WorldWideScience

Sample records for green manure treatments

  1. Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil properties and rice yield in rice-based cropping systems. ... The effects of treatments on rice yield and its components were also investigated. ... Based on the results, BBRH and PTS are good practices for production of green manure in paddy soil. Chemical ...

  2. Green manure affects cut flower yield and quality of ‘Vegas’ rose bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Fabiana Aparecida Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rose cultivation requires many inputs for satisfactory production, making the process expensive. Nowadays, alternative practices have been used for sustainable crop production. Green manure is an agricultural practice that aims to maintain or improve soil fertility, increasing its yielding capacity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of green manure with legumes on the yield and quality of ‘Vegas’ roses. Grafted rose seedlings were cultivated in open field for 30 months. Legumes used as green manure and planted intercropped with rose bushes were forage peanut (Arachis pintoi and jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan was grown in a separate area, cut, macerated, and applied in the rows between rose bushes every 3 months. Plants of control group received no green manure, only mineral fertilizer and cattle manure, as in all other treatments. The experimental design was randomized block with four treatments (three green manure species plus the control and seven replications. The highest yield and quality of flower stems in ‘Vegas’ occurred with addition of pigeon pea on the soil surface or chemically treated (control. Forage peanut and jack bean are not suitable for intercropping with ‘Vegas’ rose bushes due to possible nutrient and water competition.

  3. Green manure and inorganic fertiliser as management strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To alleviate the problem of Striga and soil fertility, green-manure applications could be an alternative strategy. Ths study was conducted to (a) evaluate the potential of green manure against Striga, and (b) determine the potential of inducing Striga suicidal germination by selected green manures. For the first part of the study, ...

  4. Recovery in the soil-plant system of nitrogen from green manure applied on cabbage crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Urquiaga, Segundo; Boddey, Robert Michael; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Martelleto, Luiz Aurelio Peres

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine, in the soil-plant system, the recovery efficiency of N derived from green manure applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) crop. The experiment was divided into two stages: the first one consisted of the straw production of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), velvet bean (Mucuna cinereum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), in substrate enriched with 15 N. The second stage consisted of the application of 15 N-labeled green manure on the cabbage beds. Treatments consisted of: fresh residues of jack bean; fresh residues of velvet bean; fresh residues of sorghum; mixture of residues of jack bean, velvet bean, and sorghum at 1:1:1; and control without green manure addition. The N recovery in the soil plant system was influenced by the green manure species used, and the recovery efficiency of the N derived from the green manure legumes varied from 9 to 16%. The jack bean treatment shows a greater recovery efficiency of nitrogen and, therefore, the best synchrony of N supply, by straw decomposition, with the cabbage crop demand. (author)

  5. Effects of green manure storage and incorporation methods on nitrogen release and N2O emissions after soil application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Sørensen, Peter; Petersen, Søren O.

    2014-01-01

    More efficient use of green manure-derived nitrogen (N) may improve crop yields and reduce environmental impacts in stockless organic arable farming. In this 3-month incubation study, we tested a new strategy where green manure leys are harvested and preserved until the following spring either...... as compost mixed with straw or as silage of harvested ley biomass. Grass-clover compost or silage was soil-incorporated by either simulated ploughing (green manure placed at 15 cm depth) or harrowing (green manure mixed into the upper 5-cm soil horizon) in order to assess treatment effects on net release...... total N. Possibly N2O production via denitrification was stimulated by oxygen-limited conditions near the decomposing silage. In contrast, compost incorporated by harrowing caused net N2O uptake, presumably an effect of reduced mineral N availability in this treatment. Overall, our study revealed...

  6. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Aghili

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower, ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF, and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  7. Effect of Two Kinds of Green Manure and Urea on Production and N Uptake by Lowland Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto; Idawati; Havid Rasjid; Elsje L Sisworo

    2004-01-01

    One field experiment has been conducted to study effect of two kinds of green manure and urea on production and N uptake in lowland rice. This experiment were used 11 treatments : (U) applying urea fertilizer at dose 200 kg urea/ha or recommended dose, (1/2 U) urea at 100 kg/ha, (1/2 U + Az) urea at 100 kg/ha + Azolla inoculation, (1/2 U + S) urea at 100 kg/ha + Sesbania incorporated at 50 DAT (days after transplanting), (Az + S) Azolla inoculation + Sesbania incorporated at 50 DAT, (Az + Sph) Azolla inoculation + Sesbania crop imported into the soil as green manure applied at preparation time of the land, (1/2 U + Az + S) treatment of (Az + S) combined with 100 kg urea/ha application, (1/2 U + Az + Sph) treatment of (Az + Sph) combined with 100 kg urea/ha application, (A) inoculation of Azolla, (S) Sesbania incorporated at 50 DAT, and Control (without urea, Azolla, and Sesbania). Lowland rice variety Cilosari was used in this experiment. This experiment was designed by Randomized Complete Block Design with 4 replicates for each treatment. To study the N-derived from fertilizer and green manure the 15 N isotope technique was used with the non direct method. Labelled 15 N ammonium sulphate with 10.12% 15 N was applied at 1 m x 1 m isotope plots for each plot in this experiment. The result showed that treatment combination of 100 kg urea/ha + Azolla inoculation + Sesbania crop incorporated into the soil as green manure applied at preparation time of the land gave N availability of soil higher than that resulted by 200 kg Urea/ha application. These treatments were not significantly different for total N uptake and N-derived from fertilizer in the rice grain. (author)

  8. Legume Logic & Green Manuring

    OpenAIRE

    Basavanagowda Nagabhushana, Nandeesh

    2014-01-01

    Brown plant hopper showed me the way into organic farming. In 2001, I started my practice with logic of legumes just to cut down the 45 percent expenses of my paddy on fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Later as I realized each and every plant carries it’s own nutrients, medicinal values and characters. Plants like millets, oil seeds, spices, di-cots, monocots and weeds all being used as a green manure. For all my agriculture problems and crop demands, I look for the answers only thro...

  9. 15N-labeled nitrogen from green manure and ammonium sulfate utilization by the sugarcane ratoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Cantarella, Heitor; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida; Muraoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Legumes as green manure are alternative sources of nitrogen (N) for crops and can supplement or even replace mineral nitrogen fertilization due to their potential for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The utilization of nitrogen by sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and ammonium sulfate (AS) was evaluated using the 15 N tracer technique. N was added at the rate of 196 and 70 kg ha -1 as 15 N-labeled sunn hemp green manure (SH) and as ammonium sulfate (AS), respectively. Treatments were: (I) Control; (II) AS 15 N; (III) SH 15 N + AS; (IV) SH 15 N; and (V) AS 15 N + SH. Sugarcane was cultivated for five years and was harvested three times. 15 N recovery was evaluated in the two first harvests. In the sum of the three harvests, the highest stalk yields were obtained with a combination of green manure and inorganic N fertilizer; however, in the second cutting the yields were higher where SH was used than in plots with AS. The recovery of N by the first two consecutive harvests accounted for 19 to 21% of the N applied as leguminous green manure and 46 to 49% of the N applied as AS. The amounts of inorganic N, derived from both N sources, present in the 0-0.4 m layer of soil in the first season after N application and were below 1 kg ha -1 . (author)

  10. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa, T2: black oat (Avena strigosa, T3: dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, T4: radish (Raphanus sativus L., T5: white lupine (Lupinus albus and T6: control (fallow. At the end of the experiment, relations were established between the green manure used for soybean production, the production of biomass, the development of microorganisms and soil bulk density. The data were analyzed with statistical software and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The coverages provided higher content of dry matter were lupine, black oat and faba bean. Treatments that most influenced the increase of soil microorganisms were lupine, radish and pigeonpea. Regarding productivity, higher values were obtained in treatments with pigeon pea, lupine and oat. The apparent density of the soil, treatment with turnip showed better results.

  11. Immobilization of tetracyclines in manure and manure-amended soils using aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Rakshit, Sudipta; Elzinga, Evert J; Datta, Rupali

    2016-02-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are emerging contaminants of concern in the environment, mainly due to the potential for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and effect on microbiota that could interfere with crucial ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling and decomposition. High levels of VAs such as tetracyclines (TCs) have been reported in agricultural soils amended with manure, which also has the potential to cause surface and groundwater contamination. Several recent studies have focused on developing methods to immobilize VAs such as composting with straw, hardwood chips, commercial biochar, aeration, mixing, heat treatment, etc. The major shortcomings of these methods include high cost and limited effectiveness. In the current study, we assessed the effectiveness of aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) as a "green" sorbent to immobilize TCs in manure and manure-applied soils with varying physicochemical properties by laboratory incubation study. Results show that Al-WTR is very effective in immobilizing tetracycline (TTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC). The presence of phosphate resulted in significant (p < 0.01) decrease in TTC/OTC sorption by Al-WTR, but the presence of sulfate did not. attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy indicate that TTC and OTC likely forming surface complexes via inner-sphere-type bonds in soils, manure, and manure-applied soils amended with Al-WTR.

  12. Degradation of 14C - DDT in soils under moist and flooded conditions with rice straw and green manure amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, S.; Dubey, P.S.; Kale, S.P.; Murthy, N.B.K.

    2001-01-01

    Degradation of 14 C - DDT in moist and flooded soils was studied with rice straw and green manure amendments for 100 days. The mineralization of DDT was not significantly influenced by any of the treatments. Rice straw and green manure in flooded soil brought about decrease in extractable 14 C - residues with concomitant increase in soil bound residues. DDT has a very short residence in flooded soils though radiocarbon was more in extractable residues. DDD is the major degradation product in flooded soils. (author)

  13. {sup 15}N-labeled nitrogen from green manure and ammonium sulfate utilization by the sugarcane ratoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio, E-mail: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicapa, SP (Brazil). Polo Rigional Centro Sul; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Cantarella, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto Agronomico de Campinas. Centro de Solos e Recursos Agroambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP/FOP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia de Piracicaba. Dept. de Odontologia Social, Bioestatistica; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fertilidade do solo

    2011-05-15

    Legumes as green manure are alternative sources of nitrogen (N) for crops and can supplement or even replace mineral nitrogen fertilization due to their potential for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The utilization of nitrogen by sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and ammonium sulfate (AS) was evaluated using the {sup 15}N tracer technique. N was added at the rate of 196 and 70 kg ha{sup -1} as {sup 15}N-labeled sunn hemp green manure (SH) and as ammonium sulfate (AS), respectively. Treatments were: (I) Control; (II) AS{sup 15}N; (III) SH{sup 15}N + AS; (IV) SH{sup 15}N; and (V) AS{sup 15}N + SH. Sugarcane was cultivated for five years and was harvested three times. {sup 15}N recovery was evaluated in the two first harvests. In the sum of the three harvests, the highest stalk yields were obtained with a combination of green manure and inorganic N fertilizer; however, in the second cutting the yields were higher where SH was used than in plots with AS. The recovery of N by the first two consecutive harvests accounted for 19 to 21% of the N applied as leguminous green manure and 46 to 49% of the N applied as AS. The amounts of inorganic N, derived from both N sources, present in the 0-0.4 m layer of soil in the first season after N application and were below 1 kg ha{sup -1}. (author)

  14. Leaching of cyanogenic glucosides and cyanide from white clover green manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnholt, Nanna; Lægdsmand, Mette; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2008-01-01

    Use of crops for green manure as a substitute for chemical fertilizers and pesticides is an important approach towards more sustainable agricultural practices. Green manure from white clover is rich in nitrogen but white clover also produces the cyanogenic glucosides (CGs) linamarin...... and lotaustralin; CGs release toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) upon hydrolysis which may be utilized for pest control. We demonstrate that applying CGs in the form of a liquid extract of white clover to large columns of intact agricultural soils can result in leaching of toxic cyanide species to a depth of at least 1...

  15. Application of perennial legume green manures to improve growth and yield of organic lowland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Winarni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment in green house was done to study the effect of the dosage and speciesof perennial legume green manures to the physiological traits, growth and yield of organic lowland rice (Oryza sativaL., and to obtain the optimal dosage as well.  The research was arranged in a factorial randomized block design consistedof two factors with three replications.The first factor was the species of perennial legume thatconsisted of threespecies: Turi (Sesbaniagrandiflora, Glirisidia (Gliricidiasepium, and Lamtoro (Leucaenaleucocephala and cow manure as control treatment. The second factor was the dosage of green manure thatconsisted of four levels: 5, 10, 20 and 40 t/ha.  The results showed that application ofperennial legumesinto the soil significantly improved the growth and yield of rice.  The application of  20 t Glirisidia leaves/haproduced the highest grain yield, followed by 20 t Lamtoro leaves/ha and 20 t Turi leaves/ha.  The optimal dosages of S. grandiflora, G. sepium and L. leucochepala leaves that could yield 58.03 g/hill (equivalent to14.51 t/ha, 53.67 g/hill (equivalent to 13.42 t/ha, and 49.67 g/hill (equivalent to 12.42 t/ha were 28.05, 25.46 and 26.41 t/ha, respectively.

  16. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental....... Adjusting for these model-estimated side-effects resulted in wheat grain yields gains from manure application of 0.7-1.1 Mg DM ha-1. The apparent recovery efficiency of N in grains (N use efficiency, NUE) from NH4-N in applied manure varied from 23% to 44%. The NUE in the winter cereals of N accumulated......-estimated benefit of increasing N input in grass-clover from 100 to 500 kg N ha-1 varied from 0.8 to 2.0 Mg DM ha-1 between locations. This is a considerably smaller yield increase than obtained for manure application, and it suggests that the productivity in this system may be improved by removing the cuttings...

  17. green manure and inorganic fertiliser as management strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Weed infestation, especially the Witchweed (Striga asiatica) is a serious problem in fertility-depleted soils of. Tanzania. The use of urea fertiliser is known to control weed but resource-poor farmers cannot afford this technology due to high costs involved. To alleviate the problem of Striga and soil fertility, green-manure.

  18. Influence of nitrogen fertilization and green manure on the economic feasibility of no-tilled wheat in the Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Castilho Gitti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for higher profitability in wheat crop with cost reduction technologies that may promote sustainability is an important matter in Brazilian agriculture. This study evaluated the profitability of no-tilled wheat, reducing nitrogen topdressing doses with the cultivation of green manure before the wheat crop. The experiment was carried out in Selvíria (MS, Brazil, in 2009/10. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with 36 treatments in splitplots and four replicates. The plots were formed by six types of green manure: Cajanus cajan L. BRS Mandarin, Crotalaria juncea L., Pennisetum americanum L. BRS 1501, fallow area and mixed cropping of Pennisetum americanum L. + Cajanus cajan L. and Pennisetum americanum L. + crotalaria which provided straw for no-tilled wheat in the winter, following the rice crop in the summer. The subplots were formed by six levels of topdressing nitrogen (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg N ha-1 using urea as a nitrogen source. The wheat grown after green manure in the previous winter crop, with no nitrogen topdressing and a rate of 25 kg ha-1 N, had more frequently production costs above the gross income. Wheat production cost after the mixed cropping Pennisetum americanum L. + Cajanus cajan L. and Pennisetum americanum L. + Crotalaria juncea L. from the previous winter crop, combined with nitrogen rates of 50 and 75 kg N ha-1, provided better profitability compared with the other green manures evaluated.

  19. Overview of manure treatment in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyon, L

    2017-03-01

    Manure treatment becomes a focal issue in relation to current EU and national policies on environmental, climate and renewable energy matters. The objective of this desk study was to collect all available data on the treatment of manure from cattle, pig and poultry farms for an overview of manure treatment in France. Specific surveys in 2008 showed that 12% of pig farms, 11% of poultry farms and 7.5% of cattle farms was concerned by manure treatment. Taken together, the treatment of pig, poultry and cattle manure accounted for 13.6milliontons corresponding to 11.3% of the total annual tonnage (120milliontons). The main processes, mostly applied on the farm, were composting (8.5milliontons), aerobic treatment (2.9milliontons of pig slurry) and anaerobic digestion (1milliontons). Other manure treatments, including physical-chemical treatment, were less frequent (0.4million of m 3 ). Treated manure was mainly used to fertilize the soil and crops on the farm concerned. Manure treatment can thus be considered to be underused in France. However, anaerobic digestion is expected to expand to reach the European target of 20% of energy from renewable sources. Nevertheless, this expansion will depend on overcoming the constraint requiring registration or normalization of the use of the digestate as fertilizer. Thus, to avoid penalizing farmers, the further development or creation of collective processing platforms is recommended, combined with an N recovery process that will enable the production of organic amendments and fertilizers in an easy marketable form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of long-term organic material applications and green manure crop cultivation on soil organic carbon in rain fed area of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Sugino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term field experiment on organic material application and crop rotation with green manure crops has been conducted since 1976 at Lopburi Agricultural Research and Development Center, Department of Agriculture, Lop Buri Province, Thailand, to clarify the effect of organic materials and green manure crop on soil organic carbon changes. The stock change factors that stand for the relative change of soil organic carbon on the carbon stock in a reference condition (native vegetation that is not degraded or improved. Stock change factor for input of organic matter (FI, representing different levels of C input to soil such as organic material application, crop residue treatment and green manure crop cultivation, was computed with the present field experimental results. While the computed FI of "High input with manure" was within the range of IPCC default FI value, some of the computed FI of " High input without manure" was much higher than the IPCC default though it was varied due to the biomass production and nutrient contents of the green manure crops planted as the second crops after corn. Therefore, the FI computed by field experimental results can contribute to more accurate estimation of SOC changes in farm land especially in Southeast Asia because the default FI mostly depends on the experimental data in temperate zones. Moreover, the field experiment has focused the effect of reduced tillage practices on SOC changes and corn yield since 2011. The results of the experiment will be used to compute Stock change factor for management regime (FMG which represents the effects of tillage operations.

  1. Effects of green manure crops and mulching technology on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green manure crops are primarily used in environmentally friendly agricultural practices to reduce the application of chemical fertilizer and herbicide. In this study, a two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of paper and plastic mulching with hairy vetch alone or in combination with barley on weed ...

  2. Lowland Rice Yield And Fertilizer Nitrogen Contribution Affected By Zeolite And Sesbania Green Manure Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto; Idawati and Las, Tamsil

    2000-01-01

    A pot experiment has been conducted in P3TIR greenhouse, pasar jumat, south jakarta to study nitrogen uptake and contribution of fertilizer for lowland rice affected by zeolite and sesbania green manure application. To study the N contribution of fertilizer, 15N isotope was used. The zeorea fertilizer was made from the mixture of zeolite and 15N labelled urea having 4.0% atom. Ten treatments of N fertilization were tried : zeorea I was applied once at transplanting (ZI IX), zeorea I was applied twice I.e at transplanting and at 30 days after transplanting - DAT (ZI 2X), zeorea I was applied at transplanting and at 30 DAT (ZI + ZII), zeorea II was applied once at transplanting (ZII IX), zeorea II was applied twice I.e at transplanting and at 30 DAT (ZII 2X), zeolit was applied twice I.e at transplanting and at 30 DAT (ZO 2X), half rate of urea was applied at transplanting and another half rate at 30 DAT ( U 1/2+1/2), sesbania green manure was applied at 30 DAT and zeorea II applied at transplanting (sesbania + ZII), one tate of urea was applied at transplanting (U IX), and half rate of urea was applied at transplanting and sesbania was applied at 30 DAT (sesbania + U 1/2). Result obtained from this experiment showed that the application of zeorea I at tran planting followed by zeorea II at 30 DAT resulted the highest yield of dry grain even though it contained nitrogen only 60% of the nitrogen content of the recommended rate. The highest nitrogen contribution of zeorea I.e 75.22 mg/pot was obtained by applying zeorea II at transplanting and at 30 DAT. Urea half dose (U 1/2) combined with sesbania green manure could be effectuated if given in zeorea from even more effective than urea full dose given at transplanting time (U IX). Impact of sesbania green manure seemed to be more positive if combined with zeolite

  3. The effects of Brassica green manures on plant parasitic and free living nematodes used in combination with reduced rates of synthetic nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Ekaterini

    2011-06-01

    Brassica plants once incorporated into soil as green manures have recently been shown to have biofumigant properties and have the potential of controlling plant-parasitic nematodes. In Washington State, plant-parasitic nematodes are successfully managed with synthetic nematicides. However, some of the synthetic nematicides became unavailable recently or their supply is limited leaving growers with few choices to control plant-parasitic nematodes. The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of Brassica green manures on their own and in combination with reduced rates of synthetic nematicides on plant-parasitic nematodes and free living nematodes. In a greenhouse experiment and field trials in three seasons, Brassica green manures in combination with half the recommended rate of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D, Telone) reduced root knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi to below detection levels, and reduced lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus penetrans and stubby root nematodes, Paratrichodorus allius, to below economic thresholds. The combination treatments did not affect the beneficial free-living nematode populations and the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas. The total cost of growing and soil-incorporating Brassica crops as green manures in combination with reduced rates of 1,3-D was approximately 35% lower than the present commercial costs for application for the full rate of this fumigant. Integrating conventional management practices with novel techniques fosters sustainability of production systems and can increase economic benefit to producers while reducing chemical input.

  4. Chemical, green and organic manure effects on chemical properties on a savannah oxisol and on corn under conventional tillage and no-tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannigel, Anny R.; Alves, Marlene C.; Valério Filho, Walter V.

    2015-04-01

    Modern agriculture, in general, has always been based on the concept that natural resources are endless; however, this concept is changing. Concern for the environment is increasingly becoming part of farming practices, either by the awareness of society, or because the high cost of fertilizers or even the exhaustion of soils. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the green manure and mineral fertilizer and/or organic manure and, on the chemical properties of an Oxisol, on "Savannah" (cerrado) area in Mato Grosso do Sul-Brazil, cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.) on the following management conditions: no-tillage and conventional tillage, on area previously under pasture (Brachiaria decumbens). The experimental design was a randomized blocks and the tested treatments were: control (without organic manure or chemical fertilizer); chemical fertilizer, as recommended for the culture and based on the chemical soil analysis; organic manure (cow manure); organic manure + half of the mineral fertilizer recommended rate; and the green manure Crotalaria juncea and Pennisetum americanum. The chemical analyses were the soil chemical analysis to the intent of soil fertility. Corn yield was evaluated. The collect of soil samples were realized in depths of 0.00-0.05 m and 0.05-0.10 m and 0.10-0.20 m. The organic manure and the organic manure + half of the mineral recommended rate increased P, Ca, Mg, K and Organic Matter in the first depth (0.00 - 0.05 m). These treatments also increased K and Mg at the second depth analyzed (0.05 - 0.10 m) and K in the depth from 0.10 - 0.20 m. Under conventional tillage management presents better crop results with an average grain yield of 3649 kg ha-1 versus 2374 kg ha-1 obtained under no-tillage. The use of chemical fertilizer, organic manure + half of the mineral recommended rate, Crotalaria juncea, organic manure and Pennisetum americanum increased corn yield by 84, 79, 58, 44 and 41 %, respectively.

  5. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dörsch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM. Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and return as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilised cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha−1 throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (60 kg NH4+-N + 50 kg organic N ha−1 before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilised cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009 had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha−1. Based on measurements covering the growing season 2010, organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilisation (47 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain.

  6. Selection of Green Manure Species for Efficient Absorbtion of Poorly-Available Forms of Soil Phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzini, V. I.; Mendes, F. L. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, EMBRAPA-Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA, (Brazil); Muraoka, T.; Da Silva, E. C. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Adu-Gyamfi, J. J. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    Green manuring is an agronomic practice in which plants or their residues are added to the soil, improving of the soil physical, chemical and biological attributes, and increasing organic matter and fertility levels through nutrient cycling. It is estimated that green manures can increase P bioavailability. The integration of plant species in crop rotations to immobilize P is one of the most promising agronomic measures to improve the availability of P for the main crop. This study aimed to assess 21 species of green manure and a standard plant species (Lupinus albus) on their ability to absorb the available forms of P by the {sup 32}P isotopic dilution technique. It also aimed to determine if the isotopically exchangeable P, the L-values, differed when calculated with or without taking seed N into account. The results were statistically correlated and analyzed by hierarchical clustering (HCA) in order to group similar plant species. Jack bean was the most efficient species in P utilization while the Stylosanthes spp. were the most efficient in P uptake. The seed-derived P affected the P uptake efficiency evaluated by L-value technique. (author)

  7. PRODUCTION OF LETTUCE UNDER GREEN MANURING WITH Calotropis procera IN TWO CULTIVATION SEASONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÊNIO GOMES FLÔR SOUZA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of vegetable crops is characterized by intensive land use, high input demands and the requirement of strategic management adoption with an agro - ecological approach. In this study, agronomic indicators were evaluated in lettuce fertilized with different amounts of roostertree biomass; fertilizer was incorporated into the soil at distinct times and seedlings were planted in two cropping seasons (spring and autumn - winter in Serra Talhada, Pernambuco state, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of randomized complete blocks with three replications and treatments arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme. The first factor was the amounts of roostertree biomass (5.4, 8.8, 12.2, and 15.6 t ha - 1 on a dry basis and the second the manure incorporation times (0, 10, 20, and 30 days before lettuce transplanting. The variables evaluated in the lettuce crop were: plant height and diameter, number of leaves per plant, productivity of green mass, and dry shoot mass. Maximum productivity and dry shoot mass were obtained using fertilization with 15.6 t ha - 1 . A synchrony between supply of nutrients by green manure and the period of maximum demand by lettuce was observed in the incorporation times of 10 (spring and 20 (autumn - winter days before transplanting. Cultivation in the spring resulted in higher vegetative growth.

  8. Effect of farmyard manure and green manure crops on populations of mycophagous soil fauna and Rhizoctonia stem canker of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lootsma, M.; Scholte, K.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of organic soil amendments on populations of mycophagous springtails and nematodes and on Rhizoctonia solani stem canker of potato were investigated in two field experiments each lasting two years. The organic amendments consisted of three green manure crops (white mustard, forage rape and

  9. Effects of green manure herbage management and its digestate from biogas production on barley yield, N recovery, soil structure and earthworm populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøseth, Randi Berland; Bakken, Anne Kjersti; Bleken, Marina Azzaroli

    2014-01-01

    management on the yield and N recovery of a subsequent spring barley crop, and their short term effects on soil structure and earthworm populations. A field trial was run from 2008 to 2011 at four sites with contrasting soils under cold climate conditions. We compared several options for on-site herbage......In repeatedly mown and mulched green manure leys, the mulched herbage contains substantial amounts of nitrogen (N), which may only slightly contribute to the following crops’ nutrient demand. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of alternative strategies for green manure...... management and the application of anaerobically digested green manure herbage. Depending on the site, removal of green manure herbage reduced the barley grain yield by 0% to 33% compared to leaving it on-site. Applying digestate, containing 45% of the N in harvested herbage, as fertilizer for barley gave...

  10. Biomass production and nitrogen accumulation in pea, oat, and vetch green manure mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannink, J.L.; Liebman, M.; Merrick, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Interest in the use of green manures has revived because of their role in improving soil quality and their beneficial N and non-N rotation effects. This study evaluated biomass production, N content, radiation interception (RI), and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) mixtures. Treatments were a three-way factorial of pea genotype ('Century' vs 'Tipu'), pea planting density (90 vs 224 kg ha -1 ), and cropping mixture (solecropped pea vs pea planted with a mixture of oat and hairy vetch). A mixture of oat and vetch without pea was also planted. Treatments were planted in early June on a Caribou gravelly loam (coarse-loamy, mixed, frigid Typic Haplorthods) in Presque Isle, ME, in 1993 and 1994. Biomass production and radiation interception were measured by repeated sampling. Mixture biomass was affected by a year x pea density interaction: respective yields for mixtures containing low-density and high-density pea were 770 and 880 g m -2 in 1993 vs 820 and 730 g m -2 in 1994. Mixture N content paralleled biomass production and averaged 209 g m -2 across all treatments. While pea sole crops did not consistently produce biomass or N equal to three-species mixtures the two-species mixture of oat and vetch did, yielding 820 g m -2 of biomass and 21.7 g m -2 of N, averaged over the 2 yr. Multiple regression showed that 61% of the variability in mixture biomass production was accounted for by a combination of early-season pea RI and midseason total mixture RUE. Economic analyses showed that rotation including these green manures may be economically competitive with a conventional rotation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) undersown with clover (Trifolium spp.) in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production system

  11. Chicken manure enhanced yield and quality of field-grown kale and collard greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Turley, Eric T; Hill, Regina R; Snyder, John C

    2014-01-01

    Organic matter and nutrients in municipal sewage sludge (SS) and chicken manure (CM) could be recycled and used for land farming to enhance fertility and physical properties of soils. Three soil management practices were used at Kentucky State University Research Farm, Franklin County, to study the impact of soil amendments on kale (Brassica oleracea cv. Winterbar) and collard (Brassica oleracea cv. Top Bunch) yields and quality. The three soil management practices were: (i) SS mixed with native soil at 15 t acre(-1), (ii) CM mixed with native soil at 15 t acre(-1), and (iii) no-mulch (NM) native soil for comparison purposes. At harvest, collard and kale green plants were graded according to USDA standards. Plants grown in CM and SS amended soil produced the greatest number of U.S. No. 1 grade of collard and kale greens compared to NM native soil. Across all treatments, concentrations of ascorbic acid and phenols were generally greater in kale than in collards. Overall, CM and SS enhanced total phenols and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard compared to NM native soil. We investigated the chemical and physical properties of each of the three soil treatments that might explain variability among treatments and the impact of soil amendments on yield, phenols, and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard green grown under this practice.

  12. Substrates with green manure compost and leaf application of biofertilizer on seedlings of yellow passion fruit plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Muniz Barbosa Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Substrates and fertilization are fundamental for seedling production, which well nourished can produce earlier and are more resistant to stresses. Animal manures are often used in non-industrialized substrates with good results, but their costs are increasing. Other residues may be used for plant nutrition, in substrates or in leaf fertilization. The aim of this work was to evaluate substrates prepared with green manure composts and the leaf application of biofertilizer on the formation of yellow passion fruit seedlings. A greenhouse experiment was conducted between December 2009 and February 2010, with a split-plot random block design. Plots received or not leaf application of supermagro biofertilizer. Subplots consisted of different substrates: soil; soil + cattle manure; soil + cattle manure composted with black oats straw; soil + cattle manure composted with ryegrass straw; soil + cattle manure composted with turnip straw; and soil + cattle manure composted with vetch straw. There were three dates of leaf fertilization: 10, 25 and 40 days after emergence (DAE. At 50 DAE plants were collected for evaluation of growth and accumulation of biomass and nutrients: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn and Zn. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test. The substrate soil + cattle manure promoted higher stem diameter, plant height, leaf area, root length and volume and nutrient accumulation. Among substrates with green manure composts, those prepared with black oats and turnip straw outranked the others. The use of leaf biofertilizer showed diverse results on seedling formation, being beneficial when combined to substrates with black oats composted straw, and prejudicial when combined to soil + cattle manure and soil + turnip composted straw substrates. The accumulation of nutrients by the seedlings occurred in the following order: K>Ca>N>Mg>P>Zn>Cu=Mn.

  13. Biofumigation for control of pale potato cyst nematodes: activity of brassica leaf extracts and green manures on Globodera pallida in vitro and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, James S; Lazzeri, Luca; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2011-07-27

    The effects of brassica green manures on Globodera pallida were assessed in vitro and in soil microcosms. Twelve of 22 brassica accessions significantly inhibited the motility of G. pallida infective juveniles in vitro. Green manures of selected brassicas were then incorporated into soil containing encysted eggs of G. pallida. Their effect on egg viability was estimated by quantifying nematode actin 1 mRNA by RT-qPCR. The leaf glucosinolate profiles of the plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Three Brassica juncea lines (Nemfix, Fumus, and ISCI99) containing high concentrations of 2-propenyl glucosinolate were the most effective, causing over 95% mortality of encysted eggs of G. pallida in polyethylene-covered soil. The toxic effects of green manures were greater in polyethylene-covered than in open soil. Toxicity in soil correlated with the concentration of isothiocyanate-producing glucosinolate but not total glucosinolate in green manures.

  14. Phytomass production and nutrient accumulation by green manure species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Soares Mangaravite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is recognized as a viable alternative to improve nutrient cycling in soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation in shoots of the summer green manures jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC.], dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajanvar var. Flavus DC., dwarf mucuna [Mucuna deeringiana (Bort Merr] and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., under nitrogen fertilization and/or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria. A split plot design was arranged with the four Fabaceae species as main plots and nitrogen fertilization (with and without and inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria (with and without as the subplots, in a 2² factorial. The experiment was arranged as a randomized complete block design with four replications. In the conditions of this trial, the sunn hemp had the highest production of shoot phytomass (12.4 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation, while the dwarf mucuna had the lowest production of shoot phytomass (3.9 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation. The results showed no effect of nitrogen fertilization or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria on the production of shoot phytomass and nutrient accumulation, except for inoculation without nitrogen fertilization, resulting in greater P accumulation (p <0.05 in the sunn hemp and greater Zn and Mn accumulation in the dwarf mucuna. These findings indicate that N fertilization or inoculation with N2-fixing bacteria for Fabaceae are low efficiency practices in the edaphoclimatic conditions of this study.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  16. Utilization of nitrogen from green manure and mineral fertilizer by sugarcane Aproveitamento do nitrogênio da adubação verde e da fertilização mineral pela cana - de - açucar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson José Ambrosano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Given their potential for biological nitrogen fixation, legumes used as green manure are an alternative source of nitrogen to crops, and can supplement or even replace mineral nitrogen fertilization. The utilization of nitrogen by sugarcane (Saccharum spp. fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. and ammonium sulphate (AS was evaluated using the 15N tracer technique. Amounts of 195.8 kg and 70 kg N per hectare, respectively, of sunn hemp and AS were added in the following treatments: without green manure and without AS; without green manure, with AS -15N; with green manure-15N and with AS; with green manure-15N, without AS; with green manure and with AS-15N. Four samples from the leaves +3 were collected and 2 m of the sugar cane row were harvested to estimate crop yield. The results for N contents (g kg-1, isotopic abundance of N (atoms % 15N in leaf +3 samples, and sugarcane productivity were used to calculate cumulative N, nitrogen in the plant derived from the fertilizer-Ndff (% and kg ha-1, as well as percent recovery of fertilizer N (R%. Sugarcane was analysed and pol and total recovered sugar calculated. The highest Ndff percentages were observed eight months after sugarcane planting for treatments containing green manure without mineral N, and green manure with mineral N, at 15.3 and 18.4%, respectively. The best nitrogen recovery was observed during harvest, 18 months after planting; the treatment containing mineral fertilizer showed 34.4% recovery, while the sum between mineral N plus green manure N showed 40.0%. Treatments containing green manure plus mineral N changed soil attributes, by increasing Ca and Mg contents, sum of bases, pH, and base saturation, and decreasing potential acidity. In the plant, those treatments increased Ca and K contents.Em função de seu potencial de fixação de nitrogênio, as leguminosas adubos verdes representam uma alternativa ao suprimento, substituição ou complementação da aduba

  17. Effect of green manure crops and nitrogen fertilizer levels on dry matter remobilization efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. internodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen rates and green manure crops on dry matter mobilization and mobilization efficiency indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a field experiment was conducted in Agricultural Faculty of Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz during growing season of 2010-2011. The experimental design was split-plot based on randomized complete block with three replications. Main plot included four nitrogen rates (i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN.ha-1 and sub-plot included six green manure crops containing millet (Pennisetum sp., amaranth (Amaranthus sp., sesbania (Sesbania sp., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and fallow. This experiment was done at two stages. First, planting and turn down of green manure crops and then planting of wheat. The results showed that the maximum weight and specific weight of all stem internodes obtained from 0 to 20 days after wheat anthesis. Then, this trend decreased from 20 to 50 days after wheat anthesis due to remobilization of dry matter to grain. Mobilized dry matter was more in control (0 kg.N.h-1 than in high N application for peduncle (219 vs. 181 mg and penultimate (203 vs. 165 mg, while, was less in the lower internodes (403 vs. 407 mg. Generally, with increasing of nitrogen levels, dry matter mobilization efficiency was decreased by. So, the effect of green manure crops not limited only by soil properties, while influences the relationship between physiological sources and sink.

  18. Growth, nodulation and yield response of soybean to biofertilizers and organic manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, A.; Mahmood, N.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain TAL-102 and a commercial biofertlizer EM (effective microorganisms) on growth, nodulation and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Wilczek] in soils amended either with farmyard manure or Trifolium alexandrinum L. green manure at the rate 20 tons ha/sup -1/ each. In green manure amendment, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced number and biomass of nodules resulting in a significant increase of 27, 65 and 55% in shoot biomass and number and biomass of pods, respectively. In farmyard manure amended soil, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced fresh biomass of nodules. As a result a significant increase of 45 and 47% in shoot biomass and number of pods was recorded, respectively. Generally, the effect of sole EM application on various studied parameters was insignificant in both the soil amendment systems. Combined application of EM and B. japonicum in green manure amended soil reduced shoot growth and number of pods as compared to sole B. japonicum inoculation. Conversely, in farmyard manure amendment, plants co-inoculated with B. japonicum and EM exhibited highest and significantly greater shoot biomass, and number and biomass of pods as compared to all other treatments. The present study concludes that soybean yield can be significantly enhanced by the application of B. japonicum and EM in farmyard manure amendment. (author)

  19. Using the N-15 method to determine N-soil, N-green manure, and N-urea availability after six seasons in an alley cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsje L Sisworo; Haryanto and Ania Citraresmini

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for crop growth and production. This study was conducted to determine whether in each of six seasons and after these seasons the N-soil, N-green manure, N-green manure + urea, and N-urea is still available for crops. Upland rice and corn were planted successively for six seasons. In each season upland rice and corn were planted and applied with N-fertilizers at rate of: control (0N), N1 (100% green manure), N2 (50% green manure + 50% urea), N3 (100% urea). N-15 labelled urea was added at each season to determine the A-value of the crops. In each seasons it was shown that crops used N-soil as well as N-fertilizer. With the increase of the availability of N-fertilizers the use of N-soil decrease and so could preserve N-soil. With preservation of N-soil it could be assumed that soil quality has increased. The N-15 method could be used to determine the availability at each fertilizer rate’s in each season and at the end of the sixth season. (author)

  20. Adubação verde em pomar cítrico Green manure in citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Alves Ragozo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de adubos verdes na citricultura ainda é pouco estudada, embora possa trazer benefícios ao citricultor, do ponto de vista econômico e de preservação dos recursos ambientais. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência da utilização de adubos verdes em um pomar de laranjeira 'Pêra' enxertada em limoeiro 'Cravo'. Foram empregados quatro tratamentos correspondentes aos adubos verdes avaliados: feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, labe-labe (Dolichus lablab, feijão-guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan e braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha - como testemunha. Os adubos verdes foram semeados nas entrelinhas da cultura e posteriormente foram roçados e direcionados para a linha na ocasião do pleno florescimento, 120 dias após a semeadura dos mesmos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos, seis repetições e duas plantas úteis para as avaliações. As características avaliadas foram: peso médio dos frutos, número de frutos por caixa de colheita (40,8 kg, produtividade, teores de matéria seca e de macro e micronutrientes contidos nos tratamentos, bem como rendimento de suco e "ratio". Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram não haver diferença estatística entre os tratamentos para as características de produtividade das plantas e qualidade dos frutos. O feijão-guandu-anão apresentou o maior teor de matéria seca no primeiro ano de experimentação, diferindo estatisticamente dos demais tratamentos. No segundo ano, diferiu estatisticamente do feijão-de-porco e do labe-labe, produzindo maior quantidade de biomassa.The green manures utilization in citrus orchards is little studied yet, therefore can enhance the yield and preserve the nature. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of the use of green manures on an orchard planted with 'Pera' sweet orange, situated Botucatu/SP. Four different treatments were applied: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, lab-lab (Dolichus

  1. Growth and N-uptake in sorghum plants manured with different amounts of Leucaena Leucocephala shoots as affected by time of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Shamma'a, M.

    2006-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted throughout two successive years to determine the impact of adding four rates of nitrogen (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg N/ha) in the form of Leucaena leucocephala (lam.) de Wit green manure as affected by different time (T0, T15 and T30) of application (just before sowing, 15 and 30 days before sowing, respectively) on the performance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) using the indirect N-15 isotopic dilution technique. Results showed that leucaena leaves, used as a green manure, significantly increased dry matter production and N yield of sorghum. The effect was more pronounced in panicles than shoots. In the first year, N recoveries in sorghum of the total N contained in leucaena green manure ranged between 17-24% in T0, 14-24% in T15 and 15-19% in T30. The highest N recovery value was obtained in lowest rate of n treatment (N 60 ). Moreover, soil incorporated with leucaena green manure one month before planting enhanced both soil and mineral N fertilizer in sorghum plants. In the second year, total N uptake in sorghum (eg., panicles and the entire plant) increased with increasing amounts of N added as a leucaena green manure. N recoveries in sorghum ranged between 26-47% in T0, about 24% in T15 and 23-325 in T30 of the total N contained in leucaena green manure (LGM). As shown in the first year, the highest value of N recovery was obtained in lowest rate of N treatment. The beneficial effects of leucaena green manure on dry matter and N yield in sorghum was attributed not only to the additional N availability to the plant, but also to effects on the enhancement of soil N uptake, particularly when the incorporation was made before a sufficient time from sowing. The beneficial effect of green manuring with leucaena leaves at T15 and T30 was mainly resulted from enhancement of N uptake from this added material, as well as from soil and fertilizer N; whereas, it was only attributed to N uptake from green manure in the T0 treatment. Incorporation

  2. Growth and N-uptake in sorghum plants manured with different amounts of Leucaena Leucocephala shoots as affected by time of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Shamma'a, M.

    2007-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted throughout two successive years to determine the impact of adding four rates of nitrogen (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg N/ha) in the form of Leucaena leucocephala (lam.) de Wit green manure as affected by different time (T0, T15 and T30) of application (just before sowing, 15 and 30 days before sowing, respectively) on the performance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) using the indirect N-15 isotopic dilution technique. Results showed that leucaena leaves, used as a green manure, significantly increased dry matter production and N yield of sorghum. The effect was more pronounced in panicles than shoots. In the first year, N recoveries in sorghum of the total N contained in leucaena green manure ranged between 17-24% in T0, 14-24% in T15 and 15-19% in T30. The highest N recovery value was obtained in lowest rate of n treatment (N60). Moreover, soil incorporated with leucaena green manure one month before planting enhanced both soil and mineral N fertilizer in sorghum plants. In the second year, total N uptake in sorghum (eg., panicles and the entire plant) increased with increasing amounts of N added as a leucaena green manure. N recoveries in sorghum ranged between 26-47% in T0, about 24% in T15 and 23-325 in T30 of the total N contained in leucaena green manure (LGM). As shown in the first year, the highest value of N recovery was obtained in lowest rate of N treatment. The beneficial effects of leucaena green manure on dry matter and N yield in sorghum was attributed not only to the additional N availability to the plant, but also to effects on the enhancement of soil N uptake, particularly when the incorporation was made before a sufficient time from sowing. The beneficial effect of green manuring with leucaena leaves at T15 and T30 was mainly resulted from enhancement of N uptake from this added material, as well as from soil and fertilizer N. Whereas, it was only attributed to N uptake from green manure in the T0 treatment. Incorporation

  3. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  4. Nitrogen-15 labeling of Crotalaria juncea green manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossetto, Raffaella; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Muraoka, Takashi; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Cantarella, Heitor; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Tamiso, Luciano Grassi; Vieira, Felipe de Campos; Prada Neto, Ithamar

    2003-01-01

    Most studies dealing with the utilization of 15 N labeled plant material do not present details about the labeling technique. This is especially relevant for legume species since biological nitrogen fixation difficult plant enrichment. A technique was developed for labeling leguminous plant tissue with 15 N to obtain labeled material for nitrogen dynamics studies. Sun hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) was grown on a Paleudalf, under field conditions. An amount of 58.32 g of urea with 70.57± 0.04 atom % 15 N was sprayed three times on plants grown on eight 6-m2-plots. The labelled material presented 2.412 atom % 15 N in a total dry matter equivalent to 9 Mg ha -1 This degree of enrichment enables the use of the green manure in pot or field experiments requiring 15 N-labeled material. (author)

  5. Methane emissions during storage of different treatments from cattle manure in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun Wang; Chiqing Duan; Yaqin Ji; Yichao Sun

    2010-01-01

    Many studies on methane emissions from animal manure have revealed that animal manure is a major source of methane emissions to the atmosphere that can have negative consequences for people,animals and environment.In general,the release of methane can be influenced by the type of feed taken by animals,temperature,manure characteristics and so on.This study aimed at quantifying and comparing methane release from dairy manure with different piling treatments.Four treatments were designed including manure piling height 30,45,60 cm and adding 6 cm manure every day until the piling height was 60 cm.Static chamber method and gas chromatography were adopted to measure the methane emissions from April to June in 2009.Methane emission rates of all four manure treatments were low in the first week and then increased sharply until reaching the peak values.Subsequently,all the methane emission rates decreased and fluctuated within the steady range till the end of the experiment.Wilcoxon nonparametric tests analysis indicated that methane emission rate was greatly influenced by manure piling height and manner.There were no significant relationships between methane emission rates and the temperatures of ambience and heap.However,regression analysis showed that the quadratic equations were found between emission rates of all treatments and the gas temperature in the barrels.

  6. Treatment and trade or organic manures in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkuyten, J.C.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The manure market is dominated by both low prices and low quality. This current market does not favour the sustainable use of manures, nor does it favour innovation. First step in improving both manure quality and manure utilisation is optimizing the manure supply chain. A powerful instrument for this optimizing forms ''certification of the links within the chain''. The successful marketing of the derivates requires technological and organisational innovation. A powerful instrument in successful marketing is ''certification''. Through certification of the supply chain, as well as certification of the products, upgrading of the products is possible, leading to economical viable investments in waste treatment. Product certification leads furthermore to the possibility of positioning the products. A positive positioning of the products, differentiating it from ''waste'', is essential for the desired investments by market parties. In this paper new ideas and developments on the Dutch manure market are presented. A new technology (v. Aspert plant), including the marketing concept as the derivates produced are presented. A profile on a manure brokerage organisation (MBO) and, on last year founded, European Manure association (EMA) are added. (au)

  7. Treatment and trade or organic manures in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkuyten, J C.A.M. [European Manure Association, EMA, Deventer (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    The manure market is dominated by both low prices and low quality. This current market does not favour the sustainable use of manures, nor does it favour innovation. First step in improving both manure quality and manure utilisation is optimizing the manure supply chain. A powerful instrument for this optimizing forms `certification of the links within the chain`. The successful marketing of the derivates requires technological and organisational innovation. A powerful instrument in successful marketing is `certification`. Through certification of the supply chain, as well as certification of the products, upgrading of the products is possible, leading to economical viable investments in waste treatment. Product certification leads furthermore to the possibility of positioning the products. A positive positioning of the products, differentiating it from `waste`, is essential for the desired investments by market parties. In this paper new ideas and developments on the Dutch manure market are presented. A new technology (v. Aspert plant), including the marketing concept as the derivates produced are presented. A profile on a manure brokerage organisation (MBO) and, on last year founded, European Manure association (EMA) are added. (au)

  8. Growth and Yield Responses of Green Pepper (Capsicum annum L. to Manure Rates under Field and High Tunnel Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima-obong I. DOMINIC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine growth and yield responses of green pepper to varying manure rates under field and high tunnel conditions. Experiment 1 was a pot experiment to evaluate three rates (0.5 and 10 t/ha of poultry manure (PM on green pepper production under high tunnel and open field conditions. Experiment 2 was to determine the performance of green pepper as influenced by different manure rates (0, 5 and 10 t/ha of PM, 300 kg/ha of NPK, 5 t/ha of PM + 200 kg of NPK and 10 t/ha of PM + 100 kg of NPK on the field. High tunnel produced about 3.1 fruits/plant that weighted 102.8 g, which was significantly higher than open field experiment in which 1.7 fruits/plant, with a medium weight of 32.3 g were noted. High tunnel enhanced successful production of green pepper during rainy season, whereas the open field production during the same season was near failure. Application of 10 t/ha of PM produced significantly larger fruits in the pot experiment. Good fertilizer effects on growth and yield components were recorded for the field study. Plant height, number of leaves and branches, number and weight of harvested fruit followed similar trend in 5 and 10 t/ha of PM which gave statistically similar results, and provided the best performance during the experiment. Application of 5 t/ha of PM produced the highest total fruits yield.

  9. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  10. Evaluation of Four Farm-scale Systems for the Treatment of Liquid Pig Manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Verdoes, N.

    2005-01-01

    In some regions in the Netherlands, high pig concentrations and limited availability of arable land have led to a surplus of manure which results in high off-farm manure disposal costs. The aim of manure treatment is to lower manure transport costs by reducing the volume and to improve market

  11. Green manuring with Calotropis procera for the production of coriander in two growing seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ênio Gomes Flôr Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of spontaneous species of the Caatinga biome can contribute significantly to the nutritional demand of vegetable crops, thereby providing an agroecological and sustainable form of production. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of different biomasses of Calotropis procera (rooster tree and times of incorporation into the soil of green manure during two growing seasons on the agronomic performance of coriander cv. Verdão produced in Serra Talhada, a semi-arid region of Pernambuco, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications. The treatments were arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme, with the first factor consisting of biomass amounts of C. procera (5.4, 8.8, 12.2 and 15.6 t ha-1 on a dry basis and the second by the incorporation times into the soil (0, 10, 20 and 30 days before coriander planting. The evaluated characteristics were plant height, number of stems per plant, yield of green mass and dry mass of shoot. The best productive performance of coriander was observed in amounts of 12.2 (spring and 8.8 (autumn-winter t ha-1 C. procera added to the soil, with an ideal incorporation time of 13 (spring and 23 (autumn-winter days before sowing of the crop and with larger accumulations of green and dry mass of the shoot being obtained in autumn-winter.

  12. Advanced treatment of liquid swine manure using physico-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelme-Ayala, Pamela [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); El-Din, Mohamed Gamal, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Smith, Richard [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Code, Kenneth R. [IOWC Technologies Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Leonard, Jerry [Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Swine manure was treated by coagulation/flocculation followed by an oxidation step. {yields} This physicochemical treatment removed suspended solids, total organic carbon and nutrients. {yields} Complete total coliforms reduction was achieved in diluted swine manure samples. {yields} Levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide gases were reduced. {yields} Reduced sludge production was achieved at natural swine manure pH. - Abstract: In this study, liquid swine manure was treated by physico-chemical treatment, including coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by an oxidation step as a polishing treatment at a bench-scale level. A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a mineral and salt formulation able to generate molecular iodine were used as coagulant and oxidant agents, respectively. The results indicated that SAP at a concentration of 1.25 g/L was able to reduce 32% of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) in experiments using supernatant at its natural pH. Following the SAP application, 82% of initial ammonia (NH{sub 3}), 78% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), and 93% of the total coliforms were reduced using 40 mg/L of free iodine. In experiments performed with diluted supernatant (five-fold dilution), it was found that SAP at a concentration of 0.5 g/L was capable of reducing 80% of the initial TSS in experiments at pH 11. A leaching study was conducted to assess the safety of sludge disposal. From the leaching tests using non-diluted supernatant, it was found that 24% of the chloride (Cl{sup -}) and 50% of the phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) ions retained in the sludge leached to the ultrapure water after 48 h. Potential contamination due to leaching of NH{sub 3}, nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) was found to be statistically insignificant.

  13. Efficiency of green manure species on the population of reniform nematode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Gonçalves Gardiano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growing of soil improving crops on the population of Rotylenchulus reniformis in naturally infested soil. It was evaluated the effect of 6 species of plants as cover crops in winter and 13 summer species and a fallow treatment on the nematode population under greenhouse. After 60 days, the root system was collected. Then, a sample of soil was taken in order to extract juveniles from the soil and quantification the final population of the pathogen in each pot for determining of the reproduction factor (RF. Fallow and all winter species of green manure, except hairy vetch, reduced the population of R. reniformis after cultivation in infested soil, in comparison to the control. Regarding summer cover crops, it was observed that sorghum ‘SI03204’ (Sorghum vulgare, millet ‘BRS1501’ (Pennisetum glaucum, Brachiaria ruziziensis, finger millet (Eleusine coracana, estylo ‘Campo Grande’ (Stylosanthes capitata x S. macrocephala, peanut ‘IAC Tatu ST’ (Arachis hypogaea and dwarf velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana reduced the population of R. reniformis, when compared to the control, could be used in the management of this nematode.

  14. Reduced tillage and green manures for sustainable cropping systems - Overview of the TILMAN-ORG project

    OpenAIRE

    Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Reduced tillage and green manures are environmentally friendly practices that increase levels of soil organic matter and biological activity, improve soil stability, and reduce fuel consumption and may mitigate the climate impact of crop production. The avoidance of deep ploughing is successfully practiced as no-tillage agriculture in conventional farming systems. However, these no-tillage systems rely on herbicides for weed control and mineral fertilisers for plant nutrients. As these inputs...

  15. Stakeholder perceptions of manure treatment technologies in Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Y.; Velthof, G.L.; Case, S.D.C.; Oelofse, M.; Grignani, C.; Balsari, P.; Zavattaro, L.; Gioelli, F.; Bernal, M.P.; Fangueiro, D.; Trindade, H.; Jensen, L.S.; Oenema, O.

