of the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT for Leishmania spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi and Neospora caninum, and a questionnaire was answered by the respective keeper. A total of 8/26 dogs (30.7% seroreactive to T. gondii, 3/26 (11.5% to N. caninum and 2/26 (7.7% to both were identified. All the samples were seronegative for T. cruzi and Leishmania spp. Pathogen seroreactivity was not associated with the daily human movements or other epidemiological variables investigated (p > 0.05. In conclusion, the low seroprevalence for T. gondii and N. caninum indicated low environmental and food risk for animal infection and the seronegativity for Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi may reflect the absence of these pathogens in urban areas of Curitiba. Moreover, neighborhood dogs may be used as environmental sentinels for the presence of protozoan pathogens and their vectors.

  20. Neighborhood Variation of Sustainable Urban Morphological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Stimson, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery). The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities. PMID:29518956

  1. Neighborhood Variation of Sustainable Urban Morphological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Poh-Chin; Chen, Si; Low, Chien-Tat; Cerin, Ester; Stimson, Robert; Wong, Pui Yun Paulina

    2018-03-07

    Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery). The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities.

  2. Neighborhood Variation of Sustainable Urban Morphological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poh-Chin Lai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery. The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities.

  3. Disentangling neighborhood contextual associations with child body mass index, diet, and physical activity: the role of built, socioeconomic, and social environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll-Scott, Amy; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Joyce, Rebecca; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2013-10-01

    Obesity prevalence among US children and adolescents has tripled in the past three decades. Consequently, dramatic increases in chronic disease incidence are expected, particularly among populations already experiencing health disparities. Recent evidence identifies characteristics of "obesogenic" neighborhood environments that affect weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aimed to examine associations between built, socioeconomic, and social characteristics of a child's residential environment on body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. We focused on pre-adolescent children living in New Haven, Connecticut to better understand neighborhood environments' contribution to persistent health disparities. Participants were 1048 fifth and sixth grade students who completed school-based health surveys and physical measures in fall 2009. Student data were linked to US Census, parks, retailer, and crime data. Analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling. Property crimes and living further from a grocery store were associated with higher BMI. Students living within a 5-min walk of a fast food outlet had higher BMI, and those living in a tract with higher density of fast food outlets reported less frequent healthy eating and more frequent unhealthy eating. Students' reported perceptions of access to parks, playgrounds, and gyms were associated with more frequent healthy eating and exercise. Students living in more affluent neighborhoods reported more frequent healthy eating, less unhealthy eating, and less screen time. Neighborhood social ties were positively associated with frequency of exercise. In conclusion, distinct domains of neighborhood environment characteristics were independently related to children's BMI and health behaviors. Findings link healthy behaviors with built, social, and socioeconomic environment assets (access to parks, social ties, affluence), and unhealthy behaviors with built environment inhibitors (access to fast food

  4. Disentangling neighborhood contextual associations with child body mass index, diet, and physical activity: The role of built, socioeconomic, and social environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll-Scott, Amy; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M.; McCaslin, Catherine; Joyce, Rebecca; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity prevalence among US children and adolescents has tripled in the past three decades. Consequently, dramatic increases in chronic disease incidence are expected, particularly among populations already experiencing health disparities. Recent evidence identifies characteristics of “obesogenic” neighborhood environments that affect weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aimed to examine associations between built, socioeconomic, and social characteristics of a child’s residential environment on body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. We focused on pre-adolescent children living in New Haven, Connecticut to better understand neighborhood environments’ contribution to persistent health disparities. Participants were 1048 fifth and sixth grade students who completed school-based health surveys and physical measures in fall 2009. Student data were linked to US Census, parks, retailer, and crime data. Analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling. Property crimes and living further from a grocery store were associated with higher BMI. Students living within a 5-min walk of a fast food outlet had higher BMI, and those living in a tract with higher density of fast food outlets reported less frequent healthy eating and more frequent unhealthy eating. Students’ reported perceptions of access to parks, playgrounds, and gyms were associated with more frequent healthy eating and exercise. Students living in more affluent neighborhoods reported more frequent healthy eating, less unhealthy eating, and less screen time. Neighborhood social ties were positively associated with frequency of exercise. In conclusion, distinct domains of neighborhood environment characteristics were independently related to children’s BMI and health behaviors. Findings link healthy behaviors with built, social, and socioeconomic environment assets (access to parks, social ties, affluence), and unhealthy behaviors with built environment inhibitors (access to fast

  5. Special Food Service Program for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Research and Action Center, New York, NY.

