WorldWideScience

Sample records for green line fe

  1. Green rusts synthesis by coprecipitation of Fe II-Fe III ions and mass-balance diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Christian; Aïssa, Rabha; Géhin, Antoine; Cortot, Jérôme; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Génin, Jean-Marie

    2006-06-01

    A basic solution is progressively added to various mixed Fe II-Fe III solutions. The nature and the relative quantities of the compounds that form can be visualised in a mass-balance diagram. The formation of hydroxysulphate green rust {GR( SO42-)} is preceded by the precipitation of a sulphated ferric basic salt that transforms in a badly ordered ferric oxyhydroxide. Then octahedrally coordinated Fe II species and SO42- anions are adsorbed on the FeOOH surface and GR( SO42-) is formed at the solid/solution interface. By using the same method of preparation, other types of green rust were synthesised, e.g. hydroxycarbonate green rust {GR( CO32-)}. Like other layered double hydroxides, green rusts obey the general chemical formula [ṡ[ṡmHO]x+ with x⩽1/3. Al-substituted hydroxysulphate green rust consists of small hexagonal crystals with a lateral size ˜50 nm, which is significantly smaller than the size of the GR( SO42-) crystals (˜500 nm). To cite this article: C. Ruby et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  2. Green synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of Fe NPs for the degradation of malachite green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanlan; Luo, Fang; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2015-02-25

    This study investigates green tea extract synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) used for the degradation of malachite green (MG), including the volume ratio of Fe(2+) and tea extract, the solution pH and temperature. Results indicated that the reactivity of Fe NPs increased with higher temperature, but fell with increasing pH and the volume ratio of Fe(2+) and tea extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Fe NPs were spherical in shape, their diameter was 70-80 nm and they were mainly composed of iron oxide nanoparticles. UV-visible (UV-vis) indicated that reactivity of Fe NPs used in degradation of MG significantly depended on the synthesized conditions of Fe NPs. This was due to their impact on the reactivity and morphology of Fe NPs. Finally, degradation of MG showed that 90.56% of MG was removed using Fe NPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Formation of the Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxysulphate green rust during marine corrosion of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refait, Ph.; Memet, J.-B.; Bon, C.; Sabot, R.; Genin, J.-M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Rust layers formed on steel sheet piles immersed 1 m above the mud line for 25 years were analysed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and elemental X-ray mappings (Fe, S, O). They consist of three main strata, the inner one mainly composed of magnetite, the intermediate one of iron(III) oxyhydroxides and the outer one of hydroxysulphate green rust GR(SO 4 2- ). Simulations of GRs formation in solutions having large [Cl - ]/[SO 4 2- ] ratios revealed that the hydroxysulphate GR(SO 4 2- ) was obtained instead of the hydroxychloride GR(Cl - ), as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy analyses. Measurements of the [S], [Fe] and [Cl] concentrations allowed us to establish that GR(SO 4 2- ) formed along with a drastic impoverishment of the solution in sulphate ions; the [Cl - ]/[SO 4 2- ] ratio increased from 12 to 240. The GR, acting like a 'sulphate pump', may favour the colonisation of the rust layers by sulphate reducing bacteria

  4. High-resolution Laboratory Measurements of Coronal Lines near the Fe IX Line at 171 Å

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Träbert, Elmar

    2018-02-01

    We present high-resolution laboratory measurements in the spectral region between 165 and 175 Å that focus on the emission from various ions of C, O, F, Ne, S, Ar, Fe, and Ni. This wavelength region is centered on the λ171 Fe IX channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and we place special emphasis on the weaker emission lines of Fe IX predicted in this region. In general, our measurements show a multitude of weak lines missing in the current databases, where the emission lines of Ni are probably most in need of further identification and reclassification. We also find that the wavelengths of some of the known lines need updating. Using the multi-reference Møller–Plesset method for wavelength predictions and collisional-radiative modeling of the line intensities, we have made tentative assignments of more than a dozen lines to the spectrum of Fe IX, some of which have formerly been identified as Fe VII, Fe XIV, or Fe XVI lines. Several Fe features remain unassigned, although they appear to be either Fe VII or Fe X lines. Further work will be needed to complete and correct the spectral line lists in this wavelength region.

  5. Temperature diagnostic line ratios of Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.C.; Smith, B.W.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1986-01-01

    Based on extensive calculations of the excitation rates of Fe XVII, four temperature-sensitive line ratios are investigated, paying special attention to the contribution of resonances to the excitation rates and to the contributions of dielectronic recombination satellites to the observed line intensities. The predictions are compared to FPCS observations of Puppis A and to Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and SOLEX observations of the sun. Temperature-sensitive line ratios are also computed for emitting gas covering a broad temperature range. It is found that each ratio yields a differently weighted average for the temperature and that this accounts for some apparent discrepancies between the theoretical ratios and solar observations. The effects of this weighting on the Fe XVII temperature diagnostics and on the analogous Fe XXIV/Fe XXV satellite line temperature diagnostics are discussed. 27 references

  6. An extreme Fe II emitter the narrow line quasar PHL 1092

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeron, J

    1980-01-01

    A search for Fe II emission in a sample of radio-quiet quasars has revealed the outstanding properties of PHL 1092. Intense Fe II lines dominate the entire spectrum, and the Fe II UV multiplets are nearly as strong as the optical ones. In contrast the extreme weakness of the Balmer and Mg II lines is striking. For the first time, Fe I lines are identified in an extra-galactic object. The lines are narrow, with a FWHM of 1300 km s/sup -1/. The presence of Fe II UV lines and Fe I lines from the ground state requires moderate column densities. However Fe/sup 0/ can exist only in a region completely shielded from the UV continuum. The weakness of Mg II and H beta relative to Fe II lines is best explained by their thermalization. The emitting region is of high electron density n/sub e/ approximately=10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/, low temperature T approximately=10000K, and has an optical depth in the Fe II UV lines tau /sub UV/ approximately=10/sup 3/-10/sup 4/. It is speculated that for higher densities all the lines wou...

  7. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  8. Line shape and thermal Kinetics analysis of the Fe2+ -band in Brazilian Green beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotani, S.; Furtado, W.; Antonini, R.; Dias, O.L.

    1988-03-01

    The optical absorption spectra study through isothermal treatments of the σ- and Π-polarized bands of Fe 2+ -band is reported. It was shown a linear correlation between these bands through thermal treatments. Irradiation with γ-rays from 60 Co, showed the decrease of this band. The line shape analysis and the discussions lend us to assign the Π- and σ-polarized bands to Fe 2+ ions in the structural channels with and without neighbour water molecules, respectively. The kinetics analysis through a ''bimolecular-like'' model gives untrapping parameter with Arrhenius behavior. The retrapping and recombination parameters showed a behavior proportional to T 1/2 - T 1/2 o which were explained from free electron distribution of velocities and minimum untrapped electron energy due to a potential barrier of the trap. The kinetics cut-off temperature, T 0 , agrees with the previous experimental observation. (author) [pt

  9. Green Synthesis of Magnetite (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles Using Seaweed ( Kappaphycus alvarezii) Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Yen Pin; Shameli, Kamyar; Miyake, Mikio; Kuwano, Noriyuki; Bt Ahmad Khairudin, Nurul Bahiyah; Bt Mohamad, Shaza Eva; Lee, Kar Xin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid, and eco-friendly green method was introduced to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) successfully. Seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii ( K. alvarezii) was employed as a green reducing and stabilizing agents. The synthesized Fe3O4-NPs were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The X-ray diffraction planes at (220), (311), (400), (422), (511), (440), and (533) were corresponding to the standard Fe3O4 patterns, which showed the high purity and crystallinity of Fe3O4-NPs had been synthesized. Based on FT-IR analysis, two characteristic absorption peaks were observed at 556 and 423 cm-1, which proved the existence of Fe3O4 in the prepared nanoparticles. TEM image displayed the synthesized Fe3O4-NPs were mostly in spherical shape with an average size of 14.7 nm.

  10. Synthesis and characterisation of the Fe(II-III) hydroxy-formate green rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refait, P.; Abdelmoula, M.; Genin, J.-M. R.; Jeannin, M.

    2006-01-01

    A new methodology was envisioned in order to prepare green rust compounds build on organic anions that could intervene in microbiologically influenced corrosion processes of iron and steel. The formate ion was chosen as an example. The formation of rust was simulated by the oxidation of aqueous suspensions of Fe(OH) 2 precipitated from Fe(II) lactate and sodium hydroxide, in the presence of sodium formate to promote the formation of the corresponding green rust. The evolution of the precipitate with time was followed by transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy at 15 K. It was observed that the initial hydroxide was transformed into a new GR compound. Its spectrum is composed of three quadrupole doublets, D 1 (δ = 1.28 mm s -1 , Δ = 2.75 mm s -1 ) and D 2 (δ = 1.28 mm s -1 , Δ 2.48 mm s -1 ) that correspond to Fe(II) and D 3 (δ = 0.49 mm s -1 , Δ = 0.37 mm s -1 ) that corresponds to Fe(III). The relative area of D 3 , close to the proportion of Fe(III) in the GR, was found at 28.5 ± 1.5% (∼2/7). Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the intermediate compound was a Fe(II-III) hydroxy-formate, GR(HCOO - ).

  11. Temperature-dependent striped antiferromagnetism of LaFeAsO in a Green's function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guibin; Liu Banggui

    2009-01-01

    We use a Green's function method to study the temperature-dependent average moment and magnetic phase-transition temperature of the striped antiferromagnetism of LaFeAsO, and other similar compounds, as the parents of FeAs-based superconductors. We consider the nearest and the next-nearest couplings in the FeAs layer, and the nearest coupling for inter-layer spin interaction. The dependence of the transition temperature T N and the zero-temperature average spin on the interaction constants is investigated. We obtain an analytical expression for T N and determine our temperature-dependent average spin from zero temperature to T N in terms of unified self-consistent equations. For LaFeAsO, we obtain a reasonable estimation of the coupling interactions with the experimental transition temperature T N = 138 K. Our results also show that a non-zero antiferromagnetic (AFM) inter-layer coupling is essential for the existence of a non-zero T N , and the many-body AFM fluctuations reduce substantially the low-temperature magnetic moment per Fe towards the experimental value. Our Green's function approach can be used for other FeAs-based parent compounds and these results should be useful to understand the physical properties of FeAs-based superconductors.

  12. Preparation and Eh-pH diagrams of Fe(II)-Fe(III) green rust compounds; hyperfine interaction characteristics and stoichiometry of hydroxy-chloride, -sulphate and -carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, J.-M.R.; Refait, Ph.; Simon, L.; Drissi, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxy-chloride, -sulphate and -carbonate were prepared by oxidation of a ferrous hydroxide precipitate in anion-containing aqueous solutions. The compounds are characterized by monitoring the redox potential E h and the pH of stochiometric suspension vs time with the appropriate concentration ratios. X-ray diffraction allows us to characterize the crystal structure by distinguishing 'green rust one' (GR1) from 'green rust two' (GR2). Since green rusts (GRs) are of a pyroaurite-sjoegrenite-like structure, i.e., consisting of intercalated foreign anions and water molecules in the interlayers between the brucite-like layers of Fe(OH) 2 , their chemical formulae can be determined from the Moessbauer spectra. Three quadrupole doublets are observed: D 1 and D 2 correspond to a ferrous state with isomershift IS of about 1.27 mm s -1 and quadrupole splittings QS of about 2.85 and 2.60 mm s -1 , respectively, whereas D 3 corresponds to a ferric state with IS and QS of about 0.4 mm s -1 . The hyperfine parameters of these doublets are similar from one green rust to another but their intensity ratios vary considerably. Finally, E h and pH equilibrium diagrams of the Fe species in the presence of chloride, sulphate and carbonate anions contained within the water solution are drawn and the thermodynamic conditions of existence and degrees of oxidation of green rusts are discussed

  13. One-step green synthesis of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles used to degrade Orange II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: zuliang.chen@newcastle.edu.au; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Green synthesis of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs was firstly reported using the one-step method. • 98.0% of Orange II was removed by Fe/Pd NPs, but only 16.0% by Fe NPs. • Fe/Pd NPs with a diameter ranging from 10 to 100 nm were observed. • Removing Orange II using Fe/Pd NPs involved both adsorption and catalytic degradation. - Abstract: To reduce cost and enhance reactivity, bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were firstly synthesized using grape leaf aqueous extract to remove Orange II. Green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs (98.0%) demonstrated a far higher ability to remove Orange II in 12 h compared to Fe NPs (16.0%). Meanwhile, all precursors, e.g., grape leaf extract, Fe{sup 2+} and Pd{sup 2+}, had no obvious effect on removing Orange II since less than 2.0% was removed. Kinetics study revealed that the removal rate fitted well to the pseudo-first-order reduction and pseudo-second-order adsorption model, meaning that removing Orange II via Fe/Pd NPs involved both adsorption and catalytic reduction. The remarkable stability of Fe/Pd NPs showed the potential application for removing azo dyes. Furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the changes in Fe/Pd NPs before and after reaction with Orange II. High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrum (HPLC–MS) identified the degraded products in the removal of Orange II, and finally a removal mechanism was proposed. This one-step strategy using grape leaf aqueous extract to synthesize Fe/Pd NPs is simple, cost-effective and environmentally benign, making possible the large-scale production of Fe/Pd NPs for field remediation.

  14. [Fe]-hydrogenases in green algae: photo-fermentation and hydrogen evolution under sulfur deprivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, M.; Hemschemeier, A.; Happe, T. [Botanisches Institut der Universitat Bonn (Germany); Gotor, C. [CSIC y Universidad de Sevilla (Spain). Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis; Melis, A. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Department of Plant and Microbial Biology

    2002-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that [Fe]-hydrogenases and H{sub 2} metabolism are widely distributed among green algae. The enzymes are simple structured and catalyze H{sub 2} evolution with similar rates than the more complex [Fe]-hydrogenases from bacteria. Different green algal species developed diverse strategies to survive under sulfur deprivation. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii evolves large quantities of hydrogen gas in the absence of sulfur. In a sealed culture of C. reinhardtii, the photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution rate drops below the rate of respiratory O{sub 2} consumption due to a reversible inhibition of photosystem II, thus leading to an intracellular anaerobiosis. The algal cells survive under these anaerobic conditions by switching their metabolism to a kind of photo-fermentation. Although possessing a functional [Fe]-hydrogenase gene, the cells of Scenedesmus obliquus produce no significant amounts of H{sub 2} under S-depleted conditions. Biochemical analyses indicate that S. obliquus decreases almost the complete metabolic activities while maintaining a low level of respiratory activity. (author)

  15. Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Lines of Iron Fe XI-XIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepson, Jaan; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Liedahl, D. A.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Dupree, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (ca. 20--300 Å) is rich in emission lines from low- to mid-Z ions, particularly from the middle charge states of iron. Many of these emission lines are important diagnostics for astrophysical plasmas, providing information on properties such as elemental abundance, temperature, density, and even magnetic field strength. In recent years, strides have been made to understand the complexity of the atomic levels of the ions that emit the lines that contribute to the richness of the EUV region. Laboratory measurements have been made to verify and benchmark the lines. Here, we present laboratory measurements of Fe XI, Fe XII, and Fe XIII between 40-140 Å. The measurements were made at the Lawrence Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, which has been optimized for laboratory astrophysics, and which allows us to select specific charge states of iron to help line identification. We also present new calculations by the Hebrew University - Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code (HULLAC), which we also utilized for line identification. We found that HULLAC does a creditable job of reproducing the forest of lines we observed in the EBIT spectra, although line positions are in need of adjustment, and line intensities often differed from those observed. We identify or confirm a number of new lines for these charge states. This work was supported by the NASA Solar and Heliospheric Program under Contract NNH10AN31I and the DOE General Plasma Science program. Work was performed in part under the auspices of the Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DEAC52-07NA27344.

  16. Infrared Fe II lines in Eta Carinae and a possible interpretation of infrared excesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, A.D.

    1978-01-01

    The identification of very strong emission lines in the near infrared spectrum of Eta Carinae with newly recognised high-level transitions of Fe II raises the possibility that the infrared excesses of hot emission-line stars may be due to dielectronic recombination of Fe II. Johansson's Fe II lines also need to be considered in the interpretation of the infrared spectra of supernovae. (author)

  17. A comparative study of nitrite reduction by synthetic and biogenic Fe(II-III) hydroxysalts green rusts: Evidence for hydroxyl-nitrite green rust formation as an intermediate reaction product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ona-Nguema, G.; Guerbois, D.; Morin, G.; Zhang, Y.; Noel, V.; Brest, J.

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of high nitrite concentrations as a result of anthropogenic activities is an important water quality concern as it is highly toxic to human and fauna, and it is used as a nitrogen source for the assimilation process. The toxicity of nitrite is related to its transformation into carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, which are suspected to be responsible for some gastric cancers, and to its ability to convert the hemoglobin to methaemoglobin what is then unable to fix oxygen and to transport it to the tissues, involving hypoxia and the blue-baby syndrome [1]. To reduce the adverse effect of nitrite on human health and on macroalgal blooms, any process enhancing the transformation of nitrite ions to nitrogen gas is of interest for the remediation of natural environments. To achieve this purpose the use of processes involving Fe(II)-containing minerals could be considered as one of the best options. Green-rusts are mixed Fe(II-III) layered double hydroxides commonly found in anoxic zones of natural environments such as sediments and hydromorphic soils. In such anoxic environments, green rust minerals play an important role in the biogeochemical redox cycling of iron and nitrogen, and can affect the speciation and mobility of many organic and inorganic contaminants. The present study investigates the reduction of nitrite by two synthetic and two biogenic green rusts. On the one hand, Fe(II-III) hydroxychloride and Fe(II-III) hydroxycarbonate green rusts were used as synthetic interlayer forms of GR, which are referred to as ';syn-GR(CO3)' and ';syn-GR(Cl)', respectively. On the other hand, the study was performed with biogenic Fe(II-III) hydroxycarbonate green rusts obtained from the bioreduction of two ferric precursors, either Fe(III)-oxyhydroxycarbonate or lepidocrocite; these biogenic green rusts are referred to as ';bio-GR(CO3)F' and ';bio-GR(CO3)L', respectively. For synthetic green rusts, results showed that the oxidation of both syn-GR(CO3) and syn

  18. LARGE-AREA [Fe II] LINE MAPPING OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC 443 WITH THE IRSF/SIRIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokusho, Takuma; Nagayama, Takahiro; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Lee, Ho-Gyu; Onaka, Takashi, E-mail: kokusho@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of near-infrared (near-IR) [Fe II] line mapping of the supernova remnant IC 443 with IRSF/SIRIUS, using the two narrow-band filters tuned for the [Fe II] 1.257 {mu}m and [Fe II] 1.644 {mu}m lines. Covering a large area of 30' Multiplication-Sign 35', our observations reveal that [Fe II] filamentary structures exist all over the remnant, not only in an ionic shock shell, but also in a molecular shock shell and a central region inside the shells. With the two [Fe II] lines, we performed corrections for dust extinction to derive the intrinsic line intensities. We also obtained the intensities of thermal emission from the warm dust associated with IC 443, using the far- and mid-IR images taken with AKARI and Spitzer, respectively. As a result, we find that the [Fe II] line emission relative to the dust emission notably enhances in the inner central region. We discuss causes of the enhanced [Fe II] line emission, estimating the Fe{sup +} and dust masses.

  19. Scalar Green's functions in an Euclidean space with a conical-type line singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, M.E.X.; Linet, B.

    1994-01-01

    In an Euclidean space with a conical-type line singularity, we determine the Green's function for a charged massive scalar field interacting with a magnetic flux running through the line singularity. We give an integral expression of the Green's function and a local form in the neighbourhood of the point source, where it is the sum of the usual Green's function in Euclidean space and a regular term. As an application, we derive the vacuum energy-momentum tensor in the massless case for an arbitrary magnetic flux. (orig.)

  20. Multiloop world-line Green functions from string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, K.; Sato, H.T.

    1996-01-01

    We show how the multiloop bosonic Green function of closed string theory reduces to the world-line Green function as defined by Schmidt and Schubert in the limit where the string world-sheet degenerates into a Φ 3 particle diagram. To obtain this correspondence we have to make an appropriate choice of the local coordinates defined on the degenerate string world sheet. We also present a set of simple rules that specify, in the explicit setting of the Schottky parametrization, which is the corner of moduli space corresponding to a given multiloop Φ 3 diagram. (orig.)

  1. A Fe K Line in GRB 970508

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protassov, R.; van Dyk, D.; Connors, A.; Kashyap, V.; Siemiginowska, A.

    2000-12-01

    We examine the x-ray spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 970508, analyzed for Fe line emission by Piro et al (1999, ApJL, 514, L73). This is a difficult and extremely important measurement: the detection of x-ray afterglows from γ -ray bursts is at best a tricky business, relying on near-real satellite time response to unpredictable events; and a great deal of luck in catching a burst bright enough for a useful spectral analysis. Detecting a clear atomic (or cyclotron) line in the generally smooth and featureless afterglow (or burst) emission not only gives one of the few very specific keys to the physics local to the emission region, but also provides clues or confirmation of its distance (via redshift). Unfortunately, neither the likelihood ratio test or the related F-statistic commonly used to detect spectral lines adhere to their nominal Chi square and F-distributions. Thus we begin by calibrating the F-statistic used in Piro et al (1999, ApJL, 514, L73) via a simulation study. The simulation study relies on a completely specified source model, i.e. we do Monte Carlo simulations with all model parameters fixed (so--called ``parametric bootstrapping''). Second, we employ the method of posterior predictive p-values to calibrate a LRT statistic while accounting for the uncertainty in the parameters of the source model. Our analysis reveals evidence for the Fe K line.

  2. The quantitative inspection of iron aluminide green sheet using transient thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Hinders, Mark K.; Scorey, Clive; Winfree, William

    1999-01-01

    The recent development of manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of thin iron aluminide, FeAl, sheet requires advanced quantitative methods for on-line inspection. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for flaws and the development of appropriate flaw detection methods are key elements in an effective quality management system. The first step in the fabrication of thin FeAl alloy sheet is the formation of a green sheet, either by cold rolling or tape casting FeAl powder mixed with organic binding agents. The finished sheet is obtained using a series of process steps involving binder elimination, densification, sintering, and annealing. Non-uniformities within the green sheet are the major contributor to material failure in subsequent sheet processing and the production of non-conforming finished sheet. Previous work has demonstrated the advantages of using active thermography to detect the flaws and heterogeneity within green powder composites (1)(2)(3). The production environment and physical characteristics of these composites provide for unique challenges in developing a rapid nondestructive inspection capability. Thermography is non-contact and minimizes the potential damage to the fragile green sheet. Limited access to the material also demands a one-sided inspection technique. In this paper, we will describe the application of thermography for 100% on-line inspection within an industrial process. This approach is cost competitive with alternative technologies, such as x-ray imaging systems, and provides the required sensitivity to the variations in material composition. The formation of green sheet flaws and their transformation into defects within intermediate and finished sheet products will be described. A green sheet conformance criterion will be presented which would significantly reduce the probability of processing poor quality green sheet which contributes to higher waste and inferior bulk alloy sheet

  3. Unresolved dielectronic satellites of the resonance line of heliumlike iron (Fe XXV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Horton, R.; Johnson, D.; Roney, W.; Sauthoff, N.; Silver, E.; Stodiek, W.

    1981-02-01

    (1s 2 nl - 1s2pnl, n greater than or equal to 3) dielectronic satellites of the resonance line of Fe XXV at 1.85 A have been observed from PLT (Princeton Large Torus) tokamak discharges and are used for a detailed comparison with theory. The necessary corrections for Doppler broadening measurements are discussed, and accurate satellite to resonance line ratios allowing for a determination of the total dielectronic recombination rate of Fe XXV are derived

  4. Theoretical emission line ratios for [Fe III] and [Fe VII] applicable to the optical and infrared spectra of gaseous nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F P; Aller, L H; Ryans, R S; Hyung, S

    2001-08-14

    Recent calculations of electron impact excitation rates and Einstein A-coefficients for transitions among the 3d(6) levels of Fe III and among the 3d(2) levels of Fe VII are used to derive theoretical emission line ratios applicable to the optical and infrared spectra of gaseous nebulae. Results for [Fe III] are generated for electron temperatures T(e) = 7,000-20,000 K and densities N(e) = 10(2)-10(8) cm(-3), whereas those for [Fe VII] are provided for T(e) = 10,000-30,000 K and N(e) = 10(2)-10(8) cm(-3). The theoretical line ratios are significantly different in some instances from earlier calculations and resolve discrepancies between theory and observation found for the planetary nebulae IC 4997 and NGC 7027.

  5. Green synthesis of carbon quantum dots from lignite coal and the application in Fe3+ detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuexia; Hao, Juanyuan; Liu, Jianhui; Tao, Hongcai

    2018-02-01

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) had attracted much attention due to their unique structures and excellent properties. Their green preparation was one of the research frontiers. However, most of the CQDs were prepared by strong acid oxidation, the way of which was not friendly to the environment. In this study, CQDs were prepared by green ozone oxidation of lignite coal, which is abundant and inexpensive. The CQDs were well dispersed, the size distribution of the obtained CQDs centralized from 2 to 4 nm with the average diameter of about 2.8 nm. In addition, the as-prepared CQDs containing rich oxygen functional groups exhibited good water-solubility and optical properties with yield reached 35%. The CQDs showed a highly sensitive and selective quenching effect to Fe3+ with desirable anti-interference performance. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of CQDs had a good linear response to the Fe3+ concentration ranging from 10 to 150 µmol/L with the detection limit of 0.26 µmol/L. This green and facile synthesis method had the prospect of large-scale preparation of CQDs.

  6. A comparison of theoretical and solar-flare intensity ratios for the Fe XIX X-ray lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.K.; Mason, H.E.; Fawcett, B.C.; Phillips, K.J.H.

    1989-04-01

    Atomic data consisting of energy levels, g f-values and wavelengths are presented for the Fe XIX 2s 2 2p 4 -2s 2 2p 3 3s, 2s 2 2p 3 3d arrays that give rise to lines in solar flare and active-region X-ray spectra. Collision strengths and theoretical intensity ratios are given for the 2s 2 2p 4 -2s 2 2p 3 3d lines, which occur in the 13.2-14.3 A range. Solar spectra in this range include a large number of other intense lines, notably those due to He-like Ne (Ne IX). Although the Ne IX lines are potentially the most useful indicators of electron density in solar X-ray spectra, blending with the Fe XIX lines has been a major problem for previous analyses. Comparison of observed spectra with those calculated from the Fe XIX atomic data presented here and Ne IX lines from other work indicates that there is generally good agreement. We use the calculated Fe XIX and Ne IX line spectra and several observed spectra during a flare previously analysed to estimate electron density from Ne IX line ratios, thus for the first time properly taking into account blends with Fe XIX lines. (author)

  7. Solar Flare Termination Shock and Synthetic Emission Line Profiles of the Fe xxi 1354.08 Å Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lijia [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Li, Gang [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Reeves, Kathy; Raymond, John, E-mail: gang.li@uah.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Solar flares are among the most energetic phenomena that occur in the solar system. In the standard solar flare model, a fast mode shock, often referred to as the flare termination shock (TS), can exist above the loop-top source of hard X-ray emissions. The existence of the TS has been recently related to spectral hardening of a flare’s hard X-ray spectra at energies >300 keV. Observations of the Fe xxi 1354.08 Å line during solar flares by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) spacecraft have found significant redshifts with >100 km s{sup −1}, which is consistent with a reconnection downflow. The ability to detect such a redshift with IRIS suggests that one may be able to use IRIS observations to identify flare TSs. Using a magnetohydrodynamic simulation to model magnetic reconnection of a solar flare and assuming the existence of a TS in the downflow of the reconnection plasma, we model the synthetic emission of the Fe xxi 1354.08 line in this work. We show that the existence of the TS in the solar flare may manifest itself in the Fe xxi 1354.08 Å line.

  8. Fe(II-III) Hydroxysalt Green Rusts; from Corrosion to Mineralogy and Abiotic to Biotic Reactions by Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, J.-M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxysalts commonly called green rusts are layered double hydroxides of formula [Fe II (1-x) Fe III x (OH) 2 ] x+ .[(x/n)A n- .(m/n)H 2 O] x- constituted of brucite-like layers containing Fe cations in the centres of OH - octahedrons and interlayers, which anions and water molecules belong to. They play a key role in corrosion and environmental sciences as well as mineralogy since they are, on the one hand, intermediate products between Fe(II) and Fe(III) states and, on the other hand, can be the major iron-bearing mineral in hydromorphic gley soils. Their crystal structure, Moessbauer spectra, methods of synthesis, abiotic as well as biotic, and some applications are presented here.

  9. Periodic Variations in the Coronal Green Line Intensity and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    behaviour of data results as discussed by Tsubaki (1988) in the green corona line intensity. ... This work was partly supported by the Grant Agency (5017/98) of the Slovak. Academy of Sciences. One of us (M. M.) thanks IAU for travel support.

  10. Fe3O4@mesoporous SBA-15: A magnetically recoverable catalyst for photodegradation of malachite green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyan, Hamid; Fazaeli, Razieh; Jalilian, Rahil

    2013-01-01

    Surface of mesostructured silica (SBA-15) was modified by immobilizing Fe 3 O 4 . This modified-nanosized mesoporous silica Fe 3 O 4 @SBA-15 was characterized by FTIR, XRD, BET and SEM. A comparison of the photoefficiency of Fe 3 O 4 @SBA-15 toward photodegradation of malachite green (MG) was investigated in a photocatalytic reactor using UV lamp as a light source. The effect of various experimental parameters on the degradation performance of the process was evaluated by examining catalyst dosage, initial dye concentration and pH of the dye solution in the presence of Fe 3 O 4 @SBA-15 as photocatalyst. It was found that the photocatalyst exhibited significantly high catalytic stability, and the activity loss is negligible after five MG degradation cycles.

  11. Hot rotating fp shell Fe isotopes near proton drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Mamta

    2003-01-01

    F p shell 44-58 Fe nuclei have been investigated in highly excited state using the statistical theory of hot rotating nucleus. Effects of thermal and rotational excitation at drip line nuclei are studied

  12. Designing MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} decorated on green mediated reduced graphene oxide sheets showing photocatalytic performance and luminescence property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Krushitha [Department of Nanotechnology, PG Center, Bangalore Region, VIAT, VTU, Muddenahalli, Chikkaballapur 562101 (India); Dr. D. Premachandrasagar Centre for Advanced Materials, DSCE, Bangalore 560078 (India); Lokesh, S.V. [Department of Nanotechnology, PG Center, Bangalore Region, VIAT, VTU, Muddenahalli, Chikkaballapur 562101 (India); Rangappa, Dinesh, E-mail: dineshrangappa@gmail.com [Department of Nanotechnology, PG Center, Bangalore Region, VIAT, VTU, Muddenahalli, Chikkaballapur 562101 (India); Nagaswarupa, H.P., E-mail: nagaswarupa77@gmail.com [Research Center, Department of Science, East West Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560091 (India); Nagabhushana, H., E-mail: bhushanvlc@gmail.com [Prof. CNR Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572103 (India); Anantharaju, K.S., E-mail: iamananthkurupalya@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Shavige Malleshwara Hills, Kumaraswamy Layout, Bangalore 560078 (India); Dr. D. Premachandrasagar Centre for Advanced Materials, DSCE, Bangalore 560078 (India); Prashantha, S.C. [Research Center, Department of Science, East West Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560091 (India); Vidya, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Lal Bahadur Shastri Government First Grade College, Bangalore, 560032 (India); Sharma, S.C. [Dr. D. Premachandrasagar Centre for Advanced Materials, DSCE, Bangalore 560078 (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore-560078 (India)

    2017-02-15

    Here, a green route has been reported to convert Graphene Oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using clove extract. A modest and eco-accommodating sol-gel strategy has been employed to prepare MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite samples. The samples were analyzed by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–Visible Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microcopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Photoluminescence (PL) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). PXRD result revealed that the prepared samples were cubic spinel in nature. SEM results uncovered flake like surface morphology of the prepared nanomaterial. Better PL emission signature was observed when excited at 329 nm. PL studies demonstrated that the present samples were potential for the fabrication of white component of white light emitting diodes (WLEDs). Further, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite showed enhanced photocatalytic movement (PCM) and photostability under Sunlight in the decomposition of Malachite Green (MG) compared to MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. This can be attributed to the interaction of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} surface with RGO sheets which results in PL quenching, demonstrates that the recombination of photo-induced electrons and holes in MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite is more effectively inhibited. A possible mechanism for the enhanced properties of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite was discussed. Moreover, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO photocatalyst also showed easy magnetic separation with high reusability. These results unveil that the synthesized sample can be used in display applications and also as a potential photocatalyst. - Graphical abstract: Green mediated reduced graphene oxide with MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} for display applications and also as a potential photocatalyst. - Highlights: • Synthesized GO was reduced to RGO by green route using clove extract. • MgFe

  13. Optical Properties of Malachite Green Dye Doped SiO2 Glasses: Effect of Transition Metal (Fe-I Used as a Codopant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulen Bora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced luminescence properties of Malachite Green (MG (oxalate in Fe-MG codoped SiO2 glasses compared to its values in MG doped SiO2 glasses are reported here. The enhancement is chiefly attributed to a resonance nonradiative energy transfer between Fe and MG. The quantum yield of Malachite Green (MG, in presence of Iron, trapped in sol-gel derived SiO2 glass increases by an order of ~103 compared to that in low viscous solvent while a lifetime of 3.29 ns is reported.

  14. Fe(III)-loaded collagen fiber as a heterogeneous catalyst for the photo-assisted decomposition of Malachite Green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaohu; Tang Rui; He Qiang; Liao Xuepin; Shi Bi

    2010-01-01

    A heterogeneous catalyst for Fenton reaction was prepared by immobilizing Fe(III) onto collagen fiber and its catalytic activity for the photo-assisted decomposition of Malachite Green (MG) was investigated. The results indicated that this Fe(III)-immobilized collagen fiber (Fe-CF) can effectively catalyse the decoloration and decomposition/mineralization of MG in aqueous solution. Catalysed by Fe-CF, MG solution was completely decolorized in 30 min, while 55.0% of TOC was removed from the dye solution within 120 min in the presence of H 2 O 2 and UVA irradiation (365 nm, 10 W). Fe-CF was recycled for seven times with certain activity loss (32.6% in decoloration, 18.5% in TOC removal), and its catalytic activity can be easily recovered by re-immobilization of Fe(III). Therefore, Fe-CF could act as an efficient and cost-effective catalyst for the photo-assisted decomposition of MG, and shows potential applications in practice.

  15. X-ray line emission and plasma conditions in exploded Fe wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhalter, P.G.; Dozier, C.M.; Stallings, C.; Cowan, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Single-wire Fe spectra collected from two different exploded-wire generators (Gamble II and Owl II) were analyzed to determined the ionization stages produced in the plasmas. The temperature for the hot-plasma pinches for both generators was 1.4 +- 0.2 keV at which an abundance of Fe XXIV transitions is produced. The Fe K spectra from exploded wires are basically similar to those produced in the pinched plasma generated randomly in the vacuum spark; however, the exploded wires have lower plasma temperatures than the hottest pinches produced in the vacuum spark. A detailed interpretation of the Fe L spectra formed in the exploded wires permitted line and ionization stage identifications in the 7-12-A region. Such spectroscopic data is useful for analysis of complex Fe spectra generated in multitemperature plasma devices like Tokamaks

  16. Use of Green functions in line shape problems in nuclear Magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.; Moreno, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A method based on the two times Green function formalism is presented. It permits the straightforward determination of the line shape in Magnetic Resonance experiments together with its temperature behavior. Model calculations are made on a two-spin system attached to a one-dimensional rotor obtaining the temperature dependence of its Magnetic Resonance line shape and second moment

  17. Two-line hybrid rice male sterile line 'NHR111S' with a marker of green-revertible albino leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Liu Xin; Shu Xiaoli; Shu Qingyao; Xia Yingwu; Wu Dianxing

    2006-01-01

    NHR111S is a new two-line male sterile line with a marker of green-revertible albino leave that was bred from in vitro mutagens is of the thermo/photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line 'Guangzhan63S' by 60 Co γ-rays. It has the same desired agronomic traits, fertility characteristics and combining ability as characteristics of the parent. It is convenient to develop leaf color marker-aided elimination strategy in the multiplication and production of hybrid rice seeds. (authors)

  18. Carbonate component reduces o,oEDDHA/Fe sorption on two-line ferrihydrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunta, F.; Lucena, J. J.; Smolders, E.

    2012-04-01

    The o,oEDDHA/Fe is the most common and effective iron chelate used as fertilizer in calcareous soils. Several authors have reported that the anionic o,oEDDHA/Fe complex is adsorbed to soil components such as ferrihydrite. The bicarbonate anion may be a competing ion for this sorption, however no studies have yet identified the extent and mechanism of this interaction. The aim of this work was to study the carbonate (bicarbonate + carbonate) effect on EDDHA/Fe adsorption on two-line ferrihydrite. Two-line ferrihydrite was synthetized adding NaOH on a nitrate iron (III) solution up to a final pH to be 8.0 and allowing to age for 22 hours at 20°C. Dialyzed ferrihydrite was characterized by determining specific parameters such as Fe/OH ratio, BET surface, point zero of charge and x-ray diffraction. The sorption was performed at three pH levels (5, 7.5 and 9.5) and three initial carbonate concentrations (from 0 to 2 mM). Initial EDDHA/Fe, ferrihydrite and ionic strength concentrations were adjusted to 0.18 mM, 10 g L-1 and 5 mM respectively. Total dissolved FeEDDHA concentrations were quantified at 480 nm. The o,oEDDHA/Fe isomers (rac-o,oEDDHA/Fe and meso-o,oEDDHA/Fe) were separated and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fitting a photodiode array detector (PDA). Distribution factor (KD) and sorbed o,oEDDHA/Fe concentration were determined. Actual carbonate concentration was determined using a multi N/C analyzer. Ferrihydrite samples showed a typical XRD pattern of two-line ferrihydrite, two broad peaks at about 35 and 62° respectively. The BET surfaces (two replicates) were 259.2 ± 3.1 m2/g and 256.0 ± 2.5 m2/g. The Point Zero of Salt Effect (PZSE) was 7.9 ± 0.2 as bibliographically supported for all fresh and thus not rigorously de-carbonated ferrihydrite samples. The KD of the o,oEDDHA/Fe increased from 27.4 ± 0.6 to 304 ± 6 l/kg by decreasing pH from 9.5 and 5.0 when no carbonate was added. Increasing equilibrium carbonate

  19. THE CORES OF THE FeLINES IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: AN EXTENDED CHANDRA HIGH ENERGY GRATING SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, X. W.; Wang, J. X.; Yaqoob, T.

    2010-01-01

    We extend the study of the core of the Fe Kα emission line at ∼6.4 keV in Seyfert galaxies reported by Yaqoob and Padmanabhan using a larger sample observed by the Chandra high-energy grating (HEG). The sample consists of 82 observations of 36 unique sources with z H 23 cm -2 ) Seyfert galaxies to date. From an empirical and uniform analysis, we present measurements of the Feline centroid energy, flux, equivalent width (EW), and intrinsic width (FWHM). The Feline is detected in 33 sources, and its centroid energy is constrained in 32 sources. In 27 sources, the statistical quality of the data is good enough to yield measurements of the FWHM. We find that the distribution in the line centroid energy is strongly peaked around the value for neutral Fe, with over 80% of the observations giving values in the range 6.38-6.43 keV. Including statistical errors, 30 out of 32 sources (∼94%) have a line centroid energy in the range 6.35-6.47 keV. The mean EW, among the observations in which a non-zero lower limit could be measured, was 53 ± 3 eV. The mean FWHM from the subsample of 27 sources was 2060 ± 230 km s -1 . The mean EW and FWHM are somewhat higher when multiple observations for a given source are averaged. From a comparison with the Hβ optical emission-line widths (or, for one source, Brα), we find that there is no universal location of the Feline-emitting region relative to the optical broad-line region (BLR). In general, a given source may have contributions to the Feline flux from parsec-scale distances from the putative black hole, down to matter a factor ∼2 closer to the black hole than the BLR. We confirm the presence of the X-ray Baldwin effect, an anti-correlation between the Feline EW and X-ray continuum luminosity. The HEG data have enabled isolation of this effect to the narrow core of the Feline.

  20. Differential diagnosis of feline leukemia virus subgroups using pseudotype viruses expressing green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Megumi; Sato, Eiji; Miura, Tomoyuki; Baba, Kenji; Shimoda, Tetsuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2010-06-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is classified into three receptor interference subgroups, A, B and C. In this study, to differentiate FeLV subgroups, we developed a simple assay system using pseudotype viruses expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). We prepared gfp pseudotype viruses, named gfp(FeLV-A), gfp(FeLV-B) and gfp(FeLV-C) harboring envelopes of FeLV-A, B and C, respectively. The gfp pseudotype viruses completely interfered with the same subgroups of FeLV reference strains on FEA cells (a feline embryonic fibroblast cell line). We also confirmed that the pseudotype viruses could differentiate FeLV subgroups in field isolates. The assay will be useful for differential diagnosis of FeLV subgroups in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the future.

  1. Discrepancies between calculated and observed Fe XVII and Ni XIX solar coronal lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loulergue, M [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92 (France); Nussbaumer, H [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1975-12-01

    The 36-levels model atom Fe/sup +16/ of Loulergue and Nussbaumer (1973) is extended to a 51-levels atom including n=4 configuration. The earlier conclusion that relative intensities among the Fe XVII lines are not sufficiently sensitive to variations in electron densities and electron temperature to deduce these parameters from observed intensity ratios still holds. Discrepancies between calculated and observed relative intensities in Fe XVII and Ni XIX are attributed to blends or misidentifications.

  2. The quadruple bottom line: the advantages of incorporating Green Chemistry into the undergraduate chemistry major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    2017-08-01

    When the author first became involved with the Green Chemistry movement, he noted that his colleagues in industry who were involved in one of the ACS Green Chemistry Institute® industrial roundtables emphasized the take-home message they described as the "triple bottom line." They noted that introducing Green Chemistry in industrial settings had economic, social, and environmental benefits. As someone who first went to school at age 5, and has been "going to school" most days for 65 years, it was easy for the author to see why introducing Green Chemistry into academics had similar beneficial effects within the context of economic, social and environmental domains at the college/university level. He was prepared to understand why faculty who had taught traditional courses often saw the advantage of incorporating Green Chemistry into the courses they teach. What was not as obvious is why students who were encountering chemistry for the first time were often equally passionate about the Green Chemistry movement. Recent attention has been paid, however, to a model that brings clarity to the hitherto vague term of "relevance" that might explain why integrating Green Chemistry into the undergraduate chemistry classroom can achieve a "quadruple bottom-line" for students because of potentially positive effects of adding a domain of "relevance" to the existing economic, social, and environmental domains.

  3. Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spherical magnetic nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini seed extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prasad, C.H.; Venkateswarlu, P.; Jyothi, N.V.V., E-mail: nvvjyothi01@gmail.com

    2014-09-15

    A novel and bio-inspired Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spherical magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) were synthesized using Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) seed extract, which is a non-toxic ecofriendly fruit waste material. S. cumini seed extract acts as a green solvent, reducing and capping agent in which sodium acetate acts as electrostatic stabilizing agent. The green synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FTIR spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption and desorption analysis techniques. The XRD study divulged that the synthesized SMNPs have inverse spinel cubic structure. The hysteresis loop of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles shows an excellent ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization value of 13.6 emu/g.

  4. Stellar and Laboratory XUV/EUV Line Ratios in Fe XVIII and Fe XIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träbert, Elmar; Beiersdorfer, P.; Clementson, J.

    2011-09-01

    A so-called XUV excess has been suspected with the relative fluxes of Fe XVIII and Fe XIX lines in XUV and EUV spectra of the star Capella as observed by the Chandra spacecraft [1] when comparing the observations with simulations of stellar spectra based on APEC or FAC. We have addressed this problem by laboratory studies using the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT). Our understanding of the EBIT spectrum is founded on work by Brown et al. [2]. The electron density of the electron beam in an EBIT is compatible to the density in energetic stellar flares. In our experiments, the relative detection efficiencies of two flat-field grating spectrographs operating in the EUV (near 100 Å) and XUV (near 16 Å) ranges have been determined using the calculated branching ratio of 1-3 and 2-3 transition in the H-like spectrum O VIII. FAC calculations assuming several electron beam energies and electron densities serve to correct the EBIT observations for the Maxwellian excitation in a natural plasma. In the EUV, the line intensity pattern predicted by FAC agrees reasonably well with the laboratory and Capella observations. In the XUV wavelength range, agreement of laboratory and astrophysical line intensities is patchy. The spectral simulation results from FAC are much closer to stellar and laboratory observation than those obtained by APEC. Instead of claiming an XUV excess, the XUV/EUV line intensities can be explained by a somewhat higher temperature of Capella than the previously assumed T=6 MK. This work was performed under the auspices of the USDoE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and was supported by the NASA under work order NNH07AF81I issued by the APRA Program. E.T. acknowledges support by DFG Germany. 1. P. Desai et al., ApJ 625, L59 (2005). 2. G. V. Brown et al., ApJS 140, 589 (2002).

  5. Sustainable solid-state strategy to hierarchical core-shell structured Fe 3 O 4 @graphene towards a safer and green sodium ion full battery

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Xiang; Huang, Xiaobing; Jin, Junling; Ming, Hai; Wang, Limin; Ming, Jun

    2017-01-01

    A sustainable solid-state strategy of SPEX milling is developed to coat metal oxide (e.g., Fe3O4) with tunable layers of graphene, and a new hierarchical core-shell structured Fe3O4@graphene composite is constructed. The presented green process can

  6. X-ray imaging of the Cr and Fe lines from Cassiopeia A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maeda, Y.; Sato, T.; Tsunemi, H.; Bamba, A.; Vink, J.; Terada, Y.; Takeda, T.; Sawada, M.; Gandhi, P.; Matsumoto, H.; Uchiyama, Y.; Helder, E.A.; Hiraga, J.; Hughes, J.P.; Kokubun, M.; Tamagawa, T.; Tsuboi, Y.; Ishida, M.; Petre, R.; Mitsuda, K.

    2014-01-01

    Follow-up Suzaku X-ray observations of a young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A carried out with a long exposure of ˜ 165 ksec in 2012. Owing to the high statistics of the data, the map of Cr-K line is made. The flux map of Cr-K line is similar to that of Fe-K. The similarity indicates that the

  7. Laboratory measurements of the x-ray line emission from neon-like Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Chen, H; Scofield, J; Boyce, K R; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Gu, M F; Kahn, S M; Szymkowiak, A E

    2006-01-01

    The authors have conducted a systematic study of the dominant x-ray line emission from Fe XVII. These studies include relative line intensities in the optically thin limit, intensities in the presence of radiation from satellite lines from lower charge states of iron, and the absolute excitation cross sections of some of the strongest lines. These measurements were conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap facility using crystal spectrometers and a NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center microcalorimeter array

  8. Heterogeneous Photodecolorization of Methyl Green Catalyzed by Fe(II-o-Phenanthroline/Zeolite Y Nanocluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Fe(II-orthophenatrolin, as doped with synthetic zeolite Y nanocluster (Na-Y via complexation process, after wet impregnation of parent zeolite with FeSO4 aqueous solution, was studied as a photocatalyst in decolorization of Methyl Green (MG under UV irradiation. The characterization of the synthesized zeolite nanocluster and the prepared catalyst was studied using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermal analysis, and SEM methods. The dye photodecolorization process was studied considering the influence of experimental parameters and it was observed that photoreactivity of the photocatalyst was varied with catalyst amount, initial dye concentration, pH of dye solution, temperature, and the presence of KBrO3. The optimal experimental parameters were obtained as follows: catalyst amount: 1 gL−1, dye concentration: 40 ppm, pH: 9, and active component value: 100 mg Fe(II-orthophenatrolin per g catalyst. The reusability of the intended catalyst was also investigated. The degradation process obeyed first-order kinetics.

  9. Transformation lines in an Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si polycrystalline shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kikuaki; Hayashi, Toshimitsu; Fischer, F.D.; Buchmayr, B.

    1994-01-01

    Transformation lines, the martensite/austenite start and finish conditions in the stress-temperature plane, are determined in an Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si polycrystalline shape memory alloy with two different experimental procedures. The transformation lines are shown to be almost linear with nearly the same slope. The martensitic transformation zone and the reverse transformation zone do not coincide, and the reverse transformation zone is very wide; T Af -T As ∼ 180 K. The strong dependence on the preloading of the transformation lines, especially of the reverse transformation lines, is examined. (orig.)

  10. Fast removal of malachite green dye using novel superparamagnetic sodium alginate-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Daemi, Hamed; Barikani, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    In this study, superparamagnetic sodium alginate-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Alg-Fe3O4) as a novel magnetic adsorbent were prepared by in situ coprecipitation method, in which Fe3O4 nanoparticles were precipitated from FeCl3 and FeCl2 under alkaline medium in the presence of sodium alginate. The Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used for removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions using batch adsorption technique. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed using XRD, FTIR, TEM, TGA and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. FTIR analysis of synthesized nanoparticles provided the evidence that sodium alginate was successfully coated on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The FT-IR and TGA characterization showed that the Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles contained about 14% (w/w) of sodium alginate. Moreover, TEM analysis indicated that the average diameter of the Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles was about 12nm. The effects of adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature were investigated on the adsorption properties of MG onto Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The equilibrium adsorption data were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation was 47.84mg/g. The kinetics of adsorption of MG onto Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were investigated using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the adsorption of MG onto nanoparticles followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Generation of intensity covariations of the oxygen green and red lines in the nightglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, K.; Takeuchi, I.; Kato, Y.; Aoyama, I.

    1984-02-01

    The cause of intensity covariations of the oxygen green and red lines is studied. Intensity covariations are compared with the auroral-electrojet-activity index AE, the substorm Pi2, and the magnetogram. It is suggested that intensity covariations or double-intensity maxima of the red line occur in association with intense auroral substorms, and that they are the direct experimental evidences of Testud's theory (1973).

  12. In vitro cytotoxicity of zinc oxide, iron oxide and copper nanopowders prepared by green synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya S.

    Full Text Available In vitro cytotoxic effects of ZnO, FeO and Cu metallic nanopowders (NPs on Vero (African green monkey kidney cell line, PK 15 (Pig kidney cell line and Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK cell lines were investigated at different time intervals (24 and 48 h. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine the cytotoxic effects of green synthesized (plant based nanopowders. The comparative effects of exposure period and concentration of nanopowders on cell viability were studied. Green synthesized nanopowders showed varying activity on different type of cells and the effect was generally based on the concentration and exposure time. In MDBK cells, only ZnO nanopowder (NP showed significant effect on cell viability. The ZnO NP showed improved cell viability at lower concentration (10 μg/100 μl in all type of cells (Vero, PK 15 and MDBK cells. In contrast, FeO NP showed better activity at the concentration of 10 μg/100 μl, 50 μg/100 μl and 40 μg/100 μl after 24 h exposure time in Vero, PK 15 and MDBK cells respectively. However better cell viability was observed in Cu NP treated Vero, PK 15 and MDBK cells at 40 μg/100 μl, 20 μg/100 μl and 10 μg/100 μl correspondingly. These studies suggested that the activity of green synthesized NPs were highly dependent on concentration, exposure time and type of cells. Keywords: ZnO, FeO, Cu, Nanopowders, MTT, in vitro cytotoxicity

  13. Evidence of Decay of Flux Ratio of Fe to Fe–Ni Line Features with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-08-18

    Aug 18, 2010 ... measuring of the intensity and mean energy of the Fe and Fe–Ni line ... The instrumentation of the SLD payload, its in-flight calibration and operation ... reconnection process and also decays faster compared to many other ... measure vary over time and these factors mainly control the shape of the line. The.

  14. Structure and Charge Hopping Dynamics in Green Rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wander, Matthew C.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Schoonen, Martin A.

    2007-01-01

    Green rust is a family of mixed-valent iron phases formed by a number of abiotic and biotic processes under alkaline suboxic conditions. Due to its high Fe2+ content, green rust is a potentially important phase for pollution remediation by serving as a powerful electron donor for reductive transformation. However, mechanisms of oxidation of this material are poorly understood. An essential component of the green rust structure is a mixed-valent brucite-like Fe(OH)2 sheet comprised of a two dimensional network of edge-sharing iron octahedra. Room temperature Mossbauer spectra show a characteristic signature for intermediate valence on the iron atoms in this sheet, indicative of a Fe2+-Fe3+ valence interchange reaction faster than approximately 107s-1. Using Fe(OH)2 as structural analogue for reduced green rust, we performed Hartree-Fock calculations on periodic slab models and cluster representations to determine the structure and hopping mobility of Fe3+ hole polarons in this material, providing a first principles assessment of the Fe2+-Fe3+ valence interchange reaction rate. The calculations show that among three possible symmetry unique iron-to-iron hops within a sheet, a hop to next-nearest neighbors at an intermediate distance of 5.6Angstroms is the fastest. The predicted rate is on the order of 1012 s-1 consistent the Mossbauer-based constraint. All other possibilities, including hopping across interlayer spaces, are predicted to be slower than 107s-1. Collectively, the findings suggest the possibility of hole self-diffusion along sheets as a mechanism for regeneration of lattice Fe2+ sites, consistent with previous experimental observations of edge-inward progressive oxidation of green rust.

  15. Influence of organics and silica on Fe(II) oxidation rates and cell-mineral aggregate formation by the green-sulfur Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium Chlorobium ferrooxidans KoFox - Implications for Fe(II) oxidation in ancient oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Tina; Byrne, James M.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Obst, Martin; Crowe, Sean; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Most studies on microbial phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation (photoferrotrophy) have focused on purple bacteria, but recent evidence points to the importance of green-sulfur bacteria (GSB). Their recovery from modern ferruginous environments suggests that these photoferrotrophs can offer insights into how their ancient counterparts grew in Archean oceans at the time of banded iron formation (BIF) deposition. It is unknown, however, how Fe(II) oxidation rates, cell-mineral aggregate formation, and Fe-mineralogy vary under environmental conditions reminiscent of the geological past. To address this, we studied the Fe(II)-oxidizer Chlorobium ferrooxidans KoFox, a GSB living in co-culture with the heterotrophic Geospirillum strain KoFum. We investigated the mineralogy of Fe(III) metabolic products at low/high light intensity, and in the presence of dissolved silica and/or fumarate. Silica and fumarate influenced the crystallinity and particle size of the produced Fe(III) minerals. The presence of silica also enhanced Fe(II) oxidation rates, especially at high light intensities, potentially by lowering Fe(II)-toxicity to the cells. Electron microscopic imaging showed no encrustation of either KoFox or KoFum cells with Fe(III)-minerals, though weak associations were observed suggesting co-sedimentation of Fe(III) with at least some biomass via these aggregates, which could support diagenetic Fe(III)-reduction. Given that GSB are presumably one of the most ancient photosynthetic organisms, and pre-date cyanobacteria, our findings, on the one hand, strengthen arguments for photoferrotrophic activity as a likely mechanism for BIF deposition on a predominantly anoxic early Earth, but, on the other hand, also suggest that preservation of remnants of Fe(II)-oxidizing GSB as microfossils in the rock record is unlikely.

  16. Double-shell Fe2O3 hollow box-like structure for enhanced photo-Fenton degradation of malachite green dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, De Bin; Liu, Xiaoying; Xu, Xuan; Zhang, Yu Xin

    2018-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate the synthesis of novel Fe2O3 nanosheets with double-shell hollow morphology by replica molding from diatomite framework. The nanostructures of Fe2O3 nanosheets were examined by focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results reveal that (1) Pure Fe2O3 nanosheets were successfully obtained; (2) The double-shell Fe2O3 hollow structure achieved via the NaOH etching silica method was observed; (3) Fe2O3 nanosheets possessed uniformly distributed porous nanosheets. Such structural features enlarged the specific surface area of Fe2O3 nanosheets and led to more catalytic active sites. In the heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction, the double-shell Fe2O3 hollow morphology exhibited excellent catalytic capability for the degradation of malachite green (MG) at circumneutral pH condition. Under optimum condition, MG solution was almost completely decolorized in 60 min (99.9%). The Fe2O3 nanosheets also showed good stability and recyclability, demonstrating great potential as a promising photo-Fenton catalyst for the effective degradation of MG dye in wastewater.

  17. Sustainable solid-state strategy to hierarchical core-shell structured Fe 3 O 4 @graphene towards a safer and green sodium ion full battery

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Xiang

    2017-12-11

    A sustainable solid-state strategy of SPEX milling is developed to coat metal oxide (e.g., Fe3O4) with tunable layers of graphene, and a new hierarchical core-shell structured Fe3O4@graphene composite is constructed. The presented green process can preserve the physicochemical properties of metal (oxide) nanocrystals well while conveniently modifying them with graphene carbon, which is unique from the conventional approaches carried out in the solution followed by high temperature calcinations/carbonization. This strategy is environmental-friendly, cost-effective and feasible to extend for preparing more metal (oxide)-graphene materials readily with controllable layers of graphene. In energy storage applications, as-prepared Fe3O4@graphene only modified with 10 wt% of graphene can show greater capacity of 283 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 with capacity retention of 84% over 100 cycles in sodium battery (vs. 17% of pristine Fe3O4). As an appealing nonflammable anode, a completely new full battery of Fe3O4@graphite/Na2.4Fe1.8(SO4)3 is assembled, and an impressive energy density beyond 300 Wh kgcathode−1 with a high working voltage of 3.2 V is attained. Such kind of green battery comprising from the earth-abundant elements (i.e., Na, Fe, S and O) can demonstrate extremely long cycle ability over 500 cycles and robust rate capability even to 10 C (where 1 C define as 108 mA gcathode−1) which are rarely reported before.

  18. Green biosynthesis of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles using the aqueous extracts of food processing wastes under photo-catalyzed condition and investigation of their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid, and eco-friendly green method was introduced to synthesize magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) using the aqueous extracts of two food processing wastes, namely silky hairs of corn (Zea mays L.) and outer leaves of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis). The boiled solutions of silky hairs (MH) and outer leaves of Chinese cabbage (CCP) were used to synthesize Fe 3 O 4 NPs under photo exposed condition. The MH-FeNPs and CCP-FeNPs synthesized via green route were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. The UV-Visible spectra displayed two absorption bands at 325nm and 375mm for the MH-FeNPs, and 325mm and 365mm for the CCP-FeNPs, respectively. The estimated absolute crystallite sizes of the MH-FeNPs and CCP-FeNPs were calculated to be 84.81 and 48.91nm, respectively. VSM analysis revealed that both FeNPs were superparamagnetic in nature. Both FeNPs mixed with kanamycin and rifampicin displayed positive synergistic antibacterial activity against pathogenic foodborne bacteria (9.36-24.42mm inhibition zones), and those mixed with amphotericin b also exerted synergistic anticandidal activity against five different pathogenic Candida species (9.81-17.68mm inhibition zones). Both FeNPs exhibited strong antioxidant activities; therefore, all the properties of the green synthesized MH-FeNPs and CCP-FeNPs using food processing wastes could be beneficial for their potential applications in various fields such as drug delivery, antibacterial and anticandidal drugs, and biomedical fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. UV and X-ray spectral lines of Be-like Fe ion for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Takako; Dubau, J.

    1996-04-01

    We have calculated X-ray and UV spectra of the Be-like Fe (FeXXIII) ion using collisional-radiative model including all fine-structure transitions among the 2s 2 , 2s2p, 2p 2 , 2snl, and 2pnl levels where n = 3 and 4, adopting data for the collision strengths by Zhang and Sampson (1992) and by Sampson, Goett, and Clark (1984). Some line intensity ratios can be used for the temperature diagnostic. We show 5 ratios in UV region and 9 ratios in X-ray region as functions of electron temperature and density at 0.3keV e e = 1-10 25 cm -3 . The effect of cascade in these line ratios is discussed. (author)

  20. Identification of Green Rust in Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bo C.; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Dideriksen, Knud

    2009-01-01

    to air. In this paper, we present a sampling method for capturing green rust so it is not oxidized. We then we used the method to identify the compound in a groundwater sample taken below the water table from fractures in granite. X-ray diffraction patterns were weak, but clearly identical to those......Green rust, a family of Fe(II),Fe(III) layered double hydroxides, is believed to be present in environments close to the Fe(II)/Fe(III) transition zone. Attempts to identify members of this family in nature have proven difficult because the material is oxidized after only a few minutes exposure...