    2018-01-01

    Manure treatment technologies have been developed in Europe to better use animal manures and to reduce their environmental impact, but the adoption of these technologies in practice is regionally diverse and still limited. Also, little is known about the opinions of stakeholders towards manure

  16. Viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Marcelo; Kunz, Airton; Seganfredo, Milton Antonio; Steinmetz, Ricardo [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: mmiele@cnpsa.embrapa.br; Bortoli, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The swine manure treatment is based on several technologies, such as pond systems, composting, biodigesters, and compact process like the EMBRAPA's Swine Manure Treatment System. The last one can reach high quality effluent with reduced pollution, although it demands higher investment and costs. For this reason it is necessary to manage revenues with byproducts and carbon credit markets. The aim of this study was to present a viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system considering its potential revenues facing higher costs. Using market prices and measured data from a prototype running in south Brazil, the study calculated costs, revenues, profit, net present value and internal rate return. It also estimated these indicators assuming scale economies. The results showed that the investment can pay its costs by its insertion in the carbon credit market and other revenues like the energy substitution. It also showed the importance to reach scale economies. (author)

  17. Green-manure turnip for soybean based no-tillage farming systems in eastern Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota Aki

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A no-tillage soybean-wheat cropping system has been practiced for many years on the "Terra Rossa" soils of eastern Paraguay. Soil compactness and soil erosion have recently been identified as potential problems. This study examines the effect of replacing unprofitable wheat by green-manure turnip (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg. on soil properties and soybean production. Gaseous phase, porosity, bulk density, water saturation, cone index, pH, exchangeable-cations, available-phosphorus (P and aggregate size distribution of the soil were measured. Contrary to initial expectations, turnip did not reduce soil compactness. Instead, turnip stabilized the aggregate structure of the surface soil. Positive effects of turnip on subsequent soybean growth and yield were detected in a rather dry year but not in an exceptionally wet year. In a second part of this study, nutrient return from turnip and wheat residues were compared. Turnip produced 10.7 t ha-1 of shoot dry matter, and absorbed 294, 27, 302, 175, and 33 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, respectively. Wheat absorbed 98, 11, 67, 11, and 7 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, respectively. About 75% of the N absorbed by wheat was removed from the field at harvest whereas most nutrients in the turnip residue were returned to the soil before planting of soybeans with positive effects on soil fertility. Additional benefits of green-manure turnip would include a reduced chance for erosion through improvements in aggregate structure and through a more complete soil cover.

  18. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Y; Lévêque, T; Xiong, T; Schreck, E; Austruy, A; Shahid, M; Dumat, C

    2013-10-01

    Borage, white mustard and phacelia, green manure plants currently used in agriculture to improve soil properties were cultivated for 10 wk on various polluted soils with metal(loid) concentrations representative of urban brownfields or polluted kitchen gardens. Metal(loid) bioavailability and ecotoxicity were measured in relation to soil characteristics before and after treatment. All the plants efficiently grow on the various polluted soils. But borage and mustard only are able to modify the soil characteristics and metal(loid) impact: soil respiration increased while ecotoxicity, bioaccessible lead and total metal(loid) quantities in soils can be decreased respectively by phytostabilization and phytoextraction mechanisms. These two plants could therefore be used for urban polluted soil refunctionalization. However, plant efficiency to improve soil quality strongly depends on soil characteristics. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  20. Joint stabilization of sewage sludge and separated manure fluid. Treatment and utilization of manure. Final report; Gemeinsame Stabilisierung von Klaerschlamm und separierter Guellefluessigkeit. Guellebehandlung und -verwertung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, W.F.; Kolisch, G.

    1994-12-01

    As an alternative to separate manure processing, anaerobic stabilization of surplus manure and sewage sludge in combination is possible at municipal sewage treatment plants. Subsequently to the removal of solids, pig manure is fed into existing digesters. The process concept comprises the following partial steps: preliminary treatment of crude manure, anarobic stabilization of the separated manure fluid, biological nitrogen elimination from the digested mixture of sewage sludge and manure, and dewatering of the mixed sludge in the dewatering systems of the sewage treatment plant. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Eine Alternative zu den Verfahren einer separaten Guelleaufbereitung stellt die gemeinsame anaerobe Stabilisierung von Ueberschussguelle und Klaerschlamm auf kommunalen Klaeranlagen dar, die eine Einspeisung feststoffseparierter Schweineguelle in bereits vorhandene Faulbehaelter vorsieht. Das Verfahrenskonzept besteht aus den Teilschritten Vorseparierung der Rohguelle, anaerobe Stabiliserung der separierten Guellefluessigkeit, biologische Stickstoffelimination aus dem ausgefaulten Klaerschlamm-Guelle-Gemisch sowie Entwaesserung der Mischschlaemme auf den Entwaesserungsaggregaten der Klaeranlage. (orig./SR)

  1. Green manures and levels of nitrogen topdressing in wheat crop under no-tillageAdubos verdes e doses de nitrogênio em cobertura na cultura do trigo sob plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio da Silva Nunes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Green manure is still a not widely used practice in wheat crop, although economic benefits and conservation of natural resources can be observed due to the adoption of this practice. This study was carried out at the Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, associated with levels of mineral nitrogen topdressing in the agronomic performace of wheat crop under no-tillage. The treatments were constituted by green manures, fallow as a treatment-control and six doses of mineral nitrogen topdressing: zero, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1. Urea was used as nitrogen source. Evaluations of dry mass of cover crops, nitrogen contents in green manures shoot and in wheat leaves, plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, one thousand-grains weight, hectolitric weight and yield were made. It was concluded that the use of green manures before wheat seeding promotes significant increases in crop yield, mainly when planted over to sunn hemp. The wheat yield response to mineral nitrogen application varied according to the preceding crop.A adubação verde ainda é uma prática pouco utilizada na cultura do trigo, embora proporcione benefícios do ponto de vista econômico e da preservação dos recursos naturais. Este estudo foi realizado em Dourados-MS, Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do cultivo de crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa como adubos verdes, associados a doses de nitrogênio mineral em cobertura, no desempenho agronômico do trigo em sistema plantio direto. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos adubos verdes, um tratamento-testemunha em pousio e seis doses de nitrogênio mineral em adubação de cobertura do trigo: zero, 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 kg ha-1, utilizando-se a ureia como fonte de nitrogênio. Foram realizadas avaliações de massa seca das coberturas vegetais, teores de nitrog

  2. An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cattle manure harbors microbial constituents that make it a potential source of pollution in the environment and infections in humans. Knowledge of, and microbial assessment of, manure is crucial in a bid to prevent public health and environmental hazards through the development of better management practices and policies that should govern manure handling. Physical, chemical and biological methods to reduce pathogen population in manure do exist, but are faced with challenges such as cost, odor pollution, green house gas emission, etc. Consequently, anaerobic digestion of animal manure is currently one of the most widely used treatment method that can help to salvage the above-mentioned adverse effects and in addition, produces biogas that can serve as an alternative/complementary source of energy. However, this method has to be monitored closely as it could be fraught with challenges during operation, caused by the inherent characteristics of the manure. In addition, to further reduce bacterial pathogens to a significant level, anaerobic digestion can be combined with other methods such as thermal, aerobic and physical methods. In this paper, we review the bacterial composition of cattle manure as well as methods engaged in the control of pathogenic microbes present in manure and recommendations that need to be respected and implemented in order to prevent microbial contamination of the environment, animals and humans.

  3. Adubação verde na produção orgânica de alface americana e repolho The use of green manure in crisphead lettuce and cabbage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastácia Fontanétti

    2006-06-01

    fertilization of vegetables is the use of green manure. The objective of this work was to evaluate three green manure species, used to complement the fertilization with organic compost, in relation to the nutrient contents in their biomass, and to productivity and agronomic traits of crisphead lettuce and cabbage. The experiment was carried out at the Olericulture Sector of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from December 2001 to August 2002, in a soil classified as Udox. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design in a factorial scheme (4x2 with three repetitions. The first factor was constituted by the green manure species: black-velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum, jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, and sunnhep (Crotalaria juncea, plus a control treatment (weed and mineral fertilizers; and the second factor was constituted by the vegetable crops: crisphead lettuce and cabbage. Among the tested green manure species, sunnhep presented the best potential for extraction of N, P, K, Mg, B, Mn and Zn. In addition, sunnhep was more efficient than jack bean or black velvet bean in increasing the commercial weight of cabbage head. In relation to productivity, as for lettuce, green manuring plus organic compost did not differ from the control; while for the cabbage, these treatments had a performance statistically inferior. The use of green manure plus organic compost allowed to obtain commercial crisphead lettuce and cabbage heads with satisfactory weight for the market.

  4. Growth and nitrogen fixation of legumes at increased salinity under field conditions: implications for the use of green manures in saline environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruning, B.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Broekman, R.A.; de Vos, A.C.; Parra González, A.; Rozema, J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of legumes as green manure can potentially increase crop productivity in saline environments and thus contribute to the sustainability of agricultural systems. Here, we present results from a field experiment conducted in the Netherlands that addressed the efficiency of nitrogen (N) fixation

  5. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    are in the same range (282-301 m(3) CH4 LU-1). Pre-treatment of manure by separation is a way of making fractions of the manure that have a higher gas potential per volume. Theoretical methane potential and biodegradability of three types of fractions deriving from manure separation were tested. The volumetric...... methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity....

  6. Synergy of sewage water treatment plants and processing of manure; Synergie RWZI en mestverwerking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisschops, I.; Weijma, J.; Van Eekert, M.; Spanjers, H. [Lettinga Associates Foundation LeAF, Wageningen (Netherlands); Timmerman, M.; Fe Buisonje, F. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research WLR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    The goal of this study is to explore profitable ways of processing manure in sewage water treatment plants. Technological options are explored for processing manure, the availability of manure in the surroundings, the space taken up by manure digestion and annual costs and benefits [Dutch] Het doel van deze studie is te verkennen hoe mest op rendabele wijze in rwzi's (rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallaties) verwerkt kunnen worden. Er is gekeken naar de technologische mogelijkheden om mest te kunnen verwerken, de beschikbaarheid van mest in de omgeving, ruimtebeslag van mestvergisting, en jaarlijkse kosten en opbrengsten.

  7. Rehabilitation of Problem Soils Through Environmental Friendly Technologies-I: Effect of Sabins and Farmyard Manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, Mirza B.; Ziaeldin, Mohammad S.; Mahler, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental problem due to land degradation in the developing countries have been a matter of great cocern for the decades. The rehabilitation of problem land has been through many chemical means and engineering approaches, that have resulted in enhancing the gravity and the magnitude of problems. The present studies were undertaken to examine the role of environmental friendly practices to address the salinity issue. the effect of organic manuring (green manure and farmyard manure) or rice was investigated in a field study on a saline-sodic soil of the Saline Agriculture Research Station, Sadhuke, Pakistan. Sesbania was grown as a green manuring crop for two months and then incorporated into soil. farmyard manure (FYM) was applied at the rate of 0, 5, 10 and 20/ha before the sowing of Sesbania. Rice,Cv. Basmati 385 was used as the indicator/test crop. Results revealed that both paddy and straw yields were significantly improved by the application of sesbina and FYM. Green manure with sesbina improved the paddy and straw yields by 15.4% and 14.5% respectively. Productive tillers were also increased by the application of FYM but difference were not significant between 10 and 20ha/ of FYM application. FYM application also improved the paddy and straw yield significantly. The incrase in paddy yield due to application of 5, 10 and 20/ha of FYM were 6.8%, 24.4% and 37.6% over control, respectively. Nitrogen and phosphprus utilizationn by rice were also significantly improved with the application of green manure. Nitrogen uptake by rice was incresed by 17.8% and that of phosphorus by 21.9% with the green manuring. Nitrogen uptake was significantlty increased by the application of different rates of FYM. Also phosphorus uptake was increased significantly with the application of FYM. (author)

  8. Aerobic treatment of swine manure to enhance anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekoe, Dominic; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Bo; Scott Todd, Matthew; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2018-02-01

    Aerobic treatment of swine manure was coupled with anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation. A 14-day aerobic treatment reduced the total solid content of swine manure by >15%. Ammonia and carbon dioxide were stripped by the air supplied, and this off-gas was further used to aerate the culture of Chlorella vulgaris. The microalgal growth rates in Bristol medium and the wastewater with the off-gas increased from 0.08 to 0.22 g/L/d and from 0.15 to 0.24 g/L/d, respectively. Meanwhile, the aerobically treated swine manure showed a higher methane yield during anaerobic digestion. The experimental results were used to establish a demonstration unit consisting of a 100 L composter, a 200 L anaerobic digester, a 60 L tubular photobioreactor, and a 300 L micro-open raceway pond.

  9. Adubação verde e sistemas de manejo do solo na produtividade do algodoeiro Green manure and soil management systems on cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camillo de Carvalho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A adoção de sistemas de manejo conservacionistas e a sucessão de culturas com adubos verdes são práticas que visam preservar a qualidade do solo e do ambiente, sem prescindir da obtenção de produtividade elevada das culturas de interesse econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de manejo do solo e adubos verdes na produtividade do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L.. O experimento foi realizado num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, originalmente sob vegetação de Cerrado. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcela subdividida e quatro repetições. Nas parcelas, utilizaram-se quatro adubos verdes: mucuna-preta, guandu, crotalária e milheto, e área de pousio (vegetação espontânea. Nas subparcelas foram adotados dois sistemas de manejo do solo: plantio direto e preparo convencional (uma gradagem pesada + duas gradagens leves. Os sistemas de manejo do solo não interferiram na produtividade do algodoeiro. O algodoeiro apresentou produtividade semelhante quando cultivado em sucessão a diferentes espécies de adubos verdes, no sistema de plantio direto e convencional de preparo do solo.The adoption of conservation management system and succession of crops after green manures aim at preserving the environment and soil quality, without dispensing the largest cash crop yield. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil management systems and green manures on cotton yield (Gossypium hirsutum L.. The experiment was carried out in a Typic Hapludox, covered by Savannah vegetation. The experimental design used was that of randomized blocks, in a split plot scheme, with four replications. In plots, four green manures were used: black velvet bean, pigeon pea, sunn hemp, millet and fallow area (spontaneous vegetation. In subplots, two managament soil systems were used: no-tillage and conventional tillage (one disk harrow + two levelling harrow. Soil management systems do

  10. Características químicas de solo e rendimento de fitomassa de adubos verdes e de grãos de milho, decorrente do cultivo consorciado Soil chemical characteristics and green manure yield in a corn intercropped system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reges Heinrichs

    2005-02-01

    rows spaced 90 cm apart to obtain approximately 50,000 plants per hectare. The treatments consisted of four green manure species: dwarf mucuna [Mucuna deeringiana (Bort. Merr], dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L., crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis Roth, jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L., plus a control without green manure. Green manure species were sown without fertilizer application in a single row in-between the rows simultaneously with corn or 30 days after corn sowing. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks in split plots and four replicates. Jack bean produced most phytomass and accumulated the highest amounts of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S. In the first year of cultivation, the corn yields were not affected by the intercropped cultivation with green manure, but in the second year the yield was highest when corn was intercropped with jack bean.

  11. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  12. Low-temperature anaerobic digestion of swine manure in a plug-flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Gilbert, Yan; Saady, N M C; Liu, Charle

    2013-01-01

    A low-temperature (25 degrees C) anaerobic eight-compartment (PF01 to PF08) cascade reactor simulating a plug-flow reactor (PFR) treating pig manure was monitored for a year. The bioreactor was fed at an average loading rate of 2.4 +/- 0.2 g of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) per litre of reactor per day for a theoretical hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 67 +/- 7 d. An average of 79% of TCOD was removed from pig manure (converted into biogas and in sediments), whereas specific methane yields ranging from 397 to 482 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS (148.6 to 171.4 NL CH4 kg(-1) TCOD) were obtained. After 150 d, fluctuating performances of the process were observed, associated with solids accumulation in the upstream compartments, preventing the complete anaerobic digestion of swine manure in the compartments PF01 to PF04. Low-temperature anaerobic PFR represents an interesting alternative for the treatment of pig manure and recovery of green energy. Further investigations regarding a modified design, with better accumulating solids management, are needed to optimize the performance of this low-temperature PFR treating pig manure.

  13. Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ... Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology ... (FYM); V2 = 2.5 t/h fresh sesbania green manure (FSB) V3 = 5 t/ha FYM; and V4 = 5 t/ha FYM +2.5 ...

  14. Enhanced biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry and horse manure with mechanical pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Madalena; Baptista, Patrícia; Duarte, Elizabeth; Moreira, António L N

    2018-01-02

    Enhanced biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry and horse manure with mechanical pre-treatment. In this study, co-digestion of horse manure and pig slurry was investigated in a continuously stirred tank reactor, with a mechanical pre-treatment. Experiments were conducted at 37°C, with hydraulic retention times of 23 days and increasing shares of horse manure, corresponding to different horse manure to pig slurry ratios (HM:PS) equal to 0:100, 10:90, 13:87 and 20:80, in terms of percentage of inlet volatile solids (%VS inlet). The results show that the best synergetic effect between the microbial consortia of pig slurry and the high Carbon to Nitrogen ratio (C/N) of horse manure is obtained for the mixture of 20:80%VS inlet, yielding the highest specific methane production (SMP = 142.6 L kg TCOD -1 ) and the highest soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) reduction (68.5%), due to the high volatile dissolved solids content and soluble chemical oxygen demand to total chemical oxygen demand ratio (SCOD/TCOD). Thus, co-digestion of horse manure and pig slurry is shown to be a promising approach for biogas production and as a waste treatment solution. Furthermore, the analysis provides a methodology for the pre-treatment of these substrates and to investigate into the best combination for improved biogas production.

  15. Response to growth and production of green beans (Vigna radiata L.) in various cropping spots and fertilizer provision of layer chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitinjak, L.; Purba, E.

    2018-02-01

    Agroecology affecting plant growth can be influenced by factors such as plant spacing and growing media. This study aims to determine the effect of plant spacing and chicken manure on the growth and production of green beans. Plants were planted at three spacing plants (20cm x 20cm, 20cm x 30cm, and 20cm x 40cm) while manure was applied at 3.75, 7.50 and 11.25 ton/ha and without manure as a comparison. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The result showed that the highest diameter of stem was resulted from the application of 11.25 ton/ha of manure combined with the planting space of 20cm x 40 cm. Similarly, the highest number of branch of stem we found at the plot where chicken manure of 11.25 ton/ha with planting space of 20cm x 30cm. The highest production (4,944.4 kg/ha) was resulted from 7.50 ton/ha manure with combined with planting space of 20cm x 40cm. There was an interaction between the treatment of manure and the planting space of soybean. The production of green bean was 24% higher in 7.50 ton/ha manure combined with 20cm x 40cm planting space compared to no manure (control).

  16. Effects of different types and rates of organic manures on Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Perss. control in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Orooji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different types and rates of animal manure and spent mushroom compost on controlling Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Perss. in tomato (Mill. Lycopersicon esculentum, two studies were conducted on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research green house, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Nemooneh field of Astane Ghods Razavi during two years of 2009 and 2010. Greenhouse study treatments were consist of poultry, cow, sheep manure and spent mushroom compost, which each one applied at four rates (10, 20, 30 and 40 t.ha-1. Field experiment treatments were included of poultry, cow and sheep manure that each one applied at two rates (20 and 40 t.ha-1. Result of the greenhouse study indicated that poultry manure significantly reduced orobanch infestation and increase tomato dry weight compared to control. But in the field experiment, the maximum fruit yield (68 t.ha-1 with the minimum orobanch dry weight were obtained with sheep manure. The effect of cow manure was similar to poultry manure in all measured traits. In the field study, rates of manure application had no significant effect on orobanch fresh and dry weights. The findings indicated that all treatments of animal manure reduced orobanch infestation. But the mechanism of orobanch growth suppression due to animal manures application is unknown. It seems fermentation of different organic matters can produced heat and the resulting toxic compounds such as certain organic acids, ammonia and ammonium salts that may reduce orobanch growth at proper concentrations.

  17. Low-temperature anaerobic treatment of hog manure and transformation of biogas into green energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van-Anh Truong, L.; Royer, R.

    2004-08-01

    A new environmental solution for hog manure management has been developed by Bio-Terre Systems Inc. in collaboration with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. The technical approach combines low-temperature anaerobic digestion, concentration of solids and production of biogas, a renewable energy source. Both small and large agricultural producers can benefit from this approach which helps transform organic matter into value-added by-products. They can fertilize their land with the liquid fraction, supply energy for their buildings with the biogas produced, and export surplus nutrients with the solid fraction. The technology also solves odour problems and destroys pathogenic microorganisms. No pretreatment is needed for this technology which makes use of robust anaerobic microorganisms that are low temperature tolerant. It is a stable process that provides continuous production of biogas with high energy potential. The automated system does not require much monitoring or maintenance. The environmental advantages include the production of biogas rich in methane, which can be used for electrical energy on the farm or sent to the electric power grids; production of high-value, odorless liquid fertilizer; a 50 per cent reduction of the amount of phosphorous in the liquid fraction; and, a 90 per cent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from hog manure. The profitability of capital investment is assured by both the energy-savings and the agricultural benefits. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  18. Green Gram Rotation Effects on Maize Growth Parameters and Soil Quality in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myo Kywe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At present maize–green gram crop rotations are not widely practiced among farmers in Myanmar. However, this cropping system might become more popular in the future given raising prices for green gram and maize grain and scarcity of mineral nitrogen (N fertilizers in this Asian country. The results of a cropping systems experiment with continuous maize versus a green gram-maize rotation, manure application (0 and 2 t ha−1 and phosphorus (P fertilization (0 and 15 kg P ha−1 in each of five consecutive seasons revealed a strong decline in total dry matter and grains yields for both crops irrespective of the treatment. Treatment effects on yield components, nutrient concentrations, mycorrhizal infection and nematode infestation were small or negligible. The data show that in addition to manure used at 2 t ha−1, application of mineral N fertilizers is essential to maintain particularly maize yields. A comparison of different green gram cultivars did not indicate genotype specific effects on maize growth. The incorporation of legume residues, unless they are used as animal feed, is recommended to increase the recycling of N and to balance N fluxes when green gram is cultivated for seed.

  19. Anaerobic digestion technology in livestock manure treatment for biogas production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Ismail M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Ghazi, Tinia I.; Omar, Rozita

    2012-06-15

    This article reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production from livestock manure wastes and compares the operating and performance data for various anaerobic process configurations. It examines different kinds of manure waste treatment techniques and the influence of several parameters on biogas and methane yield. The comparison indicates that a variety of different operational conditions, various reactor configurations such as batch reactors, continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow reactor (PFR), up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), and continuous one- and two-stage systems, present a suitable technology for the AD of livestock manure waste. Main performance indicators are biogas and methane yield, degradation of volatile solids (VS), higher loading, and process stability with a short retention time. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH 8 Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Biodiesel synthesis using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Lee, Jechan; Lee, Taewoo; Tsang, Daniel C W; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-11-01

    This study laid an emphasis on the possible employment of biochar generated from pyrolysis of chicken manure to establish a green platform for producing biodiesel. To this end, the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil was investigated. Compared with a commercial porous material (SiO 2 ), chicken manure biochar generated from 350°C showed better performance, resulting in 95.6% of the FAME yield at 350°C. The Ca species in chicken manure biochar imparted strong catalytic capability by providing the basicity for transesterification. The identified catalytic effect also led to the thermal cracking of unsaturated FAMEs, which decreased the overall FAME yield. For example, 40-60% of converted FAMEs were thermally degraded. To avoid undesirable thermal cracking arising from the high content of the Ca species in chicken manure biochar, the fabrication of chicken manure biochar at temperatures ≥350°C was highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Occurrence and transformation of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in dairy manure treated by advanced anaerobic digestion and conventional treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Joshua S; Garner, Emily; Pruden, Amy; Aga, Diana S

    2018-05-01

    Manure treatment technologies are rapidly developing to minimize eutrophication of surrounding environments and potentially decrease the introduction of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) into the environment. While laboratory and pilot-scale manure treatment systems boast promising results, antibiotic and ARG removals in full-scale systems receiving continuous manure input have not been evaluated. The effect of treatment on ARGs is similarly lacking. This study examines the occurrence and transformation of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, tetracycline degradation products, and related ARGs throughout a full-scale advanced anaerobic digester (AAD) receiving continuous manure and antibiotic input. Manure samples were collected throughout the AAD system to evaluate baseline antibiotic and ARG input (raw manure), the effect of hygenization (post-pasteurized manure) and anaerobic digestion (post-digestion manure) on antibiotic and ARG levels. Antibiotics were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the ARGs tet(O), tet(W), sul1 and sul2 were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Significant reductions in the concentrations of chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline and their degradation products were observed in manure liquids following treatment (p < 0.001), concomitant to significant increases in manure solids (p < 0.001). These results suggest sorption is the major removal route for tetracyclines during AAD. Significant decreases in the epimer-to-total residue ratios for chlortetracycline and tetracycline in manure solids further indicate degradation is desorption-limited. Moreover, sul1 and sul2 copies decreased significantly (p < 0.001) following AAD in the absence of sulfonamide antibiotics, while tetracyclines-resistant genes remained unchanged. A cross-sectional study of dairy farms utilizing natural aeration and liquid-solid separation treatments was additionally performed

  2. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  3. Germination and health quality of mucuna white and black seeds used as a green manure in Quevedo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Garcés Fiallos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the germination and sanitary quality of mucuna (Stizolobium spp. white and black used as green manure in Quevedo, Ecuador. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Plant, Universidade Técnica Estatal de Quevedo-UTEQ. The seeds of mucuna white and black were from the experimental field in La María 2010 harvest. The work consisted of two treatments for each type of seed of mucuna (white and black, totaling four. In each Petri plates were plated five (5 seeds, ten (10 plates per treatment, totaling 50 in each. Transferred to a growth chamber (incubator control temperature of 25°C ± 2 without photoperiod. We evaluated the physiological quality (germination for six days and rate (r of growth of the radicle and health (incidence of pathogens its seeds. The germination was between 68 (BDA medium and 40% (filter paper for white velvet, among both black velvet, half were between 70 (BDA medium and 34 (paper. The pathogens found in seeds of white and black velvet, were the fungi Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillum sp., as well as an unidentified bacterium, with averages for each of 10, 29, 30 and 33% incidence, respectively.

  4. Chinese Milk Vetch as Green Manure Mitigates Nitrous Oxide Emission from Monocropped Rice System in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhijian; Shah, Farooq; Tu, Shuxin; Xu, Changxu; Cao, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Monocropped rice system is an important intensive cropping system for food security in China. Green manure (GM) as an alternative to fertilizer N (FN) is useful for improving soil quality. However, few studies have examined the effect of Chinese milk vetch (CMV) as GM on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from monocropped rice field in south China. Therefore, a pot-culture experiment with four treatments (control, no FN and CMV; CMV as GM alone, M; fertilizer N alone, FN; integrating fertilizer N with CMV, NM) was performed to investigate the effect of incorporating CMV as GM on N2O emission using a closed chamber-gas chromatography (GC) technique during the rice growing periods. Under the same N rate, incorporating CMV as GM (the treatments of M and NM) mitigated N2O emission during the growing periods of rice plant, reduced the NO3- content and activities of nitrate and nitrite reductase as well as the population of nitrifying bacteria in top soil at maturity stage of rice plant versus FN pots. The global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of N2O from monocropped rice field was ranked as Mrice grain yield and soil NH4+ content, which were dramatically decreased in the M pots, over the treatment of FN. Hence, it can be concluded that integrating FN with CMV as GM is a feasible tactic for food security and N2O mitigation in the monocropped rice based system.

  5. Chinese Milk Vetch as Green Manure Mitigates Nitrous Oxide Emission from Monocropped Rice System in South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Xie

    Full Text Available Monocropped rice system is an important intensive cropping system for food security in China. Green manure (GM as an alternative to fertilizer N (FN is useful for improving soil quality. However, few studies have examined the effect of Chinese milk vetch (CMV as GM on nitrous oxide (N2O emission from monocropped rice field in south China. Therefore, a pot-culture experiment with four treatments (control, no FN and CMV; CMV as GM alone, M; fertilizer N alone, FN; integrating fertilizer N with CMV, NM was performed to investigate the effect of incorporating CMV as GM on N2O emission using a closed chamber-gas chromatography (GC technique during the rice growing periods. Under the same N rate, incorporating CMV as GM (the treatments of M and NM mitigated N2O emission during the growing periods of rice plant, reduced the NO3- content and activities of nitrate and nitrite reductase as well as the population of nitrifying bacteria in top soil at maturity stage of rice plant versus FN pots. The global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI of N2O from monocropped rice field was ranked as Mtreatment of NM increased rice grain yield and soil NH4+ content, which were dramatically decreased in the M pots, over the treatment of FN. Hence, it can be concluded that integrating FN with CMV as GM is a feasible tactic for food security and N2O mitigation in the monocropped rice based system.

  6. Effects of Organic Matter on Soil Erosion and Runoff Peanuts and Green Pea in Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Sukataatmaja, Sukandi; Sato, Yohei; Yamaji, Eiji; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter from manure are used not only for fertilizer but also can be used for preventing soil erosion and runoff. How to manage manure to soil for peanut and green pea CUltivation is especially important, because most farmers plant these crops. The objective of this research is to identify effect of: 1) organicmatter from chicken manure, cow manure and sheep manure on soil erosion and runoff in peanuts and green pea cultivations, 2) mulch from paddy, corn and leaf of banana on soil ero...

  7. performance of sorghum grown on a salt affected soil manured with dhaincha plant residues using a 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Ain, F.; Razok, A.; Al-Shamma, M.

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a salt-affected soil to determine the effect of application of three types of Dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata pers.) residues (R, roots; L, shoots; L+R, shoots plus roots) of on the performance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) using the indirect 15 N isotopic dilution technique. Results indicated that Sesbania residues (L and L+R), used as green manures significantly increased grain yield, dry matter production, N uptake, and water use efficiency of sorghum. Percentages of N derived from residues (%Ndfr) in sorghum ranged from 6.4 to 28%. The N recoveries in sorghum were 52, 19. and 19.7% of the total amount contained in Sesbania roots, shoots and roots plus shoots, respectively. The beneficial effects of Sesbania residues are attributed not only to the additional N availability to the plants, but also to effects on the enhancement of soil N uptake, particularly in the L+R treatment. The findings suggest that the use of Sesbania aculeata residues, as a green manure, can provide a substantial portion of total N in sorghum. In addition, the use of Sesbania green manure in salt-affected soils, as a bio-reclaiming material, can be a promising approach for enhancing plant growth on a sustainable basis. (author)

  8. Crescimento e produtividade do sorgo forrageiro BR 601 sob adubação verde Growth and yield of forage sorghum cv. BR 601 under green manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu C. Andrade Neto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da adubação verde sobre o crescimento e a produtividade do sorgo forrageiro BR 601, foi estudado em experimento desenvolvido na UFERSA, em Mossoró, RN, no qual o delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados completos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo com três repetições. Testaram-se sete espécies de leguminosas, Mucuna aterrima, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lab-lab, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis e Vigna unguiculata, uma mistura das leguminosas mais milho, sorgo e girassol, e a vegetação espontânea, como testemunha. Determinaram-se, para cada tratamento, a quantidade de massa verde, massa seca e teores de N, P, K, Na, Ca e Mg da parte aérea, a partir dos quais foi calculada a quantidade de nutrientes acumulada por hectare. As quantidades de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea, altura de plantas e número de folhas do sorgo semeado após a incorporação dos adubos verdes, foram avaliadas aos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias após o plantio. A Mucuna aterrima mostrou-se a melhor opção como adubo verde em virtude de proporcionar os maiores valores das características avaliadas ao final do ciclo do sorgo podendo-se, também, recomendar a Crotalaria juncea e o Dolichos lab-lab, o qual apresentou a maior massa seca e quantidade de nutrientes na parte aérea.The effect of green manure on growth and yield of forage sorghum BR 601 was studied in a trial carried out at the UFERSA, Mossoró, RN, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks in a scheme of split plots in time, with three replications. Treatments tested were seven legume species, Mucuna aterrima, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lab-lab, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, and Vigna unguiculata, a mixture of the legumes plus corn, sorghum and sunflower, and spontaneous vegetation as a control. For each treatment the amount of fresh mass, dry mass and contents of N, P, K, Na, Ca and Mg in

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from liquid dairy manure: Prediction and mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.

    2017-01-01

    The handling and use of manure on livestock farms contributes to emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CH4 and N2O, especially with liquid manure management. Dairy farms are diverse with respect to manure management, with practices ranging from daily spreading to long-term storage for more......, and use of treatment technologies. Also, effects of treatment and handling on the properties of field-applied manure must be taken into account. Storage conditions and manure composition importantly define carbon and nitrogen transformations, and the resulting emissions of CH4 and N2O, as well as CO2...... application, manure and soil together define the equilibrium distribution of labile carbon and nitrogen between bulk soil and manure hotspots. This introduces heterogeneity with respect to potential for N2O emissions, which is not represented in existing prediction models. Manure treatment and management...

  10. Marine mud and manure treatment in Ultisols increase pH and phosphate availability and affectCapsicum annum L. grows and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Matulessy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine mud and manure has potentially to improve ultisol soil condition, especially in soil acidity, CEC, base saturation, neutralizing organic acid, improving soil structure, soil nutrient retention, aeration, soil humidity, capacity of water holding capacity and infiltration and enhance the rapid supply of phosphate for plant grows and development. Two treatments, namely planting media with 200 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure and 400 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure were able to increase pH from 4.6 to 5.6.Significant decrease of Alexcsolubility about 0.03 meq.100 g-1 was found in M1O3; M2O1; M2O3 and M3O1 treatment about. Increase of phosphate about 5.02 ppm was found at treatment 200 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure. There are significant interaction in plant high about 62.42 cm in the media without marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1manure treatments. The amount of 30 ton,ha-1manure produce plant with leaf size about 95,52 cm2.tan-1and produce fresh fruit about 9.81 ton.ha-1.

  11. External Resistances Applied to MFC Affect Core Microbiome and Swine Manure Treatment Efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Bañeras, Lluis; Puig, Sebastià; Molognoni, Daniele; Vilà-Rovira, Albert; Hernández-del Amo, Elena; Balaguer, Maria D.; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be designed to combine water treatment with concomitant electricity production. Animal manure treatment has been poorly explored using MFCs, and its implementation at full-scale primarily relies on the bacterial distribution and activity within the treatment cell. This study reports the bacterial community changes at four positions within the anode of two almost identically operated MFCs fed swine manure. Changes in the microbiome structure are described according to the MFC fluid dynamics and the application of a maximum power point tracking system (MPPT) compared to a fixed resistance system (Ref-MFC). Both external resistance and cell hydrodynamics are thought to heavily influence MFC performance. The microbiome was characterised both quantitatively (qPCR) and qualitatively (454-pyrosequencing) by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The diversity of the microbial community in the MFC biofilm was reduced and differed from the influent swine manure. The adopted electric condition (MPPT vs fixed resistance) was more relevant than the fluid dynamics in shaping the MFC microbiome. MPPT control positively affected bacterial abundance and promoted the selection of putatively exoelectrogenic bacteria in the MFC core microbiome (Sedimentibacter sp. and gammaproteobacteria). These differences in the microbiome may be responsible for the two-fold increase in power production achieved by the MPPT-MFC compared to the Ref-MFC. PMID:27701451

  12. Optimisation and inhibition of anaerobic digestion of livestock manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutaryo, S.

    2012-11-15

    The optimisation process during this PhD study focused on mixed enzyme (ME) addition, thermal pre-treatment and co-digestion of raw manure with solid fractions of acidified manure, while for inhibition processes, ammonia and sulphide inhibition were studied. ME addition increased methane yield of both dairy cow manure (DCM) and solid fractions of DCM (by 4.44% and 4.15% respectively, compared to the control) when ME was added to manure and incubated prior to anaerobic digestion (AD). However, no positive effect was found when ME was added to manure and fed immediately to either mesophilic (35 deg. C) or thermophilic (50 deg. C) digesters. Low-temperature pre-treatment (65 deg. C to 80 deg. C for 20 h) followed by batch assays increased the methane yield of pig manure in the range from 9.5% to 26.4% at 11 d incubation. These treatments also increased the methane yield of solid-fractions pig manure in the range from 6.1% to 25.3% at 11 d of the digestion test. However, at 90 d the increase in methane yield of pig manure was only significant at the 65 deg. C treatment, thus low-temperature thermal pre-treatment increased the rate of gas production, but did not increase the ultimate yield (B{sub o}). High-temperature pre-treatment (100 deg. C to 225 deg. C for 15 min.) increased the methane yield of DCM by 13% and 21% for treatments at 175 deg. C and 200 deg. C, respectively, at 27 d of batch assays. For pig manure, methane yield was increased by 29% following 200 deg. C treatment and 27 d of a batch digestion test. No positive effect was found of high-temperature pre-treatment on the methane yield of chicken manure. At the end of the experiment (90 d), high-temperature thermal pre-treatment was significantly increasing the B{sub 0} of pig manure and DCM. Acidification of animal manure using sulphuric acid is a well-known technology to reduce ammonia emission of animal manure. AD of acidified manure showed sulphide inhibition and consequently methane production was 45

  13. Development and analysis of microbial characteristics of an acidulocomposting system for the treatment of garbage and cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Ryoki; Otawa, Kenichi; Ozutsumi, Yuhei; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Abdel-Mohsein, Hosnia Swafy; Nakai, Yutaka

    2010-10-01

    An acidulocomposting system for the treatment of cattle manure with little emission of ammonia gas was developed, and the structure of its microbial community was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library construction. An acidulocomposting apparatus (BC20, 20 L) was operated for 79 days to treat 2 kg (wet wt) of garbage per 1 or 2 days. On day 80 of operation, the substrate was changed from garbage to cattle manure (1 kg of beef cattle manure was added to the apparatus every 2 or 3 days), and the system continued operating from days 80 to 158. The compost in the vessel was under acidic conditions at pH 5.2-5.8, and ammonia emission was below the detectable level (acidulocomposting treatment of cattle manure is not accompanied by ammonia emission and that Bacillus and LAB may be the key components in the system. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical note: stress analysis of cellulosic-manure composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.H. Ro; J.F. Hunt; R.E. Rowlands

    2017-01-01

    Ability to determine stresses in loaded, perforated cellulosic-manure composites from recorded temperature information was demonstrated. Being able to stress analyze such green materials addresses several societal issues. These include providing engineering members fabricated from materials that are suitable for developed and developing nations, relieving a troubling...

  15. Composting of pig manure and forest green waste amended with industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, O; Viña, S; Uzal, M; Soto, M

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this research was to study the composting of chestnut forest green waste (FGW) from short rotation chestnut stands amended with sludge resulting from the manufacture of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDFS) and pig manure (PM). Both FGW and MDFS presented low biodegradation potential but different characteristics in granulometry and bulk density that make its mixture of interest to achieve high composting temperatures. PM decreased the C/N ratio of the mixture and increased its moisture content (MC). Three mixtures of MDFS:FGW at volume ratios of 1:1.3 (M2), 1:2.4 (M3) and 0:1 (M4) were composted after increasing its MC to about 70% with PM. A control with food waste (OFW) and FGW (1:2.4 in volume) (M1) was run in parallel. Watering ratios reached 0.25 (M1), 1.08 (M2) 1.56 (M3) and 4.35 (M4) L PM/kg TS of added solids wastes. Treatments M2 and M3 reached a thermophilic phase shorter than M1, whilst M4 remained in the mesophilic range. After 48days of composting, temperature gradients in respect to ambient temperature were reduced, but the mineralization process continued for around 8months. Final reduction in total organic carbon reached 35-56%, depending mainly on the content in MDFS. MDFS addition to composting matrices largely reduced nitrogen losses, which range from 22% (M2) to 37% (M3) and 53% (M4). Final products had high nutrient content, low electrical conductivity and low heavy metal content which make it a valuable product for soil fertilization, right to amend in the chestnut forests and as a pillar of their sustainable management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pig Manure Contamination Marker Selection Based on the Influence of Biological Treatment on the Dominant Fecal Microbial Groups▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Romain; Dabert, Patrick; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a microbial marker for pig manure contamination. We quantified the persistence of four dominant bacterial groups from the pig intestinal tract throughout manure handling at 10 livestock operations (including aerobic digestion) by using molecular typing. The partial 16S rRNA genes of Bacteroides-Prevotella, Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae, Bacillus-Streptococcus-Lactobacillus (BSL), and Bifidobacterium group isolates were amplified and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. The most dominant bacterial populations were identified by cloning and sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. The results showed that Bifidobacterium spp. and, to a lesser extent, members of the BSL group, were less affected by the aerobic treatment than either Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae or Bacteroides-Prevotella. Two Bifidobacterium species found in raw manure were still present in manure during land application, suggesting that they can survive outside the pig intestinal tract and also survive aerobic treatment. The 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer of one species, Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum, was sequenced, and a specific pair of primers was designed for its detection in the environment. With this nested PCR assay, this potential marker was not detected in samples from 30 bovine, 30 poultry, and 28 human fecal samples or in 15 urban wastewater effluents. As it was detected in runoff waters after spreading of pig manure, we propose this marker as a suitable microbial indicator of pig manure contamination. PMID:19525269

  17. Pig manure contamination marker selection based on the influence of biological treatment on the dominant fecal microbial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Romain; Dabert, Patrick; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a microbial marker for pig manure contamination. We quantified the persistence of four dominant bacterial groups from the pig intestinal tract throughout manure handling at 10 livestock operations (including aerobic digestion) by using molecular typing. The partial 16S rRNA genes of Bacteroides-Prevotella, Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae, Bacillus-Streptococcus-Lactobacillus (BSL), and Bifidobacterium group isolates were amplified and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. The most dominant bacterial populations were identified by cloning and sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. The results showed that Bifidobacterium spp. and, to a lesser extent, members of the BSL group, were less affected by the aerobic treatment than either Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae or Bacteroides-Prevotella. Two Bifidobacterium species found in raw manure were still present in manure during land application, suggesting that they can survive outside the pig intestinal tract and also survive aerobic treatment. The 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer of one species, Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum, was sequenced, and a specific pair of primers was designed for its detection in the environment. With this nested PCR assay, this potential marker was not detected in samples from 30 bovine, 30 poultry, and 28 human fecal samples or in 15 urban wastewater effluents. As it was detected in runoff waters after spreading of pig manure, we propose this marker as a suitable microbial indicator of pig manure contamination.

  18. Pre-digestion to enhance volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration as a carbon source for denitrification in treatment of liquid swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah Xiao; Chen, Lide; Zhu, Jun; Walquist, McKenzie; Christian, David

    2018-04-30

    Insufficient denitrification in biological treatment is often a result of the lack of a carbon source. In this study, use of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) generated via pre-digestion as a carbon source to improve denitrification in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment of liquid swine manure was investigated. The pre-digestion of swine manure was realized by storing the manure in a sealed container in room temperature and samples were taken periodically from the container to determine the VFA levels. The results showed that after 14 days of pre-digestion, the VFA level in the digested liquid was increased by 200%. A polynomial relationship for the VFA level in the digested manure with the digestion time was observed with a correlation coefficient being 0.9748. Two identical SBRs were built and operated on 8-h cycles in parallel, with one fed with pre-digested and the other raw swine manure. There were five phases included in each cycle, i.e., anaerobic (90 min), anoxic (150 min), anoxic/anaerobic (90 min), anoxic/aerobic (120 min), and settle/decant (30 min), and the feeding was split to 600 mL/200 mL and performed at the beginning of and 240 min into the cycle. The SBR fed on pre-digested swine manure achieved successful denitrification with only 0.35 mg/L nitrate left in the effluent, compared to 15.9 mg/L found in the effluent of the other SBR. Nitrite was not detected in the effluent from both SBRs. The results also indicated that there was no negative impact of feeding SBRs with the pre-digested liquid swine manure for treatment on the removal of other constituents such as total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD). Therefore, anaerobic digestion as a pretreatment can be an effective way to condition liquid swine manure for SBR treatment to achieve sufficient nitrate removal.

  19. Interaction of crude oil and manure treatments and its effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interaction of crude oil and manure treatments and its effects on the agronomic characteristics of maize (Zea mays l.) M.O Onu, N.C Ohazurike, D.K Madukwe. Abstract. An experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Imo State, University, Owerri ...

  20. Effects of thermal treatment on high solid anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Enhancement assessment and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Hu, Yu-Ying; Wang, Shi-Feng; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Li, Huai-Zhi; Fu, Xin-Mei; Wang, Kai-Jun; Zuo, Jian-E

    2017-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD), which is a process for generating biogas, can be applied to the treatment of organic wastes. Owing to its smaller footprint, lower energy consumption, and less digestate, high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) has attracted increasing attention. However, its biogas production is poor. In order to improve biogas production and decrease energy consumption, an improved thermal treatment process was proposed. Raw swine manure (>20% solid content) without any dilution was thermally treated at 70±1°C for different retention times, and then its effect on HSAD was investigated via batch AD experiments at 8.9% solid content. Results showed that the main organic components of swine manure hydrolyzed significantly during the thermal treatment, and HSAD's methane production rate was improved by up to 39.5%. Analysis using two kinetic models confirmed that the treatment could increase biodegradable organics (especially the readily biodegradable organics) in swine manure rather than upgrading its hydrolysis rate. It is worth noting that the superimposed first-order kinetics model was firstly applied in AD, and was a good tool to reveal the AD kinetics mechanism of substrates with complex components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of surface application of dolomitic limestone and calcium-magnesium silicate on soybean and maize in rotation with green manure in a tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Spadotti Amaral Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although lime is currently the material most frequently used to ameliorate soil acidity in Brazil, silicate could efficiently replace this source because of its greater solubility and its greater silicon content, which are beneficial for plant development. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of superficial lime and silicate application on soil chemical attributes as well as on soybean and maize nutrition and grain yields when these crops are grown in rotation with green manure. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with sixteen replicates. Plots were treated with one of two materials for acidity correction (dolomitic lime and calcium/magnesium silicate or with no soil correction, as a control. Silicate corrected soil acidity and increased exchangeable base levels in soil at greater depths faster than does liming. The application of both acidity-correcting materials increased N, Ca and Mg leaf concentrations, and all yield components and grain yield in soybean; but in maize, just silicate also increased N and Si when compared with lime, whereas both acidity-correcting increased just two yield components: grains per ear and mass of 100 grains, resulting in highest grain yield. The application of both acidity-correcting materials increased dry matter production of green manures, but for pigeon pea the silicate provided the best result in this dry-winter region.

  2. Microbiome characterization of MFCs used for the treatment of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Puig, Sebastià; Pous, Narcís; Salcedo-Dávila, Inmaculada; Bañeras, Lluís; Balaguer, Maria Dolors; Colprim, Jesús

    2015-05-15

    Conventional swine manure treatment is performed by anaerobic digestion, but nitrogen is not treated. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) allow organic matter and nitrogen removal with concomitant electricity production. MFC microbiomes treating industrial wastewaters as swine manure have not been characterized. In this study, a multidisciplinary approach allowed microbiome relation with nutrient removal capacity and electricity production. Two different MFC configurations (C-1 and C-2) were used to treat swine manure. In C-1, the nitrification and denitrification processes took place in different compartments, while in C-2, simultaneous nitrification-denitrification occurred in the cathode. Clostridium disporicum and Geobacter sulfurreducens were identified in the anode compartments of both systems. C. disporicum was related to the degradation of complex organic matter compounds and G. sulfurreducens to electricity production. Different nitrifying bacteria populations were identified in both systems because of the different operational conditions. The highest microbial diversity was detected in cathode compartments of both configurations, including members of Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexiaceae and Proteobacteria. These communities allowed similar removal rates of organic matter (2.02-2.09 kg COD m(-3)d(-1)) and nitrogen (0.11-0.16 kg Nm(-3)d(-1)) in both systems. However, they differed in the generation of electric energy (20 and 2 mW m(-3) in C-1 and C-2, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Innovative manure treatments in the USA – state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture’s major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  4. Treatment of swine manure: case studies in European’s N-surplus areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cruz García-González

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, eight different manure treatment plants were monitored. The plants were four on-farm and four centralized treatment plants, all of them at full-scale level. Assessment includes a total of seven pre-treatment and process units as follows: mechanical separation, with and without coagulant and flocculant addition, pasteurization, nitrification-denitrification, anaerobic digestion, and composting. The plants are located in nutrient surplus areas of three European Member States (Spain, Italy and Denmark, the majority of these areas being Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZ. Results presented herein are data collected over a six-month period and comprise performance data of the treatment plants, pathogen indicators (E.coli and Salmonella and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions data under two scenarios: 1 the baseline scenario and 2 the treatment plant scenario. The assessment includes GHG emissions of the storage facilities, transportation, and subsequent intermediate storage, electric consumption, electric production, composting, and land application. All treatment plants studied generated a significant reduction in GHG emissions (between 53 and 90 % in comparison to the baseline scenario. Organic matter and total solids (TS content in manure were also greatly reduced, with values ranging between 35-53 % of chemical oxygen demand (COD and, 24-61 % of TS for anaerobic digestion (AD treatment plants, 77-93 % COD and 70 % TS in the case of AD combined with nitrogen (N-removal unit plants. Nitrogen concentrations were also greatly reduced (between 65-85 % total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN and 68-83 % ammonium (NH4+-N in plants with N-removal units.

  5. Allelopathic effects of eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf leachate on the growth of wheat and green gram and its control by farm yard manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Bibi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Farm Yard Manure (FYM) significantly reduced the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leachate. This influence was studied on morphological and physiological aspect of two taxonomically different plants (wheat and green gram). E. camaldulensis aqueous leachate applied (4), 1% and 5% alone and together with FYM and the results showed that E. camaldulensis leaf leachate had inhibitory effects on wheat growth, while promoted shoot and root growth in green gram when supplied in low concentration. The combined effects of litter and FYM reduced the inhibitory effects of leachate and supported the growth of both plants. These results suggested that, if both studied crops have to be cultivated in an agricultural land surrounded by E. camaldulensis tree, the possible growth rate could be supported by the application of FYM. But in the absence of this support, the plant growth was significantly arrested due to allelopathic effect of E. ctunaldulensis leaf leachate. (author)

  6. The effects of post-treatments and temperature on recovering the methane potential of > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Rintala, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of thermal and chemical treatments, mechanical maceration and freezing and thawing on recovering the remaining methane potential of the > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure - which accounted for 30% of the original potential of digested cow manure - were studied in laboratory...

  7. Timing incorporation of different green manure crops to minimize the risk of nitrogen leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KÄNKÄNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven field trials at four research sites were carried out to study the effect of incorporation time of different plant materials on soil mineral N content during two successive seasons. Annual hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, red clover (Trifolium pratense L., westerwold ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. var. westerwoldicum and straw residues of N-fertilized spring barley (Hordeum vulgare were incorporated into the soil by ploughing in early September, late October and the following May, and by reduced tillage in May. Delaying incorporation of the green manure crop in autumn lessened the risk of N leaching. The higher the crop N and soil NO3-N content, the greater the risk of leaching. Incorporation in the following spring, which lessened the risk of N leaching as compared with early autumn ploughing, often had an adverse effect on the growth of the succeeding crop. After spring barley, the NO3-N content of the soil tended to be high, but the timing of incorporation did not have a marked effect on soil N. With exceptionally high soil mineral N content, N leaching was best inhibited by growing westerwold ryegrass in the first experimental year. ;

  8. Allelopathic effects of eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf leachate on the growth of wheat and green gram and its control by farm yard manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Bibi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Farm Yard Manure (FYM) significantly reduced the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leachate. This influence was studied on morphological and physiological aspect of two taxonomically different plants (wheat and green gram). E. camaldtllensis aqueous leachate applied at the rate of 1% and 5% alone and together with FYM and the results showed that E. camaldulensis leaf leachate had inhibitory effects on wheat growth, while promoted shoot and root growth in green gram when supplied in low concentration. The combined effects of litter and FYM reduced the inhibitory effects of leachate and supported the growth of both plants. These results suggested that, if both studied crops have to be cultivated in an agricultural land surrounded by E. camaldulensis tree, the possible growth rate could be supported by the application Of FYM. But in the absence of this support, the plant growth was significantly arrested due to allelopathic effect of E. camaldulensis leaf leachate. (author)

  9. Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure storages, and in particular those storing digested manure, are a source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Permeable manure storage covers can reduce NH3 emissions, however performance can decline as they degrade. Thermochemical conversion of biomass through pyrolysis and steam treatment could incre...

  10. Thermophilic hydrolysis of liquid manures. Termofil hydrolyse af gylle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The aim was to examine the influence of various factors on the decomposition of separated cattle manures. No effects from enzyme treatment either before or after batch decomposition or after NaOH treatment of the separated manures were found. Treatment with NaOH before batch decomposition of the manures gave no effect. The addition of propionic acid before batch decompostion showed an inhibiting effect with propionic acid concentrations of up to 4.000 mg/l or just over. Where propionic concentrations were up to 4.000 mg/l, increased gas production was observed, this was caused by the breakdown of the propionic acid. The addition of triolein before batch decomposition had an inhibiting effect with high concentration independent of whether the inoculated material was adapted to fat or not. In the case of low concentrations no inhibitions were observed. The addition of grease trap fat such as COD with continual experimentation on separated cattle manures, cellulose and soya flour as substrates gave no results. (AB) 32 refs.