    This booklet presents information on a Federal program which provides funds to institutions that feed children not in school. Day care, Head Start, and neighborhood centers and summer recreation programs qualify for aid under this program. Section I deals with the operation of the Special Food Services Program for Children (SFSPC) and is divided…

  6. Exploring neighborhoods in the metagenome universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aßhauer, Kathrin P; Klingenberg, Heiner; Lingner, Thomas; Meinicke, Peter

    2014-07-14

    The variety of metagenomes in current databases provides a rapidly growing source of information for comparative studies. However, the quantity and quality of supplementary metadata is still lagging behind. It is therefore important to be able to identify related metagenomes by means of the available sequence data alone. We have studied efficient sequence-based methods for large-scale identification of similar metagenomes within a database retrieval context. In a broad comparison of different profiling methods we found that vector-based distance measures are well-suitable for the detection of metagenomic neighbors. Our evaluation on more than 1700 publicly available metagenomes indicates that for a query metagenome from a particular habitat on average nine out of ten nearest neighbors represent the same habitat category independent of the utilized profiling method or distance measure. While for well-defined labels a neighborhood accuracy of 100% can be achieved, in general the neighbor detection is severely affected by a natural overlap of manually annotated categories. In addition, we present results of a novel visualization method that is able to reflect the similarity of metagenomes in a 2D scatter plot. The visualization method shows a similarly high accuracy in the reduced space as compared with the high-dimensional profile space. Our study suggests that for inspection of metagenome neighborhoods the profiling methods and distance measures can be chosen to provide a convenient interpretation of results in terms of the underlying features. Furthermore, supplementary metadata of metagenome samples in the future needs to comply with readily available ontologies for fine-grained and standardized annotation. To make profile-based k-nearest-neighbor search and the 2D-visualization of the metagenome universe available to the research community, we included the proposed methods in our CoMet-Universe server for comparative metagenome analysis.

  7. Exploring Neighborhoods in the Metagenome Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aßhauer, Kathrin P.; Klingenberg, Heiner; Lingner, Thomas; Meinicke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The variety of metagenomes in current databases provides a rapidly growing source of information for comparative studies. However, the quantity and quality of supplementary metadata is still lagging behind. It is therefore important to be able to identify related metagenomes by means of the available sequence data alone. We have studied efficient sequence-based methods for large-scale identification of similar metagenomes within a database retrieval context. In a broad comparison of different profiling methods we found that vector-based distance measures are well-suitable for the detection of metagenomic neighbors. Our evaluation on more than 1700 publicly available metagenomes indicates that for a query metagenome from a particular habitat on average nine out of ten nearest neighbors represent the same habitat category independent of the utilized profiling method or distance measure. While for well-defined labels a neighborhood accuracy of 100% can be achieved, in general the neighbor detection is severely affected by a natural overlap of manually annotated categories. In addition, we present results of a novel visualization method that is able to reflect the similarity of metagenomes in a 2D scatter plot. The visualization method shows a similarly high accuracy in the reduced space as compared with the high-dimensional profile space. Our study suggests that for inspection of metagenome neighborhoods the profiling methods and distance measures can be chosen to provide a convenient interpretation of results in terms of the underlying features. Furthermore, supplementary metadata of metagenome samples in the future needs to comply with readily available ontologies for fine-grained and standardized annotation. To make profile-based k-nearest-neighbor search and the 2D-visualization of the metagenome universe available to the research community, we included the proposed methods in our CoMet-Universe server for comparative metagenome analysis. PMID:25026170

  8. The Spatial Epidemiology of Intimate Partner Violence: Do Neighborhoods Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; López-Quílez, Antonio; Marco, Miriam; Lladosa, Silvia; Lila, Marisol

    2015-07-01

    We examined whether neighborhood-level characteristics influence spatial variations in the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). Geocoded data on IPV cases with associated protection orders (n = 1,623) in the city of Valencia, Spain (2011-2013), were used for the analyses. Neighborhood units were 552 census block groups. Drawing from social disorganization theory, we explored 3 types of contextual influences: concentrated disadvantage, concentration of immigrants, and residential instability. A Bayesian spatial random-effects modeling approach was used to analyze influences of neighborhood-level characteristics on small-area variations in IPV risk. Disease mapping methods were also used to visualize areas of excess IPV risk. Results indicated that IPV risk was higher in physically disordered and decaying neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with low educational and economic status levels, high levels of public disorder and crime, and high concentrations of immigrants. Results also revealed spatially structured remaining variability in IPV risk that was not explained by the covariates. In this study, neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and immigrant concentration emerged as significant ecological risk factors explaining IPV. Addressing neighborhood-level risk factors should be considered for better targeting of IPV prevention. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Preserving Neighborhood Opportunity: Where Federal Housing Subsidies Expire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Michael C; Reina, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Rent burdens are increasing in U.S. metropolitan areas while subsidies on privately owned, publicly subsidized rental units are expiring. As a result, some of the few remaining affordable units in opportunity neighborhoods are at risk of being converted to market rate. Policy makers face a decision about whether to devote their efforts and scarce resources toward developing new affordable housing, recapitalizing existing subsidized housing, and/or preserving properties with expiring subsidies. There are several reasons to preserve these subsidies, one being that properties may be located in neighborhoods with greater opportunity. In this article, we use several sources of data at the census tract level to learn how subsidy expirations affect neighborhood opportunity for low-income households. Our analysis presents several key findings. First, we find that units that left the project-based Section 8 program were - on average - in lower opportunity neighborhoods, but these neighborhoods were improving. In addition, properties due to expiry from the Section 8 program between 2011 and 2020 are in higher opportunity neighborhoods than any other subsidy program. On the contrary, new Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) units were developed in tracts similar to those where LIHTC units are currently active, which tend to be lower opportunity neighborhoods.