  1. New Fe i Level Energies and Line Identifications from Stellar Spectra. II. Initial Results from New Ultraviolet Spectra of Metal-poor Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Ruth C. [SETI Institute and Astrophysical Advances, 607 Marion Place, Palo Alto, CA 94301 (United States); Kurucz, Robert L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ayres, Thomas R., E-mail: peterson@ucolick.org [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The Fe i spectrum is critical to many areas of astrophysics, yet many of the high-lying levels remain uncharacterized. To remedy this deficiency, Peterson and Kurucz identified Fe i lines in archival ultraviolet and optical spectra of metal-poor stars, whose warm temperatures favor moderate Fe i excitation. Sixty-five new levels were recovered, with 1500 detectable lines, including several bound levels in the ionization continuum of Fe i. Here, we extend the previous work by identifying 59 additional levels, with 1400 detectable lines, by incorporating new high-resolution UV spectra of warm metal-poor stars recently obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We provide gf values for these transitions, both computed as well as adjusted to fit the stellar spectra. We also expand our spectral calculations to the infrared, confirming three levels by matching high-quality spectra of the Sun and two cool stars in the H -band. The predicted gf values suggest that an additional 3700 Fe i lines should be detectable in existing solar infrared spectra. Extending the empirical line identification work to the infrared would help confirm additional Fe i levels, as would new high-resolution UV spectra of metal-poor turnoff stars below 1900 Å.

  2. Magnetic Compton scattering study of Laves phase ZrFe2 and Sc doped ZrFe2: Experiment and Green function based relativistic calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Samir; Mund, H. S.; Kumar, Kishor; Bapna, Komal; Dashora, Alpa; Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.; Ahuja, B. L.

    2018-05-01

    Spin momentum densities of ferromagnetic ZrFe2 and Zr0.8Sc0.2Fe2 have been measured using magnetic Compton scattering with 182.65 keV circularly polarized synchrotron radiations. Site specific spin moments, which are responsible for the formation of total spin moment, have been deduced from Compton line shapes. At room temperature, the computed spin moment of ZrFe2 is found to be slightly higher than that of Sc doped ZrFe2 which is in consensus with the magnetization data. To compare the experimental data, we have also computed magnetic Compton profiles (MCPs), total and partial spin projected density of states (DOS) and the site specific spin moments using spin-polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. It is observed that the spin moment at Fe site is aligned antiparallel to that of Zr site in both ZrFe2 and Zr0.8Sc0.2Fe2. The MCP results when compared with vibrating sample magnetometer based magnetization data, show a very small contribution of orbital moment in the formation of total magnetic moments in both the compounds. The DOS of ferromagnetic ground state of ZrFe2 and Zr0.8Sc0.2Fe2 are interpreted on the basis of a covalent magnetic model beyond the Stoner rigid band model. It appears that on alloying between a magnetic and a non-magnetic partner (with low valence), a polarization develops on the non-magnetic atom which is anti-parallel to that of the magnetic atom.

  3. A novel magnetic core-shell nanocomposite Fe3O4@chitosan@ZnO for the green synthesis of 2-benzimidazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fei; Niu, Libo; Chen, Bo; Gao, Xuejia; Lan, Xingwang; Huo, Li; Bai, Guoyi

    2017-10-01

    A novel magnetic core-shell nanocomposite Fe3O4@Chitosan@ZnO was successfully prepared by in situ chemical precipitation method. It has a clear core-shell structure with magnetic Fe3O4 (about 160 nm in diameter) as core, chitosan as the inner shell, and ZnO as the outer shell, as demonstrated by the transmission electron microscopy and the related elemental mapping. Moreover, this nanocomposite has high magnetization (43.6 emu g-1) so that it can be easily separated from the reaction mixture within 4 s by an external magnetic field. The introduction of the natural chitosan shell, instead of the conventional SiO2 shell, and its combination with the active ZnO ensures this novel nanocomposite green character and good catalytic performance in the synthesis of 2-benzimidazoles with moderate to excellent isolated yields at room temperature. Notably, it can be recycled seven times without appreciable loss of its initial catalytic activity, demonstrating its good stability and making it an attractive candidate for the green synthesis of 2-benzimidazoles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Fe-Cluster Compounds of Chalcogenides: Candidates for Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnet and Magnetic Nodal-Line Topological Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Kim, Minsung; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2017-12-04

    Fe-cluster-based crystal structures are predicted for chalcogenides Fe 3 X 4 (X = S, Se, Te) using an adaptive genetic algorithm. Topologically different from the well-studied layered structures of iron chalcogenides, the newly predicted structures consist of Fe clusters that are either separated by the chalcogen atoms or connected via sharing of the vertex Fe atoms. Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that these structures have competitive or even lower formation energies than the experimentally synthesized Fe 3 X 4 compounds and exhibit interesting magnetic and electronic properties. In particular, we show that Fe 3 Te 4 can be a good candidate as a rare-earth-free permanent magnet and Fe 3 S 4 can be a magnetic nodal-line topological material.

  5. The response of the Fe K\\alpha line to changes in the X-ray illumination of accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Ross, R. R.

    2002-01-01

    X-ray reflection spectra from photoionized accretion discs in active galaxies are presented for a wide range of illumination conditions. The energy, equivalent width (EW) and flux of the Fe K line are shown to depend strongly on the ratio of illuminating flux to disc flux, Fx/Fdisc, the photon index of the irradiating power-law, \\Gamma, and the incidence angle of the radiation, i. When Fx/Fdisc \\leq 2 a neutral Fe K line is prominent for all but the largest values of \\Gamma. At higher illumin...

  6. A Green Route to a Na2FePO4F-Based Cathode for Sodium Ion Batteries of High Rate and Long Cycling Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiang; Shi, Wenxiang; Sunarso, Jaka; Liu, Meilin; Shao, Zongping

    2017-05-17

    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) are considered one of the most promising alternatives for large-scale energy storage due largely to the abundance and low cost of sodium. However, the lack of high-performance cathode materials at low cost represents a major obstacle toward broad commercialization of SIB technology. In this work, we report a green route strategy that allows cost-effective fabrication of carbon-coated Na 2 FePO 4 F cathode for SIBs. By using vitamin C as a green organic carbon source and environmentally friendly water-based polyacrylic latex as the binder, we have demonstrated that the Na 2 FePO 4 F phase in the as-derived Na 2 FePO 4 F/C electrode shows a high reversible capacity of 117 mAh g -1 at a cycling rate of 0.1 C. More attractively, excellent rate capability is achieved while retaining outstanding cycling stability (∼85% capacity retention after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a rate of 4 C). Further, in operando X-ray diffraction has been used to probe the evolution of phase structures during the charge-discharge process, confirming the structural robustness of the Na 2 FePO 4 F/C cathode (even when charged to 4.5 V). Accordingly, the poor initial Coulombic efficiency of some anode materials may be compensated by extracting more sodium ions from Na 2 FePO 4 F/C cathode at higher potentials (up to 4.5 V).

  7. A TEST OF THE NATURE OF THE FE K LINE IN THE NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY SERPENS X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chia-Ying; Cackett, Edward M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI48109-1046 (United States); Barret, Didier [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Toulouse (France); Fabian, Andy C.; Parker, Michael L. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); D’Aì, Antonino [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Bhattacharyya, Sudip [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Burderi, Luciano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, SP Monserrato-Sestu, KM 0.7, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Salvo, Tiziana Di; Iaria, Rosario [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Universitá di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Egron, Elise [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, via della Scienza 5, I-09047 Selargius (Italy); Homan, Jeroen [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue 37-582D, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lin, Dacheng [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Miller, M. Coleman, E-mail: ft8320@wayne.edu [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Broad Fe K emission lines have been widely observed in the X-ray spectra of black hole systems as well as in neutron star systems. The intrinsically narrow Fe K fluorescent line is generally believed to be part of the reflection spectrum originating in an illuminated accretion disk which is broadened by strong relativistic effects. However, the nature of the lines in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) has been a matter of debate. We therefore obtained the longest, high-resolution X-ray spectrum of a neutron star LMXB to date with a 300 ks Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) observation of Serpens X-1. The observation was taken under the “continuous clocking” mode, and thus was free of photon pile-up effects. We carry out a systematic analysis and find that the blurred reflection model fits the Fe line of Serpens X-1 significantly better than a broad Gaussian component does, implying that the relativistic reflection scenario is much preferred. Chandra HETGS also provides a highest spectral resolution view of the Fe K region and we find no strong evidence for additional narrow lines.

  8. In situ green synthesis of MnFe_2O_4/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite and its usage for fabricating high-performance LiMn_1_/_3Fe_2_/_3PO_4/reduced graphene oxide/carbon cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kaipeng; Hu, Guorong; Peng, Zhongdong; Cao, Yanbing; Du, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MnFe_2O_4/rGO was prepared by an in situ green reduction-coprecipitation method. • LiMn_1_/_3Fe_2_/_3PO_4/rGO/C was synthesized by using MnFe_2O_4/rGO as precursor. • Both pyrolytic carbon and rGO could construct an interconnected conductive network. • LiMn_1_/_3Fe_2_/_3PO_4/rGO/C shows excellent electrochemical performance. - Abstract: MnFe_2O_4/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite (MnFe_2O_4/rGO) has been synthesized via a green reduction-coprecipitation method for the first time, which involved in situ reduction of GO in presence of Fe"2"+ and the ensuing coprecipitation of Fe"3"+ and Mn"2"+ onto the surface of rGO. The resultant MnFe_2O_4/rGO was then employed as the precursor to fabricate LiMn_1_/_3Fe_2_/_3PO_4/reduced graphene oxide/carbon composite (LiMn_1_/_3Fe_2_/_3PO_4/rGO/C) cathode material for Li-ion batteries. The composite consists of homogeneous Mn-Fe distributed LiMn_1_/_3Fe_2_/_3PO_4 with its primary particles (∼200 nm) covered and connected by both pyrolytic carbon and rGO sheets, which could prevent the aggregation of the particles as well as construct an interconnected conductive network for rapid transmission of electrons during charging and discharging process. The fabricated LiMn_1_/_3Fe_2_/_3PO_4/rGO/C can deliver a discharge capacity of 94.8 mAh g"−"1 even at the high rate of 20C, and shows a capacity decay rate of only 6.25% after 900 long-term charge-discharge cycles. Moreover, the proposed synthesis strategy can also be applied to prepare other graphene-decorated multi-component cathode/anode materials for the Li-ion batteries.

  9. Catalytic and antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles green biosynthesized using soluble green tea powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Fan, Yapei; Liu, Xinfang; Luo, Denglin; Liu, Huan; Yang, Ningning

    2018-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were green fabricated using soluble green tea powder (SGTP) as stabilizer and reducing agent. The properties and morphology of Ag NPs were investigated through UV–visible spectroscopy, field emission transmission electron microscope (FE-TEM) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance around at 420 nm revealing the synthesis of Ag NPs. FE-TEM results confirmed that the Ag NPs are spherical and face-centered cubic structure. FT-IR spectroscopy identified the role of various functional groups in the nanoparticle synthesis. The one spot biosynthesized Ag NPs showed favourable antibacterial properties on Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, and excellent catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol. This work provided a feasible, green method to fabricate Ag NPs with promising photocatalytic and antimicrobial activities.

  10. Properties of Fe, Ni and Zn isotope chains near the drip-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.N.; Tarasov, D.V.; Kuprikov, V.I.; Gridnev, K.A.; Gridnev, D.K.; Gridnev, K.A.; Gridnev, D.K.; Kartavenko, V.G.; Greiner, W.; Kartavenko, V.G.

    2007-01-01

    The location of proton and neutron drip-lines and the characteristics of the neutron-deficient and the neutron-rich isotopes Fe, Ni and Zn on the basis of Hartree-Fock method with Skyrme forces (Ska, SkM * , Sly4) taking into account deformation was investigated. The calculations predict a big jump of deformation parameter up to β ∼ 0.4 for Ni isotopes in the neighborhood of N ∼ 62. The manifestation of magic numbers for isotopes 48 Ni, 56 Ni, 78 Ni and also for the stable isotope in the respect to neutron emission 110 Ni which is situated beyond the neutron drip-line is discussed

  11. Insights into Resistance to Fe Deficiency Stress from a Comparative Study of In Vitro-Selected Novel Fe-Efficient and Fe-Inefficient Potato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina A. Boamponsem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency induces chlorosis (IDC in plants and can result in reduced plant productivity. Therefore, development of Fe-efficient plants is of great interest. To gain a better understanding of the physiology of Fe-efficient plants, putative novel plant variants were regenerated from potato (Solanum tubersosum L. var. ‘Iwa’ callus cultures selected under Fe deficient or low Fe supply (0–5 μM Fe. Based on visual chlorosis rating (VCR, 23% of callus-derived regenerants were classified as Fe-efficient (EF and 77% as Fe-inefficient (IFN plant lines when they were grown under Fe deficiency conditions. Stem height was found to be highly correlated with internodal distance, leaf and root lengths in the EF plant lines grown under Fe deficiency conditions. In addition, compared to the IFN plant lines and control parental biotype, the EF plants including the lines named A1, B2, and B9, exhibited enhanced formation of lateral roots and root hairs as well as increased expression of ferritin (fer3 in the leaf and iron-regulated transporter (irt1 in the root. These morphological adaptations and changes in expression the fer3 and irt1 genes of the selected EF potato lines suggest that they are associated with resistance to low Fe supply stress.

  12. Fe-K LINE PROBING OF MATERIAL AROUND THE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS CENTRAL ENGINE WITH SUZAKU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Yasushi; Hiragi, Kazuyoshi; Mizuno, Motohiro; Nishino, Sho; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamasaki, Tomonori; Shirai, Hirohisa; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Ohno, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    We systematically analyzed the high-quality Suzaku data of 88 Seyfert galaxies, about 31% of which are Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We obtained a clear relation between the absorption column density and the equivalent width (EW) of the 6.4 keV line above 10 23 cm -2 , suggesting a wide-ranging column density of 10 23 -10 24.5 cm -2 with a similar solid and an Fe abundance of 0.7-1.3 solar for Seyfert 2 galaxies. The EWs of the 6.4 keV line for Seyfert 1 galaxies are typically 40-120 eV, suggesting the existence of Compton-thick matter like the torus with a column density of >10 23 cm -2 and a solid angle of (0.15-0.4) x 4π, and no difference of neutral matter is visible between Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies. An absorber with a lower column density of 10 21 -10 23 cm -2 for Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies is suggested to be not a torus but an interstellar medium. These constraints can be understood by the fact that the 6.4 keV line intensity ratio against the 10-50 keV flux is almost identical within a range of 2-3 in many Seyfert galaxies. Interestingly, objects exist with a low EW, 10-30 eV, of the 6.4 keV line, suggesting that those torus subtends only a small solid angle of H >10 23 cm -2 indicates that the column density of the ionized material also increases together with that of the cold material. It is found that these features seem to change for brighter objects with more than several 10 44 erg s -1 such that the Fe-K line features become weak. This extends the previously known X-ray Baldwin effect on the neutral Fe-Kα line to ionized emission or absorption lines. The luminosity dependence of these properties, regardless of the scatter of black hole mass by two orders of magnitudes, indicates that the ionized material is associated with the structure of the parent galaxy rather than the outflow from the nucleus.

  13. Structural and optical properties of NiFe2O4 synthesized via green technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S.; Saleem, M.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    The nanoparticles of NiFe2O4 were successfully synthesized via green technology using banana peel extract as the catalyst as well as the medium for reaction technique is reported. Analysis of X-ray diffraction spectrum revealed the cubic structure for the prepared spinel ferrite samples crystallized into cubic spinel structure with the space group Fd3m. The Retvield refinement was carried out which obeyed the results obtained from the XRD spectrum analysis of the sample. Raman spectrum provided confirmation for the spinel structure formation and five active Raman modes were observed. Since the optical band-gap value shows inverse response to the crystallite size, The UV-Vis spectrum study confirmed dual but reduced band-gap value.

  14. Coronal emission-line polarization from the statistical equilibrium of magnetic sublevels. I. Fe XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, L.L.

    1977-01-01

    A general formulation for the polarization of coronal emission lines is presented, and the physics is illustrated through application of the formulation to the lines of Fe XIII at 10747 and 10798 A. The goal is to present a foundation for the determination of the orientation of coronal magnetic fields from emission-line polarization measurements. The physics of emission-line polarization is discussed using the statistical equilibrium equations for the magnetic sublevels of a coronal ion. The formulation of these equations, which describe the polarization of the radiation field in terms of Stokes parameters, is presented; and the various rate parameters: both radiative and collisional: are considered. The emission Stokes vector is constructed from the solution of the equilibrium equations for a point in the corona where the magnetic field has an arbitrary orientation. On the basis of a model, a computer code for the calculation of emission-line polarization is briefly described and illustrated with a number of sample calculations for Fe XIII. Calculations are carried out for three-dimensional models that demonstrate the physics of the formation of emission-line polarization and illustrate how the degree of polarization and angle of polarization and their variations over the corona are related to the density and magnetic field structure. The models considered range from simple cases in which the density distribution with height is spherically symmetric and the field is radial or dipole to a complex case in which both the density and magnetic field distributions are derived from realistic three-dimensional distributions for the 1973 eclipse on the basis of K-coronameter measurements for the density and potential-field extrapolation of surface magnetic fields in the corona

  15. Detection of broad ultraviolet Fe II lines in the spectrum of NGC 1068

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snijders, M.A.J.; Netzer, Hagai; Boksenberg, A.

    1986-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the nucleus of NGC 1068, obtained by the IUE over a period of 5 yr, are combined to give a high signal-to-noise spectrum of this source. The ultraviolet stellar continuum, obtained by comparison with ground-based data, is subtracted to show the nuclear non-stellar component. The resulting spectrum shows clearly the presence of strong broad FeII emission bands similar to those observed in many broad-line objects. Broad profiles are also seen in other strong emission lines. These observations confirm the recent discovery of an optical Seyfert type 1 spectrum in NGC 1068. (author)

  16. Peculiar time dependence of unexpected lines in delayed beam-foil X-ray spectra of V, Fe and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Nissar; Karn, Ranjeet K.; Marketos, Pan; Nandi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Delayed beam-foil X-ray spectra of highly charged ions of V, Fe and Ni show a few lines at energies higher than the H-like Lyman α-line of the respective projectile ions. These can only be attributed to heavier ions. Further the time dependence of such unexpected lines display a peculiar behavior. This work presents the experimental observations systematically

  17. Reactive Fe(II) layers in deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Iris; Haeckel, Matthias; Drodt, Matthias; Suess, Erwin; Trautwein, Alfred X.

    1999-05-01

    The percentage of the structural Fe(II) in clay minerals that is readily oxidized to Fe(III) upon contact with atmospheric oxygen was determined across the downcore tan-green color change in Peru Basin sediments. This latent fraction of reactive Fe(II) was only found in the green strata, where it proved to be large enough to constitute a deep reaction layer with respect to the pore water O 2 and NO 3-. Large variations were detected in the proportion of the reactive Fe(II) concentration to the organic matter content along core profiles. Hence, the commonly observed tan-green color change in marine sediments marks the top of a reactive Fe(II) layer, which may represent the major barrier to the movement of oxidation fronts in pelagic subsurface sediments. This is also demonstrated by numerical model simulations. The findings imply that geochemical barriers to pore water oxidation fronts form diagenetically in the sea floor wherever the stage of iron reduction is reached, provided that the sediments contain a significant amount of structural iron in clay minerals.

  18. Observation and modelling of the Fe XXI line profile observed by IRIS during the impulsive phase of flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, V.; Testa, P.; De Pontieu, B.; Allred, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    The observation of the high temperature (above 10 MK) Fe XXI 1354.1 A line with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) has provided significant insights into the chromospheric evaporation process in flares. In particular, the line is often observed to be completely blueshifted, in contrast to previous observations at lower spatial and spectral resolution, and in agreement with predictions from theoretical models. Interestingly, the line is also observed to be mostly symmetric and with a large excess above the thermal width. One popular interpretation for the excess broadening is given by assuming a superposition of flows from different loop strands. In this work, we perform a statistical analysis of Fe XXI line profiles observed by IRIS during the impulsive phase of flares and compare our results with hydrodynamic simulations of multi-thread flare loops performed with the 1D RADYN code. Our results indicate that the multi-thread models cannot easily reproduce the symmetry of the line and that some other physical process might need to be invoked in order to explain the observed profiles.

  19. Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe3O4/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizhen Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES based on choline chloride (ChCl and ionic liquids (ILs based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs, and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE. The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM. Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80% as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc (8:2 as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g−1 and 5.07 mg•g−1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples.

  20. Detailed single-crystal EPR line shape measurements for the single-molecule magnets Fe8Br and Mn12-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S.; Maccagnano, S.; Park, Kyungwha; Achey, R. M.; North, J. M.; Dalal, N. S.

    2002-06-01

    It is shown that our multi-high-frequency (40-200 GHz) resonant cavity technique yields distortion-free high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra for single-crystal samples of the uniaxial and biaxial spin S=10 single-molecule magnets (SMM's) [Mn12O12(CH3COO)16(H2O)4].2CH3COOH.4H2O and [Fe8O2(OH)12(tacn)6]Br8.9H2O. The observed line shapes exhibit a pronounced dependence on temperature, magnetic field, and the spin quantum numbers (MS values) associated with the levels involved in the transitions. Measurements at many frequencies allow us to separate various contributions to the EPR linewidths, including significant D strain, g strain, and broadening due to the random dipolar fields of neighboring molecules. We also identify asymmetry in some of the EPR line shapes for Fe8 and a previously unobserved fine structure to some of the EPR lines for both the Fe8 and Mn12 systems. These findings prove relevant to the mechanism of quantum tunneling of magnetization in these SMM's.

  1. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  2. The Beam Line X NdFe-steel hybrid wiggler for SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Halbach, K.; Humphries, D.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni, S.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1987-01-01

    A wiggler magnet with 15 periods, each 12.85 cm long, which achieves 1.40 T at a 2.1 cm gap (2.26T at 0.8 cm) has been designed and is now in fabrication at LBL. This wiggler will be the radiation source of the high intensity synchrotron radiation beam line for the Beam Line X PRT facility at SSRL. The magnet utilizes Neodymium-Iron (NdFe) material and Vanadium Permendur (steel) in the hybrid configuration to achieve simultaneously a high magnetic field and short period. Magnetic field adjustment is with a driven chain and ball screw drive system. The magnetic structure is external to an s.s. vacuum chamber which has thin walls, 0.76 mm thickness, at each pole tip for higher field operation. Magnetic design, construction details and magnetic measurements are presented

  3. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.K.; Doschek, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Fe XVII. The data pertain to the 73 levels of the configurations, 2s 2 2p 6 , 2s 2 2p 5 3s, 2s 2 2p 5 3p 2s 2 2p 5 3d, 2s2p 6 3s, 2s2p 6 3p, 2s2p 6 3d, 2s 2 2p 5 4s, 2s 2 2p 5 4p, 2s 2 2p 5 4d, 2s2p 6 4s, 2s2p 6 4p, and 2s2p 6 4d. Collision strengths are calculated at 11 incident electron energies: 58.5, 65.0, 70.0, 76.0, 85.0, 127.5, 170.0, 212.5, 255.0, 340.0, and 425.0 Ry. This work is an improvement over our earlier work on Fe XVII in two respects: (1) configurations involving 4s, 4p, and 4d electrons have been added and (2) a broader range of incident electron energies is used in the computation of collision strengths and excitation rate coefficients. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated for astrophysically important transitions. These are obtained by computing the excitation rate coefficients (cm 3 s -1 ), i.e., the collision strengths integrated over a Maxwellian electron distribution, and then solving the equations of detailed balance for the populations of the 73 energy levels, assuming a collisional excitation model and an electron temperature of 4 x 10 6 K. This temperature is typical for Fe XVII when formed in equilibrium by collisional ionization and recombination. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative decay rates, level populations are computed for five electron densities and are given in this paper

  4. RF and microwave noise suppression in a transmission line using Fe-Si-Al/Ni-Zn magnetic composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Hong, Y. K.; Kim, K.; Joo, J.; Yoon, Y. W.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, Y. B.; Kim, K. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) and microwave noise suppression by using magnetic composite films on a microstrip line (MSL) was studied in the frequency range from 50 MHz to 13.5 GHz. The MSL was composed of a Cu transmission line, dielectric materials, and a Cu substrate. The Fe-Si-Al/Ni-Zn magnetic composite films were placed on the MSL, and the reflection and the transmission characteristics were investigated. We observed that RF and microwave noise suppression caused by the Fe-Si-Al/Ni-Zn magnetic composite films varied with the concentration ratio of the sendust (Fe-Si-Al) and the Ni-Zn ferrite. The frequency dependence of the power loss due to the composite films on the MSL was measured and the power loss increased at higher frequencies with increasing concentration of the sendust in the composites. The electromagnetic interference shielding efficiencies of the magnetic composite films in the far-field region are also discussed.

  5. Iron supported on bioinspired green silica for water remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Khalid M; Shiels, Lewis; Lacaze, Laure; Peshkur, Tanya A; Anderson, Peter; Machala, Libor; Critchley, Kevin; Patwardhan, Siddharth V; Gibson, Lorraine T

    2017-01-01

    Iron has been used previously in water decontamination, either unsupported or supported on clays, polymers, carbons or ceramics such as silica. However, the reported synthesis procedures are tedious, lengthy (involving various steps), and either utilise or produce toxic chemicals. Herein, the use of a simple, rapid, bio-inspired green synthesis method is reported to prepare, for the first time, a family of iron supported on green nanosilica materials (Fe@GN) to create new technological solutions for water remediation. In particular, Fe@GN were employed for the removal of arsenate ions as a model for potentially toxic elements in aqueous solution. Several characterization techniques were used to study the physical, structural and chemical properties of the new Fe@GN. When evaluated as an adsorption platform for the removal of arsenate ions, Fe@GN exhibited high adsorption capacity (69 mg of As per g of Fe@GN) with superior kinetics (reaching ∼35 mg As per g sorbent per hr) - threefold higher than the highest removal rates reported to date. Moreover, a method was developed to regenerate the Fe@GN allowing for a full recovery and reuse of the adsorbent in subsequent extractions; strongly highlighting the potential technological benefits of these new green materials.

  6. Surfactant-free synthesis of octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure with ultrahigh and selective adsorption capacity of malachite green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jue; Zeng, Min; Yu, Ronghai

    2016-05-01

    A new octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure has been fabricated through a facile surfactant-free solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment. It exhibits a record-high adsorption capacity (up to 4983.0 mg·g-1) of malachite green (MG), which is a potentially harmful dye in prevalence and should be removed from wastewater and other aqueous solutions before discharging into the environment. The octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure also demonstrates strong selective adsorption towards MG from two kinds of mixed solutions: MG/methyl orange (MO) and MG/rhodamine B (RhB) mixtures, indicating its promise in water treatment.

  7. Green Grows The Bottom Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARKGODFREY

    2004-01-01

    In promoting sustainable business practices in China, business leaders from the EU and Chinese companies have much to share but not that much in common. The EU is funding China's largest environmental program but, worried about the cost factor, some Chinese businesses areproving reluctant about going green.

  8. Could microwave induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process over CoFe2O4 effectively eliminate brilliant green in aqueous solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yongming; Wang, Xiaoyan; Qiao, Junqin; Li, Guohua; Wu, You; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Xiuyu; Xu, Zhencheng; Qi, Jianying; Fang, Jiande; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we adopted the chemical co-precipitation (CP) method and sol-gel method followed by calcination at temperatures of 100-900°C for 12h to synthesize CoFe2O4 materials, which were further characterized by TEM, XRD and XPS techniques. The properties of CoFe2O4 materials were evaluated in a microwave (MW) induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process for the elimination of brilliant green (BG). The results showed that: (1) the removal rates of BG gradually decreased over a series of CoFe2O4 materials prepared by CP method and calcinated with 100-700°C (except 900°C) for 12h within three reuse cycles; for comparison, no removal of BG was obtained over CoFe2O4 synthesized by sol-gel method and CoFe2O4-900 (CP); (2) no hydroxyl radicals were captured with salicylic acid used as molecular probe in the MICO process; (3) MW irradiation enhanced the release of residual NaOH within the microstructure of CoFe2O4 and further discolored BG, because BG is sensitive to pH; (4) granular activated carbon (GAC), an excellent MW-absorbing material possessing higher dielectric loss tangent compared to that of a series of CoFe2O4 materials, could not remove BG in suspensions at a higher efficiency, even if the loading amount was 20 g L(-1). Accordingly, MICO process over CoFe2O4 materials and GAC could not effectively eliminate BG in suspensions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Establishment of a novel feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-negative B-cell cell line from a cat with B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Masashi; Nishigaki, Kazuo; Ide, Tetsuya; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Watanabe, Shinya; Sato, Hirofumi; Sato, Masahiko; Kotera, Yukiko; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ohno, Koichi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2011-04-15

    We established a novel feline B-cell line, MS4, from the neoplastic pleural effusion of a cat with cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. Immunophenotype staining of the MS4 cells was positive for CD20, CD79α, and IgA and negative for CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8α, CD18, CD21, CD22, IgM, IgG, Ig light chain, and MHC class II. PCR analysis for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements revealed a monoclonal rearrangement, whereas no clonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor γ gene was detected. Southern blotting with an exogenous feline leukemia virus (FeLV) U3 probe revealed no integration of exogenous FeLV provirus. The MS4 cell line is the first FeLV-negative feline B-cell lymphoma cell line, and may be used to investigate the pathogenesis of spontaneously occurring feline lymphoma and the development of new therapies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Could microwave induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process over CoFe2O4 effectively eliminate brilliant green in aqueous solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Yongming; Wang, Xiaoyan; Qiao, Junqin; Li, Guohua; Wu, You; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Xiuyu; Xu, Zhencheng; Qi, Jianying; Fang, Jiande; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The elimination of BG over CoFe 2 O 4 (CP) was mainly due to the residue of NaOH. • Salicylic acid failed to capture hydroxyl radicals within MICO process. • This study indicated dim prospects for the MICO-based elimination of contaminants. -- Abstract: In this study, we adopted the chemical co-precipitation (CP) method and sol–gel method followed by calcination at temperatures of 100–900 °C for 12 h to synthesize CoFe 2 O 4 materials, which were further characterized by TEM, XRD and XPS techniques. The properties of CoFe 2 O 4 materials were evaluated in a microwave (MW) induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process for the elimination of brilliant green (BG). The results showed that: (1) the removal rates of BG gradually decreased over a series of CoFe 2 O 4 materials prepared by CP method and calcinated with 100–700 °C (except 900 °C) for 12 h within three reuse cycles; for comparison, no removal of BG was obtained over CoFe 2 O 4 synthesized by sol–gel method and CoFe 2 O 4 -900 (CP); (2) no hydroxyl radicals were captured with salicylic acid used as molecular probe in the MICO process; (3) MW irradiation enhanced the release of residual NaOH within the microstructure of CoFe 2 O 4 and further discolored BG, because BG is sensitive to pH; (4) granular activated carbon (GAC), an excellent MW-absorbing material possessing higher dielectric loss tangent compared to that of a series of CoFe 2 O 4 materials, could not remove BG in suspensions at a higher efficiency, even if the loading amount was 20 g L −1 . Accordingly, MICO process over CoFe 2 O 4 materials and GAC could not effectively eliminate BG in suspensions

  11. Detection of malachite green in fish based on magnetic fluorescent probe of CdTe QDs/nano-Fe3O4@MIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Le; Lin, Zheng-Zhong; Zeng, Jun; Zhong, Hui-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Huang, Zhi-Yong

    2018-05-01

    A magnetic fluorescent probe of CdTe QDs/nano-Fe3O4@MIPs was prepared using CdTe QDs and Fe3O4 nanoparticles as co-nucleus and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as specific recognition sites based on a reverse microemulsion method. With the specific enrichment and magnetic separation properties, the probe of CdTe QDs/nano-Fe3O4@MIPs was used to detect malachite green (MG) in fish samples. The TEM analysis showed that the particles of CdTe QDs/nano-Fe3O4@MIPs were spherical with average diameter around 53 nm, and a core-shell structure was well-shaped with several Fe3O4 nanoparticles and CdTe QDs embedded in each of the microsphere. Quick separation of the probes from solutions could be realized with a magnet, indicating the excellent magnetic property of CdTe QDs/nano-Fe3O4@MIPs. The probe exhibited high specific adsorption towards MG and excellent fluorescence emission at λem 598 nm. The fluorescence of CdTe QDs/nano-Fe3O4@MIPs could be linearly quenched by MG at the concentrations from 0.025 to 1.5 μmol L-1. The detection limit was 0.014 μmol L-1. The average recovery of spiked MG in fish samples was 105.2%. The result demonstrated that the as-prepared CdTe QDs/nano-Fe3O4@MIPs could be used as a probe to the detection of trace MG in fish samples.

  12. High resolution X-ray spectra of solar flares. V. interpretation of inner-shell transitions in Fe XX-Fe XXIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doschek, G.A.; Feldman, U.; Cowan, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss high-resolution solar flare iron line spectra recorded between 1.82 and 1.97 A by a spectrometer flown by the Naval Research Laboratory on an Air Force spacecraft launched on 1979 February 24. The emission line spectrum is due to inner-shell transitions in the ions Fe XX-Fe XXV. Using theoretical spectra and calculations of line intensities obtained by methods discussed by Merts, Cowan, and Magee, we derive electron temperatures as a function for time of two large class X flares. These temperatures are deduced from intensities of lines of Fe XXIII, Fe XXII, and Fe XXIV. Previous measurements by us have involved only lines of Fe XXIV and Fe XXV. We discuss the determination of the differential emission measure between about 12 x 10 6 K and 20 x 10 6 K using these temperatures. The possibility of determining electron densities in flare and tokamak plasmas using the inner-shell spectra of Fe XXI and Fe XX is discussed. We also discuss recent theoretical work by Mewe and Schrijver based on atomic data of Grineva, Safronova, and Urnov

  13. Generation of data base for on-line fatigue life monitoring of Indian nuclear power plant components: Part I - Generation of Green's functions for end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    Green's function technique is the heart of the on- line fatigue monitoring methodology. The plant transients are converted to stress and temperature response using this technique. To implement this methodology in a nuclear power plant, Green's functions are to be generated in advance. For structures of complex geometries, Green's functions are to be stored in a data base to convert on-line, the plant data to temperature/stress response, using a personal computer. End fitting, end shield, pressurizer, steam generator tube sheet are few such components of PHWR where fatigue monitoring is needed. In the present paper, Green's functions are generated for end fitting of a 235 MWe Indian PHWR using finite element method. End fitting has been analysed using both 3-D and 2-D (axisymmetric) finite element models. Temperature and stress Green's functions are generated at few critical locations using the code ABAQUS. (author). 10 refs., 11 figs

  14. Green synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of Pandanus odoratissimus leaves for efficient bifunctional electro-catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajmi, Mohamed F.; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Hussain, Afzal; Ahamad, Tansir; Alhokbany, Norah; Amir, Samira; Ahmad, Tokeer; Alshehri, Saad M.

    2018-04-01

    Iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared at room temperature by one-step synthesis via green chemistry using aqueous extracts of Pandanus odoratissimus leaves. Fe3O4 NPs show uniform particle size distribution with an average diameter of 5.0 nm. BET surface area and average pore diameter of the nanoparticles were found to be 150 m2/g and 3.0 nm, respectively. FTIR, Raman, EDAX and XPS studies were also carried out to confirm the phase purity of the prepared materials. Electrochemical water splitting reactions have been carried out using Fe3O4 NPs as electrocatalysts in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte solution. Polarization studies confirm dual nature of Fe3O4 electro-catalysts in water electrolysis for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal low Tafel values of 295 and 126 mV/dec (± 2) for OER and ORR, respectively. The overpotential for water oxidation reaction was found to be 390 mV (± 5) at the current density of 1 mA/cm2 in 0.1 M KOH. Chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry experiments were conducted for stability tests of the electrodes.

  15. Uptake and Release of Cerium During Fe-Oxide Formation and Transformation in Fe(II) Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedel, Sorin; Dideriksen, Knud; Christiansen, Bo C.

    2010-01-01

    Fe-oxides are ubiquitous in soils and sediments and form during Fe(0) corrosion. Depending on redox conditions and solution composition, Fe-oxides such as ferrihydrite, goethite, magnetite, and green rust (GR) may form. These phases typically have high surface area and large affinity for adsorption......(III) release. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed Ce(III) adsorbed on magnetite. When Fe-oxides were synthesized by air oxidation of Fe(II) solutions at pH 7, GR(Na,SO4) played a catalytic role in the oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) by O-2, removing more than 90% of the dissolved Ce. Transmission electron...

  16. Greener synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles using green tea extract and their magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karade, V. C.; Waifalkar, P. P.; Dongle, T. D.; Sahoo, Subasa C.; Kollu, P.; Patil, P. S.; Patil, P. B.

    2017-09-01

    The facile green synthesis method has been employed for the synthesis of biocompatible Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using green tea extract. The effective reduction of ferric ions (Fe3+) were done using an aqueous green tea extract where it acts as reducing as well as capping agent. The effect of iron precursor to green tea extract ratio and reaction temperature was studied. The MNPs were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometer. It was observed that the reaction temperature strongly affects the magnetic and structural properties of MNPs. The magnetic measurements study showed that Fe3O4 MNPs are superparamagnetic at 300 K, while at 60 K have ferromagnetic as well as superparamagnetic contributions.

  17. The weak Fe fluorescence line and long-term X-ray evolution of the Compton-thick active galactic nucleus in NGC 7674

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, P.; Annuar, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Stern, D.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Bianchi, S.; Boggs, S. E.; Boorman, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Del Moro, A.; Elvis, M.; Guainazzi, M.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Lamperti, I.; Malaguti, G.; Masini, A.; Matt, G.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.; Rivers, E.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2017-06-01

    We present NuSTAR X-ray observations of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in NGC 7674. The source shows a flat X-ray spectrum, suggesting that it is obscured by Compton-thick gas columns. Based upon long-term flux dimming, previous work suggested the alternate possibility that the source is a recently switched-off AGN with the observed X-rays being the lagged echo from the torus. Our high-quality data show the source to be reflection-dominated in hard X-rays, but with a relatively weak neutral Fe Kα emission line (equivalent width [EW] of ≈ 0.4 keV) and a strong Fe xxvi ionized line (EW ≈ 0.2 keV). We construct an updated long-term X-ray light curve of NGC 7674 and find that the observed 2-10 keV flux has remained constant for the past ≈ 20 yr, following a high-flux state probed by Ginga. Light travel time arguments constrain the minimum radius of the reflector to be ˜ 3.2 pc under the switched-off AGN scenario, ≈ 30 times larger than the expected dust sublimation radius, rendering this possibility unlikely. A patchy Compton-thick AGN (CTAGN) solution is plausible, requiring a minimum line-of-sight column density (NH) of 3 × 1024 cm-2 at present, and yields an intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity of (3-5) × 1043 erg s-1. Realistic uncertainties span the range of ≈ (1-13) × 1043 erg s-1. The source has one of the weakest fluorescence lines amongst bona fide CTAGN, and is potentially a local analogue of bolometrically luminous systems showing complex neutral and ionized Fe emission. It exemplifies the difficulty of identification and proper characterization of distant CTAGN based on the strength of the neutral Feline.

  18. The Weak Fe Fluorescence Line and Long-Term X-Ray Evolution of the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus in NGC7674

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, P.; Annuar, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Stern, D.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Bianchi, S.; Boggs, S. E.; Boorman, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present NuSTAR X-ray observations of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in NGC7674.The source shows a flat X-ray spectrum, suggesting that it is obscured by Compton-thick gas columns. Based upon long-term flux dimming, previous work suggested the alternate possibility that the source is a recently switched-off AGN with the observed X-rays being the lagged echo from the torus. Our high-quality data show the source to be reflection-dominated in hard X-rays, but with a relatively weak neutral Fe K(alpha) emission line (equivalent width [EW] of approximately 0.4 keV) and a strong Fe XXVI ionized line (EW approximately 0.2 keV).We construct an updated long-term X-ray light curve of NGC7674 and find that the observed 2-10 keV flux has remained constant for the past approximately 20 yr, following a high-flux state probed by Ginga. Light travel time arguments constrain the minimum radius of the reflector to be approximately 3.2 pc under the switched-off AGN scenario, approximately 30 times larger than the expected dust sublimation radius, rendering this possibility unlikely. A patchy Compton-thick AGN (CTAGN) solution is plausible, requiring a minimum line-of-sight column density (N(sub H)) of 3 x 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2) at present, and yields an intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity of (3-5) x 10(exp 43) erg s(exp -1). Realistic uncertainties span the range of approximately (1-13) x 10(exp 43) erg s1. The source has one of the weakest fluorescence lines amongst bona fide CTAGN, and is potentially a local analogue of bolometrically luminous systems showing complex neutral and ionized Fe emission. It exemplifies the difficulty of identification and proper characterization of distant CTAGN based on the strength of the neutral Fe K line

  19. How oxygen attacks [FeFe] hydrogenases from photosynthetic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripp, Sven T.; Goldet, Gabrielle; Brandmayr, Caterina; Sanganas, Oliver; Vincent, Kylie A.; Haumann, Michael; Armstrong, Fraser A.; Happe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Green algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii synthesize an [FeFe] hydrogenase that is highly active in hydrogen evolution. However, the extreme sensitivity of [FeFe] hydrogenases to oxygen presents a major challenge for exploiting these organisms to achieve sustainable photosynthetic hydrogen production. In this study, the mechanism of oxygen inactivation of the [FeFe] hydrogenase CrHydA1 from C. reinhardtii has been investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that reaction with oxygen results in destruction of the [4Fe-4S] domain of the active site H-cluster while leaving the di-iron domain (2FeH) essentially intact. By protein film electrochemistry we were able to determine the order of events leading up to this destruction. Carbon monoxide, a competitive inhibitor of CrHydA1 which binds to an Fe atom of the 2FeH domain and is otherwise not known to attack FeS clusters in proteins, reacts nearly two orders of magnitude faster than oxygen and protects the enzyme against oxygen damage. These results therefore show that destruction of the [4Fe-4S] cluster is initiated by binding and reduction of oxygen at the di-iron domain—a key step that is blocked by carbon monoxide. The relatively slow attack by oxygen compared to carbon monoxide suggests that a very high level of discrimination can be achieved by subtle factors such as electronic effects (specific orbital overlap requirements) and steric constraints at the active site. PMID:19805068

  20. Identification of a green rust mineral in a reductomorphic soil by Mossbauer and Raman spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolard, F.; Génin, J.-M. R.; Abdelmoula, M.; Bourrié, G.; Humbert, B.; Herbillon, A.

    1997-03-01

    Mössbauer and Raman spectroscopies are used to identify for the first time a green rust as a mineral in a reductomorphic soil from samples extracted in the forest of Fougères (Brittany-France). The Mossbauer spectrum displays two characteristic ferrous and ferric quadrupole doublets, the abundance ratio Fe(II)/Fe(Ill) of which is close to 1. Comparison with synthetic mixed valence Fe(II)Fe(HI) hydroxides supports the conclusion that the most probable formula is Fe2(OH)5, i.e., according to the pyroaurite-like crystal structure [Fe(n1Fe1III)(OH),]+o [OH] -. The microprobe Raman spectrum exhibits two bands at 518 and 427 cm-' as for synthetic green rusts. When exposed to the air, the new mineral goes rapidly from bluish-green to ochrous. The formula is compatible with the values of ionic activity products Q for equilibria between aqueous iron species and minerals obtained from soil waters, which suggests that this new mineral is likely to control the mobility of Fe in the environment.

  1. Effect of film roughness in Fe/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions: model calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edalati Boostan, Saeideh; Heiliger, Christian [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 (Germany); Moradi, Hosein [Department of Physics,Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    We calculate how interface roughness affects the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) in Fe/MgO/Fe (100) junctions. The used method is based on a single-band tight-binding (SBTB) approximation employing the Green's function formalism. We investigate the influence of disorder at the TMR ratio. Thereby, the disorder is modeled by considering different occupation probabilities of Fe and MgO at interface sites. We calculate the current densities for parallel and anti-parallel configurations for different disorders. The results show that the roughness decreases the TMR that match well with experimental observations.

  2. Computed oscillator strengths and energy levels for Fe III, Fe IV, Fe V, and Fe VI with calculated wavelengths and wavelengths derived from established data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    Calculated weighted oscillator strengths are tabulated for spectral lines of Fe III, Fe IV, Fe V, and Fe VI. The lines belong to transition arrays 3d 6 -3d 5 4p and 3d 5 4s-3d 5 4p in Fe III, 3d 5 -3d 4 4p and 3d 4 4s-3d 4 4p in Fe IV, 3d 4 -3d 3 4p and 3d 3 4s-3d 3 4p in Fe V, and 3d 3 -3d 2 4p and 3d 2 4s-3d 2 4p in Fe VI. For the calculations, Slater parameters are optimized on the basis of minimizing the discrepancies between observed and computed wavelengths. Configuration interaction was included among the 3d n , 3d n-1 4s, 3d n-2 4s 2 , 3d n-1 4d, and 3d n-1 5s even configurations and among the 3d n-1 4p, 3d n-2 4s4p, and 3d n-1 5p odd configurations, with 3p 5 3d n+1 added for Fe VI. Calculated wavelengths are compared with observational data, and the compositions of energy levels are listed. This completes a series of similar computations for these complex configurations covering Fe I to Fe VI

  3. Coprecipitation of Arsenate and Arsenite with Green Rust Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the extent and nature of arsenic co-precipitation with green rusts and to examine the influence of arsenic incorporation on the mineralogy of formed solid phases. Stoichiometric green rusts were obtained by coprecipitation of fe...

  4. The catalytic oxidation of malachite green by the microwave-Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huaili; Zhang, Huiqin; Sun, Xiaonan; Zhang, Peng; Tshukudu, Tiroyaone; Zhu, Guocheng

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of malachite green using the microwave-Fenton process was investigated. 0% of malachite green de-colorization using the microwave process and 23.5% of malachite green de-colorization using the Fenton process were observed within 5 minutes. In contrast 95.4% of malachite green de-colorization using the microwave-Fenton was observed in 5 minutes. During the microwave-Fenton process, the optimum operating conditions for malachite green de-colorization were found to be 3.40 of initial pH, 0.08 mmol/L of Fe2+ concentration and 12.5 mmol/L of H2O2 concentration. Confirmatory tests were carried out under the optimum conditions and the COD removal rate of 82.0% and the de-colorization rate of 99.0% were observed in 5 minutes. The apparent kinetics equation of -dC/dt=0.0337 [malachite green]0.9860[Fe2+)]0.8234[H2O2]0.1663 for malachite green de-colorization was calculated, which implied that malachite green was the dominant factor in determining the removal efficiency of malachite green based on microwave-Fenton process.

  5. Non-LTE line formation of Fe in late-type stars - IV. Modelling of the solar centre-to-limb variation in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, K.; Amarsi, A. M.; Asplund, M.

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to model the shapes and strengths of iron lines in the solar spectrum is a critical test of the accuracy of the solar iron abundance, which sets the absolute zero-point of all stellar metallicities. We use an extensive 463-level Fe atom with new photoionization cross-sections for Fe I...

  6. Biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles enhancing electrochemical performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.G.; Zhang, X.D.; He, W.

    2012-01-01

    We report a green biomimetic method to synthesize biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles using yeast cells as both a structural template and a biocarbon source for high-power lithium-ion batteries.......We report a green biomimetic method to synthesize biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles using yeast cells as both a structural template and a biocarbon source for high-power lithium-ion batteries....

  7. Influence of silicate ions on the formation of goethite from green rust in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang-Koo; Kimijima, Ken'ichi; Kanie, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Shigeru; Muramatsu, Atsushi; Saito, Masatoshi; Shinoda, Kozo; Waseda, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the influence of silicate ions on the formation of goethite converted from hydroxysulphate green rust, which was synthesized by neutralizing mixed solution of Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and FeSO 4 with NaOH solution, by O 2 in an aqueous solution. The pH and oxidation-reduction potential of the suspension and the Fe and Si concentrations in supernatant solutions were analyzed. X-ray diffraction results for the solid particles formed during the conversion were consistent with the results of the solution analyses. The results indicated that silicate ions suppressed the conversion from green rust to α-FeOOH and distorted the linkages of FeO 6 octahedral units in the α-FeOOH structure

  8. Non-LTE Calculations of the Fe I 6173 Å Line in a Flaring Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Ding, M. D.; Li, Ying; Carlsson, Mats

    2018-04-01

    The Fe I 6173 Å line is widely used in the measurements of vector magnetic fields by instruments including the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). We perform non-local thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of this line based on radiative hydrodynamic simulations in a flaring atmosphere. We employ both a quiet-Sun atmosphere and a penumbral atmosphere as the initial one in our simulations. We find that, in the quiet-Sun atmosphere, the line center is obviously enhanced during an intermediate flare. The enhanced emission is contributed from both radiative backwarming in the photosphere and particle beam heating in the lower chromosphere. A blue asymmetry of the line profile also appears due to an upward mass motion in the lower chromosphere. If we take a penumbral atmosphere as the initial atmosphere, the line has a more significant response to the flare heating, showing a central emission and an obvious asymmetry. The low spectral resolution of HMI would indicate some loss of information, but the enhancement and line asymmetry are still kept. By calculating polarized line profiles, we find that the Stokes I and V profiles can be altered as a result of flare heating. Thus the distortion of this line has a crucial influence on the magnetic field measured from this line, and one should be cautious in interpreting the magnetic transients observed frequently in solar flares.

  9. On the Calculation of the Fe K-alpha Line Emissivity of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczynski, H.; Beheshtipour, B., E-mail: krawcz@wustl.edu [Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, 1 Brookings Drive, CB 1105, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Observations of the fluorescent Fe K α emission line from the inner accretion flows of stellar mass black holes in X-ray binaries and supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei have become an important tool to study the magnitude and inclination of the black hole spin, and the structure of the accretion flow close to the event horizon of the black hole. Modeling spectral, timing, and soon also X-ray polarimetric observations of the Fe K α emission requires the calculation of the specific intensity in the rest frame of the emitting plasma. We revisit the derivation of the equation used for calculating the illumination of the accretion disk by the corona. We present an alternative derivation leading to a simpler equation, and discuss the relation to previously published results.

  10. A line source in Minkowski for the de Sitter spacetime scalar Green's function: Massless minimally coupled case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Yi-Zen

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the desire to understand the causal structure of physical signals produced in curved spacetimes – particularly around black holes – we show how, for certain classes of geometries, one might obtain its retarded or advanced minimally coupled massless scalar Green's function by using the corresponding Green's functions in the higher dimensional Minkowski spacetime where it is embedded. Analogous statements hold for certain classes of curved Riemannian spaces, with positive definite metrics, which may be embedded in higher dimensional Euclidean spaces. The general formula is applied to (d ≥ 2)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime, and the scalar Green's function is demonstrated to be sourced by a line emanating infinitesimally close to the origin of the ambient (d + 1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and piercing orthogonally through the de Sitter hyperboloids of all finite sizes. This method does not require solving the de Sitter wave equation directly. Only the zero mode solution to an ordinary differential equation, the “wave equation” perpendicular to the hyperboloid – followed by a one-dimensional integral – needs to be evaluated. A topological obstruction to the general construction is also discussed by utilizing it to derive a generalized Green's function of the Laplacian on the (d ≥ 2)-dimensional sphere

  11. Properties of Fe, Ni and Zn isotopes near the drip-lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.N.; Tarasaov, D.V.; Gridnev, K.A.; Gridnev, D.K.; Kartavenko, V.G.; Greiner, W.

    2008-01-01

    The position of the neutron and proton drip-lines as well as properties of the isotopes Fe, Ni and Zn with neutron excess and neutron deficit are studied within the Hartree–Fock approach with the Skyrme interaction (Ska, SkM*, Sly4). The pairing is taken into account on the basis of the BCS approach with the pairing constant G = (19.5/A)[1 ± 0.51(N-Z)/A]. Our calculations predict that for Ni isotopes around N = 62 there appears a sudden increase of the deformation parameter up to β = 0.4. The zone with such big deformation, where Ni isotopes are stable against one neutron emission stretches up to N = 78. The magic numbers effects for the isotopes 48 Ni, 56 Ni, 78 Ni, 110 Ni are discussed. The universality of the reasons standing behind the enhancement of stability of the isotopes 40 O and 110 Ni which are beyond the drip-line is demonstrated. Calculated values of the two-neutron separation energy, and proton and neutron root mean square radii for the chain of Ni isotopes show a good agreement with existing Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov calculations of these values. (author)

  12. Generalized green synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ag composites with excellent SERS activity and their application in fungicide detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhao, Aiwu, E-mail: awzhao@iim.ac.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Department of Chemistry (China); Wang, Rujing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Intelligent Machines (China); Wang, Dapeng [University of Science and Technology of China, Department of Chemistry (China); Wang, Liusan; Gao, Qian; Sun, Henghui [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Intelligent Machines (China); Li, Lei; He, Qinye [University of Science and Technology of China, Department of Chemistry (China)

    2015-12-15

    This paper reports the generalized green synthesis of a series of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ag composites by magnetron sputtering method. The amounts of silver nanoparticles located on the hollow Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles can be tuned by controlling the sputtering time. The surfaces of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ag composites are rough with high density and numerous Ag nanogaps (which can serve as Raman active hot spots to amplify the Raman signal), providing the sound reliability and reproducibility of Raman detection. With p-aminothiophenol and Rhodamine 6G (R6G) for probe molecules, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties of these Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ag composites were studied. It was found that the SERS signal reached the maximum with the sputtering time of 130 s, indicating that this compound had most hot spots. In this paper, we used the composite with the strongest SERS signal for thiram detection, and the detection limit can reach 5 × 10{sup −7} mol/L (about 0.012 ppm), which is lower than the maximal residue limit of 7 ppm in fruit prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ag composites are readily available, easy to carry, and show great potential for applications in universal SERS substrates in practical SERS detection.

  13. Mössbauer analysis of the firing process of the sky-green glaze of the imitative ancient Chinese Ru porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songhua, Chen; Zhengyao, Gao; Guoju, Hu; Xiande, Chen

    1994-12-01

    The variation of the Mössbauer parameters of the imitative ancient Ru porcelain skygreen glaze with the firing conditions is studied in detail in the present paper. The Mössbauer spectra show that the sky-green glaze contains three kinds of iron minerals, i.e. the structural iron (Fe2+ and Fe3+); Fe2O3 and Fe3O4. The relative intensity of the paramagnetic peak Fe2+ increases and the magnetic ratio of the magnetic peak decreases with increasing temperature. Based on the variation of the quadrupole splitting ( QS) of the paramagnetic peak Fe2+, the phase transformation characteristics of the sky-green glaze in the firing process is discussed. The coloring mechanism of the sky-green glaze and the variation of its magnetism in the firing process are also investigated in the present paper.

  14. Polyphosphoric acid supported on Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles as a magnetically-recoverable green catalyst for the synthesis of pyranopyrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Moeinpour

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyphosphoric acid supported on silica coated Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles was found to be magnetically separable, highly efficient, eco-friendly, green and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst. This new catalyst at first was fully characterized by TEM, SEM, FTIR and XRD techniques and then catalytic activity of this catalyst was investigated in the synthesis of 5-cyano-1,4-dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles. Also the Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 magnetic nanoparticle-supported polyphosphoric acid could be reused at least six times without significant loss of activity. It could be recovered easily by applying an external magnet.

  15. Differential tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in ‘Green mice’

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, De-Fu; Tezuka, Hideo; Kondo, Tetsuo; Sudo, Katsuko; Niu, Dong-Feng; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Yamane, Tetsu; Nakamura, Nobuki; Katoh, Ryohei

    2010-01-01

    In order to clarify tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in ‘green mice’ from a transgenic line having an EGFP cDNA under the control of a chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer, we studied the expression of EGFP in various organs and tissues from these ‘green mice’ by immunohistochemistry with anti- EGFP antibody in conjunction with direct observation for EGFP fluorescence using confocal laser scanning microscopy. On i...

  16. Could microwave induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process over CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} effectively eliminate brilliant green in aqueous solution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yongming, E-mail: juyongming@scies.org [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Wang, Xiaoyan [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Qiao, Junqin [Center of Material Analysis, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Guohua [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Wu, You [Department of Urology, The Affiliated Hospital to Nantong University, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Yuan, E-mail: liyuan@scies.org [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Zhang, Xiuyu; Xu, Zhencheng; Qi, Jianying; Fang, Jiande [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The elimination of BG over CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}(CP) was mainly due to the residue of NaOH. • Salicylic acid failed to capture hydroxyl radicals within MICO process. • This study indicated dim prospects for the MICO-based elimination of contaminants. -- Abstract: In this study, we adopted the chemical co-precipitation (CP) method and sol–gel method followed by calcination at temperatures of 100–900 °C for 12 h to synthesize CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials, which were further characterized by TEM, XRD and XPS techniques. The properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials were evaluated in a microwave (MW) induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process for the elimination of brilliant green (BG). The results showed that: (1) the removal rates of BG gradually decreased over a series of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials prepared by CP method and calcinated with 100–700 °C (except 900 °C) for 12 h within three reuse cycles; for comparison, no removal of BG was obtained over CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized by sol–gel method and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-900 (CP); (2) no hydroxyl radicals were captured with salicylic acid used as molecular probe in the MICO process; (3) MW irradiation enhanced the release of residual NaOH within the microstructure of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and further discolored BG, because BG is sensitive to pH; (4) granular activated carbon (GAC), an excellent MW-absorbing material possessing higher dielectric loss tangent compared to that of a series of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials, could not remove BG in suspensions at a higher efficiency, even if the loading amount was 20 g L{sup −1}. Accordingly, MICO process over CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials and GAC could not effectively eliminate BG in suspensions.

  17. A quasi-continuous observation of the α-transition of Fe1+xS by Moessbauer line tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Zelis, P.; Pasquevich, G. A.; Veiga, A.; Fernandez van Raap, M. B.; Sanchez, F. H.

    2010-01-01

    Moessbauer absorption line tracking methodology, under a constant velocity strategy, is used for a quasi-continuous observation of the α-transition on slightly non stoichiometric Fe 1+x S alloy. To this end, two strategies were applied: an intelligent absorption line tracking with a control algorithm that uses the data measured in the previous region to establish the position of the next partial spectral range; and a predetermined line tracking in which temperature evolution of a partial spectral region of interest (ROI) is programmed. The latter uses results from the former, in order to achieve a quasi-continuous partial spectral observation. These experiments clearly demonstrate that line tracking allows a more efficient use of the radioactive source, as the effort is concentrated in a partial region of the spectra from which the desired information can be obtained.

  18. The profiles of Fe K α line from the inhomogeneous accretion flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Di; Ma, Ren-Yi; Li, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Hui; Fang, Tao-Tao

    2018-05-01

    The clumpy disc, or inhomogeneous accretion flow, has been proposed to explain the properties of accreting black hole systems. However, the observational evidence remains to be explored. In this work, we calculate the profiles of Fe K α lines emitted from the inhomogeneous accretion flow through the ray-tracing technique, in order to find possible observable signals of the clumps. Compared with the skewed double-peaked profile of the continuous standard accretion disc, the lines show a multipeak structure when the emissivity index is not very steep. The peaks and wings are affected by the position and size of the cold clumps. When the clump is small and is located in the innermost region, due to the significant gravitational redshift, the blue wing can overlap with the red wing of the outer cold disc/clump, forming a fake peak or greatly enhancing the red peak. Given high enough resolution, it is easier to constrain the clumps around the supermassive black holes than the clumps in stellar mass black holes due to the thermal Doppler effect.

  19. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme- iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samman, S.; Sandstrøm, B.; Toft, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    the effect of phenolic-rich extracts obtained from green tea or rosemary on nonheme-iron absorption. Design: Young women aged 19-39 y consumed test meals on 4 separate occasions. The meals were identical except for the absence (meal A) or presence (meal B) of a phenolic-rich extract from green tea (study 1......-body retention of 59Fe and the ratio of Fe-55 to 59Fe activity in blood samples. Results: The presence of the phenolic-rich extracts resulted in decreased nonheme-iron absorption. Mean (+/-SD) iron absorption decreased from 12.1 +/- 4.5% to 8.9 +/- 5.2% (P tea extract and from 7...