  11. Phosphorus dynamics in a tropical soil amended with green manures and natural inorganic phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Zaharah Abd; R, Bah Abd [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia). Dept of Land Management

    2002-07-01

    Alleviating P deficiency with natural inorganic phosphates and organic residues has significant economic and environmental advantages in the tropics. However, adapting this technology to various agroecosystems requires greater understanding of P dynamics in such systems. This was studied in an amended Bungor soil in laboratory incubation and glasshouse experiments. Treatments were a factorial combination of green manures GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica) and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks (PRs)) from China and Algeria, in 3 replications. The GMs were labeled with {sup 33}P in the glasshouse trial. Olsen P, mineral N, exchangeable Ca and pH were monitored in the incubation at 0,1,2,4,8,16,32 and 64 weeks after establishment (WAE). Soil P fractions were also determined at 64 WAE. Phosphorus available from the amendments at 4, 8, 15, and 20 WAE, was quantified by {sup 33}P-{sup 32}P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata (Setaria grass) as test crop. Olsen P was unaffected by the sole P fertilizers, and hardly changed within 16 WAE in the legume GM and legume GM+PR treatments as NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N accumulated and soil pH increased. Afterwards Olsen P and exchangeable Ca increased as NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect, but fertilizers was irreversibly retained. GM-P availability was very low (< 4%), but GMs enhanced PR solubility and mobilized soil P irrespective of quality, probably by the action of organic acids. Calcium content had negative effect on available P and should be considered when selecting compatible materials in integrated systems. The results are further evidence of the importance of the soil P mobilization capacity of organic components in integrated P management systems. Even low quality Imperata can augment soil P supply when combined with the reactive APR, probably by

  12. Phosphorus dynamics in a tropical soil amended with green manures and natural inorganic phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharah Abd Rahman; Bah Abd R

    2002-01-01

    Alleviating P deficiency with natural inorganic phosphates and organic residues has significant economic and environmental advantages in the tropics. However, adapting this technology to various agroecosystems requires greater understanding of P dynamics in such systems. This was studied in an amended Bungor soil in laboratory incubation and glasshouse experiments. Treatments were a factorial combination of green manures GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica) and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks (PRs) from China and Algeria, in 3 replications. The GMs were labeled with 33 P in the glasshouse trial. Olsen P, mineral N, exchangeable Ca and pH were monitored in the incubation at 0,1,2,4,8,16,32 and 64 weeks after establishment (WAE). Soil P fractions were also determined at 64 WAE. Phosphorus available from the amendments at 4, 8, 15, and 20 WAE, was quantified by 33 P- 32 P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata (Setaria grass) as test crop. Olsen P was unaffected by the sole P fertilizers, and hardly changed within 16 WAE in the legume GM and legume GM+PR treatments as NH 4 + -N accumulated and soil pH increased. Afterwards Olsen P and exchangeable Ca increased as NH 4 + -N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect, but fertilizers was irreversibly retained. GM-P availability was very low (< 4%), but GMs enhanced PR solubility and mobilized soil P irrespective of quality, probably by the action of organic acids. Calcium content had negative effect on available P and should be considered when selecting compatible materials in integrated systems. The results are further evidence of the importance of the soil P mobilization capacity of organic components in integrated P management systems. Even low quality Imperata can augment soil P supply when combined with the reactive APR, probably by conserving soil moisture. (Author)

  13. GROWTH AND YIELD OF ORGANIC RICE WITH COW MANURE APPLICATION IN THE FIRST CROPPING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Arif Sudarsono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was addressed to investigating the effect of cow manure application rate on organic rice growth and yield in the first cropping season. The study was conducted from January to April 2012 in Blora, Central Java, Indonesia. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design, consisting of four treatments and four replications. There were two types of control treatments i.e. organic fertilizer treatments (statistically analyzed and conventional fertilizer (not statistically analyzed. The treatments were corn biomass, corn biomass+cow manure (7.5 tons ha-1, corn biomass+cow manure (10 tons ha-1 and cow manure (10 tons ha-1 with square spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm. The organic control treatments were corn biomass+sheep manure (7.5 tons ha-1 with spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm and corn biomass+cow manure (7.5 tons ha-1 with double-row spacing of 40 cm x 25 cm x 15 cm. For every treatment, the rate of corn biomass was 3 tons ha-1. All organic treatments were also added with 3 tons rice hull ash ha-1. The application of cow manure (10 tons ha-1 with square spacing or corn biomass+cow manure (7.5 tons ha-1 with double-row spacing resulted in better performance than those of other treatments.

  14. Efeito de esterco bovino sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho The effect of cattle manure on yield of green corn ears and maize grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeveson da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de doses de esterco bovino (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 e 40 t ha-1 sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de duas cultivares de milho (Centralmex e AG-9012. O trabalho foi realizado em Mossoró (RN, de setembro a dezembro/99, com irrigação por aspersão. Utilizou-se esquema de parcelas subdivididas no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. As doses de esterco foram aplicadas às parcelas e as cultivares, às subparcelas. O rendimento de milho verde foi avaliado pelo número e peso totais de espigas verdes empalhadas e pelo número e peso de espigas comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. O rendimento de grãos foi avaliado pelo peso dos grãos corrigido para 15,5% de umidade. Análises do solo, realizadas aos 120 dias após o plantio, constataram que o esterco aumentou a retenção e a disponibilidade de água e os teores de fósforo, potássio e sódio, na camada do solo de 20-40 cm, mas não influenciou o pH e os teores de cálcio, soma de bases e de matéria orgânica. Tanto o rendimento de espigas verdes como o rendimento de grãos aumentaram com o aumento da dose de esterco, exceto o número e o peso totais de espigas verdes da cultivar Centralmex. A cultivar AG-9012 foi superior à cultivar Centralmex quanto aos rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos. A receita líquida, calculada com a comercialização de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, foi maior na ausência de esterco para a cultivar AG-9012 e com a aplicação de 8 t ha-1para a Centralmex.The effect of different levels of cattle manure (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 and 40 t ha-1 on yield of green corn ears and grains of two maize cultivars was evaluated (Centralmex and AG-9012. The study was carried out at Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, from September to Dezember 1999 using sprinkler irrigation. The experimental design was complete random blocks arranged in splitplot with three replications. The manure was

  15. Method for extraction of proteins and phosphate minerals from swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recovery of phosphorus and proteins from manure could be advantageous to both offset costs and to improve and lessen the environmental impacts of manure storage and treatment. Phosphorous in manure can contaminate rivers, lakes, and bays through runoff, if applied onto a cropland excessively. Th...

  16. Effect of manure and plants spacing on yield and flavonoid content of Elephantopus scaber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyana, D.; Widiyastuti, Y.; Widodo, H.; Purwanto, E.; Samanhudi

    2018-03-01

    This experiment is aimed to observe the growth and flavonoid contain of Tapak Liman (Elephantopus scaber L.) with different manure types and plants spacing treatment. This experiment is conducted at Tegal Gede Village, Karanganyar District on June until August 2016. The analysis of secondary metabolism was done in B2P2TOOT, Tawangamangu. This experiment is conducted with Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two treatment factors, those are manure and plants spacing. Animal manure treatment had 3 levels, those are without manure, cow manure with 20 ton/ha dose, and chicken manure with 20 ton/ha dose. Plants spacing treatment had 3 phrase, those are 20 cm × 20 cm; 30 × 30 cm; 40 cm × 40 cm. The result of this experiment shows that chicken manure with 20 ton/ha dosage increase the development of leaves’ lengthiness, header’s diameter, plant’s fresh weight, and plant’s dry weight. Plants spacing 40 cm × 40 cm increase for the development of leaves’ lengthiness, header’s diameter, plant’s wet weight, and plant’s dry weight. The combination between chicken manure with 20 ton/ha dose and plants spacing 40 cm × 40cm treatments show the highest amount of tapak liman extract and alleged having the biggest amount of flavonoid substance.

  17. effect of farmyard manure on senescence, nitrogen and protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    treatment (manurex2) at the ratio of 5:1 soil to manure and the control (no manure added). Plastic pots of ... seasons, senescence started earlier rainy season than in dry season. On the other hand ... These changes, visible to the naked eye are.

  18. Prevalence and persistence of potentially pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion treatment of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; de Oliveira Fortunato, Samuel; da Costa Carneiro, Jailton; Otenio, Marcelo Henrique; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2014-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion figures as a sustainable alternative to avoid discharge of cattle manure in the environment, which results in biogas and biofertilizer. Persistence of potentially pathogenic and drug-resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion of cattle manure was evaluated. Selective cultures were performed for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC). Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined and a decay of all bacterial groups was observed after 60days. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were detected both the influent and effluent. GPC, the most prevalent group was highly resistant against penicillin and levofloxacin, whereas resistance to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam and chloramphenicol was frequently observed in the ENT and NFR groups. The data point out the need of discussions to better address management of biodigesters and the implementation of sanitary and microbiological safe treatments of animal manures to avoid consequences to human, animal and environmental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Growth and yield of broccoli fertilized with doses of velvet bean in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Rúbia Diniz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dose effects of green manure in vegetable crops production are still poorly understood. There are few scientific studies indicate that increasing the dose may influence plants characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of doses of velvet bean green manure on growth and yield, the partitioning of dry matter and nitrogen (N in plants of broccoli, as well as determine the apparent recovery and physiological efficiency of use N. We established four treatments plus a control. The treatments consisted of four levels of green manure: 0, 3, 6, 9 t ha-1 on a dry matter basis, with the addition of 12 t ha-1 of compost. Doses of green manure applied influenced the growth and yield of broccoli. The distribution of dry matter between plant parts of broccoli is not influenced by the doses of green manure. Doses of green manure influenced the amount of N accumulated in the inflorescence and whole plant of broccoli. The apparent recovery of N from green manure and efficiency of N use by plants of broccoli are positively associated with the applied doses.

  1. Effect of Phosphorous and Potassium Fertilization on Nitrogen Utilized by wheat Grown in Saline Soil Amended with Organic Manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Gadalla, A.M.; Kotb, E.A.; Mostafa, S.M.A.; Mansour, M.M.F.

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out on poor saline soil located at Wad Ras Sudr, South Saini Governorate, and suffers from shortage of water resources. Therefore, we aimed to utilize this soil as well as the saline ground water for plant production. Organic fertilizers such as green manure(GM) or poultry manure(PM) can be used as nutrient sources, where it improves the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. Economically, the yield improvement and nutrient supply will reflect the potential use of such organic materials. Also, phosphorus and/or potassium supplementation separately or in combination with green or poultry manures improved the growth of wheat plants under such adverse condition of salinity. Application of 15 N technique indicated that labeled nitrogen added as ammonium sulphate (AS) to investigate and discrimination between the different N sources i.e. nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff) and nitrogen derived from soil (Ndfs) as well as nitrogen use efficiency (FUE %)

  2. Effect of anaerobic digestion temperature on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline in swine manure or monensin in cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Wells, J E; Shelver, W L; Rice, C P; Armstrong, D L; Parker, D B

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of anaerobic digestion at 22, 38 and 55°C on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline (CTC) in swine manure or monensin (MON) in cattle manure. Swine or cattle were fed the respective growth promotant, manure was collected, and 2-l laboratory methane digesters were established at the various temperatures and sampled over 25 or 28 days. After 21 days, the concentration of CTC in the 22, 38 and 55°C swine digester slurries decreased 7, 80 and 98%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C digester slurries were still viable after 25 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 3 and 1 days, respectively. After 28 days, the concentration of MON in the 22, 38 and 55°C cattle digester slurries decreased 3, 8 and 27%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C cattle digester slurries were still viable after 28 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 14 and 1 days, respectively. These studies indicate that anaerobic digestion at 38 or 55°C may be an effective treatment to reduce coliforms and CTC; however, it is not an effective treatment to reduce MON. More studies are needed to determine which pharmaceuticals are susceptible to degradation by a specific manure treatment to prevent negative environmental consequences. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Effects of different treatments of cattle slurry manure on water-extractable phosphorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cattle slurry manure applied to land increases the risk of phosphorus (P) movement to surface waters, which may lead to eutrophication. The water-extractable fraction of P in slurry manure is correlated with P concentration in runoff from soils amended with slurry smanure, and thus is an effective

  4. Effects of cattle and poultry manures on organic matter content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    ferrallitic soils amended with cattle and poultry manures under cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivation. Therefore ... The manure treatment significantly increased the soil organic matter contents from ...... Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia.

  5. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.; Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) effect on methane yield: verification in continuously fed digesters. • AAS resulted in 98% increase of the methane yield of swine manure fibers in continuously fed digesters. • ADM1 was successfully adapted to simulating anaerobic digestion of swine manure. • Modification of hydrolysis kinetics was necessary for an adequate simulation of the digestion of AAS-treated fibers. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per 0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly contribute to the methane production. In the second place, ADM1 was used to describe biogas production from the codigestion of manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The model predictions regarding biogas production and methane content were in good agreement with the experimental data. It was shown that, AAS treatment significantly increased the disintegration and hydrolysis rate of the carbohydrate compounds of the fibers. The effect of the addition of AAS treated fibers on the kinetics of the conversion of other key compounds such as volatile fatty acids was negligible.

  6. Effect of antimicrobial compounds tylosin and chlortetracycline during batch anaerobic swine manure digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James J; Clay, Sharon A; Zhu, Zhenwei; Wong, Kwok L; Porath, Laura R; Spellman, Garth M

    2009-10-01

    Tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) are antimicrobial chemicals that are fed to >45% of the US swine herds at therapeutic and sub-therapeutic dosages to enhance growth rates and treat swine health problems. These compounds are poorly absorbed during digestion so that the bioactive compound or metabolites are excreted. This study investigated the degradation and stabilization of swine manure that contained no additives and compared the observed processes with those of manure containing either tylosin or CTC. The batch anaerobic incubation lasted 216 days. The breakdown of insoluble organic matter through anaerobic hydrolysis reactions was faster for manure containing CTC compared with tylosin or no-antimicrobial treatments. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation, including acetate, butyrate, and propionate, was greater for CTC-containing manure compared to tylosin and no-antimicrobial treatments. The relative abundance of two aceticlastic methanogens, Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae spp., were less for CTC manure than manure with no-antimicrobial treatment. In addition, generation of methane and carbon dioxide was inhibited by 27.8% and 28.4%, respectively, due to the presence of CTC. Tylosin effects on manure degradation were limited, however the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae spp. was greater than found in the CTC or no-antimicrobial manures. These data suggest that acetate and other C-1 VFA compounds would be effectively utilized during methanogenesis in the presence of tylosin.

  7. Demiwater uit mest = Demineralised water from manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report is about the commercialization of permeate water from manure treatment using reversed osmosis treatment. The goal is to use the permeate as a resource in the production of demineralized water.

  8. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  9. Poultry manure application and varietal effects of chilli-pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural practices such as organic manure application can affect soil fertility and also insect pest and disease incidence on the plant. The effect of poultry manure application was therefore evaluated in relation to the infestation by major insect pests and disease of pepper in a humid tropical agro-ecosystem. Treatments ...

  10. Effect of manure vs. fertilizer inputs on productivity of forage crop models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Caternolo, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Martiniello, Pasquale

    2011-06-01

    Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF) were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV). The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha(-1), respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha(-1) of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha(-1) under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  11. The challenge of implementing green gas into the gas supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In order to gain a more mature share in the future energy supply, green gas supply chains face some interesting challenges. In this thesis green gas supply chains, based on codigestion of cow manure and maize, are considered. The produced biogas is upgraded to natural gas quality and injected into

  12. Organic manure of the corn (Zea mays L.) in alluvial soils of intermediate climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo V, Alvaro; Munoz A, Rodrigo; Diaz A; Carlos

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose to evaluate the effect on the yield of com ICA V.303 variety, using four sources of organic matter (hen manure, pig manure, cow manure, earthworm manure) in two doses (500 and 1.000 kg/ha), compared with a chemical treatment (300 kg/ha of 10-30-10 plus 150 kg of urea), and a control, an experiment was carried out at Tulio Ospina Research Center, located at Bello (Antioquia), with 1.320 m.s.n.m. The experiment was established using an alluvial soil (tropofluvent), frank, with low content of organic matter (3.1%), and potassium (0.11 meq/l00 g), and medium content of phosphorus (2 ppm). The results, after four consecutive harvests on the same plots, showed highly significative differences among treatments, compared with the control. The highest yield (4.709 kg/ha) was obtained with the chemical treatment (300 kg/ha of 10-30-10 plus 150 kg of urea). The addition of 500 and 1.000 kg/ha of hen manure and pig manure showed an average yield of corn of 4.315,4.539 .4.246, and 4.487 kg/ha respectively. the control only produced 2.620 kg/ha. The great profitability was obtained with 500 kg/ ha of cow manure, 1.000 kg/ha of pig manure and the chemical treatment (300 kg/ha 10-30-10 and 150 kg/ha of urea y 1.000 kg/ha hen manure). There were not significative differences between the chemical fertilization and the organic fertilization; these results show that organic matter is an alternative for fertilization with respect to the development of a sustained and biological agriculture

  13. Culture of Daphnia sp. (crustacean – cladocera): the effect of manure variation on the growth, natality, and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, H.; Andriani, Y.; Sahidin, A.; Hidayat, T.; Herawati, T.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the growth rate, reproduction rate, and mortality rate of Daphnia sp. which cultured in variant organic manure. This research used experimental method Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with four treatment and three replications. The treatments in this research were the variant manures from chicken, quail, goat, and cow with same of growth (2,4 g/l). Daphnia cultured with using 100 breeders since from neonets (0 day) until growth up and died in one life cycle. At the 3-days, culture of Daphnia sp was give peak population with maximum age of culture using quail manure is 7 days, and other treatments are 8 days. The growth rate and the reproduction rate of using quail manure was higher than using chicken manure, goat manure, and cow manure (mean GR = 3.68 : 2.32 : 2.74 : 2.97; mean RR = 3.87 : 2.59 : 3.00 : 3.31; p culture, quail manure give the lowest of mortality rate than using chicken manure, goat manure, and cow manure (mean MR = 0.19 : 0.28 : 0.26 : 0.34).

  14. Persistence of pathogens in liquid pig manure processed in manure tanks and biodigesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Betancur H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the persistence of virus, bacteria, mold, yeast and parasites in liquid pig manure, processed in biodigesters and manure tanks in the central-western part of Colombia. Materials and methods. A directed observational study analyzed descriptively was carried out in three pig farms located where the manure tanks were assembled and its biodigesters were used. A sampling of liquid pig manure was taken to assess the presence of 26 pathogens at the beginning of the study and another one at the end of the process in manure tanks and biodigesters. For the manure tank, a 250 liters tank was filled with fresh pig manure and was analyzed after three days of storage. The biodigesters were of continuous flow and its effluents were analyzed, according to the specific hydraulic retention times. The diagnostic techniques were those recommended specifically for each microorganism and were carried out in certified labs by the Colombian Animal Health authority. Results. Of the 26 pathogens that were investigated, 15 appeared in the fresh pig manure used in pig manure tanks and 12 in the one used in biodigestors. In manure tanks, Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, mold, yeast, Salmonella spp., Balantidium coli and Strongylids did not persist. In biodigesters, PCV2, yeast, Strongylids, B. coli and Strongyloides spp., did not persist. Conclusions. In both manure tanks and biodigesters, a variation could be seen in pathogen persistency, indicating that they act as transformation systems of pig manure for the removal of the latter, as long as the storage times are increased if the efficiency wants to be improved.

  15. Effect of incorporation of 32P labelled green manure (Sesbania aculeata) on the yield ans P uptake by maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, A.C.; Singh, Didar; Biswas, C.R.; Chand, Milap

    1989-01-01

    The effect of applied inorganic P and 32 P labelled Sesbania aculeata (dhaincha) as green manure on the yield and P utilization by maize (Zea mays L.) in soils of two long term experiments was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Significant increase in the drymatter yield and total P uptake was obtained with increasing level of applied sesbania and P fertilizer. The relationship between total P uptake and total P added as organic plus inorganic fertilizer was significant. The Sesbania application significantly increased per cent P derived from added plant material by the maize crop. It also enhanced P uptake and its utilization from fertilizer source. The addition of Sesbania in the absence and presence of inorganic P fertilizer improved P use efficiency. The direct beneficial effect of added organic P was significant only in its application on soils with lower level of residual P. The utilization of P by maize after addition of sesbania varied from 5 to 9 per cent. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Adubação verde e alterações nas características químicas de um Cambissolo na região de Ji-Paraná-RO Green manure and changes on chemical characteristics of a soil in the Ji-Paraná-RO region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Almeida Delarmelinda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A adubação verde promove benefícios nas características químicas, físicas e biológicas do solo. O trabalho avaliou o efeito da incorporação de diferentes adubos verdes nas características químicas de um Cambissolo háplico eutrófico. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram das seguintes leguminosas: Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria juncea, C. spectabilis, Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma, Mucuna pruriens, Pueraria phaseoloides e a testemunha (sem leguminosa. As avaliações foram realizadas 60 dias após o corte e incorporação. A utilização de leguminosas como adubação verde proporcionou aumento nos teores de matéria orgânica, soma de bases e percentagem de saturação por bases, destacando-se a Pueraria phaseoloides, C. juncea e C. spectabilis.The green manure promotes benefits on the chemical, physical and biological properties of soil. The experiment evaluated the effect of incorporation of differents green manure on the chemistry characteristics of a soil. Experimental design used was a randomized block, with eight treatments and three replications. Treatments were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma axillare, Mucuna pruriens and Pueraria phaseoloides and the treatment control (without leguminous. Evaluations of soil samplings were performed in 60 days after handling were performed. The results showed significant effects of the leguminous crop Pueraria phaseoloides, C. juncea and C. spectabilis on the fertility of the soil, with significant increments of organic matter, exchangeable bases and in the base saturation.

  17. Effect of tillage fertilizer treatments on maize fodder yield under rainfed conditions of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, P.; Cheema, N.M.; Malik, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of deep and shallow tillage and fertilizer treatments i.e., recommended dose of fertilizer (RF), farm yard manure (FYM) and recommended dose of fertilizer plus farmyard manure (RF+FYM) on maize fodder yield was studied under rainfed conditions of Pakistan. It was observed that the emergence count m-2, maize fodder biomass, plant height, number of leaves per plant and maize fodder yield enhanced, with the application of RF+FYM. However, the effect of FYM+RF and recommended dose of fertilizer was statistically non-significant and on average basis RF+FYM treatment produced higher green fodder (19971.5 kg ha/sup -1/) than fodder yield of 18349.1 kg ha/sup -1/ produced by applying recommended dose of fertilizer. However, green fodder yield produced with these two fertilizer treatments were significantly higher than that of the FYM and control treatments. The FYM treatment gave lowest fodder yield (16997 kg ha/sup -1/) and was significantly lower than the fodder yield (17278.7 kg ha/sup -1/) obtained in control treatment. The nutrient availability in RF+FYM treatment significantly increased the biomass production, however, application of FYM promoted the weed infestation that reduced the green fodder yield of maize, but it improved the overall forage yield as recorded in RF+FYM treatment. The effect of deep tillage on maize fodder yield was non-significant. (author)

  18. Field experiment with liquid manure and enhanced biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Field experiments with low amounts of various liquid manure enhanced biochars. In 2016 a new machine was developed to inject liquid biochar based fertilizer directly into the crop root zone. A large-scale field experiment with corn and oil seed pumpkin was set-up on 42 hectares on 15 different fields in the south East of Austria. Three treatments were compared: (1) surface spreading of liquid manure as control (common practice), (2) 20 cm deep root zone injection with same amount of liquid manure, and (3) 20 cm deep root zone injection with same amount of liquid manure mixed with 1 to 2 tons of various nutrient enhanced biochars. The biochar were quenched with the liquid phase from a separated digestate from a biogas plant (feedstock: cow manure). From May to October nitrate and ammonium content was analyzed monthly from 0-30cm and 30-60cm soil horizons. At the end of the growing season the yield was determined. The root zone injection of the liquid manure reduced the nitrate content during the first two months at 13-16% compared to the control. When the liquid manure was blended with biochar, Nitrate soil content was lowest (reduction 40-47%). On average the root zone injection of manure-biochar increased the yield by 7% compared to the surface applied control and 3% compared to the root zone injected manure without biochar. The results shows, that biochar is able to reduce the Nitrate load in soils and increase the yield of corn at the same time. The nutrient efficiency of organic liquid fertilizers can be increased.

  19. The Effect of Organic Phosphorus and Nitrogen Enriched Manure on Nutritive Value of Sweet Corn Stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukiwati, D. R.; Pujaningsih, R. I.; Murwani, R.

    2018-02-01

    The experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of some manure enriched with phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) organic (‘manure plus’) on crude protein and mineral production of sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata)and quality of fermented stover as livestock feed. A field experiment was conducted on a vertisol soil (low pH, nitrogen and low available Bray II extractable P). Randomized block design with 9 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this experiment. The treatments were T1(TSP), T2 (SA), T3 (TSP+SA), T4 (manure), T5 (manure+PR), T6 (manure+guano), T7 (manure+N-legume), T8 (manure+PR+N-legume), T9 (manure +guano+N-legume). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the differences between treatment means were examined by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Results of the experiment showed that the treatment significantly affected to the crude protein and calcium production of stover and nutrient concentration of fermented stover, but it is not affected to P production of stover. The result of DMRT showed that the effect of ‘manure plus’ was not significantly different on CP and Ca production of stover, mineral concentration, in vitro DMD and OMD of fermented stover, compared to inorganic fertilization. Conclusion, manure enriched with organic NP, resulted in similar on CP and Ca production of stover and nutrient concentration of fermented stover compared to inorganic fertilizer. Thus, organic-NP enriched manure could be an alternative and viable technology to utilize low grade of phosphate rock, guano and Gliricidea sepium to produce sweet corn in vertisol soil.

  20. Discussing simply waste water treatment in building green mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yousheng

    2010-01-01

    Analysis simplfy it is important and necessary that uran ore enterprise build the green mine .According to focusing on waste water treatment in building green mine of some uran ore enterprise,analysis the problem in treating mine water, technics waste water, tailings water before remoulding the system of waster water treatment, evaluate the advanced technics, satisfy ability, steady effect, reach the mark of discharge. According to the experimental unit of building the green mine,some uran ore enterprise make the waster water reaching the mark of discharge after remoulding the system of waster water treatment.It provides valuable experienceto uran ore enterprise in building green mine. (authors)

  1. Effect of farm yard manure and nitrogen application on seed cotton yield under arid climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of farm yard manure and green manuring is well established for better crop production. The availability of farm yard manure is becoming difficult due to mechanized farming. An experiment was conducted with farm yard manure application in less quantity i.e. 5000 kg per hectare through fermenter with irrigation water as concentrated solution of farm yard manure. Four levels of nitrogen i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha were applied through soil to Cotton crop planted on bed-furrows. Two years average results indicated that application of FYM at the rate of 5 metric ton per hectare through fermenter with 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN/ha through soil increased seed cotton by 7 percent, on over all average basis of all fertilizer levels, as compared with no farm yard manure application. There was 6 percent increase with first 50 kgN/ha in the presence of FYM where as 100 kgN/ha gave 15% increase in seed cotton yield over no nitrogen application. It indicated that the efficiency of nitrogen at the rate of 100 kg/ha in the presence of farm yard manure was increased. There was 7, 15 and 20 percent increase in seed cotton with 50, 100 and 150 kgN/ha over no nitrogen on over all average basis of farm yard manure variables. Benefit cost ratio was more with FYM application alone.(author)

  2. Anaerobic Digestion of Cattle Manure Influenced by Swirling Jet Induced Hydrodynamic Cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, Michela; Soldano, Mariangela; Fabbri, Claudio; Pirozzi, Francesco; Andreottola, Gianni

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a modified swirling jet-induced cavitation has been employed for increasing anaerobic digestion efficiency of cattle manure. The hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) treatment improved the organic matter solubilization and the anaerobic biodegradability of cattle manure. The degree of disintegration increased by 5.8, 8.9, and 15.8% after the HC treatment at 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 bars, respectively. However, the HC treatment at 7.0 bars had better results in terms of methane production. This result may be attributed to the possible formation of toxic and refractory compounds at higher inlet pressures, which could inhibit the methanization process. Further, total Kjeldahl nitrogen content was found to decrease with increasing inlet pressures, as the pH and the turbulent mixing favored the ammonia stripping processes. HC treatment decreased the viscosity of the treated cattle manure, favoring the manure pumping and mixing. Considerations on the energy input due to the HC pre-treatment and the energy output due to the enhanced methane yield have been presented. A positive energy balance can be obtained looking at the improved operational practices in the anaerobic digesters after the implementation of the HC pre-treatment.

  3. Fertiliser value of human manure from pilot urine-diversion toilets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mnkeni, PNS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available and good practice in ecological sanitation. Treatments were arranged in a randomised complete block design with 4 replications and consisted of a control, 100 kg N.ha-1 as goat manure, and 4 non-zero rates of human manure and NPK fertiliser applied...

  4. Interaction of micro and macro elements with manure on barley feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... on barley feed yield and soil nutrient content in Sistan region ... In order to study the effect of interaction of 'micro' and 'macro' ... different proportions of manure and chemical fertilizer treatment were: 100% manure (F1), 100%.

  5. Influence of Sources and Rates of Manure on Yield and Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of University of Maiduguri to assess the effects of sources and rates of manure ... Cow manure treatment on average, produced the best of growth, yield and nutrient uptake (N,P, and K ... fertilizers coupled with their inability to condition the soil.

  6. Effect of Manure vs. Fertilizer Inputs on Productivity of Forage Crop Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV. The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha−1, respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha−1 of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha−1 under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  7. Methanic fermentation of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadeo, M

    1954-06-01

    A comparison between the chemical composition of manure ripened in conventional ditches and that of manure anaerobically fermented in tanks led to the conclusion that the latter was not satisfactory; the resulting manure was less valuable.

  8. Short communication: Environmental mastitis pathogen counts in freestalls bedded with composted and fresh recycled manure solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K J; Hogan, J S

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of environmental mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids bedding with those in fresh recycled manure solids. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with composted recycled manure solids. The second row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with fresh recycled manure solids. The back one-third of stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25 to 50 mm of bedding. Samples were taken from the back one-third of 4 stalls for both treatments on d 0, 1, 2, and 6 of each week. After 3 wk, bedding treatments were switched between rows, making the total duration 6 wk. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts were approximately 0.5 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in the composted recycled manure solids on d 0 compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Klebsiella species, coliform, and Streptococcus species counts were at least 1.0 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in composted compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0. Only gram-negative bacterial counts on d 1 were reduced in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Differences were not observed between treatments in gram-negative bacterial, coliform, Klebsiella species, or Streptococcus species counts on d 2 and 6. Ash content was higher in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0, 1, 2, and 6. Despite the increase in ash after composting, bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids were comparable with those in fresh recycled manure when used as freestall bedding. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of nitrogen and fish manure fertilization on growth and chemical composition of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ertan; Kul, Raziye; Turan, Metin; Ekinci, Melek; Alak, Gonca; Atamanalp, Muhammet

    2016-04-01

    Present experiment was designed to determine the response of various dozes of fish manure (FM) and commercial fertilizers on plant growth, yield and nutrient content of lettuce. The treatments consisted of fish manure, commercial fertilizer and the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer with four dozes of nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha and 200 kg/ha). The results of the study showed that treatments significantly affected the growth and chemical characteristics of lettuce. The best results in regard to plant growth and yield were obtained from 100 and 150 kg kg/ha nitrogen dozes of the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer.

  10. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green...

  11. Biogas Production from Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dalkılıç

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal manures are burned for heating in Turkey. It is also used as soil conditioner which has adverse environmental effects. Although, the use of renewable energy sources in Turkey is very limited, the application studies on biogas production from animal manure are increasing. 25-30% of total animal manures produced in Turkey are composed of chicken manure. The works on biogas production from chicken manure are very limited in Turkey. In this paper, biogas production studies from chicken manure in Turkey and in the World are reviewed.

  12. Sustainable Treatment and Reuse of Diluted Pig Manure Streams in Russia: From Laboratory Trials to Full-Scale Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Arkhipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Kovalev, A.; Nozhevnikova, A.; Klapwijk, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained during the laboratory and pilot development of integrated biologic and physicochemical treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams. The application of a straw filter was an effective means to separate the solid and liquid fractions of raw wastewater

  13. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...... manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...... zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum....

  14. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P. G.; Fotidis, I. A.; Zaganas, I. D.; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum.

  15. Methods for increasing the biogas potential from the recalcitrant organic matter contained in manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Angelidaki, Irini

    1998-01-01

    The biogas potential of manure could be significantly increased by treatment of the recalcitrant organic matter (biofibers) contained in the manure. Several treatment methods were tested. Mechanical maceration resulted in an average increase of the biogas potential of approx. 17% as shown...

  16. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure trea...

  17. Impact of reclamation treatment on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, L. V.; Khamova, O. F.; Paderina, E. V.; Gindemit, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    The abundance and activity of the soil microflora were studied in a field experiment with the use of green manure crops to assess the impact of reclamation measures on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex. The number of microorganisms in the plow soil horizon increased in the background of the green fallows as compared to the black ones. Coefficients of mineralization, immobilization, and transformation of organic compounds were calculated for different variants of the soil treatment. The value of the mineralization coefficient indicates the intense decomposition of the green manure that entered the soil. In the first year, peas were actively decomposed, while oats, in the second year (aftereffect). The activity of the soil enzymes (invertase, urease, and catalase) was determined. A close relationship between the catalase activity and the intensity of the microbiological processes in the soils was revealed.

  18. Enhancement of the nutritive value of bagasse using chicken manure.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of chicken manure droppings on the nutritive value of sugar cane bagasse upon fermentation. It was hypothesized that the use of the two low cost residues (bagasse and chicken manure) in an animal feed could present a great nutritional potential to livestock farmers. Five treatments were ...

  19. Importance of Soil Amendments: Survival of Bacterial Pathogens in Manure and Compost Used as Organic Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manan; Reynnells, Russell

    2016-08-01

    Biological soil amendments (BSAs) such as manure and compost are frequently used as organic fertilizers to improve the physical and chemical properties of soils. However, BSAs have been known to be a reservoir for enteric bacterial pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), Salmonella spp., and Listeria spp. There are numerous mechanisms by which manure may transfer pathogens to growing fruits and vegetables, and several outbreaks of infections have been linked to manure-related contamination of leafy greens. In the United States several commodity-specific guidelines and current and proposed federal rules exist to provide guidance on the application of BSAs as fertilizers to soils, some of which require an interval between the application of manure to soils and the harvest of fruits and vegetables. This review examines the survival, persistence, and regrowth/resuscitation of bacterial pathogens in manure, biosolids, and composts. Moisture, along with climate and the physicochemical properties of soil, manure, or compost, plays a significant role in the ability of pathogens to persist and resuscitate in amended soils. Adaptation of enteric bacterial pathogens to the nonhost environment of soils may also extend their persistence in manure- or compost-amended soils. The presence of antibiotic-resistance genes in soils may also be increased by manure application. Overall, BSAs applied as fertilizers to soils can support the survival and regrowth of pathogens. BSAs should be handled and applied in a manner that reduces the prevalence of pathogens in soils and the likelihood of transfer of food-borne pathogens to fruits and vegetables. This review will focus on two BSAs-raw manure and composted manure (and other feedstocks)-and predominantly on the survival of enteric bacterial pathogens in BSAs as applied to soils as organic fertilizers.

  20. Energy balance analysis of different agroecological management systems of the soil in the cultures of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Eduardo Sanclemente Reyes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In a Typic Haplustalfs (USDA soil of the municipality of Palmira – Valle (Colombia the rotation system velvet bean Mucuna pruriens Var. Utilis – maize Zea mays L. was established in design of complete blocks at random with seven treatments and three repetitions. The treatments in the rotation were: T1 (Without M. pruriens and fertilizing, T2 (green manure of M. pruriens without fertilizing, T3 (mulching of M. pruriens without fertilizing T4 (green manure of M. pruriens more compostado organic manure, T5 (green manure of M. pruriens more fertilizer of chemical synthesis, T6 (green manure of M. pruriens plus complemented compostado organic manure with fertilizer of chemical synthesis, T7 (mulching of M. pruriens plus complemented compostado organic manure with fertilizer of chemical synthesis. The energy balance was characterized and contributes nutritional using software Energy 3.01., from the entrances energetics in each treatment. The greater efficiency was obtained energetics in the T2 with 114.1 Mj.Mj-1 that was significantly greater (p<0.05 to the other treatments. The T5 where fertilization of chemical synthesis was used obtained value of 19.1 Mj.Mj-1, reflecting high entrances energetics and low productivity. The majors contribute nutritional were obtained in T3, T4, T6 and T7. Nevertheless, the treatments T3 and T4 stand out respectively where it was used mulching and green manure of M. pruriens more compost; since they are treatments where more efficient use becomes of the power resources by the use of consumptions readily accessible for the producer, being able to generate benefits like feeding for almost 50 persons.ha-1.year-1. These results suggest this valuable alternative association as for use in familiar agriculture farmer.

  1. Centrifuge separation effect on bacterial indicator reduction in dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zong; Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C; Roa-Espinosa, Aicardo; Runge, Troy

    2017-04-15

    Centrifugation is a commonly applied separation method for manure processing on large farms to separate solids and nutrients. Pathogen reduction is also an important consideration for managing manure. Appropriate treatment reduces risks from pathogen exposure when manure is used as soil amendments or the processed liquid stream is recycled to flush the barn. This study investigated the effects of centrifugation and polymer addition on bacterial indicator removal from the liquid fraction of manure slurries. Farm samples were taken from a manure centrifuge processing system. There were negligible changes of quantified pathogen indicator concentrations in the low-solids centrate compared to the influent slurry. To study if possible improvements could be made to the system, lab scale experiments were performed investigating a range of g-forces and flocculating polymer addition. The results demonstrated that polymer addition had a negligible effect on the indicator bacteria levels when centrifuged at high g forces. However, the higher g force centrifugation was capable of reducing bacterial indicator levels up to two-log 10 in the liquid stream of the manure, although at speeds higher than typical centrifuge operations currently used for manure processing applications. This study suggests manure centrifuge equipment could be redesigned to provide pathogen reduction to meet emerging issues, such as zoonotic pathogen control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of biofertilizer and organic manure application on yield and morphological index of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam nemati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of biological and manure fertilizer on quantity and quality characteristics of roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L., an experiment was conducted as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Center of Zabol University, Iran during growing season of 2012-2013. Treatments included three manure level; 0, 10 and 20 t.h-1 and eight levels of biofertilizer such as control, nitroxin, bio - sulfur, biological phosphorus, nitroxin+ bio - sulfur, nitroxin+ biological phosphorus, bio - sulfur+ biological phosphorus, nitroxin+ bio - sulfur+ biological phosphorus. Different levels of manure and biofertilizer inoculation were considered as main plots and subplots, respectively. Add manure to the soil and seeds of rossel inoculant treatment was performed with bio - fertilizers before planting. Traits including plant high, stem diameter, number of branches, number of fruits per plant, biological yield and economic yield based on results, levels of manure and fertilizer treatments and their interactions on biological traits were significant. Bio- fertilizers treatments caused significant differences on all meantioned traits. Interaction between treatments showed that the maximum economic yield equal to 1290 kg.h-1 roselle consumption combined with 10 t.h-1 manure+ nitroxin. The results showed that combined use of manure and biological, rather than taking them separately in increasing economic yield and growth characteristics roselle can play an effective role.

  3. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-Guang; Zhou, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhu, Hong-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700m(3) chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35±1°C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5-3.5kg-COD/m(3)d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2m(3)/m(3)d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5-9. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Andini, S.; Nazly, H.; Suwirma, S.; Danius, J.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement. Radiation treatment for disinfection of manure have been investigated on manure collected during the dry and rainy seasons. Total bacterial counts of non-irradiated dewatered manure with water content of around 13.44% were found to be 1.0x10 6 up to 1.4x10 8 per g during the dry season, and 2.0x10 5 up to 1.7x10 7 per g during the rainy season, while coliforms, enterobecteriacease, staphylococcus, streptococcus, and pseudomonas were found to be 1.0x10 6 up to 1.4x10 8 per g, 1.0x10 4 up to 1.2x10 6 per g, 4.0x10 5 up to 2.2x10 7 per g, 1.8x10 3 per g, and 1.0x10 2 up to 5.4x10 3 per g, respectively. About 30% of the total coliforms were found to be escherichia coli. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy eliminated salmonella from all samples observed. No. Shigella Vibrio, and parasites were detected in the samples. Total nitrogen of the dewatered manure ranged between 1.87 and 2.33%, phosphorus between 1.25 and 4.38%, and potassium between 0.66 and 2.18%. Heavy metal elements were found only in very small amounts, hence the dewatered manure could be applied as animal feed or soil conditioner. A combination of irradiation at 4 kGy and storage for 3 months was synergistically effective to eliminate coliform, E. coli, and salmonella in the dewatered manure. From nutritional point of view, the manure is still acceptable for animal feed supplement. (author). 13 refs

  5. Qualidade industrial do trigo em resposta à adubação verde e doses de nitrogênio Baking quality of wheat in response to green manure and nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilas Pinnow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de adubos verdes cultivados entre a cultura do milho e a do trigo e da adubação nitrogenada sobre a qualidade industrial do trigo. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis de adubação nitrogenada: sem adição de nitrogênio, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 e seis manejos outonais: quatro com o cultivo de espécies de cobertura (ervilha forrageira, ervilhaca comum, nabo forrageiro e tremoço, um cultivo de feijoeiro com fins comerciais e outro com a permanência em pousio no período compreendido entre a colheita do milho e a semeadura do trigo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial, com três repetições. O rendimento de proteína aumentou linearmente com a aplicação de nitrogênio mineral. As doses de 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio afetaram positivamente o desempenho dos parâmetros indicativos da qualidade industrial. A ervilha forrageira, o nabo forrageiro e a ervilhaca comum permitem combinar indíces de qualidade tecnológica ideais para panificação e satisfatórios patamares de produtividade de grãos, reduzindo a demanda de adubação nitrogenada mineral.The objective this study was to investigate the effects of green manures cultivated between the maize and wheat crop and nitrogen rates on baking quality of spring wheat. Treatments consisted of four nitrogen fertilization rates: without N addition, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 using the amidic form, and six managements before wheat crop: four green manures forage pea, common pea, oilseed radish and lupine, common bean grown for commercial purposes, and the fallow between the corn harvest and wheat cropping. The experimental design was in randomized blocks and factorial scheme, with three replicates. The protein yield increased linearly with the application of mineral N rates. The nitrogen rates of 80 and 120 kg ha-1 improved the baking wheat quality. The forage pea, oilseed radish and common pea allowed ideal

  6. Qualidade industrial do trigo em resposta à adubação verde e doses de nitrogênio Baking quality of wheat in response to green manure and nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilas Pinnow

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de adubos verdes cultivados entre a cultura do milho e a do trigo e da adubação nitrogenada sobre a qualidade industrial do trigo. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis de adubação nitrogenada: sem adição de nitrogênio, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 e seis manejos outonais: quatro com o cultivo de espécies de cobertura (ervilha forrageira, ervilhaca comum, nabo forrageiro e tremoço, um cultivo de feijoeiro com fins comerciais e outro com a permanência em pousio no período compreendido entre a colheita do milho e a semeadura do trigo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial, com três repetições. O rendimento de proteína aumentou linearmente com a aplicação de nitrogênio mineral. As doses de 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio afetaram positivamente o desempenho dos parâmetros indicativos da qualidade industrial. A ervilha forrageira, o nabo forrageiro e a ervilhaca comum permitem combinar indíces de qualidade tecnológica ideais para panificação e satisfatórios patamares de produtividade de grãos, reduzindo a demanda de adubação nitrogenada mineral.The objective this study was to investigate the effects of green manures cultivated between the maize and wheat crop and nitrogen rates on baking quality of spring wheat. Treatments consisted of four nitrogen fertilization rates: without N addition, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 using the amidic form, and six managements before wheat crop: four green manures forage pea, common pea, oilseed radish and lupine, common bean grown for commercial purposes, and the fallow between the corn harvest and wheat cropping. The experimental design was in randomized blocks and factorial scheme, with three replicates. The protein yield increased linearly with the application of mineral N rates. The nitrogen rates of 80 and 120 kg ha-1 improved the baking wheat quality. The forage pea, oilseed radish and common pea allowed ideal

  7. Biogas production from llama and cow manure at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Rene; Villca, Saul; Liden, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    Methane production from llama and cow manures from the Bolivian high plateau (The 'Altiplano') was studied using a parallel reactor set-up consisting of 10 lab-scale biogasifiers. The effects of pressure (495 and 760mmHg), temperature (11 and 35 deg. C), hydraulic retention time (20 and 50 days), and manure content in the slurry (10%, 20% and 50%) were evaluated with respect to productivity and methane yields based on two 2 4-1 fractional factorial designs with 8 treatments for each kind of manure. The reactors were operated semi-continuously with daily manure feeding for periods between 50 and 100 days. Temperature was the main factor effect found, and the hydraulic retention time and the manure content in feed were also found significant whereas the effect of pressure was not significant in the range studied. The methane yield obtained with cow manure at 11 - bar C was between 6.4 and 33.6lCH 4 kg -1 VS (volatile solids added) whereas at 35 deg. C the methane yield was between 49.6 and 131.3lCH 4 kg -1 VS. The methane yield from llama manure was somewhat lower than for cow manure (between 3.3 and 19.3lCH 4 kg -1 VS at 11 deg. C and between 35.6 and 84.1lCH 4 kg -1 VS at 35 deg. C, respectively). However, overall llama manure was found to be the best raw material of the two for biogas production, due to its high content of volatile solid-higher than has been previously reported for most manures-and also its high nitrogen and phosphorous content

  8. The chemistry of chicken manure labelled with 65Zn in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; L'Annunziata, M.F.; Ortega, M.L.; Alvarado, R.

    1979-01-01

    The radioactive tracer 65 Zn was used to obtain labelled chicken manure with a view to studying various aspects of the chemical behaviour of zinc in this form of manure, together with some of the transformations occurring after the manure has been incorporated into a sandy soil. During the first stage of the study we obtained the labelled manure from 24 chickens to which 65 Zn with known activity had been orally administered. The manure was collected every 24 hours, with a total of 13 samplings. Having determined the specific activity in each manure sample, we found that roughly 75% of the total activity administered was recovered during the first sampling. Seven different treatments were then tried out, using acrylic columns, including the application of 65 Zn, formaldehyde, sucrose and NH 4 NO 3 , together with labelled and non-labelled chicken manure. These treatments were studied at 45 days of degradation so as to obtain fractions from each of the columns. In the fractions we measured (a) the available 65 Zn; (b) the organic 65 Zn; and (c) the fixed 65 Zn. The data obtained show the virtually zero mobility of the zinc in this soil. The same fractions were used to obtain extracts for the identification and measurement of some of the organic complexes of the zinc, using the following techniques: paper electrophoresis, electrodialysis, filtration using G-10 and G-25 Sephadex gel, and paper chromatography. (author)

  9. Bright green light treatment of depression for older adults [ISRCTN69400161

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knickerbocker Nancy C

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bright white light has been successfully used for the treatment of depression. There is interest in identifying which spectral colors of light are the most efficient in the treatment of depression. It is theorized that green light could decrease the intensity duration of exposure needed. Late Wake Treatment (LWT, sleep deprivation for the last half of one night, is associated with rapid mood improvement which has been sustained by light treatment. Because spectral responsiveness may differ by age, we examined whether green light would provide efficient antidepressant treatment in an elder age group. Methods We contrasted one hour of bright green light (1,200 Lux and one hour of dim red light placebo ( Results The protocol was completed by 33 subjects who were 59 to 80 years old. Mood improved on average 23% for all subjects, but there were no significant statistical differences between treatment and placebo groups. There were negligible adverse reactions to the bright green light, which was well tolerated. Conclusion Bright green light was not shown to have an antidepressant effect in the age group of this study, but a larger trial with brighter green light might be of value.

  10. Anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment of a mixture of cheese whey and dairy manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    The integrated anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment system consisted of an anaerobic rotating biological reactor and an aerobic sequencing batch reactor. Three sequencing batch reactors were used in the aerobic process. A mixture of cheese whey and dairy manure was successfully digested in an anaerobic rotating biological contactor which served as a first step in the waste treatment process. The methane production rate, which is dependent on the organic loading rate, ranged between 1.43 and 3.74 litres methane per litre reactor per day. As the organic loading rate increased, total methane production also increased. In the anaerobic digestion step, over 46% of chemical oxygen demand was removed. The potential pollutants were further destroyed by the aerobic treatment. More than 93% of the remaining chemical oxygen demand was removed in the sequencing batch reactors operated at 22/sup 0/C. The treatment efficiency was lower for the aerobic reactor operated at a lower temperature (10/sup 0/C). (author).

  11. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  12. Influence of post-treatment strategies on the properties of activated chars from broiler manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Isabel M; Boykin, Debbie L; Thomas Klasson, K; Uchimiya, Minori

    2014-01-01

    There are a myriad of carbonaceous precursors that can be used advantageously to produce activated carbons or chars, due to their low cost, availability and intrinsic properties. Because of the nature of the raw material, production of granular activated chars from broiler manure results in a significant ash fraction. This study was conducted to determine the influence of several pre- and post-treatment strategies in various physicochemical and adsorptive properties of the resulting activated chars. Pelletized samples of broiler litter and cake were pyrolyzed at 700 °C for 1h followed by a 45 min steam activation at 800 °C at different water flow rates from 1 to 5 mL min(-1). For each activation strategy, samples were either water-rinsed or acid-washed and rinsed or used as is (no acid wash/rinse). Activated char's physicochemical and adsorptive properties towards copper ions were selectively affected by both pre- and post-treatments. Percent ash reduction after either rinsing or acid washing ranged from 1.1 to 15.1% but washed activated chars were still alkaline with pH ranging from 8.4 to 9.1. Acid washing or water rinsing had no significant effect in the ability of the activated char to adsorb copper ions, however it significantly affected surface area, pH, ash content and carbon content. Instead, manure type (litter versus cake) and the activation water flow rate were determining factors in copper ion adsorption which ranged from 38 mg g(-1) to 104 mg g(-1) of activated char. Moreover, strong positive correlations were found between copper uptake and concentration of certain elements in the activated char such as phosphorous, sulfur, calcium and sodium. Rinsing could suffice as a post treatment strategy for ash reduction since no significant differences in the carbon properties were observed between rinsed and acid wash treatments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. USE MANURE AND ORGANIC WASTE AS PLANTING MEDIA OF SEED POTATOES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meksy Dianawati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Manure and organic waste could be used as organic media at potato seed production of G1. The goal of this research was to increase production of potato seed G1 by several kinds of manure and organic waste. This research was conducted at plastic house in Lembang, West Java, from June to September 2014. This research used randomized completed block design with two treatment factors and six replications. The first factor was kinds of manure i.e chicken manure and sheep manure. The second factor was kinds of organic waste. Data was analysed by F test and followed by Duncan and correlation test at 95 percent confidence level. The results showed that media of husk waste with chicken and sheep manure has higher tuber weight and number of big-size tuber per plant than one of cocopeat significantly. Media of sheep manure with husk and bamboo waste has highest tuber weight per plant significantly. Number of total tuber was effected by number of smallsized tuber by 84 percent.

  14. Brazilian beef cattle feedlot manure management: a country survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C; Goulart, R S; Albertini, T Z; Feigl, B J; Cerri, C E P; Vasconcelos, J T; Bernoux, M; Lanna, D P D; Cerri, C C

    2013-04-01

    , only 1 feedlot implemented this technology. In conclusion, the manure management evaluated in this study represents an important indirect economic benefit that was represented by decreased use of synthetic fertilizers in crops. However, little attention was given to the specific treatments and environmental impacts of handling manure. This survey provides information that should assist in the development of better research practices and broader application of future models.

  15. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  16. Antibiotic losses from unprotected manure stockpiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolliver, Holly A S; Gupta, Satish C

    2008-01-01

    Manure management is a major concern in livestock production systems. Although historically the primary concerns have been nutrients and pathogens, manure is also a source of emerging contaminants, such as antibiotics, to the environment. There is a growing concern that antibiotics in manure are reaching surface and ground waters and contributing to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. One such pathway is through leaching and runoff from manure stockpiles. In this study, we quantified chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin losses in runoff from beef manure stockpiles during two separate but consecutive experiments representing different weather conditions (i.e., temperature and precipitation amount and form). Concentrations of chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin in runoff were positively correlated with initial concentrations of antibiotics in manure. The highest concentrations of chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin in runoff were 210, 3175, and 2544 microg L(-1), respectively. Relative antibiotic losses were primarily a function of water losses. In the experiment that had higher runoff water losses, antibiotic losses ranged from 1.2 to 1.8% of total extractable antibiotics in manure. In the experiment with lower runoff water losses, antibiotic losses varied from 0.2 to 0.6% of the total extractable antibiotics in manure. Manure analysis over time suggests that in situ degradation is an important mechanism for antibiotic losses. Degradation losses during manure stockpiling may exceed cumulative losses from runoff events. Storing manure in protected (i.e., covered) facilities could reduce the risk of aquatic contamination associated with manure stockpiling and other outdoor manure management practices.

  17. Leaching impact assessment in liquid manure application to Tulip tree experimental site using Root Zone Water Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure recycling as a fertilizer is one of solutions for the environmental problem related with livestock manure treatment as well as the ocean dumping ban act prohibiting manure disposal to the ocean in Korea. For the manure disposal, tree plantation area is being a candidate place. However, the ma...

  18. Irradiation of liquid manure for the purpose of utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Gleria, M. di; Szemeredi, Gy.