  10. Neighborhood Factors and Dating Violence Among Youth: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Renee M; Parker, Elizabeth M; Rinehart, Jenny; Nail, Jennifer; Rothman, Emily F

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the empirical research on neighborhood-level factors and dating violence among adolescents and emerging adults to guide future research and practice. In 2015, a total of 20 articles were identified through a search of the literature using PubMed. Eligible articles included those that (1) had been published in a peer-reviewed journal since 2005; (2) reported a measure of association between at least one neighborhood-level factor and dating violence; and (3) had a study population of youth aged violence and neighborhood factors, and measures of effect. Results were summarized into three categories based on the aspect of neighborhood that was the focus of the work: demographic and structural characteristics (n=11); neighborhood disorder (n=12); and social disorganization (n=8). There was some evidence to suggest that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with dating violence, but very little evidence to suggest that residence characteristics (e.g., racial heterogeneity) are associated with dating violence. Results do suggest that perceived neighborhood disorder is associated with physical dating violence perpetration, but do not suggest that it is associated with physical dating violence victimization. Social control and community connectedness are both associated with dating violence, but findings on collective efficacy are mixed. Existing research suggests that neighborhood factors may be associated with dating violence. However, there is a limited body of research on the neighborhood context of dating violence, and more rigorous research is needed. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neighborhood Environment and Cognition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Lilah M; McDonald, Noreen C; Song, Yan; Kukull, Walter A; Rodriguez, Daniel A

    2017-08-01

    Some evidence suggests that treating vascular risk factors and performing mentally stimulating activities may delay cognitive impairment onset in older adults. Exposure to a complex neighborhood environment may be one mechanism to help delay cognitive decline. PubMed, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertation and Theses Global database were systematically reviewed, identifying 25 studies published from February 1, 1989 to March 5, 2016 (data synthesized, May 3, 2015 to October 7, 2016). The review was restricted to quantitative studies focused on: (1) neighborhood social and built environment and cognition; and (2) community-dwelling adults aged ≥45 years. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, U.S.-based, and found at least one significant association. The diversity of measures and neighborhood definitions limited the synthesis of findings in many instances. Evidence was moderately strong for an association between neighborhood SES and cognition, and modest for associations between neighborhood demographics, design, and destination accessibility and cognition. Most studies examining effect modification found significant associations, with some evidence for effect modification of the neighborhood SES-cognition association by individual-level SES. No studies had low risk of bias and many tested multiple associations that increased the chance of a statistically significant finding. Considering the studies to date, the evidence for an association between neighborhood characteristics and cognition is modest. Future studies should include longitudinal measures of neighborhood characteristics and cognition; examine potential effect modifiers, such as sex and disability; and study mediators that may help elucidate the biological mechanisms linking neighborhood environment and cognition. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity. PMID:29135909

  13. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2017-11-14

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity ( p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality ( p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  14. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Cooksey-Stowers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision. Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16. Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05 and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01. Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  15. How to Form a Food Co-op.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Philip; And Others

    Based on questions asked during an adult education course at Truman College (Chicago), this booklet was designed to be a simple organizing manual for small neighborhood preorder food cooperatives (co-ops). The guide covers basic information for organizing a co-op, definition of a co-op, what jobs are needed, getting the food, wholesale sources,…

  16. Can farmers mitigate environmental impacts through combined production of food, fuel and feed? A consequential life cycle assessment of integrated mixed crop-livestock system with a green biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Birkved, Morten

    2018-01-01

    (Sys-II). Processing of grass-clover to produce feed protein was considered in Sys-II, particularly to substitute the imported soybean meal. Waste generated from the livestock and GBR systems were considered for the conversion to biomethane (Sys-IV). Digestate produced therefrom was assumed......This study evaluates environmental impacts of an integrated mixed crop-livestock system with a green biorefinery (GBR). System integration included production of feed crops and green biomasses (Sys-I) to meet the demand of a livestock system (Sys-III) and to process green biomasses in a GBR system...