  20. A novel green synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag core shell recyclable nanoparticles using Vitis vinifera stem extract and its enhanced antibacterial performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prathima, B. [Analytical and inorganic Division of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh (India); Anitha, K. [Department of Chemistry, S.K. University, Anantapur-515003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Jyothi, N.V.V., E-mail: nvvjyothi01@gmail.com [Analytical and inorganic Division of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2015-01-15

    We described a novel and eco-friendly method for preparing Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with high magnetism and potent antibacterial activity. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs were obtained using waste material of Vitis vinifera (grape) stem extract as the green solvent, reducing and capping agent. The result recorded from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectrum, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) supports the biosynthesis and characterization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the size of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag nanoparticles was measured below 50 nm; high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicates the core shell structure; and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) has revealed polycrystalline nature. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows the ferromagnetic nature of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 15.74 emu/g. Further, these biogenic nanoparticles were highly hazardous to microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of biogenic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs showed potent inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These nanoparticles may also be reusable because of its excellent ferromagnetic property.

  1. Effect of surface modification of BiFeO3 on the dielectric, ferroelectric, magneto-dielectric properties of polyvinylacetate/BiFeO3 nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Bajpai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3 is considered as one of the most promising materials in the field of multiferroics. In this work, a simple green route as well as synthetic routes has been used for the preparation of pure phase BiFeO3. An extract of Calotropis Gigantea flower was used as a reaction medium in green route. In each case so formed BiFeO3 particles are of comparable quality. These particles are in the range of 50–60 nm and exhibit mixed morphology (viz., spherical and cubic as confirmed by TEM analysis. These pure phase BiFeO3 nanoparticles were first time surface modified effectively by mean of two silylating agent’s viz., tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS and (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES. Modified and unmodified BiFeO3 nanoparticles were efficiently introduced into polyvinylacetate (PVAc matrix. It has been shown that nanocomposite prepared by modified BiFeO3 comprise superior dispersion characteristics, improved ferroelectric properties and favorable magneto-dielectric properties along with excellent wettability in compare to nanocomposite prepared by unmodified BiFeO3. These preliminary results demonstrate possible applications of this type of nanocomposites particularly in the field of multiferroic coating and adhesives.

  2. Development and characterization of enhanced green fluorescent protein and luciferase expressing cell line for non-destructive evaluation of tissue engineering constructs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, J.S.; Temenoff, J.S.; Park, H.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.; Barry, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of genetically modified cells developed for the qualitative and quantitative non-destructive evaluation of cells on biomaterials. The Fisher rat fibroblastic cell line has been genetically modified to stably express the reporter genes enhanced green fluorescence

  3. Electron spin resonance of Fe4+ in amethyst quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    The ESR spectrum of Fe 4+ was looked for in amethyst quartz. Besides saturated Fe 3+ lines, ESR lines of a new paramagnetic center whose spin-lattice relaxation time is relatively short were observed. They could be attributed to Fe 4+ [fr

  4. Reductive and sorptive properties of sulfate green rust (GRSO4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedel, Sorin

    The Fe(II), Fe(III) hydroxide containing sulfate in its structure, called sulfate green rust (GRSO4), can effectively reduce and convert contaminants to less mobile and less toxic forms. However, the ability of GRSO4 to remove positively charged species from solution, via sorption, is very limited...

  5. Accurate Wavelength Measurements and Modeling of Fe XV to Fe XIX Spectra Recorded in High-Density Plasmas between 13.5 and 17 Å

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, M. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Dunn, J.; Jordan, N.; Hansen, S. B.; Osterheld, A. L.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Flora, F.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Murra, D.; Reale, A.; Reale, L.; Tomassetti, G.; Ritucci, A.; Francucci, M.; Martellucci, S.; Petrocelli, G.

    2005-06-01

    Iron spectra have been recorded from plasmas created at three different laser plasma facilities: the Tor Vergata University laser in Rome (Italy), the Hercules laser at ENEA in Frascati (Italy), and the Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) laser at LLNL in California (USA). The measurements provide a means of identifying dielectronic satellite lines from Fe XVI and Fe XV in the vicinity of the strong 2p-->3d transitions of Fe XVII. About 80 Δn>=1 lines of Fe XV (Mg-like) to Fe XIX (O-like) were recorded between 13.8 and 17.1 Å with a high spectral resolution (λ/Δλ~4000) about 30 of these lines are from Fe XVI and Fe XV. The laser-produced plasmas had electron temperatures between 100 and 500 eV and electron densities between 1020 and 1022 cm-3. The Hebrew University Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code (HULLAC) was used to calculate the atomic structure and atomic rates for Fe XV-XIX. HULLAC was used to calculate synthetic line intensities at Te=200 eV and ne=1021 cm-3 for three different conditions to illustrate the role of opacity: optically thin plasmas with no excitation-autoionization/dielectronic recombination (EA/DR) contributions to the line intensities, optically thin plasmas that included EA/DR contributions to the line intensities, and optically thick plasmas (optical depth ~200 μm) that included EA/DR contributions to the line intensities. The optically thick simulation best reproduced the recorded spectrum from the Hercules laser. However, some discrepancies between the modeling and the recorded spectra remain.

  6. Modeling Fe II Emission and Revised Fe II (UV) Empirical Templates for the Seyfert 1 Galaxy I Zw 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhweiler, F.; Verner, E.

    2008-03-01

    We use the narrow-lined broad-line region (BLR) of the Seyfert 1 galaxy, I Zw 1, as a laboratory for modeling the ultraviolet (UV) Fe II 2100-3050 Å emission complex. We calculate a grid of Fe II emission spectra representative of BLR clouds and compare them with the observed I Zw 1 spectrum. Our predicted spectrum for log [nH/(cm -3) ] = 11.0, log [ΦH/(cm -2 s-1) ] = 20.5, and ξ/(1 km s-1) = 20, using Cloudy and an 830 level model atom for Fe II with energies up to 14.06 eV, gives a better fit to the UV Fe II emission than models with fewer levels. Our analysis indicates (1) the observed UV Fe II emission must be corrected for an underlying Fe II pseudocontinuum; (2) Fe II emission peaks can be misidentified as that of other ions in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with narrow-lined BLRs possibly affecting deduced physical parameters; (3) the shape of 4200-4700 Å Fe II emission in I Zw 1 and other AGNs is a relative indicator of narrow-line region (NLR) and BLR Fe II emission; (4) predicted ratios of Lyα, C III], and Fe II emission relative to Mg II λ2800 agree with extinction corrected observed I Zw 1 fluxes, except for C IV λ1549 (5) the sensitivity of Fe II emission strength to microturbulence ξ casts doubt on existing relative Fe/Mg abundances derived from Fe II (UV)/Mg II flux ratios. Our calculated Fe II emission spectra, suitable for BLRs in AGNs, are available at http://iacs.cua.edu/people/verner/FeII. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 05-26555.

  7. Can green roof act as a sink for contaminants? A methodological study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, Umid Man

    2014-11-01

    The present study examines whether green roofs act as a sink or source of contaminants based on various physico-chemical parameters (pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids) and metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb). The performance of green roof substrate prepared using perlite, vermiculite, sand, crushed brick, and coco-peat, was compared with local garden soil based on improvement of runoff quality. Portulaca grandiflora was used as green roof vegetation. Four different green roof configurations, with vegetated and non-vegetated systems, were examined for several artificial rain events (un-spiked and metal-spiked). In general, the vegetated green roof assemblies generated better-quality runoff with less conductivity and total metal ion concentration compared to un-vegetated assemblies. Of the different green roof configurations examined, P. grandiflora planted on green roof substrate acted as sink for various metals and showed the potential to generate better runoff. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Copper-mediated reductive dechlorination by green rust intercalated with dodecanoate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lizhi; Yin, Zhou; Cooper, Nicola G.A.

    2018-01-01

    A layered FeII-FeIII hydroxide (green rust, GR) was intercalated with dodecanoate (known as GRC12) and then amended with CuII (GRC12(Cu)) before reaction with chloroform (CF), carbon tetrachloride (CT), trichloroethylene (TCE) or tetrachloroethylene (PCE). Reduction of CT by GRC12(Cu) was 37 times...

  9. Investigation on microstructure and mechanical properties of Mo2FeB2 based cermets with and without PVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yupeng; Huang, Zhifu; Jian, Yongxin; Yang, Ming; Li, Kemin

    2018-03-01

    Mo2FeB2 based cermets with and without PVA have been investigated by x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The density and transverse rupture strength (TRS) of green compact, relative density, hardness (HRA), fracture toughness (KIC) and TRS of Mo2FeB2 based cermets were also measured. The results indicate that, compared with the Mo2FeB2 based cermets without PVA, the density of green compact with PVA can be improved slightly at the same pressure. However, the much higher TRS is obtained for the green compact without PVA. Meanwhile, Mo2FeB2 particles exhibit the finer and less congruity feature for Mo2FeB2 based cermets without PVA. In addition, the higher relative density, hardness, fracture toughness and TRS can be acquired for the cermets without PVA. Obviously, considering the mechanical properties and preparation period of Mo2FeB2 based cermets, no adding PVA is the optimized process of powder molding in the manufacture of Mo2FeB2 based cermets.

  10. Portulaca grandiflora as green roof vegetation: Plant growth and phytoremediation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2017-06-03

    Finding appropriate rooftop vegetation may improve the quality of runoff from green roofs. Portulaca grandiflora was examined as possible vegetation for green roofs. Green roof substrate was found to have low bulk density (360.7 kg/m 3 ) and high water-holding capacity (49.4%), air-filled porosity (21.1%), and hydraulic conductivity (5270 mm/hour). The optimal substrate also supported the growth of P. grandiflora with biomass multiplication of 450.3% and relative growth rate of 0.038. Phytoextraction potential of P. grandiflora was evaluated using metal-spiked green roof substrate as a function of time and spiked substrate metal concentration. It was identified that P. grandiflora accumulated all metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from metal-spiked green roof substrate. At the end of 40 days, P. grandiflora accumulated 811 ± 26.7, 87.2 ± 3.59, 416 ± 15.8, 459 ± 15.6, 746 ± 20.9, 357 ± 18.5, 565 ± 6.8, and 596 ± 24.4 mg/kg of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. Results also indicated that spiked substrate metal concentration strongly influenced metal accumulation property of P. grandiflora with metal uptake increased and accumulation factor decreased with increase in substrate metal concentration. P. grandiflora also showed potential to translocate all the examined metals with translocation factor greater than 1 for Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn, indicating hyperaccumulation property.

  11. A quasi-continuous observation of the {alpha}-transition of Fe{sub 1+x}S by Moessbauer line tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Zelis, P., E-mail: pmendoza@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Pasquevich, G. A.; Veiga, A.; Fernandez van Raap, M. B.; Sanchez, F. H. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CONICET, Depto. de Fisica, Fac. Ciencias Exactas, Instituto de Fisica La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-01-15

    Moessbauer absorption line tracking methodology, under a constant velocity strategy, is used for a quasi-continuous observation of the {alpha}-transition on slightly non stoichiometric Fe{sub 1+x}S alloy. To this end, two strategies were applied: an intelligent absorption line tracking with a control algorithm that uses the data measured in the previous region to establish the position of the next partial spectral range; and a predetermined line tracking in which temperature evolution of a partial spectral region of interest (ROI) is programmed. The latter uses results from the former, in order to achieve a quasi-continuous partial spectral observation. These experiments clearly demonstrate that line tracking allows a more efficient use of the radioactive source, as the effort is concentrated in a partial region of the spectra from which the desired information can be obtained.

  12. Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles and Their Environmental Applications and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Sadia; Tahir, Arifa; Chen, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology have also led to the development of novel nanomaterials, which ultimately increase potential health and environmental hazards. Interest in developing environmentally benign procedures for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been increased. The purpose is to minimize the negative impacts of synthetic procedures, their accompanying chemicals and derivative compounds. The exploitation of different biomaterials for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered a valuable approach in green nanotechnology. Biological resources such as bacteria, algae fungi and plants have been used for the production of low-cost, energy-efficient, and nontoxic environmental friendly metallic nanoparticles. This review provides an overview of various reports of green synthesised zero valent metallic iron (ZVMI) and iron oxide (Fe2O3/Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) and highlights their substantial applications in environmental pollution control. This review also summarizes the ecotoxicological impacts of green synthesised iron nanoparticles opposed to non-green synthesised iron nanoparticles. PMID:28335338

  13. Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles and Their Environmental Applications and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Saif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology have also led to the development of novel nanomaterials, which ultimately increase potential health and environmental hazards. Interest in developing environmentally benign procedures for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been increased. The purpose is to minimize the negative impacts of synthetic procedures, their accompanying chemicals and derivative compounds. The exploitation of different biomaterials for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered a valuable approach in green nanotechnology. Biological resources such as bacteria, algae fungi and plants have been used for the production of low-cost, energy-efficient, and nontoxic environmental friendly metallic nanoparticles. This review provides an overview of various reports of green synthesised zero valent metallic iron (ZVMI and iron oxide (Fe2O3/Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs and highlights their substantial applications in environmental pollution control. This review also summarizes the ecotoxicological impacts of green synthesised iron nanoparticles opposed to non-green synthesised iron nanoparticles.

  14. Glycine buffered synthesis of layered iron(II)-iron(III) hydroxides (green rusts)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Weizhao; Huang, Lizhi; Pedersen, Emil Bjerglund

    2017-01-01

    Layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rusts, GRs) are efficient reducing agents against oxidizing contaminants such as chromate, nitrate, selenite, and nitroaromatic compounds and chlorinated solvents. In this study, we adopted a buffered precipitation approach where glycine (GLY) was used...

  15. Observations of Fe XIV Line Intensity Variations in the Solar Corona During the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Payton; Ladd, Edwin

    2018-01-01

    We present time- and spatially-resolved observations of the inner solar corona in the 5303 Å line of Fe XIV, taken during the 21 August 2017 solar eclipse from a field observing site in Crossville, TN. These observations are used to characterize the intensity variations in this coronal emission line, and to compare with oscillation predictions from models for heating the corona by magnetic wave dissipation.The observations were taken with two Explore Scientific ED 102CF 102 mm aperture triplet apochromatic refractors. One system used a DayStar custom-built 5 Å FWHM filter centered on the Fe XIV coronal spectral line and an Atik Titan camera for image collection. The setup produced images with a pixel size of 2.15 arcseconds (~1.5 Mm at the distance to the Sun), and a field of view of 1420 x 1060 arcseconds, covering approximately 20% of the entire solar limb centered near the emerging sunspot complex AR 2672. We obtained images with an exposure time of 0.22 seconds and a frame rate of 2.36 Hz, for a total of 361 images during totality.An identical, co-aligned telescope/camera system observed the same portion of the solar corona, but with a 100 Å FWHM Baader Planetarium solar continuum filter centered on a wavelength of 5400 Å. Images with an exposure time of 0.01 seconds were obtained with a frame rate of 4.05 Hz. These simultaneous observations are used as a control to monitor brightness variations not related to coronal line oscillations.

  16. In vitro toxicity test and searching the possibility of cancer cell line extermination by magnetic heating with using Fe3O4 magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Hoai Linh; Nguyen Chi Thuan; Nguyen Anh Tuan; Pham Van Thach; Nguyen Xuan Phuc; Le Van Hong; Tran Cong Yen; Nguyen Thi Quy; Hoang Thi My Nhung; Phi Thi Xuyen

    2009-01-01

    A Fe 3 O 4 based magnetic fluid with different concentrations ranged between 0.15 ng/cell to 10 ng/cell (nano gram/cell) was used in the in vitro toxicity test on several cancer cell lines, Sarcoma 180, HeLa and H358. It shows that the fluid with a concentration of Fe 3 O 4 below 1.2 ng/cell is completely non-toxic for these cell lines. Even through in the presence of the highest concentration of 10 ng/cell, the cell viability still reaches more than 60%. The magnetic fluid with Fe 3 O 4 concentration of about 0.1 ng/cell was also used to search ex-vivo the possibility of Sarcoma 180 extermination by magnetic heating with an AC field of 120Oe and 184 KHz. The result shows that after a heat treatment for 30 min., 40% of Sarcoma 180 cells was killed.

  17. Optical properties of a single-colour centre in diamond with a green zero-phonon line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jason M; Grazioso, Fabio; Patton, Brian R; Dolan, Philip R; Markham, Matthew L; Twitchen, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    We report the photoluminescence characteristics of a colour centre in diamond grown by plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition. The colour centre emits with a sharp zero-phonon line at 2.330 eV (λ=532 nm) and a lifetime of 3.3 ns, thus offering potential for a high-speed single-photon source with green emission. It displays a vibronic emission spectrum with a Huang-Rhys parameter of 2.48 at 77 K. Hanbury-Brown and Twiss measurements reveal that the electronic level structure of the defect includes a metastable state that can be populated from the optically excited state.

  18. VT Green Mountain Power Line Data (Overhead Only)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  19. Biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles enhancing electrochemical performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueguang; Zhang, Xudong; He, Wen; Yue, Yuanzheng; Liu, Hong; Ma, Jingyun

    2012-10-18

    We report a simple, inexpensive green biomimetic way for developing the high performance LiFePO(4) for high-power lithium-ion batteries. Biocarbon-coated LiFePO(4) nucleus nanoparticles are synthesized by using yeast cells as both a structural template and a biocarbon source.

  20. Antagonism of phenanthrene cytotoxicity for human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I by green tea polyphenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Xin; Wu Yuanyuan; Mao Xiao; Tu Youying

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some commercial teas around the world and pose a threat to tea consumers. However, green tea polyphenols (GTP) possess remarkable antioxidant and anticancer effects. In this study, the potential of GTP to block the toxicity of the model PAH phenanthrene was examined in human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I. Both GTP and phenanthrene treatment individually caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. A full factorial design experiment demonstrated that the interaction of phenanthrene and GTP significantly reduced growth inhibition. Using the median effect method showed that phenanthrene and GTP were antagonistic when the inhibitory levels were less than about 50%. Apoptosis and cell cycle detection suggested that only phenanthrene affected cell cycle significantly and caused cell death; GTP lowered the mortality of HFL-I cells exposed to phenanthrene; However, GTP did not affect modulation of the cell cycle by phenanthrene. - Green tea polyphenols antagonised cytotoxicity of a low-ring PAH phenanthrene.

  1. Antagonism of phenanthrene cytotoxicity for human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I by green tea polyphenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei Xin [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth Development and Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Wu Yuanyuan; Mao Xiao [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Tu Youying, E-mail: youytu@zju.edu.c [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some commercial teas around the world and pose a threat to tea consumers. However, green tea polyphenols (GTP) possess remarkable antioxidant and anticancer effects. In this study, the potential of GTP to block the toxicity of the model PAH phenanthrene was examined in human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I. Both GTP and phenanthrene treatment individually caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. A full factorial design experiment demonstrated that the interaction of phenanthrene and GTP significantly reduced growth inhibition. Using the median effect method showed that phenanthrene and GTP were antagonistic when the inhibitory levels were less than about 50%. Apoptosis and cell cycle detection suggested that only phenanthrene affected cell cycle significantly and caused cell death; GTP lowered the mortality of HFL-I cells exposed to phenanthrene; However, GTP did not affect modulation of the cell cycle by phenanthrene. - Green tea polyphenols antagonised cytotoxicity of a low-ring PAH phenanthrene.

  2. Fluorescence detection of a protein-bound 2Fe2S cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Kevin G; Goodlitt, Rochelle; Li, Rui; Smolke, Christina D; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2009-03-02

    A fluorescent biosensor is described for 2Fe2S clusters that is composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2), as illustrated here. 2Fe2S detection is based on the reduction of GFP fluorescence upon the 2Fe2S-induced dimerization of GFP-Grx2. This assay is sufficiently sensitive to detect submicromolar changes in 2Fe2S levels, thus making it suitable for high-throughput measurements of metallocluster degradation and synthesis reactions.

  3. Line scan micro XRF analysis of engobe of whiteware painted with red, green and yellow patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yimin; Wang Lihua; Zhu Jian; Wang Changsui; Yan Yan; Chen Dongliang; He Wei; Huang Yuying; Hua Wei; Xu Wei

    2008-01-01

    Whiteware painted with red, green and yellow patterns play an important role in China's development in glaze decoration. In this paper, cross-sections of the porcelain samples were scanned from glaze to body by synchrotron radiation and element contents of the samples were analyzed by SRXRF. The results revealed a transition between the glaze and engobe, and the engobe and body. In the transition area, elemental content changes were related to the raw material to form the glaze, engobe and body, and diffusing ability of the elements depended on thickness of the glaze and the elemental contents of each layer. The engobe had lower Fe and Ti concentrations than the body, hence improving the whiteness and quality of the porcelain. According to petrography, engobe was rich in mica minerals, leading to enhanced reflection effect of the white porcelain. This has not been reported before and further studies are underway. (authors)

  4. Comparison of growth, yield and fiber quality of the obsolete SA30 yellow leaf with four sets of modern yellow and green leaf near isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Virescent Yellow leaf cotton line Seed Accession 30 (SA30) was crossed with four modern parental lines (DP5690, DES119, SG747 and MD51ne) to develop four sets of near isogenic lines (NILs) segregating for green and yellow leaves. Comparisons of these lines were made in the field in a two year re...

  5. Two-gap superconductivity with line nodes in CsCa2Fe4As4F2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Franziska K. K.; Adroja, Devashibhai T.; Wang, Zhi-Cheng; Lang, Franz; Smidman, Michael; Baker, Peter J.; Cao, Guang-Han; Blundell, Stephen J.

    2018-02-01

    We report the results of a muon-spin rotation (μ SR ) experiment to determine the superconducting ground state of the iron-based superconductor CsCa2Fe4As4F2 with Tc≈28.3 K . This compound is related to the fully gapped superconductor CaCsFe4As4 , but here the Ca-containing spacer layer is replaced with one containing Ca2F2 . The temperature evolution of the penetration depth strongly suggests the presence of line nodes and is best modeled by a system consisting of both an s - and a d -wave gap. We also find a potentially magnetic phase which appears below ≈10 K but does not appear to compete with the superconductivity. This compound contains the largest alkali atom in this family of superconductors, and our results yield a value for the in-plane penetration depth of λa b(T =0 ) =244 (3 ) nm .

  6. Aegle marmelos Mediated Green Synthesis of Different Nanostructured Metal Hexacyanoferrates: Activity against Photodegradation of Harmful Organic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhisha Jassal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prussian blue analogue potassium metal hexacyanoferrate (KMHCF nanoparticles Fe4[Fe(CN6]3 (FeHCF, K2Cu3[Fe(CN6]2 (KCuHCF, K2Ni[Fe(CN6]·3H2O (KNiHCF, and K2Co[Fe(CN6] (KCoHCF have been synthesized using plant based biosurfactant Aegle marmelos (Bael and water as a green solvent. It must be emphasized here that no harmful reagent or solvent was used throughout the study. Plant extracts are easily biodegradable and therefore do not cause any harm to the environment. Hence, the proposed method of synthesis of various KMHCF nanoparticles followed a green path. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR. MHCF nanoparticles were used for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes like Malachite Green (MG, Eriochrome Black T (EBT, Methyl Orange (MO, and Methylene Blue (MB. Under optimized reaction conditions, maximum photocatalytic degradation was achieved in case of KCuHCF nanoparticles mediated degradation process (MG: 96.06%, EBT: 83.03%, MB: 94.72%, and MO: 63.71% followed by KNiHCF (MG: 95%, EBT: 80.32%, MB: 91.35%, and MO: 59.42%, KCoHCF (MG: 91.45%, EBT: 78.84%, MB: 89.28%, and MO: 58.20%.

  7. Assessment of affinities of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for monoamine transporters permanently expressed in cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Tomoya; Fujita, Masahiro; Shimada, Shoichi; Sato, Kohji; Schloss, Patrick; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Yasushi; Tohyama, Masaya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three cocaine analogs, beta-CIT (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane), beta-CIT-FE (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(2-fluoroethyl)-nortropane), and beta-CIT-FP (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane), on the uptake of [ 3 H]dopamine(DA), serotonin(5-HT), and 1-norepinephrine (NE) using cell lines permanently expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, to determine their affinities for these three transporters. We generated cell lines stably expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, by the Chen-Okayama method, and then tested the abilities of (-)cocaine, beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, beta-CIT-FP, and clomipramine to inhibit the uptake of [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, and 1-NE. Ki values of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, 1-NE uptake were 6, 29, and 33 nM, 91, 133, and 130 nM, and 28, 113 and 70 nM, respectively, whereas those of cocaine and clomipramine were 316, 581, and 176 nM and > 10,000, 437, and 851 nM, respectively. Beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP were shown to be potent DA, 5-HT, and NE uptake inhibitors. Beta-CIT and beta-CIT-FP were highly potent and selective dopamine uptake inhibitors, and therefore might be useful for imaging of DA transporter with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET)

  8. Iron and zinc availability in maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the Zn and Fe availability by phytic acid/Zn and phytic acid/Fe molar ratios, in 22 tropical maize inbred lines with different genetic backgrounds. The Zn and Fe levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the P through colorimetry method. Three screening methods for phytic acid (Phy analysis were tested and one, based on the 2,2'-bipyridine reaction, was select. There was significant variability in the contents of zinc (17.5 to 42 mg.kg-1, iron (12.2 to 36.7 mg.kg-1, phosphorus (230 to 400 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid (484 to 1056 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid P (140 to 293 mg.100 g-1 and available-P (43.5 to 199.5 mg.100 g-1, and in the available-P/total-P ratio (0.14 to 0.50, Phy/Zn (18.0 to 43.5 and Phy/Fe (16.3 to 45.5 molar ratios. Lines 560977, 560978 and 560982 had greater availability of Zn and lines 560975, 560977, 561010 and 5610111 showed better Fe availability. Lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 also showed better available-P/total-P ratio. Thus, the lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 were considered to have the potential for the development of cultivars of maize with high availability of Fe and/or Zn.

  9. A field study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, U M; Balasubramanian, R

    2012-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs are emerging as practical strategies to improve the environmental quality of cities. However, the impact of green roofs on the storm water quality remains a topic of concern to city planners and environmental policy makers. This study investigated whether green roofs act as a source or a sink of various metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, Li and Co), inorganic anions (NO3-, NO2-, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), Cl-, F- and Br-) and cation (NH4+). A series of green roof assemblies were constructed. Four different real rain events and several artificial rain events were considered for the study. Results showed that concentrations of most of the chemical components in runoff were highest during the beginning of rain events and subsided in the subsequent rain events. Some of the important components present in the runoff include Na, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Fe, Al, Cu, NO3-, PO4(3-) and SO4(2-). However, the concentration of these chemical components in the roof runoff strongly depends on the nature of substrates used in the green roof and the volume of rain. Based on the USEPA standards for freshwater quality, we conclude that the green roof used in this study is reasonably effective except that the runoff contains significant amounts of NO3- and PO4(3-). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Green synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones using nano Fe3O4@meglumine sulfonic acid as a new efficient solid acid catalyst under microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Moradi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Design, synthesis and characterization of nano Fe3O4@meglumine sulfonic acid as a new solid acid catalyst for the simple and green one pot multicomponent synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H-ones/thiones was studied. New solid acid catalyst was prepared through a clean and simple protocol and characterized using FTIR, VSM, TGA, SEM, elemental analysis (CHN and XRD techniques. Heterogenization of homogeneous catalyst as a green approach is a useful method for enhancing the efficiency of catalyst. Presented study was a new method for attachment of homogeneous highly soluble catalyst (meglumine sulfate to the magnetite nanoparticle surfaces for preparing a heterogeneous and effective catalyst. Obtained heterogeneous and reusable solid acid catalyst has high performance in the synthesis of Biginelli compounds. The reaction was performed under microwave irradiation as a rapid and green condition. Easy work up as well as excellent yield (90–98% of products in short reaction times (40–200 s and reusable catalyst are the main advantages of presented procedure. Reaction products were characterized in details using physical and chemical techniques such as melting point, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FTIR.

  11. Green primary explosives: 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V; Coburn, Michael D; Meyer, Thomas J; Wetzler, Modi

    2006-07-05

    The sensitive explosives used in initiating devices like primers and detonators are called primary explosives. Successful detonations of secondary explosives are accomplished by suitable sources of initiation energy that is transmitted directly from the primaries or through secondary explosive boosters. Reliable initiating mechanisms are available in numerous forms of primers and detonators depending upon the nature of the secondary explosives. The technology of initiation devices used for military and civilian purposes continues to expand owing to variations in initiating method, chemical composition, quantity, sensitivity, explosive performance, and other necessary built-in mechanisms. Although the most widely used primaries contain toxic lead azide and lead styphnate, mixtures of thermally unstable primaries, like diazodinitrophenol and tetracene, or poisonous agents, like antimony sulfide and barium nitrate, are also used. Novel environmentally friendly primary explosives are expanded here to include cat[Fe(II)(NT)(3)(H(2)O)(3)], cat(2)[Fe(II)(NT)(4)(H(2)O)(2)], cat(3)[Fe(II)(NT)(5)(H(2)O)], and cat(4)[Fe(II)(NT)(6)] with cat = cation and NT(-) = 5-nitrotetrazolato-N(2). With available alkaline, alkaline earth, and organic cations as partners, four series of 5-nitrotetrazolato-N(2)-ferrate hierarchies have been prepared that provide a plethora of green primaries with diverse initiating sensitivity and explosive performance. They hold great promise for replacing not only toxic lead primaries but also thermally unstable primaries and poisonous agents. Strategies are also described for the systematic preparation of coordination complex green primaries based on appropriate selection of ligands, metals, and synthetic procedures. These strategies allow for maximum versatility in initiating sensitivity and explosive performance while retaining properties required for green primaries.

  12. Theoretical calculations of valence states in Fe-Mo compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, F; Navarro, O; Noverola, H; Suárez, J R; Avignon, M

    2014-01-01

    The half-metallic ferromagnetic double perovskite compound Sr 2 FeMoO 6 is considered as an important material for spintronic applications. It appears to be fundamental to understand the role of electronic parameters controlling the half-metallic ground state. Fe-Mo double perovskites usually present some degree of Fe/Mo disorder which generally increases with doping. In this work, we study the valence states of Fe-Mo cations in the off-stoichiometric system Sr 2 Fe 1+x Mo 1−x O 6 (−1 ≤ x ≤ 1/3) with disorder. Our results for Fe and Mo valence states are obtained using the Green functions and the renormalization perturbation expansion method. The model is based on a correlated electron picture with localized Fe-spins and conduction Mo-electrons interacting with the local spins via a double-exchange-type mechanism

  13. Effect of ferrate on green algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiňáková, Emília; Híveš, Ján; Gál, Miroslav; Fašková, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Green algae Cladophora aegagropila, present in cooling water of thermal power plants, causes many problems and complications, especially during summer. However, algae and its metabolites are rarely eliminated by common removal methods. In this work, the elimination efficiency of electrochemically prepared potassium ferrate(VI) on algae from cooling water was investigated. The influence of experimental parameters, such as Fe(VI) dosage, application time, pH of the system, temperature and hydrodynamics of the solution on removal efficiency, was optimized. This study demonstrates that algae C. aegagropila can be effectively removed from cooling water by ferrate. Application of ferrate(VI) at the optimized dosage and under the suitable conditions (temperature, pH) leads to 100% removal of green algae Cladophora from the system. Environmentally friendly reduction products (Fe(III)) and coagulation properties favour the application of ferrate for the treatment of water contaminated with studied microorganisms compared to other methods such as chlorination and use of permanganate, where harmful products are produced.

  14. Species dependent studies of no-carrier-added 93mMo: A green method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Swadesh; Nayak, Dalia

    2010-01-01

    The present paper reports a combination of radioanalytical and green methodology for the ultra-trace scale speciation of molybdenum. The differential attitude of iron-doped calcium alginate (Fe-CA) and chitosan biopolymers towards no-carrier-added 93m Mo radionuclide was studied to develop environmentally sustainable speciation methodology in ultra-trace scale. The affinity of 93m Mo towards the Fe-CA beads is greater than that of chitosan. Species information was obtained by comparing the adsorption profile of 93m Mo on Fe-CA and chitosan biopolymer with the software code CHEAQS PRO program. From the experimental results it is concluded that no-carrier-added 93m Mo radionuclide form mononuclear species instead of polynuclear species in aqueous solution. Use of biodegradable, non-toxic biopolymer makes this method a step forward towards green chemistry.

  15. Preliminary results of rocket attitude and auroral green line emission rate in the DELTA campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Naomoto; Komada, Sayaka; Takahashi, Takao

    2006-09-01

    The attitude of a sounding rocket launched in the DELTA (Dynamics and Energetics of the Lower Thermosphere in Aurora) campaign was determined with IR horizon sensors and geomagnetic sensors. Since the payload was separated into two portions, two sets of attitude sensors were needed. A new IR sensor was developed for the present experiment, and found the zenith-angle of the spin-axis of the rocket with an accuracy of 2°. By combining information obtained by both type of sensors, the absolute attitudes were determined. The auroral green line emission rate was measured by a photometer on board the same rocket launched under active auroral conditions, and the energy flux of the auroral particle precipitation was estimated.

  16. Removal of Malachite Green dye from aqueous solution using MnFe2O4/Al2O3 Nanophotocatalyst by UV/H2O2 process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Kaviani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Malachite Green (MG is the most commonly used substance for dying cotton, food & pharmacy industries, paper, leather and silk. On inhalation it can cause difficult breathing, while on the direct contact it may cause permanent injury of the eyes of human and animals, burning sensations, nausea, vomiting, profuse sweating, mental confusion and methemoglobinemia; also it can causes cancer in livers. The aim of this study is  the removal of Malachite Green (MG dye from aqueous solutions, using MnFe2O4/Al2O3 nanophotocatalyst by UV/H2O2 process which was used as a low cost method. Materials & Methods: In this research, photocatalytic decomposition of malachite green in water was done by nanocatalyst MnFe2O4/Al2O3 in discontinuous photoreactor under UV light and the injection of H2O2. In order to identify and analyze the provided catalyst, SEM image and XRD diffraction pattern were used. The effect of operational factors in the photocatalytic decomposition of the desired pollutant such as pH, the initial thickness of the dye, the thickness of H2O2 and the quantity of the catalyst were investigated. Results: The finding showed that the right conditions for the elimination of the pollutant included pH equals 4, the initial thickness of the dye being 10 ppm, the thickness of H2O2 being 250ppm, the amount of catalyst being 50mg, the Correlation Coefficient being 0.998 and the dye removal was 94 percent at the end of the experiment. the reaction of Malachite green decomposition was in terms of kinetics investigated through integral method as well; also it showed the kinetic reaction is the first type and the constant speed rate is K=0.047 min-1 . Conclusions: According to the results, because of the complexity of dye structure, biological system was not able to remove the dye as efficient as hybrid system of advanced oxidation processes UV/H2O2 with nanophotocatalyst as an efficient way to remove the Malachite green dye

  17. Cluster-based bulk metallic glass formation in Fe-Si-B-Nb alloy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, C L; Wang, Q; Li, F W; Li, Y H; Wang, Y M; Dong, C [State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, W; Inoue, A, E-mail: dong@dlut.edu.c [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass formations have been explored in Fe-B-Si-Nb alloy system using the so-called atomic cluster line approach in combination with minor alloying guideline. The atomic cluster line refers to a straight line linking binary cluster to the third element in a ternary system. The basic ternary compositions in Fe-B-Si system are determined by the inetersection points of two cluster lines, namely Fe-B cluster to Si and Fe-Si cluster to B, and then further alloyed with 3-5 at. % Nb for enhancing glass forming abilities. BMG rods with a diameter of 3 mm are formed under the case of minor Nb alloying the basic intersecting compositions of Fe{sub 8}B{sub 3}-Si with Fe{sub 12}Si-B and Fe{sub 8}B{sub 2}-Si with Fe{sub 9}Si-B. The BMGs also exhibit high Vickers hardness (H{sub v}) of 1130-1164 and high Young's modulous (E) of 170-180 GPa

  18. Grotrian diagrams of highly ionized iron Fe(VIII)-Fe(XXVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuo; Otsuka, Masamoto; Kato, Takako.

    1977-08-01

    Energy levels and Grotrian diagrams of Fe(VIII) to Fe(XXVI) are presented. This report summarized the data published recently up to 1976, and the wavelength tables compiled were converted to the Grotrian diagrams. The diagrams showing transition from one energy level to another are called Grotrian diagrams. Typical examples of the diagrams are found in the book by Bashkin et al. In the present diagrams, all lines are drawn in parallel, and connected to the extended lines from lower levels. As the results, locally dense packing of lines and figures is avoided. The ordinate of the diagrams indicates level energy, and the J values are shown on the left side of the levels. The wavelength values in angstrom unit are written in parallel with the vertical transition lines. This vertical lines show the resonance transition having absorption oscillator strength f larger than 0.1. The present diagrams are the combination of the tables of wavelength and energy level. Accordingly, the desired wavelength and level energy are easily found. The figures of wavelength are lined up in various groups, so that the characteristics of the transition can be discriminated at a glance. Wavelength and level energy have been mostly derived from experimental spectra in laboratory or solar plasma, except a few by Fawcett's prediction. (Kato, T.)

  19. Physical conditions in CaFe interstellar clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Gnacinski, P.; Krogulec, M.

    2007-01-01

    Interstellar clouds that exhibit strong Ca I and Fe I lines were called CaFe clouds. The ionisation equilibrium equations were used to model the column densities of Ca II, Ca I, K I, Na I, Fe I and Ti II in CaFe clouds. The chemical composition of CaFe clouds is that of the Solar System and no depletion of elements onto dust grains is seen. The CaFe clouds have high electron densities n=1 cm^-3 that leads to high column densities of neutral Ca and Fe.

  20. Cadmium Toxicity Induced Alterations in the Root Proteome of Green Gram in Contrasting Response towards Iron Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium signifies a severe threat to crop productivity and green gram is a notably iron sensitive plant which shows considerable variation towards cadmium stress. A gel-based proteomics analysis was performed with the roots of green gram exposed to iron and cadmium combined treatments. The resulting data show that twenty three proteins were down-regulated in iron-deprived roots either in the absence (−Fe/−Cd or presence (−Fe/+Cd of cadmium. These down-regulated proteins were however well expressed in roots under iron sufficient conditions, even in the presence of cadmium (+Fe/+Cd. The functional classification of these proteins determined that 21% of the proteins are associated with nutrient metabolism. The other proteins in higher quantities are involved in either transcription or translation regulation, and the rest are involved in biosynthesis metabolism, antioxidant pathways, molecular chaperones and stress response. On the other hand, several protein spots were also absent in roots in response to iron deprivation either in absence (−Fe/−Cd or presence (−Fe/+Cd of cadmium but were well expressed in the presence of iron (+Fe/+Cd. Results suggest that green gram plants exposed to cadmium stress are able to change the nutrient metabolic balance in roots, but in the mean time regulate cadmium toxicity through iron supplements.

  1. Green fabrication of agar-conjugated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, S; Huang, B Y; Lin, P Y; Chang, C W [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, S L [Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung 81157, Taiwan (China); Wu, C C [Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan 71101, Taiwan (China); Wu, C H [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 80811, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y S, E-mail: shsieh@facmail.NSYSU.edu.tw [Department of Food Science and Technology, Tajen University, Pingtung 90741, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-05

    Magnetic nanoparticles are of great interest both for fundamental research and emerging applications. In the biomedical field, magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) has shown promise as a hyperthermia-based tumor therapeutic. However, preparing suitable solubilized magnetite nanoparticles is challenging, primarily due to aggregation and poor biocompatibility. Thus methods for coating Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs with biocompatible stabilizers are required. We report a new method for preparing Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles by co-precipitation within the pores of agar gel samples. Permeated agar gels were then dried and ground into a powder, yielding agar-conjugated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. Samples were characterized using XRD, FTIR, TGA, TEM and SQUID. This method for preparing agar-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles is environmentally friendly, inexpensive and scalable.

  2. Facile synthesis of Fe4N/Fe2O3/Fe/porous N-doped carbon nanosheet as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Li, Guangshe; Yu, Meijie; Fan, Jianming; Li, Baoyun; Li, Liping

    2018-04-01

    Iron nitrides are considered as highly promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their nontoxicity, high abundance, low cost, and higher electrical conductivity. Unfortunately, their limited synthesis routes are available and practical application is still hindered by their fast capacity decay. Herein, a facile and green route is developed to synthesize Fe4N/Fe2O3/Fe/porous N-doped carbon nanosheet composite. The size of Fe4N/Fe2O3/Fe particles is small (10-40 nm) and they are confined in porous N-doped carbon nanosheet. These features are conducive to accommodate volume change well, shorten the diffusion distance and further elevate electrical conductivity. When tested as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, a high discharge capacity of 554 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and 389 mA h g-1 after 300 cycles at 1000 mA g-1 are retained. Even at 2000 mA g-1, a high capacity of 330 mA h g-1 can be achieved, demonstrating superior cycling stability and rate performance. New prospects will be brought by this work for the synthesis and the potential application of iron nitrides materials as an anode for LIBs.

  3. Binder Jetting: A Novel NdFeB Bonded Magnet Fabrication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Shafer, Christopher S.; Elliott, Amy M.; Siddel, Derek H.; McGuire, Michael A.; Springfield, Robert M.; Martin, Josh; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this research is to fabricate near-net-shape isotropic (Nd)2Fe14B-based (NdFeB) bonded magnets using a three dimensional printing process to compete with conventional injection molding techniques used for bonded magnets. Additive manufacturing minimizes the waste of critical materials and allows for the creation of complex shapes and sizes. The binder jetting process works similarly to an inkjet printer. A print-head passes over a bed of NdFeB powder and deposits a polymer binding agent to bind the layer of particles together. The bound powder is then coated with another layer of powder, building the desired shape in successive layers of bonded powder. Upon completion, the green part and surrounding powders are placed in an oven at temperatures between 100°C and 150°C for 4-6 h to cure the binder. After curing, the excess powder can be brushed away to reveal the completed "green" part. Green magnet parts were then infiltrated with a clear urethane resin to achieve the measured density of the magnet of 3.47 g/cm3 close to 46% relative to the NdFeB single crystal density of 7.6 g/cm3. Magnetic measurements indicate that there is no degradation in the magnetic properties. This study provides a new pathway for preparing near-net-shape bonded magnets for various magnetic applications.

  4. Green synthesis of Fe nanoparticles using eucalyptus leaf extracts for treatment of eutrophic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ting; Jin, Xiaoying; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were firstly synthesized through a one-step room-temperature biosynthetic route using eucalyptus leaf extracts (EL-Fe NPs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) confirmed the successful synthesis of the spheroidal iron nanoparticles. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) indicated that some polyphenols are bound to the surfaces of EL-Fe NPs as a capping/stabilizing agent. Reactivity of EL-Fe NPs was evaluated for the treatment of swine wastewater and results indicated that 71.7% of total N and 84.5% of COD were removed, respectively. This demonstrated the tremendous potential of EL-Fe NPs for in situ remediation of eutrophic wastewater. - Highlights: •Fe NPs were firstly synthesized through a one-step using eucalyptus leaf extracts. •Fe NPs was evaluated by remediating swine wastewater. •71.7% of total N and 84.5% of COD was removed. •Fe NPs for in situ remediation of eutrophic wastewater

  5. Green synthesis of Fe nanoparticles using eucalyptus leaf extracts for treatment of eutrophic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ting; Jin, Xiaoying [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, Fujian (China); Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: Zuliang.chen@unisa.edu.au [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, Fujian (China); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were firstly synthesized through a one-step room-temperature biosynthetic route using eucalyptus leaf extracts (EL-Fe NPs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) confirmed the successful synthesis of the spheroidal iron nanoparticles. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) indicated that some polyphenols are bound to the surfaces of EL-Fe NPs as a capping/stabilizing agent. Reactivity of EL-Fe NPs was evaluated for the treatment of swine wastewater and results indicated that 71.7% of total N and 84.5% of COD were removed, respectively. This demonstrated the tremendous potential of EL-Fe NPs for in situ remediation of eutrophic wastewater. - Highlights: •Fe NPs were firstly synthesized through a one-step using eucalyptus leaf extracts. •Fe NPs was evaluated by remediating swine wastewater. •71.7% of total N and 84.5% of COD was removed. •Fe NPs for in situ remediation of eutrophic wastewater.

  6. The enhancement of the magnetic properties of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocatalyst using an external magnetic field for the production of green ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alqasem, Bilal, E-mail: bilalalqasem@yahoo.com; Yahya, Noorhana, E-mail: noorhana_yahya@petronas.com.my; Qureshi, Saima, E-mail: saima_qureshi_25@yahoo.com; Irfan, Muhammad, E-mail: irfan-mohammad@hotmail.com; Ur Rehman, Zia, E-mail: zia545@hotmail.com; Soleimani, Hassan, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • External magnetic field was applied during syntheses of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocatalyst. • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocatalyst with enhanced magnetic properties was synthesized. • Effect of magnetic properties and morphology of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on ammonia yield was tested. • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires with improved saturation magnetization created high ammonia yield. • A maximum green ammonia yield of 24.174 × 10{sup −3} mol h{sup −1} g cat{sup −1} was produced. - Abstract: Hematite nanocatalysts with improved magnetic properties were synthesized using electrical resistive heating under the presence of a magnetic field and a gaseous environment containing oxygen and nitrogen. The synthesis temperature was varied from 500–850 °C in the absence and presence of a static magnetic field of 0.25 T. VSM hysteresis results showed that there is a clear improve in the magnetic properties of the nanocatalysts when an external magnetic field was used during the synthesis. It also showed that the nanowires amongst other shapes hold the highest saturation magnetization value. The produced α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocatalysts were used for ammonia synthesis under an external magnetic field strength ranging between 0.4–2 T. Correspondingly, (24.174 mmol h{sup −1} g cat{sup −1}) ammonia was yielded by applying an external magnetic field of 1.2 T and using the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires synthesized at 700 °C with the highest saturation magnetization value of 189.43 emu/g.

  7. Nickel incorporation in Fe(II, III hydroxysulfate Green Rust: effect on crystal lattice spacing and oxidation products Incorporação de níquel em Fe (II-III Grenn Rust hidroxisulfato: efeito sobre a estrutura cristalina e produtos de oxidação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Garófalo Chaves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ni(II-Fe(II-Fe(III layered double hydroxides (LDH or Ni-containing sulfate green rust (GR2 samples were prepared from Ni(II, Fe(II and Fe(III sulfate salts and analyzed with X ray diffraction. Nickel is readily incorporated in the GR2 structure and forms a solid solution between GR2 and a Ni(II-Fe(III LDH. There is a correlation between the unit cell a-value and the fraction of Ni(II incorporated into the Ni(II-GR2 structure. Since there is strong evidence that the divalent/trivalent cation ratio in GR2 is fixed at 2, it is possible in principle to determine the extent of divalent cation substitution for Fe(II in GR2 from the unit cell a-value. Oxidation forms a mixture of minerals but the LDH structure is retained if at least 20 % of the divalent cations in the initial solution are Ni(II. It appears that Ni(II is incorporated in a stable LDH structure. This may be important for two reasons, first for understanding the formation of LDHs, which are anion exchangers, in the natural environment. Secondly, this is important for understanding the fate of transition metals in the environment, particularly in the presence of reduced Fe compounds.Amostras de hidróxidos de dupla camada (HDC, ou "sulfate green rust" (GR2, contendo Ni foram preparadas utilizando-se sulfatos de Ni(II, Fe(II e Fe(III e analisadas por difração de raios X. O Ni está incorporado na estrutura do GR2 e forma um sólido entre GR2 e um HDC contendo Ni(II-Fe(III. Há correlação entre os valores de "a" da célula unitária e os da fração de Ni(II incorporado na estrutura do Ni(II-GR2. Desde que haja forte evidência de que a razão entre os cátions divalente/trivalente no GR2 seja igual a 2, é possível, a princípio, determinar a extensão da substituição do cátion divalente por Fe(II no GR2 a partir dos valores de "a" da célula unitária do cristal. Sob o efeito da oxidação, é formada uma mistura de minerais, porém a estrutura do HDC não é alterada se pelo menos

  8. 75 FR 64692 - Green Technology Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed...- 0062 Green Technology Pilot Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: 571-273-0112... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) implemented a pilot program on December 8, 2009, that...

  9. Metal and nutrient dynamics on an aged intensive green roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

    2014-01-01

    Runoff and rainfall quality was compared between an aged intensive green roof and an adjacent conventional roof surface. Nutrient concentrations in the runoff were generally below Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) values and the green roof exhibited NO3(-) retention. Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were in excess of EQS values for the protection of surface water. Green roof runoff was also significantly higher in Fe and Pb than on the bare roof and in rainfall. Input-output fluxes revealed the green roof to be a potential source of Pb. High concentrations of Pb within the green roof soil and bare roof dusts provide a potential source of Pb in runoff. The origin of the Pb is likely from historic urban atmospheric deposition. Aged green roofs may therefore act as a source of legacy metal pollution. This needs to be considered when constructing green roofs with the aim of improving pollution remediation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Corrosion of steel in carbonated media: The oxidation processes of chukanovite (Fe2(OH)2CO3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoulay, I.; Rémazeilles, C.; Refait, Ph.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidation of chukanovite does not lead to carbonated green rust. • Both lepidocrocite and goethite can result from the oxidation of chukanovite. • Violent oxidation of chukanovite by hydrogen peroxide leads to a Fe(III) oxycarbonate. • Chukanovite crystal structure withstands a partial oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). - Abstract: The oxidation of aqueous suspensions of chukanovite (Fe 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 ) obtained by mixing NaOH, FeCl 2 and Na 2 CO 3 solutions was studied. The reaction was monitored by recording the pH and the redox potential of a platinum electrode immersed in the suspension. The precipitate was analyzed at various oxidation stages by infrared spectroscopy. The end products were also characterized by X-ray diffraction. The oxidation by air of the suspensions leads to lepidocrocite and goethite without formation of an intermediate green rust compound. Violent oxidation of chukanovite by hydrogen peroxide leads to a Fe(III) oxycarbonate with a crystal structure closely related to that of chukanovite

  11. Anther and isolated microspore culture of wheat lines from northwestern and eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, I B; Olesen, A; Hansen, N J P

    1999-01-01

    Hexaploid wheat genotypes from north-western Europe show low responses to current anther culture techniques. This phenomenon was investigated on 145 north-western European wheat lines. Twenty-seven lines from eastern Europe were included to observe the response pattern of wheat from an area, where...... the technique has been used successfully. On average, eastern European wheat lines produced 3.6 green plants per 111 anthers, while only 1.4 green plants per 111 anthers were obtained in north-western European lines. This difference was due to the high capacity for embryo formation among the eastern European...... lines, while the ability to regenerate green plants was widespread in both germplasm groups. Isolated wheat microspore culture performed on 85 of these wheat lines gave an average 3.7-fold increase in green plants per anther compared with the anther culture response. The increased recovery of green...

  12. VT Ecological Land Types - Green Mountain National Forest - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EcologicOther_ELT (Ecological Land Type) data layer was developed by the Green Mountain National Forest in the early 1980's from aerial...

  13. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ture of Fe II and the uncertainties in the atomic data complicate theoretical models .... The Fe II template used in the optical range was set up by Marziani ... ous green line marks the best fit, and the dashed grey line marks the continuum level.

  14. Non-equilibrium Modeling of the Fe XVII 3C/3D Line Ratio in an Intense X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Excited Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Li, Y.; Fogle, M.; Fontes, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurements using an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and an Electron Beam Ion Trap at the Linac Coherent Light Source facility highlighted large discrepancies between the observed and theoretical values for the Fe xvii 3C/3D line intensity ratio. This result raised the question of whether the theoretical oscillator strengths may be significantly in error, due to insufficiencies in the atomic structure calculations. We present time-dependent spectral modeling of this experiment and show that non-equilibrium effects can dramatically reduce the predicted 3C/3D line intensity ratio, compared with that obtained by simply taking the ratio of oscillator strengths. Once these non-equilibrium effects are accounted for, the measured line intensity ratio can be used to determine a revised value for the 3C/3D oscillator strength ratio, giving a range from 3.0 to 3.5. We also provide a framework to narrow this range further, if more precise information about the pulse parameters can be determined. We discuss the implications of the new results for the use of Fe xvii spectral features as astrophysical diagnostics and investigate the importance of time-dependent effects in interpreting XFEL-excited plasmas.

  15. ORIGIN OF THE GALACTIC DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION: IRON K-SHELL LINE DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobukawa, Masayoshi [Department of Teacher Training and School Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake-cho, Nara, 630-8528 (Japan); Uchiyama, Hideki [Faculty of Education, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Nobukawa, Kumiko K.; Koyama, Katsuji [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Yamauchi, Shigeo, E-mail: nobukawa@nara-edu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nara Women’s University, Kitauoyanishimachi, Nara, 630-8506 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    This paper reports detailed K-shell line profiles of iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) of the Galactic Center X-ray Emission (GCXE), Galactic Bulge X-ray Emission (GBXE), Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE), magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (mCVs), non-magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (non-mCVs), and coronally Active Binaries (ABs). For the study of the origin of the GCXE, GBXE, and GRXE, the spectral analysis is focused on equivalent widths of the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , and Fe xxvi-Ly α  lines. The global spectrum of the GBXE is reproduced by a combination of the mCVs, non-mCVs, and ABs spectra. On the other hand, the GRXE spectrum shows significant data excesses at the Fe i-K α and Fe xxv-He α  line energies. This means that additional components other than mCVs, non-mCVs, and ABs are required, which have symbiotic phenomena of cold gas and very high-temperature plasma. The GCXE spectrum shows larger excesses than those found in the GRXE spectrum at all the K-shell lines of iron and nickel. Among them the largest ones are the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , Fe xxvi-Ly α , and Fe xxvi-Ly β  lines. Together with the fact that the scale heights of the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , and Fe xxvi-Ly α lines are similar to that of the central molecular zone (CMZ), the excess components would be related to high-energy activity in the extreme envelopment of the CMZ.

  16. SPECTRAL OPTICAL MONITORING OF THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY Ark 564

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalova, A. I.; Burenkov, A. N.; Popović, L. Č.; Kovačević, J.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Valdes, J. R.; Torrealba, J.; Carrasco, L.; Ilić, D.; Kovačević, A.; Kollatschny, W.; Bochkarev, N. G.; León-Tavares, J.; Mercado, A.; Benítez, E.; Dultzin, D.; De la Fuente, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a long-term (1999-2010) spectral optical monitoring campaign of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) Ark 564, which shows a strong Fe II line emission in the optical. This AGN is a narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy, a group of AGNs with specific spectral characteristics. We analyze the light curves of the permitted Hα, Hβ, optical Fe II line fluxes, and the continuum flux in order to search for a time lag between them. Additionally, in order to estimate the contribution of iron lines from different multiplets, we fit the Hβ and Fe II lines with a sum of Gaussian components. We find that during the monitoring period the spectral variation (F max /F min ) of Ark 564 is between 1.5 for Hα and 1.8 for the Fe II lines. The correlation between the Fe II and Hβ flux variations is of higher significance than that of Hα and Hβ (whose correlation is almost absent). The permitted-line profiles are Lorentzian-like and do not change shape during the monitoring period. We investigate, in detail, the optical Fe II emission and find different degrees of correlation between the Fe II emission arising from different spectral multiplets and the continuum flux. The relatively weak and different degrees of correlations between permitted lines and continuum fluxes indicate a rather complex source of ionization of the broad-line emission region.

  17. SPECTRAL OPTICAL MONITORING OF THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY Ark 564

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapovalova, A. I.; Burenkov, A. N. [Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian AS, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachaevo-Cherkesia 369167 (Russian Federation); Popovic, L. C.; Kovacevic, J. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11160 Belgrade 74 (Serbia); Chavushyan, V. H.; Valdes, J. R.; Torrealba, J.; Carrasco, L. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apartado Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Ilic, D.; Kovacevic, A. [Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Yugoslavia Branch, Belgrade (Serbia); Kollatschny, W. [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany); Bochkarev, N. G. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Leon-Tavares, J. [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, FIN-02540 Kylmaelae (Finland); Mercado, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Baja California, Av. de la Industria 291, 21010 Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico); Benitez, E.; Dultzin, D. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-264, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); De la Fuente, E., E-mail: ashap@sao.ru [Instituto de Astronomia y Meteorologia, Dpto. de Fisica CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Av. Vallarta 2602, 44130 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2012-09-15

    We present the results of a long-term (1999-2010) spectral optical monitoring campaign of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) Ark 564, which shows a strong Fe II line emission in the optical. This AGN is a narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy, a group of AGNs with specific spectral characteristics. We analyze the light curves of the permitted H{alpha}, H{beta}, optical Fe II line fluxes, and the continuum flux in order to search for a time lag between them. Additionally, in order to estimate the contribution of iron lines from different multiplets, we fit the H{beta} and Fe II lines with a sum of Gaussian components. We find that during the monitoring period the spectral variation (F{sub max}/F{sub min}) of Ark 564 is between 1.5 for H{alpha} and 1.8 for the Fe II lines. The correlation between the Fe II and H{beta} flux variations is of higher significance than that of H{alpha} and H{beta} (whose correlation is almost absent). The permitted-line profiles are Lorentzian-like and do not change shape during the monitoring period. We investigate, in detail, the optical Fe II emission and find different degrees of correlation between the Fe II emission arising from different spectral multiplets and the continuum flux. The relatively weak and different degrees of correlations between permitted lines and continuum fluxes indicate a rather complex source of ionization of the broad-line emission region.

  18. Sulphamic acid-functionalized magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as recyclable catalyst for synthesis of imidazoles under microwave irradiation ... functionalized magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (SA–MNPs) as a novel solid acid catalyst under solvent-free classical heating ..... green chemistry approach.

  19. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  20. Metal contamination as a possible etiology of fibropapillomatosis in juvenile female green sea turtles Chelonia mydas from the southern Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro; Klein, Roberta Daniele; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto

    2016-01-01

    Environmental contaminants have been suggested as a possible cause of fibropapillomatosis (FP) in green sea turtles. In turn, a reduced concentration of serum cholesterol has been indicated as a reliable biomarker of malignancy in vertebrates, including marine turtles. In the present study, metal (Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentrations, oxidative stress parameters [antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), protein carbonyls (PC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), frequency of micronucleated cells (FMC)], water content, cholesterol concentration and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity were analyzed in the blood/serum of juvenile (29.3-59.5cm) female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) with FP (n=14) and without FP (n=13) sampled at Ubatuba coast (São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil). Green sea turtles were grouped and analyzed according to the severity of tumors. Individuals heavily afflicted with FP showed significantly higher blood Cu, Pb and Fe concentrations, blood LPO levels, as well as significantly lower serum cholesterol concentrations and HMGR activity than turtles without FP. Significant and positive correlations were observed between HMGR activity and cholesterol concentrations, as well as LPO levels and Fe and Pb concentrations. In turn, Cu and Pb concentrations were significantly and negatively correlated with HMGR activity and cholesterol concentration. Furthermore, Cu, Fe and Pb were positively correlated with each other. Therefore, the reduced concentration of serum cholesterol observed in green sea turtles heavily afflicted with FP is related to a Cu- and Pb-induced inhibition of HMGR activity paralleled by a higher LPO rate induced by increased Fe and Pb concentrations. As oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of viral infections, our findings support the idea that metal contamination, especially by Cu, Fe and Pb, may be implicated in the etiology of FP in green sea turtles through oxidative stress

  1. Multiepoch Spectropolarimetry of SN 2011fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, Peter A.; Williams, G. Grant; Smith, Paul S.; Smith, Nathan; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Green, E. M.; Porter, Amber; Leising, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    We present multiple spectropolarimetric observations of the nearby Type Ia supernova (SN) 2011fe in M101, obtained before, during, and after the time of maximum apparent visual brightness. The excellent time coverage of our spectropolarimetry has allowed better monitoring of the evolution of polarization features than is typical, which has allowed us new insight into the nature of normal SNe Ia. SN 2011fe exhibits time-dependent polarization in both the continuum and strong absorption lines. At early epochs, red wavelengths exhibit a degree of continuum polarization of up to 0.4%, likely indicative of a mild asymmetry in the electron-scattering photosphere. This behavior is more common in subluminous SNe Ia than in normal events, such as SN 2011fe. The degree of polarization across a collection of absorption lines varies dramatically from epoch to epoch. During the earliest epoch, a λ 4600–5000 Å complex of absorption lines shows enhanced polarization at a different position angle than the continuum. We explore the origin of these features, presenting a few possible interpretations, without arriving at a single favored ion. During two epochs near maximum, the dominant polarization feature is associated with the Si ii λ 6355 Å absorption line. This is common for SNe Ia, but for SN 2011fe the polarization of this feature increases after maximum light, whereas for other SNe Ia, that polarization feature was strongest before maximum light.