    1980-01-01

    The authors give an account of the use of ionizing radiation for disinfection of swine liquid manure. The most common representatives of pathogenic and facultative pathogenic microorganisms of swine liquid manure have been irradiated and their sensitivity to different doses of 60 Co has been examined. The microorganisms proved to be more resistant to irradiation in culture media than in swine liquid manure, where most of the studied bacteria were killed by radiation dose of 4 kGy. However, a very high resistance has been found at the saprophytic and pathogenic mycobacteria and at the spore containing Clostridium perfringens having required a lethal dose of 10 and 15 kGy respectively. After radiation-treatment the liquid manure can be used in agriculture for irrigation and it can be recycled to the stall cleaning procedures. The use of irradiated liquid manure as a possible animal food is also discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Plant-availability to barley of phosphorus in ash from thermally treated animal manure in comparison to other manure based materials and commercial fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2010-01-01

    ), thermally gasified SS (GAs), thermally gasified poultry manure (GAp), crushed triple super phosphate (TSP) and disodium phosphate (DSP) was used as reference P fertilizer. For application of 20 kg P ha-1 mineral P fertilizer replacement value (RV) in the second year in the sandy soil was 76% and 99% for GA...... on both soils in the second year, and there was no detectable residual effect of the treatments on grass yield and P uptake. In conclusion, untreated ash and solid manures used in this study were not suitable as starter P fertilizer, but could be used to maintain the level of available P in soil......Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient and a limited resource, yet excess P is applied to agricultural land and can cause environmental problems in areas with intensive animal farming. In this study, the fertilizing effects of P in several animal manure-based products (including thermal treatment...

  20. Potencial de espécies utilizadas como adubo verde no manejo integrado de plantas daninhas Potential of species used as green manure in the integrated weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.L. Erasmo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido na Estação Experimental da Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Gurupi-TO, Brasil. O experimento foi instalado com o objetivo de avaliar durante 60 dias, em campo, a interferência de oito espécies utilizadas freqüentemente como adubos verdes (Mucuna aterrima, Mucuna pruriens, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Crotalaria spectabilis, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum americanum e Sorghum bicolor, híbrido BR304 sobre a comunidade infestante. As espécies de plantas daninhas mais freqüentes na área do experimento foram: Digitaria horizontalis, Hyptis lophanta e Amaranthus spinosus. Foram realizadas amostragens aos 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias após a formação da cobertura, utilizando um quadrado de amostragem equivalente a 0,25 m². As plantas daninhas foram devidamente identificadas, coletadas, secas e pesadas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado e constou de nove tratamentos, com quatro repetições cada. Verificou-se que as espécies C. spectabilis, S. bicolor, C. ochroleuca, M. aterrima e M. pruriens reduziram significativamente o número e o peso da matéria seca da população das plantas daninhas avaliadas (D. horizontalis, H. lophanta e A. Spinosus, principalmente as duas últimas, enquanto P. americanum mostrou-se a menos eficiente nesse aspecto.This work was carried out at the Experimental Station of the University of Tocantins, Gurupi-TO, Brazil, to evaluate the interference of eight species frequently used as green manure (Mucuna aterrima, Mucuna pruriens, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Crotalaria spectabilis, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum americanum and Sorghum bicolor, hybrid BR304 in the weed community, for sixty days under field conditions. The most frequent weed species in the experimental area were Digitaria horizontalis, Hyptis lophanta and Amaranthus spinosus. Samplings were made at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after formation of green manure covering, using

  1. EFFECT OF THE TIME OF POULTRY MANURE APPLICATION AND GENOTYPE ON THE GROWTH, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PLANTAINS (MUSA spp. AAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorie Ndukwe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of time of poultry manure application: no application, at planting, 1, 2 and 3 months after planting (MAP were determined on the growth, yield and fruit quality of two plantain (Musa spp. AAB cultivars (PITA 17 and French Reversion. PITA 17 significantly produced more standing leaves, fruits with longer green and shelf life. French Reversion significantly produced taller plants, heavier bunches and fruits, wider and longer fruits. Dry matter partitioning to the pulp, pulp degree of lightness and redness were also higher for French Reversion than PITA 17. The application of poultry manure at 2 MAP produced heaviest bunches and the highest yield components while pulp dry matter and fruit shelf life duration were highest with manure application at 3 MAP. Bunch and fruit weights were heaviest in French Reversion plots applied with poultry manure at 2 MAP whereas shelf life was longest with PITA 17 that received manure application at planting.

  2. Water Quality Impacts of Cover Crop/Manure Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, James Donald

    1997-01-01

    Crop production, soil system, water quality, and economic impacts of four corn silage production systems were compared through a field study including 16 plots (4 replications of each treatment). Systems included a rye cover crop and application of liquid dairy manure in the spring and fall. The four management systems were: 1) traditional, 2) double- crop, 3) roll-down, and 4) undercut. In the fourth system, manure was applied below the soil surface during the ...

  3. Inactivation of a bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus in cattle manure by anaerobic digestion, heat treatment, gamma irradiation, ensilage and composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteith, H.D.; Shannon, E.E.; Derbyshire, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55/sup 0/C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35/sup 0/C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70/sup 0/C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.

  4. Poultry manure. Agronomic use or energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchera, A.; Perri, P.T.

    2000-01-01

    By the year 2010, Italy could see the construction of three incinerators that use poultry manure as source of energy. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of such a choice are considered in their environmental and economical aspects, taking into account the agronomic qualities of poultry manure. The analyses suggests that the agricultural sector should be the one to recover the biomass. It should be used above all as a fertiliser, either directly or after proper treatments improving its agronomic characteristics. Conversely, the energy sector should be in charge of dismissing the eventual surplus through incineration [it

  5. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure...

  6. Effects of manure storage additivies on manure composition and greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Storage of dairy manure slurry allows for flexibility in the timing of land application of manure to reduce environmental impacts related to water quality. Yet, manure storage can increase greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia emissions and cause operational issues due to the buildup of slurry ...

  7. Anaerobic digestion of manure and mixture of manure with lipids: biogas reactor performance and microbial community analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and a mixture of cattle manure with glycerol trioleate (GTO) was studied in lab-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) operated at 37degreesC. The reactor. codigesting manure and lipids exhibited a significantly higher specific methane yield and a hi......Anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and a mixture of cattle manure with glycerol trioleate (GTO) was studied in lab-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) operated at 37degreesC. The reactor. codigesting manure and lipids exhibited a significantly higher specific methane yield...

  8. Temporal succession of soil antibiotic resistance genes following application of swine, cattle and poultry manures spiked with or without antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu-Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Gou, Min; Wang, Jun-Tao; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Land application of animal manure is a common agricultural practice potentially leading to dispersal and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environmental settings. However, the fate of resistome in agro-ecosystems over time following application of different manure sources has never been compared systematically. Here, soil microcosm incubation was conducted to compare effects of poultry, cattle and swine manures spiked with or without the antibiotic tylosin on the temporal changes of soil ARGs. The high-throughput quantitative PCR detected a total of 185 unique ARGs, with Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B resistance as the most frequently encountered ARG type. The diversity and abundance of ARGs significantly increased following application of manure and manure spiked with tylosin, with more pronounced effects observed in the swine and poultry manure treatments than in the cattle manure treatment. The level of antibiotic resistance gradually decreased over time in all manured soils but was still significantly higher in the soils treated with swine and poultry manures than in the untreated soils after 130 days’ incubation. Tylosin-amended soils consistently showed higher abundances of ARGs than soils treated with manure only, suggesting a strong selection pressure of antibiotic-spiked manure on soil ARGs. The relative abundance of ARGs had significantly positive correlations with integrase and transposase genes, indicative of horizontal transfer potential of ARGs in manure and tylosin treated soils. Our findings provide evidence that application of swine and poultry manures might enrich more soil ARGs than cattle manure, which necessitates the appropriate treatment of raw animal manures prior to land application to minimise the spread of environmental ARGs. - Highlights: • Application of poultry, swine, and cattle manure with or without tylosin increased the level of soil ARGs. • Poultry and swine manures had stronger selection pressure

  9. Degradation of Insecticides in Poultry Manure: Determining the Insecticidal Treatment Interval for Managing House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Populations in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Ahmad, Hamdan

    2016-04-01

    It is crucial to understand the degradation pattern of insecticides when designing a sustainable control program for the house fly, Musca domestica (L.), on poultry farms. The aim of this study was to determine the half-life and degradation rates of cyromazine, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin by spiking these insecticides into poultry manure, and then quantitatively analyzing the insecticide residue using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The insecticides were later tested in the field in order to study the appropriate insecticidal treatment intervals. Bio-assays on manure samples were later tested at 3, 7, 10, and 15 d for bio-efficacy on susceptible house fly larvae. Degradation analysis demonstrated that cyromazine has the shortest half-life (3.01 d) compared with chlorpyrifos (4.36 d) and cypermethrin (3.75 d). Cyromazine also had a significantly greater degradation rate compared with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. For the field insecticidal treatment interval study, 10 d was the interval that had been determined for cyromazine due to its significantly lower residue; for ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin), the suggested interval was 7 d. Future work should focus on the effects of insecticide metabolites on targeted pests and the poultry manure environment.

  10. Testing the effect of different enzyme blends on increasing the biogas yield of straw and digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Jurado, Esperanza; Malmgren-Hansen, Bjørn

    In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily d...... degradable fraction of manure in the biogas process. 2. Separation of the residual recalcitrant digested fiber fraction project. 3. Ultrasound and/or enzymatic treatment of the digested fiber fraction. 4. Recirculation of the treated fiber fraction into the reactor.......In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily...

  11. Use of poultry manure for amendment of oil-polluted soils in relation to growth of maize (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amadi, A. Ue Bari, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The use of poultry manure for amelioration of oil-polluted soil was investigated by growing maize (Zea mays L.) under two experimental conditions: increasing the poultry manure rate from 0-20 kg ha -1 at 0.03 L/kg oil treatment level; and increasing the rate of oil treatment from 0-0.2 between the rate of poultry manure added and the enhancement of maize growth. But only a 16-kg ha -1 poultry manure rate and above exerted some beneficial effects on the maize growth relative to the unpolluted, unamended soil. Conversely, increasing oil concentration, regardless of the poultry manure level added, depressed maize growth, but only at oil levels of 0.03 L/kg. A positive correlation was recorded between maize height and leaf area growing in oil-treated soil amended with different poultry manure rates and growing in oil-treated amended with 20 kg ha -1 poultry manure. Amending oil-contaminated soils with poultry manure, should possibly improve soil fertility and maize production

  12. Environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. However, there is an increasing environmental concern associated with animal manure utilization due to high and locally concentrated volumes of manure produced in modern intensified animal production. Although conside...

  13. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Etesami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality and quantity of the product to follow. Manure is a valuable source of biological, ecological and environmental benefits is positive and its main use is for agricultural use. Radish is an important root vegetable that belongs to the cruciferous (Brassicaceae. Value radish on high levels of dietary is related to soluble fiber and antioxidants. Radish is a native plant to Asia, China and Europe. The oral part of the botanical garden radish is important and that kind of traditional varieties have long hypocotyls include root and hypocotyls made.The purpose of this test is to evaluate the different mixture amount of animal fertilizers on the growth and yield of radish plants and compare them to each other. Materials and Methods: In order to study of different manure effect on radish growth and yield, an experiment carried out in 2012-2013 in the greenhouse of Gonbad- Kavos University with geographical characteristics 37.16 degrees north, 55.12 ° east and with a height of 45 meters above sea level in a completely randomized design with four replications. Soil and fertilizers used to this experiment were made of the soil and livestock of Gonbad- Kavos University. Soil texture was Clay loam and pH was 7.7 obtained from soil analysis. To obtain the required levels of fertilizer treatments (25, 50, 75, 100, a measure was considered as the basis of each treatment on the basis of the ratio were calculated. The treatments included control (soil, 25 percent cow manure+ 75

  14. Coupling Cover Crops with Alternative Swine Manure Application Strategies: Manure-15N Tracer Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of rye cover crops with alternative liquid swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure application strategies may enhance retention of manure N in corn (Zea mays L.) - soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cropping systems. The objective of this study was to quantify uptake of manure derived-N by a rye (Seca...

  15. Effects of Animal Manures and Chemical Fertilizer on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Milk Thistle Plant (Silybum marianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yazdani Biuki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum is one of the medicinal plants that has many drug properties. In order to evaluate effects of animal manures and chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of Milk Thistle plant, an experiment was conducted in the Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in year 2008 based on completely randomized block design with three replications and four treatments. The treatments included: control (without any manure or fertilizer, chemical NPK fertilizer, cattle and sheep manures. The characteristics such as number of lateral stem per plant, height of plant, number of inflorescences per plant, inflorescence diameter, number of seeds per capitol, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, oil percentage, silymarin percentage (active ingredient, silybin percentage, oil yield and silymarin yield were recorded. The results showed that different treatments had no effect on yield components, but had significant effect on oil percentage, silymarin and silybin content of seeds. Cattle manure had more oil (21% and silybin (21.7% compared with other treatments. There was no significant difference in oil and silymarin percentage between control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Cattle manure and sheep manure had minimum percentage of silybin (16.4 and maximum percentage of silymarin (3.1 Compared with other treatments. There were positive correlation between height of plant with seed yield (r=0.86** and inflorescence diameter (r=0.6*, which represents importance of these traits for final yield assessment. There were no positive correlation between seed yield and other yields components. Keywords: Milk Thistle, Quantitative and qualitative characteristics, Animal manures, Medicinal plants

  16. Seleção de espécies de adubos verdes visando à fitorremediação de diclosulam Selection of green manure species aiming at diclosulam phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A Monquero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de adubos verdes tolerantes ao herbicida diclosulam podem ser utilizadas em rotação de culturas para diminuir o efeito fitotóxico subsequente desse herbicida em plantas sensíveis, como o girassol ou milho. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância de adubos verdes ao diclosulam e a capacidade dessas plantas em diminuir o efeito fitotóxico do herbicida no bioindicador Helianthus annuus. Foram avaliadas, em casa de vegetação, três doses do herbicida diclosulam (0, 0,035 e 0,070 kg i.a. ha-1 em pré-emergência dos adubos verdes Dolichos lablab, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria juncea, C. breviflora, C. spectabilis, Mucuna deeringiana, M. cinerea, M. aterrima, Lupinus albus, Helianthus annuus, Pennisetum glaucum, Avena strigosa, Raphanus sativus e Calopogonium muconoides. Entre estas espécies, C. cajan, C. ensiformis, M. cinerea e M. aterrima foram selecionadas como as mais tolerantes, sendo avaliadas no campo com o herbicida diclosulam nas doses de 0, 0,035 e 0,070 kg i.a. ha¹, em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 e quatro repetições. A parte aérea dessas plantas foi coletada após 60 dias da emergência, sendo semeado H. annuus como bioindicador do herbicida diclosulam. Os resultados evidenciaram C. cajan como a espécie mais promissora em diminuir o efeito fitotóxico do diclosulam em culturas agrícolas sensíveis.The tolerance of green manure species to diclosulam can be used in crop rotation schemes aiming to reduce the subsequent phytotoxic effect of this herbicide on sensitive plants, such as sunflower or corn plants. This study evaluated the tolerance of green manure to diclosulan and the capacity of these plants in reducing the phytotoxic effect of this herbicide on Helianthus annuus (sunflower. Three rates of diclosulam (0; 0.035, and 0.070 kg a.i. ha-1 were evaluated under greenhouse conditions in pre-emergence of the following green manures: Dolichos lablab, Cajanus cajan, Canavalis ensiformis

  17. Dissolution of rock phosphate in animal manure soil amendment and lettuce growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Agyarko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in pots on the field to assess the effect of different quantities of poultry manure (PM, cattle manure (CM and pig manure (PG on the release of available phosphorus from Togo rock phosphate (RP and lettuce growth. There were eleven (11 treatments which were: Control (soil only; 2.5g RP; 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 5gCM; 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 5gPM; 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 5gPG, applied per kg soil, using the Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications. Available phosphorus and other parameters were assessed using standard methods. Results were statistically analyzed using the the GenStat (11th Edition statistical software package. The amount and type of animal manure in the amendment affected the amount of the available P released. The addition of 2.5g manure to 2.5g RP in a kg of soil significantly (P<0.05 increased available P by 4 to 7 times over the sole 2.5g RP/kg soil treatment. Doubling the amount of manure in the amendment (5g manure + 2.5g RP almost doubled the amount of P released, with the poultry manure combinations being more significant. The amount of available P in the soil positively related to the plant height (R2=63, leaf area (R2=0.55, dry weight (R2=0.73 and the percentage P in the leaf (R2=0.88 of lettuce. The PM at 2.5gRP + 5gPM recorded the highest significant (P<0.05 values. The study has provided further basis for manure selection and quantities to be used in enhancing the release of P from rock phosphate. However, investigations need to be continued using nuclear techniques.

  18. Dynamics of soil bacterial communities in response to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Radl, Viviane; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Jechalke, Sven; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ.

  19. Dynamics of soil bacterial communities in response to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Chun Ding

    Full Text Available Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ.

  20. Dynamics of Soil Bacterial Communities in Response to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Radl, Viviane; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Jechalke, Sven; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ. PMID:24671113

  1. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy

  2. Product quality and microbial dynamics during vermicomposting and maturation of compost from pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Iria; Alves, David; Mato, Salustiano

    2017-11-01

    This research evaluates, through microbial dynamics, the use of earthworms Eisenia andrei for maturation of pre-composted pig manure in comparison with maturation under static conditions and with vermicomposting of fresh pig manure. Therefore, two substrates were used (fresh and pre-composted pig manure) and four treatments were developed: fresh manure vermicomposting, control of fresh manure without earthworms, pre-composting followed by vermicomposting and static maturation of pre-composted manure. In order to determine the microbial dynamics, the enzymatic activities and profiles of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were evaluated over a 112-days period. Physicochemical and biological parameters of the obtained products were also analyzed. The presence of earthworms significantly reduced (pquality values, it is necessary to optimize the vermicompost aging phase period to improve the stability. Static maturation presented stability on microbial dynamics that indicated a slow degradation of organic compounds so that, maturation of pre-composted manure through vermicomposting is better option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  4. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2013-01-01

    and accessible during subsequent anaerobic digestion. This finding has confirmed earlier experimental results, showing that delignification was not necessarily the limiting factor during conversion of manure fibers into methane while cellulose accessibility during digestion seemed more crucial.......AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning...

  5. Potential of biogas production with young bulls manure on batch biodigesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M.; Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The feedlot system concerning the young bull model allows that animals gain weight in a shorter time since there is higher daily intake of protein when compared to fiber. This change on animals' diet alters particularly manure characteristics and thus interferes on performance of biological systems of treatment. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of biogas production using manure of young bulls that received two different diets on batch biodigesters under three temperatures, with and without inoculum use. The results showed that manure from animals that received more protein on diet (80% concentrate + 20% roughage) had greater reductions on volatile solids when submitted to anaerobic biodigestion. Although the speed of biogas production was superior on treatments with inoculum, it was observed negative effect on inoculum use. There was no effect on temperature during biogas production. Regarding diet effect, manure of animals fed on diet with more protein produced larger amounts of biogas per kg of total added solids (0.2543) when compared to those who received less protein on diet (65% concentrate + 35% roughage), which meant 0.1001 m{sup 3} biogas/kg/total solids. (author)

  6. Manure Preferences and Postemergence Learning of Two Filth Fly Parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Taylor

    Full Text Available The efficiency of host-seeking behavior is crucial to the reproductive performance of female parasitoids. Initially, parasitoids may use chemical information garnered from the microhabitat in which they emerge to locate hosts. Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor are commercially available parasitoids of filth flies. Postemergence exposure to a specific manure may provide a way to increase parasitism in specific microhabitats found at livestock facilities upon release. In this study, female parasitoids of both species were exposed to equine manure, bovine manure, or clean pupae. Females from each emergence exposure were tested in a two-choice arena (house fly hosts in bovine manure versus clean pupae, equine manure versus clean pupae, and equine manure versus bovine manure for progeny production. There was a detectable but small effect of postemergence exposure on S. cameroni, but it was not sufficient to reverse innate preferences. Females consistently produced more progeny in hosts found in any manure over clean pupae, and in equine manure over bovine manure. The effect of postemergence exposure on M. raptor was also detectable but small. Females produced equal numbers of progeny in bovine manure versus clean pupae, as opposed to preferring to oviposit in clean pupae as with all other treatments. Preferences by M. raptor were overall less marked than for S. cameroni; indeed most of the variability observed for this species did not result from the treatment design. Residual host mortality was also detectably altered by exposure in both species, but the effect was small. Thus, postemergence exposure did not consistently and effectively manipulate these parasitoids to producing progeny in different exposure manures, suggesting that microhabitat preferences are largely determined by other factors.

  7. Effects of Combined Application of Manure and Nitrogen in a Semi-Arid Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted under field conditions at Masii to examine maize response to a combined application of cattle manure and nitrogen (N) in a sandy soil. The treatments consisted of 0, 10 and 20 tons of manure per hectare (t ha -1 ) applied in a brand along the maize rows. the manure was combined with 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha -1 all applied at planting in the first year, and o, 40, 90 and 150 kg N ha -1 split into two applications in the second year. Maize plants grown without either manure or nitrogen were stunted and yellow. Grain yields were low ranging from 175 to 246 kg ha -1 , in the two years of study when no manure or fertilizer was applied. Application of 10 t ha -1 of manure alone increased the grain yield to a maximum of 1529 kg ha -1 . Grain yield increased significantly with combined application of manure and nitrogen to 3145 kg ha -1 , when a combination of 20 t ha - 1 of manure and 120 kg N ha -1 was applied in the year. Even the a yield plateau could not be attained. The study indicated that low soil fertility is a major limitation to maize growth and production in the study area. Maize production can be improved by application of manure or nitrogen, however, higher yields could be achieved when manure and nitrogen are applied in combination

  8. Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking on the methane yield and composition of digested manure fibers applying different ammonia concentrations and treatment durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) in six different concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 32%) and for 1, 3 and 5 days...... at 22°C was applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester. A methane yield increase from 76% to 104% was achieved during the first series of experiments, while the difference in reagent concentration did not considerably affect the methane yield...... is a very promising treatment resulting to an overall increase of the methane yield of digested manure fibers from 76 to 265% depending on the conditions and the batch of digested fibers used (an even higher increase of 190-265% was achieved during the 2nd series of experiments, where different AAS...

  9. The economics of energy from animal manure for greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoori, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the economic feasibility of using anaerobic digestion to produce biogas for the purpose of generating electricity. Centralized plants in 2 settings in Alberta were evaluated, notably a mixed farming area in Red Deer County and an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots in Lethbridge County. The cost of producing power at a centralized plant drawing manure from 61 sources in the mixed farming area was shown to be nearly double the cost of producing power at a centralized plant drawing manure from 560,000 beef cattle in Lethbridge County. Digestate processing shifts the balance in favour of centralized processing. At larger scales, pipelines could be used to transport manure to a centralized plant and return the processed digestate back to the manure source for spreading. Pipeline transport is more economic than truck transport in cases where manure is produced by more than 90,000 animals. Pipeline transport of digestate is more economic when manure from more than 21,000 beef cattle is available and two-way pipelining of manure plus digestate is more economic when manure from more than 29,000 beef cattle is available. The value of carbon credits needed to make AD profitable in a mixed farming region was calculated based on an analysis of manure and digestate transport and processing costs. Carbon emission reductions from power generation were calculated for displacement of power from coal and natural gas. The carbon credit needed to cover the cost of AD processing of manure is greater than $150 per tonne of carbon dioxide, indicating that AD treatment of manure from mixed farming areas is not economic given current values of carbon credits. It was concluded that power generated from biogas has a high cost compared to current power prices and the cost of power from other large scale renewable sources. As such, factors other than energy value, such as phosphate, pathogen or odour control would have to be considered in order to justify power

  10. Comparison between Urea and Goat Manure as Sources of Nitrogen for Napier Grass Grown on Terraced Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman, M.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of two nitrogen (N sources on dry matter (DM yield and nutritive value of Napier grass were evaluated. The nitrogen (N fertiliser (at rate of 300 kg N ha?1 year?1 was applied by dividing the terraces of a hill under two treatments: T1 (urea and T2 (goat manure. There were three replicates of each treatment arranged within three blocks in a completely randomised design. Grass was cut at about 60?day interval. In the first to fourth harvests, grass receiving manure had higher plant height than those with urea application. Grass receiving manure had higher DM yield than urea in almost all of the cuttings. In the fourth harvest, grass receiving urea contained higher DM and organic matter (OM than manure. Similar result was found for fifth harvest where urea gave higher crude protein (CP than manure. Irrespective of harvesting frequencies, average DM, OM, CP and neutral detergent fibre contents were not significantly different between grasses fertilised with manure and urea. In conclusion, manure is recommended for economical cultivation of Napier grass on terrace of hill.

  11. Accumulation of sulfonamide resistance genes in arable soils due to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-04-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  12. The economics of energy from animal manure for greenhouse gas mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoori, Emad

    2007-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has significant economies of scale, i.e. per unit processing costs decrease with increasing size. The economics of AD to produce biogas and in turn electric power in farm or feedlot based units as well as centralized plants is evaluated for two settings in Alberta: a mixed farming area, Red Deer County, and an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, Lethbridge County. A centralized plant drawing manure from 61 sources in the mixed farming area could produce power at a cost of 218 MWh-1 (2005 US). A centralized plant drawing manure from 560,000 beef cattle in Lethbridge County, can produce power at a cost of 138 MWh-1. Digestate processing, if commercially available, shifts the balance in favor of centralized processing. At larger scales, pipelines could be used to deliver manure to a centralized plant and return the processed digestate back to the manure source for spreading. Pipeline transport of beef cattle manure is more economic than truck transport for the manure produced by more than 90,000 animals. Pipeline transport of digestate is more economic when manure from more than 21,000 beef cattle is available and two-way pipelining of manure plus digestate is more economic when manure from more than 29,000 beef cattle is available. The value of carbon credits necessary to make AD profitable in a mixed farming region is also calculated based on a detailed analysis of manure and digestate transport and processing costs at an AD plant. Carbon emission reductions from power generation are calculated for displacement of power from coal and natural gas. The required carbon credit to cover the cost of AD processing of manure is greater than 150 per tonne of CO2. These results show that AD treatment of manure from mixed farming areas is not economic given current values of carbon credits. Power from biogas has a high cost relative to current power prices and to the cost of power from other large scale renewable sources. Power from biogas would

  13. Impact of Anaerobic Digestion of Liquid Dairy Manure on Ammonia Volatilization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion (AD) on the mechanism of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure, in storage or treatment lagoon, prior to land application. Physical-chemical properties of liquid dairy manure, which may affect ammonia volatilization process, were determined before and after AD. The properties of interest included: particle size distribution (PSD), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), viscosity, pH, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and ionic strength (IS). The overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia (KoL) and the NH3 fraction of TAN (β) for the undigested (UD) and AD manures were then experimentally determined in a laboratory convective emission chamber (CEC) at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1 and fixed air temperature of 25 °C at liquid manure temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 °C. The PSD indicated non-normal left skewed distribution for both AD and UD manures particles, suggestive of heavier concentrations of particles towards the lower particle size range. The volume median diameters (VMD) for solids from UD and AD were not significantly different (p= 0.65), but the geometric standard deviations (GSD) were significantly different (p = 0.001), indicating slightly larger particles but more widely distributed solids in UD than AD manure. Results also indicated significantly higher pH, TAN, ionic strength (IS) and viscosity in AD manure. The KoL and β for AD manure determined under identical conditions (air temperature, liquid temperature, and airflow) were significantly higher (p > 0.05) than for UD manure. Overall, these findings suggest that AD of dairy manure significantly increased initial ammonia volatilization potential from liquid dairy manure; with the largest increase (~62%) emanating from increased ammonium dissociation. The initial flux of ammonia, during the experiment period, was ~84% more from AD than in UD dairy manure. Keywords. Process based models, mass transfer

  14. The Effects of Organic Manures, Soil Cover and Drying Temperature on Some Growth and Phytochemical Characteristics of Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia Vojodi Mehrabani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of some pre and post -harvest treatments on growth characteristics of Calendula officinalis. The first experiment as RCBD with three replication studied the effects of organic fertilizers as vermicompost, cow and poultry manure with control plus soil cover (plastic white and black. Organic manure application +mulch had positive effects on flower fresh weight. The greatest amount for chlorophyll b content was recorded in vermicompost + black plastic cover. In the second experiment, the effects of nutrition with organic manure +soil cover and post-harvest flower drying temperature (natural drying in shade condition and oven drying at 40 and 60 0C as a factorial based on RCBD were evaluated. The highest methanolic extract amount and total anthocyanin content were recorded with vermicompost + black cover + natural drying. For essential oil content and carotenoids gross amount poultry manure + black cover and drying at 60 0C was the preferred treatments. The highest recorded data for total flavonoids was traced in vermicompot and cow manure with white cover at natural drying condition. For total phenolics content, cow manure + black cover at 40 0C used for drying was selected as the treatment of choice. Also, vermicompost+ black mulch and natural drying were nice treatment combinations for the highest total phenolics content. In total, all the treatment applied i.e. organic manures, soil covers and drying methods at varying levels and combinations had suitable effectiveness on the growth characteristics and phytochemicals content of Calendula officinalis.

  15. Effect of alkaline microwaving pretreatment on anaerobic digestion and biogas production of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Deng, Yihuan; Liu, Hongyu; Yang, Chunping; Wu, Bingwen; Zeng, Guangming; Lu, Li; Nishimura, Fumitake

    2017-05-10

    Microwave assisted with alkaline (MW-A) condition was applied in the pretreatment of swine manure, and the effect of the pretreatment on anaerobic treatment and biogas production was evaluated in this study. The two main microwaving (MW) parameters, microwaving power and reaction time, were optimized for the pretreatment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of alkaline microwaving process for manure pretreatment at various values of pH and energy input. Results showed that the manure disintegration degree was maximized of 63.91% at energy input of 54 J/g and pH of 12.0, and variance analysis indicated that pH value played a more important role in the pretreatment than in energy input. Anaerobic digestion results demonstrated that MW-A pretreatment not only significantly increased cumulative biogas production, but also shortened the duration for a stable biogas production rate. Therefore, the alkaline microwaving pretreatment could become an alternative process for effective treatment of swine manure.

  16. The effect of soil management on the persistence of E. coli and Listeria spp. in manure- amended soils in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes can contaminate leafy greens through inappropriately managed raw manure applied to soils. Current FDA guidance includes calling for additional scientific data to determine the appropriate interval between application of man...

  17. Anaerobic digestibility of beef hooves with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Wang, Ding-Kang; Kong, Yunhong; Ungerfeld, Emilio M; Seviour, Robert; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an effective method for treating animal by-products, generating at the same time green energy as methane (CH4). However, the methods and mechanisms involved in anaerobic digestion of α-keratin wastes like hair, nails, horns and hooves are still not clear. In this study we investigated the feasibility of anaerobically co-digesting ground beef hooves in the presence of swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge at 25 °C using eight 42-L Plexiglas lab-scale digesters. Our results showed addition of beef hooves statistically significantly increased the rate of CH4 production with swine manure, but only increased it slightly with slaughterhouse sludge. After 90-day digestion, 73% of beef hoof material added to the swine manure-inoculated digesters had been converted into CH4, which was significantly higher than the 45% level achieved in the slaughterhouse sludge inoculated digesters. BODIPY-Fluorescent casein staining detected proteolytic bacteria in all digesters with and without added beef hooves, and their relative abundances corresponded to the rate of methanogenesis of the digesters with the different inocula. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with BODIPY-Fluorescent casein staining identified most proteolytic bacteria as members of genus Alkaliphilus in the subfamily Clostridiaceae 2 of family Clostridiaceae. They thus appear to be the bacteria mainly responsible for digestion of beef hooves. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Broccoli yield in response to top-dressing fertilization with green manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Bernardo de Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the productive performance of broccoli under different top-dressing organic fertilizations. The experiment was conducted under protected cultivation, in a completely randomized design with four replications, with two plants per experimental unit. Broccoli seedlings were produced in a commercial substrate in styrofoam trays. The seedlings were transplanted to plastic pots containing 10.0 L of substrate made up of subsoil and organic compost at the ratio of 3:1 (v/v, respectively, which is equivalent to about 20.0 t ha-1 of organic compost at planting. After seedling establishment, the top-dressing fertilization treatments were applied: gliricidia biomass associated or not with liquid biofertilizer of cattle manure to the soil and bokashi. Two control treatments were established: one with mineral fertilization recommended for the crop and the other without top-dressing fertilization. The broccoli production was evaluated (commercial standard. Plants that received mineral fertilizer were more productive, however, they were not significantly different (p>0.05, by Dunnet test, from the plants fertilized with 2.5 t ha-1 gliricidiabiomass (dry mass associated with liquid biofertilizer (2.0 L m-2 applied to soil. Top-dressing fertilizations with only gliricidia, at 2.5 and 5.0 t ha-1 of biomass (dry mass, resulted in no significant increase in production of broccoli inflorescence. The use of bokashi in addition to gliricidia biomass and liquid biofertilizer reduced the efficiency of the fertilization compared with plants that received only gliricidia and liquid biofertilizer.

  19. Nutrient Runoff Losses from Liquid Dairy Manure Applied with Low-Disturbance Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, William; Sherman, Jessica; Cavadini, Jason

    2016-09-01

    Manure applied to cropland is a source of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in surface runoff and can contribute to impairment of surface waters. Tillage immediately after application incorporates manure into the soil, which may reduce nutrient loss in runoff as well as N loss via NH volatilization. However, tillage also incorporates crop residue, which reduces surface cover and may increase erosion potential. We applied liquid dairy manure in a silage corn ( L.)-cereal rye ( L.) cover crop system in late October using methods designed to incorporate manure with minimal soil and residue disturbance. These include strip-till injection and tine aerator-band manure application, which were compared with standard broadcast application, either incorporated with a disk or left on the surface. Runoff was generated with a portable rainfall simulator (42 mm h for 30 min) three separate times: (i) 2 to 5 d after the October manure application, (ii) in early spring, and (iii) after tillage and planting. In the postmanure application runoff, the highest losses of total P and dissolved reactive P were from surface-applied manure. Dissolved P loss was reduced 98% by strip-till injection; this result was not statistically different from the no-manure control. Reductions from the aerator band method and disk incorporation were 53 and 80%, respectively. Total P losses followed a similar pattern, with 87% reduction from injected manure. Runoff losses of N had generally similar patterns to those of P. Losses of P and N were, in most cases, lower in the spring rain simulations with fewer significant treatment effects. Overall, results show that low-disturbance manure application methods can significantly reduce nutrient runoff losses compared with surface application while maintaining residue cover better than incorporation by tillage. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Effects of anaerobic digestion on chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline degradation efficiency for swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fubin; Dong, Hongmin; Ji, Chao; Tao, Xiuping; Chen, Yongxing

    2016-10-01

    Manure containing antibiotics is considered a hazardous substance that poses a serious health risk to the environment and to human health. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could not only treatment animal waste but also generate valuable biogas. However, the interaction between antibiotics in manure and the AD process has not been clearly understood. In this study, experiments on biochemical methane potential (BMP) were conducted to determine the inhibition of the AD process from antibiotics and the threshold of complete antibiotic removal. The thresholds of the complete antibiotic removal were 60 and 40mg/kg·TS for CTC and OTC, respectively. CTC and OTC with concentrations below thresholds could increase the BMP of manure. When the CTC and OTC concentrations exceeded the thresholds, they inhibited manure fermentation, and the CTC removal rate declined exponentially with concentration (60-500mg/kg·TS). The relationship between OTC antibiotic concentration and its removal rate in AD treatment was described with exponential (40-100mg/kg·TS) and linear equations (100-500mg/kg·TS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of Biometric Datum of Green Manure Crops in the Process of Biological Soil Reclamation on the Territory of Coal Producer Ojsc “Mine No 12”In The Kemerovo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovchenko, M. A.; Pinchuk, L. G.; Kolosolapova, A. A.; Alankina, D. N.

    2017-05-01

    The article presents the results of a study of green manure crops of different kinds, it is determined that the best growth results were obtained with incorporation of hydrogel in the substratum, and particularly in the clay, so as due to the amount of moisture in the substratum, clay is more hygroscopic and physico-chemical properties of hydrogel significantly increase moisture capacity of the substratum. Sowing field germination of all crops is much higher in the clay then in soil. Territories with the hydrogel usage showed a greater plant density per 1m2. Almost all crops with the major growth of herb were sowed in the clay with hydrogel addition, the crops height increased by 2.5 times. The only exception was Rye, the difference in height between its plants in “soil + hydrogel” and “clay+hydrogel” was less than 1%. It was registered that the root growth of Phacelia in “clay+hydrogel” increased by 2.5 times. While the root growth of Rump, on the contrary, increased in mellow soil with hydrogel by 43%. Other kinds of crops did not perform any difference in their root length. The increase of herbage in mixtures of green manure crops was negligible, whereas mono-sowing of such crops as Esparcet, Rump and Buckwheat showed the greatest increase of herbage in comparison to the soil lots and other sowing variants. The greatest increase of herbage among lots without hydrogel addition was performed on the clay ones: Esparcet - 250%, Buckwheat - 172% Rump - 123% Phacelia - 77.5%. The best results of herbage accumulation were showed by Esparcet, Buckwheat, Rump, Phacelia.

  2. The Effect of Solarization and Manure in Controlling Sugar Beet Cyst Nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmidt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi Nasr Esfahani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii Schmidt is the major disease of sugar beet worldwide, causing considerable damages, and even death of the plants, in the infested fields. There are several suggested methods of controls, which may have its own difficulties to be taken into consideration. To avoid the use of nematicides, and reduced the risk of chemical hazards in the environment, any sorts of nonchemical management is incorrigible. However, any method of management must be safe, large scale application and economical. Thus, in this manuscript, polyethylene sheaths were used to solarize and or disinfection of the infested soils to H. schachtii. And, also, the incorporation of the farm yards manure was taken into consideration too. Therefore, the field experiments were carried out in infected sugar beet growing regions, where there was a heavy infestation to the sugar beet nematodes, Isfahan province, Iran, to determine the effects of soil solarization alone and or along with undecomposed farm yard manure on sugar beet cyst nematode, H. schachtii. Material and Methods. Transparent Polyethylene sheaths of 2microns were used to solarize and or disinfection of the infested soils to H. schachtii. The fresh farm yards manure for 40 tons per hector for the incorporation was taken into consideration. The field experiments were carried out in infected sugar beet growing regions, where, there was a heavy infestation to the sugar beet nematodes, Jey and Ghahab of Isfahan, Isfahan province, Iran, for determination of the effects of soil solarization alone and or along with undecomposed farm yard manure on sugar beet cyst nematode, H. schachtii. Treatments were consisted of soil solarization with transparent polyethylene sheets, fresh yard manure, integration of soil solarization with farm yard manure and untreated, control and or ckecks in a randomized block design in three replications each in an infested field conditions, in the

  3. Response of Artemisia annua L. to shade and manure fertilizer application in lowland altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, H. H.; Widyastuti, Y.; Samanhudi; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    Artemisia is a plant producing artemisinin substance which is the main compound in the treatment of malaria. Artemisia comes from China, usually grows wild in native habitats in the plains with an altitude of 1,000-1,500 meters above the sea level. Artemisia development efforts in Indonesia hampered by limited land with the required altitude due to their competition with vegetable crops. Based on this reason, this research is conducted to observe the growth of artemisia planted in lowland with the help of shade and manure. This study aims to determine the level of shade and best manure on the growth of Artemisia. Research conducted at the Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture UNS Jumantono using nested design with two factors, shade as main factor and manure fertilizer as sub factor. The data analysis used F test with confidence level of 5%, if significant, then continued with DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test). The results showed the treatment of shade gave no difference in growth within 50% shade, 75% shade as well as without shade treatment. Goat manure fertilizer gave the highest result and able to increase plant height, number of branches, flower weight and root volume.

  4. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrader Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  5. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut

    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  6. Recuperação de área degradada por construção de hidroelétrica com adubação verde e corretivo Soil reclamation by green manure and soil ammendements in areas degraded by hydroelectric power plant construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Cristina Alves

    2008-12-01

    system in Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil, by green manure, lime and gypsum. The experiment had a randomized block design with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of: one control (tilled soil and spontaneous vegetation; Cajanus cajan until 1994 and then substituted by Canavalia ensiformis; lime + Stizolobium aterrimum; lime + Cajanus cajan until 1994 and then substituted by Canavalia ensiformis; lime + gypsum + Stizolobium aterrimum and lime + gypsum + Cajanus cajan until 1994 and then substituted by Canavalia ensiformis. After four years with green manure, one year with corn, one year with Avena strigosa and two years with brachiaria, the following properties were analyzed: pH, Ca, Mg, P, K, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, and organic matter. The treatments succeeded in recovering the soil chemical properties. Stizolobium aterrimum performed better than Cajanus cajan and Canavalia ensiformis. Soil recovery effects reached a depth of 0.0-0.2 m. The recovery techniques (green manure, lime and gypsum improved soil chemical characteristics to a of 0.0-0.1 m in the first year and only after five years the depth of 0.0-0.2 m.

  7. Anaerobic digestion of chicken feather with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Massé, Daniel I; McAllister, Tim A; Beaulieu, Carole; Ungerfeld, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of chicken feathers with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge was assessed in two separate experiments. Ground feathers without any pre-treatment were added to 42-L digesters inoculated with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge, representing 37% and 23% of total solids, respectively and incubated at 25°C in batch mode. Compared to the control without feather addition, total CH(4) production increased by 130% (Pswine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters, respectively. Mixed liquor NH(4)N concentration increased (Pdigestion to 6.9 and 3.5 g/L at the end of digestion in the swine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters, respectively. The fraction of proteolytic microorganisms increased (Pdigestion from 12.5% to 14.5% and 11.3% to 13.0% in the swine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters with feather addition, respectively, but decreased in the controls. These results are reflective of feather digestion. Feather addition did not affect CH(4) yields of the swine manure digesters (P=0.082) and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters (P=0.21), indicating that feathers can be digested together with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge without negatively affecting the digestion of swine manure and slaughterhouse sludge. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The fate and effect of monensin during anaerobic digestion of dairy manure under mesophilic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman A Arikan

    Full Text Available There is growing concern about residual antibiotics and feed additives in the manure of treated animals because of the effects of these residues in the environment. Monensin is the most widely used ionophore coccidiostat in the U.S. The objective of this study was to determine the fate and effect of monensin during the anaerobic digestion of dairy manure. Duplicate plug flow field-scale digesters were operated using non-amended dairy manure and dairy manure amended with monensin to 1 and 10 mg/L for 56 days at 30°C at an organic loading rate of 1.4 kg VS/m3-d and 17-day hydraulic retention time. Results showed that monensin was reduced approximately 70% during anaerobic digestion. Methane production from digesters using manure amended with 1 mg/L monensin was comparable to that from digesters operated without added monensin. However, digesters using manure amended with 10 mg/L monensin yielded 75% less methane than digesters using manure without added monensin. These results suggest that anaerobic digestion is an effective treatment for reducing, but not eliminating, monensin in dairy manure. Monensin did not reduce methane production at concentrations expected in dairy manure at recommended dosage rates.

  9. Accumulation of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Arable Soils Due to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-01-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  10. Housefly maggot-treated composting as sustainable option for pig manure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Xiang; Yao, Yan-Lai; Wang, Su-Juan; Du, Rong-Guang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Hong, Chun-Lai; Qi, Bing; Xue, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Hong-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In traditional composting, large amounts of bulking agents must be added to reduce the moisture of pig manure, which increases the cost of composting and dilutes the N, P and K content in organic fertilizers. In this study, maggot treatment was used in composting instead of bulking agents. In experiment of selecting an optimal inoculum level for composting, the treatment of 0.5% maggot inoculum resulted in the maximum yield of late instar maggots, 11.6% (maggots weight/manure weight). The manure residue became noticeably granular by day 6 and its moisture content was below 60%, which was suitable for further composting without bulking agents. Moreover, in composting experiment with a natural compost without maggot inoculum and maggot-treated compost at 0.5% inoculum level, there were no significant differences in nutrient content between the two organic fertilizers from the two treatments (paired Student's t15=1.0032, P=0.3317). Therefore, maggot culturing did not affect the characteristics of the organic fertilizer. The content of TNPK (total nitrogen+total phosphorus+total potassium) in organic fertilizer from maggot treatment was 10.72% (dry weight), which was far more than that of organic fertilizer made by conventional composting with bulking agents (about 8.0%). Dried maggots as feed meet the national standard (GB/T19164-2003) for commercial fish meal in China, which contained 55.32 ± 1.09% protein; 1.34 ± 0.02% methionine; 4.15 ± 0.10% lysine. This study highlights housefly maggot-treated composting can be considered sustainable alternatives for pig manure management to achieve high-quality organic fertilizer and maggots as feed without bulking agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Localities and organic Fertilizers on Yield in Conditions of Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Antosovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization cannot be used by actual needs of plants during vegetation in organic farming. The proper crop rotation and harmonic nutrition are necessary for good and quality products. The methods of treatment are mainly realized by cultivation of green manure crop and fertilizing by organic fertilizers. The aim of the long-term experiment was to evaluate the effect of different localities and different organic fertilizers on crop yield in organic farming. Variants of fertilization included in the experiment are: 1. Unfertilized control, 2. Green manure, 3. Green manure + renewable external sources, 4. Green manure + renewable external sources + auxiliary substances, 5. Green manure + farm fertilizers, 6. Green manure + farm fertilizers + auxiliary substances. The experiment started by sowing of winter wheat so green manure crop was not grown in the first experimental year. The highest yield of winter wheat grain coming from the first year of the experiment was observed on the variant with renewable external sources (digestate. Average grain yield on this variant was about 7.12 t/ha (up to 0.74 t/ha increased than the unfertilized control. Average yield of potatoes from the second year of the experiment was the highest after combination with green manure + renewable external sources (compost + digestate + auxiliary substances. This variant achieved yield about 34.08 t/ha, which is increased by 9.35 t/ha compared to the control variant. Results from this two-year experiment showed that the most suitable combination of fertilization with or without green manure crop is compost + digestate. These results were probably caused by higher content of nitrogen in organic fertilizers (compost + digestate used in this variant compared to other variants. Statistical difference of achieved yields was observed between each experimental station in both experimental years.

  12. Timing and placement of cattle manure and/or gliricidia affects cotton and sunflower nutrient accumulation and biomass productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Dário C; Menezes, Rômulo S C; Oliveira, Fabio F DE; Dubeux Júnior, José Carlos B; Sampaio, Everardo V S B

    2018-01-01

    Organic fertilizers are a viable alternative to increase oilseed productivity in family agriculture systems. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of timing and placement of cattle manure and/or gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp) prunings on cotton (Gossipium hirsutum L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) nutrient accumulation and biomass productivity. Experiments were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in Taperoá, Paraíba, Brazil. The organic fertilization treatments were: GI - gliricidia incorporated before planting; GS - gliricidia applied on surface 45 days after planting (DAP); MI + GI - manure and gliricidia incorporated before planting; MI + GS - manure incorporated before planting and gliricídia applied on the surface 45 DAP; MI - manure incorporated before planting; and T - with no organic fertilization. In 2010, treatment MI + GS increased N, P, and K accumulation in cotton (12 and 7 kg ha-1) as well as in sunflower (20 and 29 kg ha-1). In 2011, GI and GS treatments resulted in higher N, P, K accumulations in both crops. The highest cotton productivity in 2010 was obtained with MI + GS treatment (198 kg ha-1) and in 2011 with GS treatment (594 kg ha-1). For sunflower, MI + GS treatment yielded the highest productivity in 2010 (466 kg ha-1) and GI treatment in 2011 (3542 kg ha-1). GI and MI + GS treatments increased total biomass productivity for cotton and sunflower. The treatment that combined both cattle manure incorporated into the soil before planting and gliricidia applied on the surface 45 days after planting was the most viable management strategy.

  13. Biophysical Approach to Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Green Tea Catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Masami; Takahashi, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Iida, Keisuke; Matsuzaki, Takahisa; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y; Fujiki, Hirota

    2016-11-18

    Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and microfluidic optical stretcher. Specifically, determination of biophysical properties of cancer cells, low cell stiffness, and high deformability in relation to migration, along with biophysical effects, were studied by treatment with green tea catechins. The study with AFM revealed that low average values of Young's moduli, indicating low cell stiffness, are closely associated with strong potential of cell migration and metastasis for various cancer cells. It is important to note that treatments with EGCG and green tea extract elevated the average values of Young's moduli resulting in increased stiffness (large elasticity) of melanomas and various cancer cells. We discuss here the biophysical basis of multifunctions of green tea catechins and green tea extract leading to beneficial effects for cancer prevention and treatment.

  14. Utility of specific biomarkers to assess safety of swine manure for biofertilizing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Viancelli, A; Magri, M E; Elmahdy, E M; Biesus, L L; Kich, J D; Kunz, A; Barardi, C R M

    2014-05-01

    Swine production is an important economic activity in Brazil, and there is interest in the development of clean production mechanisms to support sustainable agro-industrial activities. The biomass derived from swine manure has good potential to be used as a biofertilizer due to its high nutrient concentration. However, the land application of manure should be based on safety parameters such as the presence of pathogens that can potentially infect animals and people. This study was designed to assess the presence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), rotavirus-A (RV-A) and Salmonella spp. in liquid manure, as well the infectivity of two genotypes of circovirus-2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) present in liquid manure. Three swine farms were evaluated: 1) a nursery production farm (manure analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), 2) a grow-finish production farm (analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), and 3) a second grow-finish production farm (raw manure-affluent). PCV2, PAdV and RV-A were present before and after anaerobic biodigestion (either affluent or effluent) at all farms. Salmonella spp. were detected at farm 1 (affluent and effluent) and farm 3 (raw manure-affluent) but not farm 2 (affluent and effluent). When the ability of the anaerobic biodigestion process to reduce viral concentration was evaluated, no significant reduction was observed (P>0.05). Both the PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes were detected, suggesting viral co-infection in swine production. The results revealed infectious PCV2 even after anaerobic biodigestion treatment. The presence of Salmonella spp. and enteric viruses, especially infectious PCV2, in the final effluent from the anaerobic biodigester system suggests that the process is inefficient for pathogen inactivation. Due to the prevalence and infectivity of PCV2 and considering the successful use of molecular methods coupled to cell culture for detecting infectious PCV2, we suggest that this virus can be used

  15. Response of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) to Farmyard Manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2Department of Crop Production, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria. ... of roselle to farmyard manure, nitrogen and their interaction on the growth and yield of roselle. Treatment ..... roselle as an industrial crop in Nigeria.

  16. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting.

  17. Haalbaarheidsstudie terugwinning van mestnutriënten : Fase 1: Processchema en nutriëntenstromen = Feasibility study on nutrient recovery from animal manure : Phase 1: Process scheme and nutrient flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.; Melse, R.W.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    A process scheme for a new manure treatment system for pig and cattle manure was formulated which aims to produce manure nutrient flows with added value. The basic process behind the treatment system is fermentation of manure, which is preceded by both stripping ammonia and chemical digestion of the

  18. Removal Characteristics of Nitrogen and Phosphorus and Their Land Application Rates During a Multi-level Treatment Process for Manure and Waste Water:An Example from Intensive Swine Farm in Water Network Region of Southern Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Hong-mei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The actual removal rates of nitrogen and phosphorus in animal manure and waste water during multi-level treatment process remain vague for large-scale farms. This limits its land application in water network regions of China. The aims of this study were:(1 to verify the removal characteristics of total nitrogen(TN and phosphorus(TP during a multi-level treatment process for swine manure and waste water, and(2 to calculate its land carrying capacity. An intensive swine farm in Southern Jiangsu, which possessed a typical manure and waste water treatment plant with two anaerobic digesters, three natural sediment ponds, and one aquatic plant ponds, was chosen to monitor for the four seasons during a whole year. The results showed that total productions of manure and urine were 4 086.9 t and 10 995.8 t, respectively, in 2016. The collection rate of manure was around 90.5%. The available TN and TP were 183.12 t and 148.97 t, respectively, for land application. The removal rates of TN and TP were less than 25.3% and 57.2% respectively, after secondary anaerobic digestion. The residual TN and TP in the digestates could be removed more than 80% by oxygen ponds treatments. Then the effluent was processed by aquatic plants, and the removal rates for TN and TP were more than 95%, which guaranteed the effluent to be up to the discharge standard. The multi-level processing technology could improve the land carrying capacity and reduce the manure and waste water treatment costs for the intensive animal farms, which were suitable for very intensive, economically developed and land resource limited regions.

  19. A novel phosphorus biofertilizer based on cattle manure and phytases-nanoclay complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Daniel; Jorquera, Milko; Greiner, Ralf; Velasquez, Gabriela; Mora, María de la Luz

    2013-04-01

    Phytate and other phytase labile organic phosphorus (P) are abundant in both soils and manures. These recalcitrant forms of P accumulate in soils by their interaction with mineral particles. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of treating cattle manure with phytases stabilized in allophanic nanoclays, as a novel P biofertilization technology for crops grown in volcanic soils (Andisol). Two Andisols and two manures with contrasting inorganic Pcontent were used: Low P soil from Piedras Negras series (SPN-LP); High P soil from Freire Series (SF-HP); Low P Waste (WPN-LP); High P Waste (WF-HP). The used Andisols and manures were incubated with phytase-nanoclay complexes and the inorganic P was determined in the NaOH-EDTA and bicarbonate extracts. The WPN-LP was also inoculated with an alkaline β-propeller phytase (BPP) producing bacterium. The incubated SPN-LP and SPN-LP-WPN-LP mixture were evaluated for their P supplying capacity to wheat plants under greenhouse conditions. Our resultsindicated that the treatment of cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays resulted in a significant (P≤0.0.5) increase in the inorganic P. The use of phytase treated cattle manure increased 10% plant dry weight and 39% P concentration in wheat plants under greenhouse conditions, being equivalent to a P fertilizer dose of about 150 kg of P ha-1. In the case of low P cattle manure inoculated with BPP producing bacterium, inorganic P increased 10% in soil extracts (NaOH EDTA and Bicarbonate). However, the application of this treated manure did not result in a significant response to wheat growth and P acquisition. Our results suggest that this novel approach of incubating cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays enhances organic P cycling and P nutrition of plants grown under P-deficient soils.