  17. Association of Neighborhood Characteristics with Bystander-Initiated CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Comilla; Magid, David J.; Chan, Paul; Root, Elisabeth D.; McNally, Bryan F.; Kellermann, Arthur L.; Haukoos, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND For persons who have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the probability of receiving bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be influenced by neighborhood characteristics. METHODS We analyzed surveillance data prospectively submitted from 29 U.S. sites to the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival between October 1, 2005, and December 31, 2009. The neighborhood in which each cardiac arrest occurred was determined from census-tract data. We classified neighborhoods as high-income or low-income on the basis of a median household income threshold of $40,000 and as white or black if more than 80% of the census tract was predominantly of one race. Neighborhoods without a predominant racial composition were classified as integrated. We analyzed the relationship between the median income and racial composition of a neighborhood and the performance of bystander-initiated CPR. RESULTS Among 14,225 patients with cardiac arrest, bystander-initiated CPR was provided to 4068 (28.6%). As compared with patients who had a cardiac arrest in high-income white neighborhoods, those in low-income black neighborhoods were less likely to receive bystander-initiated CPR (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.58). The same was true of patients with cardiac arrest in neighborhoods characterized as low-income white (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.82), low-income integrated (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.70), and high-income black (odds ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.86). The odds ratio for bystander-initiated CPR in high-income integrated neighborhoods (1.03; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.65) was similar to that for high-income white neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS In a large cohort study, we found that patients who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in low-income black neighborhoods were less likely to receive bystander-initiated CPR than those in high-income white neighborhoods. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  18. Relationship of corporal punishment and antisocial behavior by neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2005-10-01

    To examine the relationship of corporal punishment with children's behavior problems while accounting for neighborhood context and while using stronger statistical methods than previous literature in this area, and to examine whether different levels of corporal punishment have different effects in different neighborhood contexts. Longitudinal cohort study. General community. 1943 mother-child pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Internalizing and externalizing behavior problem scales of the Behavior Problems Index. Parental use of corporal punishment was associated with a 0.71 increase (Pcorporal punishment and children's externalizing behavior problems was not dependent on neighborhood context. The research found no discernible relationship between corporal punishment and internalizing behavior problems.

  19. Good and Bad Neighborhood Approximations for Outlier Detection Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirner, Evelyn; Schubert, Erich; Zimek, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Outlier detection methods have used approximate neighborhoods in filter-refinement approaches. Outlier detection ensembles have used artificially obfuscated neighborhoods to achieve diverse ensemble members. Here we argue that outlier detection models could be based on approximate neighborhoods...... in the first place, thus gaining in both efficiency and effectiveness. It depends, however, on the type of approximation, as only some seem beneficial for the task of outlier detection, while no (large) benefit can be seen for others. In particular, we argue that space-filling curves are beneficial...

  20. Association between neighborhood safety and overweight status among urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Renee M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neighborhood safety may be an important social environmental determinant of overweight. We examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and overweight status, and assessed the validity of reported neighborhood safety among a representative community sample of urban adolescents (who were racially and ethnically diverse. Methods Data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, a cross-sectional study in which public high school students in Boston, MA completed a pencil-and-paper survey. The study used a two-stage, stratified sampling design whereby schools and then 9th–12th grade classrooms within schools were selected (the analytic sample included 1,140 students. Students reported their perceptions of neighborhood safety and several associated dimensions. With self-reported height and weight data, we computed body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 for the adolescents based on CDC growth charts. Chi-square statistics and corresponding p-values were computed to compare perceived neighborhood safety by the several associated dimensions. Prevalence ratios (PRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety and the prevalence of overweight status controlling for relevant covariates and school site. Results More than one-third (35.6% of students said they always felt safe in their neighborhood, 43.9% said they sometimes felt safe, 11.6% rarely felt safe, and 8.9% never felt safe. Those students who reported that they rarely or never feel safe in their neighborhoods were more likely than those who said they always or sometimes feel safe to believe that gang violence was a serious problem in their neighborhood or school (68.0% vs. 44.1%, p p = 0.025. In the fully adjusted model (including grade and school stratified by race/ethnicity, we found a statistically significant association between feeling unsafe in one's own neighborhood and overweight status among

  1. Association between neighborhood safety and overweight status among urban adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Johnson, Renee M; Molnar, Beth E; Azrael, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Background Neighborhood safety may be an important social environmental determinant of overweight. We examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and overweight status, and assessed the validity of reported neighborhood safety among a representative community sample of urban adolescents (who were racially and ethnically diverse). Methods Data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, a cross-sectional study in which public high school students in Boston, MA completed a pencil-and-paper survey. The study used a two-stage, stratified sampling design whereby schools and then 9th–12th grade classrooms within schools were selected (the analytic sample included 1,140 students). Students reported their perceptions of neighborhood safety and several associated dimensions. With self-reported height and weight data, we computed body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) for the adolescents based on CDC growth charts. Chi-square statistics and corresponding p-values were computed to compare perceived neighborhood safety by the several associated dimensions. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety and the prevalence of overweight status controlling for relevant covariates and school site. Results More than one-third (35.6%) of students said they always felt safe in their neighborhood, 43.9% said they sometimes felt safe, 11.6% rarely felt safe, and 8.9% never felt safe. Those students who reported that they rarely or never feel safe in their neighborhoods were more likely than those who said they always or sometimes feel safe to believe that gang violence was a serious problem in their neighborhood or school (68.0% vs. 44.1%, p school) stratified by race/ethnicity, we found a statistically significant association between feeling unsafe in one's own neighborhood and overweight status among those in the Other race/ethnicity group [(PR = 1.56, (95% CI: 1.02, 2.40)]. Conclusion