  2. Multiepoch Spectropolarimetry of SN 2011fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, Peter A.; Williams, G. Grant; Smith, Paul S.; Smith, Nathan; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Green, E. M. [University of Arizona, Steward Observatory, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Porter, Amber; Leising, Mark D. [118 Kinard Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    We present multiple spectropolarimetric observations of the nearby Type Ia supernova (SN) 2011fe in M101, obtained before, during, and after the time of maximum apparent visual brightness. The excellent time coverage of our spectropolarimetry has allowed better monitoring of the evolution of polarization features than is typical, which has allowed us new insight into the nature of normal SNe Ia. SN 2011fe exhibits time-dependent polarization in both the continuum and strong absorption lines. At early epochs, red wavelengths exhibit a degree of continuum polarization of up to 0.4%, likely indicative of a mild asymmetry in the electron-scattering photosphere. This behavior is more common in subluminous SNe Ia than in normal events, such as SN 2011fe. The degree of polarization across a collection of absorption lines varies dramatically from epoch to epoch. During the earliest epoch, a λ 4600–5000 Å complex of absorption lines shows enhanced polarization at a different position angle than the continuum. We explore the origin of these features, presenting a few possible interpretations, without arriving at a single favored ion. During two epochs near maximum, the dominant polarization feature is associated with the Si ii λ 6355 Å absorption line. This is common for SNe Ia, but for SN 2011fe the polarization of this feature increases after maximum light, whereas for other SNe Ia, that polarization feature was strongest before maximum light.

  3. Formation of iron (hydr)oxides during the abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) in the presence of arsenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia; Jia, Shao-Yi; Yu, Bo; Wu, Song-Hai; Han, Xu

    2015-08-30

    Abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) is a common pathway in the formation of Fe (hydr)oxides under natural conditions, however, little is known regarding the presence of arsenate on this process. In hence, the effect of arsenate on the precipitation of Fe (hydr)oxides during the oxidation of Fe(II) is investigated. Formation of arsenic-containing Fe (hydr)oxides is constrained by pH and molar ratios of As:Fe during the oxidation Fe(II). At pH 6.0, arsenate inhibits the formation of lepidocrocite and goethite, while favors the formation of ferric arsenate with the increasing As:Fe ratio. At pH 7.0, arsenate promotes the formation of hollow-structured Fe (hydr)oxides containing arsenate, as the As:Fe ratio reaches 0.07. Arsenate effectively inhibits the formation of magnetite at pH 8.0 even at As:Fe ratio of 0.01, while favors the formation of lepidocrocite and green rust, which can be latterly degenerated and replaced by ferric arsenate with the increasing As:Fe ratio. This study indicates that arsenate and low pH value favor the slow growth of dense-structured Fe (hydr)oxides like spherical ferric arsenate. With the rapid oxidation rate of Fe(II) at high pH, ferric (hydr)oxides prefer to precipitate in the formation of loose-structured Fe (hydr)oxides like lepidocrocite and green rust. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by hydrophobic green rust intercalated with dodecanoate anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala Luis, Karina Barbara; Ginette Anneliese Cooper, Nicola; Bender Koch, Christian

    2012-01-01

    similar to those found in heavily contaminated groundwater close to polluted industrial sites (14 988 mu M) was reduced mainly to the fully dechlorinated products carbon monoxide (CO, yields >54 and formic acid (HCOOH, yields >6. Minor formation of chloroform (CF), the only chlorinated degradation product......The reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Fe-II-Fe-III hydroxide (green rust) intercalated with dodecanoate, (Fe4Fe2III)-Fe-II (OH)(12)(C12H23O2)(2)center dot gamma H2O (designated GR(C12)), at pH similar to 8 and at room temperature was investigated. CT at concentration levels...

  5. Effects of Layering Milling Technology on Distribution of Green Wheat Main Physicochemical Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Shuang-Qi; Li, Yong-Heng; Chen, Zhi-Cheng; Qiao, Yong-Feng

    2017-01-01

    With layered milling flour technology, the efficiency of the nutrient distribution and hardness was demonstrated with the green and normal wheat separation milling. The results showed that the total content of amino acid in green wheat was 8.3%–13.0% higher compared to the common wheat. Comparing the main nutriments Se, Fe, and Ca between green wheat and common wheat, the results showed that different milling treatment methods are capable of separating the different wheat flour from endosperm...

  6. Provenance studies of Sgraffiato and Late Green Glazed wares from Siraf, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, H.V.; Asaro, F.; Frierman, J.D.

    1975-03-01

    Results of neutron activation analyses of 23 elements in ceramic archaeological specimens are given. Various wares are divided into the following categories: early Sgraffiato, late Sgraffiato, late Green A, late Green B, and Samarra ware. Results are given on the following elements: Al, Ca, Dy, Mn, Na, K, U, Sm, La, Ti, Lu, Co, Sc, Fe, Cs, Cr, Ni, Eu, Ce, Hf, Ta, Th, and Yb. (JGB)

  7. Calculation of the line shapes of radiators immersed in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayrapetian, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This work reports the results of theoretical calculations of line shapes of radiators immersed in plasma. The fluctuating electric field of the plasma perturbs the atomic structure of the immersed ions or atoms. The perturbed line shape is an important diagnostic tool for the temperature and density measurements of plasma. The line-shape calculation here is done by first deriving the line-shape expression, then it is shown that the problem is equivalent to calculating the temperature Green's function of the bound electron. The total Hamiltonian of the system includes the atomic, plasma, and atom-plasma parts. The temperature Green's function is calculated perturbatively by expanding in orders of atom-plasma interaction. By solving a Dyson equation, the dressed Green's functions of the bound electrons are obtained. At this point, the line shape is calculated by an analytic continuation from the complex frequency plane to real line. To derive the atomic electron Green's function, the momentum integral in the self-energy is approximated by a Riemann sum. With this approximation, the algebraic form of the line shape is obtained for an undetermined number of terms in the Riemann sum. Numerical calculation of line shape is done by using this result

  8. Fabricating Fe3O4/Fe/Biocarbon Fibers using Cellulose Nanocrystals for High-Rate Li-ion Battery Anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuzhen; He, Wen; Zhang, Xudong; Yang, Guihua; Ma, Jingyun; Yang, Xuena; Song, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mesoporous biocarbon fibers adhered with Fe 3 O 4 /Fe nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 /Fe/MBCFs) are synthesized. • This method uses the natural cotton as a template and carbon source. • Fe 3 O 4 /Fe/MBCFs exhibit excellent cycling performance at higher current. - ABSTRACT: Searching the high rate Fe 3 O 4 -based materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is still a great challenge. Here we tackle this problem by developing a facile and green method which uses the natural cotton as a biotemplate and a activity biocarbon source. By this new method, we synthesized the mesoporous biocarbon fibers adhered with Fe 3 O 4 /Fe nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 /Fe/MBCFs). Fe 3 O 4 /Fe/MBCFs are a highly stable anode material for high-rate LIBs due to its excellent cycling performance at higher current and fast charging feature. This anode shows a high reversible capacity of 472 mAh g −1 after 500 cycles and can be rapidly charge to 100% in 28.3 min. After 160 cycles at varied current densities from 1 A g −1 to 10 A g −1 , it still delivered a high discharge capacity of 524.6 mAh g −1 and an ultra-high coulombic efficiency close to 100%. This is attributed to the synergistic effects of several factors including the unique mesoporous hybrid construction, the graphitized biocarbon fibers and the chemical bonding between Fe 3 O 4 and Fe nanoparticles. This work is instructive for fabrication and design of nanostructured electrodes with extraordinary properties from biomass renewable resources

  9. Investigation of the dynamic NMR frequency shift for Fe57 in FeBO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bun'kov, Yu.M.; Punkkinen, M.; Yulinen, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    NMR of Fe 57 in FeBO 3 is investigated by pulsed magnetic resonance techniques in the 2 to 70 K temperature range. A dynamic NMR frequency shift is observed which is due to coupling between the NMR oscillations and the low-frequency AFMR mode, the magnitude of which only slightly exceeds the micro-inhomogeneous broadening of the NMR line caused by the spread of the value of hyperfine field at the nuclei. Under these conditions the nuclear spin system possesses a number of unusual properties. Thus, broadening of the magnetic resonance line is uniform, the magnitude of the homogeneous broadening depends on the angle of deviation of the nuclear magnetization from the equilibrium axis, and an echo signal is detected which is similar to the ''solid echo'' in substances with dipole broadening of the magnetic resonance line

  10. Fenton-Like Oxidation of Malachite Green Solutions: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Hashemian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation by Fenton-like (Fe3+/H2O2 reactions is proven to be an economically feasible process for destruction of a variety of hazardous pollutants in wastewater. In this study, the degradation and mineralization of malachite green dye are reported using Fenton-like reaction. The effects of different parameters like pH of the solution, the initial concentrations of Fe3+, H2O2, and dye, temperature, and added electrolytes (Cl− and on the oxidation of the dye were investigated. Optimized condition was determined. The efficiency of 95.5% degradation of MAG after 15 minutes of reaction at pH 3 was obtained. TOC removal indicates partial and insignificant mineralization of malachite green dye. The results of experiments showed that degradation of malachite green dye in Fenton-like oxidation process can be described with a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic constants of the Fenton oxidation process were evaluated. The results implied that the oxidation process was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic. The results will be useful for designing the treatment systems of various dye-containing wastewaters.

  11. Ni2+ supported on hydroxyapatite-core@shell γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles as new and green catalyst for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H-ones under solvent-free condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh Rezaee Nezhad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study Ni2+ supported on hydroxyapatite-core-shell magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3@HAp-Ni2+ as a green and recyclable catalyst for the Biginelli reaction under solvent-free conditions. One-pot multi-component condensation of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, urea and aldehydes at 80 oC affords the corresponding compounds in high yields and in short reaction times using γ-Fe2O3@HAp-Ni2+. The catalyst can be readily isolated using an external magnet and no obvious loss of activity was observed when the catalyst was reused in seven consecutive runs. The mean size and the surface morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometry, X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transform infrared techniques.

  12. THE SPECTRUM OF Fe II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nave, Gillian [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States); Johansson, Sveneric, E-mail: gillian.nave@nist.gov [Lund Observatory, University of Lund, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    The spectrum of singly ionized iron (Fe II) has been recorded using high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) and grating spectroscopy over the wavelength range 900 A to 5.5 {mu}m. The spectra were observed in high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode discharges using FT spectrometers at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ and Imperial College, London and with the 10.7 m Normal Incidence Spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Roughly 12,900 lines were classified using 1027 energy levels of Fe II that were optimized to measured wavenumbers. The wavenumber uncertainties of lines in the FT spectra range from 10{sup -4} cm{sup -1} for strong lines around 4 {mu}m to 0.05 cm{sup -1} for weaker lines around 1500 A. The wavelength uncertainty of lines in the grating spectra is 0.005 A. The ionization energy of (130,655.4 {+-} 0.4) cm{sup -1} was estimated from the 3d{sup 6}({sup 5}D)5g and 3d{sup 6}({sup 5}D)6h levels.

  13. The evolution of blue-greens and the origins of chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R. M.; Dayhoff, M. O.

    1981-01-01

    All of the available molecular data support the theory that the chloroplasts of eukaryote cells were originally free-living blue-greens. Of great interest is what the relationships are between contemporary types of blue-greens and eukaryote chloroplasts and whether the chloroplasts of the various eukaryotes are the result of one or more than one symbiosis. By combining information from phylogenetic trees based on cytochrome c6 and 2Fe-2S ferredoxin sequences, it is shown that the chloroplasts of a number of eukaryote algae as well as the protist Euglena are polyphyletic; the chloroplasts of green algae and the higher plants may be the result of a single symbiosis.

  14. Broadband strip-line ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy of soft magnetic CoFeTaZr patterned thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Kumar, D.; Jin, T. L.; Nongjai, R.; Asokan, K.; Ghosh, A.; Aparnadevi, M.; Suri, P.; Piramanayagam, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, magnetic and magnetization dynamic properties of compositionally patterned Co46Fe40Ta9Zr5 thin films are investigated. A combination of self-assembly and ion-implantation was employed to locally alter the composition of Co46Fe40Ta9Zr5 thin film in a periodic manner. 20 keV O+ and 60 keV N+ ions were implanted at different doses in order to modify the magnetization dynamic properties of the samples in a controlled fashion. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements revealed significant changes in the coercivity for higher influences of 5 × 1016 ions per cm2. In particular, N+ implantation was observed to induce two phase formation with high and low coercivities. Broadband strip-line ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy over wide range of frequency (8 - 20 GHz) was used to study the magnetization dynamics as a function of ion-beam dosage. With higher fluences, damping constant showed a continuous increase from 0.0103 to 0.0430. Such control of magnetic properties at nano-scale using this method is believed to be useful for spintronics and microwave device applications.

  15. NEW Fe IX LINE IDENTIFICATIONS USING SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY/SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET MEASUREMENT OF EMITTED RADIATION AND HINODE/EIS JOINT OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUIET SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landi, E.; Young, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we study joint observations of Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation of Fe IX lines emitted by the same level of the high energy configuration 3s 2 3p 5 4p. The intensity ratios of these lines are dependent on atomic physics parameters only and not on the physical parameters of the emitting plasma, so that they are excellent tools to verify the relative intensity calibration of high-resolution spectrometers that work in the 170-200 A and 700-850 A wavelength ranges. We carry out extensive atomic physics calculations to improve the accuracy of the predicted intensity ratio, and compare the results with simultaneous EIS-SUMER observations of an off-disk quiet Sun region. We were able to identify two ultraviolet lines in the SUMER spectrum that are emitted by the same level that emits one bright line in the EIS wavelength range. Comparison between predicted and measured intensity ratios, wavelengths and energy separation of Fe IX levels confirms the identifications we make. Blending and calibration uncertainties are discussed. The results of this work are important for cross-calibrating EIS and SUMER, as well as future instrumentation.

  16. Diffusion in ordered Fe-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepiol, B.; Vogl, G.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of the diffusional Moessbauer line broadening in single crystalline samples at high temperatures provides microscopic information about atomic jumps. We can separate jumps of iron atoms between the various sublattices of Fe-Si intermetallic alloys (D0 3 structure) and measure their frequencies. The diffusion of iron in Fe-Si samples with Fe concentrations between 75 and 82 at% shows a drastic composition dependence: the jump frequency and the proportion between jumps on Fe sublattices and into antistructure (Si) sublattice positions change greatly. Close to Fe 3 Si stoichiometry iron diffusion is extremely fast and jumps are performed exclusively between the three Fe sublattices. The change in the diffusion process when changing the alloy composition from stoichiometric Fe 3 Si to the iron-rich side is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Excitation of spin waves in BiFeO3 multiferroic film by the slot line transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, V. I.; Popkov, A. F.; Solov'yov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of the efficiency of magnetoelectric excitation of spin-waves in BiFeO3 multiferroic films by a slot line is performed based on the solution of dynamic Ginzburg-Landau equations for the antiferromagnetic vector. The excitation efficiency is determined by the magnitude of the conversion coefficient of the electromagnetic wave to the spin wave by the slot line transducer or in other words, losses on conversion in the slot line. Calculations are made for a homogeneous antiferromagnetic state of the multiferroic in the presence of a sufficiently large magnetic field and for a spatially modulated spin state (SMSS) at zero magnetic field. It is shown that in the case of a homogeneous antiferromagnetic state, the losses on the excitation of spin waves exceed the excitation efficiency in the SMSS state; however, as the frequency approaches the spin excitation gap, it falls and becomes lower than in the SMSS state. Spin wave excitation in the presence of antiferromagnetic cycloid strongly depends on the relation of the slot width of the transducer to the cycloid periodicity and on the magnitude of the shift of the position of the transducer along the cycloid on its period. The usage of multiferroics for delay lines in the considered frequency range from 100 to 600 GHz requires significant reduction in conversion and propagation losses. More promising seems multiferroic usage in phase shifters and switches for this range.

  18. Graphene oxide-mediated rapid dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by green rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Li-Zhi; Hansen, Hans Christian B.; Daasbjerg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Graphene-based nanomaterials can mediate environmentally relevant abiotic redox reactions of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. In this study as low amounts as ∼0.007 % of graphene oxide (GO) was found to catalyze the reduction of carbon tetrachloride by layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxide (Green R....... This study indicates that traces of graphene oxide can affect reaction pathways as well as kinetics for dechlorination processes in anoxic sediments by facilitating a partial dechlorination....

  19. Acclimation of green algae to sulfur deficiency: underlying mechanisms and application for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Taras K; Krendeleva, Tatyana E; Rubin, Andrew B

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is definitely one of the most acceptable fuels in the future. Some photosynthetic microorganisms, such as green algae and cyanobacteria, can produce hydrogen gas from water by using solar energy. In green algae, hydrogen evolution is coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport in thylakoid membranes via reaction catalyzed by the specific enzyme, (FeFe)-hydrogenase. However, this enzyme is highly sensitive to oxygen and can be quickly inhibited when water splitting is active. A problem of incompatibility between the water splitting and hydrogenase reaction can be overcome by depletion of algal cells of sulfur which is essential element for life. In this review the mechanisms underlying sustained hydrogen photoproduction in sulfur deprived C. reinhardtii and the recent achievements in studying of this process are discussed. The attention is focused on the biophysical and physiological aspects of photosynthetic response to sulfur deficiency in green algae.

  20. Moessbauer-spectroscopic study of structure and magnetism of the exchange-coupled layer systems Fe/FeSn{sub 2}, and Fe/FeSi/Si and the ion-implanted diluted magnetic semiconductor SiC(Fe); Moessbauerspektroskopische Untersuchung von Struktur und Magnetismus der austauschgekoppelten Schichtsysteme Fe/FeSn{sub 2} und Fe/FeSi/Si und des ionenimplantierten verduennten magnetischen Halbleiters SiC(Fe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, Frank

    2009-07-07

    In line with this work the structural and magnetic properties of the exchange coupled layered systems Fe/FeSn{sub 2} and Fe/FeSi/Si and of the Fe ion implanted diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) SiC(Fe) were investigated. The main measuring method was the isotope selective {sup 57}Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), mostly in connection with the {sup 57}Fe tracer layer technique, in a temperature range from 4.2 K to 340 K. Further measurement techniques were X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (LEED, RHEED), SQUID magnetometry and FMR (Ferromagnetic Resonance). In the first part of this work the properties of thin AF FeSn{sub 2}(001) films and of the exchange-bias system Fe/FeSn{sub 2}(001) on InSb(001) were investigated. With the application of {sup 57}Fe-tracer layers and CEMS both the Fe-spin structure and the temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field (B{sub hf}) of FeSn{sub 2} could be examined. The evaporation of Fe films on the FeSn{sub 2} films produced in the latter ones a high perpendicular spin component at the Fe/FeSn{sub 2} interface. In some distance from the interface the Fe spins rotate back into the sample plane. Furthermore {sup 57}Fe-CEMS provided a correlation between the absolute value of the exchange field vertical stroke He vertical stroke and the amount of magnetic defects within the FeSn{sub 2}. Temperature dependent CEMS-measurements yielded informations about the spin dynamics within the AF. The transition temperatures T{sub B}{sup *}, which were interpreted as superparamagnetic blocking temperatures, obtain higher values compared to the temperatures T{sub B} of the exchange-bias effect, obtained with magnetometry measurements. The second part of this work deals with the indirect exchange coupling within Fe/FeSi/Si/FeSi/Fe multilayers and FeSi diffusion barriers. The goal was to achieve Fe free Si interlayers. The CEMS results show that starting from a thickness of t{sub FeSi}=10-12 A of the

  1. Multi-band tight-binding calculation of electronic transport in Fe/trans-polyacetylene/Fe tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi Ravan, B

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the electronic transport characteristics of Fe/trans-polyacetylene/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) are investigated using multi-band tight-binding calculations within the framework of nonequilibrium Green function theory. A CH 2 radical is added to different positions on the polymer chain and its effects on the tunnelling magnetoresistance of the MTJ are studied. The ferromagnetic electrodes are assumed to be single-band and their tight-binding parameters are chosen in such a way as to simulate the ab initio density functional calculations of the band structure of bcc-Fe along its [001] crystallographic direction. In building the Hamiltonian of the trans-polyacetylene (t-PA) chain, we have assumed an s orbital on the H atoms and one s and three p(p x ,p y ,p z ) orbitals on the C atoms, and the dimerization effects are taken into account. It is found that moving the radical out of the centre of the polymer chain enhances the tunnelling magnetoresistance of the MTJ.

  2. Removal of Selected Heavy Metals from Green Mussel via Catalytic Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizuan Abdullah; Abdull Rahim Mohd Yusoff; Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar; Razali Ismail; Dwi Priya Hadiyanto

    2014-01-01

    Perna viridis or green mussel is a potentially an important aquaculture product along the South Coast of Peninsular Malaysia especially Johor Straits. As the coastal population increases at tremendous rate, there was significant effect of land use changes on marine communities especially green mussel, as the heavy metals input to the coastal area also increase because of anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals content in the green mussel exceeded the Malaysian Food Regulations (1985) and EU Food Regulations (EC No: 1881/ 2006). Sampling was done at Johor Straits from Danga to Pendas coastal area for green mussel samples. This research introduces a catalytic oxidative technique for demetallisation in green mussel using edible oxidants such as peracetic acid (PAA) enhanced with alumina beads supported CuO, Fe 2 O 3 , and ZnO catalysts. The lethal dose of LD 50 to rats of PAA is 1540 mg kg -1 was verified by National Institute of Safety and Health, United State of America. The best calcination temperature for the catalysts was at 1000 degree Celsius as shown in the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Nitrogen Adsorption (BET surface area) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analyses. The demetallisation process in green mussel was done successfully using only 100 mgL -1 PAA and catalyzed with Fe 2 O 3 / Al 2 O 3 for up to 90 % mercury (Hg) removal. Using PAA with only 1 hour of reaction time, at room temperature (30-35 degree Celsius), pH 5-6 and salinity of 25-28 ppt, 90 % lead (Pb) was removed from life mussel without catalyst. These findings have a great prospect for developing an efficient and practical method for post-harvesting heavy metals removal in green mussel. (author)

  3. Optical emission line spectra of Seyfert galaxies and radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Many radio galaxies have strong emission lines in their optical spectra, similar to the emission lines in the spectra of Seyfert galaxies. The range of ionization extends from [O I] and [N I] through [Ne V] and [Fe VII] to [Fe X]. The emission-line spectra of radio galaxies divide into two types, narrow-line radio galaxies whose spectra are indistinguishable from Seyfert 2 galaxies, and broad-line radio galaxies whose spectra are similar to Seyfert 1 galaxies. However on the average the broad-line radio galaxies have steeper Balmer decrements, stronger [O III] and weaker Fe II emission than the Seyfert 1 galaxies, though at least one Seyfert 1 galaxy not known to be a radio source has a spectrum very similar to typical broad-line radio galaxies. Intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies exist that show various mixtures of the Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 properties, and the narrow-line or Seyfert 2 property seems to be strongly correlated with radio emission. (Auth.)

  4. 3D-FE Modeling of 316 SS under Strain-Controlled Fatigue Loading and CFD Simulation of PWR Surge Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Barua, Bipul [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Listwan, Joseph [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In financial year 2017, we are focusing on developing a mechanistic fatigue model of surge line pipes for pressurized water reactors (PWRs). To that end, we plan to perform the following tasks: (1) conduct stress- and strain-controlled fatigue testing of surge-line base metal such as 316 stainless steel (SS) under constant, variable, and random fatigue loading, (2) develop cyclic plasticity material models of 316 SS, (3) develop one-dimensional (1D) analytical or closed-form model to validate the material models and to understand the mechanics associated with 316 SS cyclic hardening and/or softening, (4) develop three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models with implementation of evolutionary cyclic plasticity, and (5) develop computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for thermal stratification, thermal-mechanical stress, and fatigue of example reactor components, such as a PWR surge line under plant heat-up, cool-down, and normal operation with/without grid-load-following. This semi-annual progress report presents the work completed on the above tasks for a 316 SS laboratory-scale specimen subjected to strain-controlled cyclic loading with constant, variable, and random amplitude. This is the first time that the accurate 3D-FE modeling of the specimen for its entire fatigue life, including the hardening and softening behavior, has been achieved. We anticipate that this work will pave the way for the development of a fully mechanistic-computer model that can be used for fatigue evaluation of safety-critical metallic components, which are traditionally evaluated by heavy reliance on time-consuming and costly test-based approaches. This basic research will not only help the nuclear reactor industry for fatigue evaluation of reactor components in a cost effective and less time-consuming way, but will also help other safety-related industries, such as aerospace, which is heavily dependent on test-based approaches, where a single full-scale fatigue test can cost

  5. New cell line development for antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary cells using split green fluorescent protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yeon-Gu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The establishment of high producer is an important issue in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell culture considering increased heterogeneity by the random integration of a transfected foreign gene and the altered position of the integrated gene. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS-based cell line development is an efficient strategy for the selection of CHO cells in high therapeutic protein production. Results An internal ribosome entry site (IRES was introduced for using two green fluorescence protein (GFP fragments as a reporter to both antibody chains, the heavy chain and the light chain. The cells co-transfected with two GFP fragments showed the emission of green fluorescence by the reconstitution of split GFP. The FACS-sorted pool with GFP expression had a higher specific antibody productivity (qAb than that of the unsorted pool. The qAb was highly correlated with the fluorescence intensity with a high correlation coefficient, evidenced from the analysis of median GFP and qAb in individual selected clones. Conclusions This study proved that the fragment complementation for split GFP could be an efficient indication for antibody production on the basis of high correlation of qAb with reconstitution of GFP. Taken together, we developed an efficient FACS-based screening method for high antibody-producing CHO cells with the benefits of the split GFP system.

  6. Antibacterial activity of biochemically capped iron oxide nanoparticles: A view towards green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Rabia; Tahir, Kamran; Li, Baoshan; Ahmad, Aftab; R Siddiqui, Azka; Nazir, Sadia

    2017-05-01

    A green approach to fabricate nanoparticles has been evolved as a revolutionary discipline. Eco-compatible reaction set ups, use of non-toxic materials and production of highly active biological and photocatalytic products are few benefits of this greener approach. Here, we introduce a green method to synthesize Fe oxide NPs using Punica granatum peel extract. The formation of Fe oxide NPs was optimized using different concentrations of peel extract (20mL, 40mL and 60mL) to achieve small size and better morphology. The results indicate that the FeNPs, obtained using 40mL concentration of peel extract possess the smallest size. The morphology, size and crystallinity of NPs was confirmed by implementing various techniques i.e. UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction Spectroscopy. The bio-chemicals responsible for reduction and stabilization of FeNPs were confirmed by FT-IR analysis. The biogenic FeNPs were tested for their size dependent antibacterial activity. The biogenic FeNPs prepared in 40mL extract concentrations exhibited strongest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa i.e. 22 (±0.5) mm than FeNPs with 20mL and 60mL extract concentrations i.e. 18 (±0.4) mm and 14 (±0.3) mm respectively. The optimized FeNPs with 40mL peel extract are not only highly active for ROS generation but also show no hemolytic activity. Thus, FeNPs synthesized using the greener approach are found to have high antibacterial activity along with biocompatibility. This high antibacterial activity can be referred to small size and large surface area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The formation of green rust induced by tropical river biofilm components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorand, F.; Zegeye, A.; Ghanbaja, J.; Abdelmoula, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the Sinnamary Estuary (French Guiana), a dense red biofilm grows on flooded surfaces. In order to characterize the iron oxides in this biofilm and to establish the nature of secondary minerals formed after anaerobic incubation, we conducted solid analysis and performed batch incubations. Elemental analysis indicated a major amount of iron as inorganic compartment along with organic matter. Solid analysis showed the presence of two ferric oxides ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite. Bacteria were abundant and represented more than 10 11 cells g -1 of dry weight among which iron reducers were revealed. Optical and electronic microscopy analysis revealed than the bacteria were in close vicinity of the iron oxides. After anaerobic incubations with exogenous electron donors, the biofilm's ferric material was reduced into green rust, a Fe II -Fe III layered double hydroxide. This green rust remained stable for several years. From this study and previous reports, we suggest that ferruginous biofilms should be considered as a favorable location for GR biomineralization when redox conditions and electron donors availability are gathered. - Research highlights: → Characterization of ferruginous biofilm components by solid analysis methods. → Lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite were the main iron oxides. → Anaerobic incubation of biofilm with electron donors produced green rust. → Biofilm components promote the formation of the green rust. → Ferruginous biofilm could contribute to the natural mercury attenuation.

  8. The formation of green rust induced by tropical river biofilm components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorand, F., E-mail: jorand@pharma.uhp-nancy.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME) UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy-Universite, Institut Jean Barriol, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, F-54600 Villers-les Nancy (France); Zegeye, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME) UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy-Universite, Institut Jean Barriol, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, F-54600 Villers-les Nancy (France); Ghanbaja, J. [Service Commun de Microscopies Electroniques et Microanalyses X (SCMEM), Nancy-Universite, Bvd des Aiguillettes, BP 239, 54506, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Abdelmoula, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME) UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy-Universite, Institut Jean Barriol, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, F-54600 Villers-les Nancy (France)

    2011-06-01

    In the Sinnamary Estuary (French Guiana), a dense red biofilm grows on flooded surfaces. In order to characterize the iron oxides in this biofilm and to establish the nature of secondary minerals formed after anaerobic incubation, we conducted solid analysis and performed batch incubations. Elemental analysis indicated a major amount of iron as inorganic compartment along with organic matter. Solid analysis showed the presence of two ferric oxides ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite. Bacteria were abundant and represented more than 10{sup 11} cells g{sup -1} of dry weight among which iron reducers were revealed. Optical and electronic microscopy analysis revealed than the bacteria were in close vicinity of the iron oxides. After anaerobic incubations with exogenous electron donors, the biofilm's ferric material was reduced into green rust, a Fe{sup II}-Fe{sup III} layered double hydroxide. This green rust remained stable for several years. From this study and previous reports, we suggest that ferruginous biofilms should be considered as a favorable location for GR biomineralization when redox conditions and electron donors availability are gathered. - Research highlights: {yields} Characterization of ferruginous biofilm components by solid analysis methods. {yields} Lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite were the main iron oxides. {yields} Anaerobic incubation of biofilm with electron donors produced green rust. {yields} Biofilm components promote the formation of the green rust. {yields} Ferruginous biofilm could contribute to the natural mercury attenuation.

  9. Electron impact excitation of Fe-peak elements: forbidden transitions in the 3d5 manifold of Fe IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, B M; Hibbert, A; Scott, M P; Noble, C J; Burke, V M; Burke, P G

    2005-01-01

    Electron-impact excitation collision strengths of the Fe-peak element Fe IV are calculated in the close-coupling approximation using the R-matrix suite of codes PRMAT designed for parallel processors. One hundred and eight LS-coupled states arising from the 3d 5 , 3d 4 4s and 3d 4 4p configurations of Fe IV, are retained in the present calculations. Detailed multi-configuration interaction target wavefunctions are used with the aid of 3p 2 → 3d 2 electron promotions and a 4dbar correlation orbital in the present calculations. Effective collision strengths for optically forbidden transitions, which are extremely important in the analysis of lines in the Fe IV spectra, are obtained by averaging the electron collision strengths for a wide range of incident electron energies, over a Maxwellian distribution of velocities. Results are presented for electron temperatures (T e in Kelvin) in the range 3.3 ≤ Log T e ≤ 6.0 applicable to many laboratory and astrophysical plasmas for transitions within the 3d 5 manifold. The present results compared to previous investigations provide improved results for important lines in the Fe IV spectrum

  10. Negative tunneling magnetoresistance of Fe/MgO/NiO/Fe magnetic tunnel junction: Role of spin mixing and interface state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Yan, X. H.; Guo, Y. D.; Xiao, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by a recent tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) measurement in which the negative TMR is observed in MgO/NiO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), we have performed systematic calculations of transmission, current, and TMR of Fe/MgO/NiO/Fe MTJ with different thicknesses of NiO and MgO layers based on noncollinear density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function theory. The calculations show that, as the thickness of NiO and MgO layers is small, the negative TMR can be obtained which is attributed to the spin mixing effect and interface state. However, in the thick MTJ, the spin-flipping scattering becomes weaker, and thus, the MTJs recover positive TMR. Based on our theoretical results, we believe that the interface state at Fe/NiO interface and the spin mixing effect induced by noncollinear interfacial magnetization will play important role in determining transmission and current of Fe/MgO/NiO/Fe MTJ. The results reported here will be important in understanding the electron tunneling in MTJ with the barrier made by transition metal oxide.

  11. Synthesis of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate intercalated iron(II) iron(III) hydroxide sulphate (green rust) and adsorption of carbon tetrachloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala Luis, Karina Barbara; Kaldor, D.K.; Bender Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    ) into the interlayer space of synthetic sulphate green rust, GR . Mössbauer analysis of GRLAS indicates that the structure of the organo-GR is very similar to SO4 that of the initial GR with regard to the FeII/FeIII ratio and local coordination of Fe atoms. X-ray SO4 diffraction demonstrates that the GRLAS formed...

  12. Green synthesis of soya bean sprouts-mediated superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yan; Shen Yuhua; Xie Anjian; Li Shikuo; Wang Xiufang

    2010-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were first synthesized via soya bean sprouts (SBS) templates under ambient temperature and normal atmosphere. The reaction process was simple, eco-friendly, and convenient to handle. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The effect of SBS template on the formation of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that spherical Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm simultaneously formed on the epidermal surface and the interior stem wall of SBS. The SBS are responsible for size and morphology control during the whole formation of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. In addition, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) results indicate the products are superparamagnetic at room temperature, with blocking temperature (T B ) of 150 K and saturation magnetization of 37.1 emu/g.

  13. Green synthesis of soya bean sprouts-mediated superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Wang, Xiufang

    2010-10-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were first synthesized via soya bean sprouts (SBS) templates under ambient temperature and normal atmosphere. The reaction process was simple, eco-friendly, and convenient to handle. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The effect of SBS template on the formation of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that spherical Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm simultaneously formed on the epidermal surface and the interior stem wall of SBS. The SBS are responsible for size and morphology control during the whole formation of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles. In addition, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) results indicate the products are superparamagnetic at room temperature, with blocking temperature ( TB) of 150 K and saturation magnetization of 37.1 emu/g.

  14. Green Approach in the Bio-removal of Heavy Metals from wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gani Paran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of microalgae has been suggested as a green approach for a sustainable wastewater treatment especially heavy metal bioremediation. This study investigated the bio-removal of zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd and manganese (Mn from domestic wastewater (DW and food processing wastewater (FW using green microalgae, Botryococcus sp.. The total of five treatments represented by five different cell concentrations (1×103, 1×104, 1×105, 1×106 and 1×107 cells/mL of Botryococcus sp. in the wastewaters medium. The results revealed high removal efficiency of Zn, Fe, Cd and Mn after 18 days of the culture compared to control (wastewaters without algae. In DW , Zn, Fe, Cd and Mn were successfully removed at the highest efficiencies up to 71.5%, 51.2%, 83.5% and 97.2%, respectively while in FW, the same metal concentrations were reduced by up to 64.4%, 53.3%, 52.9% and 26.7%, respectively. Overall, most of the algae cell concentrations tested were successfully reducing the metals contaminant presence in both wastewaters and provides a baseline for further phycoremediation coupled with biomass production.

  15. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  16. Modes and Experience of Green Mine Construction in Yunnan, China: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui; Yang, Shuran; Xu, Jun; Fan, Youcai; Xu, Gang; Yang, Jiaqing; Yuan, Jia; Qi, Wufu

    2017-12-01

    Yunnan is one of most important provinces with mineral resources and exploration in China. Meanwhile, Yunnan is Chinese ecological protective screen and try to be Pacesetter of ecological civilization. However, mining industry always disturbs ecological environment seriously. So green mine construction is inevitable and the best choice for Yunnan. In this paper, achievement of green mine construction in Yunnan was summarized. Then the paper takes two mines from Dahongshan and 4 mines from Yunnan Phosphate Chemical Group Co., Ltd (YPC for short) as case studies. Technological innovation in Dahongshan Fe Mine and Dahongshan Cu Mine guarantees their success of green mine construction. Land rehabilitation and harmonious community are highlights of 4 mines from YPC. These modes and experience could be referential to construct green mine.

  17. Differential tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in 'green mice'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, De-Fu; Tezuka, Hideo; Kondo, Tetsuo; Sudo, Katsuko; Niu, Dong-Feng; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Yamane, Tetsu; Nakamura, Nobuki; Katoh, Ryohei

    2010-06-01

    In order to clarify tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in 'green mice' from a transgenic line having an EGFP cDNA under the control of a chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer, we studied the expression of EGFP in various organs and tissues from these 'green mice' by immunohistochemistry with anti- EGFP antibody in conjunction with direct observation for EGFP fluorescence using confocal laser scanning microscopy. On immunohistochemical examination and on direct observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy, the level of EGFP expression varied among organs and tissues. EGFP expression was diffusely and strongly observed in the skin, pituitary, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, heart, gall bladder, pancreas, adrenals and urinary bladder. There was only sporadic and weak expression of EGFP in the epithelium of the trachea, bronchus of the lung, stratified squamous epithelium and gastric glands of the stomach, hepatic bile ducts of the liver, glomeruli and renal tubules of the kidney and endo-metrial glands of the uterus. Furthermore, EGFP was only demonstrated within the goblet and paneth cells in the colon and small intestine, the tall columnar cells in the ductus epididymis, and the leydig cells in the testis. In conclusion, our results show that EGFP is differentially expressed in organs and tissues of 'green mice', which indicates that 'green mice' may prove useful for research involving transplantation and tissue clonality.

  18. Green perspective in food industry production line design: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, C. Y.; Sin, T. C.; Liyana, M. R. N.; Awang, A.; Fathullah, M.

    2017-09-01

    The design of green manufacturing process in food industries is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Several process such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, extraction and filtering have been applied efficiency in the food industry. Due to the rapid development of food and peripheral technology, the use of new physical processing or auxiliary processing methods can maintain food inherent nutrients, texture, color, and freshness and also reduce environmental pollution and energy consumption in food processing. Hence, this review paper will study and summarize the effects of green manufacturing process in food industries in term of waste reduction, materials and sustainability manufacturing. In any case, All the food processing equipment must comply with strict standards and regulation, this action will ensure the securing the food quality and safety of food products to consumers.

  19. Holographic recording in a doubly doped lithium niobate crystal with two wavelengths: a blue laser diode and a green laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Yuichi; Ishii, Yukihiro

    2010-08-01

    A doubly-doped LiNbO3 (LN) crystal has been well used as a nonvolatile two-wavelength recording material. By using two levels of the crystal, two-kind holograms can be recorded on one crystal; a hologram is recorded with a 405-nm blue laser diode (LD) for a deep Mn level, and another hologram is with a 532-nm green laser for a shallow Fe level. The recording capacity doubles. A 780-nm LD is non-volatile reconstructing source since the LD line is insensitive to both levels. Multiplexed reconstructed images are demonstrated by using a sharp angular selectivity of a volume LN crystal keeping Bragg condition with spherical reconstructions.

  20. Factorial experimental design for the optimization of catalytic degradation of malachite green dye in aqueous solution by Fenton process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elhalil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the optimization of the catalytic degradation of malachite green dye (MG by Fenton process “Fe2+/H2O2”. A 24 full factorial experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of four factors considered in the optimization of the oxidative process: concentration of MG (X1, concentration of Fe2+ (X2, concentration of H2O2 (X3 and temperature (X4. Individual and interaction effects of the factors that influenced the percentage of dye degradation were tested. The effect of interactions between the four parameters shows that there is a dependency between concentration of MG and concentration of Fe2+; concentration of Fe2+ and concentration of H2O2, expressed by the great values of the coefficient of interaction. The analysis of variance proved that, the concentration of MG, the concentration of Fe2+ and the concentration of H2O2 have an influence on the catalytic degradation while it is not the case for the temperature. In the optimization, the great dependence between observed and predicted degradation efficiency, the correlation coefficient for the model (R2=0.986 and the important value of F-ratio proved the validity of the model. The optimum degradation efficiency of malachite green was 93.83%, when the operational parameters were malachite green concentration of 10 mg/L, Fe2+ concentration of 10 mM, H2O2 concentration of 25.6 mM and temperature of 40 °C.

  1. Direct regeneration of recycled cathode material mixture from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelei; Zhang, Jin; Song, Dawei; Song, Jishun; Zhang, Lianqi

    2017-03-01

    A new green recycling process (named as direct regeneration process) of cathode material mixture from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries is designed for the first time. Through this direct regeneration process, high purity cathode material mixture (LiFePO4 + acetylene black), anode material mixture (graphite + acetylene black) and other by-products (shell, Al foil, Cu foil and electrolyte solvent, etc.) are recycled from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries with high yield. Subsequently, recycled cathode material mixture without acid leaching is further directly regenerated with Li2CO3. Direct regeneration procedure of recycled cathode material mixture from 600 to 800 °C is investigated in detail. Cathode material mixture regenerated at 650 °C display excellent physical, chemical and electrochemical performances, which meet the reuse requirement for middle-end Li-ion batteries. The results indicate the green direct regeneration process with low-cost and high added-value is feasible.

  2. One-pot low-temperature green synthesis of magnetic graphene nanocomposite for the selective reduction of nitrobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, Vijayasree; Sugunan, Sankaran; Narayanan, Binitha N.

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, a green one-pot low-temperature method is adopted for the synthesis of a novel magnetic graphene nanocomposite catalyst. Graphene preparation is performed without employing any oxidizing agents or corrosive chemicals, under mild sonication in isopropyl alcohol - water mixture. Monolayered nanoplatelets of graphene are obtained in the green solvent mixture and the composite material is found to be ferromagnetic in nature, obvious from the vibrating sample magnetometric measurements. Fe in the nanocomposite exists in two different forms i.e., α-Fe2O3 and α-FeOOH, as evident from the material characterization results. The graphene nanocomposite is found to be highly efficient in the selective reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline under solvent free reaction conditions and magnetic separation of this fine nanomaterial from the reaction mixture is successfully carried out. The catalyst is efficiently reusable till five repeated cycles.

  3. Metal and nutrient dynamics on an aged intensive green roof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speak, A.F.; Rothwell, J.J.; Lindley, S.J.; Smith, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Runoff and rainfall quality was compared between an aged intensive green roof and an adjacent conventional roof surface. Nutrient concentrations in the runoff were generally below Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) values and the green roof exhibited NO 3 − retention. Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were in excess of EQS values for the protection of surface water. Green roof runoff was also significantly higher in Fe and Pb than on the bare roof and in rainfall. Input–output fluxes revealed the green roof to be a potential source of Pb. High concentrations of Pb within the green roof soil and bare roof dusts provide a potential source of Pb in runoff. The origin of the Pb is likely from historic urban atmospheric deposition. Aged green roofs may therefore act as a source of legacy metal pollution. This needs to be considered when constructing green roofs with the aim of improving pollution remediation. -- Highlights: • Runoff from an aged intensive green roof was characterised. • Nutrient levels were not problematic for runoff quality. • High concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were found in the runoff. • Soil contamination was a likely source of metals in roof runoff. • Historic Pb atmospheric deposition may be the source of contamination. -- Aged green roofs may act as a store of legacy lead pollution

  4. [Determination of Total Iron and Fe2+ in Basalt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-xun; Chen, Mei-rong; Jian, Zheng-guo; Wu, Gang; Wu, Zhi-shen

    2015-08-01

    Basalt is the raw material of basalt fiber. The content of FeO and Fe2O3 has a great impact on the properties of basalt fibers. ICP-OES and dichromate method were used to test total Fe and Fe(2+) in basalt. Suitable instrument parameters and analysis lines of Fe were chosen for ICP-OES. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of ICP-OES is 2.2%, and the recovery is in the range of 98%~101%. The method shows simple, rapid and highly accurate for determination of total Fe and Fe(2+) in basalt. The RSD of ICP-OES and dichromate method is 0.42% and 1.4%, respectively.

  5. Radical scavenging and iron-chelating activities of some greens used as traditional dishes in Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El, Sedef Nehir; Karakaya, Sibel

    2004-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the antioxidative activity of nine different families of greens. Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish), Anchusa azurea (bugloss), Daucus carota (wild carrot), Sonchus oleraceus (sowthistle), Papaver rhoeas (corn poppy), Malva sylvestris (blue mallow), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Cichorium intybus (chicory) and Salicornia europaea (jointed glasswort) are native to the Mediterranean and are commonly consumed as a salad or an ingredient in some recipes. The antioxidative activities, including the radical scavenging effects, inhibition of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and Fe(2+)-chelating activity, were studied. All samples showed antioxidant activity as a radical scavenger in the experiment using the DPPH* radical. The ratio between the slopes of the kinetic model was used to compare antioxidant efficiency of different greens. Greens also possessed antioxidative activity toward H(2)O(2). Especially, greens exhibited a marked scavenging effect on H(2)O(2) at 0.2 g/ml concentration. The Fe(2+) ion-chelating activities of the samples except jointed glasswort were greater than 70%. The antioxidant activity of samples with different methods based on the inhibition of different reactions could not be compared. The current dietary guidelines include recommendations for an increase in the consumption of plant foods. Greens should provide an optimal supply of antioxidant substances in the diet.

  6. Green urea synthesis catalyzed by hematite nanowires in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Noorhana; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia ur; Alqasem, Bilal; Fai Kait, Chong

    2017-04-01

    The catalytic activity of hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanowires under the influence of magnetic field on urea synthesis is considered green. The adsorption and subsequent dissociative reaction of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases on the α-Fe2O3 (111) nanowires were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The average adsorption energy is -4.12 kcal/mole at different sites. The adsorption of gases resulted in a difference in density and net spin of electrons from 68 to 120 and 0-21 respectively. In addition, it induces magnetic moment value of 36.33 μB, which confirms the enhanced magnetic behaviour of hematite. α-Fe2O3 nanowires (NWs) synthesized by heating iron wire in a box furnace at (750-800) °C and as synthesized α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) were received to use as a catalyst in the magnetic reaction of urea synthesis. X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) confirms the peaks of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe2O3 and Raman spectrum analyses confirms the α-Fe2O3 peaks at 410 cm-1, 500 cm-1 and 616 cm-1. The needle-like shape of hematite nanowires with length ranging from 16-25) μm and diameter from 74 to 145 nm confirmed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The magnetic properties of the nanowires exhibited different levels of saturation magnetization, for α-Fe2O3 perpendicularly aligned direction (13.18 emu/g) and random direction (10.73 emu/g). Urea synthesis was done under magnetic field ranges from 0.0 to 2.5 T. The activation energy of α-Fe2O3 NWs for urea production is lower than NPs in the range of 0-1 T, whereas it is reversed for higher magnetic induction values. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of urea at the peaks of 1690-1600 cm-1. This green urea employing magnetically induced method could be a contender to the Haber-Bosch process currently used by the current industry which utilizes high temperature and high pressure.

  7. Fate of nickel ion in (II-III hydroxysulphate green rust synthesized by precipitation and coprecipitation Adsorção de íon níquel em (II-III green rust hidroxisulfato sintetizado por precipitação e co-precipitação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Garófalo Chaves

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the efficiency of sulfate green rust (GR2 to remove Ni from solution, GR2 samples were synthesized under controlled laboratory conditions. Some GR2 samples were synthesized from Fe(II and Fe(III sulfate salts by precipitation. Other samples were prepared by coprecipitation, of Ni(II, Fe(II and Fe(III sulfate salts, i.e., in the presence of Ni. In another sample, Ni(II sulfate salt was added to pre-formed GR2. After an initial X-ray diffraction (XRD characterization all samples were exposed to ambient air in order to understand the role of Ni in the transformation of the GR2 samples. XRD was repeated after 45 days. The results showed that Nious GR2 prepared by coprecipitation is isomorphous to Ni-free GR2, i.e. Ni is incorporated into the crystalline structure. Fe(II was not replaced by Ni(II in the crystalline structure of GR2 formed prior to exposure to solution-phase Ni. This suggests Ni was adsorbed to the GR2 surface. Sulfate green rust is more efficient in removing Ni from the environment by coprecipitation.Com objetivo de investigar a eficiência do "sulfate green rust" (GR2 na remoção de Ni da solução, amostras de GR2 foram sintetizadas em laboratório sob condições controladas. Algumas amostras de GR2 foram sintetizadas pela precipitação de sais de Fe(II e de Fe(III; outras amostras, pela co-precipitação de sais de Ni(II, Fe(II e de Fe(III; e em outras amostras, o sulfato de Ni(II foi adicionado às amostras GR2 pré-formadas. Após caracterização inicial, por difração de raios X, todas as amostras ficaram expostas ao ar atmosférico durante 45 dias, a fim de se avaliar o papel do Ni na transformação delas. Após esse período, a difração de raios X das amostras foi repetida. Os resultados mostraram que Ni-GR2 preparado por co-precipitação é isomórfico do GR2, estando o íon Ni na estrutura cristalina deste. Fe(II não foi substituído por Ni(II na estrutura cristalina de GR2 formado a priori

  8. Lipoprotein processing is essential for resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to malachite green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaei, Niaz; Kincaid, Eleanor Z; Lin, S-Y Grace; Desmond, Edward; Jacobs, William R; Ernst, Joel D

    2009-09-01

    Malachite green, a synthetic antimicrobial dye, has been used for over 50 years in mycobacterial culture medium to inhibit the growth of contaminants. The molecular basis of mycobacterial resistance to malachite green is unknown, although the presence of malachite green-reducing enzymes in the cell envelope has been suggested. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of lipoproteins in resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to malachite green. The replication of an M. tuberculosis lipoprotein signal peptidase II (lspA) mutant (DeltalspA::lspAmut) on Middlebrook agar with and without 1 mg/liter malachite green was investigated. The lspA mutant was also compared with wild-type M. tuberculosis in the decolorization rate of malachite green and sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) detergent and first-line antituberculosis drugs. The lspA mutant has a 10(4)-fold reduction in CFU-forming efficiency on Middlebrook agar with malachite green. Malachite green is decolorized faster in the presence of the lspA mutant than wild-type bacteria. The lspA mutant is hypersensitive to SDS detergent and shows increased sensitivity to first-line antituberculosis drugs. In summary, lipoprotein processing by LspA is essential for resistance of M. tuberculosis to malachite green. A cell wall permeability defect is likely responsible for the hypersensitivity of lspA mutant to malachite green.

  9. Argus+: The Future of Wide-Field, Spectral-Line Imaging at 3-mm with the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Ronald; Frayer, David; Lockman, Felix; O'Neil, Karen; White, Steven; Argus+ Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Robert C Byrd Green Bank Telescope has met its design goal of providing high-quality observations at 115 GHz. Observers also have access to the new, 16-pixel, 3-mm Argus receiver, which is providing high-dynamic range images over wide fields for the multitude of spectral lines between 85 and 115 GHz, including CO, 13CO, C18O, SiO, HCN, HCO+, HNC, N2H+, and CS. The small number of pixels in Argus limits its ability to map many of the most interesting objects whose extent exceeds many arc-minutes. The successful performance of Argus, and its modular design, demonstrates that receivers with many more pixels could be built for the GBT. A 12 x 12 array of the Argus design would have mapping speeds about nine times faster than Argus without suffering any degradation in performance for the outer pixels in the array. We present our plans to build the next-generation Argus instrument (Argus+) with 144-pixels, a footprint 5’x5’, and 7" resolution at 110 GHz. The project will be a collaboration between the Green Bank Observatory and university groups, who will supply key components. The key science drivers for Argus+ are studies of molecular filaments in the Milky Way, studies of molecular clouds in nearby galaxies, and the observations of rapidly evolving solar system objects.

  10. Clinical evaluation of neodymium-iron-boron (Ne2Fe14B) rare earth magnets in the treatment of mid line diastemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj-Kumar, Mitta; Gowri-Sankar, Singaraju; Chaitanya, Nellore; Vivek-Reddy, Ganugapanta; Venkatesh, Nettam

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the closure of midline diastema using the Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnets and to compare the treatment duration of midline diastemas with the use of magnets compared to regular orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods Thirty patients with age group 12 to 30 years with the midline diastema ranging from 0.5 to 3mm were selected. These patients were divided into two groups. Diastema closure in one group was accomplished by conventional method, in other group was done with Ne2Fe14B magnets. These magnets were fitted to the labial surfaces of the maxillary central incisors such a way that the opposite poles of the magnets face each other. At each appointment, study models and radiographs were taken for study subjects and the midline diastema was measured using digital vernier calipers on the study models obtained. Descriptive statistics carried out using Paired t-test. Results Subjects treated with Ne2Fe14B magnets showed a significant difference compared to fixed orthodontic appliance subjects with respect to time of closure, rate of space closure and incisal inclination. Significant difference between 2 groups with reduction of 64.6 days in time to diastema closure in subjects treated with Ne2Fe14B magnets (Pclosure of mid line diastema in less duration of time. Key words:Midline diastema, Ne2Fe14B magnets, rare earth magnets, space closure. PMID:27034757

  11. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  12. Near-Infrared [Fe II] and H2 Study of the Galactic Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hyun; Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Burton, Michael G.; Ryder, Stuart D.

    2018-01-01

    We have searched for near-infrared (NIR) [Fe II] (1.644 μm) and H2 1-0 S(1) (2.122 μm) emission features associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) using the narrow-band imaging surveys UWIFE / UWISH2 (UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for [Fe II] / H2). Both surveys cover about 180 square degrees of the first Galactic quadrant (7° reversal” phenomenon, i.e., the H2 emission features are detected outside the [Fe II] emission boundary. We carried out high resolution (R~40,000) NIR H- and K-band spectroscopy of the five SNRs showing the [Fe II]-H2 reversal (G11.2-0.3, KES 73, W44, 3C 396, W49B) using IGRINS (Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph). Various ro-vibrational H2 lines have been detected, which are used to derive the kinematic distances to the SNRs and to investigate the origin of the H2 emission. The detected H2 lines show broad line width (> 10 km s-1) and line flux ratios of thermal excitation. We discuss the origin of the extended H2 emission features beyond the the [Fe II] emission boundary.

  13. NMR measurements in milled GdCo2 and GdFe2 intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribuzy, C.V.B.; Guimaraes, A.P.; Biondo, A.; Larica, C.; Alves, K.M.B.

    1998-12-01

    We have used the nuclear magnetic resonance technique to study the magnetic and structural properties of the Gd-Co and Gd-Fe metallic systems, starting with the C15 laves phase intermetallic compounds, and submitting them to a high energy milling process. This leads to the amorphization of the samples, as determined by the X-ray diffraction spectra. For the Gd-Co system the NMR study used the 59 Co nucleus; in the Gd-Fe system, 155,157 Gd and 57 Fe were used. Both systems showed segregation of the pure elements, after a few hours of milling. In the Gd-Co system, a single line, of increasing width, was observed in the 59 Co spectrum. In the Gd-Fe system, the 155 Gd and 157 Gd resonances show three lines, arising from electrical quadrupole interaction. With increasing milling time, the lines broaden, and extra lines appear attributed to a cubic phase of Gd; this interpretation is supported by the X-ray analysis of the samples. The 57 Fe NMR spectrum of this system also informs on the direction of magnetization of the samples in the early stages of milling. From 1 h to 7 h of milling, a spectrum of α-Fe was observed. The study of the NMR line intensity as a function of radio frequency (r.f.) power in Gd Co 2 suggests the existence of regions of the samples with different degrees of disorder. We have observed the persistence of NMR signals from the original intermetallic compounds in the samples with up to 10 h and 7 h of milling, respectively, for Gd Co 2 and Gd Fe 2 . (author)

  14. Modeling Energy Efficiency As A Green Logistics Component In Vehicle Assembly Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumer, Abduaziz; Mekbib Atnaw, Samson; Kie Cheng, Jack; Singh, Lakveer

    2016-11-01

    This paper uses System Dynamics (SD) simulation to investigate the concept green logistics in terms of energy efficiency in automotive industry. The car manufacturing industry is considered to be one of the highest energy consuming industries. An efficient decision making model is proposed that capture the impacts of strategic decisions on energy consumption and environmental sustainability. The sources of energy considered in this research are electricity and fuel; which are the two main types of energy sources used in a typical vehicle assembly plant. The model depicts the performance measurement for process- specific energy measures of painting, welding, and assembling processes. SD is the chosen simulation method and the main green logistics issues considered are Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emission and energy utilization. The model will assist decision makers acquire an in-depth understanding of relationship between high level planning and low level operation activities on production, environmental impacts and costs associated. The results of the SD model signify the existence of positive trade-offs between green practices of energy efficiency and the reduction of CO2 emission.

  15. Do green products make us better people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar, Nina; Zhong, Chen-Bo

    2010-04-01

    Consumer choices reflect not only price and quality preferences but also social and moral values, as witnessed in the remarkable growth of the global market for organic and environmentally friendly products. Building on recent research on behavioral priming and moral regulation, we found that mere exposure to green products and the purchase of such products lead to markedly different behavioral consequences. In line with the halo associated with green consumerism, results showed that people act more altruistically after mere exposure to green products than after mere exposure to conventional products. However, people act less altruistically and are more likely to cheat and steal after purchasing green products than after purchasing conventional products. Together, our studies show that consumption is connected to social and ethical behaviors more broadly across domains than previously thought.

  16. Biodiesel production from soybean and Jatropha oils by magnetic CaFe2O4–Ca2Fe2O5-based catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Bao-jin; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Fan; Fang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous CaFe 2 O 4 –Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5 -based catalyst with weak magnetism was prepared by co-precipitation and calcination. It was characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption method. Its active components were identified as mainly Ca–Fe composite oxides such as CaFe 2 O 4 for transesterification. The magnetism was further strengthened by reducing its component of Fe 2 O 3 to Fe 3 O 4 –Fe under H 2 atmosphere for better magnetic separation. Both catalysts were used for the catalytic transesterification of soybean and Jatropha oils to biodiesel. The highest biodiesel yields for soybean oil of 85.4% and 83.5% were obtained over the weak and strong magnetic catalysts, respectively under the optimized conditions (373 K, 30 min, 15/1 methanol/oil molar ratio and 4 wt% catalyst). The catalysts could be recycled three times. Biodiesel production from pretreated Jatropha oil was tested with the magnetic CaFe 2 O 4 –Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5 –Fe 3 O 4 –Fe catalyst, and 78.2% biodiesel yield was obtained. The magnetic CaFe 2 O 4 –Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5 -based catalyst shows a potential application for the green production of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Magnetic catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation, calcination and reduction. • The catalyst was composed of CaFe 2 O 4 –Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5 –Fe 3 O 4 –Fe. • Biodiesel yields of 83.5% and 78.2% were achieved for soybean and Jatropha oils. • The catalyst was easily separated by a magnet and used for three cycles

  17. Hyperfine field distribution of Fe83B17 glassy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglierini, M.; Sitek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Convolutions of Gaussian and Lorentzian lines are proposed to fit the Moessbauer spectrum of Fe 83 B 17 metallic glass. The hyperfine field distribution is constructed from three Gaussian lines corresponding to the individual line pairs. (author). 1 fig., 7 refs

  18. Kinetics of Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation of 6-line ferrihydrite under anaerobic flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Marcus, M.A.; Bargar, J.R.