  20. Spatial oxygen distribution and nitrous oxide emissions from soil after manure application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Bruun, Sander; Larsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The availability and spatial distribution of oxygen (O2) in agricultural soil are controlling factors in the production and emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but most experiments investigating the effects of various factors on N2O emissions in soil have been conducted without...... to interpret data on N2O emissions following a uniform or layered amendment of manure to agricultural soil. The spatial distribution of O2 and gas emission rates were monitored for 12 h. An anoxic layer formed rapidly around the layered manure, whereas the uniformly distributed manure led to a more widespread...... anoxia. Nitrous oxide emissions increased immediately after depletion of O2 in the manure-amended treatments. Greater understanding and improved knowledge of the spatial distribution of O2 is clearly beneficial and can be used to devise improved application strategies for mitigating N2O emissions from...

  1. Increasing the biogas yield of manure by wet explosion of the digested fiber fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    digested manure fibers from the effluent of an anaerobic digester for enhancing biogas production and exploring the untapped biomass potential. The increase in methane yield of the digested manure fibers was investigated by applying the WEx treatment under 5 different process conditions. The pretreatment......Increasing the biodegradability of the lignocellulosic fiber fraction of manure can ensure higher methane productivity in biogas plants, leading to process profitability and thus larger production of renewable energy. A new pretreatment method, wet explosion (WEx), was investigated to treat...... condition of 180 ºC and a retention time of 10 minutes without addition of chemicals was found to be optimal, resulting in 136% increase in methane yield as compared to the untreated digested manure fibers....

  2. Improving biogas yields using an innovative pretreatment concept for conversion of the fiber fraction of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    A new concept to enable economically feasible operation of manure based biogas plants was tested in lab-scale. Wet explosion (WEx) was implemented as treatment of the residual manure fibers separated after the anaerobic digestion process for enhancing the biogas production before reintroducing...

  3. Spring barley yield and nitrogen recovery after application of peat manure and pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. MATTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of peat manure, manufactured of pig slurry and moderately humified Sphagnum peat (slurry:peat ca. 1:1.5 v/v, as nitrogen (N source for spring barley was investigated in a four.year field experiment on a clay loam soil in south-western Finland. Pig slurry, NPK fertilizer and plain peat were used as references. Manures were incorporated before sowing or surface-applied after sowing in spring at an ammoniacal N rate of.54.106 kg.ha-1 with or without supplementary NPK fertilizer (40.kg N.ha-1. Soil moisture conditions were varied by different irrigation treatments. Peat manure produced 5.15% higher grain yields than pig slurry, with the largest difference after surface application. Incorporation was more important for slurry than for peat manure in increasing N uptake and yield. Soil moisture deficit in spring and early summer limited the availability of manure N. Part of the manure N that was not available in the early growing period was apparently taken up by the crop later. Consequently, N concentration tended to be higher with lower yields, and differences in the recovery of manure N were smaller than the differences in grain yield. Supplementation of manures with inorganic fertilizer N increased yield by 37%, on average, and improved the N recovery.;

  4. Centralized manure digestion. Selection of locations and estimation of costs of large-scale manure storage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    A study to assess the possibilities and the consequences of the use of existing Dutch large scale manure silos at centralised anaerobic digestion plants (CAD-plants) for manure and energy-rich organic wastes is carried out. Reconstruction of these large scale manure silos into digesters for a CAD-plant is not self-evident due to the high height/diameter ratio of these silos and the extra investments that have to be made for additional facilities for roofing, insulation, mixing and heating. From the results of an inventory and selection of large scale manure silos with a storage capacity above 1,500 m 3 it appeared that there are 21 locations in The Netherlands that can be qualified for realisation of a CAD plant with a processing capacity of 100 m 3 biomass (80% manure, 20% additives) per day. These locations are found in particular at the 'shortage-areas' for manure fertilisation in the Dutch provinces Groningen and Drenthe. Three of these 21 locations with large scale silos are considered to be the most suitable for realisation of a large scale CAD-plant. The selection is based on an optimal scale for a CAD-plant of 300 m 3 material (80% manure, 20% additives) to be processed per day and the most suitable consuming markets for the biogas produced at the CAD-plant. The three locations are at Middelharnis, Veendam, and Klazinaveen. Applying the conditions as used in this study and accounting for all costs for transport of manure, additives and end-product including the costs for the storage facilities, a break-even operation might be realised at a minimum income for the additives of approximately 50 Dutch guilders per m 3 (including TAV). This income price is considerably lower than the prevailing costs for tipping or processing of organic wastes in The Netherlands. This study revealed that a break-even exploitation of a large scale CAD-plant for the processing of manure with energy-rich additives is possible. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0....

  6. Organic and chemical manure of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in alluvial soils of intermediate climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo V, Alvaro; Munoz A, Rodrigo

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose to evaluate the effect on bean production ICA CITARA variety, four sources of organic matter (hen manure, pig manure, cow manure, and earthworm manure) in four doses 280,500 y 1.000 kg/ha with the same doses of chemical fertilization, were evaluated the experiment was carried out at Tulio Ospina Research Center, located at Bello (Antioquia) of medium climate with 1.320 m.s.n.m. This was established using an alluvial soil (Tropofluvent), frenk, with low contents of organic, matter (2,2%), phosphorus (10 ppm), and potassium (0,10 meq/l00 g). the results, after six consecutive harvests on the same plots, showed highly significative differences among treatments. The highest yield (1.836 kg/ha) was obtained when to the chemical fertilization (300 kg of 10-30-10) was added with 250 kg/ha of hen manure, followed by the application of 100 kg/ha, of cow manure (1.812 kg/ha). Chemical fertilization without organic matter produced 1.640 kg/ha of bean, which was very similar to the addition of 1.000 kg/ha of cow manure and earthworm manure with yields of 1.688 kg/ha and 1.635 kg/ha respectively

  7. Integrated biological treatment of fowl manure for nitrogen recovery and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posmanik, Roy; Nejidat, Ali; Bar-Sinay, Boaz; Gross, Amit

    2013-03-15

    Biowaste such as animal manure poses an environmental threat, due to among others, uncontrolled emissions of ammonia and additional hazardous gases to the atmosphere. This study presents a quantitative analysis of an alternative biowaste management approach aimed at nitrogen recovery and reduction of contamination risks. The suggested technology combines anaerobic digestion of nitrogen-rich biowaste with biofiltration of the resulting gaseous ammonia. A compost-based biofilter is used to capture the ammonia and convert it to nitrate by nitrifying microorganisms. Nitrogen mass balance was applied to quantify the system's capacity under various fowl manure-loading regimes and ammonia loading rates. The produced nitrate was recovered and its use as liquid fertilizer was evaluated with cucumber plant as a model crop. In addition, emissions of other hazardous gases (N(2)O, CH(4) and H(2)S) were monitored before and after biofiltration to evaluate the efficiency of the system for treating these gases. It was found that nitrate-rich liquid fertilizer can be continuously produced using the suggested approach, with an over 67 percentage of nitrogen recovery, under an ammonia loading rate of up to 40 g NH(3) per cubic meter biofilter per hour. Complete elimination of NH(3), H(2)S, CH(4) and N(2)O was achieved, demonstrating the potential of the suggested technology for mitigating emission of these gases from fowl manure. Moreover, the quality of the recovered fertilizer was demonstrated by higher yield performance of cucumber plant compared with control plants treated with a commonly applied organic liquid fertilizer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Technical Protocol. Transformation of biocides in liquid manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert; Schlag, Patrick; Teigeler, Jennifer; Hartmann, Constanze; Cvetkovi, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The Reference Manure Concept, already developed for laboratory tests on fate and behavior of veterinary medicinal products in liquid manures and manured soils, was successfully applied for biocides used for disinfection purposes and control of insects in animal houses. Since the representative and reproducible sampling of manures from high-volume tanks has been considered impossible, excrement samples of cattle and pigs individually kept at an experimental animal house were taken. These samples were thoroughly matrix characterized. Then, tap water was added to prepare reference manures of definite dry substance contents. Subsequently, the long-term transformation of the biocides imazalil and cyanamide applied as {sup 14}C-labeled radiotracers was investigated in these manure samples. On the basis of the transformation tests, test manures with 7-day aged biocide residues were prepared and applied in laboratory tests on transformation and sorption in manured soil. By means of this experimental approach, the impacts of aging processes during manure storage and of the manure matrix on the fate of biocides in soils can be assessed already under laboratory conditions. These laboratory tests have been directed as closely as possible to agricultural practice as well as to analytical practicability and quality assurance. Finally, the methodological aspects have been compiled in a Technical Protocol (Draft version). (orig.)

  9. Estimates of matter yield and N-uptake in sorghum grown on saline and non-saline soils manured with dhaincha (sesbania aculeata) plant residues utilizing 15N tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2002-11-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of manuring with three types of plant residues (roots, shoots or roots plus shoots) of Dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata Pers.) on the yield and N-uptake of Sorghum bicolor grown in saline and non-saline soils. For measuring various sources of N-uptake, two isotopic dilution techniques were utilized by adding to these soils either 15 N-labelled inorganic N-fertilizer (indirect method) or 15 N-labelled sesbania leaves (direct method). For the indirect method, both soils manured with each type of sesbania residue, received four split applications of 15 N-labelled ammonium sulphate. Results indicated that each type of sesbania residue, applied as a green manure, resulted in significant increases in both dry matter yield and N-uptake of sorghum as compared with the un manured control. Moreover, sesbania residues decreased the harmful effect of salinity on plant growth. Percentages of N derived from residues (%Ndfr) in sorghum grown in non saline soil ranged between 3.9 and 33%; whereas, in saline soil, the observed values ranged between 4.9 and 19.8%. N recoveries in sorghum grown in non saline soil were 61, 45 and 37% of the total amount contained in the sesbania root, shoot and root plus shoot; whereas, values in sorghum grown in saline soils were 48, 14,8 and 15.7%, respectively. The beneficial effects of sesbania residues have been attributed not only to the additional N availability to the plants, but also to its effects on the enhancement of soil N uptake. Percentages and amounts of Ndfr calculated using the indirect method were not significantly different from those obtained by the direct method indicating that the indirect method used herein is feasible and simple for measuring N release from organic residues. It is suggested that the use of Sesbania aculeata residues, particularly the shoots, as a green manure, can provide a substantial portion of total N in sorghum. Moreover, the use of sesbania green manure in

  10. Combined borax and tannin treatment of stored dairy manure to reduce bacterial populations and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of organic residues in stored livestock manure is associated with the production of odors and emissions. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such emission that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and handling, posing a risk to both farmers and livestock. New te...

  11. Biophysical Approach to Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Green Tea Catechins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Suganuma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AFM and microfluidic optical stretcher. Specifically, determination of biophysical properties of cancer cells, low cell stiffness, and high deformability in relation to migration, along with biophysical effects, were studied by treatment with green tea catechins. The study with AFM revealed that low average values of Young’s moduli, indicating low cell stiffness, are closely associated with strong potential of cell migration and metastasis for various cancer cells. It is important to note that treatments with EGCG and green tea extract elevated the average values of Young’s moduli resulting in increased stiffness (large elasticity of melanomas and various cancer cells. We discuss here the biophysical basis of multifunctions of green tea catechins and green tea extract leading to beneficial effects for cancer prevention and treatment.

  12. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.

    2016-01-01

    pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1......Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS...... (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly...

  13. The Effect of Organic Manure and Super Absorbent on Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Potato (Solanum tubersum, cv Marfona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rashidi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate effect of organic manure and super absorbent on physiological and biochemical traits of potato (Solanum tubersum, cv Marfona, a split plot experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm, Agriculture College, University of Razi in 2010. Main factor included two levels of super absorbent A200 (0 and 70 Kg/ha, and split plot included nine levels (0, chemical fertilizer (according to soil test, granule chicken manure (1000 kg/ ha, common chicken manure (12 ton/ha, soil mix (1000 kg/ha, cow manure (20 ton/ha, vermicompost (20 ton/ha, compost (20 ton/ha and tea compost (soaking tubers and spraying at four times. Investigating physiological traits such as leaf chlorophyll index, chlorophyll florescence and stomata conductance showed that only leaf chlorophyll index was affected by superabsorbent (P < 0.01 and organic manure (P < 0.05, while stomata conductance wad significant under it’s interaction effect at (P < 0.05. Quality and biochemical traits show that phosphorous amount of tuber was significant in superabsorbent treatment in compare to control. Crude oil percentage, protein, fiber, starch, sugar, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium content were not affected by organic manure. The highest amount of oil and fiber were obtained under compost and cow manure respectively. Sugar and nitrogen content were high under cow manure treatment. The highest amount of potassium and phosphorous content were belonging to chicken and Khakparvar manure respectively.

  14. Biogas production from steer manures in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cuong H.; Saggar, Surinder; Vu, Cuong C.

    2017-01-01

    manures collected from two different experiments of steers fed diets containing feed supplements. BMP was 110.1 (NLkg-1 VS) for manure from steers receiving a control diet, significantly lower 79.0 (NL kg-1 VS) for manure from steers fed a diet containing 0.3% tannin (%DM), but then showed an increasing...... trend to 90.9 and 91.2 (NL kg-1 VS) for manures from steers receiving 0.4 and 0.5% tannin (%DM) supplements, respectively. Similarly, the CH4 production (NL kg-1 VS) of manure from steers was 174 for control, 142 for control supplemented concentrate (C), 143 for control added rice straw treated...

  15. Thermal pretreatment of the solid fraction of manure: Impact on the biogas reactor performance and microbial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Z; Hartmann, H.; Kvist, T.

    2006-01-01

    Application of thermal treatment at 100-140 degrees C as a pretreatment method prior to anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cattle and swine manure was investigated. In a batch test, biogasification of manure with thermally pretreated solid fraction proceeded faster and resulted in the increase...... of methane yield. The performances of two thermophilic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) treating manure with solid fraction pretreated for 40 minutes at 140 degrees C and non-treated manure were compared. The digester fed with the thermally pretreated manure had a higher methane productivity...... and butyrate - was low. The kinetic parameters of the VFA conversion revealed a reduced affinity of the microbial community from the CSTR fed with thermally pre-treated manure for acetate, propionate and butyrate. The bacterial and archaeal populations identified by t-RLFP analysis of 16S rRNA genes were found...

  16. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  17. Influence of Irradiated Chicken Manure on Productivity and Fruit Quality of Strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out on Strawberry fruits (Fragaria×ananassa) cv. camarosa at Atomic Energy Authority, Experimental farm, Inshas, Egypt during the two successive seasons 2011 and 2012. Chicken manure at rates of 15 and 30 m 3 fed -1 were irradiated with 10 KGy gamma were applied in combination with 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 . Untreated control but fertilized with 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed-1was also included. Generally chicken manure rates significantly increased vegetative growth, and total yield quality of strawberry fruits. The superiority data with 30 m 3 fed -1 irradiated chicken manure was observed on strawberry of plant height, number of leaves plant, and number of crowns plant, root length and dry weight of shoots. Also total soluble solids and acidity, vitamin C, total sugars and anthocyanin content were significantly increased comparable to control. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents non significantly affected most of treatments except the combined treatment of chicken manure at rate 30 m 3 fed -1 and 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 that induced the best results. This was true at the 2nd season. Moreover these results were nearly closed those of irradiated dry chicken manure at rate of 30 m 3 fed -1 plus 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 , for both seasons

  18. Manure application and ammonia volatilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: manure application, ammonia volatilization, environmental conditions, application technique, incorporation technique, draught force, work organization, costs Livestock manure applied on farmland is an important source of ammonia (NH3) volatilization, and NH3 is a major atmospheric

  19. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxiang Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1 non-treated; (2 chicken manure-treated and (3 organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health.

  20. Technology for recycling of manure and organic residues in a whole-farm perspective. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Soeren O. (ed.)

    2006-08-15

    Efficient use of agricultural residues and imported waste materials within agriculture is increasingly viewed from a whole-farm perspective. A wide range of management decisions - including feeding, manure collection systems, and treatment for hygienization or energy production - influence the nutrient value and environmental impact of agricultural residues. Field application of manure and urban wastes are affected by societal constraints, such as legislation, tradition, consumer attitudes towards waste recycling, and pollution risks. Hence, the optimal use of manure and organic wastes as a nutrient source and soil conditioner interacts strongly with many other aspects of farming. The objective behind this 12th International Conference of the Ramiran network is to present and discuss on-farm interactions between manure and waste management practices, and to consider methods to describe and quantify the overall effects of a given strategy or treatment practice. Accordingly, the research presented at the conference and in the proceedings cover a wide range of topics, from feed impact on manure composition to environmental losses in the field, from energy production to odour control, from biochemistry to modelling. We hope that everyone involved in the conference will see this as an opportunity to discover interfaces with other research areas that can strengthen the whole-farm perspective of future research. (au)

  1. Technology for recycling of manure and organic residues in a whole-farm perspective. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Soeren O. (ed.)

    2006-08-15

    Efficient use of agricultural residues and imported waste materials within agriculture is increasingly viewed from a whole-farm perspective. A wide range of management decisions - including feeding, manure collection systems, and treatment for hygienization or energy production - influence the nutrient value and environmental impact of agricultural residues. Field application of manure and urban wastes are affected by societal constraints, such as legislation, tradition, consumer attitudes towards waste recycling, and pollution risks. Hence, the optimal use of manure and organic wastes as a nutrient source and soil conditioner interacts strongly with many other aspects of farming. The objective behind this 12th International Conference of the Ramiran network is to present and discuss on-farm interactions between manure and waste management practices, and to consider methods to describe and quantify the overall effects of a given strategy or treatment practice. Accordingly, the research presented at the conference and in the proceedings cover a wide range of topics, from feed impact on manure composition to environmental losses in the field, from energy production to odour control, from biochemistry to modelling. We hope that everyone involved in the conference will see this as an opportunity to discover interfaces with other research areas that can strengthen the whole-farm perspective of future research. (au)

  2. Effect of different fertilizer resources on yield and yield components of grain maize (Zea mays L. affected by tillage managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    maturity, 10 plants were randomly selected and the plant height, the number of kernels per row, the number of rows per ear, the seed weight, the harvest index, and the ear length were measured, separately. Results and discussion The results showed that in comparison with the first year, in the second year a significant increase was observed in plant height, ear length, number of kernel per row, weight of 100 seed weight, harvest index, and seed yield. The highest grain yield was obtained from the conventional tillage systems (mixing the fertilizer with the soil with the mean of 4494.85 kg.ha-1. Other characteristics, except the number of row per ear, increased more in the conventional tillage than in the no tillage. Fertilizer sources were significant for plant height, ear length, number of kernel per row, weight of 100 kernels, harvest index, and seed yield. The highest grain yield was obtained from the sixth treatment (mix of animal, chemical and green manures with the mean of 7018.5 kg.ha-1. The interaction of year, tillage and fertilizer sources indicated that the highest grain yield and 100 seed weight were obtained from the conventional tillage systems and from the 6th treatment (mix of animal, chemical and green manures with the means of 9400.33 kg.ha-1 and 246 g, respectively. In the conventional tillage, microbial decomposition occurs faster than in the no tillage. Nutrients are released in vicinity of the plant roots and it can be placed conveniently at the disposal plant. In this way, the sixth treatment will achieve higher yield and better quality, because it can create diverse sources of essential nutrients for the plant; moreover, it can increase absorption capacity in corn. Conclusion In conventional tillage systems, where the sources of fertilizer are mixed with soil, the plant is placed in direct contact with the soil degrading bacteria, accelerating the fertilizers’ mineralization, and ultimately, improving the plant growth. Due to high soil density

  3. Transfer of antibiotics from wastewater or animal manure to soil and edible crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M

    2017-12-01

    Antibiotics are added to agricultural fields worldwide through wastewater irrigation or manure application, resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks to terrestrial environments and humans. Most studies focused on antibiotic detection in different matrices or were conducted in a hydroponic environment. Little is known about the transfer of antibiotics from antibiotic-contaminated irrigation wastewater and animal manure to agricultural soil and edible crops. In this study, we evaluated the transfer of five different antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol) to different crops under two levels of antibiotic-contaminated wastewater irrigation and animal manure fertilization. The final distribution of tetracycline (TC), norfloxacin (NOR) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in the crop tissues under these four treatments were as follows: fruit > leaf/shoot > root, while an opposite order was found for sulfamethazine (SMZ) and erythromycin (ERY): root > leaf/shoot > fruit. The growth of crops could accelerate the dissipation of antibiotics by absorption from contaminated soil. A higher accumulation of antibiotics was observed in crop tissues under the wastewater treatment than under manure treatment, which was due to the continual irrigation that increased adsorption in soil and uptake by crops. The translocation of antibiotics in crops mainly depended on their physicochemical properties (e.g. log K ow ), crop species, and the concentrations of antibiotics applied to the soil. The levels of antibiotics ingested through the consumption of edible crops under the different treatments were much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency.

  5. Treatment of swine liquid manure by aerobic microbes and subsequent formation of yeast biomass. Aerob mikrobielle Behandlung von Schweineguelle mit anschliessender Hefebiomassebildung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P

    1985-02-05

    A practical, hygienically satisfactory process for microbial upgrading of swine liquid manures ensuring a fair yield is by aerobic-thermophilic process with subsequent addition of yeast. The execution of this involves considerable expenditure. A problem consists furthermore in the sensitivity of the auto-oxidation stage to antibiotics, which might constitute an obstacle to the only possible sphere of application of the process anyway, namely in large-scale animal breeding, because this is the very sphere where the use of drugs is as yet indispensable. Stabilization by sewage treatment process can be achieved by a disproportionate effort only because of an unfavourable composition of the material and, is moreover out of the question on account of the high content of valuable nutrients. Renewed feeding of the substrate treated with yeast as a hygienically safe feeding stuff constitutes a useful recycling procedure for parts of the constituents of liquid manure and might help to reduce the import of expensive protein. Non-polluting disposal and appropriate utilization of liquid manure are always complicated and expensive. At the same time no solution has as yet been found that is entirely satisfactory, and late damage can never be entirely excluded.

  6. Fate of nitrogen (15N) from velvet bean in the soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivittaro, Walkyria Bueno; Muraoka, Takashi; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2004-01-01

    Because of their potential for N 2 biological fixation, legumes are an alternative source of nitrogen to crops, and can even replace or supplement mineral fertilization. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate temporal patterns of velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) green manure release of nitrogen to rice plants, and to study the fate of nitrogen from velvet bean in rice cultivation. The isotopic dilution methodology was used. Treatments consisted of a control and 10 incubation periods of soil fertilized with 15 N-labeled velvet bean (0, 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 days). The plant material was previously chopped, sifted (10 mm mesh sieve) and oven-dried (65 deg C). Incubation of the plant material (2.2 g kg -1 soil) was initiated by the longest period, in order to synchronize the planting of the test crop, rice (Oryza sativa), at time zero for all treatments. Green manure incorporation promoted increases in rice dry matter yield and nitrogen uptake. These variables showed maximum values at incubation periods of 38 and 169 days, respectively. Green manure nitrogen utilization by rice plants was highest at an incubation period corresponding to 151 days. More than 60% of the green manure nitrogen remained in the soil after rice cultivation. The highest green manure nitrogen recovery from the soil-plant system occurred at an incubation period equivalent to 77 days. (author)

  7. Transport of Three Antimicrobials in Runoff from Windrows of Composting Beef Cattle Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2016-03-01

    Rain runoff from windrowed or stockpiled manure may contain antimicrobials with the potential to contaminate surface and ground water. To quantify the concentration of antimicrobials transported in runoff from windrowed manure, antimicrobials were administered continuously in feed to beef cattle () as follows: 44 mg of chlortetracycline kg feed (dry weight), a 1:1 mixture of 44 mg of chlortetracycline and 44 mg sulfamethazine kg feed, and 11 mg of tylosin kg feed. Cattle in a fourth treatment group received no antimicrobials (control). Manure from the cattle was used to construct two windrows per treatment. On Days 2 and 21 of composting, a portable Guelph Rainfall Simulator II was used to apply deionized water at an intensity of 127 mm h to each windrow, and the runoff was collected. Manure samples were collected before rain simulations on Days 2 and 21 of composting for antimicrobial analysis. On Day 2, average concentrations of chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin in manure were 2580, 450, and 120 μg kg, respectively, with maximum concentrations in runoff of 2740, 3600, and 4930 μg L, respectively. Concentrations of all three antimicrobials in runoff were higher ( runoff from a windrow (3 m long, 2.5 m wide, 1.5 m high) were approximately 0.87 to 0.94, 1.57, and 1.23 g, respectively. This study demonstrates the importance of windrow composting in reducing antimicrobial concentrations in manure. The runoff from windrows can be a source of antimicrobials and demonstrates the need for containment of runoff from composting facilities to mitigate antimicrobial contamination of surface and groundwater resources. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Chemical characterization of manure in relation to manure quality as a contribution to a reduced nitrogen emission to the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:manure composition, ammonia volatilization, free ions, Donnan Membrane Technique, manure additives, dietary changes, nitrogen dynamics,grasslandsoils.More insight in manure composition, ammonia (NH 3 )

  9. Anaerobic digestion of nitrogen rich poultry manure: Impact of thermophilic biogas process on metal release and microbial resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Reshma; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Krakat, Niclas

    2017-02-01

    Poultry manure is a nitrogen rich fertilizer, which is usually recycled and spread on agricultural fields. Due to its high nutrient content, chicken manure is considered to be one of the most valuable animal wastes as organic fertilizer. However, when chicken litter is applied in its native form, concerns are raised as such fertilizers also include high amounts of antibiotic resistant pathogenic Bacteria and heavy metals. We studied the impact of an anaerobic thermophilic digestion process on poultry manure. Particularly, microbial antibiotic resistance profiles, mobile genetic elements promoting the resistance dissemination in the environment as well as the presence of heavy metals were focused in this study. The initiated heat treatment fostered a community shift from pathogenic to less pathogenic bacterial groups. Phenotypic and molecular studies demonstrated a clear reduction of multiple resistant pathogens and self-transmissible plasmids in the heat treated manure. That treatment also induced a higher release of metals and macroelements. Especially, Zn and Cu exceeded toxic thresholds. Although the concentrations of a few metals reached toxic levels after the anaerobic thermophilic treatment, the quality of poultry manure as organic fertilizer may raise significantly due to the elimination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and self-transmissible plasmids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on the Effect of Combined Application of Manure and Chemical Fertilizers on Some Properties of Thompson Novel Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shahsavani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Citrus are one of the important orchard fruit production that after banana is second in production at the world level and every year, Chemical fertilizers having most important role in increasing crops productions, but in long application of fertilizers cause soil destructions and polluting underground water. Also soils of dry regions are very poor in organic matter level. Nowadays in most countries, climatically condition and poor management cause poor organic matter content of soils. In Iran more than 60 percent of cultivated lands having less than 0.5 up to 1 percent organic matter. This may be due to intensive cultivation and poor managements For this reason if we have combine applications of manure and chemical fertilizers, the results would be much better. The aim of this research was to evaluate suitable ratio of manure and chemical fertilizer in order to reduce the chemical fertilizer use in citrus orchard in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted in one of the orchard at Sari district with low organic C. This research carried out on five years old citrus threes. This experiment carried out as factorial experiment on the base of complete randomized block design with 9 treatments and three replications. Treatments included three manure levels (0, 6 and 12 kg per tree and three levels of macro fertilizer including potassium sulphate, ammonium sulphate and super phosphate triple (o, 30 and 60 percent on the bases of soil test. Total treatment were 27 plots, (each plots were includes two threes.all treatments were applied at March. All analysis was done with standard methods. This experiment was done as factorial on the bases of complete randomized block design with 9 treatments and three replications. The treatments were as follows: T1: Zero percent chemical fertilizer and zero kg manure T2: 30 percent chemical fertilizer (potassium sulphate 50 kgha-1, ammonium sulphate 30 kg ha-1 and super

  11. Effects of Tithonia diversifolia, farmyard manure and urea, and phosphate fertiliser application methods on maize yields in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Asbon Opala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in western Kenya is often limited by deficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus. We assessed the effectiveness of Tithonia diversifolia green manure (tithonia, farmyard manure (FYM and urea as sources of nitrogen (N for maize when inorganic phosphorus (P fertiliser was either broadcast (BR or spot-placed in the planting hole (SP for two consecutive seasons; October to December of 1998 and April to August of 1999 at two sites; Nyabeda and Khwisero in western Kenya. A randomised complete block design with four replications was used. Maize yields were higher at Nyabeda and responded to P application better than at Khwisero. At the same N rate, tithonia and FYM were as effective as urea in increasing maize yields at both sites. There were no significant differences in maize yields when phosphate fertiliser was either BR or SP regardless of the N source used in the first season. However, in the second season, the residual yields for the BR treatments were consistently higher than those of the SP. Our results suggest that tithonia and FYM can substitute for urea as N sources and that fertiliser P should be broadcast and incorporated together with the organic materials at the time of planting to save on labour costs.

  12. THE IMPACT OF FRESH SAWDUST AND DRY PIG MANURE PRODUCED ON SAWDUST BEDDING APPLICATION ON THE NUTRIENTS MOBILITY IN SOIL AND SUGAR BEET YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the pot trial carried out at the area of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra was to determine the impact of dry pig manure produced on the sawdust bedding and sawdust litter on the level of nutrients’ mobility in the soil and sugar beet yield. The achieved results showed that one month after the sawdust and manure application to the soil, the contents of mobile nutrients (Nan, P, K, Ca, Mg in soil were lower than in the control unfertilized treatment. The sawdust litter immobilized nutrients more considerably than manure. Four months after the manure application into soil, its immobilization effect was not evident. On the contrary, the manure increased the mobile nutrients content in soil. In the second year of experiment the immobilization effect of sawdust litter was proved even four months after its application into soil. The application of manure increased considerably the beet root yield. The maximum root yield was determined in the treatment where the highest dose of manure was applied. The minimum root yield was detected in the treatment where the highest dose of sawdust litter was applied.

  13. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical surface composition by Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR–FTIR) showed that no delignification of the lignocellulose took place during ...

  14. Codigestion of Taihu blue algae with swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Hengfeng; Wang, Shouquan; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Ren, Hongyan; Yan, Qun; Ruan, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Codigestion of blue algae with swine manure has the highest CH 4 yield at ISR 2.0. • pH, TAN, N-NH 3 and VFAs confirmed the appropriate stability of the codigestion. • 35.44% VS reduction was achieved by codigestion of blue algae with swine manure. • Three key enzyme characteristics demonstrated the higher efficiencies of codigestion. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of Taihu blue algae and its codigestion with swine manure was evaluated at different inoculum substrate ratios (ISRs) from 0.5 to 3.0. Results showed that codigestion of blue algae with swine manure led to the highest methane (CH 4 ) production of 212.7 mL g −1 VS at ISR 2.0, while digestion of blue algae inoculated with granular sludge brought out the optimized CH 4 production of 73.5 mL g −1 VS at ISR 3.0. The values of pH, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), free ammonia nitrogen (N-NH 3 ) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) showed no significant difference between the digestion and codigestion, confirming the appropriate stability of the two batch anaerobic processes. Closer examination of VS removal rates and key enzymes variation proved codigestion had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation, which demonstrated that AD of blue algae with swine manure was a promising technology for both solid wastes treatment and renewable-energy production

  15. Effects of woody peat and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Difang; Luo, Wenhai; Yuan, Jing; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Yuan

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of calcium superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during pig manure composting with woody peat as the bulking agent. Two treatments were conducted with or without the addition of calcium superphosphate (10% dry weight of the composting mass), which were denoted as the control and superphosphate-amended treatment, respectively. Results show that the composting temperature of both treatments was higher than 50°C for more than 5days, which is typically required for pathogen destruction during manure composting. Compared to the control treatment, the superphosphate-amended treatment increased the emission of nitrogen oxide, but reduced the emission of methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide by approximately 35.5%, 37.9% and 65.5%, respectively. As a result, the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission during manure composting was reduced by nearly 34.7% with the addition of calcium superphosphate. The addition of calcium superphosphate increased the content of humic acid (indicated by E 4 /E 6 ratio). Nevertheless, the superphosphate-amended treatment postponed the biological degradation of organic matter and produced the mature compost with a higher electrical conductivity in comparison with the control treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cheese whey and dairy manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.; Chiu, C.

    1988-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cheese whey and dairy manure was investigated using an anaerobic rotating biological contact reactor operated over a range of hydraulic retention time at various organic loading rates. Dairy manure provided nutrients and acted as a buffer to the cheese whey. Rates of production of methane from the mixture were between those of cheese whey and screened dairy manure and in agreement with calculated theoretical methane production rates. Methane production rate showed a linear relationship with the organic loading rate. The highest methane production rate was 3.74 liter methane litre/sup -1/ day/sup -1/. Reduction in the chemical oxygen demand ranged from 46.3% to 67.5%. Anaerobic digestion of such mixtures could be used as an initial waste treatment for cheese whey.

  17. Microbial community dynamics and biogas production from manure fractions in sludge bed anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgård, A S R; Bergland, W H; Bakke, R; Vadstein, O; Østgaard, K; Bakke, I

    2015-12-01

    To elucidate how granular sludge inoculum and particle-rich organic loading affect the structure of the microbial communities and process performance in upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. We investigated four reactors run on dairy manure filtrate and four on pig manure supernatant for three months achieving similar methane yields. The reactors fed with less particle rich pig manure stabilized faster and had highest capacity. Microbial community dynamics analysed by a PCR/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach showed that influent was a major determinant for the composition of the reactor communities. Comparisons of pre- and non-adapted inoculum in the reactors run on pig manure supernatant showed that the community structure of the nonadapted inoculum adapted in approximately two months. Microbiota variance partitioning analysis revealed that running time, organic loading rate and inoculum together explained 26 and 31% of the variance in bacterial and archaeal communities respectively. The microbial communities of UASBs adapted to the reactor conditions in treatment of particle rich manure fractions, obtaining high capacity, especially on pig manure supernatant. These findings provide relevant insight into the microbial community dynamics in startup and operation of sludge bed reactors for methane production from slurry fractions, a major potential source of biogas. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms.

  19. Ex-ante evaluation of Green Deals Energy; Ex-ante evaluatie van Green Deals Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzenga, H.; Kruitwagen, S.

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of the results of a study of the bottlenecks experienced by initiators in the realization of green projects, the solutions for which the Dutch government has chosen, and the role that local authorities play in it. An important research question is to what extent it is likely that Green Deal projects will lead to imitation by others. The research has focused on four themes: Onshore wind energy, Energy production from co- fermentation of manure, Energy conservation of heat in the built environment, and Decentralised electricity generation with solar panels [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de resultaten van een onderzoek naar de knelpunten die initiatiefnemers ervaren bij de realisatie van groene projecten, de oplossingsrichtingen waarvoor de Rijksoverheid heeft gekozen, en de rol die decentrale overheden daarin spelen. Een belangrijke onderzoeksvraag is in hoeverre het aannemelijk is dat Green Deal-projecten zullen leiden tot navolging door anderen. Het onderzoek heeft zich toegespitst op vier thema's: Windenergie op land, Energieproductie uit (co)vergisting van mest, Energiebesparing op warmte in de gebouwde omgeving, en Decentrale elektriciteitsopwekking met zonnepanelen.

  20. Swine manure injection with low-disturbance applicator and cover crops reduce phosphorus losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, J L; Moorman, T B; Singer, J W; Cambardella, C A; Tomer, M D

    2011-01-01

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil so that runoff from treated lands can transport sediment and nutrients to surface waters. We determined the effect of two manure application methods on P fate in a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system, with and without a winter rye (Secale cereale L.)-oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crop. Treatments included: (i) no manure; (ii) knife injection; and (iii) low-disturbance injection, each with and without the cover crop. Simulated rainfall runoff was analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP). Rainfall was applied 8 d after manure application (early November) and again in May after emergence of the corn crop. Manure application increased soil bioavailable P in the 20- to 30-cm layer following knife injection and in the 5- to 20-cm layer following low-disturbance injection. The low-disturbance system caused less damage to the cover crop, so that P uptake was more than threefold greater. Losses of DRP were greater in both fall and spring following low-disturbance injection; however, application method had no effect on TP loads in runoff in either season. The cover crop reduced fall TP losses from plots with manure applied by either method. In spring, DRP losses were significantly higher from plots with the recently killed cover crop, but TP losses were not affected. Low-disturbance injection of swine manure into a standing cover crop can minimize plant damage and P losses in surface runoff while providing optimum P availability to a subsequent agronomic crop.

  1. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    the manure is applied, specific legislations governing the manure management practices, etc.). Further, it presents a reference manure composition for each of these reference systems, including key parameters such as dry matter, nitrogen (inorganic and total), phosphorus, carbon and volatile solids content......One major pre-condition for assessing a manure management technique in a whole system or LCA-approach is to define a reference system against which this technique can be assessed. This report thus presents and details the establishment of such reference systems, comprising eight different manure...... types (fattening pig slurry, dairy cow slurry, hens manure, bulls deep litter, fattening pig solid manure, dairy cow solid manure, horse manure & broilers manure) and five Baltic Sea Regions (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland), for a total of 15 reference systems. It presents, for each...

  2. Applied and environmental chemistry of animal manure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure consists of predominantly urine and feces, but also may contain bedding materials, dropped feed, scurf and other farming wastes. The estimated amount of manure produced in 12 major livestock producing countries is 9 x109 Mg of manure annually. Manures are rich in plant nutrients. Howev...

  3. Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ogejo, Jactone Arogo

    2009-01-01

    Manure storage is part of the manure management system of a facility or property where animals and/or poultry are raised. Manure should be considered a resource not a waste to be discarded. Manure contains valuable organic matter and nutrients that can be used as a fertilizer and/or to produce energy. If not managed properly, manure will accumulate very quickly and pose the potential for polluting the environment from odors and contamination of surface water and ground water.

  4. Global asessment of manure management policies and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teenstra, E.D.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Aktasaeng, N.; Amatayaku, W.; Ndambi, A.; Pelster, D.; Germer, L.; Jenet, A.; Opio, C.; Andeweg, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Livestock and Manure Management Component (LMMC) of the CCAC Agriculture Initiative supports integrated manure management practices by increasing knowledge and awareness, removing barriers to action and enhancing practice change. This Global Assessment report provides an overview of manure

  5. Effect of goat manure on some soil properties and growth, yield and nutrient status of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeniyi, S.O.; Awodun, M.A.; Akanni, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    Field experiment were conducted at Akure, Negeria, in a rainforest zone of Southwest Nigeria to study the effect of goat manure (droppings) on some soil physical and chemical properties and nutrient status, growth and yied of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Five levels of manure (0, 10, 25, 40 and 50 t/ha) were applied on the soil surface to two crops of tomato at each of two sites, namely, Federal College of Agriculture and Federal University of Technology. Soils were deficient in organic matter (OM), total N, exchangeable Ca and available P. Soil OM, total N, available P and moisture content increased with the level of manure, while soil bulk density decreased. Leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, growth and fruit yield of tomato were significantly increased by goat manure treatments. Leaf K, Ca and Mg, plant height, number of branches, leaf area, root length, number of fruits and fruit diameter increased with the level of manure, However, the 25 t/ha manure gave optimum values of number and weight of fruits. The mean fruit yields recorded for 0, 10, 25, 40 and 50 t/ha goat manure were 15.0, 19.7, 23.7, 24.3 and 22.3 t/ha, respectively. It is concluded that goat manure is suitable for impoving soil physical and chemical properties and growth and yield of tomato.(Author)

  6. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Ilhan, Fatih; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra; Sakar, Suleyman; Gonullu, M. Talha

    2009-01-01

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm 2 , and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics

  7. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Ilhan, Fatih; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra; Sakar, Suleyman; Gonullu, M. Talha [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-02-15

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics.

  8. Effect of Treated Wastewater Combined with Various Amounts of Manure and Chemical Fertilizers on Nutrient Content and Yield in Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazal Tavassoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of treated wastewater combined with manure and chemical fertilizers on the nutrients content and forage yield in corn, field experiments were conducted in 2007. The experiments were conducted in a split plot design with three replications. The treatments were comprised of two levels of irrigation water (W1= well water and W2= wastewater in the main plot and five levels of fertilizer (F1= unfertilized, F2 = 100% manure, F3= 50% manure, F4= 100% fertilizer, and F5= 50% fertilizer in the subplot. Results showed that, compared to ordinary water, irrigation with treated wastewater significantly increased fresh and dry forage yield of corn. The treatment using treated wastewater also had a significant effect on N, P, and K contents in corn forage. However, wastewater had no significant effect on plant Fe, Mn, and Zn contents. Among the fertilizer treatments, the highest fresh and dry forage yields and the highest N, P and K contents belonged to the treatments using 100% fertilizer. The highest Fe, Mn, and Zn contents were observed in plants in the treatment with 100% manure.

  9. Dynamic of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM fungus in a Humic Dystrudepts sowed with corn Zea mays L. and Green Compost (GC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Vélez Zabala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Green Compost (GC have a positive impact on physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, among them, the expression of the MA. In a Humic Dystrudepts in a mountainous area of Palmira (Valle five treatments were established: (T, fertilization of insdustrial chemical synthesis (FQ, green manure (AV, Compost (C and green manure compost (AVC, in a settlement of randomized complete blocks with three replications. As GC intermingled Canavalia ensiformis L. and Axonopus scoparius F., were harvested in prefloration of the legume, incorporated and became the first planting of corn, variety ICA V-354, monitored during 150 days, until time of fill of cob, when assessed length total external mycelium, LMET (Technical of the membrane filter method and the intercepted of Miller and Jastrow, that alive and active LMEV (succinate dehydrogenase, Hamel et al., 1990 and percentage of colonization by branch out manifold (Phillips and Hayman, 1980, described by Sieverding, 1983 and adapted for this crop, Sanchez et al. , 2010. The analysis of variance (SASR software version 9.1.3 showed that LMET, LMEV and % of branch out manifold showed highly significant differences between treatments. Greater LMET, coincided with increases in LMEV, colonization by branch out manifold and is presented in GC C, followed by AV, C and T, which did not vary among themselves, and, the lowest in CF. The coincidence of these three variables, would indicate that through LMET and especially, LMEV is absorbing and transporting P to the inside of the plants, and this supply, coinciding with higher % of colonization by branch out manifold, traces the path of the conjunction P in the soil-plantorganic fertilization, with their consequences on the economy of the agroecosystem and farmer.

  10. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate surface-applied soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) including dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT), dimethyl trisulfide, n-butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole. The secondary impact on emissions of NH3, H2S, and GHG was also measured. The SBP was tested at four treatments (2.28-45.7 kg/m2 manure) with CaO2 (4.2% by weight of SBP) over 137 days. Significant reductions in VOC emissions were observed: DMDS/MT (36.2%-84.7%), p-cresol (53.1%-89.5%), and skatole (63.2%-92.5%). There was a corresponding significant reduction in NH3 (14.6%-67.6%), and significant increases in the greenhouse gases CH4 (32.7%-232%) and CO2 (20.8%-124%). The remaining emissions (including N2O) were not statistically different. At a cost relative to 0.8% of a marketed hog it appears that SBP/CaO2 treatment could be a promising option at the lowest (2.28 kg/m2) treatment rate for reducing odorous gas and NH3 emissions at swine operations, and field-scale testing is warranted.

  11. Effects of manure and mineral fertilization strategies on soil antibiotic resistance gene levels and microbial community in a paddy–upland rotation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Zhang, Zulin; Chapman, Stephen J.; Freitag, Thomas E.; Fu, Jianrong; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Junwei

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the responses of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the soil microbial community in a paddy–upland rotation system to mineral fertilizer (NPK) and different application dosages of manure combined with NPK. The occurrence of five tetracycline ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG and tetW), two sulfonamide ARGs (sul1 and sul2) and one genetic element (IntI1) was quantified. NPK application showed only slight or no impact on soil ARGs abundances compared with the control without fertilizer. Soil ARGs abundances could be increased by manure-NPK application but was related to manure dosage (2250–9000 kg ha"−"1). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the soil ARG profile of the treatment with 9000 kg ha"−"1 manure separated clearly from the other treatments; the ARGs that contributed most to the discrimination of this treatment were tetA, tetG, tetW, sul1, sul2 and IntI1. Community level physiological profile (CLPP) analysis showed that increasing manure dosage from 4500 kg ha"−"1 to 9000 kg ha"−"1 induced a sharp increase in almost all of the detected ARGs but would not change the microbial community at large. However, 9000 kg ha"−"1 manure application produced a decline in soil microbial activity. Determination of antibiotics and heavy metals in soils suggested that the observed bloom of soil ARGs might associate closely with the accumulation of copper and zinc in soil. - Highlights: • The occurrence of ten ARGs in a manure and a paddy soil from China was tested. • The fate of ARGs in soil varied between ARG types and fertilization strategies. • The increase in soil ARG caused by manure-NPK fertilization was manure dosage-related. • Excessive manure greatly increased soil ARGs and inhibited soil microbial activity. • Cu and Zn levels in soils associated closely with the observed soil ARGs bloom. - The elevation of soil ARGs abundances in soil caused by manure application combined with NPK in a paddy

  12. Characterization of leached phosphorus from soil, manure, and manure-amended soil by physical and chemical fractionation and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia Andersen; Donner, Erica; Magid, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We are challenged to date to fully understand mechanisms controlling phosphorus (P) mobilization in soil. In this study we evaluated physical properties, chemical reactivity, and potential bioavailability of P mobilized in soil during a leaching event and examined how the amounts and properties...... with manure. Manure particles themselves were also largely retained by the soil. Combined physical (centrifugation) and chemical (molybdate reactiveness) fractionation of leached P showed that leachates in the manure treated soils were dominated by dissolved unreactive P (DUP), mainly originating from manure...... of leached P were influenced by surface application of cattle manure. Leaching experiments on manure itself, and on intact soil columns (14.1 cm inner dia., 25 cm height) before and after manure application, were carried out at an irrigation rate of 1 mm h−1 for 48 h. High concentrations of dissolved...

  13. Innovative process scheme for removal of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen from pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    blanket (UASB) reactor, partial oxidation), nitrogen (oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification, OLAND) and phosphorus (phosphorus removal by precipitation as struvite, PRS) from pig manure were tested. Results obtained showed that microfiltration was unsuitable for pig manure treatment....... PRS treated effluent was negatively affecting the further processing of the pig manure in UASB, and was therefore not included in the final process flow scheme. In a final scheme (PIGMAN concept) combination of the following successive process steps was used: thermophilic anaerobic digestion...... with sequential separation by decanter centrifuge, post-digestion in UASB reactor, partial oxidation and finally OLAND process. This combination resulted in reduction of the total organic, nitrogen and phosphorus contents by 96%, 88%, and 81%, respectively....

  14. Recovery of amino acids and phosphorus from manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background & Objectives: The recovery of phosphorus and proteins from manure could be advantageous to both offset costs and to improve and lessen the environmental impacts of manure. Phosphorous in manure can contaminate rivers, lakes, and bays through runoff, if applied onto a cropland excessively....

  15. Will implementation of green gas into the gas supply be feasible in the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, J.; Hengeveld, E. J.; van Gemert, W. J. T.; Broekhuis, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The energy efficiency, greenhouse gas reduction and cost price of a green gas supply chain were evaluated. The considered supply chain is based on co-digestion of dairy cattle manure and maize, biogas upgrading and injection into a distribution gas grid. A reference scenario was defined which

  16. Effect of alkaline microwaving pretreatment on anaerobic digestion and biogas production of swine manure

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Yu; Yihuan Deng; Hongyu Liu; Chunping Yang; Bingwen Wu; Guangming Zeng; Li Lu; Fumitake Nishimura

    2017-01-01

    Microwave assisted with alkaline (MW-A) condition was applied in the pretreatment of swine manure, and the effect of the pretreatment on anaerobic treatment and biogas production was evaluated in this study. The two main microwaving (MW) parameters, microwaving power and reaction time, were optimized for the pretreatment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of alkaline microwaving process for manure pretreatment at various values of pH and energy input. Resul...

  17. Chemical composition and decomposition rate of plants used as green manure Composição química e velocidade de decomposição de plantas visando a adubação verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tavares Arantes Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Productive systems in which green manure is the source of nutrients must develop more efficient ways to improve soil nutrient dynamics. A well-synchronized balance must be established between specific crop demands and supply of nutrients from decomposition. However, scientific data and information to help improve green manure management in Brazil is still insufficient. For that reason, a number of arboreal species was first chemically characterized and then subjected to decomposition analysis in order to establish a correlation between some parameters. Species were grouped together based on the similarity of chemical composition and decomposition rate. The lignin:N and (lignin+polyphenol:N ratios were found to have the greatest correlation coefficient with the dry matter decomposition rate and nitrogen release.Sistemas produtivos que utilizam a adubação verde prezam por uma dinâmica mais eficiente de nutrientes no solo. Nesse sentido, é importante buscar a sincronia entre a demanda nutricional da cultura e a disponibilidade de nutrientes provenientes da decomposição. Esse estudo objetivou estabelecer uma correlação entre a composição química e a velocidade de decomposição de espécies em um sistema agroflorestal. Para tanto, realizou-se a caracterização química de espécies arbóreas, seguida de estudos de decomposição e busca de correlação entre os parâmetros analisados. De posse dos resultados, foi possível agrupar espécies com composição química e taxas de decomposição semelhantes. As relações lignina:N e (lignina+polifenol:N apresentaram os maiores coeficientes de correlação com a velocidade de decomposição de massa seca e liberação de nitrogênio.

  18. Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostofa Amin, M. G.; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Thanh Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens......PCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid...

  19. Changes in physical properties and organic carbon of a Kandiudox fertilized with manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Patricia Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Successive applications of pig slurry and poultry manure can improve the soil structure, according to the land use conditions and amounts applied. This study evaluated the effect of manure fertilization on the physical properties and organic carbon of a Rhodic Kandiudox. Treatments included land use and management and time of pig slurry and poultry litter application, namely: native forest (NF; yerba mate after 20 years of animal waste application (YM20; pasture after 15 years of application (P15; grassland after 20 years of manuring (PP20; grassland after 3 years of manuring (P3; pasture without application (P0, maize after 20 years of application (M20; and maize after 7 years of application (M7. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20cm layers, in which density, porosity, aggregate stability, flocculation, penetration resistance, available water, and total clay content, total and particulate organic carbon, and C:N ratio were analyzed. The total organic carbon is sensitive to management and was not related to waste application, except in the 10-20cm layer of ryegrass pasture after three years of manuring. Reponses to waste application and land use and management systems were observed in the variables soil density and penetration resistance.

  20. Biochar and manure affect calcareous soil and corn silage nutrient concentrations and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, R D; Ippolito, J A

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-rich biochar derived from the pyrolysis of biomass can sequester atmospheric CO, mitigate climate change, and potentially increase crop productivity. However, research is needed to confirm the suitability and sustainability of biochar application to different soils. To an irrigated calcareous soil, we applied stockpiled dairy manure (42 Mg ha dry wt) and hardwood-derived biochar (22.4 Mg ha), singly and in combination with manure, along with a control, yielding four treatments. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied when needed (based on preseason soil test N and crop requirements) in all plots and years, with N mineralized from added manure included in this determination. Available soil nutrients (NH-N; NO-N; Olsen P; and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-extractable K, Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe), total C (TC), total N (TN), total organic C (TOC), and pH were evaluated annually, and silage corn nutrient concentration, yield, and uptake were measured over two growing seasons. Biochar treatment resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in available soil Mn and a 1.4-fold increase in TC and TOC, whereas manure produced a 1.2- to 1.7-fold increase in available nutrients (except Fe), compared with controls. In 2009 biochar increased corn silage B concentration but produced no yield increase; in 2010 biochar decreased corn silage TN (33%), S (7%) concentrations, and yield (36%) relative to controls. Manure produced a 1.3-fold increase in corn silage Cu, Mn, S, Mg, K, and TN concentrations and yield compared with the control in 2010. The combined biochar-manure effects were not synergistic except in the case of available soil Mn. In these calcareous soils, biochar did not alter pH or availability of P and cations, as is typically observed for acidic soils. If the second year results are representative, they suggest that biochar applications to calcareous soils may lead to reduced N availability, requiring additional soil N inputs to maintain yield targets. Copyright © by the

  1. Response of growth characters and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to co-inoculation of farmyard manure, Trichoderma spp. and Psudomunas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahsavari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of cattle manure, benefit fungi of Trichoderma species and Psudomunas spp. bacteria on seedling emergence parameters, growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a pot experiment was carried out in factorial (23 arrangement based on a randomized complete design with three replications. The treatments were three levels of cattle manure (10, 20 and 30 t.ha-1, three Trichoderma species (T. viridae, T. harzianum, T. hamatum and either application or non- application of Psudomunas bacteria. Analysis of data showed that control plants and 10 t.ha-1 cattle manure treatments had significantly effect on emergence percentage and field emergence rate compared to 20 and 30 t.ha-1 cattle manure. In the current experiment, the maximum grain yield was observed in 20 t.ha-1 inoculated with both T. viridae and T. harzianum. Application of 10 and 20 t.ha-1cattle manure markedly increased harvest index and biomass by 39.72 and 19.47%, respectively compared to control treatment (no manure application. Also, T. viridae fugues improved plant biomass compared to T. harzianum. The fungus of T. harzianum enhanced harvest index rather than T. viridae and T. hamatum. Application of Psudomunas bacteria significantly increased plant biomass and harvest index compared to pots without bacteria application. Results showed that colony counts of three Trichoderma species in the soil rhizosphere enhanced when rates of cattle manure application increased. The most of soil microbial population was observed in 30 t.ha-1 level of cattle manure inoculated with T. harzianum (74.68 × 108cfu mg-1 dry soil.

