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Sample records for green foxtail control

  1. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and green foxtail (Setaria viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Diao, Xianmin

    2011-05-06

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant.

  2. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica and green foxtail (Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis, in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant.

  3. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and green foxtail (Setaria viridis).

    OpenAIRE

    Jianping Zhang; Houyuan Lu; Naiqin Wu; Xiaoyan Yang; Xianmin Diao

    2011-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern p...

  4. Molecular diversity and population structure of Chinese green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guanqing; Shi, Shenkui; Wang, Chunfang; Niu, Zhengang; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2013-09-01

    Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is a new model plant for the genomic investigation of C4 photosynthesis biology. As the ancestor of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an ancient cereal of great importance in arid regions of the world, green foxtail is crucial for the study of domestication and evolution of this ancient crop. In the present study, 288 green foxtail accessions, which were collected from all geographical regions of China, were analysed using 77 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that cover the whole genome. A high degree of molecular diversity was detected in these accessions, with an average of 33.5 alleles per locus. Two clusters, which were inconsistent with the distribution of eco-geographical regions in China, were inferred from STRUCTURE, Neighbor-Joining, and principal component analysis, indicating a partially mixed distribution of Chinese green foxtails. The higher subpopulation diversity was from accessions mainly collected from North China. A low level of linkage disequilibrium was observed in the green foxtail genome. Furthermore, a combined analysis of green foxtail and foxtail millet landraces was conducted, and the origin and domestication of foxtail millet was inferred in North China.

  5. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of green foxtail (Setaria viridis), a promising model system for C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of green foxtail (Setaria viridis), a promising model system for C4 photosynthesis, is first reported in this study. The genome harbors a large single copy (LSC) region of 81 016 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 12 456  bp separated by a pair of inverted repeat (IRa and IRb) regions of 22 315 bp. GC content is 38.92%. The proportion of coding sequence is 57.97%, comprising of 111 (19 duplicated in IR regions) unique genes, 71 of which are protein-coding genes, four are rRNA genes, and 36 are tRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. viridis was clustered with its cultivated species S. italica in the tribe Paniceae of the family Poaceae. This newly determined chloroplast genome will provide valuable genetic resources to assist future studies on C4 photosynthesis in grasses.

  6. Effect of genotype and environment on branching in weedy green millet (Setaria viridis) and domesticated foxtail millet (Setaria italica) (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doust, Andrew N; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2006-04-01

    Many domesticated crops are derived from species whose life history includes weedy characteristics, such as the ability to vary branching patterns in response to environmental conditions. However, domesticated crop plants are characterized by less variable plant architecture, as well as by a general reduction in vegetative branching compared to their progenitor species. Here we examine weedy green millet and its domesticate foxtail millet that differ in the number of tillers (basal branches) and axillary branches along each tiller. Branch number in F(2:3) progeny of a cross between the two species varies with genotype, planting density, and other environmental variables, with significant genotype-environment interactions (GEI). This is shown by a complex pattern of reaction norms and by variation in the pattern of significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) amongst trials. Individual and joint analyses of high and low density trials indicate that most QTL have significant GEI. Dominance and epistasis also explain some variation in branching. Likely candidate genes underlying the QTL (based on map position and phenotypic effect) include teosinte branched1 and barren stalk1. Phytochrome B, which has been found to affect response to shading in other plants, explains little or no variation. Much variation in branching is explained by QTL that do not have obvious candidate genes from maize or rice.