    2010-04-01

    The readsorption of ferrous ions produced by the abiotic and microbially-mediated reductive dissolution of iron oxy-hydroxides drives a series of transformations of the host minerals. To further understand the mechanisms by which these transformations occur and their kinetics within a microporous flow environment, flow-through experiments were conducted in which capillary tubes packed with ferrihydrite-coated glass spheres were injected with inorganic Fe(II) solutions under circumneutral pH conditions at 25 C. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to identify the secondary phase(s) formed and to provide data for quantitative kinetic analysis. At concentrations at and above 1.8 mM Fe(II) in the injection solution, magnetite was the only secondary phase formed (no intermediates were detected), with complete transformation following a nonlinear rate law requiring 28 hours and 150 hours of reaction at 18 and 1.8 mM Fe(II), respectively. However, when the injection solution consisted of 0.36 mM Fe(II), goethite was the predominant reaction product and formed much more slowly according to a linear rate law, while only minor magnetite was formed. When the rates are normalized based on the time to react half of the ferrihydrite on a reduced time plot, it is apparent that the 1.8 mM and 18 mM input Fe(II) experiments can be described by the same reaction mechanism, while the 0.36 input Fe(II) experiment is distinct. The analysis of the transformation kinetics suggest that the transformations involved an electron transfer reaction between the aqueous as well as sorbed Fe(II) and ferrihydrite acting as a semiconductor, rather than a simple dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. A transformation mechanism involving sorbed inner sphere Fe(II) alone is not supported, since the essentially equal coverage of sorption sites in the 18 mM and 1.8 mM Fe(II) injections cannot explain the difference in the transformation rates observed.

  19. Determination of Fe and Al contamination by NAA at preparation of traditional Mexican food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriola, S.H.; Cruz, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out using NAA to measure the concentration of Al and Fe leached from kitchen ware into some popular Mexican sauces and juices. These elements were measured in red and green hot sauces cooked in Fe, Al and clay pans compared to a stainless steel pan. Similarly Al was measured in orange and grapefruit juices obtained using an Al extractor compared to a plastic one. (author)

  20. Fe catalysts for methane decomposition to produce hydrogen and carbon nano materials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu; Enakonda, Linga Reddy; Harb, Moussab; Saih, Youssef; Aguilar Tapia, Antonio; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Hazemann, Jean-louis; Li, Jun; Wei, Nini; Gary, Daniel; Del-Gallo, Pascal; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Conducting catalytic methane decomposition over Fe catalysts is a green and economic route to produce H2 without CO/CO2 contamination. Fused 65wt% and impregnated 20wt% Fe catalysts were synthesized with different additives to investigate their activity, whereas showing Fe-Al2O3 combination as the best catalyst. Al2O3 is speculated to expose more Fe00 for the selective deposition of carbon nano tubes (CNTs). A fused Fe (65wt%)-Al2O3 sample was further investigated by means of H2-TPR, in-situ XRD, HRTEM and XAS to conclude 750°C is the optimized temperature for H2 pre-reduction and reaction to obtain a high activity. Based on density functional theory (DFT) study, a reaction mechanism over Fe catalysts was proposed to explain the formation of graphite from unstable supersaturated iron carbides decomposition. A carbon deposition model was further proposed which explains the formation of different carbon nano materials.

  1. Fe catalysts for methane decomposition to produce hydrogen and carbon nano materials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2017-02-21

    Conducting catalytic methane decomposition over Fe catalysts is a green and economic route to produce H2 without CO/CO2 contamination. Fused 65wt% and impregnated 20wt% Fe catalysts were synthesized with different additives to investigate their activity, whereas showing Fe-Al2O3 combination as the best catalyst. Al2O3 is speculated to expose more Fe00 for the selective deposition of carbon nano tubes (CNTs). A fused Fe (65wt%)-Al2O3 sample was further investigated by means of H2-TPR, in-situ XRD, HRTEM and XAS to conclude 750°C is the optimized temperature for H2 pre-reduction and reaction to obtain a high activity. Based on density functional theory (DFT) study, a reaction mechanism over Fe catalysts was proposed to explain the formation of graphite from unstable supersaturated iron carbides decomposition. A carbon deposition model was further proposed which explains the formation of different carbon nano materials.

  2. Effect of supplemental ultraviolet radiation on the concentration of phytonutrients in green and red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, Steven; Caldwell, Charles; Mirecki, Roman; Slusser, James; Gao, Wei

    2005-08-01

    Eight cultivars each of red and green leaf lettuce were raised in a greenhouse with supplemental UV radiation, either UV-A (wavelengths greater than ca. 315 nm) or UV-A+UV-B (wavelengths greater than ca. 290 nm; 6.4 kJ m-2 daily biologically effective UV-B), or no supplemental UV (controls). Several phytonutrients were analyzed in leaf flours to identify lines with large differences in composition and response to UV-B. Red leaf lettuce had higher levels of phenolic acid esters, flavonols and anthocyanins than green lines. Both green and red lines exposed to UV-B for 9 days showed 2-3-fold increases in flavonoids compared to controls, but only 45% increases in phenolic acid esters, suggesting these compounds may be regulated by different mechanisms. There were large differences between cultivars in levels of phenolic compounds under control conditions and also large differences in UV-B effects. Among red varieties, cv. Galactic was notable for high levels of phenolics and a large response to UV-B. Among green varieties, cvs. Black-Seeded Simpson and Simpson Elite had large increases in phenolics with UV-B exposure. Photosynthetic pigments were also analyzed. Green leaf lettuce had high levels of pheophytin, a chlorophyll degradation product. Total chlorophylls (including pheophytin) were much lower in green compared to red varieties. Lutein, a carotenoid, was similar for green and red lines. Total chlorophylls and lutein increased 2-fold under supplemental UV-B in green lines but decreased slightly under UV-B in red lines. Lettuce appears to be a valuable crop to use to study phytochemical-environment interactions.

  3. Moessbauer study of Fe-Co nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ziyu [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China)]. E-mail: chenzy@lzu.edu.cn; Zhan Qingfeng; Xue Desheng; Li Fashen [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Zhou Xuezhi; Kunkel, Henry; Williams, Gwyn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, the University of Manitoba (Canada)

    2002-01-28

    Arrays of Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} (0.0{<=}x{<=}0.92) nanowires have been prepared by an electrochemical process, co-depositing Fe and Co atoms into the pores of anodic aluminium; their compositions were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscope results show that the nanowires are regularly spaced and uniform in shape with lengths of about 7.5 {mu}m and diameters of 20 nm. The x-ray diffraction indicates a texture in the deposited nanowires. For the composition below 82 at.% cobalt, the nanowires had a body-centred-cubic structure with a [110] preferred orientation. For the 92 at.% cobalt sample, the alloy exhibited a mixture of bcc and face-centred-cubic structure. The room temperature {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra of the arrays of Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} nanowires have second and fifth absorption lines of the six-line pattern with almost zero intensity, indicating that the internal magnetic field in the nanowires lies along the long axis of the nanowire. The maximum values of the hyperfine field (B{sub hf} 36.6{+-}0.1 T) and isomer shift (IS=0.06{+-}0.01 mm s-1) occur for 44 at.% cobalt. The variations of the isomer shift and the linewidths with composition indicate that the Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} alloy nanowires around the equiatomic composition are in an atomistic disordered state. (author)

  4. Magnetic Properties and Microstructure of FeOx/Fe/FePt and FeOx/FePt Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai-Lin Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fe(6 nm/FePt film with perpendicular magnetization was deposited on the glass substrate. To study the oxygen diffusion effect on the coupling of Fe/FePt bilayer, the plasma oxidation with 0.5~7% oxygen flow ratio was performed during sputtered part of Fe layer and formed the FeOx(3 nm/Fe(3 nm/FePt trilayer. Two-step magnetic hysteresis loops were found in trilayer with oxygen flow ratio above 1%. The magnetization in FeOx and Fe/FePt layers was decoupled. The moments in FeOx layer were first reversed and followed by coupled Fe/FePt bilayer. The trilayer was annealed again at 500°C and 800°C for 3 minutes. When the FeOx(3 nm/Fe(3 nm/FePt trilayer was annealed at 500°C, the layers structure was changed to FeOx(6 nm/FePt bilayer due to oxygen diffusion. The hard-magnetic FeOx(6 nm/FePt film was coupled with single switching field. The FeOx/(disordered FePt layer structure was observed with further annealing at 800°C and presented soft-magnetic loop. In summary, the coupling between soft-magnetic Fe, FeOx layer, and hard-magnetic L10 FePt layer can be controlled by the oxygen diffusion behavior, and the oxidation of Fe layer was tuned by the annealing temperature. The ordered L10 FePt layer was deteriorated by oxygen and became disordered FePt when the annealed temperature was up to 800°C.

  5. Electrochemical alkaline Fe(VI) water purification and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Stuart; Yu, Xingwen

    2005-10-15

    Fe(VI) is an unusual and strongly oxidizing form of iron, which provides a potentially less hazardous water-purifying agent than chlorine. A novel on-line electrochemical Fe(VI) water purification methodology is introduced. Fe(VI) addition had been a barrier to its effective use in water remediation, because solid Fe(VI) salts require complex (costly) syntheses steps and solutions of Fe(VI) decompose. Online electrochemical Fe(VI) water purification avoids these limitations, in which Fe(VI) is directly prepared in solution from an iron anode as the FeO42- ion, and is added to the contaminant stream. Added FeO42- decomposes, by oxidizing a wide range of water contaminants including sulfides (demonstrated in this study) and other sulfur-containing compounds, cyanides (demonstrated in this study), arsenic (demonstrated in this study), ammonia and other nitrogen-containing compounds (previously demonstrated), a wide range of organics (phenol demonstrated in this study), algae, and viruses (each previously demonstrated).

  6. Shewanella oneidensis: a new and efficient System for Expression and Maturation of heterologous [Fe-Fe] Hydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybirna Kateryna

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eukaryotic green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, produces H2 under anaerobic conditions, in a reaction catalysed by a [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase HydA1. For further biochemical and biophysical studies a suitable expression system of this enzyme should be found to overcome its weak expression in the host organism. Two heterologous expression systems used up to now have several advantages. However they are not free from some drawbacks. In this work we use bacterium Shewanella oneidensis as a new and efficient system for expression and maturation of HydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Results Based on codon usage bias and hydrogenase maturation ability, the bacterium S. oneidensis, which possesses putative [Fe-Fe] and [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase operons, was selected as the best potential host for C. reinhardtii [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase expression. Hydrogen formation by S. oneidensis strain AS52 (ΔhydAΔhyaB transformed with a plasmid bearing CrHydA1 and grown in the presence of six different substrates for anaerobic respiration was determined. A significant increase in hydrogen evolution was observed for cells grown in the presence of trimethylamine oxide, dimethylsulfoxide and disodium thiosulfate, showing that the system of S. oneidensis is efficient for heterologous expression of algal [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase. Conclusion In the present work a new efficient system for heterologous expression and maturation of C. reinhardtii hydrogenase has been developed. HydA1 of C. reinhardtii was purified and shown to contain 6 Fe atoms/molecule of protein, as expected. Using DMSO, TMAO or thiosulfate as substrates for anaerobic respiration during the cell growth, 0.4 – 0.5 mg l-1(OD600 = 1 of catalytically active HydA1 was obtained with hydrogen evolution rate of ~700 μmol H2 mg-1 min-1.

  7. Fe L-shell Excitation Cross Section Measurements on EBIT-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G.; Boyce, K.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.; Porter, F.; Gu, M. F.; Kahn, S.

    2006-09-01

    We report the measurement of electron impact excitation cross sections for the strong iron L-shell 3-2 lines of Fe XVII to Fe XXIV at the LLNL EBIT-I electron beam ion trap using a crystal spectrometer and NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center's 6x6 pixel array microcalorimeter. The cross sections were determined by direct normalization to the well-established cross sections for radiative electron capture. Our results include the excitation cross section for over 50 lines at multiple electron energies. Although we have found that for 3C line in Fe XVII the measured cross sections differ significantly from theory, in most cases the measurements and theory agree within 20%. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48 and supported by NASA APRA grants to LLNL, GSFC, and Stanford University.

  8. Origin of Magnetism in Hydrothermally Aged 2-Line Ferrihydrite Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Jiang, Zhao-Xia; Du, Yong-Hua; Yin, Xin-Mao; Xi, Shi-Bo; Wen, Wen; Roberts, Andrew P; Wee, Andrew T S; Xiong, Yi-Min; Liu, Qing-Song; Gao, Xing-Yu

    2017-03-07

    As an iron oxyhydroxide, nanosized ferrihydrite (Fh) is important in Earth science, biology, and industrial applications. However, its basic structure and origin of its magnetism have long been debated. We integrate synchrotron-based techniques to explore the chemical structures of 2-line ferrihydrite and to determine the origin of its magnetism during hydrothermal aging in air. Our results demonstrate that both the magnetism and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) signal of 2-line ferrihydrite are enhanced with aging time, and that XMCD spectral patterns resemble that of maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) rather than magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ). Fe L-edge and K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) further indicate formation of both maghemite and hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) with increasing concentrations with longer hydrothermal aging time. Thus, magnetic enhancement with longer hydrothermal aging time is attributed to increasing maghemite concentration instead of a magnetically ordered ferrihydrite as previously reported. Moreover, L-edge and K-edge XAS spectra with different probing depths yield different ratios of these Fe oxides, which suggest the formation of a core (ferrihydrite-rich)-shell (with a mixture of both allotropes; α-Fe 2 O 3 and γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) structure during hydrothermal aging. Our results provide insights into the chemical evolution of 2-line ferrihydrite that reveal unambiguously the origin of its magnetism.

  9. Effects of laser energy and wavelength on the analysis of LiFePO4 using laser assisted atom probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Perea, Daniel E.; Martens, Richard L.; Janssen, Yuri; Khalifah, Peter; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2015-01-01

    The effects of laser wavelength (355 nm and 532 nm) and laser pulse energy on the quantitative analysis of LiFePO 4 by atom probe tomography are considered. A systematic investigation of ultraviolet (UV, 355 nm) and green (532 nm) laser assisted field evaporation has revealed distinctly different behaviors. With the use of a UV laser, the major issue was identified as the preferential loss of oxygen (up to 10 at%) while other elements (Li, Fe and P) were observed to be close to nominal ratios. Lowering the laser energy per pulse to 1 pJ/pulse from 50 pJ/pulse increased the observed oxygen concentration to nearer its correct stoichiometry, which was also well correlated with systematically higher concentrations of 16 O 2 + ions. Green laser assisted field evaporation led to the selective loss of Li (∼33% deficiency) and a relatively minor O deficiency. The loss of Li is likely a result of selective dc evaporation of Li between or after laser pulses. Comparison of the UV and green laser data suggests that the green wavelength energy was absorbed less efficiently than the UV wavelength because of differences in absorption at 355 and 532 nm for LiFePO 4 . Plotting of multihit events on Saxey plots also revealed a strong neutral O 2 loss from molecular dissociation, but quantification of this loss was insufficient to account for the observed oxygen deficiency. - Highlights: • Laser wavelength and pulse energy affect accuracy of APT analysis of LiFePO 4 . • Oxygen deficiency observed for UV laser; stronger at higher laser energies. • Selective loss of Li with green laser due to dc evaporation. • Saxey plots reveal prevalent formation of O 2 neutrals. • Quantification of molecular dissociations cannot account for O deficiency

  10. Peculiar A star HD 43819 - A photographic region line-identification study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, S.J.; The Citadel, Charleston, SC)

    1985-01-01

    A line identification study of the sharp-lined silicon star HD 43819 has been performed for the photographic region 3759-4924 A. Comparison of this star's spectrum with those of other silicon stars shows that it shares many of their apparent abundance anomalies. The TiII, CrII, FeI, and FeII spectra are well represented while the singly ionized rare earths are represented by at best a few lines per species. 21 references

  11. Biomass carbon composited FeS2 as cathode materials for high-rate rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Meng, Zhen; Zhu, Xueling; Zhang, Shunlong; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Pyrite FeS2 has long been used as commercial primary lithium batteries at room temperature. To achieve rechargeable FeS2 battery, biomass-carbon@FeS2 composites are prepared using green and renewable auricularia auricula as carbon source through the process of carbonization and sulfuration. The auricularia auricula has strong swelling characteristics to absorb aqueous solution which can effectively absorb Fe ions into its body. FeS2 homogeneously distributed in biomass carbon matrix performs high electronic and ionic conductivity. The specific capacity of biomass-carbon@FeS2 composites remains 850 mAh g-1 after 80 cycles at 0.5C and 700 mAh g-1 at the rate of 2C after 150 cycles. Biomass-carbon@FeS2 composites exhibit high-rate capacity in lithium-ion battery.

  12. Collective properties of drip-line nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamamoto, I. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden); Sagawa, H. [Univ. of Aizu, Fukushima (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Performing the spherical Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations with Skyrme interactions and, then, using RPA solved in the coordinate space with the Green`s function method, the authors have studied the effect of the unique shell structure as well as the very low particle threshold on collective modes in drip line nuclei. In this method a proper strength function in the continuum is obtained, though the spreading width of collective modes is not included. They have examined also one-particle resonant states in the obtained HF potential. Unperturbed particle-hole (p-h) response functions are carefully studied, which contain all basic information on the exotic behaviour of the RPA strength function in drip line nuclei.

  13. Ly α and UV Sizes of Green Pea Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Jiang, Tianxing [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wofford, Aida, E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu [National Autonomous University of Mexico, Institute of Astronomy (Mexico)

    2017-03-20

    Green Peas are nearby analogs of high-redshift Ly α -emitting galaxies (LAEs). To probe their Ly α escape, we study the spatial profiles of Ly α and UV continuum emission of 24 Green Pea galaxies using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope . We extract the spatial profiles of Ly α emission from their 2D COS spectra, and of the UV continuum from both 2D spectra and NUV images. The Ly α emission shows more extended spatial profiles than the UV continuum, in most Green Peas. The deconvolved full width at half maximum of the Ly α spatial profile is about 2–4 times that of the UV continuum, in most cases. Because Green Peas are analogs of high z LAEs, our results suggest that most high- z LAEs probably have larger Ly α sizes than UV sizes. We also compare the spatial profiles of Ly α photons at blueshifted and redshifted velocities in eight Green Peas with sufficient data quality, and find that the blue wing of the Ly α line has a larger spatial extent than the red wing in four Green Peas with comparatively weak blue Ly α line wings. We show that Green Peas and MUSE z = 3–6 LAEs have similar Ly α and UV continuum sizes, which probably suggests that starbursts in both low- z and high- z LAEs drive similar gas outflows illuminated by Ly α light. Five Lyman continuum (LyC) leakers in this sample have similar Ly α to UV continuum size ratios (∼1.4–4.3) to the other Green Peas, indicating that their LyC emissions escape through ionized holes in the interstellar medium.

  14. Study of the reaction of astrophysical interest 60Fe(n,γ)61Fe via (d,pγ) transfer reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giron, S.

    2011-12-01

    60 Fe is of special interest in nuclear astrophysics. Indeed the recent observations of 60 Fe characteristic gamma-ray lines by the RHESSI and INTEGRAL spacecrafts allowed to measure the total flux of 60 Fe over the Galaxy. Moreover the observation in presolar grains of an excess of the daughter-nuclei of 60 Fe, 60 Ni, gives constraints on the conditions of formation of the early solar system. However, the cross-sections of some reactions involved in 60 Fe nucleosynthesis and included to stellar models are still uncertain. The destruction reaction of 60 Fe, 60 Fe(n, γ) 61 Fe, is one of them. The total cross-section can be separate into two contributions: the direct one, involving states below the neutron separation threshold of 61 Fe, and the resonant one.We improved 61 Fe spectroscopy in order to evaluate the direct capture part of the 60 Fe(n, γ) 61 Fe reaction cross-section. 60 Fe(n, γ) 61 Fe was thus studied via d( 60 Fe, pγ) 61 Fe transfer reaction with the CATS/MUST2/EXOGAM setup at LISE-GANIL. DWBA analysis of experimental proton differential cross-sections allowed to extract orbital angular momentum and spectroscopic factors of different populated states identified below the neutron threshold. A comparison of experimental results for 61 Fe with experimental results for similar nuclei and with shell-model calculations was also performed. (author) [fr

  15. Green urea synthesis catalyzed by hematite nanowires in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, Noorhana; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia ur; Alqasem, Bilal; Fai Kait, Chong

    2017-01-01

    The catalytic activity of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanowires under the influence of magnetic field on urea synthesis is considered green. The adsorption and subsequent dissociative reaction of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases on the α-Fe 2 O 3 (111) nanowires were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The average adsorption energy is −4.12 kcal/mole at different sites. The adsorption of gases resulted in a difference in density and net spin of electrons from 68 to 120 and 0–21 respectively. In addition, it induces magnetic moment value of 36.33 µB, which confirms the enhanced magnetic behaviour of hematite. α-Fe 2 O 3 nanowires (NWs) synthesized by heating iron wire in a box furnace at (750−800) °C and as synthesized α-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles (NPs) were received to use as a catalyst in the magnetic reaction of urea synthesis. X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) confirms the peaks of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe 2 O 3 and Raman spectrum analyses confirms the α-Fe 2 O 3 peaks at 410 cm −1 , 500 cm −1 and 616 cm −1 . The needle-like shape of hematite nanowires with length ranging from 16–25) μm and diameter from 74 to 145 nm confirmed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The magnetic properties of the nanowires exhibited different levels of saturation magnetization, for α-Fe 2 O 3 perpendicularly aligned direction (13.18 emu/g) and random direction (10.73 emu/g). Urea synthesis was done under magnetic field ranges from 0.0 to 2.5 T. The activation energy of α-Fe 2 O 3 NWs for urea production is lower than NPs in the range of 0–1 T, whereas it is reversed for higher magnetic induction values. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of urea at the peaks of 1690–1600 cm −1 . This green urea employing magnetically induced method could be a contender to the Haber-Bosch process currently used by the current industry which utilizes high temperature and high pressure

  16. GREEN GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu

    2013-01-01

    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 'green valley' galaxies at 0.2 + color is used to define 'green valley'; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M 20 planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ 10 ) distributions at z > 0.7. At z * 10.0 M ☉ green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M * 10.0 M ☉ blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5

  17. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Ching-Hsun Chang; Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green min...

  18. Green's function approach to neutron flux discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, E.A.; El-Wakil, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the presentation of analytical method for the calculation of elastically and inelastically slowed down neutrons in an infinite non-absorbing medium. On the basis of the central limit theory (CLT) and the integral transform technique the slowing down equation including inelastic scattering, in terms of the Green function of elastic scattering, is solved. The Green function is decomposed according to the number of collisions. Placzec discontinuity associated with elastic scattering in addition to two discontinuities due to inelastic scattering are investigated. Numerical calculations for Fe 56 show that the elastic discontinuity produces about 41.8% change in the collision density whilst the ratio of the inelastic collision density discontinuity at qsub(o)sup(+) to the Placzec discontinuity at usub(o) + 1n 1/oc gives 55.7 percent change. (author)

  19. EVIDENCE FOR ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. DETAILED PHOTOIONIZATION MODELING OF Fe K-SHELL ABSORPTION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Dadina, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s –1 and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from ∼10,000 km s –1 (∼0.03c) up to ∼100,000 km s –1 (∼0.3c), with a peak and mean value of ∼42,000 km s –1 (∼0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log ξ ∼ 3-6 erg s –1 cm, with a mean value of log ξ ∼ 4.2 erg s –1 cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N H ∼ 10 22 -10 24 cm –2 , with a mean value of N H ∼ 10 23 cm –2 . We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected

  20. Blue-green photoluminescence in MCM-41 mesoporous nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, J L; Lui, Y L; Cheng, P W; Cheng, C F

    2003-01-01

    Different photoluminescence (PL) techniques have been used to study the blue-green emission from siliceous MCM-41 nanotubes. It was found that the intensity of the blue-green PL is enhanced by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). This enhancement is explained by the generation of twofold-coordinated Si centres and non-bridging oxygen hole centres, in line with the surface properties of MCM-41. On the basis of the analysis of the PL following RTA, polarized PL, and PL excitation, we suggest that the triplet-to-singlet transition of twofold-coordinated silicon centres is responsible for the blue-green PL in MCM-41 nanotubes. (letter to the editor)

  1. Accurate thermometry based on the red and green fluorescence intensity ratio in NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals for bioapplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Qin, Feng; Lv, Tianquan; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-10-15

    A biological temperature measurement method based on the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) was developed to reduce uncertainty. The upconversion luminescence of NaYF4:Yb, Er nanocrystals was studied as a function of temperature around the physiologically relevant range of 300-330 K. We found that the green-green FIR Fe and red-green FIR (I660/I540) varied linearly as temperature increased. The thermometric uncertainties using the two FIRs were discussed and were determined to be almost constant at 0.6 and 0.09 K for green-green and red-green, respectively. The lower thermometric uncertainty comes from the intense signal-to-noise ratio of the measured FIRs owing to their comparable fluorescence intensities.

  2. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Santoso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawanggede Village, Lowokwaru Sub-district, Malang City. The sampling method used nonprobability accidential sampling techniques. The numbers of respondents were 113 consumers in study site. Data were collected by interview using questionnaires. The method of analysis used Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA. The analysis showed that the green packaging, green products, and green advertising had positive significant influence on consumer perceptions. Meanwhile, green product and consumer perception had positive significant influence on purchasing interest, but the green packaging and green advertising has not found sufficient evidence in influencing purchasing intention.

  3. An X-ray survey of the central molecular zone: Variability of the Fe Kα emission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, R.; Clavel, M.; Soldi, S.; Goldwurm, A.; Ponti, G.; Morris, M. R.; Chuard, D.

    2018-05-01

    There is now abundant evidence that the luminosity of the Galactic super-massive black hole (SMBH) has not always been as low as it is nowadays. The observation of varying non-thermal diffuse X-ray emission in molecular complexes in the central 300 pc has been interpreted as delayed reflection of a past illumination by bright outbursts of the SMBH. The observation of different variability timescales of the reflected emission in the Sgr A molecular complex can be well explained if the X-ray emission of at least two distinct and relatively short events (i.e. about 10 yr or less) is currently propagating through the region. The number of such events or the presence of a long-duration illumination are open questions. Variability of the reflected emission all over of the central 300 pc, in particular in the 6.4 keV Feline, can bring strong constraints. To do so we performed a deep scan of the inner 300 pc with XMM-Newton in 2012. Together with all the archive data taken over the course of the mission, and in particular a similar albeit more shallow scan performed in 2000-2001, this allows for a detailed study of variability of the 6.4 keV line emission in the region, which we present here. We show that the overall 6.4 keV emission does not strongly vary on average, but variations are very pronounced on smaller scales. In particular, most regions showing bright reflection emission in 2000-2001 significantly decrease by 2012. We discuss those regions and present newly illuminated features. The absence of bright steady emission argues against the presence of an echo from an event of multi-centennial duration and most, if not all, of the emission can likely be explained by a limited number of relatively short (i.e. up to 10 yr) events. Images of the Fe Kα emission as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/612/A102

  4. GREEN GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu, E-mail: panzz@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn [Center of Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2013-10-10

    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 'green valley' galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS field. The bimodality of dust-corrected NUV–r {sup +} color is used to define 'green valley'; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M{sub 20} planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ{sub 10}) distributions at z > 0.7. At z < 0.7, the fractions of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5.

  5. Constraining Line-of-sight Confusion in the Corona Using Linearly Polarized Observations of the Infrared FeXIII 1075nm and SiX 1430nm Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, G. I.; Kuhn, J. R.; Berdyugina, S.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of the coronal magnetic field are difficult because of the intrinsically faint emission of coronal plasma and the large spurious background due to the bright solar disk. This work addresses the problem of resolving the confusion of the line-of-sight (LOS) integration through the optically-thin corona being observed. Work on developing new measuring techniques based on single-point inversions using the Hanle effect has already been described (Dima et al. 2016). It is important to develop a technique to assess when the LOS confusion makes comparing models and observations problematic. Using forward integration of synthetic emission through magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models together with simultaneous linearly polarized observations of the FeXIII 1075nm and SiX 1430nm emission lines allows us to assess LOS confusion. Since the lines are both in the Hanle saturated regime their polarization angles are expected to be aligned as long as the gas is sampling the same magnetic field. If significant contributions to the emission is taking place from different regions along the LOS due to the additive nature of the polarized brightness the measured linear polarization between the two lines will be offset. The size of the resolution element is important for this determination since observing larger coronal regions will confuse the variation along the LOS with that in the plane-of-sky. We also present comparisons between synthetic linearly polarized emission through a global MHD model and observations of the same regions obtained using the 0.5m Scatter-free Observatory for Limb Active Regions and Coronae (SOLARC) telescope located on Haleakala, Maui. This work is being done in preparation for the type of observations that will become possible when the next generation 4m DKIST telescope comes online in 2020.

  6. Characterisation of sub-micrometre features with the FE-EPMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiggen, P.

    2014-03-01

    The goal of this work is to compare two strategies for doing sub-micrometre analyses using the Fe-Ni binary system, as an example. The first approach involves reducing the overvoltage to 1 - 3 kV over the critical ionisation energy of the K X-ray lines. Using such a small overvoltage greatly restricts the size of the analytical volume. Upon entering the sample, the beam electrons quickly lose the additional energy required to excite the X-rays of interest. As a result, the K X-ray line for Fe and Ni will only be produced very near the surface. The second strategy is to use the L-lines for Fe and Ni, and drop the accelerating voltage to a level that will produce the smallest overall interaction volume of the beam electrons. Each strategy has its advantages and disadvantages that depend on the ultimate goal of the analysis and the elements involved. Both methods produce small analytical volumes. However, the L-lines from the transition elements are more problematic because of uncertainties with their mass absorption coefficients. Therefore, using the L-lines in low-kV analyses are more challenging to get good quantitative results. The advantage of using L-lines is that they travel a shorter distance within the sample, and therefore secondary fluorescence becomes less of an issue. The best results will come from a combination of these strategies. Using a multiple kV approach allows the user to select the optimum conditions for each element.

  7. Green's functions of one-dimensional quasicrystal bi-material with piezoelectric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liangliang [College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Sinomatech Wind Power Blade Co., Ltd, Beijing 100092 (China); Wu, Di [College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Wenshuai [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Lianzhi [Civil and Environmental Engineering School, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ricoeur, Andreas; Wang, Zhibin [Institute of Mechanics, University of Kassel, 34125 Kassel (Germany); Gao, Yang, E-mail: gaoyangg@gmail.com [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-09-16

    Based on the Stroh formalism of one-dimensional quasicrystals with piezoelectric effect, the problems of an infinite plane composed of two different quasicrystal half-planes are taken into account. The solutions of the internal and interfacial Green's functions of quasicrystal bi-material are obtained. Moreover, numerical examples are analyzed for a quasicrystal bi-material subjected to line forces or line dislocations, showing the contour maps of the coupled fields. The impacts of changing material constants on the coupled field components are investigated. - Highlights: • Green's functions of 1D piezoelectric quasicrystal bi-material are studied. • The coupled fields subjected to line forces or line dislocations are obtained. • Mechanical behavior under the effect of different material constants is researched.

  8. Analyais of solar X-ray emission line profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burek, A.J.; Marrus, D.M.; Blake, R.L.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    We report results of the analysis of the X-ray emission line profiles for the Ne X La and Fe XVII 4d 1 P 1 lines produced in an active region that was undergoing a radio and X-ray gradual rise and fall (GRF) in intensity. The spectra were obtained with collimated Bragg spectrometers launched on a rocket from White Sands Missile Range on 1976 March 26. Using a crystal of ammonium acid phthalate, we have fully resolved the Ne X La and Fe XVII 4d 1 P 1 lines, permitting an accurate determinination of the Ne X La intensity and allowing Doppler broadened profiles for lines formed from ions having greatly different atomic mass and charge to be measured. An isothermal model derived from the Ne IX/Ne X resonance line intensity ratio gives an electron temperature of 3.4 x 10 6 K. An isothermal model, however, fails to account for the intensities of all lines and continuum observed. All multitemperature models that do reproduce the observed relative line intensities require the presence of a hot plasma component with an electron temperature in excess of 5 x 10 6 K. The presence of a high temperature component is also suggested by the measured line to continuum ratio of 3.6 in the 12--15 A wavelength interval. Interpretation of the line profiles in terms of a multitemperature model requires an rms turbulence velocity of 48 +- 15 km s -1 for Fe XVII 1 P 1 and 74 +- 54 km s - 2exclamation for Ne X La at the 95% confidence level. Collimated scans across the active region show the presence of a compact source of intense X-ray emission close to the magnetic neutral line, which is very probably the GRF plasma

  9. Green synthesis of soya bean sprouts-mediated superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Shen Yuhua, E-mail: s_yuhua@163.co [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xie Anjian, E-mail: anjx@163.co [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li Shikuo; Wang Xiufang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were first synthesized via soya bean sprouts (SBS) templates under ambient temperature and normal atmosphere. The reaction process was simple, eco-friendly, and convenient to handle. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The effect of SBS template on the formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that spherical Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm simultaneously formed on the epidermal surface and the interior stem wall of SBS. The SBS are responsible for size and morphology control during the whole formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. In addition, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) results indicate the products are superparamagnetic at room temperature, with blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of 150 K and saturation magnetization of 37.1 emu/g.

  10. A Survey of X-Ray Variability in Seyfert 1 Galaxies with XMM-Newton to study the soft excess and the broad Fe lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Gabriele

    The nature of the soft excess and the presence of the broad Fe lines is still nowadays highly debated because the different absorption/emission models are degenerate. Spectral variability studies have the potential to break this degeneracy. I will present the results of a spectral variability RMS survey of the 36 brightest type 1 Seyfert galaxies observed by XMM-Newton for more than 30 ks. More than 80 as already measured, on longer timescales, with RXTE (Markowitz et al. 2004). About half of the sample show lower variability in the soft energy band, indicating that the emission from the soft excess is more stable than the one of the continuum. While the other sources show a soft excess that is as variable as the continuum. About half of the sample do not show an excess of variability where the warm absorber component imprints its stronger features, suggesting that for these sources the soft excess is not produced by a relativistic absorbing wind. In a few bright and well exposed sources it has been possible to measure an excess of variability at the energy of the broad component of the Fe K line, in agreement with the broad emission line interpretation. For the sources where more than one observation was available the stability of the shape of the RMS spectrum has been investigated. Moreover, it will be presented the results of the computation of the excess variance of all the radio quiet type 1 AGN of the XMM-Newton database. The relations between variability, black hole mass, accretion rate and luminosity are investigated and their scatter measured.

  11. Optical Variability of Narrow-line and Broad-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Stalin, C. S.

    2017-06-01

    We studied the optical variability (OV) of a large sample of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLSy1) galaxies with z anti-correlated with Fe II strength but correlated with the width of the Hβ line. The well-known anti-correlation of variability-luminosity and the variability-Eddington ratio is present in our data. Among the radio-loud sample, variability amplitude is found to be correlated with radio-loudness and radio-power, suggesting that jets also play an important role in the OV in radio-loud objects, in addition to the Eddington ratio, which is the main driving factor of OV in radio-quiet sources.

  12. Evidence for Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Quiet AGNs. 2; Detailed Photoionization Modeling of Fe K-Shell Absorption Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Clapp, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet AGNs. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000km/s and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blue shifted FeK absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. In the present paper we report a detailed curve of growth analysis and directly model the FeK absorbers with the Xstar photo-ionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35%. The outflow velocity distribution spans from \\sim10,000km/s (\\sim0.03c) up to \\siml00,000kmis (\\sim0.3c), with a peak and mean value of\\sim42,000km/s (\\sim0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log\\xi 3-6 erg s/cm, with a mean value of log\\xi 4.2 erg s/cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N_H\\siml0(exp 22)-10(exp 24)/sq cm, with a mean value of N_H\\siml0(exp23)/sq cm. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected cosmological feedback from AGNs and their study can provide important clues on the connection between accretion disks, winds and jets.

  13. Urban Green Network Design: Defining green network from an urban planning perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tulisi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available From the theoretical context of Smart City various studies have emerged that adopt an analytical approach and description of urban phenomena based on the principles of “network design”; this line of research uses the network systems theory to define the principles that regulate the relationships among the various elements of urban sub-systems in order to optimize their functionality. From the same theoretical basis, urban greenspaces have also been studied as networks, by means of the creation of models capable of measuring the performance of the system in its entirety, posing the basis of a new multy-disciplinary research field called green network. This paper presents the results of research aimed at clarifying the meaning of green network from an urban planning perspective through a lexical analysis applied to a textual corpus of more than 300 abstracts of research papers that have dealt with this topic over the last twenty years. The results show that the concept of green network appears still fuzzy and unclear, due to the different meaning given to the term “green” and to an incorrect use of the term “network”, often referred to as a generic set of natural areas present in a city, without any reference to the network system theory or to the basic rules linking these elements together. For this reason, the paper proposes a unique definition of green network from an urban planning perspective that takes into account the contribution of other research areas to effective green infrastructure planning. This is the concept of “urban green network design” defined as “an urban planning practice, supported by decision support tools able to model green infrastructure as network, composed by natural and semi-natural areas, whose connections are modelled according to specific variables, in order to deliver an equal distribution of public services for enhancing the quality of life as well as a wide range of ecosystem services”.

  14. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Santoso; Rengganis Fitriani

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawangg...

  15. Local hydrated structure of an Fe2+/Fe3+ aqueous solution: an investigation using a combination of molecular dynamics and X-ray absorption fine structure methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Qing; Zhou Jing; Zhao Haifeng; Chen Xing; Chu Wangsheng; Zheng Xusheng; Marcelli, Augusto; Wu Ziyu

    2013-01-01

    The hydrated shell of both Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ aqueous solutions are investigated by using the molecular dynamics (MD) and X-ray absorption structure (XAS) methods. The MD simulations show that the first hydrated shells of both Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ are characterized by a regular octahedron with an Fe-O distance of 2.08Å for Fe 2+ and 1.96Å for Fe 3+ , and rule out the occurrence of a Jahn-Teller distortion in the hydrated shell of an Fe 2+ aqueous solution. The corresponding X-ray absorption near edge fine structure (XANES) calculation successfully reproduces all features in the XANES spectra in Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ aqueous solution. A feature that is located at energy 1 eV higher than the white line (WL) in an Fe 3+ aqueous solution may be assigned to the contribution of the charge transfer. (authors)

  16. Unshifted Metastable He I* Mini-broad Absorption Line System in the Narrow-line Type 1 Quasar SDSS J080248.18+551328.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tuo; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Tinggui; Ge, Jian; Wang, Huiyuan; Komossa, S.; Hamann, Fred; Zuther, Jens; Liu, Wenjuan; Lu, Honglin; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Chenwei; Yuan, Weimin

    2015-02-01

    We report the identification of an unusual absorption-line system in the quasar SDSS J080248.18+551328.9 and present a detailed study of the system, incorporating follow-up optical and near-IR spectroscopy. A few tens of absorption lines are detected, including He I*, Fe II*, and Ni II*, which arise from metastable or excited levels, as well as resonant lines in Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, Mn II, and Ca II. All of the isolated absorption lines show the same profile of width Δv ~ 1500 km s-1 centered at a common redshift as that of the quasar emission lines, such as [O II], [S II], and hydrogen Paschen and Balmer series. With narrow Balmer lines, strong optical Fe II multiplets, and weak [O III] doublets, its emission-line spectrum is typical for that of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1). We have derived reliable measurements of the gas-phase column densities of the absorbing ions/levels. Photoionization modeling indicates that the absorber has a density of n H ~ (1.0-2.5) × 105 cm-3 and a column density of N H ~ (1.0-3.2) × 1021 cm-2 and is located at R ~100-250 pc from the central supermassive black hole. The location of the absorber, the symmetric profile of the absorption lines, and the coincidence of the absorption- and emission-line centroid jointly suggest that the absorption gas originates from the host galaxy and is plausibly accelerated by stellar processes, such as stellar winds and/or supernova explosions. The implications for the detection of such a peculiar absorption-line system in an NLS1 are discussed in the context of coevolution between supermassive black hole growth and host galaxy buildup.

  17. Temperature dependence of the magnetic excitation spectrum of Dy2Fe14B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewenhaupt, M.; Fabi, P.; Sosnowska, I.; Frick, B.; Eccleston, R.

    1995-01-01

    We present inelastic magnetic neutron scattering spectra of polycrystalline Dy 2 Fe 14 B measured between 2 and 650 K employing different time-of-flight spectrometers. At the lowest temperatures we can identify in the magnetic excitation spectra the following features: (i) a dominant line at Δ=12 meV with a shoulder at 11.1 meV, and (ii) two weak lines at 3.8 and 5.5 meV. The temperature dependence of the average position Δ of the dominant line follows roughly the temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization of Y 2 Fe 14 B indicating that the energy of this mode is substantially fixed by the molecular fields of the surrounding Fe moments. Slight deviations, however, indicate that the Dy level spacing is not equidistant due to crystal field effects. ((orig.))

  18. Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes Using Iron Forbidden Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.

    2016-05-01

    In this Letter, we present Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Fe xxi 1354.08 Å forbidden line emission of two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that caused two fast coronal mass ejections with velocities of ≥1000 km s-1 and strong flares (X1.6 and M6.5) on 2014 September 10 and 2015 June 22, respectively. The extreme-ultraviolet images at the 131 and 94 Å passbands provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal that both MFRs initially appear as suspended hot channel-like structures. Interestingly, part of the MFRs is also visible in the Fe xxi 1354.08 forbidden line, even prior to the eruption, e.g., for the SOL2014-09-10 event. However, the line emission is very weak and that only appears at a few locations but not the whole structure of the MFRs. This implies that the MFRs could be comprised of different threads with different temperatures and densities, based on the fact that the formation of the Fe xxi forbidden line requires a critical temperature (˜11.5 MK) and density. Moreover, the line shows a non-thermal broadening and a blueshift in the early phase. It suggests that magnetic reconnection at that time has initiated; it not only heats the MFR and, at the same time, produces a non-thermal broadening of the Fe xxi line but also produces the poloidal flux, leading to the ascension of the MFRs.

  19. SPECTROSCOPIC DIAGNOSTICS OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES USING IRON FORBIDDEN LINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we present Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Fe xxi 1354.08 Å forbidden line emission of two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that caused two fast coronal mass ejections with velocities of ≥1000 km s"−"1 and strong flares (X1.6 and M6.5) on 2014 September 10 and 2015 June 22, respectively. The extreme-ultraviolet images at the 131 and 94 Å passbands provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal that both MFRs initially appear as suspended hot channel-like structures. Interestingly, part of the MFRs is also visible in the Fe xxi 1354.08 forbidden line, even prior to the eruption, e.g., for the SOL2014-09-10 event. However, the line emission is very weak and that only appears at a few locations but not the whole structure of the MFRs. This implies that the MFRs could be comprised of different threads with different temperatures and densities, based on the fact that the formation of the Fe xxi forbidden line requires a critical temperature (∼11.5 MK) and density. Moreover, the line shows a non-thermal broadening and a blueshift in the early phase. It suggests that magnetic reconnection at that time has initiated; it not only heats the MFR and, at the same time, produces a non-thermal broadening of the Fe xxi line but also produces the poloidal flux, leading to the ascension of the MFRs.

  20. SPECTROSCOPIC DIAGNOSTICS OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES USING IRON FORBIDDEN LINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D., E-mail: xincheng@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-05-20

    In this Letter, we present Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Fe xxi 1354.08 Å forbidden line emission of two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that caused two fast coronal mass ejections with velocities of ≥1000 km s{sup −1} and strong flares (X1.6 and M6.5) on 2014 September 10 and 2015 June 22, respectively. The extreme-ultraviolet images at the 131 and 94 Å passbands provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal that both MFRs initially appear as suspended hot channel-like structures. Interestingly, part of the MFRs is also visible in the Fe xxi 1354.08 forbidden line, even prior to the eruption, e.g., for the SOL2014-09-10 event. However, the line emission is very weak and that only appears at a few locations but not the whole structure of the MFRs. This implies that the MFRs could be comprised of different threads with different temperatures and densities, based on the fact that the formation of the Fe xxi forbidden line requires a critical temperature (∼11.5 MK) and density. Moreover, the line shows a non-thermal broadening and a blueshift in the early phase. It suggests that magnetic reconnection at that time has initiated; it not only heats the MFR and, at the same time, produces a non-thermal broadening of the Fe xxi line but also produces the poloidal flux, leading to the ascension of the MFRs.

  1. Fabry-Perot observations of [FeX] in the Cygnus Loop and IC443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, J.; Rothenflug, R.; Soutoul, A.; Caplan, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present the first results of an observational program of SNRs in the coronal lines of [FeX] and [FeXIV] using Fabry--Perot spectrophotometer. These support previously published brightnesses

  2. High-resolution H-band spectroscopy of Be stars with SDSS-III/apogee. I. New Be stars, line identifications, and line profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steven R.; Hall, Matthew; Beaton, Rachael; Burton, Adam; Damke, Guillermo; Wilson, John; Whelan, David G.; Wisniewski, John P.; Shetrone, Matthew; Eikenberry, Steve; Hasselquist, Sten; Holtzman, Jon A.; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has amassed the largest ever collection of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R∼22,500), H-band spectra for B-type emission line (Be) stars. These stars were targeted by APOGEE as telluric standard stars and subsequently identified via visual inspection as Be stars based on H i Brackett series emission or shell absorption in addition to otherwise smooth continua and occasionally non-hydrogen emission features. The 128/238 APOGEE Be stars for which emission had never previously been reported serve to increase the total number of known Be stars by ∼6%. Because the H band is relatively unexplored compared to other wavelength regimes, we focus here on identification of the H-band lines and analysis of the emission peak velocity separations (Δv p ) and emission peak intensity ratios (V/R) of the usually double-peaked H i and non-hydrogen emission lines. H i Br11 emission is found to preferentially form in the circumstellar disks at an average distance of ∼2.2 stellar radii. Increasing Δv p toward the weaker Br12–Br20 lines suggests these lines are formed interior to Br11. By contrast, the observed IR Fe ii emission lines present evidence of having significantly larger formation radii; distinctive phase lags between IR Fe ii and H i Brackett emission lines further supports that these species arise from different radii in Be disks. Several emission lines have been identified for the first time including C i 16895, a prominent feature in the spectra for almost a fifth of the sample and, as inferred from relatively large Δv p compared to the Br11–Br20, a tracer of the inner regions of Be disks. Emission lines at 15760 Å and 16781 Å remain unidentified, but usually appear along with and always have similar line profile morphology to Fe ii 16878. Unlike the typical metallic lines observed for Be stars in the optical, the H-band metallic lines, such as Fe ii 16878, never exhibit any evidence of

  3. An X- and Q-band Fe{sup 3+} EPR study of nanoparticles of magnetic semiconductor Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Sushil K., E-mail: skmisra@alcor.concordia.ca [Physics Department, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3G 1M8 (Canada); Andronenko, S.I. [Physics Institute, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Thurber, A.; Punnoose, A. [Department of Physics, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725-1570 (United States); Nalepa, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Energie Konversion, Stifstrasse 34-36, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    EPR studies on two types of nanoparticles of Fe{sup 3+} doped, 0.1–10%, ZnO, NL and QJ, prepared using similar chemical hydrolysis methods, in diethylene glycol, and in denatured ethanol solutions, respectively, were carried out at X-band (∼9.5 GHz) at 77 K and at Q-band (∼34.0 GHz) at 10, 80, and 295 K. To interpret the experimental results, EPR spectra were simulated by exact diagonalization of the spin-Hamiltonian matrix to identify the Fe ions at different magnetically active sites in these samples. The simulation for NL samples revealed that they contained (i) Fe{sup 3+} ions, which substituted for Zn ions, the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameter which has a large distribution over the sample due to oxygen vacancies in the second coordination sphere; (ii) EPR signal from surface oxygen defects; and (iii) ferromagnetically (FM) coupled Fe ions with concentration of Fe more than 1%. The EPR spectra for QJ samples are very different from those for NL samples, exhibiting only rather intense FM EPR lines. The FM and EPR spectra in NL and/or QJ samples are found to vary strongly with differences in the surface morphology of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • X and Q band EPR studies on NL and QJ nanoparticles of Fe{sup 3+} doped ZnO at 10, 80, and 295 K. • Fe ions are present at different magnetically active sites in these samples. • NL samples consist of paramagnetic Fe{sup 3+} ions, and ferromagnetically coupled Fe ions. • QJ samples exhibit only intense ferromagnetic lines, different from QJ. • Spectra vary strongly with the surface morphology of nanoparticles.

  4. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  5. Green urea synthesis catalyzed by hematite nanowires in magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahya, Noorhana, E-mail: noorhana_yahya@petronas.com.my; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia ur; Alqasem, Bilal; Fai Kait, Chong

    2017-04-15

    The catalytic activity of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowires under the influence of magnetic field on urea synthesis is considered green. The adsorption and subsequent dissociative reaction of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases on the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (111) nanowires were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The average adsorption energy is −4.12 kcal/mole at different sites. The adsorption of gases resulted in a difference in density and net spin of electrons from 68 to 120 and 0–21 respectively. In addition, it induces magnetic moment value of 36.33 µB, which confirms the enhanced magnetic behaviour of hematite. α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires (NWs) synthesized by heating iron wire in a box furnace at (750−800) °C and as synthesized α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) were received to use as a catalyst in the magnetic reaction of urea synthesis. X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) confirms the peaks of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Raman spectrum analyses confirms the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} peaks at 410 cm{sup −1}, 500 cm{sup −1} and 616 cm{sup −1}. The needle-like shape of hematite nanowires with length ranging from 16–25) μm and diameter from 74 to 145 nm confirmed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The magnetic properties of the nanowires exhibited different levels of saturation magnetization, for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} perpendicularly aligned direction (13.18 emu/g) and random direction (10.73 emu/g). Urea synthesis was done under magnetic field ranges from 0.0 to 2.5 T. The activation energy of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs for urea production is lower than NPs in the range of 0–1 T, whereas it is reversed for higher magnetic induction values. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of urea at the peaks of 1690–1600 cm{sup −1}. This green urea employing magnetically induced method could be a contender to the Haber-Bosch process

  6. Oxide ion diffusion mechanism related to Co and Fe ions in (Ba0.5Sr0.5)(Co0.8Fe0.2)O3-δ using in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Takanori; Imai, Hideto

    2018-03-01

    The time changes of the white line and pre-edge intensities of Co and Fe K-edge in (Ba0.5Sr0.5)(Co0.8Fe0.2)O3-δ (BSCF) were observed to estimate the oxide ion diffusion related to Co and Fe ions by using in - situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) during oxidation. The 20 μm self-standing BSCF film was prepared for in - situ XAS measurements. The time changes of absorption were fitted to the exponential decay function with two terms. The longer relaxation time (τ), related to the oxide ion diffusion during the oxidation of BSCF, is dependent on temperature. The oxide ion diffusion coefficients (D) were calculated from the τ s estimated by in - situ XAS. The values of the activation energy (Ea) for D related to Co K-edge white line, Co pre-edge, and Fe pre-edge were 1.8-2.0 eV. The value of Ea for D related to Fe K-edge white line, however, was higher than other absorption values at approximately 2.3 eV. We discussed the oxide ion diffusion mechanism related to Co and Fe ions in BSCF using in - situ XAS.

  7. NLTE masking and the Kiev Fe I oscillator strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutten, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    This contribution serves to advertise the empirical solar-spectrum determinations of the oscillator strengths of 860 Fe I lines by Gurtovenko and Kostik (1981), by showing that these Kiev data contain just the lines needed in cool-star abundance analyses, and by explaining why they are so good. (Auth.)

  8. Linear and circular dichroism in angle resolved Fe 3p photomission. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, E.; Waddill, G.D.; Tobin, J.G.; Sterne, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Using a recently developed spin-polarized, fully relativistic, multiple scattering approach based on the layer KKR Green function method, we have reproduced the Fe 3p angle-resolved soft x-ray photoemission spectra and analyzed the associated large magnetic dichroism effects for excitation with both linearly and circularly polarized light. Comparison between theory and experiment yields a spin-orbit splitting of 1.0--1.2 eV and an exchange splitting of 0.9-- 1.0 eV for Fe 3p. These values are 50--100% larger than those hitherto obtained experimentally

  9. Secondary particles precipitates in Be-Fe alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, V. P., E-mail: vpfilippov@mephi.ru; Petrov, V. I.; Martynenko, S. S.; Salomasov, V. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Mössbauer spectra of monocrystalline Be-Fe alloy (0.85 % Fe) were obtained with the use of resonant detector after isothermal annealing at 600 °C for total duration of 2659 hours, and Mössbauer spectra of coarse-grained Be-Fe alloys (0,09-0,80 % Fe) samples were obtained after annealing at 500-600 °C for different durations. The alloys were prepared from the beryllium of different purity. Spectra of phases were fitted by a convolution equation of the three Lorentz lines. The coherent analysis of the solid solution decomposition process by means of the kinetic law classification and the secondary particles precipitate growth processes based on the diffusion models has been implemented. Nucleation on the numerous dislocation clusters and diffusion growth of the FeBe {sub 11} nano-particles are the dominant processes in the analyzed materials. The phase distribution, the incubation period and the diffusion path were obtained. The dependence between the impurity concentration and Mössbauer parameters of the phases is discussed.

  10. Secondary particles precipitates in Be-Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, V. P.; Petrov, V. I.; Martynenko, S. S.; Salomasov, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    Mössbauer spectra of monocrystalline Be-Fe alloy (0.85 % Fe) were obtained with the use of resonant detector after isothermal annealing at 600 °C for total duration of 2659 hours, and Mössbauer spectra of coarse-grained Be-Fe alloys (0,09-0,80 % Fe) samples were obtained after annealing at 500-600 °C for different durations. The alloys were prepared from the beryllium of different purity. Spectra of phases were fitted by a convolution equation of the three Lorentz lines. The coherent analysis of the solid solution decomposition process by means of the kinetic law classification and the secondary particles precipitate growth processes based on the diffusion models has been implemented. Nucleation on the numerous dislocation clusters and diffusion growth of the FeBe _1_1 nano-particles are the dominant processes in the analyzed materials. The phase distribution, the incubation period and the diffusion path were obtained. The dependence between the impurity concentration and Mössbauer parameters of the phases is discussed.

  11. Spin-polarized transport properties of Fe atomic chain adsorbed on zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z L; Chen, Y P; Xie, Y E; Zhang, M; Zhong, J X

    2011-01-01

    The spin-polarized transport properties of Fe atomic chain adsorbed on zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) are investigated using the density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We find that the Fe chain has drastic effects on spin-polarized transport properties of ZGNRs compared with a single Fe atom adsorbed on the ZGNRs. When the Fe chain is adsorbed on the centre of the ZGNR, the original semiconductor transforms into metal, showing a very wide range of spin-polarized transport. Particularly, the spin polarization around the Fermi level is up to 100%. This is because the adsorbed Fe chain not only induces many localized states but also has effects on the edge states of ZGNR, which can effectively modulate the spin-polarized transports. The spin polarization of ZGNRs is sensitive to the adsorption site of the Fe chain. When the Fe chain is adsorbed on the edge of ZGNR, the spin degeneracy of conductance is completely broken. The spin polarization is found to be more pronounced because the edge state of one edge is destroyed by the additional Fe chain. These results have direct implications for the control of the spin-dependent conductance in ZGNRs with the adsorption of Fe chains.

  12. Synthesis of well-dispersed magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in cellulose aerogels via a facile oxidative co-precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Caichao; Li, Jian

    2015-12-10

    With the increasing emphasis on green chemistry, it is becoming more important to develop environmentally friendly matrix materials for the synthesis of nanocomposites. Cellulose aerogels with hierarchical micro/nano-scale three-dimensional network beneficial to control and guide the growth of nanoparticles, are suitable as a class of ideal green nanoparticles hosts to fabricate multifunctional nanocomposites. Herein, a facile oxidative co-precipitation method was carried out to disperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the cellulose aerogels matrixes, and the cellulose aerogels were prepared from the native wheat straw based on a green NaOH/polyethylene glycol solution. The mean diameter of the well-dispersed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the hybrid aerogels is 98.5 nm. Besides, the hybrid aerogels exhibit strong magnetic responsiveness, which could be flexibly actuated by a small magnet. And this feature also makes this class of magnetic aerogels possibly useful as recyclable adsorbents and some magnetic devices. Meanwhile, the mild green preparation method could also be extended to fabricate other miscellaneous cellulose-based nanocomposites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling 13.3nm Fe XXIII Flare Emissions Using the GOES-R EXIS Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, H.; Thiemann, E.

    2017-12-01

    The solar EUV spectrum is dominated by atomic transitions in ionized atoms in the solar atmosphere. As solar flares evolve, plasma temperatures and densities change, influencing abundances of various ions, changing intensities of different EUV wavelengths observed from the sun. Quantifying solar flare spectral irradiance is important for constraining models of Earth's atmosphere, improving communications quality, and controlling satellite navigation. However, high time cadence measurements of flare irradiance across the entire EUV spectrum were not available prior to the launch of SDO. The EVE MEGS-A instrument aboard SDO collected 0.1nm EUV spectrum data from 2010 until 2014, when the instrument failed. No current or future instrument is capable of similar high resolution and time cadence EUV observation. This necessitates a full EUV spectrum model to study EUV phenomena at Earth. It has been recently demonstrated that one hot flare EUV line, such as the 13.3nm Fe XXIII line, can be used to model cooler flare EUV line emissions, filling the role of MEGS-A. Since unblended measurements of Fe XXIII are typically unavailable, a proxy for the Fe XXIII line must be found. In this study, we construct two models of this line, first using the GOES 0.1-0.8nm soft x-ray (SXR) channel as the Fe XXIII proxy, and second using a physics-based model dependent on GOES emission measure and temperature data. We determine that the more sophisticated physics-based model shows better agreement with Fe XXIII measurements, although the simple proxy model also performs well. We also conclude that the high correlation between Fe XXIII emissions and the GOES 0.1-0.8nm band is because both emissions tend to peak near the GOES emission measure peak despite large differences in their contribution functions.

  14. Green synthesis of magnetic chitosan nanocomposites by a new sol–gel auto-combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Fatemeh [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, P.O. Box. 87317–51167, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sobhani, Azam [Department of Chemistry, Kosar University of Bojnord, Bojnord, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, P.O. Box. 87317–51167, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/chitosan nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized via a new sol–gel auto-combustion route. To prepare the nanocomposites, copper ferrite (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and iron (II) oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanostructures were first prepared utilizing onion as a green reductant for the first time, and characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, IR and VSM. Then chitosan was added into the nanostructures dispersed in water. Chitosan was used to functionalize and modify the nanostructures and also to improve surface properties. The nanocomposites were also characterized by several techniques including SEM, TEM, XRD, IR and VSM. The effects of amount of onion and chitosan on the morphology and particle size of nanocomposites were evaluated. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/chitosan nanocomposites were synthesized for the first time. • A simple, low-cost and friendly route was used to synthesize the nanocomposites. • Effects of amount of onion and chitosan were investigated.

  15. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  16. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positively affects green product development performance. In addition, our findings also indicate that the relationship between proactive green innovation and green product development performance is partially mediated by green creativity. Accordingly, green creativity plays a critical role for companies to achieve a great green product development performance. However, reactive green innovation does not significantly influence green creativity and green product development performance. Companies should develop proactive green innovation rather than reactive green innovation in order to enhance their green creativity and increase their product development performance.

  17. Characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles by grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: Zuliang.chen@newcastle.edu.au; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the detailed composition and morphology of one-step green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis employing various techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed and quasi-spherical with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) provided evidence for the composition of Fe and Pd and for their species existing on the surface of Fe/Pd NPs. In addition, biomolecules in the grape leaf aqueous extract were identified but their functions are still unclear. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract such as methoxy-phenyl-oxime, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-histamine, 2-ethyl-phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, β-hydroxyquebracamine, hydroquinone, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen and some polyphenolic compounds were identified as reducing and capping agents, which were studied by Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC–MS), XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Our finding suggests a new insight into cost-effective, simple, and environmentally benign production of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs. - Graphical abstract: TEM image for the Fe/Pd NPs synthesized by grape leaf aqueous extract. - Highlights: • The one-step green synthesis of Fe/Pd nanoparticles has been systematically characterized. • TEM showed that the Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. • Active biomolecules in the grape extract were identified.

  18. Characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles by grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the detailed composition and morphology of one-step green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis employing various techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed and quasi-spherical with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) provided evidence for the composition of Fe and Pd and for their species existing on the surface of Fe/Pd NPs. In addition, biomolecules in the grape leaf aqueous extract were identified but their functions are still unclear. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract such as methoxy-phenyl-oxime, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-histamine, 2-ethyl-phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, β-hydroxyquebracamine, hydroquinone, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen and some polyphenolic compounds were identified as reducing and capping agents, which were studied by Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC–MS), XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Our finding suggests a new insight into cost-effective, simple, and environmentally benign production of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs. - Graphical abstract: TEM image for the Fe/Pd NPs synthesized by grape leaf aqueous extract. - Highlights: • The one-step green synthesis of Fe/Pd nanoparticles has been systematically characterized. • TEM showed that the Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. • Active biomolecules in the grape extract were identified.