  2. Food deserts and nutritional risk in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartin, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study in San Lorenzo, Paraguay is to identify a food desert in a developing context and to test if food deserts shape residential obesity risk. This article reviews some of the debate surrounding whether food deserts really exist; and, if so, what are the dietary implications of living in a food desert. The research is an exploratory/explanatory design. The author mapped the downtown food retail district and the neighborhood food environment to identify what stores/markets. The author assessed each type of food store using an adapted version of the Nutrition Environment Measure Survey for Stores (NEMS-S) for Paraguay. Body mass index and household characteristics were collected with 68 households in a small neighborhood; and, the author matched the NEMS-S scores to the store reported by households as their primary grocery store for regression tests. The results suggest that a tradeoff exists in the local food environment between food stores which negatively impact obesity risk for local residents. Exposure to this tradeoff appears to worsen as people live longer in the food desert. Thus, the results support the location of a food desert finding in Paraguay. The underlying factors of a food desert extend beyond food access to focus on the issues of justice. A way to improve upon future research to build scholarship on the relationship between deprivation and obesity requires that sample sizes are either large or representative of the population and that the research should be based on multiple neighborhood and city sites. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Neighborhood Frequency Effect in Chinese Word Recognition: Evidence from Naming and Lexical Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Feng; Gao, Xin-Yu; Chou, Tai-Li; Wu, Jei-Tun

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood frequency is a crucial variable to know the nature of word recognition. Different from alphabetic scripts, neighborhood frequency in Chinese is usually confounded by component character frequency and neighborhood size. Three experiments were designed to explore the role of the neighborhood frequency effect in Chinese and the stimuli…

  4. Effect of green tea phytochemicals on mood and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Background: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea

  5. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2009 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winner, CEM Corporation, developed a fast, automated analytical process using less toxic reagents and less energy to distinguish protein from the food adulterant, melamine.

  6. Development and deployment of the Computer Assisted Neighborhood Visual Assessment System (CANVAS) to measure health-related neighborhood conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Michael D M; Mooney, Stephen J; Lee, Yeon Jin; Sheehan, Daniel; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Rundle, Andrew G; Teitler, Julien O

    2015-01-01

    Public health research has shown that neighborhood conditions are associated with health behaviors and outcomes. Systematic neighborhood audits have helped researchers measure neighborhood conditions that they deem theoretically relevant but not available in existing administrative data. Systematic audits, however, are expensive to conduct and rarely comparable across geographic regions. We describe the development of an online application, the Computer Assisted Neighborhood Visual Assessment System (CANVAS), that uses Google Street View to conduct virtual audits of neighborhood environments. We use this system to assess the inter-rater reliability of 187 items related to walkability and physical disorder on a national sample of 150 street segments in the United States. We find that many items are reliably measured across auditors using CANVAS and that agreement between auditors appears to be uncorrelated with neighborhood demographic characteristics. Based on our results we conclude that Google Street View and CANVAS offer opportunities to develop greater comparability across neighborhood audit studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neighborhood built environment and physical activity of Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have reported the association between neighborhood built environment (BE and physical activity (PA, less is known about the associations for older populations or in countries besides the US and Australia. The aim of this paper is to examine the associations for older adult populations in Japan. Methods Our analyses were based on cross-sectional data from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES, conducted in 2003. The respondents were older adults, aged 65 years or over (n = 9,414, from 8 municipalities across urban, suburban, and rural areas. The frequency of leisure time sports activity and total walking time were used as the outcome variables. Using geographic information systems (GIS, we measured residential density, street connectivity, number of local destinations, access to recreational spaces, and land slope of the respondents' neighborhoods, based on network distances with multiple radii (250 m, 500 m, 1,000 m. An ordinal logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between PA and BE measures. Results Population density and presence of parks or green spaces had positive associations with the frequency of sports activity, regardless of the selected buffer zone. The analysis of total walking time, however, showed only a few associations. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the association between PA and the characteristics of BE measures, previously used in Western settings. Some characteristics of the neighborhood built environment may facilitate leisure time sports activity, but not increase the total walking time for Japanese older adults.