  7. Population genetics of foxtail millet and its wild ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongfang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L. P. Beauv., one of the most ancient domesticated crops, is becoming a model system for studying biofuel crops and comparative genomics in the grasses. However, knowledge on the level of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD is very limited in this crop and its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L. P. Beauv.. Such information would help us to understand the domestication process of cultivated species and will allow further research in these species, including association mapping and identification of agricultural significant genes involved in domestication. Results In this study, we surveyed DNA sequence for nine loci across 50 accessions of cultivated foxtail millet and 34 of its wild progenitor. We found a low level of genetic diversity in wild green foxtail (θ = 0.0059, θ means Watterson's estimator of θ. Despite of a 55% loss of its wild diversity, foxtail millet still harbored a considerable level of diversity (θ = 0.0027 when compared to rice and sorghum (θ = 0.0024 and 0.0034, respectively. The level of LD in the domesticated foxtail millet extends to 1 kb, while it decayed rapidly to a negligible level within 150 bp in wild green foxtail. Using coalescent simulation, we estimated the bottleneck severity at k = 0.6095 when ρ/θ = 1. These results indicated that the domestication bottleneck of foxtail millet was more severe than that of maize but slightly less pronounced than that of rice. Conclusions The results in this study establish a general framework for the domestication history of foxtail millet. The low level of genetic diversity and the increased level of LD in foxtail millet are mainly caused by a population bottleneck, although gene flow from foxtail millet to green foxtail is another factor that may have shaped the pattern of genetic diversity of these two related gene pools. The knowledge provided in this study will benefit future population

  8. Genetic structure of landraces in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) revealed with transposon display and interpretation to crop evolution of foxtail millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ryoko; Naito, Ken; Fukunaga, Kenji; Watanabe, Kazuo N; Ohsawa, Ryo; Kawase, Makoto

    2011-06-01

    Although the origin and domestication process of foxtail millet (Setaria italica subsp. italica (L.) P. Beauv.) has been studied by several groups, the issue is still ambiguous. It is essential to resolve this issue by studying a large number of accessions with sufficient markers covering the entire genome. Genetic structures were analyzed by transposon display (TD) using 425 accessions of foxtail millet and 12 of the wild ancestor green foxtail (Setaria italica subsp. viridis (L.) P. Beauv.). We used three recently active transposons (TSI-1, TSI-7, and TSI-10) as genome-wide markers and succeeded in demonstrating geographical structures of the foxtail millet. A neighbor-joining dendrogram based on TD grouped the foxtail millet accessions into eight major clusters, each of which consisted of accessions collected from adjacent geographical areas. Eleven out of 12 green foxtail accessions were grouped separately from the clusters of foxtail millet. These results indicated strong regional differentiations and a long history of cultivation in each region. Furthermore, we discuss the relationship between foxtail millet and green foxtail and suggest a monophyletic origin of foxtail millet domestication.

  9. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag and gold (Au nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl. Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM. The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs. The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito.

  10. Comparative study on nutritional and sensory quality of barnyard and foxtail millet food products with traditional rice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Suman; Srivastava, Sarita; Tiwari, Neha

    2015-08-01

    Millets have the potential to contribute to food security and nutrition, but still these are underutilized crops. The present study was undertaken with a view to analyse the physico-chemical, functional and nutritional composition of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice and to compare the sensory quality and nutritive value of food products from foxtail and barnyard millet with rice. Analysis of physico- chemical and functional characteristics revealed that the thousand kernel weight of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 2.5, 3.0 and 18.3 g, respectively and thousand kernel volume was 1.6, 13 2.0 and 7.1 ml, respectively. The water absorption capacity of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 1.90, 1.96 and 1.98 ml/g, respectively and water solubility index was 2.8, 1.2 and 1.0 %, respectively. Viscosity was measured for foxtail millet (1650.6 cps), barnyard millet (1581 cps) and rice (1668.3 cps). Analysis of nutritional composition showed that the moisture content of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 9.35, 11.93 and 11.91 %, respectively. The total ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate of foxtail millet were 3.10, 10.29, 3.06, 4.25 and 69.95 %, respectively, for barnyard millet were 4.27, 6.93, 2.02, 2.98 and 71.87 %, respectively and the corresponding values for rice were 0.59, 6.19, 0.53, 0.21 and 80.58 %, respectively. The energy value for foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 349, 407 and 352 Kcal, respectively. The foxtail millet contained 30.10 mg/100 g calcium and 3.73 mg/100 g iron whereas barnyard millet contained 23.16 mg/100 g calcium and 6.91 mg/100 g iron. Values of 10 mg/100 g calcium and 0.10 mg/100 g iron were observed for rice. The formulated products viz. laddu, halwa and biryani from foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice (control) were analysed for their sensory qualities. Among the products prepared, there was non significant difference with regard to the