  19. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  20. DETECTION OF REST-FRAME OPTICAL LINES FROM X-SHOOTER SPECTROSCOPY OF WEAK EMISSION-LINE QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Gallo, Elena; Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, Bin; Schneider, Donald P.; Fan, Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Wu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 15 yr, examples of exotic radio-quiet quasars with intrinsically weak or absent broad emission line regions (BELRs) have emerged from large-scale spectroscopic sky surveys. Here, we present spectroscopy of seven such weak emission line quasars (WLQs) at moderate redshifts (z = 1.4–1.7) using the X-shooter spectrograph, which provides simultaneous optical and near-infrared spectroscopy covering the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) through optical. These new observations effectively double the number of WLQs with spectroscopy in the optical rest-frame, and they allow us to compare the strengths of (weak) high-ionization emission lines (e.g., C iv) to low-ionization lines (e.g., Mg ii, Hβ, Hα) in individual objects. We detect broad Hβ and Hα emission in all objects, and these lines are generally toward the weaker end of the distribution expected for typical quasars (e.g., Hβ has rest-frame equivalent widths ranging from 15–40 Å). However, these low-ionization lines are not exceptionally weak, as is the case for high-ionization lines in WLQs. The X-shooter spectra also display relatively strong optical Fe ii emission, Hβ FWHM ≲ 4000 km s −1 , and significant C iv blueshifts (≈1000–5500 km s −1 ) relative to the systemic redshift; two spectra also show elevated UV Fe ii emission, and an outflowing component to their (weak) Mg ii emission lines. These properties suggest that WLQs are exotic versions of “wind-dominated” quasars. Their BELRs either have unusual high-ionization components, or their BELRs are in an atypical photoionization state because of an unusually soft continuum

  1. Ascent of arches of a monochromatic corona during the eclipse on July 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delone, A B; Makarova, E A; Sikora, Yu [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Gosudarstvennyj Astronomicheskij Inst. ' ' GAISh' ' ; Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava [Czechoslovakia

    1984-04-01

    Velocities of some details of monochromatic corona on July 31, 1981, were measured in the sky plane at the west limb. The ascent of arches and plasmoids clots in the condensations with velocities of about 10 km/s were observed in the green line Fe 14lambda5303. In the red line Fe10lambda6374 the velocities of ascent of two arches were about 11-25 km/s. Each of the investigated details is seen only in one emission line and is absent bout 11-25 km/s.

  2. X-ray spectral line coincidences between fluorine VIII (and IX) and transition metal lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charatis, G.; Rockett, P.D.; Burkhalter, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy was performed in the 12 to 15 A region, recording L-shell lines from selected laser-irradiated transition metals. Line coincidences and near coincidences were identified between Fe, Cr, Mn, and Ni L-spectra, and F VIII and F IX K-shell lines. Wavelengths were determined to accuracies of 1 to 3 mA and will be utilized in selecting potential pumping candidates in future x-ray lasing schemes. High-resolution x-ray spectra were collected under controlled illumination and target conditions using 1.05 μm and 0.527 μm laser excitation with the KMS CHROMA laser

  3. Microbeam X-ray fluorescence mapping of Cu and Fe in human prostatic carcinoma cell lines using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, K.M.J.; Leitao, R.G.; Oliveira-Barros, E.G.; Oliveira, M.A.; Canellas, C.G.L.; Anjos, M.J.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: kjose@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: roberta@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: eligouveab@gmail.com, E-mail: maria_aparecida_ufrj@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: luiz.nasciutti@histo.ufrj.br, E-mail: roberta.leitao@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2017-11-01

    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem and prostate cancer continues to be one of the most common fatal cancers in men. Copper plays an important role in the aetiology and growth of tumours however, whether intratumoral copper is actually elevated in prostate cancer patients has not been established. Iron, an important trace element, plays a vital function in oxygen metabolism, oxygen uptake, and electron transport in mitochondria, energy metabolism, muscle function, and hematopoiesis. The X-ray microfluorescence technique (μXRF) is a rapid and non-destructive method of elemental analysis that provides useful elemental information about samples without causing damage or requiring extra sample preparations. This study investigated the behavior of cells in spheroids of human prostate cells, tumour cell line (DU145) and normal cell line (RWPE-1), after supplementation with zinc chloride by 24 hours using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μSRXRF). The measurements were performed with a standard geometry of 45 deg of incidence, excited by a white beam using a pixel of 25 μm and a time of 300 ms/pixel at the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results by SRμXRF showed non-uniform Cu and Fe distributions in all the spheroids analyzed. (author)

  4. Microbeam X-ray fluorescence mapping of Cu and Fe in human prostatic carcinoma cell lines using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, K.M.J.; Leitao, R.G.; Oliveira-Barros, E.G.; Oliveira, M.A.; Canellas, C.G.L.; Anjos, M.J.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Lopes, R.T.; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem and prostate cancer continues to be one of the most common fatal cancers in men. Copper plays an important role in the aetiology and growth of tumours however, whether intratumoral copper is actually elevated in prostate cancer patients has not been established. Iron, an important trace element, plays a vital function in oxygen metabolism, oxygen uptake, and electron transport in mitochondria, energy metabolism, muscle function, and hematopoiesis. The X-ray microfluorescence technique (μXRF) is a rapid and non-destructive method of elemental analysis that provides useful elemental information about samples without causing damage or requiring extra sample preparations. This study investigated the behavior of cells in spheroids of human prostate cells, tumour cell line (DU145) and normal cell line (RWPE-1), after supplementation with zinc chloride by 24 hours using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μSRXRF). The measurements were performed with a standard geometry of 45 deg of incidence, excited by a white beam using a pixel of 25 μm and a time of 300 ms/pixel at the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results by SRμXRF showed non-uniform Cu and Fe distributions in all the spheroids analyzed. (author)

  5. A study of the growth for the microalga Chlorella vulgaris by photo-bio-calorimetry and other on-line and off-line techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patino, R.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Stockar, von U.

    2007-01-01

    Calorimetry and other on-line techniques are used for the first time as complement to the traditional off-line methods in order to follow the growth of the green Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. A 2-L photo-bio-reactor was adapted from a commercial calorimeter used previously to study heterotrophic

  6. Magnetic, electrical transport and electron spin resonance studies of Fe-doped manganite LaMn0.7Fe0.3O3+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.J.; Li, Z.Q.; Yu, A.; Liu, M.L.; Li, W.R.; Li, B.L.; Wu, P.; Bai, H.L.; Jiang, E.Y.

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the magnetic, electrical transport and electron spin resonance (ESR) properties of polycrystalline Fe-doped manganite LaMn 0.7 Fe 0.3 O 3+ δ prepared by sol-gel method. A typical cluster-glass feature is presented by DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements and a sharp but shallow memory effect was observed. Symmetrical Lorentzian lines of the Mn/Fe spectra were detected above 120 K, where the sample is a paramagnetic (PM) insulator. When the temperature decreases from 120 K, magnetic clusters contributed from ferromagnetic (FM) interaction between Mn 3+ and Mn 3+ /Fe 3+ ions develop and coexist with PM phase. At lower temperature, these FM clusters compete with antiferromagnetic (AFM) ones between Fe 3+ ions, which are associated with a distinct field-cooled (FC) effect in characteristic of cluster-glass state

  7. The light-induced spin transition of tetranuclear spin crossover complex [Fe4(CN)4(bpy)4(tpa)2](PF6)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, T; Tanaka, K; Nihei, M; Oshio, H

    2009-01-01

    We report on the light induced spin transition in the tetranuclear spin crossover complex [Fe 4 (CN) 4 (bpy) 4 (tpa) 2 ](PF 6 ) 4 . The photo-conversion occurs at the specific site (Fe2) of four Fe II ions. The red light irradiation (1.79 eV) gives rise to full conversion of Fe2 into the high spin state from the low spin state. The green light irradiation (2.33 eV) can convert only the half of Fe2 into the high spin state, though the photo-conversion rate in the beginning is much higher than that with the red light. We present a simple model in which the photo-conversion kinetics is controlled by a large background absorption due to remaining three Fe II ions (Fe1, Fe3 and Fe4).

  8. THE Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: EXCITATION MECHANISMS AND LOCATION OF THE EMITTING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinello, M.; Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A.; Sigut, T. A. A.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission

  9. THE Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: EXCITATION MECHANISMS AND LOCATION OF THE EMITTING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinello, M. [Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Rua Doutor Pereira Cabral 1303, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A. [Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Rua Estados Unidos 154, Itajubá, MG, 37504-364 (Brazil); Sigut, T. A. A. [The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Pradhan, A. K., E-mail: murilo.marinello@gmail.com [McPherson Laboratory, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission.

  10. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Pd sub(3)Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnen, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this work we study the electronic and magnetic properties of the Pd sub(3)Fe alloy. For the ordered phase of Pd sub(3)Fe we employed the Linear Muffin-Tin Orbitals Method, with the atomic sphere approximation, which is a first principles method and includes spin polarization. The theoretical results for the thermal and magnetic properties show good agreement with experience. Here we explain the formation of the localized magnetic moments from completely itinerant electrons. We investigate the influence of the hydrogen in the physical properties of the compound Pd sub(3)Fe, where we obtain a drastic reduction in the magnetic moments at the Pd and Fe sites. This reduction is confirmed by experience. The self consistent potentials of the Pd sub(3)Fe compound were used for an analysis of the influence of the disorder in the electronic structure of Pd sub(3)Fe alloy. To this end, we employ a spin polarized version of the Green's Function Method with the Coherent Potential Approximation (or KKR-CPA). The results obtained show that in random ferromagnetic alloys different degrees of disorder occurs for the different spin directions. The formation of the magnetic moments in these alloys were explained from the existence of 'virtual crystal' states for spin up electrons and 'split band' states for spin down electrons. Finally we employ the muffin-tin orbitals to calculate the X-ray photoemission spectra of the Pd sub(3)Fe and Pd sub(3)FeH compounds, which allows us a direct comparison between theory and experiment. (author)

  11. Identification of green pigments from fragments of Roman mural paintings of three Roman sites from north of Germania Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, Rafaela; Simon, Rolf; Goettlicher, Joerg; Heissler, Stefan; Steininger, Ralph; Batchelor, David; Fiederle, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2016-10-01

    Roman mural green pigment painting fragments from three Roman sites in the north of the Roman province Germania Superior: Koblenz Stadtwald Remstecken (KOSR), Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann" (WEIS) and Mendig Lungenkärchen (MELU), dating from second and third centuries AD were analyzed. The experiments were performed nondestructively using synchrotron-based scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-MA-XRF), synchrotron-based scanning micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF), synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Correlation between SR-MA-XRF, SR-μ-XRF elemental map distributions and optical images of scanned areas was mainly found for the elements Ca, Fe and K. With XRF, Fe and K were identified correlated with green pigment, but in samples from two sites, Mendig Lungenkärchen and Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann", also Cu was detected in minor concentration. The results of SR-XRD and Raman spectroscopy were limited to one sample from Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann". In this sample, green earth and calcium carbonate were identified by SR-XRD and, additionally, malachite by Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  13. Low-Light Anoxygenic Photosynthesis and Fe-S-Biogeochemistry in a Microbial Mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report extremely low-light-adapted anoxygenic photosynthesis in a thick microbial mat in Magical Blue Hole, Abaco Island, The Bahamas. Sulfur cycling was reduced by iron oxides and organic carbon limitation. The mat grows below the halocline/oxycline at 30 m depth on the walls of the flooded sinkhole. In situ irradiance at the mat surface on a sunny December day was between 0.021 and 0.084 μmol photons m-2 s-1, and UV light (<400 nm was the most abundant part of the spectrum followed by green wavelengths (475–530 nm. We measured a light-dependent carbon uptake rate of 14.5 nmol C cm-2 d-1. A 16S rRNA clone library of the green surface mat layer was dominated (74% by a cluster (>97% sequence identity of clones affiliated with Prosthecochloris, a genus within the green sulfur bacteria (GSB, which are obligate anoxygenic phototrophs. Typical photopigments of brown-colored GSB, bacteriochlorophyll e and (β-isorenieratene, were abundant in mat samples and their absorption properties are well-adapted to harvest light in the available green and possibly even UV-A spectra. Sulfide from the water column (3–6 μmol L-1 was the main source of sulfide to the mat as sulfate reduction rates in the mats were very low (undetectable-99.2 nmol cm-3 d-1. The anoxic water column was oligotrophic and low in dissolved organic carbon (175–228 μmol L-1. High concentrations of pyrite (FeS2; 1–47 μmol cm-3 together with low microbial process rates (sulfate reduction, CO2 fixation indicate that the mats function as net sulfide sinks mainly by abiotic processes. We suggest that abundant Fe(III (4.3–22.2 μmol cm-3 is the major source of oxidizing power in the mat, and that abiotic Fe-S-reactions play the main role in pyrite formation. Limitation of sulfate reduction by low organic carbon availability along with the presence of abundant sulfide-scavenging iron oxides considerably slowed down sulfur cycling in these mats.

  14. Spin-dependent electrical transport in Fe-MgO-Fe heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Shokri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, spin-dependent electrical transport properties are investigated in a single-crystal magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ which consists of two ferromagnetic Fe electrodes separated by an MgO insulating barrier. These properties contain electric current, spin polarization and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR. For this purpose, spin-dependent Hamiltonian is described for Δ1 and Δ5 bands in the transport direction. The transmission is calculated by Green's function formalism based on a single-band tight-binding approximation. The transport properties are investigated as a function of the barrier thickness in the limit of coherent tunneling. We have demonstrated that dependence of the TMR on the applied voltage and barrier thickness. Our numerical results may be useful for designing of spintronic devices. The numerical results may be useful in designing of spintronic devices.

  15. Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe₃O₄/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline) from Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guizhen; Wang, Xiaoqin; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-06-25

    Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES) based on choline chloride (ChCl) and ionic liquids (ILs) based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs), and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline) from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE). The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine) from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80%) as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc) (8:2) as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g-1 and 5.07 mg•g-1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples.

  16. Defluoridation technology for drinking water and tea by green synthesized Fe3O4/Al2O3 nanoparticles coated polyurethane foams for rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sonu; Khan, Suphiya

    2017-08-14

    Fluoride (F) contaminated ground water poses a serious public health concern to rural population with unaffordable purification technologies. Therefore, development of a cost-effective, portable, environment and user-friendly defluoridation technique is imperative. In the present study, we report on the development of a green and cost-effective method that utilizes Fe 3 O 4 and Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles (NPs) that were synthesized using jojoba defatted meal. These NPs were impregnated on to polyurethane foam (PUF) and made into tea infusion bags. The Al 2 O 3 NPs-PUF displayed a higher water defluoridation capacity of 43.47 mg g -1 of F as compared to 34.48 mg g -1 of F with Fe 3 O 4 NPs-PUF. The synthesized Al 2 O 3 -PUF infusion bags removed the F that was under the permissible limit of 1.5 mg L -1 . The sorption experiments were conducted to verify the effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, size of PUF and initial F concentration. The different properties of adsorbent were characterized using a combination of FESEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR techniques, respectively. The calculated total cost per NPs-PUF pouch developed is as low as US $0.05, which makes the technology most suitable for rural communities. This paper will be beneficial for researchers working toward further improvement in water purification technologies.

  17. An Update on the Health Benefits of Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda C. Reygaert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea, which is produced from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Over the past 30 years or more, scientists have studied this plant in respect to potential health benefits. Research has shown that the main components of green tea that are associated with health benefits are the catechins. The four main catechins found in green tea are: (−-epicatechin (EC, (−-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (−-epigallocatechin (EGC, and (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Of these four, EGCG is present in the largest quantity, and so has been used in much of the research. Among the health benefits of green tea are: anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, and benefits in cardiovascular disease and oral health. Research has been carried out using various animal models and cells lines, and is now more and more being carried out in humans. This type of research will help us to better understand the direct benefits of green tea. This review will focus primarily on research conducted using human subjects to investigate the health benefits of green tea.

  18. Umbelliprenin-coated Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles: Antiproliferation evaluation on human Fibrosarcoma cell line (HT-1080)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorramizadeh, M.R.; Esmail-Nazari, Z.; Zarei-Ghaane, Z.; Shakibaie, M.; Mollazadeh-Moghaddam, K.; Iranshahi, M.; Shahverdi, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The potential applications of Fe 3 O 4 magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) in nanomedicine as drug delivery systems are well known. In this study we prepared umbelliprenin-coated Fe 3 O 4 MNPs and evaluated the antiproliferative effect of combination in vitro. After synthesis of Fe 3 O 4 MNPs, particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy techniques. The natural candidate compound - umbelliprenin- was isolated and identified and umbelliprenin-coated Fe 3 O 4 MNPs were prepared, using precipitation method. The surface chemistry of umbelliprenin-coated Fe 3 O 4 MNPs as well as their thermal decomposition characteristics was examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analyzer equipment, respectively. HT-1080 cells were cultured until the logarithmic phase of growth, and MTT assay was successfully carried out to evaluate the possible cytotoxic effects of umbelliprenin-coated Fe 3 O 4 MNPs in viable cells in vitro. The results demonstrated that umbelliprenin has moderate antiproliferative effects with IC 50 value of 50 μg/mL. However, the combination of umbelliprenin and Fe 3 O 4 MNPs showed the IC 50 value of 9 μg/mL. In other words, cell proliferation decreased to the remarkably-low proportion of 45% after treating cells with umbelliprenin-coated Fe 3 O 4 MNPs. This suggests that with the aid of nanoparticles as carriers, natural products may have even broader range of medical applications in future.

  19. High coercivity, anisotropic, heavy rare earth-free Nd-Fe-B by Flash Spark Plasma Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Elinor; Sheridan, Richard; Zhou, Wei; Grasso, Salvatore; Walton, Allan; Reece, Michael J

    2017-09-11

    In the drive to reduce the critical Heavy Rare Earth (HRE) content of magnets for green technologies, HRE-free Nd-Fe-B has become an attractive option. HRE is added to Nd-Fe-B to enhance the high temperature performance of the magnets. To produce similar high temperature properties without HRE, a crystallographically textured nanoscale grain structure is ideal; and this conventionally requires expensive "die upset" processing routes. Here, a Flash Spark Plasma Sintering (FSPS) process has been applied to a Dy-free Nd 30.0 Fe 61.8 Co 5.8 Ga 0.6 Al 0.1 B 0.9 melt spun powder (MQU-F, neo Magnequench). Rapid sinter-forging of a green compact to near theoretical density was achieved during the 10 s process, and therefore represents a quick and efficient means of producing die-upset Nd-Fe-B material. The microstructure of the FSPS samples was investigated by SEM and TEM imaging, and the observations were used to guide the optimisation of the process. The most optimal sample is compared directly to commercially die-upset forged (MQIII-F) material made from the same MQU-F powder. It is shown that the grain size of the FSPS material is halved in comparison to the MQIII-F material, leading to a 14% increase in coercivity (1438 kA m -1 ) and matched remanence (1.16 T) giving a BH max of 230 kJ m -3 .

  20. Neon-like Iron Ion Lines Measured in NIFS/Large Helical Device (LHD) and Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hara, Hirohisa; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Morita, Shigeru; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tamura, Naoki; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-01

    Line intensities emerging from the Ne-sequence iron ion (Fe XVII) are measured in the laboratory, by the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, and in the solar corona by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode mission. The intensity ratios of Fe XVII λ 204.6/λ 254.8 are derived in the laboratory by unblending the contributions of the Fe XIII and XII line intensities. They are consistent with theoretical predictions and solar observations, the latter of which endorses the in-flight radiometric calibrations of the EIS instrument. The still remaining temperature-dependent behavior of the line ratio suggests the contamination of lower-temperature iron lines that are blended with the λ 204.6 line.

  1. Neon-like Iron Ion Lines Measured in NIFS/Large Helical Device (LHD) and Hinode /EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hara, Hirohisa [National Astronomical Observatory, National Institutes of Natural Sciences 2-21-1 Osawa Mitaka Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Morita, Shigeru [SOKENDAI (Graduate University for Advanced Studies) Hayama, Miura-gun, Kanagawa, 240-0193 (Japan); Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tamura, Naoki [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Yamamoto, Norimasa [Chubu University 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai Aichi, 487-0027 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: watanabe@uvlab.mtk.nao.ac.jp [The University of Electro-Communications 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan)

    2017-06-10

    Line intensities emerging from the Ne-sequence iron ion (Fe xvii) are measured in the laboratory, by the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, and in the solar corona by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode mission. The intensity ratios of Fe xvii λ 204.6/ λ 254.8 are derived in the laboratory by unblending the contributions of the Fe xiii and xii line intensities. They are consistent with theoretical predictions and solar observations, the latter of which endorses the in-flight radiometric calibrations of the EIS instrument. The still remaining temperature-dependent behavior of the line ratio suggests the contamination of lower-temperature iron lines that are blended with the λ 204.6 line.

  2. Arsenic mobility in brownfield soils amended with green waste compost or biochar and planted with Miscanthus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, William; Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Riby, Philip; Lepp, Nicholas W.

    2009-01-01

    Degraded land that is historically contaminated from different sources of industrial waste provides an opportunity for conversion to bioenergy fuel production and also to increase sequestration of carbon in soil through organic amendments. In pot experiments, As mobility was investigated in three different brownfield soils amended with green waste compost (GWC, 30% v/v) or biochar (BC, 20% v/v), planted with Miscanthus. Using GWC improved crop yield but had little effect on foliar As uptake, although the proportion of As transferred from roots to foliage differed considerably between the three soils. It also increased dissolved carbon concentrations in soil pore water that influenced Fe and As mobility. Effects of BC were less pronounced, but the impacts of both amendments on SOC, Fe, P and pH are likely to be critical in the context of As leaching to ground water. Growing Miscanthus had no measurable effect on As mobility. - Green waste compost enhances water-soluble iron, phosphorus and carbon, increasing arsenic mobility in soil pore water.

  3. Ni/Fe and Mg/Fe layered double hydroxides and their calcined derivatives: preparation, characterization and application on textile dyes removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Elmoubarki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Mg/Fe and Ni/Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs with molar ratio (M2+/Fe3+ of 3 and intercalated with carbonate ions were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The as-synthesized materials and their calcined products (CLDHs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA–DTA, transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX, inductively coupled plasma (ICP and elemental chemical analysis CHNSO. The materials were used as adsorbents for the removal availability of textile dyes from aqueous solution. Methylene blue (MB and malachite green (MG, representative of cationic dyes, and methyl orange (MO representative of anionic dyes were used as model molecules. Adsorption experiments were carried out under different parameters such as contact time, temperature, initial dyes concentration and solution pH. Experimental results indicate that CLDHs had much higher adsorption capacities compared to LDHs. Adsorption kinetic data fitted well the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The process was spontaneous, endothermic for cationic dyes and exothermic for the anionic dye. Equilibrium sorption data fitted the Langmuir model instead of Freundlich model.

  4. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, E.; Iglesias, O.; Pazos, M.; Sanromán, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. ► New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. ► Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2–8). Around 98–100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87–98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  5. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, E.; Iglesias, O.; Pazos, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo (Spain); Sanroman, M.A., E-mail: sanroman@uvigo.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2-8). Around 98-100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87-98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  6. New carbazole-based Schiff base: Colorimetric chemosensor for Fe{sup 3+} and fluorescent turn-on chemosensor for Fe{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Weiju; Yang, Lianlian; Fang, Min; Wu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Qing; Yin, Fangfang; Huang, Qiang; Li, Cun, E-mail: cun_li@126.com

    2015-02-15

    Two novel carbazole-based Schiff-bases L1 and L2 have been synthesized and characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. L1 can selectively detect Fe{sup 3+} by UV–vis spectroscopy and Fe{sup 3+}/Cr{sup 3+} by fluorescent spectroscopy in CH{sub 3}CN among various metal ions. The addition of Fe{sup 3+} ions to a L1 solution results in a significant blue-shift from 410 nm to 378 nm accompanied with color change from yellowish green to colorless. Upon excitation at 380 nm, the addition of Fe{sup 3+} or Cr{sup 3+} causes a 13-fold or 11-fold fluorescence enhancement. The binding stoichiometry ratio of L1–Fe{sup 3+} and L1–Cr{sup 3+} is recognized as 2:1 by the method of Job's plot, and the possible binding mode of the system also proposes. The results indicate that L1 is an ideal chemosensor for Fe{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} recognition. However, L2 without hydroxyl in ortho imino group cannot selectively recognize the tasted metal ions, indicating that the introduction of the appropriate coordination binding site to receptor can improve efficiently the selectivity of chemosensor. - Highlights: • We designed and synthesized two new carbazole-based Schiff bases L1 and L2. • L1 could selectively recognize Fe{sup 3+} but L2 could not, which suggested that increase recognition site helped to improve the selectivity of probe. • L1 not only could serve as a highly selective visual chemosensor for Fe{sup 3+} ion without the aid of any instruments, but also could be used as a fluorescent chemosensor for Fe{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+}.

  7. Green Synthesis Methods of CoFe_2O_4 and Ag-CoFe_2O_4 Nanoparticles Using Hibiscus Extracts and Their Antimicrobial Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingasu, D.; Mindru, I.; Patron, L.; Caleron-Moreno, J.M.; Mocioiu, O.C.; Preda, S.; Stanica, N.; Nita, S.; Dobre, N.; Popa, M.; Gradisteanu, G.; Chifiriuc, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The cobalt ferrite (CoFe_2O_4) and silver-cobalt ferrite (Ag-CoFe_2O_4) nanoparticles were obtained through self-combustion and wet ferritization methods using aqueous extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower and leaf. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements were used for the characterization of the obtained oxide powders. The antimicrobial activity of the cobalt ferrite and silver-cobalt ferrite nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungal strains, was investigated by qualitative and quantitative assays. The most active proved to be the Ag-CoFe_2O_4 nanoparticles, particularly those obtained through self-combustion using hibiscus leaf extract, which exhibited very low minimal inhibitory concentration values (0.031-0.062 mg/ml) against all tested microbial strains, suggesting their potential for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  8. Green Synthesis Methods of CoFe2O4 and Ag-CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles Using Hibiscus Extracts and Their Antimicrobial Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Gingasu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 and silver-cobalt ferrite (Ag-CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were obtained through self-combustion and wet ferritization methods using aqueous extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower and leaf. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements were used for the characterization of the obtained oxide powders. The antimicrobial activity of the cobalt ferrite and silver-cobalt ferrite nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungal strains, was investigated by qualitative and quantitative assays. The most active proved to be the Ag-CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, particularly those obtained through self-combustion using hibiscus leaf extract, which exhibited very low minimal inhibitory concentration values (0.031–0.062 mg/mL against all tested microbial strains, suggesting their potential for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  9. Selective binding and magnetic separation of His-tagged proteins using Fe3O4/PAM/NTA-Ni2+ Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huiling; Li, Mengyun; Tu, Shu; Sun, Honghao

    2018-03-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with polyacrylamide (PAM) were synthesized. The magnetic core, with an average hydrodynamic size of 235.5 nm, allowed the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) rapid separation from solutions under an external magnetic field. NTA-Ni2+ was modified on the surface of Fe3O4/PAM MNPs to selectively trap his-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP). The results showed that Fe3O4/PAM/NTA-Ni2+ MNPs exhibited remarkable capability of selective binding and separating his-tagged GFP. The adsorption efficiency was 93.37%.

  10. Characteristics Of The Porous Body Sintered By Nano-Sized Fe-Cr-Al Alloy Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Su-In

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Porous metal with uniform honeycomb structure was successfully produced by sintering using Fe-Cr-Al nano powder, which was prepared by the pulsed wire evaporation (PWE in ethanol. Its process consisted of the several steps; 1 coating on the surface of polyurethane sponge with the liquid droplets generated from the ethanol-based slurry where the Fe-Cr-Al nano powders were uniformly dispersed, 2 heat treatment of debinding to remove the polyurethane sponge and 3 sintering of the porous green body formed by Fe-Cr-Al nano powders. The strut thickness of porous Fe-Cr-Al was increased by the increase of spraying times in ESP step. Also, The shrinkages and the oxidation resistance of the sintered porous body was increased with increase of sintering temperature. The optimal sintering temperature was shown to 1450°C in views to maximize the oxidation resistance and sinterability.

  11. Is Green Regulation Effective or a Failure: Comparative Analysis between Bangladesh Bank (BB Green Guidelines and Global Reporting Initiative Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Kaium Masud

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Green reporting and green regulation have been commonly used in the sustainability movement. This study evaluates Bangladesh Bank’s (BB’s green regulation by considering the global reporting initiative (GRI of environmental regulation along with self-determined content to justify BB’s institutional effort in the banking sector. The analytical study has considered secondary data of all listed banks on the Dhaka Stock Exchange between 2013 to 2016. A multi-theoretical framework has been adopted in which the research is comprised of institutional, stakeholder, and legitimacy theories. Considering the analytical research, we have drawn-up a green reporting score and undertaken SWOT analysis. The results of the study have identified the narrow coverage of BB’s regulation and strategic limitations. Moreover, the findings of the study show that banking companies disclosed more green information in line with BB’s regulation. Furthermore, our analysis has found the lack of transparency of green reporting in terms of absent global reporting as well as external verification. Additionally, we have documented that BB’s regulation falls into a legitimacy threat owing to political, corporate, and social responsibility. Therefore, we concluded that for BB to overcome all possible weaknesses and threats, it should consider all possible opportunities for a holistic international reporting framework while taking into account a transparent financial sector.

  12. Caffeine: A novel green precursor for synthesis of magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and pH-sensitive magnetic alginate beads for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mahnaz; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Pardakhty, Abbas; Ahmadi, Meysam; Akbari, Ahmad

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogel beads are promising delivery systems for encapsulation and release of drugs due to the mild process of their fabrication from biopolymers. Magnetic CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles (MCFO, 9.72nm in diameter) were synthesized via a co-precipitation method using caffeine as a new environmentally friendly material in order to alkalinize the medium. Drug-targeting Magnetic beads based on CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles, sodium alginate and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPAM) were synthesized in the presence of Ca 2+ ions to obtain ionic cross-linked magnetic hydrogel beads. Nanoparticles as well as produced magnetic beads were thoroughly characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, nanosizer and VSM techniques. The swelling ratio of beads indicated pH-dependent property with maximum water absorbing at pH7.4. The in vitro release of beads exhibited significant behavior on the subject of nanoparticles concentration and alginate content. Biocompatibility of the CFO nanoparticles and MCFO/Alg beads are demonstrated through cytotoxicity test via MTT assay on U87 cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Contribution of promoting the green residence assessment scheme to energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhiyu; Yuan, Hongping; Shen, Liyin

    2012-01-01

    Green residence development has been one of the important strategies for promoting sustainable urban development. Governments throughout the world have been encouraging property developers to deliver green properties. In line with this development, governments have been implementing various assessment programs to certify green residential buildings with the aim of contributing to sustainable urban development. With reference to the Chinese construction practice, this paper examines the effectiveness of the green residence assessment scheme toward its defined aim through investigating the contents and procedures of the green residence assessment scheme by referring to the practices of Chongqing city in western China. Based on the results of five case studies and five semi-structured interviews, this study reveals the significant contribution from implementing the green residence assessment scheme particularly to energy saving in residential buildings. Further, the green residence assessment scheme promotes the application of green building materials and green construction technologies in the entire process of delivering and operating residential buildings. The findings provide valuable references for further investigating alternative methods to achieve better energy saving in developing residential buildings. - Highlights: ► Energy saving in residence development is important for sustainable urban development. ► Green residence assessment scheme contributes significantly to energy saving in residences. ► Green residence assessment promotes application of environmentally friendly building materials and technologies

  14. Degradation Kinetics of Carbon Tetrachloride by Sulfate Green Rust as Influenced by pH and Copper Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE, C2HCl3) and carbon tetrachloride (CT, CCl4) are priority groundwater contaminants at many EPA field sites. Green rust (GR) minerals are important corrosion products of zerovalent iron (Fe0) that has been used in permeable reactiv...

  15. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  16. Properties of Narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Stalin, Chelliah Subramonian; Chand, Hum; Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2018-04-01

    Narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies constitute a class of active galactic nuclei characterized by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the Hα broad emission line 10 pixel-1. A strong correlation between the Hα and Hα emission lines is found both in the FWHM and flux. The nuclear continuum luminosity is found to be strongly correlated with the luminosity of Hα, Hα and [O III] emission lines. The black hole mass in NLSy1 galaxies is lower compared to their broad line counterparts. Compared to BLSy1 galaxies, NLSy1 galaxies have a stronger FeII emission and a higher Eddington ratio that place them in the extreme upper right corner of the R4570 - λEdd diagram. The distribution of the radio-loudness parameter (R) in NLSy1 galaxies drops rapidly at R>10 compared to the BLSy1 galaxies that have powerful radio jets. The soft X-ray photon index in NLSy1 galaxies is on average higher (2.9 ± 0.9) than BLSy1 galaxies (2.4 ± 0.8). It is anti-correlated with the Hα width but correlated with the FeII strength. NLSy1 galaxies on average have a lower amplitude of optical variability compared to their broad lines counterparts. These results suggest Eddington ratio as the main parameter that drives optical variability in these sources.

  17. A methodology for on-line fatigue life monitoring of Indian nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushawaha, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most important aging effects of nuclear power plant components. Information about accumulation of fatigue helps in assessing structural degradation of the components. This assists in-service inspection and maintenance and may also support future life extension program of a plant. In the present report a methodology is being proposed for monitoring on line fatigue life of nuclear power plant components using available plant instrumentations. Major factors affecting fatigue life of a nuclear power plant components are the fluctuations of temperature, pressure and flow rate. Green's function technique is used in on line fatigue monitoring as computation time is much less than finite element method. A code has been developed which computes temperature and stress Green's functions in 2-D and axisymmetric structure by finite element method due to unit change in various fluid parameters. A post processor has also been developed which computes the temperature and stress responses using corresponding Green's functions and actual fluctuation in fluid parameters. In this post processor, the multiple site problem is solved by superimposing single site Green's function technique. It is also shown that Green's function technique is best suited for on line fatigue life monitoring of nuclear power plant components. (author). 6 refs., 43 figs

  18. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Tai-Wei Chang; Chun-Yu Lin; Pi-Yu Lai; Kuan-Hung Wang

    2016-01-01

    This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positivel...

  19. On the X-ray lines in the afterglows of GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon; De Rújula, Alvaro; Dar, Arnon; Dado, Shlomo

    2003-01-01

    The observation of X-ray lines in the afterglow of GRB 011211 has been reported, and challenged. The lines were interpreted as blue-shifted X-rays characteristic of a set of photoionized ``metals'', located in a section of a supernova shell illuminated by a GRB emitted a couple of days after the supernova explosion. We show that the most prominent reported lines coincide with the ones predicted in the ``cannonball'' model of GRBs. In this model, the putative signatures are Hydrogen lines, boosted by the (highly relativistic) motion of the cannonballs (CBs). The corresponding Doppler boost can be extracted from the fit to the observed I-, R- and V-band light-curves of the optical afterglow of GRB 011211, so that, since the redshift is also known, the line energies are --in the CB model-- absolute predictions. We also discuss other GRBs of known redshift which show spectral features generally interpreted as Fe lines, or Fe recombination edges. The ensemble of results is very encouraging from the CB-model's poin...

  20. Imports as a major complication: liberalisation of the green electricity market in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijnders, L.

    2002-01-01

    Liberalisation of the green electricity market in the Netherlands has proceeded in a context of relatively generous fiscal incentives and in line with the position that demand is the limiting factor to Dutch green electricity production. The main result was a massive rise of imports partly covered by Renewable Energy Credits and partly virtual in nature, whereas the domestic expansion of green electricity production remained limited. This shows the importance of a supply side focus in designing policies aimed at the expansion of domestic green electricity production in the context of a common market with different incentives in place. (Author)

  1. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  2. The local structure and magnetic interactions between Fe3+ and V4+ ions in lithium–phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronache, Constantin I.

    2012-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) provides a useful tool not only as a probe of local structure and short range order in glasses, but also of magnetic interactions in the glasses containing suitable magnetic ions. We have analyzed the spectra of xFe 2 O 3 ·(100 − x)[P 2 O 5 ·Li 2 O] and x(Fe 2 O 3 ·V 2 O 5 )·(100 − x)[P 2 O 5 ·Li 2 O] glass systems, with 0 2 O 5 ·Li 2 O] stands for 50Li 2 O·50P 2 O 5 glass composition. For samples x > 50 mol % a study indicates the presence of crystalline α Fe 2 O 3 in the glasses. Observed spectra have resonance lines centered at g ∼ 4.3 and g ∼ 2.0 typical for Fe 3+ and V 4+ ions present in the oxide glasses. For low contend of transition metal (TM) oxides (Fe 2 O 3 or V 2 O 5 ·Fe 2 O 3 ) the spectra present a hyperfine structure typical for isolated V 4+ ions. With the increasing of TM content, the EPR absorption signal showing hyperfine structure superposed by a broad line without hyperfine structure characteristic for clustered ions. At high TM content, the vanadium hyperfine structure disappears and only the broad line can be observed in the spectra. -- Highlights: ► Lithium phosphate glass with Fe and V ions were investigated by means of EPR. ► The composition dependence of line intensity were investigated. ► The spin Hamiltonian parameters for VO 2+ were evaluated.

  3. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green on the kidney and gill cell lines of freshwater air breathing fish Channa striata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Vimal, S; Venkatesan, C; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-12-01

    The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green (MG) was investigated using the fish Channa striata kidney (CSK) and Channa striata gill (CSG) cell lines. Five concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 10 μg mL(-1) were tested in three independent experiments. Cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Rhodamine 123 and Alamar Blue. The mitochondrial changes and apoptosis of MG-exposed cells were observed by Rhodamine 123 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, respectively. In vitro potential DNA damaging effect of MG was tested using comet assay. Mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and DNA fragmentation increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, DNA electrophoretic mobility experiments were carried out to study the binding effect of MG to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) of cells. DNA shift mobility experiments showed that MG is capable of strongly binding to linear dsDNA causing its degradation. Biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (MDA), catalase (CAT) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated after exposure to MG. In CSK and CSG cell lines exposed to MG for 48 h, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, which might be associated with decreased levels of reduced glutathione and catalase activity in these cell lines (p < 0.001), was observed.

  4. What Is Green Growth Strategy for Government Link Company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilah Asha'ari, Maryam; Daud, Salina; Hassan, Hasmaizan

    2016-03-01

    Disasters around the world are very extreme because of the global warming and climate change. Malaysia firms have to play their role in handling the challenging of environmental problems in order to sustain. The feature of the new strategy which is green growth strategy has been identified. The study focuses on the features of the green growth strategy which discuss on the keys to sustaining the strategy, marketing emphasis, production emphasis, product line, basis of competitive advantage and strategic target. Business had contributed to the industrialisation era positively or negatively and therefore there is a must for business people to use the best strategy in reducing the environmental risks. By 2020, Malaysia will achieve the target in becoming an advanced economy by applying the right strategy. The objective of this paper is to propose a feature for new strategy known as green growth strategy. Future study is to propose to conduct an empirical analysis to confirm the green growth strategy features.

  5. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  6. A green roof experimental site in the Mediterranean climate: the storm water quality issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnecco, Ilaria; Palla, Anna; Lanza, Luca G; La Barbera, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, the University of Genoa has been carrying out a monitoring programme to investigate the hydrologic response of green roofs in the Mediterranean climate by installing a green roof experimental site. In order to assess the influence of green roofs on the storm water runoff quality, water chemistry data have been included in the monitoring programme since 2010, providing rainfall and outflow data. For atmospheric source, the bulk deposition is collected to evaluate the role of the overall atmospheric deposition in storm water runoff quality. For subsurface outflow, a maximum of 24 composite samples are taken on an event basis, thus aiming at a full characterization of the outflow hydrograph. Water chemistry data reveal that the pollutant loads associated with green roof outflow is low; in particular, solids and metal concentrations are lower than values generally observed in storm water runoff from traditional rooftops. The concentration values of chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, Fe, Ca and K measured in the subsurface outflow are significantly higher than those observed in the bulk deposition (p green roof behaviour as a sink/source of pollutants is investigated based on both concentration and mass.

  7. Designed Urban Greens - A critical study of the experience of the High Line Park and Under the Crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Ebbensgaard, Casper Laing

    2013-01-01

    Recent examples of designed urban greens have changed the aesthetic language of green spaces within cities. Known as super natural, these designs do not look like na- ture. Rather, they integrate natural processes into design. By adopting a dual ontol- ogy encompassing phenomenology and vitalist philosophy, I argue it is possible to understand experience and immanence of these spaces. I present three arguments: Firstly, the experiences of designed urban greens are part of everyday meaning- ma...

  8. Lyα Profile, Dust, and Prediction of Lyα Escape Fraction in Green Pea Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E.; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Jiang, Tianxing; Dijkstra, Mark; Tilvi, V.; Wang, Junxian

    2017-08-01

    We studied Lyman-α (Lyα) escape in a statistical sample of 43 Green Peas with HST/COS Lyα spectra. Green Peas are nearby star-forming galaxies with strong [O III]λ5007 emission lines. Our sample is four times larger than the previous sample and covers a much more complete range of Green Pea properties. We found that about two-thirds of Green Peas are strong Lyα line emitters with rest-frame Lyα equivalent width > 20 \\mathringA . The Lyα profiles of Green Peas are diverse. The Lyα escape fraction, defined as the ratio of observed Lyα flux to intrinsic Lyα flux, shows anti-correlations with a few Lyα kinematic features—both the blue peak and red peak velocities, the peak separations, and the FWHM of the red portion of the Lyα profile. Using properties measured from Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectra, we found many correlations—the Lyα escape fraction generally increases at lower dust reddening, lower metallicity, lower stellar mass, and higher [O III]/[O II] ratio. We fit their Lyα profiles with the H I shell radiative transfer model and found that the Lyα escape fraction is anti-correlated with the best-fit N H I . Finally, we fit an empirical linear relation to predict {f}{esc}{Lyα } from the dust extinction and Lyα red peak velocity. The standard deviation of this relation is about 0.3 dex. This relation can be used to isolate the effect of intergalactic medium (IGM) scatterings from Lyα escape and to probe the IGM optical depth along the line of sight of each z> 7 Lyα emission-line galaxy in the James Webb Space Telescope era.

  9. Calibration-Free Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) with Standard Reference Line for the Analysis of Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongbo; Dong, Fengzhong; Wang, Huadong; Jia, Junwei; Ni, Zhibo

    2017-08-01

    In this work, calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) is used to analyze a certified stainless steel sample. Due to self-absorption of the spectral lines from the major element Fe and the sparse lines of trace elements, it is usually not easy to construct the Boltzmann plots of all species. A standard reference line method is proposed here to solve this difficulty under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium so that the same temperature value for all elements present into the plasma can be considered. Based on the concentration and rich spectral lines of Fe, the Stark broadening of Fe(I) 381.584 nm and Saha-Boltzmann plots of this element are used to calculate the electron density and the plasma temperature, respectively. In order to determine the plasma temperature accurately, which is seriously affected by self-absorption, a pre-selection procedure for eliminating those spectral lines with strong self-absorption is employed. Then, one spectral line of each element is selected to calculate its corresponding concentration. The results from the standard reference lines with and without self-absorption of Fe are compared. This method allows us to measure trace element content and effectively avoid the adverse effects due to self-absorption.

  10. Degradation Kinetics of Carbon Tetrachloride by Sulfate Green Rust as Influenced by pH and Copper Ions (Stillwater)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE, C2HCl3) and carbon tetrachloride (CT, CCl4) are priority groundwater contaminants at many EPA field sites. Green rust (GR) minerals are important corrosion products of zerovalent iron (Fe0) that has been used in permeable react...

  11. A CEMS study of surface oxidation of Fe-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B.; Tabares, J.A.; Bohorquez, A.; Perez Alcazar, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    A study by conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) carried out by using a parallel plate avalanche counter with samples of Fe-Ni alloys (50 and 65 at.% Fe) is reported. Each sample was analyzed without oxidation and after heating it under an oxygen atmosphere at 200 C. All CEMS measurements were carried out at room temperature. In both samples (50 and 65 at.% Fe), without oxidation and after oxidation, the Moessbauer spectra showed a six line magnetic spectrum according to their ferromagnetic character, with a broad hyperfine field distribution (HFD), according to the disordered character of the alloys. The obtained mean hyperfine field (MHF) for the sample 50 at.% Fe was 30.9 T, meanwhile for the invar composition (65 at.% Fe) was 25.5 T, which is close to values previously reported by transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (TMS). Results from the treated samples (with oxidation at 200 C) showed a difference in the surface composition as a result of this process. In the 50 at.% Fe sample, additionally appeared a double that could be assigned to an oxihydroxide of Fe 3+ . Otherwise, the 65 at.% Fe sample (invar) presented ferromagnetic oxides (α-Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 ) with a large relative area (82.5%). (orig.)

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF "GREEN ECONOMY" RUSSIA'S ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Botavina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tells the story of the emergence of "green" economy, as opposed to the traditional "brown" ekonomike, given its concept shown shortcomings of the existing definitions of "green" economy, conclusions about the real possibilities of the transition to the growth of "green" economy. The relevance of this work lies in the fact that the changing paradigm of understanding the basis and essence of sustainable development of the national socio-economic systems necessitates the integration of economic and environmental solutions, this integration is seen as part of the concept of "green economy".The approach of this article is based on an interdisciplinary concept of quality management in relation to the specifics of functioning and development of the domestic socio-economic systems.The purpose / goal. The purpose of this article, and its main task is to systematize the areas of environmentally oriented development of economic entities, as well as the determination of the list of key provisions of environmental policy, which will provide further socio-economic development of Russia in line with the green economy. As a result, Russia as one of the great powers of the world will find a stable geopolitical situation.Methodology. The methodological basis of this article are comparative, economic and statistical analysis methods.Results. This article suggests some solutions to be included in the national environmental policy as a major incentive for the further transition to a green economy.Conclusions: The material contained in this article show the special role of the concept of "green economy" in the social and economic processes in the development of Russia's geo-economic stability. The above article aspects of the further development of the green economy in Russia can complement scientific and practical base solutions that provide active creation, implementation and use of green technologies to provide environmentally responsible sustainable

  13. Cr(VI) retention and transport through Fe(III)-coated natural zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Gaoxiang [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: li@uwp.edu [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Geosciences Department, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liao, Libing [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Hanson, Renee; Leick, Samantha; Hoeppner, Nicole [Geosciences Department, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Jiang, Wei-Teh [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-30

    Graphical abstract: Breakthrough curves of Cr(VI) from columns packed with raw zeolite (a) and Fe(III)-zeolite (b). The solid line in (b) is the HYDRUS-1D fit to the observed data with adsorption term only, while the dashed line in (b) includes a reduction term in the HYDRUS-1D fit. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zeolite modified with Fe(III) could be used for adsorption and retention of Cr(VI). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Fe present on zeolite was in an amorphous Fe(OH){sub 3} form. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of 82 mg/kg was found on Fe(III)-zeolite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Cr(VI) retardation factor of 3 or 5 was determined from column and batch studies. - Abstract: Cr(VI) is a group A chemical based on the weight of evidence of carcinogenicity. Its transport and retention in soils and groundwater have been studied extensively. Zeolite is a major component in deposits originated from volcanic ash and tuff after alteration. In this study, zeolite aggregates with the particle size of 1.4-2.4 mm were preloaded with Fe(III). The influence of present Fe(III) on Cr(VI) retention by and transport through zeolite was studied under batch and column experiments. The added Fe(III) resulted in an enhanced Cr(VI) retention by the zeolite with a capacity of 82 mg/kg. The Cr(VI) adsorption on Fe(III)-zeolite followed a pseudo-second order kinetically and the Freundlich adsorption isotherm thermodynamically. Fitting the column experimental data to HYDRUS-1D resulted in a retardation factor of 3 in comparison to 5 calculated from batch tests at an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 3 mg/L. The results from this study showed that enhanced adsorption and retention of Cr(VI) may happen in soils derived from volcanic ash and tuff that contains significant amounts of zeolite with extensive Fe(III) coating.

  14. Yield Potential of Ten Peanut Introgression Lines derived from Crosses between Arachis cardenassii and A. hypogaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD RIDUAN

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Diploid species of peanut (Arachis cardenasii showed no symptoms of PStV infection when mechanically inoculated with PStV. Some introgression lines derived from A. cardenasii and A. hypogaea hybridization have been introduced to Indonesia. Evaluation of their adaptability and yield potential were necessary before pursuing further utilization of these introgression lines. The objectives of this research were to determine yield potential of the introgression lines of peanut in green house and field conditions and to evaluate incidence of PStV infection in the field. Peanut plants were grown in the green house and in the field according to standard procedures for raising peanut. Results of the experiments showed that growth and developmental characters of the tested lines were similar between field and green house grown plants. The introgression lines generally exhibited higher secondary branches and longer to flower and harvest as compared to peanut cv. Gajah and Kelinci. The NC-CS30 line was identfied as having higher yield and bigger seed size as compared to standard peanut cultivars (Gajah and Kelinci. Therefore, NC-CS30 germplasm may be further developed as commercial peanut cultivar or be used as donor for peanut breeding in Indonesia.

  15. Operational method of a ferroelectric (Fe)-NAND flash memory array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shouyu; Takahashi, Mitue; Li, Qiu-Hong; Sakai, Shigeki; Takeuchi, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Operations of arrayed ferroelectric (Fe)-NAND flash memory cells: erase, program and read were demonstrated for the first time using a small cell array of four word lines by two NAND strings. The memory cells and select-gate transistors were all n-channel Pt/SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 /Hf-Al-O/Si ferroelectric-gate field effect transistors. The erase was performed by applying 10 µs wide 7 V pulses to n- and p-wells. The program was performed by applying 10 µs wide 7 V pulses to selected word lines. Accumulated read currents of 51 programmed patterns in the Fe-NAND flash memory cell array successfully showed distribution of the two distinguishable '0' and '1' states. The margin between the two states became wider by applying a verification technique in programming a cell out of the eight. Retention times of bit-line currents were obtained over 33 h for both the '0' and '1' states in a program pattern

  16. FeII/MgII Emission Line Ratio in High Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Appenzeller, I.

    2003-01-01

    the evolution of the FeII/MgII ratio over a wider range in cosmic time, we measured this ratio for composite quasar spectra which cover a redshift range of 0 4 quasars must have started already at an epoch corresponding to z_f = 6 to 9, when the age of the universe was ~0.5 Gyr (H_o = 72 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0...

  17. Moessbauer study of cobalt and iron in the cyanobacterium (blue green alga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambe, Shizuko

    1990-01-01

    Moessbauer emission and absorption studies have been performed on cobalt and iron in the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga). The Moessbauer spectrum of the cyanobacterium cultivated with 57 Co is decomposed into two doublets. The parameters of the major doublet are in good agreement with those of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12 ) labeled with 57 Co. The other minor doublet has parameters close to those of Fe(II) coordinated with six nitrogen atoms. These suggest that cobalt is used for the biosynthesis of vitamin B 12 or its analogs in the cyanobacterium. The spectra of the cyanobacterium grown with 57 Fe show that iron is in the high-spin trivalent state and possibly in the form of ferritin, iron storage protein. (orig.)

  18. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  19. Establishment of A Malignant Pleural Effusion Mouse Model with Lewis Lung 
Carcinoma Cell Lines Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingqun MA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Malignant pleural effusion (MPE is a poor prognosis factor in patients with advanced lung cancer. The aim of this study is to establish a mouse model of MPE using Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC cell lines expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. Methods The mouse model was created by injecting LLC-EGFP cells directly into the pleural cavity of mice that were sacrificed periodically. The dynamic growth and metastasis of tumor cells were screened using in vivo fluorescence imaging. The remaining mice were subjected to transverse computed tomography (CT imaging periodically to analyze the formation rate of pleural effusion. The survival rate and tumor metastasis were also observed. Pleural fluid was gently aspirated using a 1 mL syringe and its volume was measured. When two or more mice bore pleural effusion at the same time, we calculated the average volume. The correlation of pleural effusion with the integrated optical density (IOD were analyzed. Results Four days after the inoculation of LLC-EGFP cells, green fluorescence was observed by opening the chest wall. The tumor formation rate was 100%, and the IOD gradually increased after inoculation. The metastasis sites were mediastinal, and the hilar lymph nodes were contralateral pleural as well as pericardial. The metastasis rates were 87%, 73% and 20%, respectively. The CT scan revealed that the formation rates of pleural effusion on days 7, 14 and 21 were 13%, 46% and 53%, respectively. The average volume of pleural effusion increased obviously on day 10 and peaked on day 16 with a value of 0.5 mL. The mean survival time of nude mice was 28.8 days. The volume of pleural effusion and IOD were significantly correlated (r=0.91, P<0.000,1. Conclusion A mouse model of lung cancer malignant pleural effusion was successfully established by injecting LLC lines expressing EGFP into the pleural cavity under a microscope. The model can enable dynamic observations of the

  20. Leishmanicidal Activity of Biogenic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khatami

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Due to the multiplicity of useful applications of metal oxide nanoparticles (ONPs in medicine are growing exponentially, in this study, Fe3O4 (iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs were biosynthesized using Rosemary to evaluate the leishmanicidal efficiency of green synthesized IONPs. This is the first report of the leishmanicidal efficiency of green synthesized IONPs against Leishmania major. The resulting biosynthesized IONPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The leishmanicidal activity of IONPS was studied via 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The results showed the fabrication of the spherical shape of monodisperse IONPs with a size 4 ± 2 nm. The UV-visible spectrophotometer absorption peak was at 334 nm. The leishmanicidal activity of biogenic iron oxide nanoparticles against Leishmania major (promastigote was also studied. The IC50 of IONPs was 350 µg/mL. In this report, IONPs were synthesized via a green method. IONPs are mainly spherical and homogeneous, with an average size of about 4 nm, and were synthesized here using an eco-friendly, simple, and inexpensive method.

  1. An experimental observation of the different behavior of ionic and neutral lines of iron as a function of number density in a binary carbon–iron mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, P.; Taleh, L.; Markushin, Y.; Melikechi, N.; Lasue, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the dependence of the intensities of atomic and ionic lines emitted by a nanosecond laser-induced plasma on the atomic number densities of the constituents of a binary mixture formed of carbon and iron. We show that the packing density of the sample greatly affects the relative standard deviation of the emission lines. Furthermore, we show that the variation of the intensities of the C and Fe emission lines depends in a non-trivial way on the relative C–Fe concentration. The intensities of Fe neutral atomic lines behave differently than those of the ionic ones particularly at and above concentrations of 75%–80% Fe embedded in a carbon matrix. Unlike the emission from neutral Fe, those from ionic Fe yield a very sharp decrease followed by an equally strong increase of the emission lines over a relatively small range of relative concentration of C and Fe. To better investigate this effect, we have compared the results obtained with nanosecond-LIBS to those with femtosecond-LIBS and found that this phenomenon disappears. The physical interpretation of the sharp decrease followed by an equally sharp increase in the emission intensities from Fe ions as the concentration of Fe is increased requires more studies. - Highlights: ► The effects of the size of the particles on the fluctuations of the LIBS signals ► The variation of LIBS signals with the concentrations of Fe embedded in C is nontrivial. ► The intensities of neutral atomic lines can behave differently than those of ions

  2. A COUPLED CHEMISTRY-EMISSION MODEL FOR ATOMIC OXYGEN GREEN AND RED-DOUBLET EMISSIONS IN THE COMET C/1996 B2 HYAKUTAKE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Raghuram, Susarla

    2012-01-01

    The green (5577 Å) and red-doublet (6300, 6364 Å) lines are prompt emissions of metastable oxygen atoms in the 1 S and 1 D states, respectively, that have been observed in several comets. The value of the intensity ratio of green to red-doublet (G/R ratio) of 0.1 has been used as a benchmark to identify the parent molecule of oxygen lines as H 2 O. A coupled chemistry-emission model is developed to study the production and loss mechanisms of the O( 1 S) and O( 1 D) atoms and the generation of red and green lines in the coma of C/1996 B2 Hyakutake. The G/R ratio depends not only on photochemistry, but also on the projected area observed for cometary coma, which is a function of the dimension of the slit used and the geocentric distance of the comet. Calculations show that the contribution of photodissociation of H 2 O to the green (red) line emission is 30%-70% (60%-90%), while CO 2 and CO are the next potential sources contributing 25%-50% ( 1 S) to O( 1 D) would be around 0.03 (±0.01) if H 2 O is the main source of oxygen lines, whereas it is ∼0.6 if the parent is CO 2 . Our calculations suggest that the yield of O( 1 S) production in the photodissociation of H 2 O cannot be larger than 1%. The model-calculated radial brightness profiles of the red and green lines and G/R ratios are in good agreement with the observations made on the comet Hyakutake in 1996 March.

  3. Green power certification: environmental and consumer protection benefits of the Green-e programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J. [Center for Resource Solutions (United States); Rabago, K. [Rocky Mountain Inst. (United States); Wiser, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This article gives details of the Green-e environmental certification programme which certifies electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the US. This first non-profit certification programme originally was set up for California, and has now spread to other regions. The objectives of the Green-e programme, the need for the electricity product to meet minimum criteria to qualify, marketer requirements, verification of product claims, administration of the programme, and the second year programme results are discussed. The way in which the Green-e programme fits in with other programmes such as those set up by the state and federal customer protection agencies to help consumers select environmentally superior power is described.

  4. A green one-pot three-component synthesis of spirooxindoles under conventional heating conditions or microwave irradiation by using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-imid-PMA{sup n} magnetic porous nanospheres as a recyclable catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeilpour, Mohsen, E-mail: m1250m551085@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javidi, Jaber, E-mail: JaberJavidi@gmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Students Research Committee, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Divar, Masoumeh [Chemistry Department, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    An efficient, green and environmentally procedure for the synthesis of spirooxindole derivatives has been developed by a one-pot three-component reaction of isatin derivatives, activated methylene, and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in the presence of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-imid-PMA{sup n} magnetic nanocatalyst under conventional heating conditions in water or microwave irradiation under solvent-free conditions. The reactions under conventional heating conditions were compared with the microwave-assisted reactions. The suggested method offers several advantages such as excellent yields, short reaction times, operational simplicity, a cleaner reaction, absence of any tedious workup or purification and ease of recovery and reusability of the catalyst by a magnetic field. In addition, the excellent catalytic performance in a water medium and the easy preparation, thermal stability and separation of the catalyst make it a good heterogeneous system and a useful alternative to other heterogeneous catalysts. The catalyst can be easily recovered by a magnetic field and reused for six consecutive reaction cycles without significant loss of activity. Also, the morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-imid-PMA{sup n}, particle size distribution and leaching of nano H{sub 3}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40} (PMA{sup n}) after reaction cycles were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyzer. - Graphical abstract: An efficient, green and environmentally procedure for the synthesis of spirooxindole derivatives has been developed by a one-pot three-component reaction of isatin derivatives, activated methylene, and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in the presence of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-imid-PMA{sup n} magnetic nanocatalyst under conventional heating conditions in water or microwave irradiation under solvent-free conditions. - Highlights: • Using of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-imid-PMA{sup n} magnetic

  5. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE UNIVERSE AT 0.7 < z < 1.6 DERIVED FROM ABUNDANCE DIAGNOSTICS OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION OF QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sameshima, H. [Laboratory of Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy, Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yoshii, Y.; Kawara, K., E-mail: sameshima@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2017-01-10

    We present an analysis of Mg ii λ 2798 and Fe ii UV emission lines for archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars to explore the diagnostics of the magnesium-to-iron abundance ratio in a broad-line region cloud. Our sample consists of 17,432 quasars selected from the SDSS Data Release 7 with a redshift range of 0.72 <  z  < 1.63. A strong anticorrelation between the Mg ii equivalent width (EW) and the Eddington ratio is found, while only a weak positive correlation is found between the Fe ii EW and the Eddington ratio. To investigate the origin of these differing behaviors of Mg ii and Fe ii emission lines, we perform photoionization calculations using the Cloudy code, where constraints from recent reverberation mapping studies are considered. We find from calculations that (1) Mg ii and Fe ii emission lines are created at different regions in a photoionized cloud, and (2) their EW correlations with the Eddington ratio can be explained by just changing the cloud gas density. These results indicate that the Mg ii/Fe ii flux ratio, which has been used as a first-order proxy for the Mg/Fe abundance ratio in chemical evolution studies with quasar emission lines, depends largely on the cloud gas density. By correcting this density dependence, we propose new diagnostics of the Mg/Fe abundance ratio for a broad-line region cloud. In comparing the derived Mg/Fe abundance ratios with chemical evolution models, we suggest that α -enrichment by mass loss from metal-poor intermediate-mass stars occurred at z  ∼ 2 or earlier.