  8. Using geospatial technologies to explore activity-based retail food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, W Jay

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated relationships between neighborhood-level retail food environments and obesity, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Most, however, have been limited by the use of residential neighborhoods to define food environments. This study recruited 121 participants to supply three days of Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking data to explore daily activity spaces and food environments. Participants also answered two surveys regarding personal characteristics, and diet and food purchasing. Several food environment measures were calculated for food locations within a half-mile of their GPS tracks. Non-parametric statistics examined (1) differences between activity- and neighborhood-based food environments, (2) associations between personal characteristics and activity-based food environments, and (3) associations between diet, purchasing, and activity-based food environments. Activity- and neighborhood-based food environments were significantly different. Several associations were observed among activity-based food environment measures and personal characteristics. Dietary intake, food purchasing, and obesity were associated with some activity-based food environment measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  10. The Influence of Social Involvement, Neighborhood Aesthetics, and Community Garden Participation on Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobader, Mah-J.; Turbin, Mark S.; Hale, James W.; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We considered the relationship between an urban adult population's fruit and vegetable consumption and several selected social and psychological processes, beneficial aesthetic experiences, and garden participation. Methods. We conducted a population-based survey representing 436 residents across 58 block groups in Denver, Colorado, from 2006 to 2007. We used multilevel statistical models to evaluate the survey data. Results. Neighborhood aesthetics, social involvement, and community garden participation were significantly associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Community gardeners consumed fruits and vegetables 5.7 times per day, compared with home gardeners (4.6 times per day) and nongardeners (3.9 times per day). Moreover, 56% of community gardeners met national recommendations to consume fruits and vegetables at least 5 times per day, compared with 37% of home gardeners and 25% of nongardeners. Conclusions. Our study results shed light on neighborhood processes that affect food-related behaviors and provides insights about the potential of community gardens to affect these behaviors. The qualities intrinsic to community gardens make them a unique intervention that can narrow the divide between people and the places where food is grown and increase local opportunities to eat better. PMID:21680931

  11. Restaurants in the Neighborhood, Eating Away from Home and BMI in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tian

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between environmental risk factors, eating away from home, and increasing BMI of Chinese adults.Participants were selected from the recent four waves (2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011 of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. 10633 participants, including 5084 men and 5549 women, were used in the analysis. 24-h dietary recall data for three consecutive days with information on the time and place of consumption were collected. Nearby restaurants were measured by the number of fast food outlets, indoor restaurants, and food stands in the neighborhood. Random effects multivariable regression was used to assess associations between these variables.People living in neighborhoods with large numbers of indoor restaurants are more likely to eat away from home (p<0.05. Higher frequency of eating away from home is positively associated with BMI, but this effect is only significant for men (p<0.05. Moreover, while eating dinner or breakfast away from home contributes to BMI increase for men (p<0.05, no such association is found for lunch.Eating dinner and breakfast away from home is positively associated with BMI for Chinese men. Labeling energy and portion size for the dishes served in indoor restaurants is recommended in China.

  12. Restaurants in the Neighborhood, Eating Away from Home and BMI in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xu; Zhong, Li; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Tu, Huakang; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between environmental risk factors, eating away from home, and increasing BMI of Chinese adults. Methods Participants were selected from the recent four waves (2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). 10633 participants, including 5084 men and 5549 women, were used in the analysis. 24-h dietary recall data for three consecutive days with information on the time and place of consumption were collected. Nearby restaurants were measured by the number of fast food outlets, indoor restaurants, and food stands in the neighborhood. Random effects multivariable regression was used to assess associations between these variables. Results People living in neighborhoods with large numbers of indoor restaurants are more likely to eat away from home (p<0.05). Higher frequency of eating away from home is positively associated with BMI, but this effect is only significant for men (p<0.05). Moreover, while eating dinner or breakfast away from home contributes to BMI increase for men (p<0.05), no such association is found for lunch. Conclusion Eating dinner and breakfast away from home is positively associated with BMI for Chinese men. Labeling energy and portion size for the dishes served in indoor restaurants is recommended in China. PMID:27959893

  13. Food Shopping Behaviors and Exposure to Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; Mentz, Graciela; Miranda, Patricia Y.; Opperman, Alisha; Odoms-Young, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined food shopping behaviors, particularly distance to grocery shop, and exposure to discrimination. Design Cross-sectional observational study utilizing data from a community survey, neighborhood food environment observations, and the decennial census. Setting Three communities in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Subjects Probability sample of 919 African-American, Latino, and White adults in 146 census blocks and 69 census block groups. Results On average, respondents shopped for groceries 3·1 miles from home, with 30·9% shopping within one mile and 22·3% more than five miles from home. Longer distance to shop was associated with being younger, African-American (compared to Latino), a woman, higher socioeconomic status, lower satisfaction with the neighborhood food environment, and living in a neighborhood with higher poverty, without a large grocery store, and farther from the nearest supermarket. African-Americans and those with the lowest incomes were particularly likely to report unfair treatment at food outlets. Each mile increase in distance to shop was associated with a 7% increase in the odds of unfair treatment; this relationship did not differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions This study suggests that unfair treatment in retail interactions warrants investigation as a pathway by which restricted neighborhood food environments and food shopping behaviors may adversely affect health and contribute to health disparities. Efforts to promote “healthy” and equitable food environments should emphasize local availability and affordability of a range of healthy food products, as well as fair treatment while shopping regardless of race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. PMID:23534814

  14. Green Power Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  15. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  16. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  17. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with hepatitis C or hepatitis B. HIV/AIDS. Research on the effects of blue-green algae in people with HIV/AIDS has been inconsistent. Some early research shows that taking 5 grams of blue-green ...