  2. The Contrasting Effects of Alum-Treated Chicken Manures and KH2PO4 on Phosphorus Behavior in Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lidong; Yang, Junming; Xu, Yuting; Lei, Jiayan; Luo, Xiaoshan; Cade-Menun, Barbara J

    2018-03-01

    Alum [KAl(SO)⋅12HO] is often added to chicken manure to limit P solubility after land application. This is generally ascribed to the formation of Al-PO complexes. However, Al-PO complex formation could be affected by the matrix of chicken manure, which varies with animal diet. Alum was added to KHPO (as a reference material) and two manures from typical chicken farms in China, one from an intensive farm (CMIF) and another from free-ranging chickens (CMFR). These were subsequently incubated with soils for 100 d to investigate P transformations. Alum reduced water-soluble colorimetrically reactive phosphorus (RP) from soils amended with manure more effectively than in soils amended with KHPO. Alum addition lowered Mehlich-3 RP in soils with CMFR but had no influence on Mehlich-3 RP in CMIF- or KHPO-amended soils. A comparison of P in digested Mehlich-3 extracts with RP in undigested samples showed significantly increased P in digests of alum-treated CMFR only. Fractionation data indicated that alum treatment increased P in the NHF-RP (Al-P) fraction only in soils with KHPO, but not in soils with manure treatments. Furthermore, NaOH-extracted nonreactive P was markedly higher in soil with alum-treated CMFR relative to normal CMFR. The CMFR manure was assumed to contain higher concentrations of organic P because these chickens were fed grains only. These results suggest that the formation of alum-organic P complexes may reduce P solubility. By comparing alum-treated KHPO and manures, it appears that organic matter in manure could interfere with the formation of Al-PO complexes. Copyright © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and AgriFood Canada.

  3. Will implementation of green gas into the gas supply be feasible in the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Jan; Hengeveld, Evert Jan; van Gemert, Wim; Broekhuis, A.A.

    Energy efficiency, greenhouse gas reduction and cost price of a green gas supply chain were evaluated. This supply chain is based on co-digestion of dairy cattle manure and maize, biogas upgrading and injection into a distribution gas grid. A defined reference scenario reflects the current state of

  4. Will implementation of green gas into the gas supply be feasible in the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. J. Bekkering; prof. dr. Wim van Gemert; A.A. Broekhuis; Drs. E.J. Hengeveld

    2015-01-01

    energy efficiency, greenhouse gas reduction and cost price of a green gas supply chain were evaluated. This supply chain is based on co-digestion of dairy cattle manure and maize, biogas upgrading and injection into a distribution gas grid. A defined reference scenario reflects the current state of

  5. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  6. Effects of Azotobacter and Azospirillum and Levels of Manure on Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam shahraki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The demand for food and agricultural products are increasing in a line of population increasing in the world (Alexandratos, 2003. It is possible to increase the quality and quantity of agricultural products via extending the farms and producing more products (Astaaraei and Koocheki, 1995. Environmental problems caused by synthetic fertilizers and the high levels of producing and introducing such chemicals, have been encouraged the researchers to apply bio-fertilizers for increasing the production in a frame of sustainable agriculture (Rajendran and Devarj, 2004. In this study, the economical yield and agronomy index of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. in manure and bio fertilizers treatments was studied. Materials and method This study was conducted in Agricultural Research Institute, University of Zabol during winter season, 2013. Safflower seeds were planted in sandy loam with pH 8.2. The experimental design was factorial in a frame on randomized completely blocks with three replications. The manure as a first factor had three levels, including no treatment (control, 20 and 30 t.ha-1, while second factor was bio-fertilizer treatment with 4 levels, including no treatment (control, Azosprilium (Azo, Azotobacter (Azt and combined treatment of Azo+Azt. The processed manure and bacteria obtained from local farmers were used in this study. Populations of 108 bacteria were prepared and 24 hours before sowing, seeds were soaked in bacteria. After land preparation, experimental plots were (2.5 × 2 m2 created and treated seeds were planted (40 plants.m-2 manually and plantation was watered immediately. In this study plant height, number of heads in bush, number of seeds per head, seed weight per head, seed weight, grain and biological yield, harvest index, leaf chlorophyll, protein and oil percent were studied. Economical yield and agronomy indices of Safflower were calculated at the end of the season and data were analyzed using SAS

  7. Characteristics and Availability of Different Forms of Phosphorus in Animal Manures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Zheng-juan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of intensive livestock industry has greatly increased the discharge of animal manure. Reasonable utilization of large amounts of phosphorus(Pin animal manure can not only save the fertilizer resource, but also avoid water pollution from manure due to direct discharge or excess application in farmland. In this study, P contents and fractionation in 76 animal manures were analyzed using Hedley P fractionation method based on the survey for 52 livestock farms, and P mobility and environmental risks in different manures were evaluated as the reference for manure P management. The results showed that there were significant differences in total P content of animal manures. The mean P contents were 22.5, 13.7, 12.9, 9.6 g P·kg-1 and 7.5 g P·kg-1, in which the proportion of organic P in total P were 33.1%, 41.5%, 66.4%, 28.1%and 36.8%in pig, chicken, duck, cattle and sheep manures, respectively. The contents of total and organic P in non-ruminant animal manure(pig, chicken and duck manureswere 1.7~3.0 times and 2.1~3.0 times greater than that in ruminant manure (cattle and sheep manuresand the proportion of organic P in total P in poultry manure was higher than that in other manures. P mineraliza-tion was easier in non-ruminant animal manure with lower C/P ratio(19~29, compared with that in ruminant manure with C/P ratio of 38~45. Manure P was sequentially extracted by deionized water(H2O-P, NaHCO3(NaHCO3-P, NaOH(NaOH-Pand HCl(HCl-P. The pro-portion of H2O-P, NaHCO3-P, NaOH-P, HCl-P and residual-P in total P in ruminant animal manure were 27.8%, 32.8%, 18.1%, 15.2%and 6.1%, respectively, while that were 24.6%, 19.4%, 12.7%, 34.4% and 8.9% in non-ruminant animal manure. The significant differences were in NaHCO3-P and HCl-P between ruminant and non-ruminant animal manures. Ruminant manure had greater proportion of liable P (H2O-P and NaHCO3-Pin total P(>60%, but the characteristics of higher mineralization rate might result in

  8. On the effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on batch and continuous anaerobic digestion of digested swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) has been successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester......-pretreated digested manure fibers on the kinetics of anaerobic digestion process. It was found that AAS treatment had a profound effect mainly on the hydrolysis rate of particulate carbohydrates....

  9. Costs of emission-reducing manure application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Verwijs, B.; Rodhe, L.; Smith, K.

    2004-01-01

    Favourable economics of handling and application of manure are of fundamental importance to encourage the implementation of emission-reducing application techniques. The economics of manure application depend on the costs of the equipment and the time to carry out the field operation. In this study

  10. Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Oun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses. Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed.

  11. Effects of Different Ratios of Sewage Sludge and Cattle Manure on Growth and Propagation of Eisenia Fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukui Li

    Full Text Available Domestic sewage sludge and cattle manure are rich in nutrition elements, but without proper disposal, are harmful to the environment. Here with an indoor culture method, we used Eisenia fetida to dispose different ratios of sewage sludge and cattle manure, and thereby investigated the effects and acting rules of these sludge-manure mixtures on the growth and reproduction of E. fetida. We find these mixtures are food sources for E. fetida, and their physiochemical properties are significantly changed after disposal by earthworms. Paired samples t-test shows the average change after different treatments is -20.37% for total organic carbon, 85.71% for total Kjeldahl N, -6.67% for total P, 8.33% for pH, -24.78% for EC (ms·cm-1, and -57.10% for C/N ratio. The average growth rate after treatment CD-70 is 9.20 mg·worm-1·day-1; the average growth rates of E. fetida on day 0-28, day 29-56, and day 57-91 are 9.33, 11.90 and 6.95 mg·worm-1·day-1, respectively, indicating a trend of "rapid-rapidest-slow" growth. Other treatments all show this trend. Though all earthworms developed reproductive rings during the test periods, the appearing time and the cocoon production time both differed among these treatments. The cocoon production amount is maximized to 233 after treatment CD-70. The cocoon production rates are significantly different among these treatments, and the maximum and mean are 0.32 and 0.17-0.32, cocoons·worm-1· day-1, respectively. E. fetida can modestly enrich Cd, but is not very effective over Sb or other heavy metals. E. fetida can remove a part of heavy metals from sewage sludge and cattle manure. Generally, the mixtures of sewage sludge and cattle manure can largely affect the growth and propagation of E. fetida in a ratio-dependent way.

  12. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production.......  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  13. Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)

  14. Development of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) treated with mineral fertilizer and manure at optimal and water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, V; Kostov, O; Vasilev, E

    2006-01-01

    A study on the effect of different rates of mineral fertilizer and manure on yield parameters of lucerne under optimal and water deficit conditions was carried out. Leached chernozem soil and lucerne cultivar Victoria were used. The soil was treated with ammonium nitrate and fully matured cattle manure. The plants were grown under optimum moisture content of 80% and 40% of field capacity. The water deficit stress decreased top and root biomass by 11-75% and 3-29% at mineral and organic fertilization, respectively. The applied mineral and organic N strongly depressed nodules development. Both mineral fertilizer and organic manure at dose of 210 mg N kg(-1) soil completely inhibited the appearance of nodules. Next to nitrogen, water deficit stress further inhibited the development of nodules. Nitrogen fertilization increased seed productivity in the two experimental moisture conditions. The water deficit stress decreased seed productivity by 18 to 33% as compared to optimum conditions. The plant treatments with manure were much more resistant to water deficit and recovering ability of plants was faster as compared to treatments with mineral fertilizer. The application of manure stimulates development of drought-stress tolerance in lucerne. However, the results obtained can be considered for the soil type and experimental conditions used.

  15. Evaluation of heavy metal content in irradiated sludge, chicken manure and fertilized soil in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Suwirma, S.; Surtipanti, S.; Harsojo

    1997-01-01

    The contents of heavy metals, Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Co, were determined in two irradiated sludges, chicken manure and fertilized soil. Sludge I was collected from a treatment plant in Jakarta city, Sludge II from a sludge reservoir in a Jakarta suburb, chicken manure was obtained from a farm south of Jakarta, and the soil had been treated with phosphate fertilizer since 1967. The sludges and chicken manure were collected during the rainy and dry seasons, and the heavy-metal contents were determined by atomic-absorption spectrometry and neutron-activation analysis. The results obtained are compared with data from Canada, and are discussed in terms of permissible limits in the environment. (author)

  16. Long-Term Effect of Manure and Fertilizer on Soil Organic Carbon Pools in Dryland Farming in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enke; Yan, Changrong; Mei, Xurong; Zhang, Yanqing; Fan, Tinglu

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) as affected by farming practices is imperative for maintaining soil productivity and mitigating global warming. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term fertilization on SOC and SOC fractions for the whole soil profile (0–100 cm) in northwest China. The study was initiated in 1979 in Gansu, China and included six treatments: unfertilized control (CK), nitrogen fertilizer (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (P) fertilizers (NP), straw plus N and P fertilizers (NP+S), farmyard manure (FYM), and farmyard manure plus N and P fertilizers (NP+FYM). Results showed that SOC concentration in the 0–20 cm soil layer increased with time except in the CK and N treatments. Long-term fertilization significantly influenced SOC concentrations and storage to 60 cm depth. Below 60 cm, SOC concentrations and storages were statistically not significant between all treatments. The concentration of SOC at different depths in 0–60 cm soil profile was higher under NP+FYM follow by under NP+S, compared to under CK. The SOC storage in 0–60 cm in NP+FYM, NP+S, FYM and NP treatments were increased by 41.3%, 32.9%, 28.1% and 17.9%, respectively, as compared to the CK treatment. Organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer application also increased labile soil organic carbon pools in 0–60 cm depth. The average concentration of particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer treatments (NP+S and NP+FYM) in 0–60 cm depth were increased by 64.9–91.9%, 42.5–56.9%, and 74.7–99.4%, respectively, over the CK treatment. The POC, MBC and DOC concentrations increased linearly with increasing SOC content. These results indicate that long-term additions of organic manure have the most beneficial effects in building carbon pools among the investigated types of fertilization. PMID:23437161

  17. Effect of Interactions on the Nutrient Status of a Tropical Soil Treated with Green Manures and Inorganic Phosphate Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul R. Bah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated nutrient management systems using plant residues and inorganic P fertilizers have high potential for increasing crop production and ensuring sustainability in the tropics, but their adoption requires in-depth understanding of nutrient dynamics in such systems. This was examined in a highly weathered tropical soil treated with green manures (GMs and P fertilizers in two experiments conducted in the laboratory and glasshouse. The treatments were factorial combinations of the GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium, and Imperata cylindrica and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks [PRs] from North Carolina, China, and Algeria, and triple superphosphate replicated thrice. Olsen P, mineral N, pH, and exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg were monitored in a laboratory incubation study for 16 months. The change in soil P fractions and available P was also determined at the end of the study. Phosphorus available from the amendments was quantified at monthly intervals for 5 months by 33P-32P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata as test crop. The GMs were labeled with 33P to determine their contribution to P taken up by Setaria, while that from the P fertilizers was indirectly measured by labeling the soil with 32P. The P fertilizers hardly changed Olsen P and exchangeable cations during 16 months of incubation. The legume GMs and legume GM+P did not change Olsen P, lowered exchangeable Ca, and increased exchangeable K about threefold (4.5 cmol[+]kg−1 soil in the first 4 months, even as large amounts of NH4-N accumulated (~1000 mg kg soil−1 and soil pH increased to more than 6.5. Afterwards, Olsen P and exchangeable Ca and Mg increased (threefold as NH4+-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs also augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect in the soil, while fertilizer-P was irreversibly retained. The GMs increased PR-P utilization by 40 to over 80%, mobilized soil P, and

  18. Effect of biochar amendment on soil's retention capacity for estrogenic hormones from poultry manure treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sukhjot MANN; Zhiming QI; Shiv O.PRASHER; Lanhai LI; Dongwei GUI; Qianjing JIANG

    2017-01-01

    Most animals,including humans,produce natural sex hormones such as estrogens:17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (El).These compounds are able to disrupt the reproductive systems of living organisms at trace concentrations (ng.L-1).This experiment tests the hypothesis that 1% slow pyrolysis biochar-amended sandy soil could retain significant amount of estrogens (El,E2) from poultry manure in its second year of application.The experiment was conducted over 46 days and consisted of a series of lysimeters containing sandy soil with biocharamended topsoil.The application rate of poultry manure was kept at 2.47 kg.m-2.The biochar held a significant concentration of hormone during the first year of its application.However,in the following year (current study),there was no significant retention of hormones in the biochar-amended soil.During the first year after application,the biochar was fresh,so its pores were available for hydrophobic interactions and held significant concentration of hormones.As time passed there were several biotic and abiotic changes on the surface of the biochar so that after some physical fragmentation,pores on the surface were no longer available for hydrophobic interactions.The biochar started releasing dissolved organic carbon,which facilitated greater mobility of hormones from poultry manure down the soil profile.

  19. effect of combined use of urea and goat dung manure on celosia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three field experiments were conducted to investigate the separate and combined effects of urea and goat dung manure on leaf nutrient contents, growth and yield of Celosia argentea in southwest Nigeria. Each experiment involved 7 treatments namely: no treatment, 10t/ha goat dung, 125 kg/ha urea, 125 kg/ha urea + ...

  20. Trace metal concentrations in Tilapia fed with pig and chicken manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H.; Chan, K.M.; Liu, W.K.

    1984-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effects of adding pig manure and chicken manure as supplementary feeds for rearing Sarotherodon mossambicus (Tilapia mossambica) in the laboratory. The feeding test lasted for four weeks under stable aerated conditions. Various portions (10%, 40%, 60% w/w) of the two types of manure were mixed with dried tubifex worm pellets, whilst the control group consisted of tubifex worm alone. The metals studied were Mn, Fe, Cu and Pb. The diets supplemented with 40% and 60% manure contained significantly (p < 0.05) greater amounts of all the metals tested except iron. The concentration of metals in the fish tissues (gill, viscera, flesh) was related to the amount of manure supplement. Harmful effects were reflected by significantly lower (p < 0.05) protein content in fish fed on manure-supplement diets, with the sole exception of the 10% pig manure supplement. Histological damage was also observed in the gills and the hepatopancreas of fish fed on diets supplemented with 60% pig manure and with 40% or 60% chicken manure. Of the two kinds of animal manure investigated as potential supplementary feeds for rearing tilapia, the results indicate that pig manure is likely to be the better choice.

  1. Evaluation of calcium superphosphate as an additive to reduce gas emissions from rabbit manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Estellés Barber

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques to reduce the emission of air pollutants from livestock production are demanded. In this study, the effect of an additive (calcium superphosphate on gas emissions from rabbit manure was investigated and compared with a control where no additive was used. Calcium superphosphate was applied at a rate of 100 g/m2 per week in a manure pit during 2 cycles of growing rabbits. Manure samples were collected weekly and then chemically and microbiologically analysed. Gas emissions (ammonia, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide were determined in 2 open flux chambers. No differences were observed in gas emissions between the treated and control samples except for ammonia emissions, which were reduced by 33% when the additive was applied (P<0.05. No statistical differences were obtained in the microbial content between control and treatment, as results showed a high variability. Dry matter content and pH were the most influential parameters on the emission of gases from manure. According to these results, the application of calcium superphosphate may be considered as an effective technique to reduce ammonia emission from rabbit manure. The additive may also be potentially effective in other species, but additional research is necessary to investigate its performance.

  2. Cambios en la composición bioquímica y su aplicabilidad en el uso de follajes verdes como fuente de materia orgánica y nutrimentos en sistemas agroforestales Biochemical Changes and their Application for Green Manure use, as Organic Matter and Nutrient Source, in Agroforestry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüello Arias Heliodoro

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de abonos verdes es una práctica que, potencialmente, puede ofrecer además de beneficios indirectos como conservación de suelos, así como su humedad e incremento de los microorganismos presentes en él, otros beneficios directos como el aporte de materia orgánica y nutrimentos al suelo. Sin embargo, los agricultores muchas veces omiten
    esta práctica por la aparente escasez de fuentes de abono verde en sus fincas, ignorando que algunas especies arbóreas, presentes en sus fincas o en las de sus vecinos, pueden constituirse en las fuentes buscadas. En otro caso, si el agricultor está usando abonos verdes, la mayoría de las veces, ignora si el material usado es capaz de descomponerse y liberar los nutrimentos en el lapso que corresponde al desarrollo del cultivo. En este sentido, lo ideal sería conocer tanto la curva de nutrientes requeridos por el
    cultivo, como la curva de liberación de los mismos a través del tiempo, a fin de ajustar las dos en el campo para lograr la máxima eficiencia. En las dos situaciones planteadas, es importante disponer de un indicador que permita elegir una
    fuente de abono verde en el momento de su aplicación. Hasta ahora, esto se puede lograr a través de estudios exhaustivos de la dinámica de descomposición. Sin embargo, estos estudios son complejos y costosos en dinero y tiempo, por lo
    tanto inaccesibles para el agricultor. En este trabajo se evalúan los indicadores más importantes, reportados por la literatura, a través del proceso de descomposición y liberación de nutrimentos del follaje de ocho especies de interés agroforestal en la franja premontano de Colombia
    y se concluye que, para este grupo de especies, la relación ligninalnitrógeno inicial del follaje resultó ser el indicador más robusto, permitiendo predecir la velocidad de descomposición.Using green manure potentially can offer indirect benefits, like soil soil conservation and improvement of soil

  3. Phytoremediation of Nitrogen as Green Chemistry for Wastewater Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennevey Kinidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is noteworthy that ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater has reportedly posed a great threat to the environment. Although there are several conventional technologies being employed to remediate ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater, they are not sustainable and cost-effective. Along this line, the present study aims to highlight the significance of green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen for wastewater treatment. Notably, ammoniacal nitrogen can be found in many types of sources and it brings harmful effects to the environment. Hence, the present study also reviews the phytoremediation of nitrogen and describes its green chemistry characteristics. Additionally, the different types of wastewater contaminants and their effects on phytoremediation and the phytoremediation consideration in wastewater treatment application and sustainable waste management of harvested aquatic macrophytes were reviewed. Finally, the present study explicates the future perspectives of phytoremediation. Based on the reviews, it can be concluded that green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen have proved that it is sustainable and cost-effective in relation to other existing ammoniacal nitrogen remediation technologies. Therefore, it can be deduced that a cheaper and more environmental friendly ammoniacal nitrogen technology can be achieved with the utilization of phytoremediation in wastewater treatment.

  4. Towards improving the manure management chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Animal manures are major sources of nutrients and organic matter, to be used to fertilize crops and improve soil quality. However, when not properly managed, these manures release considerable amounts of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) into the air, and nitrogen (N) and

  5. Tracing heavy metals in 'swine manure - maggot - chicken' production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanqiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Qizhi; Zhu, Fen

    2017-08-21

    With the development of large-scale livestock farming, manure pollution has drawn much attention. Conversion by insects is a rapid and cost-effective new method for manure management. Swine manure conversion with maggots (Musca domestica larvae) has developed, and the harvested maggots are often used as animal feed. However, the flow of heavy metals from manure to downstream processes cannot be ignored, and therefore, heavy metal content was measured in untreated raw manure, maggot-treated manure, harvested maggots and maggot-eating chickens (chest muscle and liver) to evaluate potential heavy metal risks. The levels of zinc, copper, chromium, selenium, cadmium and lead had significant differences between untreated raw manure and maggot-treated manure. The concentrations of all detected heavy metals, except for cadmium and selenium, in maggots met the limits established by the feed or feed additive standards of many countries. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals decreased with the increase of the maggot instar, indicating that heavy metals were discharged from the bodies of maggots with the growth of maggots. Also, the contents of overall heavy metals in chickens fed harvested maggots met the standards for food. In conclusion, regarding heavy metals, it is eco-safe to use maggots in manure management.

  6. Impact of colistin sulfate treatment of broilers on the presence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes in stored or composted manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Devendec, Laetitia; Mourand, Gwenaelle; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Léaustic, Julien; Jouy, Eric; Keita, Alassane; Couet, William; Rousset, Nathalie; Kempf, Isabelle

    2016-10-15

    The application of manure may result in contamination of the environment with antimicrobials, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, resistance genes and plasmids. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the administration of colistin and of manure management on (i) the presence of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and (ii) the prevalence of various antimicrobial resistance genes in feces and in composted or stored manure. One flock of chickens was treated with colistin at the recommended dosage and a second flock was kept as an untreated control. Samples of feces, litter and stored or composted manure from both flocks were collected for isolation and determination of the colistin-susceptibility of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa and quantification of genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobials. The persistence of plasmids in stored or composted manure from colistin-treated broilers was also evaluated by plasmid capturing experiments. Results revealed that colistin administration to chickens had no apparent impact on the antimicrobial resistance of the dominant Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa populations in the chicken gut. Composting stimulated an apparently limited decrease in genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobial families. Importantly, it was shown that even after six weeks of composting or storage, plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes could still be transferred to a recipient E. coli. In conclusion, composting is insufficient to completely eliminate the risk of spreading antimicrobial resistance through chicken manure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Blanchard, M.; Chadwick, D.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure...

  8. of integrated application of farmyard manure, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on production of canola (Brassica napus L. in saline soil of Qum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sabahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil seed crops. In order to evaluate the effects of integrated fertilization (chemical, manure and biofertilizers on canola (B. napus variety Hyola 401 yield and uptake of mineral nutrients in saline soil and water, a field experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks (RCBD arrangement with eight treatments in three replications in Qum Province, Iran. Treatments were: (1 Control, P%100 (Phosphorus %100, (2 P%75B1 (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar biofertilizer, (3 P%75B2 (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin biofertilizer, (4 P%75M (Phosphorus %75+ farmyard manure, (5 P%75B1M (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar + Farmyard manure, (6 P%75B2M (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin+ Farmyard manure, (7 P%100B1 (Phosphorus %100 + Barvar and (8 P%125B2 (Phosphorus %125+ Nitroxin. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained from P%75B1M. Difference between integrated fertilization of farmyard manure and other treatments was significant. Farmyard manure increased canola yield which was attributed to increase in availability of mineral nutrients, decreasing effects of salinity and toxic ions. Integrated application of 5 t. ha-1 of farmyard manure and %75 recommended chemical P increased yield and decreased fertilizer consumption. The results revealed that integrated applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer and after that integrated use of bio- and chemical fertilizer are the best strategies to increase nutrient availability and improving canola yield in saline soil.

  9. Phosphorus accumulation and pollution potential in a hapludult fertilized with pig manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Guardini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Successive applications of pig litter to the soil surface can increase the phosphorus (P content and alter its adsorption, promoting P transfer to surface or subsurface waters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate P accumulation and the pollution potential of a soil after application of pig litter. In March 2010, eight years after the installation of an experiment in Braço do Norte, Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil, on a Typic Hapludult, soil was sampled (layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm after the following fertilization treatments: no pig litter fertilization, pig slurry application and pig manure application. In this period, 694 and 1,890 kg P2O5 ha-1 were applied in the treatments with pig slurry and pig manure, respectively. The P content was determined, based on Mehlich-1, anion exchange resin (AER, 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 and total P in the samples. The adsorption isotherm parameters were also determined by the Langmuir and Koski-Vähälä & Hartikainem models in the layers 0-2.5 and 20-30 cm. The application of 1,890 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the form of pig manure led to P accumulation, as evidenced by Mehlich-1, down to a depth of 15 cm, by AER and 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 down to 20 cm and by total P to 30 cm. After application of 1,890 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the form of pig manure, the values of maximum P adsorption capacity were lowest in the deepest layer (20-30 cm, indicating the occupation of part of the adsorption sites of the particles. The application of swine manure to the soil over eight years increased the P quantity in the soil solution of the surface layer, indicating environmental contamination risk for surface and subsurface waters.

  10. Modeling Phosphorous Losses from Seasonal Manure Application Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, E.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Excess nutrient loading, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, to surface waters is a common and significant problem throughout the United States. While pollution remediation efforts are continuously improving, the most effective treatment remains to limit the source. Appropriate timing of fertilizer application to reduce nutrient losses is currently a hotly debated topic in the Northeastern United States; winter spreading of manure is under special scrutiny. We plan to evaluate the loss of phosphorous to surface waters from agricultural systems under varying seasonal fertilization schemes in an effort to determine the impacts of fertilizers applied throughout the year. The Cayuga Lake basin, located in the Finger Lakes region of New York State, is a watershed dominated by agriculture where a wide array of land management strategies can be found. The evaluation will be conducted on the Fall Creek Watershed, a large sub basin in the Cayuga Lake Watershed. The Fall Creek Watershed covers approximately 33,000 ha in central New York State with approximately 50% of this land being used for agriculture. We plan to use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model a number of seasonal fertilization regimes such as summer only spreading and year round spreading (including winter applications), as well as others. We will use the model to quantify the phosphorous load to surface waters from these different fertilization schemes and determine the impacts of manure applied at different times throughout the year. More detailed knowledge about how seasonal fertilization schemes impact phosphorous losses will provide more information to stakeholders concerning the impacts of agriculture on surface water quality. Our results will help farmers and extensionists make more informed decisions about appropriate timing of manure application for reduced phosphorous losses and surface water degradation as well as aid law makers in improving policy surrounding manure application.

  11. Effectiveness of cow manure and mycorrhiza on the growth of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktiyanta, M. N. A.; Samanhudi; Yunus, A.; Pujiasmanto, B.; Minardi, S.

    2018-03-01

    Soybean is one of the major food crop commodities in Indonesia. The needs of soybean each year is always increasing, but the the production rate is low. The research aimed to know the influence of treatment doses of cow manure and mycorrhiza towards growth and yield of soybeans. This research was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with two factors. The first factor is the dose of cow manure: S0 (0 g/plot), S1 (781.25 g/plot), S2 (1562.5 g/plot), and S3 (2343.75 g/plot). The second factor is the dose of mycorrhiza: M0 (0 g/plot), M1 (100 g/plot), and M2 (200 g/plot). The observed parameters is plant height, the number of productive branches, weight of 100 seeds, root length, fresh weight of biomass, dry weight of biomass, conversion calculation results of soybeans per hectacre and the percentage of roots infected with mycorrhiza. Data were analyzed with ANOVA at 5% significance level, continued with Duncan test at 5% confidence level. The results showed that no interaction between the two treatments. Doses of cow manure provides significant influence to plant height and the length of the root. Whereas, the doses of mycorrhiza provides significant effect to the number of productive branch, weight of 100 seeds, dry weight of biomass, and the conversion of soybean yield per hectare.

  12. Evaluation of Poultry Manure Application Rates on the Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total carotenoid content was not significantly affected by poultry manure application. The phosphorus, calcium and magnesium contents were significantly affected by poultry manure application. Water and oil absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of poultry manure while the bulk density was not ...

  13. Response of some Citrus Rootstock Seedlings to Fertilization by the Aqueous Extract of some Irradiated Animal Manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out during two consecutive seasons i.e. 2001 and 2002 on two citrus rootstocks namely Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings two-month-old planted in a sandy soil under greenhouse to study the feasibility of using the aqueous extract of some animal manures i.e. poultry, sheep and cattle treated by gamma irradiation at 10 kGay to keep the manure free from pathogenic organisms, pests and weed seeds and as a natural source of nutrients instead of mineral fertilizers, and it's effect on growth and leaf nutrients content of seedlings. Generally, results showed that all the tested treatments enhanced most of growth parameters such as seedling height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves/seedling, number of roots/seedling, and dry weight for both of stem, leaves, root and total dry weight/plant. Moreover, such treatments improved leaf nutrient content of both of Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings. Meanwhile, seedlings fertilized by the aqueous extract of poultry manure achieved the highest values of growth parameters and leaf nutrients content as well as mineral fertilizer followed by those treated by the aqueous extract of both sheep and cattle manures

  14. Manure placement method influenced growth, phenology and bunch yield of three Musagenotypes in a humid zone of Southern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. Tenkouano; O. O. Ndukwe; K. P. Baiyeri

    2013-01-01

    Manure placement methods earlier evaluated in a greenhouse using the banana cultivar PITA 14 as a test-crop significantly influenced root system development, vegetative growth, nutrient uptake, whole plant dry matter yield and distribution of the crop. These placement methods plus an additional treatment were re-evaluated in a field experiment over two cropping cycles using three Musa genotypes. The treatments were: a full dose of poultry manure placed on the soil surface – top dressing(T1),a...

  15. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial ...

  16. Using Pre-TMIn Treatment to Improve the Optical Properties of Green Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of pre-TMIn treatment on the optical properties of green light emitting diodes (LEDs. Although pre-TMIn treatment did not affect the epitaxial structure of quantum wells, it significantly improved the quality of the surface morphology relative to that of the untreated sample. Indium cluster can be seen by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM, which is the explanation for the red-shift of photoluminescence (PL. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements indicated that the sample prepared with pre-TMIn treatment had a shorter radiative decay time. As a result, the light output power of the treated green LED was higher than that of the conventional untreated one. Thus, pre-TMIn treatment appears to be a simple and efficient means of improving the performance of green LEDs.

  17. Short communication: Bacterial counts in recycled manure solids bedding replaced daily or deep packed in freestalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorter, D E; Kester, H J; Hogan, J S

    2014-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in deep-packed manure solids bedding with those in manure solids bedding replaced daily from mattresses. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 stalls was equipped with mattresses topped with bedding. The back one-third of these stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25 mm of recycled manure solids, which was removed daily for the next 6 d and replaced with bedding from the brisket board and lunge space areas of stalls. The second row of 9 stalls was bedded for 3 wk with 100 to 150 mm of deep-pack recycled manure bedding from which only fecal matter was removed daily. After 3 wk, bedding treatments were changed between rows in a switchback design. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts did not differ between treatments throughout the experiment. Coliform and Klebsiella spp. bacterial counts were lower in daily replaced bedding compared with deep pack across the experiment and on each of d 0, 1, 2, and 6. Streptococcal counts were reduced in daily replacement stalls compared with deep-pack stalls on d 0 and greater in daily replacement stalls compared with deep-pack stalls on d 1, 2, and 6. Daily replacement of recycled manure bedding from the back one-third of the stalls appeared to be an effective approach to reducing exposure to coliforms, specifically Klebsiella, but not streptococci. However, bacterial counts in bedding from both treatments were elevated throughout the trial and resulted in considerable risk for exposure to teats and development of intramammary infections. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvement of quantum efficiency in green light-emitting diodes with pre-TMIn flow treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ya-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of pre-trimethlyindium (TMIn) flow on the improved electrical characteristics and highly stable temperature properties of InGaN green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are discussed. For the LED sample with a pre-TMIn flow treatment, the tunnelling of injected carriers associated with threading defects is significantly reduced, which promotes the diffusion-recombination of injected carriers, as well as the overall emission efficiency of the LED. In addition, the pre-TMIn flow treatment evidently reduces the dependence of external quantum efficiency on temperature and efficiency droop of green LEDs. As a result, we conclude that the pre-TMIn flow treatment is a promising scheme for the improvement of output performance of InGaN-based green LEDs.

  19. Influence of solid dairy manure and compost with and without alum on survival of indicator bacteria in soil and on potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entry, James A. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North, 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States)]. E-mail: jentry@nwisrl.ars.usda.gov; Leytem, April B. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North, 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States); Verwey, Sheryl [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North, 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States)

    2005-11-15

    We measured Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in soil and on fresh potato skins after addition of solid dairy manure and dairy compost with and without alum (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}) treatment 1, 7, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after application. The addition of dairy compost or solid dairy manure at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase E. coli and Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil sample after the first sampling day. Seven, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after solid dairy waste and compost and alum were applied to soil, alum did not consistently affect Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil, fresh potato skin or potato wash-water at 214 days after dairy manure or compost application regardless of alum treatment. Dairy compost or solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in bulk soil. Solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake, increased Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in potato rhizosphere soil. However, fresh potato skins had higher Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers when solid dairy manure was added to soil compared to compost, N and P inorganic fertilizer and N fertilizer treatments. We did not find any E. coli, Enterococcus or total coliform bacteria on the exterior of the tuber, within the peel or within a whole baked potato after microwave cooking for 5 min. - Solid dairy manure and dairy compost, with and without alum, had different effects.

  20. Influence of solid dairy manure and compost with and without alum on survival of indicator bacteria in soil and on potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, James A.; Leytem, April B.; Verwey, Sheryl

    2005-01-01

    We measured Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in soil and on fresh potato skins after addition of solid dairy manure and dairy compost with and without alum (Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ) treatment 1, 7, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after application. The addition of dairy compost or solid dairy manure at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase E. coli and Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil sample after the first sampling day. Seven, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after solid dairy waste and compost and alum were applied to soil, alum did not consistently affect Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil, fresh potato skin or potato wash-water at 214 days after dairy manure or compost application regardless of alum treatment. Dairy compost or solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in bulk soil. Solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake, increased Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in potato rhizosphere soil. However, fresh potato skins had higher Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers when solid dairy manure was added to soil compared to compost, N and P inorganic fertilizer and N fertilizer treatments. We did not find any E. coli, Enterococcus or total coliform bacteria on the exterior of the tuber, within the peel or within a whole baked potato after microwave cooking for 5 min. - Solid dairy manure and dairy compost, with and without alum, had different effects

  1. Elimination of macrolides, tiamulin, and salinomycin during manure storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüsener, M P; von Arb, M A; Bester, K

    2006-07-01

    The extensive use of veterinary drugs in livestock farming increases the risk that these compounds end up in the environment when manure is used as fertilizer. This study focuses on the fate of antibiotics in liquid manure tanks before the liquid manure is spread on fields. A 180-day degradation experiment of four commonly used antibiotics erythromycin, roxithromycin, salinomycin, and tiamulin in liquid manure was performed. The resulting half-lives during manure storage were calculated as follows: 41 days for erythromycin, 130 days for roxithromycin, and 6 days for salinomycin. A first-order degradation rate was calculated for these three antibiotics. The concentration of tiamulin remained unchanged during the entire experiment. No degradation of tiamulin was detected even after 180 days.

  2. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  3. Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Chlorophyta fertilized in swine manure in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of swine manure media on the growth, total length, dry weight, and nutritional value of Ankistrodesmus gracilis microalgae. Two media were measured: “in natura” and biodigested. The growth rate peak for A. gracilis was highest with biodigester treatment (6.2 x 107 cells.mL-1 on the 5th day, at a volume of 2L. The highest percentage of lipids was verifi ed for “in natura” media. Protein was highest (p > 0.05 for the biodigested media at 2L. Biovolume, ash rate, and total length were different (p 0.05. Light demand was also different between media, with lesser intensity being required for biodigested media (13.5μE.cm-2.s-1. In fact, the biodigested media proved to be cheaper in terms of cost and benefit. Generally, the medium containing swine manure, both “in natura” and biodigested, showed better results in A. gracilis development, with water quality adequate for culture systems. Swine manure in both forms may also be used in high-density cultures in the laboratory.

  4. Effect of Sources of Organic Manure on Growth and Yields of Okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow, Sheep and Poultry Manure) on growth and yield of okra was carried out at the Teaching and Research Fadama Farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria during 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 dry seasons. Treatments were laid ...

  5. Increased Abundance and Transferability of Resistance Genes after Field Application of Manure from Sulfadiazine-Treated Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechalke, Sven; Kopmann, Christoph; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Groeneweg, Joost; Weichelt, Viola; Krögerrecklenfort, Ellen; Brandes, Nikola; Nordwig, Mathias; Ding, Guo-Chun; Siemens, Jan; Heuer, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Spreading manure containing antibiotics in agriculture is assumed to stimulate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in soil bacterial populations. Plant roots influencing the soil environment and its microflora by exudation of growth substrates might considerably increase this effect. In this study, the effects of manure from pigs treated with sulfadiazine (SDZ), here called SDZ manure, on the abundance and transferability of sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2 in the rhizosphere of maize and grass were compared to the effects in bulk soil in a field experiment. In plots that repeatedly received SDZ manure, a significantly higher abundance of both sul genes was detected compared to that in plots where manure from untreated pigs was applied. Significantly lower abundances of sul genes relative to bacterial ribosomal genes were encountered in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil. However, in contrast to results for bulk soil, the sul gene abundance in the SDZ manure-treated rhizosphere constantly deviated from control treatments over a period of 6 weeks after manuring, suggesting ongoing antibiotic selection over this period. Transferability of sulfonamide resistance was analyzed by capturing resistance plasmids from soil communities into Escherichia coli. Increased rates of plasmid capture were observed in samples from SDZ manure-treated bulk soil and the rhizosphere of maize and grass. More than 97% of the captured plasmids belonged to the LowGC type (having low G+C content), giving further evidence for their important contribution to the environmental spread of antibiotic resistance. In conclusion, differences between bulk soil and rhizosphere need to be considered when assessing the risks associated with the spreading of antibiotic resistance. PMID:23315733

  6. Livestock farmer perceptions of successful collaborative arrangements for manure exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asai, Masayasu; Langer, Vibeke; Frederiksen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    to underground water, self-governing manure exchanges have been widely organised among farms in local communities. This allows large livestock farms to achieve the required balance between manure production and the agricultural production area although the importer rarely pays the full nutrient value...... for the manure received. Despite the potential for improved efficiency of manure use, few studies have examined livestock farmers’ perceptions of coordinated arrangements with recipient farms and factors in successful arrangements. A total of 644 manure exporters were asked about factors they consider important...... in identifying and selecting a new partner for manure export, including factors regarding the potential partner and the function of the partnership. They evaluated a total of 18 statements relating to possible perceptions. The results revealed that exporters appreciated especially four qualities: (1) timely...

  7. Effect of Humic Acid and Organic Manure Tea on Plant Physiology and Fruit Characteristics of Pepino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Javanmardi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pepino (SolanummuricatumAit., a Solanaceous vegetable fruit has been recently introduced to Iran markets. Organic farming is currently the fastest growing agricultural sector worldwide. Although several investigations are available on chemical fertilization of pepino, the knowledge of organic fertilization ismostly lacking. Therefore, at the beginning of introducing pepino plant to Iranian farmers it worth to evaluate the impact of organic fertilization on the productivity, profitability, acceptability and sustainability of farming systemsto this plant. High chemical fertilization of pepinoincreases the vegetative growth over the generative and fruit production. The aim of this investigation was to introduce the possibility of organic production of pepino. Materials and Methods.A two-year experiment was carried out to assess the possibility of organic production of pepino using organic fertilizers. Humistar® organic fertilizer (containing 8.6% humic acid at 50 L/ha and sheep or cow manure teas at 1:10 and 1:5 ratios were used for production of pepino cv. Kanseola to evaluate their effects on the physiology of reproductive stage and some fruit quality characteristics. The experiments were arranged as factorial in a randomized complete block design comprised of 3 replications, each of which 10 plants. Mother plants were obtained from Mashhad Ferdowsi University and incubated in a greenhouse (mean temperature of 25 °C and 60-70% relative humidity for 1 month to proliferate. Cuttings with 2-3 leaves at the top, 3-5 healthy buds and 20 cm length were rooted for 14 days in a rooting media, ( 1:1:2 of field soil, composted leaf and perlite, respectively. Plants were transplanted into the field in 100 × 75 cm spacing after the danger of frost was over. Treatments consisted of two levels of 1:5 and 1:10 (w:w cow or sheep manure teas in combination with two levels of Humistar® organic fertilizer as 0 and 50L/ha levels. Control plants

  8. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal waste: swine manure and tuna fish waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, L.; Alvarez, J. A.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion has become an established and proven technology for the treatment of solid wastes. Co-digestion offers several possible ecological, technology and economical advantages. Anaerobic co-digestion can increase CH{sub 4} production of manure diesters in a 50-200% according to the operation conditions and the co-substrates used. Last September 2007, PROBIOGAS project started up with the objective of improving the production and use of biogas from co-digestion of farming, agricultural and industrial waste. Our research group takes part in the study of co-digestion of swine manure firstly with tuna fish waste and secondly with glycerine (bio diesel production waste). (Author)

  10. Suppressing methane emission and global warming potential from rice fields through intermittent drainage and green biomass amendment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, Md. M.; Biswas, J. C.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, P. J.

    Winter cover crops are recommended to improve soil quality and carbon sequestration, although their use as green manure can significantly increase methane (CH4) emission from paddy soils. Soil management practices can be used to reduce CH4 emission from paddy soils, but intermittent drainage is

  11. The antibiotic resistome of swine manure is significantly altered by association with the Musca domestica larvae gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Sangwan, Naseer; Li, Hong-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Oyang, Wei-Yin; Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Gilbert, Jack A; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ping, Fan; Zhang, Han-Luo

    2017-01-01

    The overuse of antibiotics as veterinary feed additives is potentially contributing to a significant reservoir of antibiotic resistance in agricultural farmlands via the application of antibiotic-contaminated manure. Vermicomposting of swine manure using housefly larvae is a promising biotechnology for waste reduction and control of antibiotic pollution. To determine how vermicomposting influences antibiotic resistance traits in swine manure, we explored the resistome and associated bacterial community dynamics during larvae gut transit over 6 days of treatment. In total, 94 out of 158 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were significantly attenuated (by 85%), while 23 were significantly enriched (3.9-fold) following vermicomposting. The manure-borne bacterial community showed a decrease in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, and an increase in Proteobacteria, specifically Ignatzschineria, following gut transit. ARG attenuation was significantly correlated with changes in microbial community succession, especially reduction in Clostridiales and Bacteroidales. Six genomes were assembled from the manure, vermicompost (final product) and gut samples, including Pseudomonas, Providencia, Enterococcus, Bacteroides and Alcanivorax. Transposon-linked ARGs were more abundant in gut-associated bacteria compared with those from manure and vermicompost. Further, ARG-transposon gene cassettes had a high degree of synteny between metagenomic assemblies from gut and vermicompost samples, highlighting the significant contribution of gut microbiota through horizontal gene transfer to the resistome of vermicompost. In conclusion, the larvae gut microbiome significantly influences manure-borne community succession and the antibiotic resistome during animal manure processing.

  12. A biotechnological process for treatment and recycling poultry wastes manure as a feed ingredient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Jalil, M.H. [Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco). Biology Dept.; Hassan II Inst. of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts (Morocco); Faid, M. [Hassan II Inst. of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts (Morocco); Elyachioui, M. [Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2001-07-01

    Poultry wastes manure was diluted by adding the same amount of water 50-50 (w/v). They were then mixed with 10% molasses. The mixture was inoculated with a starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidolactici, and incubated at 30{sup o}C for 10 days. Changes in nutritional quality and biochemical properties (pH, total nitrogen, total volatile nitrogen, non protein nitrogen, carbohydrates and ash) were determined for the raw and the transformed product. In parallel, microbiological analyses, including standard plant count, enterobacteria and enterococci, were performed. Results indicated that the product obtained from the wastes fermentation showed low counts of enterobacteria and enterococci. Chemical determinations showed a net decrease of the pH to around 4.0 and the growth curve of the lactic acid bacteria showed the success of the acidification process. The total nitrogen was conserved in the product and the total volatile nitrogen was totally eliminated. The product was used for substituting some protein sources in a conventional formula used in laying feeding of three lots. Two formulae containing, respectively, 20% and 40% of the product was compared to the control (0%). The food consumption and laying performances were monitored for 30 days. The nutritional test indicted that the incorporation of the poultry manure silage of up to 40% gave laying performances similar to those obtained with the conventional formula. These results show that it is possible to transform poultry manure by controlled fermentation and that the product has an added value as a feed ingredient. (Author)

  13. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANIMAL MANURES ON SOIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    tons/ha and 13.4 tons/ha of poultry, goat and dairy cow manure will suffice the requirement of. 40 kg N/ha and 20 ..... supplementation with inorganic P sources. Rate. Manure ... organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science.

  14. Relação entre qualidade e liberação de N por plantas do semiárido usadas como adubo verde Relationship between biomass quality and N mineralization in plant species used as green manure in semi-arid Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romildo N. Alves

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas como adubo verde pode ser uma alternativa para melhorar a fertilidade do solo porém a liberação de nutrientes desses adubos para o solo irá depender dos teores de lignina, polifenóis (PP e N no material vegetal utilizado. Tais teores foram determinados em 24 espécies vegetais encontradas em propriedades rurais do semiárido e relacionados com a mineralização de N, quando incorporados ao solo. Os materiais apresentaram grande variação nos teores os quais, por sua vez, sinalizaram baixa correlação com as proporções do N mineralizado depois da incorporação. Utilizando os teores e suas relações, realizou-se análise de componentes principais agrupando os materiais de acordo com suas similaridades, visando verificar a existência de relações entre a formação dos grupos referidos e o N mineralizado após incubação dos materiais orgânicos. Quatro grupos foram formados; no entanto, pouca informação útil foi gerada no sentido de tentar predizer a mineralização de N com base na qualidade dos materiais testados. O comportamento da lignina não foi bem definido na formação dos grupos e não apresentou relação clara com a mineralização do N devido, talvez, ao curto prazo de avaliação da metodologia adotada (28 dias. Todos os materiais que apresentaram relação PP/N menor que 0,5, mineralizaram N enquanto que os apresentaram a mesma relação acima de 5, imobilizaram N.The use of plants as green manure may be an alternative to improve soil fertility in the region, but the release of nutrients to the soil will depend on the concentrations of lignin, polyphenols (PP, and nitrogen of the green manures used. These variables were analyzed for 24 plant species commonly found in farms of the semi-arid region of NE Brazil, and the relationship between plant biomass quality and N release after incorporation into the soil was evaluated. There was a large variation in the concentration of lignin, PP and N of the

  15. Preliminary design and economical study of a biogas production-plant using cow manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla González

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents considerations and results from designing a large- scale biogas production-plant using cow manure. The so designed plant capacity allowed processing the dung from 1,300 cows, producing 500 kW of electrical energy from operating a generator which works on a mixture of diesel and biogas fuel. The design included sizing the cowsheds, the manure-collecting systems, transporting the dung, the digester, the effluent tank and the biogas treatment system. An economic study was also done, concluding that project was viable and the importance of the cost of diesel evolving for determining return on investment time.

  16. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  17. Effect of Australian zeolite on methane production and ammonium removal during anaerobic digestion of swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesinghe, D. Thushari N.; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Scales, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    acidogenesis due to the high N contents of swine manure considerably reduce CH4 yield. The reduction of N during anaerobic digestion by the addition of zeolite improves CH4 production and reduces potential environmental threats associated with ammonia (NH3) emissions from anaerobic digestion of swine manure....... The main objective of this study was to determine the optimum Australian zeolite dose that produces maximum NH4 + recovery at optimum CH4 production. In laboratory experiments, swine manure was treated with natural and sodium zeolites at 0, 10, 40, 70, 100 mg/L and digested anaerobically for 60 days....... Natural zeolite at a dose of 40 g/L resulted in the largest increase (29%) in total CH4 yield from swine manure compared to the nil zeolite treatments. The lag phase of digestion was decreased with increasing zeolite doses up to 100 g/L. Natural and sodium zeolites at a dose of 100 g/L reduced NH4 + by 50...

  18. [Regional differences and development tendency of livestock manure pollution in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huan-Guang; Liao, Shao-Pan; Jing, Yue; Luan, Jiang

    2013-07-01

    The rapid development of livestock production in China has brought livestock manure pollution as a serious environment problem, even threatens China's agriculture sustainable development. On the basis of public statistical data and field research data, this paper analyzed the magnitude of livestock manure excretion and pollution of China and different provinces in 2010, and predicted development tendencies of livestock manure excretion and pollution in 2020 through the Decision Support System for China's Agricultural Sustainable Development (CHINAGRO). The result shows that total livestock manure excretion of China in 2010 is 1 900 million tons, and livestock manure pollution is 227 million tons, while per hectare arable land of livestock manure pollution is 1.86 tons. Provinces in the southeast China, such as Guangdong and Fujian, are areas with high pressure of livestock manure pollution. Model simulation shows that China's total amount of livestock manure pollution will increase to 298 million tons in 2020 without government intervention. The pressure of livestock manure pollution will become higher in most regions of China, especially in east and south regions. The situation in central and western region is better than that in east regions although the pollution pressure will also increase in those areas. Policy intervention such as taxes and subsidies should be adopted to reduce the discharge of livestock manure pollution, and encourage livestock production transfer from eastern areas to the central and western regions.

  19. Grass as a C booster for manure-biogas in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehme, Sirli; Hamelin, Lorie; Veromann, Eve

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental consequences of using grass (from both unused and cultivated boreal grasslands) as a co-substrate to dairy cow manure for biogas production. Environmental impact categories assessed were global warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment...... (distinguishing between N and P). Scenarios studied were: traditional management of dairy cow manure, monodigestion of manure, manure co-digestion with reed canary grass and manure co-digestion with residual grass from semi-natural grasslands. The latter scenario showed the best environmental performance...... for the global warming category, for other categories it did not show clear benefits. Using reed canary grass specially produced for biogas purpose resulted in a climate change impact just as big as the reference manure management, mainly as a result of indirect land use changes. Increased impacts also occurred...

  20. Start-up strategies for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moset, V.; Bertolini, E.; Cerisuelo, A.; Cambra, M.; Olmos, A.; Cambra-López, M.

    2014-01-01

    Sludge physicochemical composition, methane (CH 4 ) yield, and methanogenic community structure and dynamics using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were determined after start-up of anaerobic digestion of pig manure. Eight thermophilic continuous stirred anaerobic digesters were used during 126 days. Four management strategies were investigated: a feedless and a non-feedless period followed by a gradual or an abrupt addition of pig manure (two digesters per strategy). During the first 43 days, VFA (volatile fatty acids) accumulations and low CH 4 yield were observed in all digesters. After this period, digesters recovered their initial status being propionic acid the last parameter to be re-established. Non-feedless digesters with an abrupt addition of pig manure showed the best performances (lower VFA accumulation and higher CH 4 yield). Differences in microbial orders and dynamics, however, were less evident among treatments. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, Methanomicrobiales first and Methanobacteriales second, was the dominant metabolic pathway in all digesters. Further research is needed to clarify the role and activity of hydrogenotrophic methanogens during the recovery start-up period and to identify the best molecular tools and methodologies to monitor microbial populations and dynamics reliably and accurately in anaerobic digesters. - Highlights: • Four start-up strategies for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of pig manure were tested. • Physicochemical composition, methane yield and methanogenic community were determined. • During the first 43 days, a decline in reactor's performance occurred. • The best start-up strategy was non-feedless with an abrupt addition of pig slurry. • Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant metabolic pathway

  1. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Kruseman, G.; Lakner, D.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use.