  6. Neptunyl (NpO2+) interaction with green rust, GRNa,SO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bo C.; Geckeis, Horst; Marquardt, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Green rust (GR), a member of the Fe(II),Fe(III) layered double hydroxide mineral family, forms in groundwater and during steel corrosion. It has high surface area and is very reactive, especially for redox-sensitive elements such as some actinides. During neutron irradiation of nuclear fuel...... in a reactor, 237Np develops. Although the abundance of Np in spent nuclear fuel is only about 0.05% by mass, it has a very long half life, 2.14 × 106 years, so there is concern about its mobility in the distant future, when radioactive storage sites might be expected to degrade. Under oxidizing conditions...... the final redox speciation of Np, hence its potential mobility, and to characterise changes in the green rust. The GRNa,SO4 sorbed and reduced NpO2+ within minutes. Reduced Np(IV) was primarily found as precipitated nanoparticles at the edges of the GRNa,SO4 crystal platelets. The position of the particles...

  7. Magnetic, structural and electrical properties of ordered and disordered Co50Fe50 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.T.; Jen, S.U.; Yao, Y.D.; Wu, J.M.; Hwang, G.H.; Tsai, T.L.; Chang, Y.C.; Sun, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Co 50 Fe 50 films with thickness varying from 100 to 500 A were deposited on a glass substrate by sputtering process, respectively. Two kinds of CoFe films were studied: one was the as-deposited film, and the other the annealed film. The annealing procedure was to keep the films at 400 deg. C for 5 h in a vacuum of 5x10 -6 mbar. From the X-ray study, we find that the as-deposited film prefers the CoFe(1 1 0) orientation. Moreover, the body-centered cubic (bcc) CoFe(1 1 0) line is split into two peaks: one corresponding to the ordered body-centered tetragonal (bct) phase, and the other, the disordered bcc phase. After annealing, the peak intensity of the ordered bct phase becomes much stronger, while that of the disordered bcc phase disappears. The annealing has also caused the ordered CoFe(2 0 0) line to appear. When the amount of the ordered bct phase in Co 50 Fe 50 is increased, the saturation magnetization (M s ) and coercivity (H c ) become larger, but the electrical resistivity (ρ) decreases. From the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) measurement, we learn that the bct grains in the CoFe film start to grow at temperature 82 deg. C

  8. Magnetic solid-phase extraction for determination of the total malachite green, gentian violet and leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet in aquaculture water by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Wei, Daqiao; Yang, Yaling

    2016-06-01

    In this study, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube nanoparticles were synthesized and used as the adsorbent for the sums of malachite green, gentian violet and leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet in aquaculture water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. This method was based on in situ reduction of chromic malachite green, gentian violet to colorless leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet with potassium borohydride, respectively. The obtained adsorbent combines the advantages of carbon nanotubes and Fe3 O4 nanoparticles in one material for separation and preconcentration of the reductive dyes in aqueous media. The structure and properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The main parameters affecting the adsorption recoveries were investigated and optimized, including reducing agent concentration, type and amount of sorbent, sample pH, and eluting conditions. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection in this method were 0.22 and 0.09 ng/mL for malachite green and gentian violet, respectively. Product recoveries ranged from 87.0 to 92.8% with relative standard deviations from 4.6 to 5.9%. The results indicate that the sorbent is a suitable material for the removal and concentration of triphenylmethane dyes from polluted environmental samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Controls on Fe reduction and mineral formation by a subsurface bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, Susan; Weidler, Peter G.; Langley, Sean; Beveridge, Terry J.

    2003-04-01

    The reductive dissolution of FeIII (hydr)oxides by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) could have a large impact on sediment genesis and Fe transport. If DIRB are able to reduce FeIII in minerals of high structural order to carry out anaerobic respiration, their range could encompass virtually every O 2-free environment containing FeIII and adequate conditions for cell growth. Previous studies have established that Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, a known DIRB, will reduce crystalline Fe oxides when initially grown at high densities in a nutrient-rich broth, conditions that poorly model the environments where CN32 is found. By contrast, we grew CN32 by batch culture solely in a minimal growth medium. The stringent conditions imposed by the growth method better represent the conditions that cells are likely to encounter in their natural habitat. Furthermore, the expression of reductases necessary to carry out dissimilatory Fe reduction depends on the method of growth. It was found that under anaerobic conditions CN32 reduced hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), a poorly crystalline FeIII mineral, and did not reduce suspensions containing 4 mM FeIII in the form of poorly ordered nanometer-sized goethite (α-FeOOH), well-ordered micron-sized goethite, or nanometer-sized hematite (α-Fe 2O 3) crystallites. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that all minerals but the micron-sized goethite attached extensively to the bacteria and appeared to penetrate the outer cellular membrane. In the treatment with HFO, new FeII and FeIII minerals formed during reduction of HFO-Fe in culture medium containing 4.0 mmol/L P i (soluble inorganic P), as observed by TEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction. The minerals included magnetite (Fe 3O 4), goethite, green rust, and vivianite [Fe 3(PO 4) 2 · 8H 2O]. Vivianite appeared to be the stable end product and the mean coherence length was influenced by the rate of Fe

  10. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  11. Induction of apoptosis by Fe(salenCl through caspase-dependent pathway specifically in tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Pradhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Iron-based compounds possess the capability of inducing cell death due to their reactivity with oxidant molecules, but their specificity towards cancer cells and the mechanism of action are hitherto less investigated. A Fe(salenCl derivative has been synthesized that remains active in monomer form. The efficacy of this compound as an anti-tumor agent has been investigated in mouse and human leukemia cell lines. Fe(salenCl induces cell death specifically in tumor cells and not in primary cells. Mouse and human T-cell leukemia cell lines, EL4 and Jurkat cells are found to be susceptible to Fe(salenCl and undergo apoptosis, but normal mouse spleen cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC remain largely unaffected by Fe(salenCl. Fe(salenCl treated tumor cells show significantly higher expression level of cytochrome c that might have triggered the cascade of reactions leading to apoptosis in cancer cells. A significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential upon Fe(salenCl treatment suggests that Fe(salenCl induces apoptosis by disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential and homeostasis, leading to cytotoxity. We also established that apoptosis in the Fe(salenCl-treated tumor cells is mediated through caspase-dependent pathway. This is the first report demonstrating that Fe(salenCl can specifically target the tumor cells, leaving the primary cells least affected, indicating an excellent potential for this compound to emerge as a next-generation anti-tumor drug.

  12. Induction of apoptosis by Fe(salen)Cl through caspase-dependent pathway specifically in tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Nitika; Pratheek, B M; Garai, Antara; Kumar, Ashutosh; Meena, Vikram S; Ghosh, Shyamasree; Singh, Sujay; Kumari, Shikha; Chandrashekar, T K; Goswami, Chandan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Kar, Sanjib; Maiti, Prasanta K

    2014-10-01

    Iron-based compounds possess the capability of inducing cell death due to their reactivity with oxidant molecules, but their specificity towards cancer cells and the mechanism of action are hitherto less investigated. A Fe(salen)Cl derivative has been synthesized that remains active in monomer form. The efficacy of this compound as an anti-tumor agent has been investigated in mouse and human leukemia cell lines. Fe(salen)Cl induces cell death specifically in tumor cells and not in primary cells. Mouse and human T-cell leukemia cell lines, EL4 and Jurkat cells are found to be susceptible to Fe(salen)Cl and undergo apoptosis, but normal mouse spleen cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) remain largely unaffected by Fe(salen)Cl. Fe(salen)Cl treated tumor cells show significantly higher expression level of cytochrome c that might have triggered the cascade of reactions leading to apoptosis in cancer cells. A significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential upon Fe(salen)Cl treatment suggests that Fe(salen)Cl induces apoptosis by disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential and homeostasis, leading to cytotoxity. We also established that apoptosis in the Fe(salen)Cl-treated tumor cells is mediated through caspase-dependent pathway. This is the first report demonstrating that Fe(salen)Cl can specifically target the tumor cells, leaving the primary cells least affected, indicating an excellent potential for this compound to emerge as a next-generation anti-tumor drug. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  13. Identification of new fluorescence processes in the UV spectra of cool stars from new energy levels of Fe II and Cr II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Sveneric; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    1988-01-01

    Two fluorescence processes operating in atmospheres of cool stars, symbiotic stars, and the Sun are presented. Two emission lines, at 1347.03 and 1360.17 A, are identified as fluorescence lines of Cr II and Fe II. The lines are due to transitions from highly excited levels, which are populated radiatively by the hydrogen Lyman alpha line due to accidental wavelength coincidences. Three energy levels, one in Cr II and two in Fe II, are reported.

  14. GREEN MANAGEMENT: THE REALITY OF BEING GREEN IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Green management and going green are not as clear cut and easy as hyped by the general media. While going ecologically green is indeed beneficial and appropriate, the process and procedure of becoming green is anything but easy. Firstly, turning green is largely not a legal requirement, but a voluntary process. Thus, even though LEED (which is by far the more publicly known green certification standard) governs the certification of the green management effort, it is not a compulsory condition...

  15. Investigations of Deep-Level Fe-centres in Si by Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Dietrich, M

    2002-01-01

    %IS359\\\\ \\\\Electronic, vibrational and diffusional properties of interstitial and substitutional Fe impurities in silicon are studied by $ ^{57} $Fe Mössbauer emission spectroscopy utilizing implanted radioactive $ ^{57}$Mn$^{+} $ parent ions from ISOLDE as probe atoms. Thus the electronic charge density and the impurity mean-square vibrational amplitude shall be determined for substitutional Fe$_{s} $ and for interstitial Fe$_{i}^{0/+} $ in its two different charge states. These quantities are complementary to previously determined hyperfine interaction parameters and are expected to shed light on the nature of the deviations between calculated and measured parameters. The supposedly different diffusivities of interstitial Fe$_{i}^{0} $ and Fe$_{i}^{+} $ shall be measured by the broadening of the Mössbauer lines, i.e. at a temperature where diffusion jumps occur on an atomic scale within the lifetime of the Mössbauer state.

  16. Market power in interactive environmental and energy markets: the case of green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, Eirik S.; Nese, Gjermund

    2004-01-01

    Markets for environmental externalities are typically closely related to the markets causing such externalities, whereupon strategic interaction may result. Along these lines, the market for Green Certificates is strongly interwoven in the electricity market as the producers of green electricity are also the suppliers of Green Certificates. In this paper, we formulate an analytic equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning electricity and Green Certificate markets, and focus on the role of market power. We consider two versions of a Nash-Cournot game: a standard Nash-Cournot game where the players treat the market for Green Certificates and the electricity market as separate markets; and a Nash-Cournot game with endogenous treatment of the interaction between the electricity and Green Certificate markets with conjectured price responses. One result is that a certificate system faced with market power may collapse into a system of per unit subsidies, as the producers involved start to game on the joint functioning of markets. (author)

  17. Mesoporous Fe3O4/hydroxyapatite composite for targeted drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Lina; He, Xiaomei; Wu, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mesoporous Fe 3 O 4 /hydroxyapatite composite was synthesized by a simple, efficient and environmental friendly method. • The prepared material had a large surface area, high pore volume, and good magnetic separability. • DOX-loaded Fe 3 O 4 /hydroxyapatite composite exhibited surprising slow drug release behavior and pH-dependent behavior. - Abstract: In this contribution, we introduced a simple, efficient, and green method of preparing a mesoporous Fe 3 O 4 /hydroxyapatite (HA) composite. The as-prepared material had a large surface area, high pore volume, and good magnetic separability, which made it suitable for targeted drug delivery systems. The chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) was used to investigate the drug release behavior of Fe 3 O 4 /HA composite. The drug release profiles displayed a little burst effect and pH-dependent behavior. The release rate of DOX at pH 5.8 was larger than that at pH 7.4, which could be attributed to DOX protonation in acid medium. In addition, the released DOX concentrations remained at 0.83 and 1.39 μg/ml at pH 7.4 and 5.8, respectively, which indicated slow, steady, and safe release rates. Therefore, the as-prepared Fe 3 O 4 /hydroxyapatite composite could be an efficient platform for targeted anticancer drug delivery

  18. Fe-S Cluster Biogenesis in Isolated Mammalian Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Alok; Pain, Jayashree; Ghosh, Arnab K.; Dancis, Andrew; Pain, Debkumar

    2015-01-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential cofactors, and mitochondria contain several Fe-S proteins, including the [4Fe-4S] protein aconitase and the [2Fe-2S] protein ferredoxin. Fe-S cluster assembly of these proteins occurs within mitochondria. Although considerable data exist for yeast mitochondria, this biosynthetic process has never been directly demonstrated in mammalian mitochondria. Using [35S]cysteine as the source of sulfur, here we show that mitochondria isolated from Cath.A-derived cells, a murine neuronal cell line, can synthesize and insert new Fe-35S clusters into aconitase and ferredoxins. The process requires GTP, NADH, ATP, and iron, and hydrolysis of both GTP and ATP is necessary. Importantly, we have identified the 35S-labeled persulfide on the NFS1 cysteine desulfurase as a genuine intermediate en route to Fe-S cluster synthesis. In physiological settings, the persulfide sulfur is released from NFS1 and transferred to a scaffold protein, where it combines with iron to form an Fe-S cluster intermediate. We found that the release of persulfide sulfur from NFS1 requires iron, showing that the use of iron and sulfur for the synthesis of Fe-S cluster intermediates is a highly coordinated process. The release of persulfide sulfur also requires GTP and NADH, probably mediated by a GTPase and a reductase, respectively. ATP, a cofactor for a multifunctional Hsp70 chaperone, is not required at this step. The experimental system described here may help to define the biochemical basis of diseases that are associated with impaired Fe-S cluster biogenesis in mitochondria, such as Friedreich ataxia. PMID:25398879

  19. Electrophoretically-Deposited Nano-Fe3O4@carbon 3D Structure on Carbon Fiber as High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajalilou, Abdollah; Etemadifar, Reza; Abbasi-Chianeh, Vahid; Abouzari-Lotf, Ebrahim

    2018-05-01

    Structural and electrochemical behaviors of electrophortically-deposited Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@C nanoparticles on carbon fiber (CF) were investigated. The nanoparticles were synthesized via a green-assisted hydrothermal route. The as-prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopies, Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopies as well as by a vibration sample magnetometer. Surprisingly, the saturation magnetization (M s) of the Fe3O4@C ( 26.99 emu/g) was about 20% higher than that of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A rather rectangular CV curve for both the elecrophortically-deposited Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@C on CF indicated the double-layer supercapacitor behavior of the samples. The synergistic effects of double shells improved the electrochemical behavior of Fe3O4@CF. The Fe3O4@C@CF composite exhibited a higher specific capacitance of 412 F g-1 at scan rate of 0.05 V/s compared to the Fe3O4@CF with a value of 193 F g-1. The superb electrochemical properties of Fe3O4@C@CF confirm their potential for applications as supercapacitors in the energy storage field.

  20. Mn and Fe Impurities in Si$_{1-x}$ Ge$_{x}$ alloys

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Following our investigations of Mn and Fe impurities in elemental semiconductors and in silicon in particular by means of on-line $^{57}$Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, utilizing radioactive $^{57}$Mn$^{+}$ ion beams at ISOLDE, we propose to extend these studies to bulk and epitaxially-grown Si$_{1-x}$Ge$_{x}$ alloys. In these materials, although already successfully employed in electronic devices, little is known about point defects and important harmful 3d impurities. The experiments aim to determine a variety of fundamental properties: The lattice location of ion-implanted Mn/Fe, the electronic and vibrational properties of dilute Fe impurities in different lattice sites, the charge-state and composition dependence of the diffusivity of interstitial Fe on an atomic scale, the reactions and formation of complexes with lattice defects created by the $^{57}$Mn implantation or by the recoil effect in the nuclear decay to the Mössbauer state of $^{57m}$Fe. Feasibility studies in 2003 indicate that these aims can b...

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New multiplet table for FeI (Nave+, 1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, G.; Johansson, S.; Learner, R. C. M.; Thorne, A. P.; Brault, J. W.

    1995-02-01

    We have recorded spectra of iron-neon and iron-argon hollow cathode lamps in the region 1700A-5um (59,000-2000cm-1), with Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers at the National Solar Observatory, Tucson, Arizona, and Imperial College, London, UK, and with a high-resolution grating spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland. The uncertainty of the strongest lines in the FT spectra is less than 0.002cm-1 (0.2mA at 3000A; 8mA at 2um). Pressure- and current-dependent shifts are less than 0.001cm-1 for transitions between low-lying levels, increasing to 0.006cm-1 for transitions between the most highly excited levels. We report 28 new energy levels of Fe I and revised values of another 818 levels. We have identified 9501 lines as due to 9759 transitions in Fe I, and these are presented in the form of a new multiplet table and finding list. This compares with the ~5500 lines due to 467 energy levels in the multiplet tables of Moore (1950, NBS Circ., No.488 and 1959, NBS Tech. note 30). The biggest increase is in the near-ultraviolet and near infrared, and many of the new lines are present in the solar spectrum. Experimental log (gf) values are included where they are available. A further 125 unidentified lines due to Fe I are given. (4 data files).

  2. Pervasive faint Fe XIX emission from a solar active region observed with EUNIS-13: Evidence for nanoflare heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Daw, Adrian N.; Rabin, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present spatially resolved EUV spectroscopic measurements of pervasive, faint Fe XIX 592.2 Å line emission in an active region observed during the 2013 April 23 flight of the Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS-13) sounding rocket instrument. With cooled detectors, high sensitivity, and high spectral resolution, EUNIS-13 resolves the lines of Fe XIX at 592.2 Å (formed at temperature T ≈ 8.9 MK) and Fe XII at 592.6 Å (T ≈ 1.6 MK). The Fe XIX line emission, observed over an area in excess of 4920 arcsec 2 (2.58 × 10 9 km 2 , more than 60% of the active region), provides strong evidence for the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. No GOES events occurred in the region less than 2 hr before the rocket flight, but a microflare was observed north and east of the region with RHESSI and EUNIS during the flight. The absence of significant upward velocities anywhere in the region, particularly the microflare, indicates that the pervasive Fe XIX emission is not propelled outward from the microflare site, but is most likely attributed to localized heating (not necessarily due to reconnection) consistent with the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. Assuming ionization equilibrium we estimate Fe XIX/Fe XII emission measure ratios of ∼0.076 just outside the AR core and ∼0.59 in the core.

  3. Pervasive faint Fe XIX emission from a solar active region observed with EUNIS-13: Evidence for nanoflare heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W. [Catholic University of America at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Daw, Adrian N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rabin, D. M., E-mail: Jeffrey.W.Brosius@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Code 670, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present spatially resolved EUV spectroscopic measurements of pervasive, faint Fe XIX 592.2 Å line emission in an active region observed during the 2013 April 23 flight of the Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS-13) sounding rocket instrument. With cooled detectors, high sensitivity, and high spectral resolution, EUNIS-13 resolves the lines of Fe XIX at 592.2 Å (formed at temperature T ≈ 8.9 MK) and Fe XII at 592.6 Å (T ≈ 1.6 MK). The Fe XIX line emission, observed over an area in excess of 4920 arcsec{sup 2} (2.58 × 10{sup 9} km{sup 2}, more than 60% of the active region), provides strong evidence for the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. No GOES events occurred in the region less than 2 hr before the rocket flight, but a microflare was observed north and east of the region with RHESSI and EUNIS during the flight. The absence of significant upward velocities anywhere in the region, particularly the microflare, indicates that the pervasive Fe XIX emission is not propelled outward from the microflare site, but is most likely attributed to localized heating (not necessarily due to reconnection) consistent with the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. Assuming ionization equilibrium we estimate Fe XIX/Fe XII emission measure ratios of ∼0.076 just outside the AR core and ∼0.59 in the core.

  4. Does Green Investment Increase Financial Performance? Empirical Evidence from Indonesian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chariri Anis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The negative effects of globalization and rapid growth of industries on environment have changed the business paradigm from profit issues to profit, people and planet (triple bottom line. Consequently, a number of companies have invested their money in environmental issues (called as green investment. This study aims to investigate the effect of firm characteristics on green investment and how green investment influences financial performance. Using annual reports of companies receiving the Program for Pollution Control, Evaluation and Rating (PROPER award and listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchanges in the year of 2009-2014 as research data, the findings showed that firm size, foreign ownership, industry profile, and frequency of audit committee meeting significantly influenced green investment whereas ISO14001 management certification had no effect on it. Interestingly, green investment positively determined an increase in firm financial performance. This reveals that the better the green investment, the higher the financial performance of the companies. The findings contribute to the importance of adopting green investment as a company's strategy to increase profit without destroying the environment. Secondly, this finding can be used by government as a reference for formulating any regulations concerning business and environment. Finally, the finding contributes to the importance of including environmental issues in business education.

  5. Does Green Investment Increase Financial Performance? Empirical Evidence from Indonesian Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chariri, Anis; Bukit, Gretta Ratna Sari Br; Eklesia, Octrine Bethary; Christi, Bourinta Uly; Tarigan, Daisy Meirisa

    2018-02-01

    The negative effects of globalization and rapid growth of industries on environment have changed the business paradigm from profit issues to profit, people and planet (triple bottom line). Consequently, a number of companies have invested their money in environmental issues (called as green investment). This study aims to investigate the effect of firm characteristics on green investment and how green investment influences financial performance. Using annual reports of companies receiving the Program for Pollution Control, Evaluation and Rating (PROPER) award and listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchanges in the year of 2009-2014 as research data, the findings showed that firm size, foreign ownership, industry profile, and frequency of audit committee meeting significantly influenced green investment whereas ISO14001 management certification had no effect on it. Interestingly, green investment positively determined an increase in firm financial performance. This reveals that the better the green investment, the higher the financial performance of the companies. The findings contribute to the importance of adopting green investment as a company's strategy to increase profit without destroying the environment. Secondly, this finding can be used by government as a reference for formulating any regulations concerning business and environment. Finally, the finding contributes to the importance of including environmental issues in business education.

  6. Curves of growth of spectral lines emitted by a laser-induced plasma: influence of the temporal evolution and spatial inhomogeneity of the plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, J.A.; Bengoechea, J.; Aragon, C. E-mail: carlos.aragon@unavarra.es

    2003-02-03

    The curves of growth (COG) of five Fe I lines emitted from a laser-induced plasma, generated with Fe-Ni alloys in air at atmospheric pressure, have been investigated. Spectral lines with different energy levels and line widths, emitted with a broad range of optical depths, have been included in the study in order to check the validity of theoretical models proposed for COG generation, based in the radiative transfer within a plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The COGs have been measured at time windows of 4-5 {mu}s and 15-18 {mu}s. The Stark widths of the Fe I lines have been obtained, and the line widths have been determined by measuring the plasma electron density at the time windows selected. It is shown that at a time window of 4-5 {mu}s, the inhomogeneity of the plasma magnitudes has an important influence on the COGs of intense lines. For this time window, a two-region model of the plasma has been used to generate theoretical COGs that describe satisfactorily the experimental curves of all the lines using a single set of plasma parameters. The results reveal the existence of considerable gradients between the inner and the outer plasma regions in the temperature (9400-7800 K) and in the density of Fe atoms (4x10{sup 16}-0.02x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} for a sample with 100% Fe). On the contrary, at the time window 15-18 {mu}s, at which the plasma has suffered most of its expansion and cooling process, the COGs of all the lines may be described by a single-region model, corresponding to a plasma with uniform temperature (6700 K) and density of Fe atoms (0.06x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} for a sample with 100% Fe). It is also shown that at initial times, the plasma inhomogeneity has an important effect in the line profiles of intense spectral lines, which are described by using the two-region model of the laser-induced plasma.

  7. Sustainable green urban planning: the Green Credit Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The Green Credit Tool is evaluated as a method to quantify the value of green-spaces and to determine how these green-space-values can be replaced or compensated for within urban spatial planning projects. Design/methodology/approach – Amersfoort Local Municipality created the Green Credit

  8. Fungal Microbiomes Associated with Green and Non-Green Building Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Kanistha; Vesper, Stephen; Green, Brett J; Yermakov, Mikhail; Reponen, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Water-damaged buildings can lead to fungal growth and occupant health problems. Green building materials, derived from renewable sources, are increasingly utilized in construction and renovations. However, the question as to what fungi will grow on these green compared to non-green materials, after they get wet, has not been adequately studied. By determining what fungi grow on each type of material, the potential health risks can be more adequately assessed. In this study, we inoculated green and non-green pieces of ceiling tile, composite board, drywall, and flooring with indoor dust containing a complex mixture of naturally occurring fungi. The materials were saturated with water and incubated for two months in a controlled environment. The resulting fungal microbiomes were evaluated using ITS amplicon sequencing. Overall, the richness and diversity of the mycobiomes on each pair of green and non-green pieces were not significantly different. However, different genera dominated on each type of material. For example, Aspergillus spp. had the highest relative abundance on green and non-green ceiling tiles and green composite boards, but Peniophora spp. dominated the non-green composite board. In contrast, Penicillium spp. dominated green and non-green flooring samples. Green gypsum board was dominated by Phialophora spp. and Stachybotrys spp., but non-green gypsum board by Myrothecium spp. These data suggest that water-damaged green and non-green building materials can result in mycobiomes that are dominated by fungal genera whose member species pose different potentials for health risks.

  9. Numerical Approximation of Elasticity Tensor Associated With Green-Naghdi Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haofei; Sun, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Objective stress rates are often used in commercial finite element (FE) programs. However, deriving a consistent tangent modulus tensor (also known as elasticity tensor or material Jacobian) associated with the objective stress rates is challenging when complex material models are utilized. In this paper, an approximation method for the tangent modulus tensor associated with the Green-Naghdi rate of the Kirchhoff stress is employed to simplify the evaluation process. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated through the implementation of two user-defined fiber-reinforced hyperelastic material models. Comparisons between the approximation method and the closed-form analytical method demonstrate that the former can simplify the material Jacobian evaluation with satisfactory accuracy while retaining its computational efficiency. Moreover, since the approximation method is independent of material models, it can facilitate the implementation of complex material models in FE analysis using shell/membrane elements in abaqus.

  10. A COUPLED CHEMISTRY-EMISSION MODEL FOR ATOMIC OXYGEN GREEN AND RED-DOUBLET EMISSIONS IN THE COMET C/1996 B2 HYAKUTAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Raghuram, Susarla, E-mail: bhardwaj_spl@yahoo.com, E-mail: anil_bhardwaj@vssc.gov.in, E-mail: raghuramsusarla@gmail.com [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 695022 (India)

    2012-03-20

    The green (5577 Angstrom-Sign ) and red-doublet (6300, 6364 Angstrom-Sign ) lines are prompt emissions of metastable oxygen atoms in the {sup 1}S and {sup 1}D states, respectively, that have been observed in several comets. The value of the intensity ratio of green to red-doublet (G/R ratio) of 0.1 has been used as a benchmark to identify the parent molecule of oxygen lines as H{sub 2}O. A coupled chemistry-emission model is developed to study the production and loss mechanisms of the O({sup 1}S) and O({sup 1}D) atoms and the generation of red and green lines in the coma of C/1996 B2 Hyakutake. The G/R ratio depends not only on photochemistry, but also on the projected area observed for cometary coma, which is a function of the dimension of the slit used and the geocentric distance of the comet. Calculations show that the contribution of photodissociation of H{sub 2}O to the green (red) line emission is 30%-70% (60%-90%), while CO{sub 2} and CO are the next potential sources contributing 25%-50% (<5%). The ratio of the photoproduction rate of O({sup 1} S) to O({sup 1} D) would be around 0.03 ({+-}0.01) if H{sub 2}O is the main source of oxygen lines, whereas it is {approx}0.6 if the parent is CO{sub 2}. Our calculations suggest that the yield of O({sup 1} S) production in the photodissociation of H{sub 2}O cannot be larger than 1%. The model-calculated radial brightness profiles of the red and green lines and G/R ratios are in good agreement with the observations made on the comet Hyakutake in 1996 March.

  11. Microstructure, Wear Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of WC-FeCrAl and WC-WB-Co Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Brezinová

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on investigating the quality of two grades of thermally sprayed coatings deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF technology. One grade contains WC hard particles in an environmentally progressive Ni- and Co-free FeCrAl matrix, while the second coating contains WC and WB hard particles in a cobalt matrix. The aim of the experimental work was to determine the effect of thermal cyclic loading on the coatings’ resistance to adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear. Abrasive wear was evaluated using abrasive cloth of two grit sizes, and erosive wear was evaluated by a dry-pot wear test in a pin mill at two sample angles. Adhesion wear resistance of the coatings was determined by a sliding wear test under dry friction conditions and in a 1 mol water solution of NaCl. Corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization tests. Metallographic cross-sections were used for measurement of the microhardness and thickness and for line energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. The tests proved the excellent resistance of both coatings against adhesive, abrasive, and erosive wear, as well as the ability of the WC-WB-Co coating to withstand alternating temperatures of up to 600 °C. The “green carbide” coating (WC-FeCrAl can be recommended as an environmentally friendly replacement for Ni- and Co-containing coatings, but its operating temperature is strictly limited to 500 °C in air.

  12. Theory of Moessbauer line broadening due to diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, K.; Wolf, D.; Dederichs, P.H.

    1981-12-01

    We have calculated the line broadening of the Moessbauer line due to diffusion of Moessbauer atoms via single vacanices. We take into account the perturbation of vacancy jumps in the neighbourhood of an impurity Moessbauer atom (e.g. Fe in Al) using the 5-frequency model. The anisotropy of the line width is given by the Fourier transform of the final distribution of a Moessbauer atom after an encounter with a vacancy. This distribution is calculated by Monte Carlo computer simulation. 3 figures, 1 tables

  13. Effect of Dunaliella tertiolecta organic exudates on the Fe(II) oxidation kinetics in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A G; Santana-Casiano, J M; González-Dávila, M; Pérez-Almeida, N; Suárez de Tangil, M

    2014-07-15

    The role played by the natural organic ligands excreted by the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta on the Fe(II) oxidation rate constants was studied at different stages of growth. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon increased from 2.1 to 7.1 mg L(-1) over time of culture. The oxidation kinetics of Fe(II) was studied at nanomolar levels and under different physicochemical conditions of pH (7.2-8.2), temperature (5-35 °C), salinity (10-37), and dissolved organic carbon produced by cells (2.1-7.1 mg L(-1)). The experimental rate always decreased in the presence of organic exudates with respect to that in the control seawater. The Fe(II) oxidation rate constant was also studied in the context of Marcus theory, where ΔG° was 39.31-51.48 kJ mol(-1). A kinetic modeling approach was applied for computing the equilibrium and rate constants for Fe(II) and exudates present in solution, the Fe(II) speciation, and the contribution of each Fe(II) species to the overall oxidation rate constant. The best fit model took into account two acidity equilibrium constants for the Fe(II) complexing ligands with pKa,1=9.45 and pKa,2=4.9. The Fe(II) complexing constants were KFe(II)-LH=3×10(10) and KFe(II)-L=10(7), and the corresponding computed oxidation rates were 68±2 and 36±8 M(-1) min(-1), respectively.

  14. Preparation of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles coated with gallic acid for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorniani, Dena; Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Kura, Aminu Umar; Fakurazi, Sharida; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Ahmad, Zalinah

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared using a sonochemical method under atmospheric conditions at a Fe2+ to Fe3+ molar ratio of 1:2. The iron oxide nanoparticles were subsequently coated with chitosan and gallic acid to produce a core-shell structure. Results X-ray diffraction demonstrated that the magnetic nanoparticles were pure Fe3O4 with a cubic inverse spinel structure. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were of spherical shape with a mean diameter of 11 nm, compared with 13 nm for the iron oxide-chitosan-gallic acid (FCG) nanocarriers. Conclusion The magnetic nanocarrier enhanced the thermal stability of the drug, gallic acid. Release of the active drug from the FCG nanocarrier was found to occur in a controlled manner. The gallic acid and FCG nanoparticles were not toxic in a normal human fibroblast (3T3) line, and anticancer activity was higher in HT29 than MCF7 cell lines. PMID:23166439

  15. Using Fe XXII to Determine the Electron Density of Stellar Coronae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepson, Jaan; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Clementson, J.; Gu, M. F.

    2010-03-01

    Lines from Fe XXII, both in the EUV and X-ray region, are known to be sensitive to the electron density and have in recent years been used as diagnostics of stellar coronae, such as AB Dor and Ex Hya. We have recently obtained spectral data from laboratory sources in which the electron density is known either from non-spectroscopic means or from K-shell density diagnostics. The densities of the laboratory sources range from 5x1011 cm-3 to 5x1014 cm-3. The measurements have been used to test the spectral models underlying the Fe XXII density diagnostic line ratios. This work was supported by the NASA APRA program and the DOE General Plasma Science program.

  16. Gamma ray production cross sections for the interactions of 14.9 MeV neutrons with C, Al, V, Fe and Nb at 90 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hongyu; Tang Lin; Yan Yiming

    1986-11-01

    Discrete γ-ray spectra and production cross sections for the interactions of 14.9 MeV neutrons with C, Al, V, Fe and Nb targets have been measured at 90 deg. using a 110.7cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. A single γ-ray peak was measured for C. For Al 34 γ lines, for Fe 41 γ lines, for V 61 γ lines and for Nb 79 γ lines were measured

  17. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. IV. HELIUM AND CARBON RECOMBINATION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M. [Astronomy Department, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903-2475 (United States); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here, we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average {sup 4}He{sup +}/H{sup +} abundance ratio by number, (y {sup +}), is 0.068 {+-} 0.023(1{sigma}). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y {sup +} upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y {sup +} less than 0.04 and another 12 with upper limits below this value. These H II regions must have either a very low {sup 4}He abundance or contain a significant amount of neutral helium. The HRDS has 20 nebulae with carbon RRL emission but no helium emission at its sensitivity level. There is no correlation between the carbon RRL parameters and the 8 {mu}m mid-infrared morphology of these nebulae.

  18. Green Building Pro-Environment Behaviors: Are Green Users Also Green Buyers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pro-environment behaviors play a key role in advancing the development of green buildings. This study investigated the link between two green building pro-environment behaviors that require dissimilar resources: energy savings that do not require money in order to be more environmentally friendly and willingness to pay that involves economic resources including spending money in order to be more environmentally friendly. This study points out that the two pro-environment behaviors can be positively linked to each other. People who behave in an environmentally friendly manner at work would also be likely to pay an extra cost for a green building when buying a new home. The consistency of the two pro-environment behaviors can be explained by their common environmental beliefs: limits to growth and eco-crisis. The green building movement should prioritize pro-environmental behaviors and associated environmental beliefs to support green building policies, guidelines, and tools.

  19. Absorber transmissivities in 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, O.

    1985-01-01

    Some useful relations are derived for the polarization dependent optical index of 57 Fe Moessbauer absorbers. Real rotation matrices are extensively used and, besides wave-direction dependence, their properties simplify also the treatment of texture and f-anisotropy. The derivation of absorber transmissivities from the optical index is discussed with a special emphasis on line overlapping. (Auth.)

  20. The influence of Fe content on spreading ability of tungsten heavy alloys matrix on tungsten surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krzyńska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental study of tungsten spreading ability with W-Ni-Co-Fe matrix are presented. The aim of these investigations was to see how Fe concentration in W – Ni – Co matrix influences the wettability of tungsten grains during liquid phase sintering. Four green compact specimens containing 50%W, 10%Co and Ni + Fe = 40% but with different Ni to Fe ratio were prepared. The cylindrical specimen 5mm diameter and 5mm height were put on clean pure tungsten substrate and then 20 minutes heated at 1520oC in hydrogen atmosphere. After heating the specimens were carefully measured and then the specimens for structure observations were prepared. It was concluded, that increase of Fe content decrease the melting temperature of W – Ni – Co alloy. The melting point decrease caused by Fe content increase substantially the spreading ability of tungsten substrate with W – Ni – Co alloy. Metallography investigations showed some microstructure changes in “reaction zone” identified in tungsten substrate – (WNi40-xCo10Fex interface. The results of the study confirmed our earlier observations that even relative small Fe addition promotes Weight Heavy Alloys (WHA liquid phase sintering.

  1. Green synthesis of zero-valent Fe-nanoparticles: Catalytic degradation of rhodamine B, interactions with bovine serum albumin and their enhanced antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zaheer; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    Biomimetic method was used for the synthesis of Fe-nanoparticles (FeNPs). FeCl 3 and Hibiscus sabdariffa, Roselle flower aqueous extract (HBS) were employed in the present studies. The FeNPs have been characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The average particles diameter was found to be 18 nm. The as prepared FeNPs were used as a catalyst to the oxidative degradation of rhodamine B (RB) in presence of NaBH 4 . The effects of various quencher on the degradation rates were examined by employing ammonium oxalate (AO), benzoquinone (BQ), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and potassium iodide (KI). The interactions of FeNPs with bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been determined and discussed. Adsorption of FeNPs into the core of BSA changes the tryptophan environment from hydrophobic to hydrophilic (from folding to partially folded and/or unfolded). Tryptophan residues, indole moieties of BSA were responsible to complex formation with FeNPs in excited states via electrostatic, van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions with static quenching. The antimicrobial activities of FeNPs have been determined against human pathogens. Hibiscus sabdariffa flower extract shows mild antimicrobial activities against all target pathogenic organisms. FeNPs have potential antimicrobial activity against both bacterial strains and candida fungus even at low concentration, and retains potential application in biomedical industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Vortex dynamics and irreversibility line in optimally doped SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 from ac susceptibility and magnetization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prando, G.; Carretta, P.; de Renzi, R.; Sanna, S.; Palenzona, A.; Putti, M.; Tropeano, M.

    2011-05-01

    Ac susceptibility and static magnetization measurements were performed in the optimally doped SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 superconductor. The field-temperature phase diagram of the superconducting state was drawn, and, in particular, the features of the flux lines were derived. The dependence of the intragrain depinning energy on the magnetic field intensity was derived in the thermally activated flux-creep framework, enlightening a typical 1/H dependence in the high-field regime. The intragrain critical current density was extrapolated in the zero-temperature and zero-magnetic-field limit, showing a remarkably high value Jc0(0)~2×107 A/cm2, which demonstrates that this material is rather interesting for potential future technological applications.

  3. MFM study of NdFeB and NdFeB/Fe/NdFeB thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouteff, P.C.; Folks, L.; Street, R.

    1998-01-01

    Domain structures of NdFeB thin films, ranging in thickness between 1500 and 29 nm, have been studied qualitatively by magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Samples were prepared using a range of sputtering conditions resulting in differences in properties such as texture, coercivity and magnetic saturation. MFM images of all the films showed extensive interaction domain structures, similar to those observed in nanocrystalline bulk NdFeB. An exchange-coupled NdFeB/Fe/NdFeB trilayer with layer thicknesses 18 nm/15 nm/18 nm, respectively, was also examined using MFM. (orig.)

  4. THE 2014 MARCH 29 X-FLARE: SUBARCSECOND RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF Fe XXI λ1354.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Peter R. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Tian, Hui [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jaeggli, Sarah [Department of Physics, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) is the first solar instrument to observe ∼10 MK plasma at subarcsecond spatial resolution through imaging spectroscopy of the Fe XXI λ1354.1 forbidden line. IRIS observations of the X1 class flare that occurred on 2014 March 29 at 17:48 UT reveal Fe XXI emission from both the flare ribbons and the post-flare loop arcade. Fe XXI appears at all of the chromospheric ribbon sites, although typically with a delay of one raster (75 s) and sometimes offset by up to 1''. 100-200 km s{sup –1} blue-shifts are found at the brightest ribbons, suggesting hot plasma upflow into the corona. The Fe XXI ribbon emission is compact with a spatial extent of <2'', and can extend beyond the chromospheric ribbon locations. Examples are found of both decreasing and increasing blue-shift in the direction away from the ribbon locations, and blue-shifts were present for at least six minutes after the flare peak. The post-flare loop arcade, seen in Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 131 Å filtergram images that are dominated by Fe XXI, exhibited bright loop-tops with an asymmetric intensity distribution. The sizes of the loop-tops are resolved by IRIS at ≥1'', and line widths in the loop-tops are not broader than in the loop-legs suggesting the loop-tops are not sites of enhanced turbulence. Line-of-sight speeds in the loop arcade are typically <10 km s{sup –1}, and mean non-thermal motions fall from 43 km s{sup –1} at the flare peak to 26 km s{sup –1} six minutes later. If the average velocity in the loop arcade is assumed to be at rest, then it implies a new reference wavelength for the Fe XXI line of 1354.106 ± 0.023 Å.

  5. New thermodynamic measurements in the U-fe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labroche, D.; Dugne, O. [CEA Vallee du Rhone, Dept. de Technologie de l' Enrichissement, 26 - Pierrelatte (France); Rogez, J. [CTM, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2001-07-01

    The U-Fe phase diagram data from thermal measurements by Gordon, Grogan, Chapman and Michaud and from mass spectroscopic measurements by Gardie are generally in agreement. Two line compounds UFe{sub 2} and U{sub 6}Fe exist. The enthalpy of formation of UFe{sub 2} at 298 K is reported to be -32.4 kJ/mol by Akhachinskij, -61.8 kJ/mol by Kanno and -42.03 kJ/mol by Antony. This disagreement between the different authors requires some new measurements in order to improve the knowledge of this system. Moreover no data exists on the enthalpy of formation of U{sub 6}Fe and on the heat capacity of these two materials. The objective of this study is to measure these missing data in view of performing an assessment of the phase diagram. (author)

  6. Effect of MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} content on magnetic and dielectric properties of poly (O-Phenylenediamine)/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannapiran, Nagarajan [PG and Research Department of Chemistry, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641020, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthusamy, Athianna, E-mail: muthusrkv@gmail.com [PG and Research Department of Chemistry, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641020, Tamil Nadu (India); Chitra, Palanisamy [PG and Research Department of Chemistry, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641020, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-03-01

    Poly o-phenylenediamine (PoPD)/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites with three different ratios of MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (10%, 20%, 30% w/w) were synthesized by in-situ oxidative chemical polymerization method ammonium persulphate used as oxidant, while MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was prepared by auto-combustion method. The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of synthesized PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, UV–visible absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). FTIR spectra and XRD were confirmed the formation of the PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites. The morphology of PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites is visualized through SEM and TEM. The spherical morphology of the PoPD was confirmed using SEM analysis. Dielectric properties of PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites at different temperatures have been performed in the frequency range of 50 Hz–5 MHz. The optical absorption experiments of PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites reveal that the direct transition with an energy band gap is around 2 eV. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of PoPD (the polymerization carried out only in aqueous medium) by in-situ chemical polymerization method. • For the first time, PoPD incorporated with MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with lesser particle size. • The auto combustion reaction, support to achieve less particle size. • Ferrite content affects the magnetic properties of the nanocomposites.

  7. The effect of saturation magnetization of nanocatalyst and oscillating magnetic field for green urea synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahya, Noorhana, E-mail: noorhana_yahya@petronas.com.my; Alqasem, Bilal, E-mail: bilalalqasem@yahoo.com; Irfan, Muhammad; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia Ur; Shafie, Afza; Soleimani, Hassan

    2017-02-15

    Hematite and cupric oxide nanowires have been synthesized using the oxidation method for green urea production. Hematite nanowires were obtained by the oxidation of an iron wire at a temperature of 650 °C and ambient pressure in the presence of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gases. Cupric oxide nanowires were obtained by the same method at 700 °C, using a copper wire. The X-ray diffraction results show the formation of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and monoclinic phase of CuO. FE-SEM results reveal the formation of nanowires with dimensions ranging between 5–15 µm and 4–12 µm in length and a diametere ranging between 50–150 nm and 50–250 nm for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CuO respectively. The VSM results show that the saturation magnetization values for hematite and cupric oxide were 132.8700 and 0.0124 emu/g, respectively. The nanowires were used as catalyst for green urea synthesis in the presence of an oscillating and a static magnetic fields. The use of nanocatalyst with high saturation magnetization gives a higher yield of urea due to the increase in the singlet to triplet conversion. The highest yield of urea 11243 ppm was achieved by applying an oscillating magnetic field of frequency 0.5 MHz and using α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires as nanocatalyst. - Highlights: • Effect of saturation magnetization of nanocatalyst on urea yield was investigated • Using nanocatalyst with high saturation magnetization value improved urea yield. • Effect of oscillating magnetic field frequency on the urea yield was investigated. • The highest urea yield was achieved by applying 0.5 MHz oscillating magnetic field.

  8. The effect of saturation magnetization of nanocatalyst and oscillating magnetic field for green urea synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, Noorhana; Alqasem, Bilal; Irfan, Muhammad; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia Ur; Shafie, Afza; Soleimani, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Hematite and cupric oxide nanowires have been synthesized using the oxidation method for green urea production. Hematite nanowires were obtained by the oxidation of an iron wire at a temperature of 650 °C and ambient pressure in the presence of N 2 and O 2 gases. Cupric oxide nanowires were obtained by the same method at 700 °C, using a copper wire. The X-ray diffraction results show the formation of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe 2 O 3 and monoclinic phase of CuO. FE-SEM results reveal the formation of nanowires with dimensions ranging between 5–15 µm and 4–12 µm in length and a diametere ranging between 50–150 nm and 50–250 nm for α-Fe 2 O 3 and CuO respectively. The VSM results show that the saturation magnetization values for hematite and cupric oxide were 132.8700 and 0.0124 emu/g, respectively. The nanowires were used as catalyst for green urea synthesis in the presence of an oscillating and a static magnetic fields. The use of nanocatalyst with high saturation magnetization gives a higher yield of urea due to the increase in the singlet to triplet conversion. The highest yield of urea 11243 ppm was achieved by applying an oscillating magnetic field of frequency 0.5 MHz and using α-Fe 2 O 3 nanowires as nanocatalyst. - Highlights: • Effect of saturation magnetization of nanocatalyst on urea yield was investigated • Using nanocatalyst with high saturation magnetization value improved urea yield. • Effect of oscillating magnetic field frequency on the urea yield was investigated. • The highest urea yield was achieved by applying 0.5 MHz oscillating magnetic field.

  9. Study on application of green's function method in thermal stress rapid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guihe; Duan Yuangang; Xu Xiao; Chen Rong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a quick and accuracy thermal stress calculation method, the Green's Function Method, which is a combination of finite element method and numerical algorithm method. Thermal stress calculation of Safe Injection Nozzle of Reactor Coolant Line of PWR plant is performed with Green's function method for heatup and cooldown thermal transients as a demonstration example, and the result is compared with finite element method to verify the rationality and accuracy of this method. The advantage and disadvantage of the Green's function method and the finite element method are also compared. (authors)

  10. Cold compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd-Fe-B alloy powders prepared by different processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoya [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Hu, Lianxi, E-mail: hulx@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Erde [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Graphical abstract: Relative density enhancement and nanocrystallization of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase are two major effective means to improve magnetic properties. Since the matrix Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase in the starting Nd-Fe-B alloy can be disproportionated into a nano-structured mixture of NdH{sub 2.7}, Fe{sub 2}B, and {alpha}-Fe phases during mechanical milling in hydrogen. It is thus important to study the densification behavior of nanocrystalline powders to evaluate and predict the cold compactibility of powders. By comparison with the as milled as well as melt-spun Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} alloy powders, we find that the as-disproportionated Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} alloy powder exhibits the best cold compactibility. As evident from the illustration presented below, compaction parameters (representing the powder compactibility) have been determined by fitting density-pressure data with double logarithm compaction equation. Densification mechanisms involved during cold compaction process are clarified in our work by referring to microstructure observation of samples prepared by various methods. As a result, highly densified green magnet compact can be obtained by cold pressing of as-disproportionated NdFeB alloy powders. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-structured disproportionated Nd-Fe-B alloy powders by mechanical milling in hydrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly densified green magnet compact by cold pressing of as-disproportionated Nd-Fe-B alloy powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density-pressure data fitted well by an empirical powder compaction model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As-disproportionated powder showed better compactibility than as milled and melt-spun counterparts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of physical properties on powder compactibility and densification mechanisms are clarified. - Abstract: The compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} (atomic ratio) alloy

  11. Role of Cu During Sintering of Fe0.96Cu0.04 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprahasam, D.; Sriramamurthy, A. M.; Bysakh, S.; Sundararajan, G.; Chattopadhyay, K.

    2018-04-01

    Nanoparticle agglomerates of passivated Fe ( n-Fe) and Fe0.96Cu0.04 ( n-Fe0.96Cu0.04), synthesized through the levitational gas condensation (LGC) process, were compacted and sintered using the conventional powder metallurgy method. The n-Fe0.96Cu0.04 agglomerates produced lower green density than n-Fe, and when compacted under pressure beyond 200 MPa, they underwent lateral cracking during ejection attributed to the presence of a passive oxide layer. Sintering under dynamic hydrogen atmosphere can produce a higher density of compact in n-Fe0.96Cu0.04 in comparison to n-Fe. Both the results of dilatometry and thermogravimetric (TG) measurements of the samples under flowing hydrogen revealed enhancement of the sintering process as soon as the reduction of oxide layers could be accomplished. The shrinkage rate of n-Fe0.96Cu0.04 reached a value three times higher than n-Fe at a low temperature of 723 K (450 °C) during heating. This enhanced shrinkage rate was the manifestation of accumulation of Cu at the surface of the particles. The formation of a thin-surface melted layer enriched with copper during heating to isothermal holding facilitated as a medium of transport for diffusion of the elements. The compacts produced by sintering at 773 K (500 °C), with relative density 82 pct, were found to be unstable and oxidized instantly when exposed to ambient atmosphere. The stable compacts of density more than 92 pct with 300- to 450-nm grain size could only be produced when sintering was carried out at 973 K (700 °C) and beyond. The 0.22 wt pct residual oxygen obtained in the sintered compact is similar to what is used for conventional ferrous powder metallurgy products.

  12. Production of Green Steel from Red Mud: A Novel Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Bhagyadhar; Behera, Pravas Ranjan; Mishra, Chitta Ranjan

    Red mud of Indian origin contains around 55% plus of Fe2O3 and is considered as a hazardous waste for the alumina industry. For production of one tone of alumina employing the Bayer's Process, around two tones of red mud is generated from three tones of Bauxite. Conventional process of steel making is not devoid of environmental pollution. In the present investigation, efforts have been made to produce steel from red mud by adopting reduction roasting, magnetic separation and hydrogen plasma smelting route. Magnetic fraction, containing enriched iron oxide and minimal content of alumina, is produced following the first two stages which is then subjected to hydrogen plasma smelting process for production of steel. This novel concept follows a green path way for production of steel free from pollution and is termed as green steel. Further, the only by-product that is produced in the process, is water, which is eco-friendly and recyclable.

  13. An efficient solvent-free synthesis of imidazolines and benzimidazoles using K 4[Fe(CN 6] catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabeer A. Shaikh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazolines and Benzimidazoles have been efficiently synthesized in high yields by treatment of 1,2-diamine with aldehydes using the metal co-ordinate complex K 4[Fe(CN 6] as a catalysis. The method was carried out under solvent free condition via oxidation of carbon-nitrogen bond. The process is green, mild and inexpensive.

  14. Preparation and Mechanical Properties of TiC-Fe Cermets and TiC-Fe/Fe Bilayer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Zhou, Yang; Li, Runfeng; Wang, Jiaqi; Chen, Lulu; Li, Shibo

    2017-10-01

    TiC-Fe cermets and TiC-Fe/Fe bilayer composites consisting of a pure Fe layer and a TiC-Fe cermets layer were fabricated by hot-pressing sintering. The pure Fe layer contributes to the toughness of composites, and the TiC-Fe cermets layer endows the composites with an improved tensile strength and hardness. The effect of TiC contents (30-60 vol.%) on the mechanical properties of TiC-Fe cermets and TiC-Fe/Fe bilayer composites was investigated. Among the TiC-Fe cermets, the 40 vol.% TiC-Fe cermets possessed the highest tensile strength of 581 MPa and Vickers hardness of 5.1 GPa. The maximum fracture toughness of 17.0 MPa m1/2 was achieved for the TiC-Fe cermets with 30 vol.% TiC. For the TiC-Fe/Fe bilayer composites, the 40 vol.% TiC-Fe/Fe bilayer composite owns the maximum tensile strength of 588 MPa, which is higher than that of 40 vol.% TiC-Fe cermets. In addition, the 33.5% increment of tensile strength of 30 vol.% TiC-Fe/Fe bilayer composite comparing with the 30 vol.% TiC-Fe cermets, which is attributed to the 30 vol.% TiC-Fe/Fe bilayer composite exhibited the largest interlaminar shear strength of 335 MPa. The bilayer composites are expected to be used as wear resistance components in some heavy wear conditions.

  15. Manganese Abundances in the Stars with Metallicities -1 <[Fe/H]< +0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishenina, T.; Gorbaneva, T.; Pignatari, M.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Korotin, S.

    2018-01-01

    We estimate the Mn abundances in the atmospheres of 247 F-G-K-type dwarf stars belonging to the thin and thick disk populations in the metallicity range -1 LTE approximation; the synthetic spectrum for the Mn lines was computed accounting for the hyperfine structure. Starting from the results obtained, we discuss the evolution of the [Mn/Fe] ratio with respect to [Fe/H] in the galactic disk.

  16. Photoluminescence quenching and enhanced spin relaxation in Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovhal, Manoj M.; Santhosh Kumar, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Khullar, Prerna [School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Kumar, Manjeet [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Abhyankar, A.C., E-mail: ashutoshabhyankar@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Cost-effective ultrasonically assisted precipitation method is utilized to synthesize Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature and the effect of Iron (Fe) doping on structural, optical and spin relaxation properties also presented. As-synthesized pure and Fe doped ZnO NPs possess a perfect hexagonal growth habit of wurtzite zinc oxide, along the (101) direction of preference. With Fe doping, ‘c/a’ ratio and compressive lattice strain in ZnO NPs are found to reduce and increase, respectively. Raman studies demonstrate that the E{sub 1} longitudinal optical (LO) vibrational mode is very weak in pure which remarkably enhanced with Fe doping into ZnO NPs. The direct band gap energy (E{sub g}) of the ZnO NPs has been increased from 3.02 eV to 3.11 eV with Fe doping. A slight red-shift observed with strong green emission band, in photoluminescence spectra, is strongly quenched in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals spherical shape of ZnO NPs with 60–70 nm, which reduces substantially on Fe doping. The energy dispersive X-ray spectrum and elemental mapping confirms the homogeneous distribution of Fe in ZnO NPs. Moreover, the specific relaxation rate (R{sub 2sp} = 1/T{sub 2}) has been measured using Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method and found to be maximum in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs. Further, the correlation of structural, optical and dynamic properties is proposed. - Highlights: • Pure ZnO and Fe doped ZnO NPs were successfully prepared by cost effective ultrasonically assisted precipitation method. • The optical band gap of ZnO has been enhanced form 3.02–3.11 eV with Fe doping. • PL quenching behaviour has been observed with Fe{sup 3+} ions substitution in ZnO lattice. • Specific relaxation rate (R{sub 2sp} = 1/T{sub 2}) has been varied with Fe doping and found to be maximum in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs.

  17. Green thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank Woolsey, III

    Many people around the world have observed green light apparently emanating from severe thunderstorms, but until recently there has been no scientific study of the phenomenon. Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm suggest that they are some kind of illusion. The existence of green thunderstorms has been objectively demonstrated by recording spectra of light from thunderstorms using a handheld spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 and the spring of 1996 numerous storms were observed and spectra of the light emanating from these storms were recorded. Observations were made both at the ground and aboard research aircraft. Furthermore, time series of spectra were recorded as the observed color of some storms changed from dark blue to a bluish-green. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the occurrence of green light in connection with severe storms. Fankhauser gave some observational support to the belief that green light from thunderstorms is possible and believed that the source of the light is from the blue sky penetrating thin regions in the clouds. Fraser believes that light from the setting sun, in combination with the process of scattering by atmospheric molecules, creates the green light associated with severe weather and the thunderstorm acts only as a black backdrop. Unfortunately, no cloud illuminated by the sun is black and the green airlight produced by the Fraser theory is in reality overwhelmed by light reflected by the cloud. Often the unusual coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflection of light from foliage on the ground. The quantitative measurements made during the observation period fail to support these assumptions. We have observed thunderstorms to be green over ground that was not green and we have observed blue thunderstorms over ground that was green

  18. Iron colloids reduce the bioavailability of phosphorus to the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baken, Stijn; Nawara, Sophie; Van Moorleghem, Christoff; Smolders, Erik

    2014-08-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a limiting nutrient in many aquatic systems. The bioavailability of P in natural waters strongly depends on its speciation. In this study, structural properties of iron colloids were determined and related to their effect on P sorption and P bioavailability. The freshwater green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata was exposed to media spiked with radiolabelled (33)PO4, and the uptake of (33)P was monitored for 1 h. The media contained various concentrations of synthetic iron colloids with a size between 10 kDa and 0.45 μm. The iron colloids were stabilised by natural organic matter. EXAFS spectroscopy showed that these colloids predominantly consisted of ferrihydrite with small amounts of organically complexed Fe. In colloid-free treatments, the P uptake flux by the algae obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In the presence of iron colloids at 9 or 90 μM Fe, corresponding to molar P:Fe ratios between 0.02 and 0.17, the truly dissolved P (<10 kDa) was between 4 and 60% of the total dissolved P (<0.45 μm). These colloids reduced the P uptake flux by R. subcapitata compared to colloid-free treatments at the same total dissolved P concentration. However, the P uptake flux from colloid containing solutions equalled that from colloid-free ones when expressed as truly dissolved P. This demonstrates that colloidal P did not contribute to the P uptake flux. It is concluded that, on the short term, phosphate adsorbed to ferrihydrite colloids is not available to the green alga R. subcapitata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Representation of the three-body Coulomb Green's function in parabolic coordinates: paths of integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaytsev, S A

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of using straight-line paths of integration in computing the integral representation of the three-body Coulomb Green's function is discussed. In our numerical examples two different kinds of integration contours in the complex energy planes are considered. It is demonstrated that straight-line paths, which cross the positive real axis, are suitable for numerical computation.

  20. Discovery of New Coronal Lines at 2.843 and 2.853 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jenna E.; Judge, Philip G.; DeLuca, Edward E.; Hannigan, James W.

    2018-04-01

    Two new emission features were observed during the 2017 August 21 total solar eclipse by a novel spectrometer, the Airborne Infrared Spectrometer (AIR-Spec), flown at 14.3 km altitude aboard the NCAR Gulfstream-V aircraft. We derive wavelengths in air of 2.8427 ± 0.00009 μm and 2.8529 ± 0.00008 μm. One of these lines belongs to the 3{{{p}}}53{{d}}{}3{{{F}}}3^\\circ \\to 3{{{p}}}53{{d}}{}3{{{F}}}4^\\circ transition in Ar-like Fe IX. This appears to be the first detection of this transition from any source. Minimization of residual wavelength differences using both measured wavelengths, together with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, does not clearly favor assignment to Fe IX. However, the shorter wavelength line appears more consistent with other observed features formed at similar temperatures to Fe IX. The transition occurs between two levels within the excited 3{{{p}}}53{{d}} configuration, 429,000 cm‑1 above the ground level. The line is therefore absent in photo-ionized coronal-line astrophysical sources such as the Circinus Galaxy. Data from a Fourier transform interferometer (FTIR) deployed from Wyoming show that both lines are significantly attenuated by telluric H2O, even at dry sites. We have been unable to identify the longer wavelength transition.

  1. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  2. The development of a line-scan imaging algorithm for the detection of fecal contamination on leafy geens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Chuang, Yung-Kun; Lee, Hoyoung

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports the development of a multispectral algorithm, using the line-scan hyperspectral imaging system, to detect fecal contamination on leafy greens. Fresh bovine feces were applied to the surfaces of washed loose baby spinach leaves. A hyperspectral line-scan imaging system was used to acquire hyperspectral fluorescence images of the contaminated leaves. Hyperspectral image analysis resulted in the selection of the 666 nm and 688 nm wavebands for a multispectral algorithm to rapidly detect feces on leafy greens, by use of the ratio of fluorescence intensities measured at those two wavebands (666 nm over 688 nm). The algorithm successfully distinguished most of the lowly diluted fecal spots (0.05 g feces/ml water and 0.025 g feces/ml water) and some of the highly diluted spots (0.0125 g feces/ml water and 0.00625 g feces/ml water) from the clean spinach leaves. The results showed the potential of the multispectral algorithm with line-scan imaging system for application to automated food processing lines for food safety inspection of leafy green vegetables.