  18. Green Nail Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from blue-green to dark green to bluish-grey. Since the discoloration is underneath the nail, it ... infected by P. aeruginosa. Nails repeatedly immersed in water are susceptible. Housewives, dishwashers, cooks, and health care ...

  19. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  20. Decon Green (trademark)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Procell, Lawrence R; Henderson, Vikki D; Sorrick, David C; Hess, Zoe A; Gehring, David G; Brickhouse, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    ...) is extremely environmentally friendly and leaves no toxic residues. Decon Green (trademark) retains the low-temperature decontamination ability of DS2, but it is noncorrosive to aluminum and steel. Decon Green (trademark...

  1. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  2. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  3. The Political Economy of Green Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Resnick, Danielle; Thurlow, James

    fertilizers, biofuels production, and coal-based energy, respectively. Each of these countries is pursuing an environmentally suboptimal strategy but nonetheless addressing critical development needs, including food security, fuel, and electricity. We show that adopting a green growth approach would not only...... be economically costly but also generate substantial domestic resistance, especially amongst the poor....

  4. The Political Economy of Green Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resnic, Danielle; Tarp, Finn; Thurlow, James

    2012-01-01

    fertilizers, biofuel production and coal-based energy, respectively. Each of these countries is pursuing an environmentally suboptimal strategy but nonetheless addressing critical development needs, including food security, fuel and electricity. We show that adopting a Green Growth approach would not only...... be economically costly but also generate substantial domestic resistance, especially among the poor....

  5. Municipality and Neighborhood Influences on Volunteering in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Sarah; Willems, Jurgen; De Witte, Nico; De Donder, Liesbeth; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    This article explores the relationships between municipality features and volunteering by older adults. In the literature, strong evidence exists of the influence of place on older people's health. However, the question how neighborhoods and municipalities promote or hinder volunteer participation remains under-explored. Data for the research are derived from the Belgian Aging Studies. We estimate logistic multilevel models for older individuals' engagement in volunteering across 141 municipalities in Belgium (N = 67,144). Analysis shows that neighborhood connectedness, neighborhood satisfaction, home ownership, and presence of services predict voluntary engagement at older ages. The findings support that perceptions and quality of social resources that relate to neighborhoods may be important factors to explain volunteering among older adults. Moreover, the findings suggest that volunteering in later life must be considered within a broader framework. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Bringing urban governance back in: Neighborhood conflicts and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Urban governance and its impact on contentious politics have received remarkably little attention in existing studies on mental health. Drawing on a measure of neighborhood conflicts developed in a survey of thirty-nine urban neighborhoods in Guangzhou, China, this article investigates the potential link between urban governance and mental health. Net of sociodemographic, relational, and environmental measures, it finds that among residents' conflicts with different entities of urban governance, only those with local/grassroots governments are significantly associated with more depressive symptoms. Moreover, these subgroups of government-oriented conflicts associated with more depressive symptoms are related to neighborhood planning and communal properties, reflecting a dilemma in the Chinese model of urban governance. By offering a relational interpretation of neighborhood conflicts, this study not only challenges the previous view that community building in China improves mental health, but calls attention to the significance of urban governance in research on mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Site and neighborhood environments for walking among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lee, Chanam

    2010-11-01

    Walking has significant health and mobility benefits for older adults. Previous environment-walking studies have focused on neighborhood environments, overlooking proximate site-level characteristics. This study examines both the neighborhood and site-level environments. A survey was conducted with 114 older adults from five assisted-living facilities in Houston, TX. A subset of 61 participants' environments was examined using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Multivariate analyses identified positive correlates of walking at the site level including yard landscaping and corner-lots, and neighborhood-level correlates including walking destinations, safety from crime, and sidewalks. Both site-level and neighborhood environmental supports appear important in promoting walking among older adults. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social Capital and Economic Development: A Neighborhood Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Hanka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sean Safford’s 2009 book Why the Garden Club Couldn’t Save Youngstown introduces a revolutionary idea that much of a community’s economic resilience is tied to the social capital that exists within it. Recent research suggests that social capital not only benefits those who develop it, but it can serve as a source of economic development in the communities in which it arises. Past quantitative research on the economic benefit of social capital has only examined the city or higher levels of aggregation. This study measures social capital in three diverse socioeconomic neighborhoods to better understand how social capital can serve as a tool for economic development. An ordered probit regression model was developed to examine how individual and neighborhood levels of social capital benefit households within these communities. Moreover, this study addresses how differences in social capital across neighborhoods are explained by both individual and neighborhood characteristics.

  9. CHAPTER 9: USING CENSUS DATA TO APPROXIMATE NEIGHBORHOOD EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION Despite the development of innovative neighborhood data collection methods, such as systematic social observation (1, 2), and the utilization of novel administrative data sources including delinquent tax records, homelessness shelter utilization, reports of housing ...