  2. Changes in growth and yield attributes of two selected maize varieties as influenced by application of chemical (npk) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers in pala (chad) grown field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridine, W.; Ngakou, A.; Mbaiguinam, M.; Namba, F.; Anna, P

    2014-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted in Pala, region of the Mayo-Kebi West division, in a contribution to improve maize production in Chad. The work was oriented towards the evaluation of the interactions between chemical (NPK) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers on growth and yield attributes of TZEE-W and IB selected maize varieties. The experimental design was a (5x2)x4 factorial design in which the main factor was the proportion of organic/chemical fertilizer (%), and the maize variety as the secondary factor, comprising the following six treatments repeated four times: control (T0) with 0 % NPK and 0 % bat's manure; T1 with 100% NPK; T2 with 100% bat's manure; T3 with 75% NPK and 25% bat's manure; T4 with 75% bat's manure and 25% NPK; T5 with 50% bat's manure and 50% NPK. Results show a variation in experimental soils pH of treatments from 5.91 to 7.92, depending on the proportion of the fertilizers applied. There were significant yield differences among treatments, as well as maize varieties. The 50% NPK+50% bat's manure was found as the best treatment to significantly (p<0.0001) enhance the yield of IB (51.2 t/ha) and TZEE-W (37.9 t/ha) maize varieties compared to their respective controls (7.25 t/ha and 6.76 t/ha). These results suggest that the combination at equal proportion of NPK and bat's manure could be recommended to sustainably improve maize production in Pala-Chad, thus with a considerable alleviation of the pollution risks that have been attributed to chemical fertilizer. (author)

  3. Assessment of nitrogen content in buffalo manure and land application costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Faugno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis livestock for mozzarella cheese production plays a fundamental role in the economy of southern Italy. European and Italian regulations consider nitrogen content in buffalo manure to be the same as that of cattle manure. This study aimed to assess whether this assumption is true. The first aim of the study was to assess nitrogen content in buffalo manure. Samples were taken from 35 farms to analyse nitrogen and phosphorous concentration in the manure. Analysis confirmed a lower nitrogen concentration (2% in buffalo manure. A secondary aim of the study was to evaluate whether manure application techniques that are apparently less suitable, e.g. splash plate spreader, could be feasible. The cost of different methods of land application of manure and their characteristics were evaluated on the basis of one operational cycle. Considering losses for volatilisation, and taking into account cost assessment, the immediate incorporation of buffalo manure (nitrogen content 2% is a suitable method of ammonia volatilisation. However, it is expensive and involves high fuel consumption in relation to the environmental benefit.

  4. Enhancing recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, P J; Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; García-González, M C

    2016-03-01

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from manure. In this study, the technology was enhanced using aeration instead of alkali chemicals to increase pH and the ammonium (NH4(+)) recovery rate. Digested effluents from covered anaerobic swine lagoons containing 1465-2097 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1) were treated using submerged membranes (0.13 cm(2) cm(-3)), low-rate aeration (120 mL air L-manure(-1) min(-1)) and nitrification inhibitor (22 mg L(-1)) to prevent nitrification. The experiment included a control without aeration. The pH of the manure with aeration rose from 8.6 to 9.2 while the manure without aeration decreased from 8.6 to 8.1. With aeration, 97-99% of the NH4(+) was removed in about 5 days of operation with 96-98% recovery efficiency. In contrast, without aeration it took 25 days to treat the NH4(+). Therefore, the recovery of NH4(+) was five times faster with the low-rate aeration treatment. This enhancement could reduce costs by 70%. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Overview of the advances in environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increasing environmental concern over animal manure due to the volumes produced in modern intensified animal production. However, animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. Although research on environmental impacts of animal manure and associated...

  6. Okra yield fertilized with bovine manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bovine manure becomes an useful and economic practice for the small and medium producers of vegetables, and the okra plant normally demands high doses of organic fertilizers. This study was carried out, from January to July 2011, at the Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia city - PB, aiming to evaluate the effect of bovine manure and biofertilizer on the productive behavior of the okra plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four repetitions in factorial scheme 6 x 2, with the doses factors of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1 with and without biofertilizer. The average mass of commercial fruit of okra, with and without biofertilizer was 18 and 16.5 g, respectively, in the doses of 27.5 and 60 t ha-1 of manure. The number of fruit plant-1 without biofertilizer was 30 fruits plant-1 of okra in the dose of 60 t ha-1 and with biofertilizer, the number of fruits plant-1 was 33 fruits in the dose of 28 t ha-1 of bovine manure. The productivity of commercial fruits of okra without biofertilizer was 20.4 t ha-1 and 22 t ha-1 with biofertilizer, respectively, in the doses of 60 and 31 t ha-1 of bovine manure.

  7. Environmental assessment of untreated manure use, manure digestion and codigestion with silage maize : Deliverable for the 'EU-AGRO-BIOGAS' project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Corre, W.J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the environmental impact of untreated manure use, manure digestion, and co-digestion with silage maize for energy production. The life cycle assessment methodology was used. Environmental indicators included were, global warming potential, energy use, eutrophication,

  8. Data on the irradiation of liquid manure artificially infected with foot-and mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Solyom, F.; Felkai, V.; Oroszlany, P.

    1976-01-01

    Research on the application of an ionizing radiation treatment to liquid manure infected with Foot- and Mouth disease virus is described. Virus suspensions diluted with a phosphate buffer solution showed a considerable decrease of virulence already at an exposure to 0.4 - 0.8 Mrad at low initial titre. 1.2 Mrad proved to be effective also against high concentrations of the virus. However, with liquid manure used as diluent, a certain protective effect was noted against the destructive influence of radiation on the virus. (author)

  9. Optimization of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking of manure fibers by Response Surface Methodology for unlocking the methane potential of swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lymperatou, Anna; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Swine manure mono-digestion often results to economically non-feasible processes, due to the high dilution and ammonia concentration together with the low degradation rates it presents. The effects of different parameters of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) as a pretreatment for improving...... to be optimal (7% w/w NH3, 96 hours, and 0.16 kg/l) in combination to a significant increase of the short term CH4 yield (244% in 17 days), make this pretreatment a promising solution for improving swine manure mono-digestion. Furthermore, compositional analysis of the manure fibers revealed significant...... the digestion of manure fibers when coupled to an ammonia removal step were investigated in this study. Response Surface Methodology was followed and the influence and interactions of the following AAS parameters were studied: NH3 concentration, duration and solid-to-liquid ratio. The mild conditions found...

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and algae: impact of intracellular algal products recovery on co-digestion performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astals, S; Musenze, R S; Bai, X; Tannock, S; Tait, S; Pratt, S; Jensen, P D

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and algae (Scenedesmus sp.) with and without extraction of intracellular algal co-products, with views towards the development of a biorefinery concept for lipid, protein and/or biogas production. Protein and/or lipids were extracted from Scenedesmus sp. using free nitrous acid pre-treatments and solvent-based Soxhlet extraction, respectively. Processing increased algae methane yield between 29% and 37% compared to raw algae (VS basis), but reduced the amount of algae available for digestion. Co-digestion experiments showed a synergy between pig manure and raw algae that increased raw algae methane yield from 0.163 to 0.245 m(3) CH4 kg(-1)VS. No such synergy was observed when algal residues were co-digested with pig manure. Finally, experimental results were used to develop a high-level concept for an integrated biorefinery processing pig manure and onsite cultivated algae, evaluating methane production and co-product recovery per mass of pig manure entering the refinery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ORGANOFINERY: FROM GREEN CROPS TO PROTEINS, ENERGY AND FERTILISER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salces, Beatriz Molinuevo; Fernandez, Maria Santamaria; Kiel, P.

    Difficulties with the supply of organic protein feed; low crop yields and low value of leguminous forage crops and a lack of organic fertilisers are nowadays some of the major challenges faced in organic farming with monogastric animals. Thus, organic farmers are forced to import feed and manure ...... from conventional farms. In order to overcome these challenges, the OrganoFinery project targets to develop a green biorefinery concept where organic crops are utilised for animal feed, fertiliser and energy production by producing biogas....

  12. Long-term manure application increased greenhouse gas emissions but had no effect on ammonia volatilization in a Northern China upland field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Hongbin; Luo, Jiafa; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhai, Limei; Geng, Yucong; Zhang, Yitao; Li, Jungai; Lei, Qiuliang; Bashir, Muhammad Amjad; Wu, Shuxia; Lindsey, Stuart

    2018-08-15

    The impacts of manure application on soil ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilization and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are of interest for both agronomic and environmental reasons. However, how the swine manure addition affects greenhouse gas and N emissions in North China Plain wheat fields is still unknown. A long-term fertilization experiment was carried out on a maize-wheat rotation system in Northern China (Zea mays L-Triticum aestivum L.) from 1990 to 2017. The experiment included four treatments: (1) No fertilizer (CK), (2) single application of chemical fertilizers (NPK), (3) NPK plus 22.5t/ha swine manure (NPKM), (4) NPK plus 33.7t/ha swine manure (NPKM+). A short-term fertilization experiment was conducted from 2016 to 2017 using the same treatments in a field that had been abandoned for decades. The emissions of NH 3 and GHGs were measured during the wheat season from 2016 to 2017. Results showed that after long-term fertilization the wheat yields for NPKM treatment were 7105kg/ha, which were higher than NPK (3880kg/ha) and NPKM+ treatments (5518kg/ha). The wheat yields were similar after short-term fertilization (6098-6887kg/ha). The NH 3 -N emission factors (EF amm ) for NPKM and NPKM+ treatments (1.1 and 1.1-1.4%, respectively) were lower than NPK treatment (2.2%) in both the long and short-term fertilization treatments. In the long- and short-term experiments the nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission factors (EF nit ) for NPKM+ treatment were 4.2% and 3.7%, respectively, which were higher than for the NPK treatment (3.5% and 2.5%, respectively) and the NPKM treatment (3.6% and 2.2%, respectively). In addition, under long and short-term fertilization, the greenhouse gas intensities for the NPKM+ treatment were 33.7 and 27.0kg CO 2 -eq/kg yield, respectively, which were higher than for the NPKM treatment (22.8 and 21.1kg CO 2 -eq/kg yield, respectively). These results imply that excessive swine manure application does not increase yield but increases GHG emissions

  13. effects of weed control and cow dung manure on growth indices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... ABSTRACT. Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for. Agricultural Research farm Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of quality protein maize. The.

  14. Nitrous Oxide Emissions after Application of Manure-Derived Fertiliseres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun

    of N2O emission between different manure-derived fertilisers were observed. The application of fresh or composted manure solids had much higher N2O emissions than that of charred manure solids which contained low available C and N contents. The immature compost with a high content of dissolved organic...... different levels of C availability. The turnover and availability of N was modified by addition of nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) or mineral N. Soil O2 dynamics was monitored with high spatiotemporal resolution to elucidate the related mechanism regulating N2O emissions. Significant differences...... warming. This PhD project therefore investigated N2O emissions from soil after application of manure-derived fertilisers with varying spatial distribution, and evaluated the influences of available C, N and O2 on N2O emissions. Fresh, composted and charred manure solids were applied in soil to provide...

  15. Decomposition of olive mill waste compost, goat manure and Medicago sativa in Lebanese soils using the litterbag technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Therese

    2014-05-01

    Organic amendments, green manure and plant residues incorporation are the main sources of nutrients in organic farming, their decomposition rate is crucial for the accumulation and long-term storage of organic matter in soils. In this study the decomposition of compost from olive mill waste (N: 29.3 g kg-1; total dissolved nitrogen or TDN: 3.82 g kg-1), goat manure (N: 31.5 g kg-1; TDN: 0.94 g kg-1), the shoots (N: 33.6 g kg-1; TDN: 17.57 g kg-1) and roots (N: 22.12 g kg-1; TDN: 8.87 g kg-1) of Medicago sativa was followed in three Lebanese soils. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium released were followed over one year, starting in early winter (December-January). The mild sub-humid Mediterranean conditions allowed a rapid mass loss in alfalfa shoots 30 days after incorporation. Manure and compost were more persistent. Between 80 and 90% of TDN were released, after 30 days of in-situ incubation for compost, the release was over 90% for alfalfa shoots. The movement of P was slower, as the compost (6.99 g kg-1 of P) and manure (9.81 g kg-1 of P) lost 33% and 22%, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. After one year, 15 to 35% of P remained in the soils. The manure was the richest in potassium (19.66 g kg-1) followed by the alfalfa shoots (15.56 g kg-1), the compost (8.19 g kg-1) and the roots (5.96 g kg-1). The loss of potassium was important, as over 88% had disappeared over the year. All decomposition curves followed an exponential model. The calculated coefficients of decomposition for total nitrogen (lnfinal - lninitial/days) were significantly higher for alfalfa shoots (0.00547 day-1) and similar for the compost (0.00184 day-1) and the manure (0.00175 day-1). The ANOVA test showed a difference between two of the sites (Site A: 521 g kg-1 of clay and 42 g kg-1 of calcium carbonate; Site S: 260 g kg-1 of clay and 269 g kg-1 of CaCO3) and the third one (Site L: 315 g kg-1 of clay and 591 g kg-1 of CaCO3). The relationships between the soil calcium

  16. Responses and Remediating Effects of Pennisetum hydridum to Application of Heavy-Metals-Contaminated Chicken Manures and Sewage Sludges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xi-na

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pennisetum hydridum is a rapid growth, large biomass and multi-stress resistant plant. A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the bioremediation effects of P. hydridum by 2 kg heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contaminated chicken manure or sewage sludge mixing with 18 kg of lateritic red soil. The growth and heavy metal uptake of P. hydridum were measured in order to assess the phytoremediation potential. Results showed that P. hydridum growed well in all treatments and the best appeared in chicken manure. The biomass of plant in treatments with chicken manure, sewage sludge, and the control was 736.56±29.21, 499.99±32.01 g·pot-1, and 466.89±37.08 g·pot-1, respectively. The heavy metals in the soils were reduced significantly at the 200 d after planting P. hydridum in fall. The removing percentage of total Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in soil was 1.90%~4.52%, 3.96%~5.72%, 0.53%~1.24% and 10.34%~17.14% respectively. The best effect of removing Zn, Cd and Pb appeared in chicken manure treatment was 89.74, 0.68 mg and 19.18 mg. The best effect of removing Cu appeared in sludge treatment was 16.84 mg. The results indicated that P. hydridum could be used for removement of the heavy metals from the heavy metal contaminated soils which could be considered as an potential plant for bioremediation of heavy metals.

  17. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a gas sensor array to estimate the manure nutrient contents. Three metal-oxide gas sensors including methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were used. Forty manure samples were collected from four beef operations in Southwest North Dakota. Manure samples were sent to be ...

  18. Life cycle assessment of manure management and nutrient recycling from a Chinese pig farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiming; Stichnothe, Heinz; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Huaitalla, Roxana Mendoza; Xu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the growing numbers of intensified pig farms around cities in China, there are problems of nutrient surplus and shortage of arable land for utilising the manure. Hence, sustainable livestock systems with effective manure management are needed. The objective of this study is to compare the existing manure treatment of a typical pig farm in Beijing area (separate collection of faeces; 'Gan qing fen' system) with an alternative system and to identify the nutrients flow of the whole farm in order to quantify environmental burdens and to estimate the arable land required for sustainable nutrients recycling. Life cycle assessment is used for this purpose. Acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) are analysed in detail; the functional unit is the annual production of the pig farm. The results show that the cropland area demand for sustainable land application of the effluent can be reduced from 238 to 139 ha with the alternative system. It is possible to transfer 29% of total nitrogen, 87% of phosphorus, 34% of potassium and 75% of magnesium to the compost, and to reduce the total AP, EP and GWP of manure management on the farm by 64.1%, 96.7% and 22%, respectively, compared with the current system. Besides an effective manure management system, a full inventory of the regional nutrients flow is needed for sustainable development of livestock systems around big cities in China.

  19. ANIMAL MANURE – REDUCED QUALITY BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion may reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, but we know little about its impact on soil fertility. Reduced concentrations of easily degradable C in the manure may imply less food for the soil fauna and microflora. A field experiment to study its effect on crop yields and soil...... caused the death of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms shortly after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. So far, we have observed only small differences in the effects of digested and undigested manure...

  20. Comparison of oxytetracycline degradation behavior in pig manure with different antibiotic addition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Guixiu; Liang, Juanboo; Zou, Yongde; Wen, Xin; Liao, Xindi; Wu, Yinbao

    2015-12-01

    Using manure collected from swine fed with diet containing antibiotics and antibiotic-free swine manure spiked with antibiotics are the two common methods of studying the degradation behavior of veterinary antibiotic in manure in the environment. However, few studies had been conducted to co-compare these two different antibiotic addition methods. This study used oxytetracycline (OTC) as a model antibiotic to study antibiotic degradation behavior in manure under the above two OTC addition methods. In addition, the role of microorganisms present in the manure on degradation behavior was also examined. The results showed that degradation half-life of OTC in manure from swine fed OTC (9.04 days) was significantly shorter than that of the manure directly treated with OTC (9.65 days). Concentration of 4-epi-OTC in manure from swine fed OTC peaked earlier than that in manure spiked with OTC, and the degradation rates of 4-epi-OTC and α-apo-OTC in the manure from swine fed OTC were faster, but the peak concentrations were lower, than those in manure spiked with OTC. Bacterial diversity and relative abundance of Bacillus cereus data demonstrated that sterilization of the manure before experiment significantly decreased OTC degradation rate in both of the addition methods. Results of the present study demonstrated that the presence of the metabolites (especially 4-epi-OTC) and microorganisms had significant influence on OTC degradation.

  1. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo-Ospina, A.; Dao, Thanh H.; Van Kessel, J.A.; Reeves, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213 g L -1 , in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m -1 ). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP s ) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP s ) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP s = 0.471 x MRP s + 1102 (r 2 = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r 2 = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH ≤ 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r 2 ) for the MRP s and RQFlex-DP s relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r 2 = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r 2 = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. - The dissolved phosphorous quick test can provide real-time information on soluble manure nutrient control

  2. Inoculum and zeolite synergistic effect on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotidis, Ioannis A; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Zaganas, Ioannis D; Kotsopoulos, Thomas A; Martzopoulos, Gerasimos G

    2014-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate due to its high content of proteins and amino acids. Ammonia is the major inhibitor of anaerobic digestion (AD) process, affecting biogas production and causing great economic losses to the biogas plants. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite dosages on the mesophilic AD of poultry manure inoculated with a non-acclimatized to ammonia inoculum (dairy manure) was investigated. Additionally, a comparative analysis was performed between the data extracted from this study and the results of a previous study, which has been conducted under the same experimental conditions but with the use of ammonia acclimatized inoculum (swine manure). At 5 and 10 g zeolite L(-1), the methane yield of poultry manure was 43.4% and 80.3% higher compared with the experimental set without zeolite addition. However, the ammonia non-acclimatized inoculum was not efficient in digesting poultry manure even in the presence of 10 g zeolite L(-1), due to low methane production (only 39%) compared with the maximum theoretical yield. Finally, ammonia acclimatized inoculum and zeolite have demonstrated a possible 'synergistic effect', which led to a more efficient AD of poultry manure. The results of this study could potentially been used by the biogas plant operators to efficiently digest poultry manure.

  3. The effect of gamma-radiation on the microbiological alterations of swine liquid manure artifically infected with bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleria, M. di; Beczassy, Gy-ne.; Szemeredy, Gy.

    1979-01-01

    In the present work an account on the use of ionizing radiation for disinfection of swine liquid manure is given. The most common representatives of pathogenic and facultative-pathogenic microorganisms in swine liquid manure have been irradiated and their sensitivity to different doses of 60 Co gamma radiation has been examined. Most of the studied bacteria were killed by a radiation dose of 4 kGy. However, a very high resistance has been found in the cases of saprophytic and pathogenic mycobacteria and spore containing Clostridium perfringens. These microorganisms required a lethal dose of 5 and 7 kGy, respectively. After radiation treatment the liquid manure can be used in agriculture for irrigation and it can be recycled to the stall cleaning procedures. (author)

  4. Impacts of manure application on SWAT model outputs in the Xiangxi River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Wang, Qingrui; Xu, Fei; Men, Cong; Guo, Lijia

    2017-12-01

    SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model has been widely used to simulate agricultural non-point source (ANPS) pollution; however, the impacts of livestock manure application on SWAT model outputs have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental effects of livestock manure application based on the SWAT model in the Xiangxi River watershed, which is one of the largest tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China. Three newly-built manure databases (NB) were created and applied to different subbasins based on the actual livestock manure discharging amount. The calibration and validation values of SWAT model outputs obtained from the NB manure application and the original mixed (OM) manure were compared. The study results are as follows: (1) The livestock industry of Xingshan County developed quickly between 2005 and 2015. The downstream of the Xiangxi River (Huangliang, Shuiyuesi and Xiakou) had the largest livestock amount, and largely accounted for manure, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) production (>50%). (2) The NB manure application resulted in less phosphorus pollution (1686.35 kg for ORGP and 31.70 kg for MINP) than the OM manure application. Compared with the upstream, the downstream was influenced more by the manure application. (3) The SWAT results obtained from the NB manure had a better calibration and validation values than those from the OM manure. For ORGP, R2 and NSE values were 0.77 and 0.65 for the NB manure calibration; and the same values for the OM manure were 0.72 and 0.61, respectively. For MINP, R2 values were 0.65 and 0.62 for the NB manure and the OM manure, and the NSE values were 0.60 and 0.58, respectively. The results indicated that the built-in fertilizer database in SWAT has its limitation because it is set up for the simulation in the USA. Thus, when livestock manure is considered in a SWAT simulation, a newly built fertilizer database needs to be set up to represent

  5. Dairy Manure as a Potential Feedstock for Cost-Effective Cellulosic Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic digestibility of undigested dairy manure to preliminarily assess its potential use as an inexpensive feedstock for cellulosic bioethanol production. The sulfite pretreatment was carried out in a factorial analysis using 163 to 197 °C for 3 to 37 min with 0.8% to 4.2% sulfuric acid combined with 2.6% to 9.4% sodium sulfite. These treatments were compared with other standard pretreatments of dilute acid, and hot and cold alkali pretreatments. This comparative study showed that the sulfite pretreatment, through its combined effects of hemicellulose and lignin removal and lignin sulfonation, is more effective than the diluted acid and alkali pretreatments to improve the enzymatic digestibility of dairy manure.

  6. Studies on the bactericidal effect of ionizing radiation on pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiner, U; Trenner, P [Ministerium fuer Land-, Forst- und Nahrungsgueterwirtschaft der DDR, Eberswalde. Inst. fuer Angewandte Tierhygiene

    1983-03-01

    Pig manure was treated with electrons and gamma rays at radiation doses of 4, 8, 15 and 30 kGy, resp. The mesophile bacteria were significantly reduced by all electron doses, but with repropagation at the 7. post-irradiation day. Gamma radiation at 4 and 8 kGy resulted also in not lasting reduction of mesophile bacteria. 15 kGy caused a significant and persistent elimination of the germs. 15 kGy electron irradiation and 8 kGy gamma irradiation killed the proteolytic bacteria. Euterococci and lactose-splitting bacteria were killed at 4 kGy irradiation of both kinds. Lasting elimination of manure specific germs was reached with 15 kGy ..gamma..-rays and more than 30 kGy electrons, resp. All the treatments are expensive and cannot be recommended.

  7. Effect of farmyard manure after methane fermentation in the light of field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzelewski, L; Pentkowski, A

    1961-01-01

    Yard manure after CH/sub 4/ fermentation was compared with manure kept in a manure pit with respect to composition and the effect on the crop, in both pot and field experiments. CH/sub 4/ fermentation reduced N losses of fresh manure and made for more easily assimilable N compounds. However, the first year and after-effects on crops of both types of manure were the same. No differences were noted for fermented manure due to ploughing over as compared to mere spreading on the soil.

  8. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    is filtered. Hence, it is not possible to scale up the experiments, and it is therefore difficult to optimize the flocculation and estimate the needed filter media area. Similar problems have been observed when sewage sludge and synthetic core-shell colloids are filtered, and it has been suggested......, and the mixing procedure affect the result, and lab-scale experiments are often used to study how these pre-treatments influence the filtration process. However, the existing mathematical filtration models are based on filtration of inorganic particles and cannot simulate the filtration data obtained when manure...

  9. SWINE MANURE SOLIDS SEPARATION AND THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TO HEAVY OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangning Xiu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Separation of solids from liquid swine manure and subsequent thermo-chemical conversion (TCC of the solids fraction into oil is one way of reducing the waste strength and odor emission. Such processing also provides a potential means of producing renewable energy from animal wastes. Gravity settling and mechanical separation techniques, by means of a centrifuge and belt press, were used to remove the solids from liquid swine manure. The solid fractions from the above separation processes were used as the feedstock for the TCC process for oil production. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor with a steady temperature 305 oC, and the corresponding pressure was 10.34 Mpa. Gravity settling was demonstrated to be capable of increasing the total solids content of manure from 1% to 9%. Both of the mechanical separation systems were able to produce solids with dry matter around 18% for manure, with 1% to 2% initial total solids. A significant amount of volatile solid (75.7% was also obtained from the liquid fraction using the belt press process. The oil yields of shallow pit manure solids and deep pit manure solids with belt press separation were 28.72% and 29.8% of the total volatile solids, respectively. There was no visible oil product obtained from the deep pit manure solids with centrifuge separation. It is believed that it is the volatile solid content and the other components in the manure chemical composition which mainly deter-mine the oil production.

  10. Manure sampling procedures and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method for gestation pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Zhang, Zhijian

    2004-05-01

    Three manure agitation procedures were examined in this study (vertical mixing, horizontal mixing, and no mixing) to determine the efficacy of producing a representative manure sample. The total solids content for manure from gestation pigs was found to be well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.988 and 0.994, respectively. Linear correlations were observed between the TN and TP contents and the manure specific gravity (correlation coefficients: 0.991 and 0.987, respectively). Therefore, it may be inferred that the nutrients in pig manure can be estimated with reasonable accuracy by measuring the liquid manure specific gravity. A rapid testing method for manure nutrient contents (TN and TP) using a soil hydrometer was also evaluated. The results showed that the estimating error increased from +/-10% to +/-30% with the decrease in TN (from 1000 to 100 ppm) and TP (from 700 to 50 ppm) concentrations in the manure. Data also showed that the hydrometer readings had to be taken within 10 s after mixing to avoid reading drift in specific gravity due to the settling of manure solids.

  11. Reduction in bioavailability of arsenic in contaminated irrigated soil using zinc and organic manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, S.Q.

    2012-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to reduce the bioavailability of arsenic with application of organic and inorganic materials from contaminated soils irrigated with arsenic contaminated water. The results showed that the amount of extractable arsenic increased with submergence and decreased with application of organic material. However, amount of such decrease altered with inorganic material i.e. zinc and decrease was greater with As5Zn10 (0.17 to 0.0 mg/kg) where zinc was applied at the rate of 10 mg/kg. Among the different organic materials, arsenic content in soil remarkably decreased with application of farmyard manure. The decrease in arsenic content was less than upper toxic limit of arsenic in soil i.e.10mg/kg for paddy soils. Other manures also showed decrease in arsenic concentration but with desorption after half interval of treatment. Best remediating agents used for arsenic retention was zinc sulphate> organic compost >farmyard manure. (author)

  12. Co-composting of Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Hill, Brett; Caffyn, Pam; Travis, Greg; Olson, Andrew F; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim; Alexander, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    With increased availability of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) as cattle feed and the need to recycle organic wastes, this research investigated the feasibility of co-composting DDGS cattle feedlot manure with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Manure was collected from cattle fed a typical western Canadian finishing diet (CK) of 860 g rolled barley ( L.) grain, 100 g barley silage, and 40 g vitamin and mineral supplement kg dry matter (DM) and from cattle fed the same diet but (DG manure) with 300 g kg DM barley grain being replaced by DDGS. The CK and DG manures were co-composted with and without C&D waste in 13 m bins. Compost materials were turned on Days 14, 37, and 64, and terminated on Day 99. Adding C&D waste led to higher compost temperatures (0.4 to 16.3°C, average 7.2°C) than manure alone. Final composts had similar total C, total N, C/N ratios, and water-extractable K, Mg, and NO content across all treatments. However, adding C&D waste increased δC, δN, water-extractable SO, and Ca contents and decreased pH, total P (TP), water-extractable C, N, and P and most volatile fatty acids (VFA). The higher C&D compost temperatures should reduce pathogens while reduced VFA content should reduce odors. When using the final compost product, the increased SO and reduced TP and available N and P content in C&D waste compost should be taken into consideration. Increased S content in C&D compost may be beneficial for some crops grown on S-deficient soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Bright green light treatment of depression for older adults [ISRCTN69400161

    OpenAIRE

    Loving, Richard T; Kripke, Daniel F; Knickerbocker, Nancy C; Grandner, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Bright white light has been successfully used for the treatment of depression. There is interest in identifying which spectral colors of light are the most efficient in the treatment of depression. It is theorized that green light could decrease the intensity duration of exposure needed. Late Wake Treatment (LWT), sleep deprivation for the last half of one night, is associated with rapid mood improvement which has been sustained by light treatment. Because spectral respons...

  14. Optimisation of a green gas supply chain--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, J; Broekhuis, A A; van Gemert, W J T

    2010-01-01

    In this review the knowledge status of and future research options on a green gas supply based on biogas production by co-digestion is explored. Applications and developments of the (bio)gas supply in The Netherlands have been considered, whereafter literature research has been done into the several stages from production of dairy cattle manure and biomass to green gas injection into the gas grid. An overview of a green gas supply chain has not been made before. In this study it is concluded that on installation level (micro-level) much practical knowledge is available and on macro-level knowledge about availability of biomass. But on meso-level (operations level of a green gas supply) very little research has been done until now. Future research should include the modeling of a green gas supply chain on an operations level, i.e. questions must be answered as where to build digesters based on availability of biomass. Such a model should also advise on technology of upgrading depending on scale factors. Future research might also give insight in the usability of mixing (partly upgraded) biogas with natural gas. The preconditions for mixing would depend on composition of the gas, the ratio of gases to be mixed and the requirements on the mixture.

  15. Solid Cattle Manure Less Prone to Phosphorus Loss in Tile Drainage Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y T; Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Qi, Z M; Welacky, T

    2018-03-01

    Forms (e.g., liquid and solid) of manure influence the risk of P loss after land application. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of P-based application of various forms of cattle manure (liquid, LCM; or solid, SCM) or inorganic P as triple superphosphate (IP) on soil P losses in tile drainage water. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted in a clay loam soil with a corn ( L.)-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation in the Lake Erie basin. Over the 4 yr, the dissolved reactive P (DRP) flow-weighted mean concentration (FWMC) in tile drainage water was greater under SCM fertilization than under either IP or LCM fertilization. Despite its lower value on an annual basis, DRP FWMC rose dramatically immediately after LCM application. However, the differences in DRP FWMC did not result in detectable differences in DRP loads. Regarding particulate P and total P losses during the 4 yr, they were 68 and 47%, respectively, lower in the soils amended with SCM than in those with IP, whereas both values were similar between IP and LCM treatments. Overall, the P contained in solid cattle manure was less prone to P loss after land application. Accordingly, the present results can provide a basis for manure storage and application of best management practices designed to reduce P losses and improve crop growth. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Low-disturbance manure application methods in a corn silage-rye cover crop system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporation of manure by tillage can conserve manure N by reducing ammonia volatilization losses, but tillage also incorporates crop residue, which increases erosion potential. This study compared several low-disturbance manure application methods, designed to incorporate manure while still mainta...

  17. Estimating the energy independence of a municipal wastewater treatment plant incorporating green energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kang, Jihoon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We estimated green energy production in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. • Engineered approaches in mining multiple green energy resources were presented. • The estimated green energy production accounted for 6.5% of energy independence in the plant. • We presented practical information regarding green energy projects in water infrastructures. - Abstract: Increasing energy prices and concerns about global climate change highlight the need to improve energy independence in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper presents methodologies for estimating the energy independence of a municipal WWTP with a design capacity of 30,000 m 3 /d incorporating various green energy resources into the existing facilities, including different types of 100 kW photovoltaics, 10 kW small hydropower, and an effluent heat recovery system with a 25 refrigeration ton heat pump. It also provides guidance for the selection of appropriate renewable technologies or their combinations for specific WWTP applications to reach energy self-sufficiency goals. The results showed that annual energy production equal to 107 tons of oil equivalent could be expected when the proposed green energy resources are implemented in the WWTP. The energy independence, which was defined as the percent ratio of green energy production to energy consumption, was estimated to be a maximum of 6.5% and to vary with on-site energy consumption in the WWTP. Implementing green energy resources tailored to specific site conditions is necessary to improve the energy independence in WWTPs. Most of the applied technologies were economically viable primarily because of the financial support under the mandatory renewable portfolio standard in Korea

  18. Methane content and potential of biogas' production by manure of pigs fed with corn or sorghum-based diets in different phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Thomaz, Maria Cristina; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this trial was to value the methane content and potential of biogas' production by manure of pigs fed with corn or sorghum-based diets (energy's source) in different phases. The manures were daily collected, diluted in water and homogeneous. Were used 267 mL of influent with 6% total solids concentration for supply of continuous-flow laboratory anaerobic digesters, with 30 days of detention time (DT) and temperature of 35 deg C. The experiment was completely randomized design with 2 treatments (corn or sorghum) and 3 phases of growth (initial x growing x finishing) in 10 replications (anaerobic digesters). The methane contents by manure of pigs fed with corn were greater (p<0.01) than pigs fed with sorghum (65.19 and 67.32%) on the phases of growing and finishing, respectively. The most potential of biogas' production (0.181, 0.138 and 0.162 m{sup 3}/kg of manure) was with manure of pigs fed with corn on the phases of initial, growing and finishing, respectively (p<0.01). Considering all the phases, the most potential of biogas' production (p<0.01) was observed in the initial phase, in both treatments. (author)

  19. Anaerobic digestion of manure - consequences for plant production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Pommeresche, Reidun; Johansen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Organic farming systems are today dependent upon fossil energy. Another challenge are soil nutrient concentrations, which may be depleted with time even in animal husbandry systems (Løes & Øgaard 2001). Anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal manure may produce biogas to replace fossil fuels, and reduce...... methane (CH4) emissions during manure storage. Co-digestion of substrates rich in energy increases the economic viability of the biogas plant, and off-farm substrates such as fish silage or household waste may add nutrients to the farming system. AD may also ease manure handling, while reducing the amount...

  20. Transformations of manure during the course of an experiment on the production of gas from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppenet, M; Ducet, G

    1948-01-01

    A concrete vat was filled with a mixture of horse and cow manure and liquid manure and fermented for 106 days at 28--30/sup 0/C. A daily average of 524 liters gas/tonne was produced, the gas consisting of equal parts CO/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/, with H/sub 2/ varying from almost none to 25%. It was determined that the gas was produced by the destruction of cellulose and pentosans with little contribution from the lignins and humic acids.

  1. Impacts of delayed addition of N-rich and acidic substrates on nitrogen loss and compost quality during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishao; Kang, Kang; Chen, Dan; Liu, Ningning

    2018-02-01

    Delayed addition of Nitrogen (N)-rich and acidic substrates was investigated to evaluate its effects on N loss and compost quality during the composting process. Three different delayed adding methods of N-rich (pig manure) and acidic substrates (phosphate fertilizer and rotten apples) were tested during the pig manure and wheat straw is composting. The results showed that delayed addition of pig manure and acidic materials led two temperature peaks, and the durations of two separate thermophilic phase were closely related to the amount of pig manure. Delayed addition reduced total N loss by up to 14% when using superphosphate as acidic substrates, and by up to 12% when using rotten apples as acidic substrates, which is mainly due to the decreased NH 3 emissions. At the end of composting, delayed the addition of pig manure caused a significant increase in the HS (humus substance) content, and the highest HS content was observed when 70% of the pig manure was applied at day 0 and the remaining 30% was applied on day 27. In the final compost, the GI in all treatments almost reached the maturity requirement by exceeding 80%. The results suggest that delayed addition of animal manure and acidic substrates could prevent the N loss during composting and improve the compost quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Inhibition by ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kaare Hvid; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1998-01-01

    A stable anaerobic degradation of swine manure with ammonia concentration of 6 g-N/litre was obtained in continuously stirred tank reactors with a hydraulic retention time of 15 days, at Four different temperatures. Methane yields of 188, 141, 67 and 22 ml-CH4/g-VS were obtained at 37, 45, 55...... and 60 degrees C, respectively. The yields were significantly lower than the potential biogas yield of the swine manure used (300 ml-CH4/g-VS). A free ammonia concentration of 1.1 g-N/litre or more was found to cause inhibition in batch cultures at pH 8.0 (reactor pH), and higher free ammonia...... concentrations resulted in a decreased apparent specific growth rate. Batch experiments with various mixtures of swine and cattle manure showed that the biogas process was inhibited when the swine-to-cattle manure ratio was higher than 25:75, corresponding to a free ammonia concentration of approximately 1.1 g...

  4. Dynamics of copper and tetracyclines during composting of water hyacinth biomass amended with peat or pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Liu, Lizhu; Fan, Ruqin; Luo, Jia; Yan, Shaohua; Rengel, Zed; Zhang, Zhenhua

    2017-10-01

    Composting is one of the post-treatment methods for phytoremediation plants. Due to a high potential of water hyacinth to accumulate pollutants, the physicochemical parameters, microbial activity as well as fates of copper (Cu) and tetracyclines (TCs) were investigated for the different amended water hyacinth biomass harvested from intensive livestock and poultry wastewater, including unamended water hyacinth (W), water hyacinth amended with peat (WP), and water hyacinth amended with pig manure (WPM) during the composting process. Pig manure application accelerated the composting process as evidenced by an increase of temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), NH 4 -N, as well as functional diversity of microbial communities compared to W and WP treatments. Composting process was slowed down by high Cu, but not by TCs. The addition of peat significantly increased the residual fraction of Cu, while pig manure addition increased available Cu concentration in the final compost. Cu could be effectively transformed into low available (oxidizable) and residual fractions after fermentation. In contrast, less than 0.5% of initial concentrations of TCs were determined at the end of 60-day composting for all treatments in the final composts. The dissipation of TCs was accelerated by the high Cu concentration during composting. Therefore, composting is an effective method for the post-treatment and resource utilization of phytoremediation plants containing Cu and/or TCs.

  5. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Ospina, A. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Dao, Thanh H. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Van Kessel, J.A. [Animal Waste Pathogens Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Reeves, J.B. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)]. E-mail: jreeves@anri.barc.usda.gov

    2005-05-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213 g L{sup -1}, in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m{sup -1}). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP{sub s}) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP{sub s}) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP{sub s} = 0.471 x MRP{sub s} + 1102 (r{sup 2} = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r{sup 2} = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH {<=} 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r{sup 2}) for the MRP{sub s} and RQFlex-DP{sub s} relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r{sup 2} = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r{sup 2} = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. - The dissolved phosphorous quick test can provide real-time information on soluble manure nutrient control.

  6. Manure management in the (Sub-)Tropics : training manual for extension workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teenstra, E.D.; Buisonjé, de F.E.; Ndambi, A.; Pelster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Having identified a general lack of knowledge about the value of livestock manure and integrated manure management at multiple levels in government and society, a concerted action led to the compilation of a training manual for extension workers on manure management in the (sub-)tropics. Covering

  7. Effects of cattle and poultry manures on organic matter content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organic fertilizer showed significant effect on earthworms populations Hyperiodrilus africanus (Oligochaeta, Eudrilidae) in the soil, with 128 and 85% respectively about the poultry and cattle manures compared to the control (p < 0.01). Key words: Cattle manure, poultry manure, cassava, organic matter, cation exchange ...

  8. Environmental assessment of alternative treatment schemes for energy and nutrient recovery from livestock manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedizzi, C; Noya, I; Sarli, J; González-García, S; Lema, J M; Moreira, M T; Carballa, M

    2018-04-20

    The application of livestock manure on agricultural land is being restricted due to its significant content of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), leading to eutrophication. At the same time, the growing demand for N and P mineral fertilizers is increasing their production costs and causing the depletion of natural phosphate rock deposits. In the present work, seven technologically feasible treatment schemes for energy (biogas) and nutrient recovery (e.g., struvite precipitation) and/or removal (e.g., partial nitritation/anammox) were evaluated from an environmental perspective. In general, while approaches based solely on energy recovery and use of digestate as fertilizer are commonly limited by community regulations, strategies pursuing the generation of high-quality struvite are not environmentally sound alternatives. In contrast, schemes that include further solid/liquid separation of the digestate improved the environmental profile, and their combination with an additional N-removal stage would lead to the most environmental-friendly framework. However, the preferred scenario was identified to be highly dependent on the particular conditions of each site, integrating environmental, social and economic criteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH) 2 for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH) 2 at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL -1 . Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP

  10. Settling characteristics of nursery pig manure and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Zhang, Zhijian

    2003-05-01

    The hydrometer method to measure manure specific gravity and subsequently relate it to manure nutrient contents was examined in this study. It was found that this method might be improved in estimation accuracy if only manure from a single growth stage of pigs was used (e.g., nursery pig manure used here). The total solids (TS) content of the test manure was well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.9944 and 0.9873, respectively. Also observed were good linear correlations between the TN and TP contents and the manure specific gravity (correlation coefficients: 0.9836 and 0.9843, respectively). These correlations were much better than those reported by past researchers, in which lumped data for pigs at different growing stages were used. It may therefore be inferred that developing different linear equations for pigs at different ages should improve the accuracy in manure nutrient estimation using a hydrometer. Also, the error of using the hydrometer method to estimate manure TN and TP was found to increase, from +/- 10% to +/- 50%, with the decrease in TN (from 700 ppm to 100 ppm) and TP (from 130 ppm to 30 ppm) concentrations in the manure. The estimation errors for TN and TP may be larger than 50% if the total solids content is below 0.5%. In addition, the rapid settling of solids has long been considered characteristic of swine manure; however, in this study, the solids settling property appeared to be quite poor for nursery pig manure in that no conspicuous settling occurred after the manure was left statically for 5 hours. This information has not been reported elsewhere in the literature and may need further research to verify.

  11. Energy conversion of animal manures: Feasibility analysis for thirteen western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittier, J.; Haase, S.; Milward, R.; Churchill, G.; Searles, M.B. [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States); Moser, M. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Swanson, D.; Morgan, G. [Western Regional Biomass Energy Program, Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The growth and concentration of the livestock industry has led to environmental disposal problems for large quantities of manure at feedlots, dairies, poultry production plants, animal holding areas and pasturelands. Consequently, waste management systems that facilitate energy recovery are becoming increasingly attractive since they address pollution problems and allow for energy generation from manure resources. This paper presents a manure resource assessment for the 13 US Department of Energy, Western Regional Biomass Energy Program states, describes and evaluates available energy conversion technologies, identifies environmental and regulatory factors associated with manure collection, storage and disposal, and identifies common disposal practices specific to animal types and areas within the WRBEP region. The paper also presents a pro forma economic analysis for selected manure-to-energy conversion technologies. The annual energy potential of various manures within the WRBEP region is equivalent to approximately 111 {times} 10{sup 13} Btu. Anaerobic digestion systems, both lagoon and plug flow, offer positive economic returns in a broad range of utility service territories.

  12. Technologies and logistics for handling, transport and distribution of animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organizing and managing the whole manure handling chain from the animal house through transport to the point of use (e.g. in the field) is a challenging task requiring consideration of manure type and operating conditions. Solid and liquid manure must be handled differently, using very different tec...

  13. Optimization of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking of manure fibers by Response Surface Methodology for unlocking the methane potential of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperatou, Anna; Gavala, Hariklia N; Skiadas, Ioannis V

    2017-11-01

    Swine manure mono-digestion often results to economically non-feasible processes, due to the high dilution and ammonia concentration together with the low degradation rates it presents. The effects of different parameters of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) as a pretreatment for improving the digestion of manure fibers when coupled to an ammonia removal step were investigated in this study. Response Surface Methodology was followed and the influence and interactions of the following AAS parameters were studied: NH 3 concentration, duration and solid-to-liquid ratio. The mild conditions found to be optimal (7%w/w NH 3 , 96h, and 0.16kg/L) in combination to a significant increase of the short term CH 4 yield (244% in 17days), make this pretreatment a promising solution for improving swine manure mono-digestion. Furthermore, compositional analysis of the manure fibers revealed significant solubilization of hemicellulose, while no lignin removal or loss of cellulose occurred under optimal conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of weed control and cow dung manure on growth indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research farm Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of quality protein maize. The trials consisted of factorial ...

  15. Bioconversion of organic wastes for fuel and manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Major source of fuel in rural areas is still fire wood, cowdung and crop residues. Cowdung and crop residues can be effectively used as manure too. Bioconversion of organic wastes for fuel and manure can solve the twin problems. The paper deals with various kinds of organic wastes used as fuel, manure and for both, other organic wastes as alternate and supplemental feedstocks, impact of their bioconversion on rural energy and environment, dry fermentation technology, manurial value of the biogas slurry, etc. Important constraints in popularizing the biogas programme have been mentioned and their remedial measures have also been suggested. (author). 32 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  16. Quality of shallow groundwater and manure effluents in a livestock farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoroń Sylwester

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the quality of shallow groundwater on the site pens and runoff from livestock manure heaps, in three selected farms involved in animal production and vegetable crops in the area of Plateau Proszowice. The analysis mainly included water from farm wells and effluents from manure. Additionally, water from drainage ditch running nearby farms was collected, before inflow of effluent (i.e. ditch water without manure effluent and below inflow of effluent from heap of manure (i.e. ditch water containing manure effluent. Samples of the research material were collected from April 2012 to March 2014 at monthly intervals and analysed for the content of NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, K, Na and Cl. Based on the obtained results it was found that water from the farm wells near the livestock buildings and from manure storage sites, was heavily polluted by the majority of these contaminants. The highest concentration of these pollutants, except for the NO3-N, was found in manure effluent – it exceeded a few dozen to a few hundred to any standards for water quality. There was also a significant deterioration in the quality of drainage ditch water because of the penetration of contaminants into ditch water from heaps of improperly stored manure. The water of the farm wells was characterized by excessive concentrations of NO3-N which disqualified it for drinking purposes.

  17. An Assessment Tool applied to Manure Management Systems using Innovative Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn; Jacobsen, B.H.; Sommer, Sven Gjedde

    2003-01-01

    of operational and cost-effective animal manure handling technologies. An assessment tool covering the whole chain of the manure handling system from the animal houses to the field has been developed. The tool enables a system-oriented evaluation of labour demand, machinery capacity and costs related......In Denmark, stringent new regulations, placing strict time limits on manure application and setting thresholds for nitrogen utilisation, have been imposed in order to increase the efficiency of uptake of plant nutrients from manure. An important factor in meeting these requirements is the use...

  18. Prediction of manure nitrogen and carbon output from grower-finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu Thi Khanh, Van; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2009-01-01

    Intensive pig production may be a hazard to the environment due to plant nutrient leakage and losses. To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce oversupplying of crops with nutrients, there is a need for precise assessment of nutrient content in manure and manure excretion....... This study has developed algorithms for predicting the amount of excreta and manure content of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C). Data compiled from 285 digestibility and N balance experiments with growing-finishing pigs diets fed diets varying widely in chemical composition were used to establish algorithms...

  19. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only provides pollution prevention but also can convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion (AD) of livestock manures is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the AD animal manures. U.S. livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: slurry, plug-flow, complete-mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Case studies of operating digesters, with project and maintenance histories and the operators ''lessons learned,'' are included as reality checks. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some AD projects fail, are provided. The role of farm management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at farms willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. More than two decades of research has provided much information about how manure can be converted to an energy source; however, the American farmer has

  20. Performance of two swine manure treatment systems on chemical composition and on the reduction of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viancelli, A; Kunz, A; Steinmetz, R L R; Kich, J D; Souza, C K; Canal, C W; Coldebella, A; Esteves, P A; Barardi, C R M

    2013-01-01

    Swine effluents must be correctly handled to avoid negative environmental impacts. In this study, the profiles of two swine manure treatment systems were evaluated: a solid-liquid separation step, followed by an anaerobic reactor, and an aerobic step (System 1); and a biodigester followed by serial lagoons (System 2). Both systems were described by the assessment of chemical, bacterial and viral parameters. The results showed that in System 1, there was reduction of chemicals (COD, phosphorus, total Kjeldhal nitrogen - TKN - and NH(3)), total coliforms and Escherichia coli; however, the same reduction was not observed for Salmonella sp. Viral particles were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated from the effluent. In System 2, there was a reduction of chemicals, bacteria and viruses with no detection of Salmonella sp., circovirus, parvovirus, and torque teno virus in the effluent. The chemical results indicate that the treated effluent can be reused for cleaning swine facilities. However, the microbiological results show a need of additional treatment to achieve a complete inactivation for cases when direct contact with animals is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultimate methane yield from beef cattle manure: effect of temperature, ration constituents, antibiotics and manure age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, A G; Varel, V H; Chen, Y R

    1981-10-01

    The effects of temperature, ration constituents, antibiotics and manure age on the ultimate methane yield (Bo, litre CH4/g volatile solids fed (VSf)) were investigated using 4-litre batch fermenters. The average Bo for fermenters maintained at 30-60 degrees Celcius (at 5 degrees Celcius intervals) was 0.328 litre CH4/g VSf. The Bo at 65 degrees Celcius averaged 0.118 litre CH4g VSf, but this low yield was attributed to unstable fermentation rather than decreased substrate availability at that temperature. These results agreed well with Bo values estimated from daily-fed fermenters. Chlortetracycline and monensin did not affect Bo; however, monensin did delay the start of active fermentation in batch fermenters. The average Bo of manure from cattle fed 91.5, 40 and 7% corn silage were 0.173, 0.232 and 0.290 litre CH4/g VSf, respectively. The average Bo for 6-8 week old manure from a dirt feedlot was 0.210 litre CH4/g VSf. (Refs. 14).

  2. Effects of organic manure on soil chemical properties and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted during the 1999 cropping season at University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria to determine the effects of organic manure on the yield components of ginger. There were five treatments, namely, two levels of cow dung (15t and 30t ha-1) and two levels of Poultry litter (10t and 20t ha-1). Organic ...

  3. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P. [Resource Development Associates, Marietta, GA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  4. Investigating design criteria to build a performing microbial fuel cell running on swine liquid manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.Y.; Hogue, R.; Dube, P.; Jeanne, T.; Levesque, A. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Theriault, R.; Kaliaguine, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the bacterial and electro-chemical phenomena that takes place in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating on swine liquid manure as fuel. An MFC converts the available energy in a bioconvertible substrate directly into electricity while decreasing its chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, a first single chamber MFC operating on swine liquid manure was constructed based on a literature review. Various support media filling the anodic chamber were tested in an effort to optimize the surface area on which bacteria may develop according to the hypothesis that large bacteria concentration will improve energy production and reduce treatment time. Bacterial communities extracted from the selected support media were analyzed using molecular technologies such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning and sequencing. The analyses showed that only a few bacteria species coming from raw liquid manure were responsible for electrical activities.

  5. Recycling of organic wastes in burnt soils: combined application of poultry manure and plant cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, M C; Petrikova, V; Díaz-Raviña, M; Carballas, T

    2004-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a post-fire land management practice, including plant cultivation (Lolium perenne) combined with poultry manure addition, for restoring the protective vegetation cover in soils degraded by high intensity wildfires. The greenhouse experiment was performed with three burnt pine forest soils with added poultry manure at two doses of application and comparing the data with those obtained using NPK fertilizer. A significant effect of the amendment, soil properties and the interaction between amendment and soil properties on vegetation cover (phytomass production, nutrient content) was detected, but often the amendment treatment explained most of the variance. Changes induced by the organic amendment were more marked than those induced by inorganic fertilization. The increase of phytomass and nutrient uptake with poultry manure addition indicated the beneficial effects of this soil management practice. These findings can serve to develop field experiments and burnt soils reclamation technology.

  6. Cost-effective production of biogas from manure – retrogas project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Rohold, Lars

    2010-01-01

    , this is the main reason for the poor economic performance of biogas plants in Denmark. The idea of increasing the methane productivity of the manure has triggered the development of new separation technologies for being applied before the anaerobic digestion of the swine manure. Thus, the solid and liquid...... at the development of new separation and liquefaction technology in order to make the anaerobic digestion of swine manure cost efficient and viable.......Transport of large quantities of low concentrated swine manure (total solids around 5-7%) to biogas plants represents a significant proportion of the operating costs for co-digestion plants. Together with the increment of the prices of the industrial effluents that are used for codigestion...

  7. Substrate Type and Free Ammonia Determine Bacterial Community Structure in Full-Scale Mesophilic Anaerobic Digesters Treating Cattle or Swine Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiabao; Rui, Junpeng; Yao, Minjie; Zhang, Shiheng; Yan, Xuefeng; Wang, Yuanpeng; Yan, Zhiying; Li, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    The microbial-mediated anaerobic digestion (AD) process represents an efficient biological process for the treatment of organic waste along with biogas harvest. Currently, the key factors structuring bacterial communities and the potential core and unique bacterial populations in manure anaerobic digesters are not completely elucidated yet. In this study, we collected sludge samples from 20 full-scale anaerobic digesters treating cattle or swine manure, and investigated the variations of bact...

  8. Effect of ISPAD Anaerobic Digestion on Ammonia Volatilization from Soil Applied Swine Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan King

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine manure subjected to in-storage psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (ISPAD undergoes proteins degradation but limited NH3 volatilization, producing an effluent rich in plant-available nitrogen. Accordingly, ISPAD effluent can offer a higher fertilizer value during land application, as compared to manure of similar age stored in an open tank. However, this additional nitrogen can also be lost by volatilization during land application. The objective of this study was therefore to measure NH3 volatilization from both ISPAD and open tank swine manures when applied to 5 different soils, namely, washed sand, a Ste Rosalie clay, an Upland sandy loam, a St Bernard loam, and an Ormstown loam. This research was conducted using laboratory wind tunnels simulating land application. The five experimental soils offered similar pH values but different water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, cation saturation, and organic matter. After 47 h of wind tunnel monitoring, the % of total available nitrogen (TAN or NH4 + and NH3 volatilized varied with both manure and soil type. For all soil types, the ISPAD manure consistently lost less NH3 as compared to the open tank manure, averaging 53% less. Lower volatile solids content improving manure infiltration into the soil and a more complex ionic solution explain the effect of the ISPAD manure advantages. This was reinforced by the St Bernard sandy loam losing the same nitrogen mass for both manures, because of its higher pH and buffer pH coupled with an intermediate CEC resulting in more soil solution NH3. Within each manure type, % TAN volatilized was highest for washed sand and lowest for the clay soil. As a result, ISPAD manure can offer up to 21% more plant-available nitrogen fertilizer especially when the manure is not incorporated into the soil following its application.