  3. Green Consumerism : an Eco-Friendly Behaviour Form Through The Green Product Consumption and Green Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Handayani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is referred to analyse the influence of consumer attitude of green product towards purchase intention. The consumer attitude of green product is a psychological tendencies that is expressed by evaluating a certain entity with some advantage or disadvantage considerations. The problem of this research is the low of cunsumer awareness to consume green product, because the lack to comprehend the importance of green product usage for health and eco-friendly. The purpose of this research is to test the influence of consumer attitude of green products towards purchase intention. Hypothesis testing using Partial Least Square (PLS. The result of analysis show that there is influence among consumer attitude of green product towards consumer purchase intention significantly.

  4. Laser ultrasonics for bulk-density distribution measurement on green ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, G. M.; Cavuto, A.; Pandarese, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper a Laser Ultrasonics (LUT) system is developed and applied to measure bulk density distribution of green ceramic tiles, which are porous materials with low heat conductivity. Bulk density of green ceramic bodies is a fundamental parameter to be kept under control in the industrial production of ceramic tiles. The LUT system proposed is based on a Nd:YAG pulsed laser for excitation and an air-coupled electro-capacitive transducer for detection. The paper reports experimental apparent bulk-density measurements on white ceramic bodies after a calibration procedures. The performances observed are better than those previously achieved by authors using air-coupled ultrasonic probes for both emission and detection, allowing to reduce average uncertainty down to about ±6 kg/m3 (±0.3%), thanks to the increase in excitation efficiency and lateral resolution, while maintaining potential flexibility for on-line application. The laser ultrasonic procedure proposed is available for both on-line and off-line application. In this last case it is possible to obtain bulk density maps with high spatial resolution by a 2D scan without interrupting the production process.

  5. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  6. Spectroscopy of peaks at microwave range for nanostructure SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariaee, Sina, E-mail: sina.ariaee@tabrizu.ac.ir; Mehdipour, Mostafa, E-mail: Mostafa_mehdipour67@yahoo.com; Moradnia, Mina, E-mail: mina.moradnia86@gmail.com

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanostructure ferrite particles were synthesized via the co-precipitation of chloride salts utilizing the sodium hydroxide solution. The resulting precursors were heat-treated at 1100 °C for 4 h. After cooling in the furnace, the ferrite powders were pressed at 0.1 MPa and then sintered at 1200 °C for 4 h. The spectroscopy and characterization of peaks at the microwave range (X-band) for the nanostructure ferrite particles were investigated by the ferromagnetic resonance/transmit-line theories and Reflection Loss (RL) plots. The extracted data from these theoretical and experimental results showed that the natural ferromagnetic resonance can be lead to the narrow peaks and the width of the peaks can be related to the periodic effects. Two kinds of peaks were seen for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} at X-band (8–12 GHz); the narrow peak at (9.8 GHz) was remaining unchanged and consistent while the wide one was shifted from 11 GHz to 8.5 GHz by decreasing the thickness of the samples. These phenomena were also happened for SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} samples. The natural resonance was not happened due to the hard magnetic properties of these nano structure particles. - Highlights: • SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructure ferrite particles were synthesized via the co-precipitation of chloride salts. • Two kinds of peaks were seen for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} at X-band (8–12 GHz); these phenomena were also happened for SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} samples. • The narrow peaks were remained unchanged and consistent while the wide ones were shifted by decreasing the thickness of the samples. • Characterization procedure was conducted utilizing the ferromagnetic resonance/transmit-line theories and Reflection Loss (RL) plots. • It was concluded that the natural ferromagnetic resonance can be lead to the narrow peaks while the wide ones can be related to the periodic effects.

  7. NdFeB thick films prepared by tape casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, B.; Schwarzer, S.; Rahmig, A.; Toepfer, J.

    2003-01-01

    NdFeB films of thickness between 100 and 800 μm were prepared by tape casting of a slurry containing 84-95 wt% of commercial NdFeB powder (MQP-B, -Q and -S). After curing the flexible green tapes at 120 deg. C non-porous magnetic films are obtained. The remanence of the films is in the range of 350-450 mT and the coercivity is between 300 and 800 kA/m depending on the type of MQP powder used. The magnetic properties of the films are discussed in relation to film composition and type of magnetic material. For MEMS applications the thick films are magnetized with a multi-pole stripe pattern with 1 mm pole pitch. The induction at the surface of the films was measured with a Hall probe and compared to theoretical calculations. The results indicate that the films are completely magnetized regardless of the film thickness. Tape-casted NdFeB thick films are promising candidates for applications in micro-systems or actuators. Miniaturization of the magnet components is one of the key issues in the development of electromagnetic micro-systems, thus creating a need for replacement of small sintered magnets by magnetic thick film components. Other applications include encoders

  8. Green campus management based on conservation program in Universitas Negeri Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihanto, Teguh

    2018-03-01

    Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) has a great commitment in the development of higher education programs in line with its vision as a conservation - minded and internationally reputable university. Implementation of conservation programs with respect to the rules or conservation aspects of sustainable use, preservation, provisioning, protection, restoration and conservation of nature. In order to support the implementation of UNNES conservation program more focused, development strategies and development programs for each conservation scope are covered: (1) Biodiversity management; (2) Internal transportation management; (3) energy management; (4) Green building management; (5) Waste and water management; (6) Cultural conservation management. All related to conservation development strategies and programs are managed in the form of green campus management aimed at realizing UNNES as a green campus, characterized and reputable at the regional and global level.

  9. The mere green effect: An fMRI study of pro-environmental advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezich, I Stephanie; Gunter, Benjamin C; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2017-08-01

    Self-report evidence suggests that consumers prefer green products (i.e., pro-environmental) to standard products, but this is not reflected in purchase behaviors. To understand this disconnect, we exposed participants in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to green and standard ads. After viewing each ad, participants rated liking and perceived sustainability. Ratings were more favorable for green ads than for control ads, but the functional MRI data suggested an opposite pattern-participants showed greater activation in regions associated with personal value and reward (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) in response to control ads relative to green ads. In addition, participants showed greater activity in these regions to the extent that they reported liking control ads, but there was no such trend for green ads. In line with a neuroeconomic account, we suggest that activity in these regions may be indexing a value signal computed during message exposure that may influence downstream purchase decisions, in contrast to self-reported evaluations that may reflect social desirability concerns absent at the point of purchase.

  10. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  11. Synthesis of Cd/(Al+Fe) layered double hydroxides and characterization of the calcination products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.R.; Barriga, C.; Fernandez, J.M.; Rives, V.; Ulibarri, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing Cd(II), Al(III), and Fe(III) in the brucite-like layers with different starting Fe/Al atomic ratios and with nitrate as counteranion have been prepared following the coprecipitation method at a constant pH value of 8. An additional Cd(II),Al(III)-LDH sample interlayered with hexacyanoferrate(III) ions has been prepared by ionic exchange at pH 9. The samples have been characterized by elemental chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and FT-IR spectroscopy. Their thermal stability has been assessed by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA) and mass spectrometric analysis of the evolved gases. The PXRD patterns of the solids calcined at 800 deg. C show diffraction lines corresponding to Cd(Al)O and spinel-type materials, which precise nature (CdAl 2 O 4 , Cd 1-x Fe 2+x O 4 , or Cd x Fe 2.66 O 4 ) depends on location and concentration of iron in the parent material or precursor. - Graphical abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing Cd(II), Al(III), and Fe(III) in the brucite-like layers with different starting Fe/Al atomic ratios and with nitrate as counteranion have been prepared following the coprecipitation method. An additional Cd(II),Al(III)-LDH sample interlayered with hexacyanoferrate(III) ions has been prepared by ionic exchange. Calcination at 800 deg. C shows diffraction lines corresponding to CdO and to spinel-type materials. SEM micrograph of sample CdAlFe-N-0

  12. Fe atom exchange between aqueous Fe2+ and magnetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Christopher A; Handler, Robert M; Beard, Brian L; Pasakarnis, Timothy; Johnson, Clark M; Scherer, Michelle M

    2012-11-20

    The reaction between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+) has been extensively studied due to its role in contaminant reduction, trace-metal sequestration, and microbial respiration. Previous work has demonstrated that the reaction of Fe(2+) with magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) results in the structural incorporation of Fe(2+) and an increase in the bulk Fe(2+) content of magnetite. It is unclear, however, whether significant Fe atom exchange occurs between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+), as has been observed for other Fe oxides. Here, we measured the extent of Fe atom exchange between aqueous Fe(2+) and magnetite by reacting isotopically "normal" magnetite with (57)Fe-enriched aqueous Fe(2+). The extent of Fe atom exchange between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+) was significant (54-71%), and went well beyond the amount of Fe atoms found at the near surface. Mössbauer spectroscopy of magnetite reacted with (56)Fe(2+) indicate that no preferential exchange of octahedral or tetrahedral sites occurred. Exchange experiments conducted with Co-ferrite (Co(2+)Fe(2)(3+)O(4)) showed little impact of Co substitution on the rate or extent of atom exchange. Bulk electron conduction, as previously invoked to explain Fe atom exchange in goethite, is a possible mechanism, but if it is occurring, conduction does not appear to be the rate-limiting step. The lack of significant impact of Co substitution on the kinetics of Fe atom exchange, and the relatively high diffusion coefficients reported for magnetite suggest that for magnetite, unlike goethite, Fe atom diffusion is a plausible mechanism to explain the rapid rates of Fe atom exchange in magnetite.

  13. The Moessbauer effect in Fe(III) HEDTA, Fe(III) EDTA, and Fe(III) CDTA compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, F.R.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of Moessbauer spectra with pH value of Fe(III)HEDTA and Fe(III)CDTA compounds is studied. Informations on formation processes of LFe-O-FeL (L=ligand) type dimers by the relation of titration curves of Fe(III)EDTA, Fe(III)HEDTA and Fe(III)CDTA compounds with the series of Moessbauer spectra, are obtained. Some informations on Fe-O-Fe bond structure are also obtained. Comparing the titration curves with the series of Moessbauer spectra, it is concluded that the dimerization process begins when a specie of the form FeXOH α (X = EDTA, HEDTA, CDTA; α = -1, -2) arises. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. The Influence of Consumers Perception of Green Products on Green Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Kong; Amran Harun; Rini Suryati Sulong; Jaratin Lily

    2014-01-01

    Green consumerism has increasingly received attention since the increased level of consumer awareness towards green products. Therefore, the aim of this paper had been to examine the influence of consumer perception of green products on green purchase intention. In this study, perception of green products was conceptualized as a multidimensional variable comprised of green corporate perception, eco-label, green advertising, green packaging, and green product value. By using a survey, a total ...

  15. Effectiveness of FeEDDHA, FeEDDHMA, and FeHBED in Preventing Iron-Deficiency Chlorosis in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Levi M; Weng, Liping; Bugter, Marcel H J

    2016-11-09

    The performance of FeHBED in preventing Fe deficiency chlorosis in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in comparison to FeEDDHA and FeEDDHMA was studied, as well as the importance of the ortho-ortho and ortho-para/rest isomers in defining the performance. To this end, chlorophyll production (SPAD), plant dry matter yield, and the mass fractions of important mineral elements in the plant were quantified in a greenhouse pot experiment. All three Fe chelates increased SPAD index and dry matter yield compared to the control. The effect of FeHBED on chlorophyll production was visible over a longer time span than that of FeEDDHA and FeEDDHMA. Additionally, FeHBED did not suppress Mn uptake as much as the other Fe chelates. Compared to the other Fe chelates, total Fe content in the young leaves was lower in the FeHBED treatment; however, total Fe content was not directly related to chlorophyll production and biomass yield. For each chelate, the ortho-ortho isomer was found to be more effective than the other isomers evaluated.

  16. NMR measurements in milled RE-TM2 compounds (RE=Gd and TM=Co, Fe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribuzy, C.V.; Guimaraes, A.P.; Biondo, A.; Larica, C.; Alves, K.M.B.

    1996-09-01

    Milled samples of the Laves phase intermetallic compounds Gd Fe 2 and Gd CO 2 were measured by NMR at 4.2 K. The milling was made from the crystalline intermetallic compounds, inside a cylindrical tool made of hard steel, under argon atmosphere, for several different time intervals. The initial compounds were produced from high purity elements in an arc furnace, under inert atmosphere. Their X-ray diffraction patterns agreed with those of the literature. The milling of Gd Fe 2 and of Gd CO 2 , induces amorphization. Above 1 hour the milling of Gd Fe 2 leads to segregation of α-Fe and formation of a Gd-Fe phase. These results are shown in the X-ray analysis. The spin-echo pulse NMR technique was utilized to study some structural and magnetic as a function of milling time. The measurements were made in a broad band pulse NMR spectrometer. The NMR spectra of the 155 Gd 157 Gd isotopes in Gd Fe 2 show a broadening and displacement of the NMR lines, reflecting the introduction of defects, some kind of disorder and also the formation of a new Gd-rich phase after 1 hour. This result is in agreement with the X-ray spectra. In both systems, the spectra of the amorphous samples show broader lines, and the measured hyperfine fields do not change much with milling. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

  17. Internal Displacement Reactions in Multicomponent Oxides: Part I. Line Compounds with Narrow Homogeneity Range

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, SNS; Leonard, DN; Wiggins, LB; Jacob, KT

    2005-01-01

    As a model of an internal displacement reaction involving a ternary oxide line compound, the following reaction was studied at 1273 K as a function of time, t: $Fe+NiTiO_3 = Ni + FeTiO_3$ Both polycrystalline and single-crystal materials were used as the starting $NiTiO_3$ oxide. During the reaction, the Ni in the oxide compound is displaced by Fe and it precipitates as a \\gamma -(Ni-Fe) alloy. The reaction preserves the starting ilmenite structure. The product oxide has a consta...

  18. Possibility for using of two Paulownia lines as a tool for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzvetkova, Nikolina; Miladinova, Kamelya; Ivanova, Katya; Georgieva, Teodora; Geneva, Marya; Markovska, Yuliana

    2015-01-01

    One-year-old two Paulownia lines (Ptomentosa x fortunei--TF 01 and R elongata x fortunei--EF 02) were grown, as pot experiment, in soil collected from the field of waste depository of Kremikovtzi ferrous metallurgical industry near Sofia. The soil was heavily polluted with Cd. Metals content (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe) in soil and its distribution in roots, stems and leaves of both lines was studied. The results showed that Ca and K accumulated more in stem, Mg, Na, Fe and Cd in root, while Pb, Cu and Zn in the leaves of both lines. The bloaccumulation factor (BF) and translocation factor (TF) were evaluated in order to determine the potential of plants in removing metals from contaminated soil. The BF for Fe, Pb, Cu and Zn in TF 01 line exceeded that of EF 02 line--5.6; 1.03; 1.20; 1.14 times, respectively. TF was higher in TF 01 line for Fe, Pb and Cd (6.0; 1.92 and 1.03, respectively), but not for Cu and Zn. The success of phytoremediation depends on plant growth and restricted distribution of heavy metals in shoots. Our results showed that stem length and total leaf area of Paulownia elongata x fortunei were higher than Paulownia tomentosa x fortuneibut BF for Cu and Zn and TF for Pb was less. BF for Cd was 1.7 times higher and TF for Zn was 1.03 times higher in Paulownia elongata x fortunei. Selected two lines (P. tomentosa x fortunei--TF 01 and P elongataxfortunei--EF02) were accumulators of Cu, Zn and Cd. Paulownia tomentosax fortunei accumulated more Pb and Zn in aboveground parts, while Paulownia elongata x fortunei--accumulated Zn only. These lines proved to be a promising species for phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils due to high biomass productivity.

  19. The effect of cooking and washing rice on the bio-accessibility of As, Cu, Fe, V and Zn using an on-line continuous leaching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nolan S; Beauchemin, Diane

    2013-01-03

    A previously developed method based on continuous on-line leaching with artificial gastro-intestinal fluids was used to determine the bio-accessible fraction of As, Cu, Fe, V and Zn in brown and white rice from California by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Saliva generally accounted for the largest percentage of total element leached in comparison to gastric and intestinal juices. Arsenic speciation analysis was performed on the saliva and gastric juice leachates using ion exchange chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. The four most toxic species of As (As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V)), as well as Cl(-) in the gastric juice leachate, were successfully separated within 5.5min using a simple nitric acid gradient. While cooking rice had relatively little effect on total bio-accessibility, a change in species from As(V) and DMA to As(III) was observed for both types of rice. On the other hand, washing the rice with doubly deionized water prior to cooking removed a large percentage of the total bio-accessible fraction of As, Cu, Fe, V and Zn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  1. Infrared divergences of Green functions and renormalization in massless theories. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, S.A.; Zav'yalova, O.I.; Karchev, N.I.

    1981-01-01

    General theorems are proved concerning the infrared finiteness of Green functions in theories including massless particles. Considerations are based on α-representation of Feynman diagrams. Necessory conditions are considered for proving theorems in the case of diagrams with massive lines. Under certain conditions the contribution of the considered sections into the Feynman amplitude is shown to be free from infrared divergences, but only for those subgraphs which involve all the massive lines and contain all the outer vertexes in one affinity component

  2. Removal of indigo carmine and green bezanyl-F2B from water using calcined and uncalcined Zn/Al + Fe layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba Bessaha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxide Zn/(Al + Fe with a molar ratio of 3:(0.85 + 0.15, designated as ZAF-HT, was synthetized by co-precipitation. Its calcined product CZAF was obtained by heat treatment of ZAF-HT at 500°C. The calcined and uncalcined materials were used to remove the acid dyes indigo carmine (IC and green bezanyl-F2B (F2B from water in batch mode. The synthetized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis. The sorption kinetic data fitted a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorbed amounts of the calcined material were much larger than ZAF-HT. The maximum adsorption capacity of CZAF was found to be 617.3 mg g−1 for IC and 1,501.4 mg g−1 for F2B. The isotherms showed that the removal of IC and F2B by ZAF-HT and CZAF could be described by a Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters were also calculated. The negative values of standard free energy ΔG° indicate the spontaneity of sorption process. The reuse of CZAF was studied for both dyes and the calcined material showed a good stability for four thermal cycles.

  3. Structure of Fe(III) precipitates generated by Fe(0) electrocoagulation in the presence of groundwater ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genuchten, C. M.; Pena, J.; Addy, S. E.; Gadgil, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    -ranged atomic pair correlations as 2-line ferrihydrite (2LFH), rather than lepidocrocite (Lp) which is generated in an NaCl electrolyte. However, when Ca or Mg is added to oxyanion electrolytes, Fe-Fe polymerization and particle size both tend to increase and a Lp-like material with characteristic Fe-O and Fe-Fe pair correlations is once again favored. The presence of either Ca or Mg also enhances the removal P, As(V), and to a lesser extent, Si per mass of Fe. The analysis from EXAFS and PDF spectra provide new insights into the polyhedral connectivity of nanoscale oxyanion-bearing HFO formed under a wide range of chemical conditions, improving predictions of EC performance in the field and allowing for knowledge-based improvements in the design of future EC systems. Our PDF data also show that the most disordered EC precipitate samples (formed at high oxyanion/Fe ratios) all share a similar "backbone" of 3-4 peaks beyond the first 4 Å, regardless of the oxyanion present during synthesis. Using 2LFH as a reference, we index all atomic pair correlations throughout the coherently scattering structure of our disordered samples.

  4. Moessbauer studies of the structural phase transitions in RbFeF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumeler, Hp.; Keller, H.; Kuendig, W.; Savic, I.M.; Wanklyn, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    RbFeF 4 exhibits two structural phase transitions (SPT), namely a first-order transition at 381 K and a second-order transition at 417 K. A detailed 57 Fe Moessbauer investigation of these SPT is presented. At pronounced discontinuities in the quadrupole splitting and the recoil-free fraction are observed, whereas at 417 K both quantities vary continuously with temperature. Both SPT are also seen in the area ratio of the single crystal quadrupole lines which reflects the tilting of the FeF 6 octahedra with respect to the c-axis. However, no noticeable indication of the SPT is found in the center shift. (Auth.)

  5. Synthesis of Fe3O4/Pt Nanoparticles Decorated Carbon Nanotubes and Their Use as Magnetically Recyclable Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongkun He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a facile approach to prepare Fe3O4/Pt nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs. The superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with average size of 4∼5 nm were loaded on the surfaces of carboxyl groups functionalized CNTs via a high-temperature solution-phase hydrolysis method from the raw material of FeCl3. The synthesis process of magnetic CNTs is green and readily scalable. The loading amounts of Fe3O4 nanopartilces and the magnetizations of the resulting magnetic CNTs show good tunability. The Pt nanopaticles with average size of 2.5 nm were deposited on the magnetic CNTs through a solution-based method. It is demonstrated that the Fe3O4/Pt nanoparticles decorated CNTs have high catalytic activity in the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol and can be readily recycled by a magnet and reused in the next reactions with high efficiencies for at least fifteen successive cycles. The novel CNTs-supported magnetically recyclable catalysts are promising in heterogeneous catalysis applications.

  6. Mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite composite for targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Lina; He, Xiaomei; Wu, Zhenyu, E-mail: zhenyuwuhn@sina.com

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite composite was synthesized by a simple, efficient and environmental friendly method. • The prepared material had a large surface area, high pore volume, and good magnetic separability. • DOX-loaded Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite composite exhibited surprising slow drug release behavior and pH-dependent behavior. - Abstract: In this contribution, we introduced a simple, efficient, and green method of preparing a mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite. The as-prepared material had a large surface area, high pore volume, and good magnetic separability, which made it suitable for targeted drug delivery systems. The chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) was used to investigate the drug release behavior of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/HA composite. The drug release profiles displayed a little burst effect and pH-dependent behavior. The release rate of DOX at pH 5.8 was larger than that at pH 7.4, which could be attributed to DOX protonation in acid medium. In addition, the released DOX concentrations remained at 0.83 and 1.39 μg/ml at pH 7.4 and 5.8, respectively, which indicated slow, steady, and safe release rates. Therefore, the as-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite composite could be an efficient platform for targeted anticancer drug delivery.

  7. The Redshifted Hydrogen Balmer and Metastable He 1 Absorption Line System in Mini-FeLoBAL Quasar SDSS J112526.12+002901.3: A Parsec-scale Accretion Inflow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xi-Heng; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Zhang, Shao-Hua; Ji, Tuo; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan

    2016-10-01

    The accretion of the interstellar medium onto central super-massive black holes is widely accepted as the source of the gigantic energy released by the active galactic nuclei. However, few pieces of observational evidence have been confirmed directly demonstrating the existence of the inflows. The absorption line system in the spectra of quasar SDSS J112526.12+002901.3 presents an interesting example in which the rarely detected hydrogen Balmer and metastable He I absorption lines are found redshifted to the quasar's rest frame along with the low-ionization metal absorption lines Mg II, Fe II, etc. The repeated SDSS spectroscopic observations suggest a transverse velocity smaller than the radial velocity. The motion of the absorbing medium is thus dominated by infall. The He I* lines present a powerful probe to the strength of ionizing flux, while the Balmer lines imply a dense environment. With the help of photoionization simulations, we find that the absorbing medium is exposed to the radiation with ionization parameter U ≈ 10-1.8, and the density is n({{H}})≈ {10}9 {{cm}}-3. Thus the absorbing medium is located ˜4 pc away from the central engine. According to the similarity in the distance and physical conditions between the absorbing medium and the torus, we strongly propose the absorption line system as a candidate for the accretion inflow, which originates in the inner surface of the torus.

  8. Catalysis as a foundational pillar of green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, Paul T. [White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, Department of Chemistry, University of Nottingham Nottingham, (United Kingdom); Kirchhoff, Mary M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Trinity College, Washington, DC (United States); Williamson, Tracy C. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-11-30

    Catalysis is one of the fundamental pillars of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The design and application of new catalysts and catalytic systems are simultaneously achieving the dual goals of environmental protection and economic benefit. Green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is an overarching approach that is applicable to all aspects of chemistry. From feedstocks to solvents, to synthesis and processing, green chemistry actively seeks ways to produce materials in a way that is more benign to human health and the environment. The current emphasis on green chemistry reflects a shift away from the historic 'command-and-control' approach to environmental problems that mandated waste treatment and control and clean up through regulation, and toward preventing pollution at its source. Rather than accepting waste generation and disposal as unavoidable, green chemistry seeks new technologies that are cleaner and economically competitive. Utilizing green chemistry for pollution prevention demonstrates the power and beauty of chemistry: through careful design, society can enjoy the products on which we depend while benefiting the environment. The economic benefits of green chemistry are central drivers in its advancement. Industry is adopting green chemistry methodologies because they improve the corporate bottom line. A wide array of operating costs are decreased through the use of green chemistry. When less waste is generated, environmental compliance costs go down. Treatment and disposal become unnecessary when waste is eliminated. Decreased solvent usage and fewer processing steps lessen the material and energy costs of manufacturing and increase material efficiency. The environmental, human health, and the economic advantages realized through green chemistry

  9. Structure and magnetism in Co/X, Fe/Si, and Fe/(FeSi) multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Michael Ray

    Previous studies have shown that magnetic behavior in multilayers formed by repeating a bilayer unit comprised of a ferromagnetic layer and a non-magnetic spacer layer can be affected by small structural differences. For example, a macroscopic property such as giant magnetoresistance (GMR) is believed to depend significantly upon interfacial roughness. In this study, several complimentary structural probes were used to carefully characterize the structure of several sputtered multilayer systems-Co/Ag, Co/Cu, Co/Mo, Fe/Si, and Fe//[FeSi/]. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were used to examine the long-range structural order of the multilayers perpendicular to the plane of the layers. Transmission electron diffraction (TED) studies were used to probe the long-range order parallel to the layer plane. X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) studies were used to determine the average local structural environment of the ferromagnetic atoms. For the Co/X systems, a simple correlation between crystal structure and saturation magnetization is discovered for the Co/Mo system. For the Fe/X systems, direct evidence of an Fe-silicide is found for the /[FeSi/] spacer layer but not for the Si spacer layer. Additionally, differences were observed in the magnetic behavior between the Fe in the nominally pure Fe layer and the Fe contained in the /[FeSi/] spacer layers.

  10. Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L.) induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a plastic tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.

  11. Performance of fourteen improved pea lines (Pisum sativum L. in Challapata zone, Oruro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Benedicto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Challapata zone, cultivated pea varieties are low yielding and long cycle. The research objective was to determine the performance of fourteen pea lines developed by “Pairumani Fitoecogenetics Investigation Center” (CIFP in Challapata zone (Oruro. The 14 pea lines with local pea variety, were planted in row and column generalized experimental design with four replications in tree location randomly selection in Challapata zone (Oruro, between October 2011 and April 2012. The results indicate, that, in general, all the improved lines were superior in green pod yield to the local pea variety (3.69 t.ha-1, between 6.13 and 16.58 t.ha-1, (65.9 and 349.3% respectively. among the improved lines, Pea5_102-1, Pea5_102-6, Pea5_102-5, Pea5_102-2, Pea5_102-3 and Pea5_102-4, with high green pod yield (13.05 and 16.58 t.ha-1, large pod (8.49 to 9.25 cm, mayor number of grains for pod (5.27 to 7.20 grains and intermediate cycle (85 days to the floración, are the superior performance. The lines Pea5_102-14, Pea5_102-10 (Pairumani 3 and Pea5_102-13, because of their characteristics of high green pod yield, the longest pod, the mayor number of grains for pod, early maturity, preference and wide adaptability, and according to the farmer’s criteria, are the most recommend for their use in Challapata zone (Oruro.

  12. Green roofs and the LEED green building rating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, R. [Sustainable Solutions Inc., Wagoner, OK (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The sustainable building industry is becoming increasingly aware of the host of public and private benefits that green roofs can provide in built environments. In dense urban environments, green roofs function to reduce stormwater runoff, urban heat island effects, and particulate matter (PM) pollution. The emerging green roof industry is now poised to support the efforts of green building networks in North America. This paper discussed the general benefits of green roofs, and their recognition within the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System. A case study of Mountain Equipment Co-op's Winnipeg site was presented. The building's green roof was directly responsible for earning 5 credits and contributing to the achievement of an additional 2 credits under the LEEDS certification process. Credits were earned for reduced site disturbance; landscape design to reduce heat islands; and water efficiency. The green roof at the site provided the vast majority of the building's cooling needs through an evaporative cooling trough. A photovoltaic pump was used to feed the building's irrigation system, as well as to pump ground water through cooling valances. It was concluded that the rise of sustainable building practices and the LEED Green Building Rating System will revolutionize the way new buildings are constructed.

  13. Green Consumerism : an Eco-Friendly Behaviour Form Through The Green Product Consumption and Green Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Wiwik

    2017-01-01

    This research is referred to analyse the influence of consumer attitude of green product towards purchase intention. The consumer attitude of green product is a psychological tendencies that is expressed by evaluating a certain entity with some advantage or disadvantage considerations. The problem of this research is the low of cunsumer awareness to consume green product, because the lack to comprehend the importance of green product usage for health and eco-friendly. The purpose of this rese...

  14. Magnetocaloric Properties of Fe-Ni-Cr Nanoparticles for Active Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, V.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2016-10-01

    Low cost, earth abundant, rare earth free magnetocaloric nanoparticles have attracted an enormous amount of attention for green, energy efficient, active near room temperature thermal management. Hence, we investigated the magnetocaloric properties of transition metal based (Fe70Ni30)100-xCrx (x = 1, 3, 5, 6 and 7) nanoparticles. The influence of Cr additions on the Curie temperature (TC) was studied. Only 5% of Cr can reduce the TC from ~438 K to 258 K. These alloys exhibit broad entropy v/s temperature curves, which is useful to enhance relative cooling power (RCP). For a field change of 5 T, the RCP for (Fe70Ni30)99Cr1 nanoparticles was found to be 548 J-kg-1. Tunable TCin broad range, good RCP, low cost, high corrosion resistance and earth abundance make these nanoparticles suitable for low-grade waste heat recovery as well as near room temperature active cooling applications.

  15. A new spectroscopic calibration to determine Teff and [Fe/H] of FGK dwarfs and giants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira G. D. C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new spectroscopic calibration for a fast estimate of Teff and [Fe/H] for FGK dwarfs and GK giant stars. We used spectra from a joint sample of 708 stars, composed by 451 FGK dwarfs and 257 GK-giant stars with homogeneously determined spectroscopic stellar parameters. We have derived 322 EW line-ratios and 100 FeI lines that can be used to compute Teff and [Fe/H], respectively. We show that these calibrations are effective for FGK dwarfs and GK-giant stars in the following ranges: 4500 K < Teff < 6500 K, 2.5 < log g < 4.9 dex, and –0.8 < [Fe/H] < 0:5 dex. The new calibration has a standard deviation of 74 K for Teff and 0.07 dex for [Fe/H]. We use four independent samples of stars to test and verify the new calibration, a sample of giant stars, a sample composed of Gaia FGK benchmark stars, a sample of GK-giant stars from the DR1 of the Gaia-ESO survey, and a sample of FGK-dwarf stars. We present a new computer code, GeTCal, for automatically producing new calibration files based on any new sample of stars.

  16. Low-Light Anoxygenic Photosynthesis and Fe-S-Biogeochemistry in a Microbial Mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Sebastian; de Beer, Dirk; Klatt, Judith M; Fink, Artur; Rench, Rebecca McCauley; Hamilton, Trinity L; Meyer, Volker; Kakuk, Brian; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    We report extremely low-light-adapted anoxygenic photosynthesis in a thick microbial mat in Magical Blue Hole, Abaco Island, The Bahamas. Sulfur cycling was reduced by iron oxides and organic carbon limitation. The mat grows below the halocline/oxycline at 30 m depth on the walls of the flooded sinkhole. In situ irradiance at the mat surface on a sunny December day was between 0.021 and 0.084 μmol photons m -2 s -1 , and UV light (97% sequence identity) of clones affiliated with Prosthecochloris , a genus within the green sulfur bacteria (GSB), which are obligate anoxygenic phototrophs. Typical photopigments of brown-colored GSB, bacteriochlorophyll e and (β-)isorenieratene, were abundant in mat samples and their absorption properties are well-adapted to harvest light in the available green and possibly even UV-A spectra. Sulfide from the water column (3-6 μmol L -1 ) was the main source of sulfide to the mat as sulfate reduction rates in the mats were very low (undetectable-99.2 nmol cm -3 d -1 ). The anoxic water column was oligotrophic and low in dissolved organic carbon (175-228 μmol L -1 ). High concentrations of pyrite (FeS 2 ; 1-47 μmol cm -3 ) together with low microbial process rates (sulfate reduction, CO 2 fixation) indicate that the mats function as net sulfide sinks mainly by abiotic processes. We suggest that abundant Fe(III) (4.3-22.2 μmol cm -3 ) is the major source of oxidizing power in the mat, and that abiotic Fe-S-reactions play the main role in pyrite formation. Limitation of sulfate reduction by low organic carbon availability along with the presence of abundant sulfide-scavenging iron oxides considerably slowed down sulfur cycling in these mats.

  17. Green power programs in Canada : 2003 : overview of Government green power policies, utility green power implementation initiatives, green power and certificate marketing programs, and their benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, J.; Bramley, M.; Holmes, R.

    2004-09-01

    Green power is defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. It offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities in Canada associated with these four categories in 2003 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Green power generation facilities in 2003 totaled 775 MW of capacity compared to 539 MW in 2002. Hydro capacity represented 41 per cent, followed by wind capacity at 40 per cent and wood waste at 17 per cent. Most of the green power generation facilities in 2003 were located in Alberta, followed by British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. 230 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  18. Redox topotactic reactions in Fe{sup II - III} (oxy)hydroxycarbonate new minerals related to fougerite in gleysols: 'trebeurdenite and moessbauerite'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genin, Jean-Marie R., E-mail: jean-marie.genin@esstin.uhp-nancy.fr [Institut Jean Barriol FR2843 CNRS-Universite de Lorraine, ESSTIN (France); Guerin, O. [Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Laboratoire de Geomorphologie (France); Herbillon, A. J. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Unite des Sciences du Sol (Belgium); Kuzmann, E. [Eoetvoes Lorand Univ., Chemistry Department (Hungary); Mills, S. J. [Geosciences Museum Victoria (Australia); Morin, G.; Ona-Nguema, G. [Univ. P. and M. Curie, Institut Mineralogie and Phys. Milieux Condenses (France); Ruby, C. [Institut Jean Barriol FR2843 CNRS-Universite de Lorraine, ESSTIN (France); Upadhyay, C. [IT-Banaras Hindu Univ., School of Materials Science and Technology (India)

    2012-03-15

    Fougerite mineral responsible for the bluish-green shade of gleysols in aquifers was identified as Fe{sup II - III} oxyhydroxycarbonate, [Fe{sub 6}({sub 1-x)}{sup II} Fe{sub 6x}{sup III} O{sub 12}H{sub 2(7 - 3x)}]{sup 2 + } {center_dot} [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O]{sup 2 - } where the average ferric molar fraction x = [Fe{sup III}/Fe{sub total}] was restricted to the [1/3-2/3] range, up till now. In this paper, Moessbauer spectra of gleys extracted from the schorre of maritime marshes have values of x in the [2/3-1] range. Magnetic properties of homologous chemical compounds studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy are explained with long range order of Fe{sup III} ions within Fe cation layers for x = 1/3, 2/3 and 1. Observed values are mixtures of topotactic domains that are in fact minerals with names proposed to IMA: fougerite for x = 1/3, trebeurdenite for x = 2/3 and moessbauerite for x = 1.

  19. Fluorinated analogs of malachite green: synthesis and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, George A; Jeon, Insik; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit; Awad, Ahmed M; Banerjee, Jayeeta; Parvin, Bahram

    2008-04-27

    A series of fluorinated analogs of malachite green (MG) have been synthesized and their toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a human ovarian epithelial cell line examined. The toxicity profiles were found to be different for these two species. Two analogs, one with 2,4-difluoro substitution and the other with 2-fluoro substitution seem to be the most promising analogs because they showed the lowest toxicity to the human cells.

  20. Quantifying the benefits of urban forest systems as a component of the green infrastructure stormwater treatment network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Kuehler; Jon Hathaway; Andrew Tirpak

    2017-01-01

    The use of green infrastructure for reducing stormwater runoff is increasingly common. One under‐studied component of the green infrastructure network is the urban forest system. Trees can play an important role as the “first line of defense” for restoring more natural hydrologic regimes in urban watersheds by intercepting rainfall, delaying runoff, infiltrating, and...

  1. Enhanced Cr(VI) removal from groundwater by Fe0-H2O system with bio-amended iron corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Weizhao; Li, Yongtao; Wu, Jinhua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A one-pot bio-iron system was established to investigate synergetic abiotic and biotic effects between iron and microorganisms on Cr(VI) removal. More diverse iron corrosion and reactive solids, such as green rusts, lepidocrocite and magnetite were found in the bio-iron system than...... transfer on the solid phase. The results also showed that the reduction of Cr(VI) by microorganisms was insignificant, indicating the adsorption/co-precipitation of Cr by iron oxides on iron surface was responsible for the overall Cr(VI) removal. Our study demonstrated that the bio-amended iron corrosion...... in the Fe0-H2O system, leading to 4.3 times higher Cr(VI) removal efficiency in the bio-iron system than in the Fe0-H2O system. The cycling experiment also showed that the Cr(VI) removal capacity of Fe0 in the bio-iron system was 12.4 times higher than that in the Fe0-H2O system. A 62 days of life...

  2. Joint Decisions on Production and Pricing with Strategic Consumers for Green Crowdfunding Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Green crowdfunding is developing as a novel and popular transaction method, which can largely improve the efficiency of raising initial funds and selling innovative green products or services. In this paper, we explore the creator’s joint decisions regarding green crowdfunding products of different quality levels that can sufficiently satisfy consumer preferences. Firstly, considering the characteristics of a green crowdfunding product, we present four pricing strategies when substitutes exist. Then we propose the optimal pricing strategies to maximize the total profit for the creator under different circumstances, facing strategic and myopic consumers. Finally, for the heterogeneity of consumer valuations, we compare the total profits of the four pricing strategies under different values of the substitution coefficient to obtain the optimal pricing and product strategies under the coexistence of strategic and myopic consumers. According to the result, we find that when the fraction of high-type consumers and the gap between high and low valuations is big, or when they are both small, traditional single pricing shows its benefit. However, when the green crowdfunding products are better than their substitute, a line of green products is more likely to be optimal.

  3. Joint Decisions on Production and Pricing with Strategic Consumers for Green Crowdfunding Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; Zhang, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Green crowdfunding is developing as a novel and popular transaction method, which can largely improve the efficiency of raising initial funds and selling innovative green products or services. In this paper, we explore the creator’s joint decisions regarding green crowdfunding products of different quality levels that can sufficiently satisfy consumer preferences. Firstly, considering the characteristics of a green crowdfunding product, we present four pricing strategies when substitutes exist. Then we propose the optimal pricing strategies to maximize the total profit for the creator under different circumstances, facing strategic and myopic consumers. Finally, for the heterogeneity of consumer valuations, we compare the total profits of the four pricing strategies under different values of the substitution coefficient to obtain the optimal pricing and product strategies under the coexistence of strategic and myopic consumers. According to the result, we find that when the fraction of high-type consumers and the gap between high and low valuations is big, or when they are both small, traditional single pricing shows its benefit. However, when the green crowdfunding products are better than their substitute, a line of green products is more likely to be optimal. PMID:28930198

  4. Joint Decisions on Production and Pricing with Strategic Consumers for Green Crowdfunding Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Bin

    2017-09-20

    Green crowdfunding is developing as a novel and popular transaction method, which can largely improve the efficiency of raising initial funds and selling innovative green products or services. In this paper, we explore the creator's joint decisions regarding green crowdfunding products of different quality levels that can sufficiently satisfy consumer preferences. Firstly, considering the characteristics of a green crowdfunding product, we present four pricing strategies when substitutes exist. Then we propose the optimal pricing strategies to maximize the total profit for the creator under different circumstances, facing strategic and myopic consumers. Finally, for the heterogeneity of consumer valuations, we compare the total profits of the four pricing strategies under different values of the substitution coefficient to obtain the optimal pricing and product strategies under the coexistence of strategic and myopic consumers. According to the result, we find that when the fraction of high-type consumers and the gap between high and low valuations is big, or when they are both small, traditional single pricing shows its benefit. However, when the green crowdfunding products are better than their substitute, a line of green products is more likely to be optimal.

  5. Green power programs in Canada : 2002 : Overview of Government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power and certificate marketing initiatives, and their benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, M.; Boustie, S.; Vadgama, J.; Wieler, C.; Pape-Salmon, A.; Holmes, R.

    2003-11-01

    Green power is generally defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. Green power offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities associated with these four categories in 2002 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities in the report, such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Each category was presented in detail. The information included in the report was based on surveys sent to each program proponent. Follow-up communications and other publicly available information was also included. New programs operating in 2003 or currently under development were listed. refs., 8 tabs

  6. Analysis on Heavy Metal Distribution in Overlying Deposit and Pollution Characteristics in Rivers around Dahongshan Fe&Cu Mine in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qianrui; Cheng, Xianfeng; Qi, Wufu; Xu, Jun; Yang, Shuran

    2017-12-01

    Dahongshan Fe&Cu mine in Yunnan Province was endowed with the title of “National Green Mine Pilots” by Chinese Ministry of Land and Resources in April 2013. In order to verify the implementation effects of the green mine and better drive the construction of the green mine by other mine enterprises in Yunnan, the project team investigated overlying deposit in rivers around the Dahongshan mine in the wet season (August) of 2016, investigated mine enterprises, and applied the Potential Ecological Risk Index to evaluate potential ecological hazards of heavy metal pollution in overlying deposit. The results showed that all sampling points were less than 105, indicating the lower ecological hazard degree.

  7. X-ray emission lines from photoionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedahl, D.A.

    1992-11-01

    Plasma emission codes have become a standard tool for the analysis of spectroscopic data from cosmic X-ray sources. However, the assumption of collisional equilibrium, typically invoked in these codes, renders them inapplicable to many important astrophysical situations, particularly those involving X-ray photoionized nebulae, which are likely to exist in the circumsource environments of compact X-ray sources. X-ray line production in a photoionized plasma is primarily the result of radiative cascades following recombination. Through the development of atomic models of several highly-charged ions, this work extends the range of applicability of discrete spectral models to plasmas dominated by recombination. Assuming that ambient plasma conditions lie in the temperature range 10 5 --10 6 K and the density range 10 11 --10 16 cm -3 , X-ray line spectra are calculated over the wavelength range 5--45 angstrom using the HULLAC atomic physics package. Most of the work focuses on the Fe L-shell ions. Line ratios of the form (3s-2p)/(3d-2p) are shown to characterize the principal mode of line excitation, thereby providing a simple signature of photoionization. At electron densities exceeding 10 12 cm -3 , metastable state populations in the ground configurations approach their LTE value, resulting in the enrichment of the Fe L-shell recombination spectrum and a set of density-sensitive X-ray line ratios. Radiative recombination continua and emission lines produced selectively by Δn = 0 dielectronic recombination are shown to provide two classes of temperature diagnostics. Because of the extreme overionization, the recombination continua are expected to be narrow (ΔE/E much-lt 1), with ΔE = kT. Dielectronic recombination selectively drives radiative transitions that originate on states with vacancies in the 2s subshell, states that are inaccessible under pure RR population kinetics

  8. Electro-Synthetic Optimization of Host Material Based on MIL-100(Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witri Wahyu Lestari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Electro-synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks types of MIL-100(Fe (MIL = Material Institute of Lavoisier in ethanol: water (1: 1 with electrolyte TBATFB 0.1 M has been optimized by varying voltage (12, 13, 14 and 15 Volt and temperature (room temperature, 40, 60 and 80 °C. The product showed light brown powder which upon activation becomes dark brown. Optimum condition achieved during use voltage of 15 Volts and at a temperature of 40 °C with 33% yield. The obtained material was characterized by XRD and compared to CCDC 640536 simulated patterns to confirm the phase purity of the product. As comparison hydrothermal and reflux method have been carried out. Characterization by FTIR has also undertaken to ensure the coordination between the metal cation (Fe3+ and the BTC ligand (BTC = 1,3,5-Benzene Tri Carboxylate. Meanwhile pore analysis using SAA confirmed that MIL-100(Fe obtained by electrolysis method has a BET surface area reached till 569.191 m²/g with a total pore volume of 0.4540 cc/g and an average pore diameter reached 16 Å. Based on SEM analysis, morphology material show particle size between 0.4-8.6 μm and has a thermal stability up to 350 °C according thermo-gravimetric analysis. Due to the presence of Lewis acid sites on Fe-trimeric unit, porosity features on MIL-100(Fe and a fairly high thermal stability, this material is potentially used as the host material for the catalyst in the conversion reactions model for green diesel production.

  9. Fe_3O_4/carbon nanocomposite: Investigation of capacitive & magnetic properties for supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinan, Neriman; Unur, Ece

    2016-01-01

    Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles with ∼10 nm diameters were synthesized by an extremely low-cost, scalable and relatively biocompatible chemical co-precipitation method. Magnetic measurements revealed that Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles have bifunctional superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic character with saturation magnetization (M_s) values of 64 and 71 emu g"−"1 at 298 K and 10 K, respectively. Pseudocapacitive Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles were then integrated into hazelnut shells - an abundant agricultural biomass - by an energy efficient hydrothermal carbonization method. Presence of magnesium oxide (MgO) ceramic template or its precursor in the hydrothermal reactor allowed simultaneous introduction of pores into the composite structure. Hierarchically micro-mesoporous Fe_3O_4/C nanocomposite possesses a high specific surface area of 344 m"2 g"−"1. Electrochemical properties of Fe_3O_4/C nanocomposite were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements in a conventional three-electrode cell. The Fe_3O_4/C nanocomposite is able to operate in a large negative potential window in 1 M Na_2SO_4 aqueous electrolyte (−1.2–0 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Synergistic effect of the Fe_3O_4 and carbon leads to enhanced specific capacitance, rate capability and cyclability making Fe_3O_4/C nanocomposite a very promising negative electrode material for asymmetric supercapacitors. - Highlights: • Fe_3O_4 (magnetite) particles with ∼10 nm dia. were prepared by a facile chemical co-precipitation. • Fe_3O_4 nanospheres are superparamagnetic at 298K with high saturation magnetization of 64 emu g"−"1. • Porous Fe_3O_4/C nanocomposite was also prepared by a green HTC method combined with MgO templating. • Electrochemical properties of Fe_3O_4/C were studied in 1 M Na_2SO_4 (between −1.2 and 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl). • Nanocomposite electrode showed high energy density of 27.2 Wh kg"−"1 at 1 A g"−"1.

  10. Biomedical applications of green synthesized Nobel metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zia Ul Haq; Khan, Amjad; Chen, Yongmei; Shah, Noor S; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Arif Ullah; Tahir, Kamran; Khan, Faheem Ullah; Murtaza, Behzad; Hassan, Sadaf Ul; Qaisrani, Saeed Ahmad; Wan, Pingyu

    2017-08-01

    Synthesis of Nobel metal nanoparticles, play a key role in the field of medicine. Plants contain a substantial number of organic constituents, like phenolic compounds and various types of glycosides that help in synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Synthesis of metal nanoparticles by green method is one of the best and environment friendly methods. The major significance of the green synthesis is lack of toxic by-products produced during metal nanoparticle synthesis. The nanoparticles, synthesized by green method show various significant biological activities. Most of the research articles report the synthesized nanoparticles to be active against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Some of these bacteria include Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The synthesized nanoparticles also show significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton simii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum as well as different types of cancer cells such as breast cancer cell line. They also exhibit significant antioxidant activity. The activities of these Nobel metal nano-particles mainly depend on the size and shape. The particles of small size with large surface area show good activity in the field of medicine. The synthesized nanoparticles are also active against leishmanial diseases. This research article explores in detail the green synthesis of the nanoparticles and their uses thereof. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Green Experiment: Cities, Green Stormwater Infrastructure, and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Chini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure is a unique combination of economic, social, and environmental goals and benefits that requires an adaptable framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating. In this study, we propose an experimental framework for policy, implementation, and subsequent evaluation of green stormwater infrastructure within the context of sociotechnical systems and urban experimentation. Sociotechnical systems describe the interaction of complex systems with quantitative and qualitative impacts. Urban experimentation—traditionally referencing climate change programs and their impacts—is a process of evaluating city programs as if in a laboratory setting with hypotheses and evaluated results. We combine these two concepts into a singular framework creating a policy feedback cycle (PFC for green infrastructure to evaluate municipal green infrastructure plans as an experimental process within the context of a sociotechnical system. After proposing and discussing the PFC, we utilize the tool to research and evaluate the green infrastructure programs of 27 municipalities across the United States. Results indicate that green infrastructure plans should incorporate community involvement and communication, evaluation based on project motivation, and an iterative process for knowledge production. We suggest knowledge brokers as a key resource in connecting the evaluation stage of the feedback cycle to the policy phase. We identify three important needs for green infrastructure experimentation: (i a fluid definition of green infrastructure in policy; (ii maintenance and evaluation components of a green infrastructure plan; and (iii communication of the plan to the community.

  12. Strong 3D and 1D magnetism in hexagonal Fe-chalcogenides FeS and FeSe vs. weak magnetism in hexagonal FeTe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David S

    2017-06-13

    We present a comparative theoretical study of the hexagonal forms of the Fe-chalcogenides FeS, FeSe and FeTe with their better known tetragonal forms. While the tetragonal forms exhibit only an incipient antiferromagnetism and experimentally show superconductivity when doped, the hexagonal forms of FeS and FeSe display a robust magnetism. We show that this strong magnetism arises from a van Hove singularity associated with the direct Fe-Fe c-axis chains in the generally more three-dimensional NiAs structure. We also find that hexagonal FeTe is much less magnetic than the other two hexagonal materials, so that unconventional magnetically-mediated superconductivity is possible, although a large T c value is unlikely.

  13. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  14. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  15. Current trends in green liquid chromatography for the analysis of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environmental water compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Heba; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Green analytical chemistry is an aspect of green chemistry which introduced in the late nineties. The main objectives of green analytical chemistry are to obtain new analytical technologies or to modify an old method to incorporate procedures that use less hazardous chemicals. There are several approaches to achieve this goal such as using environmentally benign solvents and reagents, reducing the chromatographic separation times and miniaturization of analytical devices. Traditional methods used for the analysis of pharmaceutically active compounds require large volumes of organic solvents and generate large amounts of waste. Most of them are volatile and harmful to the environment. With the awareness about the environment, the development of green technologies has been receiving increasing attention aiming at eliminating or reducing the amount of organic solvents consumed everyday worldwide without loss in chromatographic performance. This review provides the state of the art of green analytical methodologies for environmental analysis of pharmaceutically active compounds in the aquatic environment with special emphasis on strategies for greening liquid chromatography (LC). The current trends of fast LC applied to environmental analysis, including elevated mobile phase temperature, as well as different column technologies such as monolithic columns, fully porous sub-2 μm and superficially porous particles are presented. In addition, green aspects of gas chromatography (GC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) will be discussed. We pay special attention to new green approaches such as automation, miniaturization, direct analysis and the possibility of locating the chromatograph on-line or at-line as a step forward in reducing the environmental impact of chromatographic analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on feed forward neural network convex optimization for LiFePO4 battery parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuepeng; Zhao, Dongmei

    2017-08-01

    Based on the modern facility agriculture automatic walking equipment LiFePO4 Battery, the parameter identification of LiFePO4 Battery is analyzed. An improved method for the process model of li battery is proposed, and the on-line estimation algorithm is presented. The parameters of the battery are identified using feed forward network neural convex optimization algorithm.

  17. Power Line Communications for Smart Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Torsten Berger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Power line communication, that is, using the electricity infrastructure for data transmission, is experiencing a renaissance in the context of Smart Grid. Smart Grid objectives include the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources into the electricity supply chain, securing reliable electricity delivery, and using the existing electrical infrastructure more efficiently. This paper surveys power line communications (PLCs in the context of Smart Grid. The specifications G3-PLC, PRIME, HomePlug Green PHY, and HomePlug AV2, and the standards IEEE 1901/1901.2 and ITU-T G.hn/G.hnem are discussed.

  18. Strong 3D and 1D magnetism in hexagonal Fe-chalcogenides FeS and FeSe vs. weak magnetism in hexagonal FeTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, David S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-13

    We present a comparative theoretical study of the hexagonal forms of the Fe-chalcogenides FeS, FeSe and FeTe with their better known tetragonal forms. While the tetragonal forms exhibit only an incipient antiferromagnetism and experimentally show superconductivity when doped, the hexagonal forms of FeS and FeSe display a robust magnetism. We show that this strong magnetism arises from a van Hove singularity associated with the direct Fe-Fe c-axis chains in the generally more three-dimensional NiAs structure. We also find that hexagonal FeTe is much less magnetic than the other two hexagonal materials, so that unconventional magnetically-mediated superconductivity is possible, although a large Tc value is unlikely.

  19. Synthesis of Fe3O4/Pt Nanoparticles Decorated Carbon Nano tubes and Their Use as Magnetically Recyclable Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.; Gao, C.

    2011-01-01

    We report a facile approach to prepare Fe 3 O 4 /Pt nanoparticles decorated carbon nano tubes (CNTs). The superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with average size of 45 nm were loaded on the surfaces of carboxyl groups functionalized CNTs via a high-temperature solution-phase hydrolysis method from the raw material of FeCl 3 . The synthesis process of magnetic CNTs is green and readily scalable. The loading amounts of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and the magnetizations of the resulting magnetic CNTs show good tunability. The Pt nanoparticles with average size of 2.5 nm were deposited on the magnetic CNTs through a solution-based method. It is demonstrated that the Fe 3 O 4 /Pt nanoparticles decorated CNTs have high catalytic activity in the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol and can be readily recycled by a magnet and reused in the next reactions with high efficiencies for at least fifteen successive cycles. The novel CNTs-supported magnetically recyclable catalysts are promising in heterogeneous catalysis applications.

  20. Spin Hall magnetoresistance in Ta/CoFe2O4 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ya-Juan; Cheng, Wei-Ming; Zhang, Zhao-Bing; Ji, Hong-Kai; Cheng, Xiao-Min; You, Long; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2016-07-01

    Spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) has been investigated in Ta/CoFe2O4 nanostructures grown on different substrates. Spin currents in CoFe2O4 films are electrically detected in adjacent Ta layers owing to inverse spin Hall effects. The sign of the magnetic-field-dependent resistivity signal shows different polarities along different axes, showing different spin-dependent electron transports. A cosinelike curve of the angular dependence signal with opposite polarity is observed in two orthogonal magnetization planes, whereas a basic line is observed in another plane, revealing the spin accumulation phenomenon. The roughness of the CoFe2O4 surface tuned by substrate strains is responsible for the extent of spin accumulations and the strength of the SMR signal in the nanostructures.

  1. Studies on the Fe3+ Doping Effect on Structural, Optical and Catalytic Properties of Hydrothermally Synthesized TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, Ravi [Department of Physics, Jaysingpur College, Jaysingpur-416101, India; Sabale, Sandip [P.G. Department of Chemistry, Jaysingpur College, Jaysingpur-416101, Maharashtra, India; Chikode, Prashant [Department of Physics, Jaysingpur College, Jaysingpur-416101, India; Puri, Vijaya [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004, India; Yu, Xiao-Ying [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA 99352, United States; Mahajan, Smita [Department of Physics, Jaysingpur College, Jaysingpur-416101, India

    2017-08-01

    Pure TiO2 and Fe3+-TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by simple hydrothermal method with different Fe3+ concentrations. The synthesized nanoparticles are analysed to determine its structural, optical, morphological and compositional properties using X-ray diffraction, Raman, UV-DRS, photoluminescence, Mossbauer, XPS, TEM and SEM/EDS. The EDS micrograph confirms the existence of Fe3+ atoms in the TiO2 matrix with 0.85, 1.52 and 1.87 weight percent. The crystallite size and band gap decrease with increase in Fe3+concentration. The average particle size obtained from TEM is 7-11 nm which is in good agreement with XRD results. Raman bands at 640 cm-1, 517 cm-1 and 398 cm-1 further confirm pure phase anatase in all samples. XPS shows the proper substitutions of few sites of Ti4+ ions by Fe3+ ions in the TiO2 host lattice. The intensity of PL spectra for Fe3+-TiO2 shows a gradual decrease in the peak intensity with increasing Fe3+ concentration in TiO2, and it indicates lower recombination rate as Fe3+ ions increases. These nanoparticles are further studied for its photocatalytic activities using malachite green dye under UV light, visible light and sunlight.

  2. FE-SEM, FIB and TEM Study of Surface Deposits of Apollo 15 Green Glass Volcanic Spherules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Daniel K.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Rahman, Z.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Surface deposits on lunar pyroclastic green (Apollo 15) and orange (Apollo 17) glass spherules have been attributed to condensation from the gas clouds that accompanied fire-fountain eruptions. The fire fountains cast molten lava high above the lunar surface and the silicate melt droplets quenched before landing producing the glass beads. Early investigations showed that these deposits are rich in sulfur and zinc. The deposits are extremely fine-grained and thin, so that it was never possible to determine their chemical compositions cleanly by SEM/EDX or electron probe x-ray analysis because most of the excited volume was in the under-lying silicate glass. We are investigating the surface deposits by TEM, using focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy to extract and thin the surface deposits. Here we report on chemical mapping of a FIB section of surface deposits of an Apollo green glass bead 15401using the ultra-high resolution JEOL 2500 STEM located at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  3. Green Thunderstorms Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank W., III; Beasley, William H.; Bohren, Craig F.

    1996-12-01

    Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Often the green coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflections of light from green foliage on the ground. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm do not believe that green thunderstorms exist. They suggest that the green storms may be fabrications by excited observers. The authors have demonstrated the existence of green thunderstorms objectively using a spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 the authors observed numerous storms and recorded hundreds of spectra of the light emanating corn these storms. It was found that the subjective judgment of colors can vary somewhat between observers, but the variation is usually in the shade of green. The authors recorded spectra of green and nongreen thunderstorms and recorded spectral measurements as a storm changed its appearance from dark blue to a bluish green. The change in color is gradual when observed from a stationary position. Also, as the light from a storm becomes greener, the luminance decreases. The authors also observed and recorded the spectrum of a thunderstorm during a period of several hours as they flew in an aircraft close to a supercell that appeared somewhat green. The authors' observations refute the ground reflection hypothesis and raise questions about explanations that require the presence of hail.

  4. Influence of FeEDDS, FeEDTA, FeDTPA, FeEDDHA, and FeSO4 on Marigold Growth and Nutrition, and Substrate and Runoff Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives of the study were to determine effects of Fe source on plant growth, plant nutrition, substrate chemistry and runoff chemistry. Iron source (FS) treatments consisted of Fe-aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) complexones iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeEDTA), iron [S, S']-ethylenediam...

  5. Magnetoresistance of Mn-decorated topological line defects in graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua

    2015-01-13

    We study the spin polarized transport through Mn-decorated 8-5-5-8 topological line defects in graphene using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function formalism. Strong preferential bonding overcomes the high mobility of transition metal atoms on graphene and results in stable structures. Despite a large distance between the magnetic centers, we find a high magnetoresistance and attribute this unexpected property to very strong induced π magnetism, in particular for full coverage of all octagonal hollow sites by Mn atoms. In contrast to the magnetoresistance of graphene nanoribbon edges, the proposed system is well controlled and therefore suitable for applications.

  6. A novel lithium copper iron phosphate with idealized formula Li5Cu22+Fe3+(PO44: crystal structure and distribution of defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Upreti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Gray–green single crystals were obtained under high-pressure, high-temperature hydrothermal conditions. A refinement of atom occupancies gave the composition Li3.68Cu2+Fe3+(Cu0.55Li0.452Fe2+0.15(PO44. The structure is built from triplets of edge-sharing (Cu,LiO5–FeO6–(Cu,LiO5 polyhedra, CuO4 quadrilaterals and PO4 tetrahedra. In the (Cu,LiO5 polyhedra the Cu and Li positions are statistically occ