  11. Terrestrial Biological Inventory, Hillview Drainage and Levee District, Greene and Scott Counties, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Timothy) Setaria faberi ’derrm. (Giant Foxtail) Setaria u-tescens (Weigel) Hubb. (Yellow Foxtail) Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (Green Foxtail) Spartina...Potamore toa nodosus Poir. (Long-leaved Poadveed) PRIMU]L&CEAE Lysimachia nummalaria L.. (Moneywort) &OSACEAE *Crataegus viridis L. (Southern Thorn... Fragaria vi-riniana Duchesne. (Cultivated Strawberry) Potentilla simplex 1uichx. (Common Cinquef oil) *Prunus americans Marsh. (Wild Plum) *Prunus

  12. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  13. Efficiency of using green algae as biological controllers against toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency of using green algae as biological controllers against toxic algal taxa in cultured ... of two green algal species as biological control of the growth of toxic blue-green algae. ... African Journal of Aquatic Science 2014, 39(4): 443–450 ...

  14. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  15. Green Roofs: Standardization and Quality Control of Processes in Green Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of standardization and quality control of processes in the construction, improvement of integrated safety of buildings and the implementation of innovative green building technologies, the use of national standards as well as international rating systems for green buildings evaluation. This is one of the priority directions in development of the modern construction. The aim of this study is the analysis of the green roof systems and international standards, which were carried out in the green building industry. The authors have studied traditional and innovative solutions of rational using natural resources and energy, the green roof system with integration of supported solar and wind energy collecting and converting devices and of irrigation system. Some studies provide evidence for the benefits of the modular green roof system in urban green space with microclimate differences. This article presents a new research which advances our knowledge of the economic and environmental services provided by the green roof system. Research reported here also considers the analysis of the Russian and international legislation of the quality control of processes in green construction.

  16. A Foxtail mosaic virus Vector for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Zhang, Chunquan; Kernodle, Bliss M; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2016-06-01

    Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV genome. To demonstrate VIGS applications of this FoMV vector system, four genes, phytoene desaturase (functions in carotenoid biosynthesis), lesion mimic22 (encodes a key enzyme of the porphyrin pathway), iojap (functions in plastid development), and brown midrib3 (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), were silenced and characterized in the sweet corn line Golden × Bantam. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the FoMV infectious clone establishes systemic infection in maize inbred lines, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and green foxtail (Setaria viridis), indicating the potential wide applications of this viral vector system for functional genomics studies in maize and other monocots. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. A Foxtail mosaic virus Vector for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Kernodle, Bliss M.; Hill, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV genome. To demonstrate VIGS applications of this FoMV vector system, four genes, phytoene desaturase (functions in carotenoid biosynthesis), lesion mimic22 (encodes a key enzyme of the porphyrin pathway), iojap (functions in plastid development), and brown midrib3 (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), were silenced and characterized in the sweet corn line Golden × Bantam. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the FoMV infectious clone establishes systemic infection in maize inbred lines, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and green foxtail (Setaria viridis), indicating the potential wide applications of this viral vector system for functional genomics studies in maize and other monocots. PMID:27208311

  18. Ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequence in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. and its characterization and application to typing of foxtail millet landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Kenji; Ichitani, Katsuyuki; Taura, Satoru; Sato, Muneharu; Kawase, Makoto

    2005-02-01

    We determined the sequence of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) of foxtail millet isolated in our previous study, and identified subrepeats in the polymorphic region. We also developed a PCR-based method for identifying rDNA types based on sequence information and assessed 153 accessions of foxtail millet. Results were congruent with our previous works. This study provides new findings regarding the geographical distribution of rDNA variants. This new method facilitates analyses of numerous foxtail millet accessions. It is helpful for typing of foxtail millet germplasms and elucidating the evolution of this millet.