  10. A Streaming Distance Transform Algorithm for Neighborhood-Sequence Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Normand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe an algorithm that computes a “translated” 2D Neighborhood-Sequence Distance Transform (DT using a look up table approach. It requires a single raster scan of the input image and produces one line of output for every line of input. The neighborhood sequence is specified either by providing one period of some integer periodic sequence or by providing the rate of appearance of neighborhoods. The full algorithm optionally derives the regular (centered DT from the “translated” DT, providing the result image on-the-fly, with a minimal delay, before the input image is fully processed. Its efficiency can benefit all applications that use neighborhood- sequence distances, particularly when pipelined processing architectures are involved, or when the size of objects in the source image is limited.

  11. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_NeighborhoodStabilizationProg

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Boundaries of Miami-Dade County's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP) areas. NSP is a HUD program to provide emergency assistance to state and local governments...

  12. Neighborhood age structure and its implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagney, Kathleen A

    2006-09-01

    Age structure at the neighborhood level is rarely considered in contextual studies of health. However, age structure can play a critical role in shaping community life, the availability of resources, and the opportunities for social engagement-all factors that, research suggests, have direct and indirect effects on health. Age structure can be theorized as a compositional effect and as a contextual effect. In addition, the dynamic nature of age structure and the utility of a life course perspective as applied to neighborhood effects research merits attention. Four Chicago neighborhoods are summarized to illustrate how age structure varies across small space, suggesting that neighborhood age structure should be considered a key structural covariate in contextual research on health. Considering age structure implies incorporating not only meaningful cut points for important age groups (e.g., proportion 65 years and over) but attention to the shape of the distribution as well.

  13. Neighborhood restaurant availability and frequency of eating out in relation to dietary intake in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food service establishments is considered to encourage consumption and contribute to poorer diet quality, and hence adverse health profiles. However, empirical verification of these links remains rare, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood restaurant availability and frequency of eating out are associated with unfavorable patterns of dietary intake and thus possibly higher body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. The subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 y of age. Dietary intake and frequency of eating out (i.e., consumption of commercially prepared meals) during the preceding month were assessed using a comprehensive, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Neighborhood restaurant availability was defined as the number of restaurants within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (i.e., full-service restaurants, limited-service restaurants, and cafeterias). Increasing frequency of eating out was associated with higher intake of meat, confectionery and bread, and dietary fat, lower intake of fruit and vegetables, rice, and dietary fiber, and higher dietary energy density. However, neighborhood restaurant availability was not associated with either the frequency of eating out or any of the dietary variables examined. Further, frequency of eating out and neighborhood restaurant availability were not associated with BMI or waist circumference. In conclusion, although frequency of eating out was positively associated with unfavorable dietary intake patterns in a group of young Japanese women, neighborhood restaurant availability was not associated with frequency of eating out or dietary intake.

  14. Trajectories of neighborhood change: the case of gentrification

    OpenAIRE

    R A Beauregard

    1990-01-01

    Our understanding of the comparative dynamics of neighborhood change is relatively undeveloped. In order to disentangle various trajectories, the complex processes which constitute gentrification are explored both quantitatively and qualitatively in four neighborhoods in Philadelphia for the postwar period. The analysis reveals quite diverse forms of gentrification, varying in potential and pace, that pivot around the structural forces of capitalism and the particularities of place. Emphasis ...

  15. Racial Disparities in Sleep: The Role of Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Curtis, David S.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Chae, David H.; Boylan, Jennifer M.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Disparities in sleep duration and efficiency between Black/African American (AA) and White/European American (EA) adults are well-documented. The objective of this study was to examine neighborhood disadvantage as an explanation for race differences in objectively measured sleep. Methods Data were from 133 AA and 293 EA adults who participated in the sleep assessment protocol of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study (57% female; Mean Age = 56.8 years, SD=11.4). Sleep minutes, onset latency, and waking after sleep onset (WASO) were assessed over seven nights using wrist actigraphy. Neighborhood characteristics were assessed by linking home addresses to tract-level socioeconomic data from the 2000 US Census. Multilevel models estimated associations between neighborhood disadvantage and sleep, and the degree to which neighborhood disadvantage mediated race differences in sleep controlling for family socioeconomic position and demographic variables. Results AAs had shorter sleep duration, greater onset latency, and higher WASO than EAs (ps < .001). Neighborhood disadvantage was significantly associated with WASO (B = 3.54, p = .028), but not sleep minutes (B = −2.21, p = .60) or latency (B = 1.55, p = .38). Furthermore, race was indirectly associated with WASO via neighborhood disadvantage (B = 4.63, p = .035), which explained 24% of the race difference. When measures of depression, health behaviors, and obesity were added to the model, the association between neighborhood disadvantage and WASO was attenuated by 11% but remained significant. Conclusion Findings suggest that neighborhood disadvantage mediates a portion of race differences in WASO, an important indicator of sleep efficiency. PMID:27938909

  16. Neighborhood Risk, Parental Socialization Styles, and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Gracia; Mª Castillo Fuentes; Fernando García

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful), and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use). The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent...

  17. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  18. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  19. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  20. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...