  9. Fertilizing properties of farm manure submitted to methane fermentation, according to pot tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzelewski, L; Pentkowski, A

    1962-01-01

    In order to compare the fertilizing properties of the ordinary farm manure stored and fermented in dung hills with those of the manure submitted to CH/sub 4/ fermentation, pot tests with oats and potatoes were carried out. Investigation showed that: N losses taking place during CH/sub 4/ fermentation are much smaller than those from manure fermented in dung-hills. Because of different fermentation processes, the losses of solid matter in the CH/sub 4/ fermentation were greater than in manure fermented and stored in dung-hills. Although the manure submitted to CH/sub 4/ fermentation contained more N, its effect on crops was almost identical with the effect of ordinary manure. Experiments have shown that it is not necessary to cover with soil the manure submitted to the CH/sub 4/ fermentation after spreading it. Whether it was covered with soil or not, there was no difference in crop yield. Manure fermenting in O-free atmosphere may contain products harmful to plants, but they oxidize quickly on exposure to the atmosphere. 53 references.

  10. Efeito da adubação com boro e esterco bovino sobre a produtividade da figueira e as propriedades químicas do solo Effect of boron and cattle manure fertilization on yield productivity fig tree and on soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Santos Caetano

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da adubação da cultura da figueira com boro e esterco bovino sobre a produtividade de figos verdes e as propriedades químicas do solo. Os tratamentos foram cinco doses de ácido bórico (0, 20, 40, 60 e 100g planta-1 combinadas com dois níveis de adubação de esterco (sem esterco e 10kg de esterco/planta. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema de parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. A adubação com ácido bórico não afetou a produtividade de figos, enquanto que o esterco bovino aumentou-a. Os teores de fósforo e potássio no solo aumentaram significativamente e o teor de alumínio diminuiu significativamente em função da adubação com esterco bovino. O teor de B no solo, extraído pelo método da água quente, aumentou linearmente em função das doses de ácido bórico.The objective of the present work was evaluate the effect of fig tree orchard fertilization with boron and cattle manure on the green fig yield and soil chemical properties. The treatments were five boric acid levels (0, 20, 40, 60 and 100g plant-1 combined with two cattle manure fertilization levels (without cattle manure and 10kg of cattle manure/plant. The experimental design was that of randomized blocks in a split-plot scheme and four repetitions. The boric acid fertilization did not affect the fig productivity whereas the cattle manure one increased it. The P and K content increased significantly and the Al content decreased significantly in function of the cattle manure fertilization. The B soil content, extracted by hot water methodology increased linearly in function of the boric acid levels.

  11. Do green manures as winter cover crops impact the weediness and crop yield in an organic crop rotation?

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Helena; Talgre, Liina; Eremeev, Viacheslav; Alaru, Maarika; Kauer, Karin; Luik, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different winter cover crops and their combination with composted cattle manure on weeds and crop yields were investigated within a five-field crop rotation (barley undersown with red clover, red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato) in three organic cropping systems. The control system (Org 0) followed the rotation. In organic systems Org I and Org II the winter cover crops were used as follows: ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in 2011/2012) and a mixture of winter oilseed-rape (Brass...

  12. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    -char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.......05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition...

  13. Influence of Organic Manure on Organic Phosphorus Fraction in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYONG-SONG; NIWU-ZHONG; 等

    1993-01-01

    The transformation of organic P(Po) from organic manures in two types of soils (ultisol and entisol) and the influences of external addition of organic substance or inorganic P(Pi) on Po under the condition of the 60% maximum water capacity were investigated.The results obtained from Po fractionation experiments indicated that all the Po fractions except for the highly resistant Po fraction decreased during incubation.Application of pig feces and cow feces could largely increase each fraction of Po in the soils.Immediately after application of organic manure into the soils a large part of labile and moderately labile Po from organic manure was transferred into moderately resistant Po,which might be due to the fact that Ca-or Mg-inositol P was precipitated into Fe-inositol P.However,the availability of Po from organic manure in the soils would increase again after incubation because of the transformation of moderately labile and resistant Po fractions into labile Po fractions.Addition of cellulose or Pi into the soils showed a good effect on increasing all the Po fractions except for the highly resistant Po,and this effect was much more pronounced when cellulose was applied in combination with Pi.Therefore,in view of the effect of organic manure on improving P nutrition to plant,attention should be paid to both the Po and the organic substances from organic manure,It is suggested that application of Pi fertilizer combined with organic manure may be referred to as an effective means of protecting Pi from chemical fixation in soil.

  14. Surfactant replacement therapy in a pediatric near-drowning case in manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugras, Meltem; Guraksin, Ozlem; Sen, Tolga Altug; Narci, Adnan; Alpay, Faruk

    2012-09-01

    Drowning is defined as suffocation by submersion especially in water and is a leading cause of injury-related death in children. Age groups at greatest risk are toddlers and male adolescents. It is the second most common cause of accidental death in children after road accidents. Treatment consists of resuscitation and stabilization. The use of surfactant after near-drowning in water is reported in the literature in few case reports.We report here a boy whose condition did not get better with conventional treatment, but dramatically improved after surfactant treatment after near-drowning in a fluid with manure.

  15. Biogas production from cattle manure by anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuen, S.C.; Tinia Idaty Mohd Ghazi; Rozita Omar; Azni Idris

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In order to deal with the energy shortage problem, we are searching for more alternative energy resources especially renewable or sustainable. Biogas is one of the solutions in dealing with the energy shortage problem. Biogas is a type of energy resources derives from organic matter during the process called anaerobic digestion. The biogas produced is mainly consisting of methane and carbon dioxide. In this research, diluted cattle manure (1:1 ration with water) was inoculated with palm oil mill (POME) activated sludge at the ratio of 1:5 and placed in a 10 liter bioreactor. The temperature and pH in the bioreactor was regulated at 6.95 and 53 degree Celsius, respectively to enhance the anaerobic digestion process. Parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total solid, volatile solid, ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), methane (CH 4 ) and the volume of biogas generated was monitored for effectiveness of the treatment of cattle manure via anaerobic digestion. The total volume of biogas produced in this study is 80.25 liter in 29 days while being able to treat the COD content up to 52 %. (author)

  16. Effect of pig manure on the chemical composition and microbial diversity during co-composting with spent mushroom substrate and rice husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xingyao; Liu, Bin; Xi, Chen; Luo, Xiaosha; Yuan, Xufeng; Wang, Xiaofen; Zhu, Wanbin; Wang, Hongliang; Cui, Zongjun

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the impact of pig manure on the maturity of compost consisting of spent mushroom substrate and rice husks was accessed. The results showed that the addition of pig manure (SMS-PM) reached 50°C 5days earlier and lasted 15days longer than without pig manure (SMS). Furthermore, the addition of pig manure improved nutrition and germination index. High-throughput 16S rRNA pyrosequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial and fungal composition during the composting process of SMS-PM compared to SMS alone. The SMS treatment showed a relatively higher abundance of carbon-degrading microbes (Bacillaceae and Thermomyces) and plant pathogenic fungi (Sordariomycetes_unclassified) at the end of the compost. In contrast, the SMS-PM showed an increased bacterial diversity with anti-pathogen (Pseudomonas). The results indicated that the addition of pig manure improved the decomposition of refractory carbon from the spent mushroom substrate and promoted the maturity and nutritional content of the compost product. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Composted manure application promotes long-term invasion of semi-arid rangeland by Bromus tectorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composted organic matter derived from sewage treatment facilities or livestock manure from feedlots is often applied to rangelands of western North America to increase soil fertility, forage production, forage quality, and soil carbon (C) storage. This practice can have a number of undesirable side ...

  18. Manure gas for use on the large-scale farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feraud, L

    1954-10-01

    A brief description is given of German installations for producing gas and fertilizer from farmyard manure by fermentation. The fertilizer is a semi-liquid sludge and has given better results with grass-land and potatoes than ordinary farmyard manure + balancing NPK has given.

  19. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; Di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V.

    1983-01-01

    The virucidal effect of 60 Co γ-radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses, 20 and 30 kGy, were determined in preliminary experiments. At a radiation dose of 30 kGy, the activity of extracellular and cell-associated test viruses, except swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), was completely destroyed both in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure. The infectivity of SVDV decreased significantly (P 10 TCID 50 , both in cell culture medium and in liquid manure and this value corresponded to the international effectiveness demand for a disinfectant. The results showed that the safe disinfection virus in liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  20. Biological production of gas from farmyard manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, F; Kemmler, G

    1953-01-08

    Under anaerobic conditions of farmyard-manure storage, the products include organic acids from which methane is formed. The Schmidt-Eggersgluss method is described in which 5 to 7m/sup 3/ of gas is formed per 100 kg of fresh manure, without loss of N, P, K, or Ca from the residual sludge which is of high nutrient content. Large N losses occur if the sludge comes long in contact with atmosphere.

  1. Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Agersø, Yvonne; Halling-Sørensen, B.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account...

  2. Report from the working group on combustion of domestic animal manure fractions; Rapport fra arbejdsgruppen om afbraending af fraktioner af husdyrgoedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    During the past few years there has been a considerable development of new technology for treatment of domestic animal manure. The development implies that environmental problems connected with storage and use of domestic animal manure for fertilization are reduced. Through several years experiences with utilization of domestic animal manure's energy potential in biogas plants have been compiled, and the technological basis for connecting slurry separation and biogas production is present. In order to promote this development, the agricultural sector has a growing desire to be able to dispose of parts from the separated slurry through combustion, hereby using the energy content to the energy production. However, there are a number of barriers that make combustion of domestic animal manure impossible. In order to uncover existing barriers for combustion of domestic animal manure fractions the Danish Minister of food appointed an inter ministerial committee on 30 March 2005. The committee should: 1. Describe the regulations within the ministerial areas that affect combustion of domestic animal manure, and also describe the regulations that act as barriers, 2. Describe binding international agreements, directives and regulations that affect combustion of domestic animal manure and which of these that act as barriers, 3. Evaluate the potential for regulation adjustments and other actions, that might further the development of sustainable energy production in which domestic animal manure is a part, 4. Evaluate socio-economic pros and cons in the light of environmental and climatic impacts, and 5. Describe estimated governmental financial consequences of potential adjustments of regulations and other actions. (BA)

  3. Composted Cattle Manure Increases Microbial Activity and Soil Fertility More Than Composted Swine Manure in a Submerged Rice Paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvendu Das

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Livestock waste composts with minimum inorganic fertilizer as a soil amendment in low-input intensive farming are a feasible agricultural practice to improve soil fertility and productivity and to mitigate soil degradation. The key benefits of the practice rely on the activities of soil microorganisms. However, the role of different livestock composts [composted cattle manure (CCM vs. composted swine manure (CSM] on soil microbes, their activities and the overall impact on soil fertility and productivity in a flooded paddy remains elusive. This study compares the effectiveness of CCM and CSM amendment on bacterial communities, activities, nutrient availability, and crop yield in a flooded rice cropping system. We used deep 16S amplicon sequencing and soil enzyme activities to decipher bacterial communities and activities, respectively. Both CCM and CSM amendment significantly increased soil pH, nutrient availability (C, N, and P, microbial biomass, soil enzyme activities indicative for C and N cycles, aboveground plant biomass and grain yield. And the increase in above-mentioned parameters was more prominent in the CCM treatment compared to the CSM treatment. The CCM amendment increased species richness and stimulated copiotrophic microbial groups (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes which are often involved in degradation of complex organic compounds. Moreover, some dominant species (e.g., Azospirillum zeae, Azospirillum halopraeferens, Azospirillum rugosum, Clostridium alkalicellulosi, Clostridium caenicola, Clostridium termitidis, Clostridium cellulolyticum, Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum, Pleomorphomonas oryzae, Variovorax boronicumulans, Pseudomonas xanthomarina, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Bacillus niacini which have key roles in plant growth promotion and/or lignocellulose degradation were enhanced under CCM treatment compared to CSM treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that soil pH and available carbon (C and

  4. Impact of manure-related DOM on sulfonamide transport in arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Arenz-Leufen, Martina Gesine; Jacques, Diederik; Lichtner, Peter; Engelhardt, Irina

    2016-09-01

    Field application of livestock manure introduces colloids and veterinary antibiotics, e.g. sulfonamides (SAs), into farmland. The presence of manure colloids may potentially intensify the SAs-pollution to soils and groundwater by colloid-facilitated transport. Transport of three SAs, sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMPD), and sulfamoxole (SMOX), was investigated in saturated soil columns with and without manure colloids from sows and farrows, weaners, and fattening pigs. Experimental results showed that colloid-facilitated transport of SMOX was significant in the presence of manure colloids from fattening pigs with low C/N ratio, high SUVA280 nm and protein C, while manure colloids from sows and farrows and weaners had little effect on SMOX transport. In contrast, only retardation was observed for SDZ and SMPD when manure colloids were present. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of colloids and SAs were replicated well by a newly developed numerical model that considers colloid-filtration theory, competitive kinetic sorption, and co-transport processes. Model results demonstrate that mobile colloids act as carriers for SMOX, while immobile colloids block SMOX from sorbing onto the soil. The low affinity of SMOX to sorb on immobile colloids prevents aggregation and also promotes SMOX's colloid-facilitated transport. Conversely, the high affinity of SDZ and SMPD to sorb on all types of immobile colloids retarded their transport. Thus, manure properties play a fundamental role in increasing the leaching risk of hydrophobic sulfonamides.

  5. Chemical P recovery from dairy manure using the Quick Wash process and use of low-P washed manure solids as soil amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large volumes of manure generated by intensive dairy production and their final land disposal is a significant environmental problem. Due to the imbalance of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) (4:1), emendation of soils with dairy manure entails a raise in available soil P levels beyond the crops' capa...

  6. Utilization of Chicken Excretions as Compost Manure in Bolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Kütük

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkish agricultural soils are insufficient with regard to organic matter content. Likewise, organic matter amounts in agricultural areas of Bolu are low. The benefits of organic matter to physical, chemical and biologic properties of soils are known for very long time. On the other hand, huge amount of chicken excretions are produced in Turkey with increased chicken production recently, and this result in substantial health and environmental problems. Amount of chicken excretions are estimated about 10 000 000 tons in Turkey. In Bolu, these amounts of chicken excretions are 300 000 tons per year. The most appropriate way to solve this question is to transform chicken excretions to organic manure and apply to agricultural fields. Composting is basic process for transforming of chicken excretions to organic manure. Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range of 40-65 °C. There are two essential methods in composting. One of them is traditional method taking much time and producing low grade manure. Another is rapid composting method taking less time and producing high grade manure under more controlled conditions. Rapid composting methods which are more acceptable as commercially in the world are windrow, rectangular agitated beds and rotating drum, respectively Selection of appropriate method is depending on composting material, environmental and economical conditions. Chicken excretions occurring large amounts in Bolu must be transformed to organic manure by means of a suitable composting method and used in agriculture. Because, chicken manure is an important resource for sustainable agriculture in Turkey and it should be evaluated.

  7. Effect of integrated forage rotation and manure management on yield, nutrient balance and soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Tomasoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a field experiment established in 1995 and still on going. It is located in Lodi, in the irrigated lowlands of Lombardy, Northern Italy. The experiment compares two rotations: the annual double cropping system, Italian ryegrass + silage maize (R1; and the 6-year rotation, in which three years of double crop Italian ryegrass + silage maize are followed by three years of alfalfa harvested for hay (R6 Each rotation have received two types of dairy manure: i farmyard manure (FYM; ii semi-liquid manure (SLM. The intent was to apply to each unit land area the excreta produced by the number of adult dairy cows sustained, in terms of net energy, by the forage produced in each rotation, corresponding to about 6 adult cows ha-1 for R1 and 4 adult cows ha-1 for R6. Manure was applied with (N1 or without (N0 an extra supply of mineral N in the form of urea. The objectives of this study were: i to assess whether the recycling of two types of manure in two forage rotation systems can sustain crop yields in the medium and long term without additional N fertilization; ii to evaluate the nutrient balance of these integrated forage rotations and manure management systems; iii to compare the effects of farmyard manure and semi-liquid manure on soil organic matter. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased yield of silage maize by 19% and alfalfa by 23%, while Italian ryegrass was not influenced by the manure treatment. Yet, silage maize produced 6% more in rotation R6 compared to rotation R1. The mineral nitrogen fertilization increased yield of Italian ryegrass by 11% and of silage maize by 10%. Alfalfa, not directly fertilized with mineral nitrogen, was not influenced by the nitrogen applied to the other crops in rotation. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased soil organic matter (SOM by +37 % for the rotation R1, and by +20% for the rotation R6. Conversely, no significant difference on SOM was observed

  8. Airborne pathogens from dairy manure aerial irrigation and the human health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Mark A.; Burch, Tucker R

    2016-01-01

    Dairy manure, like the fecal excrement from any domesticated or wild animal, can contain pathogens capable of infecting humans and causing illness or even death. Pathogens in dairy manure can be broadly divided into categories of taxonomy or infectiousness. Dividing by taxonomy there are three pathogen groups in dairy manure: viruses (e.g., bovine rotavirus), bacteria (e.g., Salmonella species), and protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum). There are two categories of infectiousness for pathogens found in animals: those that are zoonotic and those that are not. A zoonotic pathogen is one that can infect both human and animal hosts. Some zoonotic pathogens found in dairy manure cause illness in both hosts (e.g., Salmonella) while other zoonotic pathogens, like Escherichia coli O157:H7, (enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)) cause illness only in humans. As a general rule, the gastrointestinal viruses found in dairy manure are not zoonotic. While there are exceptions (e.g., rare reports of bovine rotavirus infecting children), for the most part the viruses in dairy manure are not a human health concern. The primary concerns are the zoonotic bacteria and protozoa in dairy manure.

  9. Apparatus for the ammonium recovery from liquid animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.; Timmerman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen present in animal manure can be a limiting factor when considering manure application rates onto arable land. EU-regulations triggered the development of a new ammonia exchange apparatus for the recovery of ammonia. The described apparatus has a liquid to liquid ammonia mass transfer

  10. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: Laboratory-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does no...

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions from a coal mine land reclaimed with stabilized manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mined land restoration using manure-based amendments may create soil conditions suitable for nitrous oxide production and emission. We measured nitrous oxide emissions from mine soil amended with composted poultry manure (Comp) or poultry manure mixed with paper mill sludge (Man+PMS) at C/N ratios o...

  12. Manure distribution as a predictor of N2O emissions from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Baral, Khagendra Raj; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Predicting nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from manure-amended soil remains a challenge. One reason may be that spatial heterogeneity in distribution of manure is not accounted for in models of N2O emission, but experimental results suggest that both manure and soil properties affect the distribution...... of manure constituents after field application in a systematic way. Key to predicting the fate of labile carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in manure is to acknowledge that the liquid phase, and a corresponding fraction of labile C and N, is partly absorbed by the bulk soil in response to the water potential...... gradient, and partly retained by particulate manure organic matter. Therefore, boundary conditions for subsequent transformations of C and N may be better described as two separate compartments. In this study, N2O emissions were determined in a 42-day experiment that included two soils (7.5% and 17% clay...

  13. Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Massé

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Degrading antibiotics discharged in the livestock manure in a well-controlled bioprocess contributes to a more sustainable and environment-friendly livestock breeding. Although most antibiotics remain stable during manure storage, anaerobic digestion can degrade and remove them to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Generally, antibiotics are degraded during composting > anaerobic digestion > manure storage > soil. Manure matrix variation influences extraction, quantification, and degradation of antibiotics, but it has not been well investigated. Fractioning of manure-laden antibiotics into liquid and solid phases and its effects on their anaerobic degradation and the contribution of abiotic (physical and chemical versus biotic degradation mechanisms need to be quantified for various manures, antibiotics types, reactor designs and temperature of operations. More research is required to determine the kinetics of antibiotics’ metabolites degradation during anaerobic digestion. Further investigations are required to assess the degradation of antibiotics during psychrophilic anaerobic digestion.

  14. Impacts of manure application on soil environment, rainfall use efficiency and crop biomass under dryland farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Jia, Zhikuan; Liang, Lianyou; Yang, Baoping; Ding, Ruixia; Nie, Junfeng; Wang, Junpeng

    2016-02-12

    Because of inadequate nutrient and water supply, soils are often unproductive in Northwest China. We studied the effects of manure application at low (LM 7.5  t ha(-1)), medium (MM 15 t ha(-1)), and high (HM 22.5 t ha(-1)) rates combined with fixed levels of chemical fertilizers on maize growth and rainfall use efficiency compared with chemical fertilizers (CK) under semi-arid conditions over a three-year period. HM and MM treatments could significantly increase soil water storage (0-120 cm) at tasseling stage of maize compared with LM treatment and CK (P < 0.05). Dry matter accumulation and rainfall use efficiency increased as manure application rate increasing (P < 0.05). HM treatment significantly increased rainfall use efficiency by 6.5-12.7% at big trumpeting - tasseling stage compared with LM and MM treatments. HM and MM treatments increased rainfall use efficiency by 8.6-18.1% at tasseling - grain filling stage compared with CK. There was no significant difference on biomass between HM and MM treatments at grain filling and maturity stages of maize in 2009 and 2010.

  15. Inoculum and zeolite synergistic effect on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Zaganas, Ioannis D.

    2014-01-01

    zeolite dosages on the mesophilic AD of poultry manure inoculated with a non-acclimatised to ammonia inoculum (dairy manure) was investigated. Additionally, a comparative analysis was performed between the data extracted from this study and the results of a previous study which has been conducted under...... the same experimental conditions but with the use of ammonia acclimatised inoculum (swine manure). At 5 and 10 g zeolite L−1, the methane yield of poultry manure was 43.4% and 80.3% higher compared with the experimental set without zeolite addition. However, the ammonia non-acclimatised inoculum...... was not efficient in digesting poultry manure even in the presence of 10 g zeolite L−1, due to low methane production (only 39%) compared to the maximum theoretical yield. Finally, ammonia acclimatised inoculum and zeolite have demonstrated a possible “synergistic effect” which led to a more efficient AD of poultry...

  16. The Effect Different Irrigation Regimes and Animal Manure on Nutrient, Essential Oil and Chemical Composition on Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of water stress and animal manure on nutrients concentration, essential oil percentage and its chemical components in Cuminum cyminum, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Zahak, Zabol, during 2003–2004 in a randomized complete block design arranged in factorial with four replicates. Treatments were there irrigation (I1: two times irrigation, I2: three times irrigation and I3: four times irrigation and two animal manure levels (F1: no manure and F2: 20 ton/ha manure. The chemical composition of the essential oil was examined by gas- chromatography (GC and GC-MS. The effect of water stress on Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, P and K percentages was significant but its effect on Mn, Zn and Cu was not significant. I1F1 had maximum of Na, Ca, Mg and minimum of micro nutrients. Using of animal manure was not effected on nutrients. The effect of water stress and animal manure were significant on essential oil and its chemical compositions. I2F2 had the highest of cuminaldehyde and ρ-cymene and the lowest of β-pinene, γ-terpinene and α-pinene. Result showed that there is a correlation among the main components of cumin essential oil under water and mineral stress.

  17. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of animal manures on chemical composition of silage produced from Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) two - years post application. The plots were established in June 2010 during this period, animal manures from cattle dung, swine waste, poultry droppings and small ...

  18. Life Cycle Assessments of Manure Management Techniques for the Baltic Sea Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    The report summarizes the key results of the consequential life cycle assessments (LCAs) carried out for a variety of manure management techniques over the Baltic Sea Regions (BSR). For all manure management technologies assessed, the environmental impacts (in terms of potential to global warming......, acidification of aquatic & terrestrial systems as well as phosphorus and nitrogen enrichment) are evaluated along the whole “manure management chain”, quantified and compared to the applying reference manure management system. The LCA results presented in this report cover 4 main manure types (dairy cow slurry....... Assessed separation technologies include concentration technologies, state-of-the-art decanter centrifuge and source-separation technologies. The energy production technologies addressed consist of thermal gasification, incineration and anaerobic digestion (for which a myriad of carbon co...

  19. Effectiveness of Postharvest Treatment with Chitosan to Control Citrus Green Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Guilli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Control of green mold, caused by Penicillium digitatum, by fungicides raises several problems, such as emergence of resistant pathogens, as well as concerns about the environment and consumers’ health. As potential alternatives, the effects of chitosan on green mold disease and the quality attributes of citrus fruits were investigated. Fruits were wounded then treated with different concentrations of chitosan 24 h before their inoculation with P. digitatum. The results of in vitro experiment demonstrated that the antifungal activity against P. digitatum was improved in concert to the increase of chitosan concentration. In an in vivo study, green mold was significantly reduced by chitosan treatments. In parallel, chitinase and glucanase activities were enhanced in coated fruits. Evidence suggested that effects of chitosan coating on green mold of mandarin fruits might be related to its fungitoxic properties against the pathogen and/or the elicitation of biochemical defense responses in coated fruits. Further, quality attributes including fruit firmness, surface color, juice content, and total soluble solids, were not affected by chitosan during storage. Moreover, the loss of weight was even less pronounced in chitosan-coated fruit.

  20. Effect of turning frequency on co-composting pig manure and fungus residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang-Ming, Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Composting of agricultural wastes not only can reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but also can recycle agricultural wastes and transform them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for agricultural applications. However, the composting process and final product are easily affected by the limited oxygen supply that results from insufficient aeration, especially in the center of a large-scale windrow. Hence, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the turning frequency on the composting efficiency and compost quality of used pig manure and fungus residue. Physical and chemical characteristics were measured over the course of 63 days of composting. The data indicate that higher temperatures and more rapid moisture removal generally result from a turning treatment of once every 2-4 days than in fewer, or no, turning treatments. The total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium contents increased in all windrows as the organic matter content decreased, but both the increases and decrease were greater in windrows that were turned more frequently. The reduction of the organic matter mass by 53.7-66.0% for a turning of once every 2-8 days is significantly higher than that for the static windrow (39.1%). Although there is an increase in nitrogen mass loss with an increased turning frequency, lower nitrogen mass losses (12.7-25.7%) in all treatments were noted compared with previous studies. A final compost product with less moisture, less weight, higher nutrient content (N, P, and K), and greater stability was obtained in windrows with turning frequencies of once every 2-4 days, which is recommended when composting pig manure and fungus residue. Composting of agricultural wastes not only can reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but recycling of agricultural wastes transforms them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for

  1. Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I.; Cata Saady, Noori M.; Gilbert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Beside their use to treat infections, antibiotics are used excessively as growth promoting factors in livestock industry. Animals discharge in their feces and urine between 70%–90% of the antibiotic administrated unchanged or in active metabolites. Because livestock manure is re-applied to land as a fertilizer, concerns are growing over spread of antibiotics in water and soil. Development of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major risk. This paper reviewed the potential of anaerobic digestion to degrade antibiotics in livestock manure. Anaerobic digestion can degrade manure-laden antibiotic to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Abstract Degrading antibiotics discharged in the livestock manure in a well-controlled bioprocess contributes to a more sustainable and environment-friendly livestock breeding. Although most antibiotics remain stable during manure storage, anaerobic digestion can degrade and remove them to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Generally, antibiotics are degraded during composting > anaerobic digestion > manure storage > soil. Manure matrix variation influences extraction, quantification, and degradation of antibiotics, but it has not been well investigated. Fractioning of manure-laden antibiotics into liquid and solid phases and its effects on their anaerobic degradation and the contribution of abiotic (physical and chemical) versus biotic degradation mechanisms need to be quantified for various manures, antibiotics types, reactor designs and temperature of operations. More research is required to determine the kinetics of antibiotics’ metabolites degradation during anaerobic digestion. Further investigations are required to assess the degradation of antibiotics during psychrophilic anaerobic digestion. PMID

  2. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  3. Methane and organic fertilizers from wood waste and manure fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashkevich, I F; Karelina, G N

    1961-01-01

    Fermentation of sawdust of foliate trees by mesophyllic microflora is feasible, producing CH/sub 4/; the yield of gas is 500 cu m/ton, which surpasses that from manure and other agricultural wastes. Preliminary acid hydrolysis is unnecessary. At 5% organic matter, sawdust fermentation proceeds normally and with good yield, but 10% initial concentration of organic matter results in poor performance. Fermentation of common manure, that of sawdust and manure, or that of sawdust alone yields essentially the same gases. Fir sawdust does not ferment, but it does not stop manure or ash sawdust from fermenting if mixed with these. Fermented sawdust behaves like a fertilizer; it is beneficial to plants and crops. Nonfermented sawdust does not. Lupine N content is increased by both fermented and nonfermented sawdusts.

  4. Manure gas, a new national resource of heat and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creplet, L E

    1951-11-01

    Installations for the production of combustible gases from farmyard manure are described and the chemistry of the fermentation is outlined. It is claimed that the fertilizing value of the manure is increased by the process.

  5. Some extractable iron contents as influenced by some organic manures application in the soils of Lake Geriyo, Adamawa state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddiq Abdullahi Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic manures are safer sources of plant nutrients and a good source of micronutrients therefore; pot experiments were carried out to estimate some extractable iron contents as influenced by organic manure application in the soils of Lake Geriyo, Adamawa state, Nigeria. Two types of organic manures; poultry droppings, cow dung and control were used for the experiment. Three levels of organic manures; 5, 10 and 15 tons per hectare (ton ha-1 and three sampling time (30, 60 and 90 DAS were laid down in a completely randomized (CRD design replicated three times. Results obtained revealed that rate, type of organic manures and time of submergence significantly (P ≤ 0.05 changed Fe content in the soil. Mean extractable iron concentrations of 42.01, 56.13 and 24.63 mgkg-1 were recorded for ammonium oxalate extractable iron, Citrate Bicarbonate Dithionite extractable iron and sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron in the first experiment while 45.81, 59.29 and 28.89 mgkg-1 were recorded for the second experiment respectively. However, CBD which extracts both amorphous and crystalline Fe recorded the highest Fe contents throughout the treatments with poultry droppings applied pots recording superior values than that of cowdung manure. similarly, higher values of oxa-Fe and Pyro-Fe were recorded in both manures compared to the control. In conclusion poultry droppings may result in iron accumulation and toxicity hence should be used with caution in the soil of Lake Geriyo and similar soils to avoid serious soil reduction leading to iron toxicity and soil phosphorus antagonism.

  6. Green Walls as an Approach in Grey Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysulova, Martina; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Vranayova, Zuzana

    2017-10-01

    Grey water contributes significantly to waste water parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (Ptotal), total nitrogen (Ntotal), ammonium, boron, metals, salts, surfactants, synthetic chemicals, oils and greases, xenobiotic substances and microorganisms. Concentration of these pollutants and the water quality highlights the importance of treatment process in grey water systems. Treatment technologies operating under low energy and maintenance are usually preferred, since they are more cost effective for users. Treatment technologies based on natural processes represent an example of such technology including vegetated wall. Main aim of this paper is to introduce the proposal of vegetated wall managing grey water and brief characteristic of proposed system. Is expected that prepared experiment will establish the purifying ability and the potential of green wall application as an efficient treatment technology.

  7. Response of foster grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. to organic and inorganic fertilization in central Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla A.M. Elhassan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of Foster grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. to organic and inorganic fertilization in Sennar area (13°37′N–33°37′E representing central Sudan, was studied for two successive seasons (2003/2004 and 2004/2005. Urea, sheep manure and terra-sorb (as foliar at the rates of 2.17 kg/tree/year, 20 kg/tree/year and 200 ml/100 L water, respectively, and their combinations were applied to 18 years old trees to determine their effects on fruit yield and quality. The layout was a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Results indicated that all treatments significantly increased average yield over control with inconsistent effects on fruit quality parameters. Trees received urea at the rate of 2.17 kg/tree/year, yielded thick peel fruits of reduced vitamin C. Sheep manure at the rate of 20 kg/tree/year resulted in dark green fruits of thick peel. The foliar treated trees at the rate of 200 ml/100 L water gave little thick peel fruits of lower total soluble solids, low % titrable acidity and low vitamin C. The best fruits reflected by color, thinner peel, high % TSS and high vitamin C were obtained from urea + sheep manure treatment. Application of urea with foliar gave green large fruits. Small fruits of intensive green color on surface and low titrable acidity were recorded by combination of sheep manure and foliar. Application of the three fertilizers together gave fruits of dark green color on surface and thick peel. Therefore, application of 2.17 kg urea + 20 kg sheep manure/tree/year is recommended to Foster grapefruit trees in Sennar area and areas of similar environmental conditions.

  8. Utilisation of cattle manure and inorganic fertiliser for food production in central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Muhereza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertiliser use in small-holder peri-urban crop-livestock farms in Uganda was investigated by conducting a socio-economic survey of 40 farms in the central districts of Wakiso and Kampala where cattle manure is commonly applied to address the issue of declining crop yields. The major benefits obtained from cattle manure application were increased yields and low cost, while negative effects were poor hygienic conditions and bad odour. The challenges associated with the use of cattle manure included its weight and bulkiness, lack of labour, insufficient quantities, high transportation and application costs, lack of storage facilities to maintain quality attributes of manure and the incidence of chaffer grubs and worms; a nuisance during application which affected crop growth. The survey indicated that of the farmers using cattle manure, only 5% also supplemented with inorganic fertilisers. Other animal manures applied included poultry, pig, goat and rabbit where available. The nutrient content of cattle manure was generally low, as a result of livestock diet and storage. There was little education available to farmers as to optimum strategies and rates of fertiliser (including both inorganic and organic fertilisers to improve crop yield and this needed addressing to improve food security and economic development in Uganda. Keywords: cattle manure; fertiliser; urea

  9. ACÚMULO DE NUTRIENTES NAS PLANTAS DE MILHETO EM FUNÇÃO DA ADUBAÇÃO ORGÂNICA E MINERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Nicolau Sobrinho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out at the UFCG/CSTR Experimental Station NUPEARIDO in order to evaluate the influence of organic and mineral fertilization on pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. production. After plot demarcation, macassar bean was sown and incorporated in the soil in the respective plots after x days of plant development. Treatments were control, green manure, NPK, cattle manure or goat manure, with four replications, totaling 20 plots, each one with 8 m2 of net inner area. Pear millet plants were grown in a 0.8 x 0.4 m2 grid. Cattle or goat manure was applied at a rate of 3.4 kg m-2, green manure at a rate of 12.5 kg plot-1, and the mineral source consisted of 25.2 g m-2 of ammonium sulphate, 22.2 g m-2 of single superphosphate and 3.3 g m-2 of potassium chloride. Plants were cut 60 days after seeding to evaluate N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn accumulation. Fertilization with cattle or goat manure promoted more nutrient accumulation pearl millet plants.

  10. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane during the management of solid manures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, J; Sommer, Sven Gjedde; Kupper, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    manure tends to be small. Average unabated NH3 emissions following application of manure were 0.79, 0.63 and 0.40 of total ammoniacal-N (TAN) from cattle, pig and poultry manure respectively. The smaller emission from poultry manure is expected as hydrolysis of uric acid to urea may take many months...... application were 20%, 56% and 50% for cattle, pigs and poultry, respectively. Incorporation by disc or harrow reduced NH3 emissions less than incorporation by plough. Emissions of N2O following the application of cattle manure were 0.12 of TAN without incorporation after application and 0.073 TAN...... with incorporation after application. Conversely, emissions following application of pig and poultry manures were 0.003 and 0.001 TAN respectively without and 0.035 and 0.089 TAN respectively with incorporation after application...

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions from manure handling - effects of storage conditions and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, S.G.; Petersen, S.O.

    2002-01-01

    Stored animal manure and manure applied in the field contributes an estimated 20% to the total anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 0) in Denmark. Manure composition, handling and climatic conditions may all influence the emission level during storage, but there are relatively few experimental data on emissions of N 2 0 from manure management, including animal houses, slurry stores and manure heaps. Among animal housing systems, very high emission rates have been found with pig deep lifter, and N 2 0 emissions are further stimulated by mechanical mixing. Slurry stores are anaerobic, but a recent study showed that N 2 0 can be produced in porous surface covers such as natural surface crusts, straw or leca pebbles, while no N 2 0 was emitted from uncovered slurry. The emission was significantly related to the water balance, i.e., the difference between evaporation and rain, during dry periods; during wet periods no N 2 0 was emitted. For solid manure, previous studies have typically found that less than 1 % of total N is emitted as N 2 0. Nitrous oxide may be produced throughout the manure heap, provided an environment with both aerobic and anaerobic pockets exists. Profiles from an experimental heap indicated that most of the N 2 0 emitted from solid manure was produced near the surface of the heap. Increasing density appears to stimulate N 2 0 emissions up to a point, where the air exchange is significantly impeded. The IPCC methodology calculates N 2 0 emissions from manure on the basis of total N content (that is, on the basis of volume) and climate region only. Possibly, estimates of N 2 0 emissions from slurry stores could be improved by considering surface area, ammonium content and water balance as input variables. Emissions from solid manure heaps should consider surface area and the potential for composting, as reflected in bulk density and moisture content. (au)

  12. Carbon Balance in an Irrigated Corn Field after Inorganic Fertilizer or Manure Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, R. D.; Lehrsch, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about inorganic fertilizer or manure effects on organic carbon (OC) and inorganic C (IC) losses from a furrow irrigated field, particularly in the context of other system C gains or losses. In 2003 and 2004, we measured dissolved organic and inorganic C (DOC, DIC), particulate OC and IC (POC, PIC) concentrations in irrigation inflow, runoff, and percolation waters (6-7 irrigations/y); C inputs from soil amendments and crop biomass; harvested C; and gaseous C emissions from field plots cropped to silage corn (Zea mays L.) in southern Idaho. Annual treatments included: (M) 13 (y 1) and 34 Mg/ha (y 2) stockpiled dairy manure; (F) 78 (yr 1) and 195 kg N/ha (y 2) inorganic N fertilizer; or (NA) no amendment--control. The mean annual total C input into M plots averaged 16.1 Mg/ha, 1.4-times greater than that for NA (11.5 Mg/ha) or F (11.1 Mg/ha), while total C outputs for the three treatments were similar, averaging 11.8 Mg/ha. Thus, the manure plots ended each growing season with an average net gain of 3.8 Mg C/ha (a positive net C flux), while the control (-0.5 Mg C/ha) and fertilizer (-0.4 Mg C/ha) treatments finished the season with a net C loss. Atmospheric CO2 incorporated into the crop biomass contributed 96% of the mean annual C input to NA and F plots but only 68% to M plots. We conclude that nutrient amendments substantially influence the short-term carbon balance of our furrow-irrigated system. Amendments had both direct and indirect influences on individual C components, such as the losses of DIC and POC in runoff and DOC in percolation water, producing temporally complex outcomes which may depend on environmental conditions external to the field.

  13. Nutrient production from dairy cattle manure and loading on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunggun Won

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Along with increasing livestock products via intensive rearing, the accumulation of livestock manure has become a serious issue due to the fact that there is finite land for livestock manure recycling via composting. The nutrients from livestock manure accumulate on agricultural land and the excess disembogues into streams causing eutrophication. In order to systematically manage nutrient loading on agricultural land, quantifying the amount of nutrients according to their respective sources is very important. However, there is a lack of research concerning nutrient loss from livestock manure during composting or storage on farms. Therefore, in the present study we quantified the nutrients from dairy cattle manure that were imparted onto agricultural land. Methods Through investigation of 41 dairy farms, weight reduction and volatile solids (VS, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP changes of dairy cattle manure during the storage and composting periods were analyzed. In order to support the direct investigation and survey on site, the three cases of weight reduction during the storing and composting periods were developed according to i experiment, ii reference, and iii theoretical changes in phosphorus content (ΔP = 0. Results The data revealed the nutrient loading coefficients (NLCs of VS, TN, and TP on agricultural land were 1.48, 0.60, and 0.66, respectively. These values indicated that the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus was 40% and 34%, respectively, and that there was an increase of VS since bedding materials were mixed with excretion in the barn. Conclusion As result of nutrient-footprint analyses, the amounts of TN and TP particularly entered on arable land have been overestimated if applying the nutrient amount in fresh manure. The NLCs obtained in this study may assist in the development of a database to assess the accurate level of manure nutrient loading on soil and facilitate systematic nutrient management.

  14. Effluent Gas Flux Characterization During Pyrolysis of Chicken Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. C.; Ryals, R.; Miller, D. J.; Mullen, C. A.; Pan, D.; Zondlo, M. A.; Boateng, A. A.; Hastings, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis is a viable option for the production of agricultural resources from diverted organic waste streams and renewable bioenergy. This high temperature thermochemical process yields material with beneficial reuses, including bio-oil and biochar. Gaseous forms of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are also emitted during pyrolysis. The effluent mass emission rates from pyrolysis are not well characterized, thus limiting proper evaluation of the environmental benefits or costs of pyrolysis products. We present the first comprehensive suite of C and N mass emission rate measurements of a biomass pyrolysis process using chicken manure as feedstock to produce biochar and bio-oil. Two chicken manure fast pyrolysis experiments were conducted at controlled temperature ranges of 450 - 485 °C and 550 - 585 °C. Mass emission rates of N2O, NO, CO, CO2, CH4 and NH3 were measured using trace gas analyzers. Based on the system mass balance, 23-25% of the total mass of the manure feedstock was emitted as gas, while 52-55% and 23% were converted to bio-oil and biochar, respectively. CO2 and NH3 were the dominant gaseous species by mass, accounting for 58 - 65% of total C mass emitted and 99% of total reactive N mass emitted, respectively. Our gas flux measurements suggest that 1.4 to 2.7 g NH3 -N would be produced from the pyrolysis of one kg of manure. Conservatively scaling up these NH3 pyrolysis emissions in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, where an estimated 8.64 billion kg of poultry manure is applied to agricultural soils every year, as much as 1.2 x 107 kg of NH3 could be emitted into the atmosphere annually, increasing the potential impact of atmospheric N deposition without a mechanism to capture the gas exhaust during pyrolysis. However, this is considerably less than the potential emissions from NH3 volatilization of raw chicken manure applications, which can be 20-60% of total N applied, and amount to 3.4 x 107 - 1.0 x 108 kg NH3-N yr-1. Pyrolysis has the potential to

  15. Rattle tree (Albizia lebbeck Benth. effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. productivity on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Alasi Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the biotite-granite area (Alfisol of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, consisting of five cropping seasons to determine the effects of the tree rows (under alley cropping and green manure of Albizia lebbeck Benth. (rattle tree on the yield / productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. (Irish potato. The experiment was a randomized complete block design comprising five treatments and three replicates. An early maturing potato variety (Bertita was employed, its pre-sprouted tubers were planted in the alleys (spaces between the tree rows of A. lebbeck two weeks after green manure was applied (5 and 10 t ha-1, pre and post experimental soil sample analyses and cultivation operations were carried out. Results indicated that the rattle tree had profound effect on the potato growth parameters (plant height, leaf count, collar girth (at P < 0.01 and yield indices (tuber count (P < 0.05 and tuber weight (P < 0.01 due to nutrients from the green manure and nitrogen fixation activities of the rattle tree. A. lebbeck green manure application at 10 t ha-1 in the alleys of A. lebbeck hedgerows emerged as the most effective treatment in terms of growth performance and optimal yield. Collar girth and leaf count of the potato accounted for 80.4 - 91.3% of the variation in yield (R2 = 0.804 - 0.913 with collar girth having the highest value (R2 =0.910 in rainy season (rain fed cropping, while leaf count had the highest value (R2=0.913 during the dry season (irrigated cropping.

  16. Enhanced methane productivity from swine manure fibers by aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants has triggered the development of new separation technologies for being applied before anaerobic digestion of the manure. Thus, manure solid and liquid fractions could be used to centralized biogas plants for methane...... production and as fertilizer on the farm, respectively. One of the challenges of this approach is that the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to digest and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. In the present study, aqueous...... ammonia soaking (AAS) was investigated as a pretreatment method to disrupt lignocellulosic structure and increase methane potential of swine manure fibers. It was proven that AAS broke down the lignocellulosic structure dissolving approximately the 35% of lignin and maintaining cellulose...

  17. Weed supression by smother crops and selective herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Francisco José

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a smother crop is thought to suppress weed density and to add other beneficial effects in sustainable agricultural systems. Weed suppression ought to be considered an essential component of integrated weed management. However, very little is known about the effects of green manure plants on weeds. This study evaluated the influence of three green manure species on weed suppression and selectivity of herbicides. A field experiment was designed to determine the effect of the green manure species Crotalaria juncea, Arachis pintoi and pigeon pea on the weeds Brachiaria decumbens, guineagrass and hairy beggarticks, and on the natural weed infestation in the inter rows area of an avocado orchard. The weed species were suppressed differently by each green manure species. Soil samples collected from the field experiment presented a residual effect, of at least 30 d, in suppressing weed seed bank recruitment; this residual effect was caused by the residues of the green manure present in the soil. When the green manure was incorporated into the top 5 cm of soil or left on the surface, in a greenhouse experiment, the emergence of weed seeds was significantly inhibited, depending on the species, and on the amount and depth of green manure incorporation. Greenhouse experiments indicate that pre-emergence herbicides cause lower phytotoxicity than post-emergence Arachis pintoi. Smother crops using green manure species, when well established in an area, provide additional weed control to the cropping system and are effective and valuable tools in integrated weed management.

  18. Phosphorus leaching from cow manure patches on soil columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Aalderink, G.H.; Salm, van der C.

    2007-01-01

    The loss of P in overland flow or leachate from manure patches can impair surface water quality. We studied leaching of P from 10-cmhigh lysimeters filled with intact grassland soil or with acid-washed sand. A manure patch was created on two grassland and two sandfilled lysimeters, and an additional

  19. Enhanced conversion of newly-added maize straw to soil microbial biomass C under plastic film mulching and organic manure management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X.; Filley, T. R.

    2017-12-01

    Management of crop residues using plastic film mulching (PFM) has the potential to improve soil health by accelerating nutrient cycling and facilitating stable C pool production; however, a key aspect of this process—microbial immobilization of residue C—is poorly understood, especially under PFM when combined with different fertilization treatments. A 360-day in situ 13C-tracing technique was used to analyze the contribution and dynamics of microbial biomass C (MBC) to soil organic C (SOC) after 13C-labelled maize straw residue was applied to micro-plot topsoil in a cultivated maize (Zea mays L.) field under 27-year PFM and four fertilization treatments. Over the course of the experiment, MBC content was significantly (P<0.05) higher in treatments of manure (M) and manure plus nitrogen (MN) compared to the no-fertilization (CK) and nitrogen (N) treatments, regardless of PFM. Compared to no PFM controls, PFM enhanced the decomposition of maize straw during summer (Day 60) in the M and MN treatments, exhibiting increases of 93.0% and 28.6% in straw-derived 13C-MBC and 80.4% and 82.9% in 13C-MBC/13C-SOC, respectively. Overall, both PFM and organic manure treatments improved soil fertility through microbe-mediated incorporation of C derived from newly-added maize straw. Our results indicate that microbial growth and activity are affected by the utilization of different C sources and most dramatically during early seasonal transition.

  20. Fate of metal resistance genes in arable soil after manure application in a microcosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenguang; Zeng, Zhenling; Zhang, Yiming; Ding, Xueyao; Sun, Yongxue

    2015-03-01

    Manure application contributes to the spread and persistence of metal resistance genes (MRGs) in the environment. We investigated the fate of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) resistance genes (pcoA, pcoD and zntA) in arable soil after Cu/Zn-containing manure application. Manure with or without addition of metals (Cu/Zn) was added in a soil microcosm over 2 months. Soil samples were collected for analysis on day 0, 30 and 60. The abundances of all MRGs (pcoA, pcoD and zntA) in manure group were significantly higher than those in untreated soil and manure+metals groups. All MRGs dissipated 1.2-1.3 times faster in manure group (from -90 ± 8% to -93 ± 7%) than those in manure+metals group (from -68 ± 8% to -78 ± 5%). The results indicated that manure from healthy pigs contributed to the occurrence of metals (Cu/Zn) and MRGs (pcoA, pcoD and zntA) in arable soil. The significant effects of manure application on the accumulation of pcoA, pcoD and zntA lasted for 1-2 months. Cu/Zn can slow down the dissipation of pcoA, pcoD and zntA after manure application. This is the first report to investigate the fate of MRGs in soil after manure application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Co-composting of livestock manure with rice straw: characterization and establishment of maturity evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoyong; Shen, Genxiang; Wang, Zhenqi; Guo, Chunxia; Liu, Yangqing; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-02-01

    Composting is considered to be a primary treatment method for livestock manure and rice straw, and high degree of maturity is a prerequisite for safe land application of the composting products. In this study pilot-scale experiments were carried out to characterize the co-composting process of livestock manure with rice straw, as well as to establish a maturity evaluation index system for the composts obtained. Two pilot composting piles with different feedstocks were conducted for 3 months: (1) swine manure and rice straw (SM-RS); and (2) dairy manure and rice straw (DM-RS). During the composting process, parameters including temperature, moisture, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), different forms of nitrogen (total, ammonia and nitrate), and humification index (humic acid and fulvic acid) were monitored in addition to germination index (GI), plant growth index (PGI) and Solvita maturity index. OM loss followed the first-order kinetic model in both piles, and a slightly faster OM mineralization was achieved in the SM-RS pile. Also, the SM-RS pile exhibited slightly better performance than the DM-RS according to the evolutions of temperature, OM degradation, GI and PGI. The C/N ratio, GI and PGI could be included in the maturity evaluation index system in which GI>120% and PGI>1.00 signal mature co-composts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ADM1-based modeling of anaerobic digestion of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was tested in CSTR-type digesters fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 (ADM1) was used for the prediction of the effect......Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers present challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal has been tested as a simple and cheap method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane potential and the biogas productivity of manure...... that the AAS had on the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion of manure. Kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting of the model to data from manure fed digesters. The model was able to satisfactorily simulate the behaviour of digesters fed with manure. However, the model predictions were poorer...

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun, E-mail: qichun.yang@pnnl.gov [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Tian, Hanqin, E-mail: tianhan@auburn.edu [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Li, Xia [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Ren, Wei [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Zhang, Bowen [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhang, Xuesong [Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wolf, Julie [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.{sup −1} (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg P yr.{sup −1} (1 Tg = 10{sup 12} g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930–1969 and 1987–2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in

  4. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 ± 0.64 Tg N yr. −1 (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg P yr. −1 (1 Tg = 10 12 g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930–1969 and 1987–2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of

  5. Nitrogen losses and chemical parameters during co-composting of solid wastes and liquid pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; de la Varga, D; Plana, R; Soto, M

    2017-07-04

    The aim of this research was to study nitrogen losses during the treatment of the liquid fraction (LF) of pig manure by co-composting and to establish the best conditions for compost production with higher nitrogen and low heavy metal contents. Windrows were constituted with the solid fraction (SF) of pig manure, different organic waste (SF of pig manure, sawdust and grape bagasse) as co-substrate and Populus spp. wood chips as bulking material and watered intensely with the LF. Results show that nitrogen losses ranged from 30% to 66% of initial nitrogen and were mainly governed by substrate to bulking mass ratio and liquid fraction to substrate (LF/S) ratio, and only secondarily by operational parameters. Nitrogen losses decreased from 55-65% at low LF/S ratios (1.7-1.9 m 3 /t total solids (TS)) to 30-39% at high LF/S ratios (4.4-4.7 m 3 /t TS). Therefore, integrating the LF in the composting process at high LF/S ratios favoured nitrogen recovery and conservation. Nitrogen in the fine fraction (ranging from 27% to 48% of initial nitrogen) was governed by operational parameters, namely pH and temperature. Final compost showed low content in most heavy metals, but Zn was higher than the limits for compost use in agriculture. Zn content in the obtained compost varied from 1863 to 3269 mg/kg dm, depending on several factors. The options for obtaining better quality composts from the LF of pig manure are selecting co-substrates with low heavy metal content and using them instead of the SF of pig manure.

  6. Nutrients and heavy metal distribution in thermally treated pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Stoholm, Peder

    2008-01-01

    Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) contents. Total nutrient and metal concentrations...... that ash from gasified manure contained more water-extractable K in comparison with combusted manure whereas the opposite was the case with respect to P. Heavy metals Ni, Cr and Cd were present in higher concentrations in the fine particle size fractions (

  7. Multivariate Analysis of the Determinants of the End-Product Quality of Manure-Based Composts and Vermicomposts Using Bayesian Network Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Faverial

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicated that the quality of tropical composts is poorer than that of composts produced in temperate regions. The aim of this study was to test the type of manure, the use of co-composting with green waste, and the stabilization method for their ability to improve compost quality in the tropics. We produced 68 composts and vermicomposts that were analysed for their C, lignin and NPK contents throughout the composting process. Bayesian networks were used to assess the mechanisms controlling compost quality. The concentration effect, for C and lignin, and the initial blend quality, for NPK content, were the main factors affecting compost quality. Cattle manure composts presented the highest C and lignin contents, and poultry litter composts exhibited the highest NPK content. Co-composting improved quality by enhancing the concentration effect, which reduced the impact of C and nutrient losses. Vermicomposting did not improve compost quality; co-composting without earthworms thus appears to be a suitable stabilization method under the conditions of this study because it produced high quality composts and is easier to implement.

  8. Multivariate Analysis of the Determinants of the End-Product