  19. Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, K H; Sidek, L M; Basri, H; Muda, Z C; Beddu, S; Abidin, M R Z

    2013-01-01

    Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

  20. Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, K. H.; Sidek, L. M.; Abidin, M. R. Z.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Beddu, S.

    2013-06-01

    Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

  1. Arid Green Infrastructure for Water Control and Conservation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure is an approach to managing wet weather flows using systems and practices that mimic natural processes. It is designed to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible and protect the quality of receiving waters. Although most green infrastructure practices were first developed in temperate climates, green infrastructure also can be a cost-effective approach to stormwater management and water conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, such as those found in the western and southwestern United States. Green infrastructure practices can be applied at the site, neighborhood and watershed scales. In addition to water management and conservation, implementing green infrastructure confers many social and economic benefits and can address issues of environmental justice. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commissioned a literature review to identify the state-of-the science practices dealing with water control and conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, with emphasis on these regions in the United States. The search focused on stormwater control measures or practices that slow, capture, treat, infiltrate and/or store runoff at its source (i.e., green infrastructure). The material in Chapters 1 through 3 provides background to EPA’s current activities related to the application of green infrastructure practices in arid and semi-arid regions. An introduction to the topic of green infrastructure in arid and semi-arid regions i

  2. Grain Yield and Quality of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L. in Response to Tribenuron-Methyl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Ning

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. is cultivated around the world for human and animal consumption. There is no suitable herbicide available for weed control in foxtail millet fields during the post-emergence stage. In this study, we investigated the effect and safety of the post-emergence herbicide tribenuron-methyl (TBM on foxtail millet in terms of grain yield and quality using a split-plot field design. Field experiments were conducted using two varieties in 2013 and 2014, i.e., high-yielding hybrid Zhangzagu 10 and high-quality conventional Jingu 21. TBM treatments at 11.25 to 90 g ai ha(-1 reduced root and shoot biomass and grain yield to varying degrees. In each of the two years, grain yield declined by 50.2% in Zhangzagu 10 with a herbicide dosage of 45 g ai ha(-1 and by 45.2% in Jingu 21 with a herbicide dosage of 22.5 g ai ha(-1 (recommended dosage. Yield reduction was due to lower grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, panicle length, and panicle diameter. Grain yield was positively correlated with grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight, but not with panicles ha(-1. With respect to grain protein content at 22.5 g ai ha(-1, Zhangzagu 10 was similar to the control, whereas Jingu 21 was markedly lower. An increase in TBM dosage led to a decrease in grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations. In conclusion, the recommended dosage of TBM was relatively safe for Zhangzagu 10, but not for Jingu 21. Additionally, the hybrid variety Zhangzagu 10 had a greater tolerance to TBM than the conventional variety Jingu 21.

  3. Grain Yield and Quality of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) in Response to Tribenuron-Methyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Na; Yuan, Xiangyang; Dong, Shuqi; Wen, Yinyuan; Gao, Zhenpan; Guo, Meijun; Guo, Pingyi

    2015-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is cultivated around the world for human and animal consumption. There is no suitable herbicide available for weed control in foxtail millet fields during the post-emergence stage. In this study, we investigated the effect and safety of the post-emergence herbicide tribenuron-methyl (TBM) on foxtail millet in terms of grain yield and quality using a split-plot field design. Field experiments were conducted using two varieties in 2013 and 2014, i.e., high-yielding hybrid Zhangzagu 10 and high-quality conventional Jingu 21. TBM treatments at 11.25 to 90 g ai ha(-1) reduced root and shoot biomass and grain yield to varying degrees. In each of the two years, grain yield declined by 50.2% in Zhangzagu 10 with a herbicide dosage of 45 g ai ha(-1) and by 45.2% in Jingu 21 with a herbicide dosage of 22.5 g ai ha(-1) (recommended dosage). Yield reduction was due to lower grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, panicle length, and panicle diameter. Grain yield was positively correlated with grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight, but not with panicles ha(-1). With respect to grain protein content at 22.5 g ai ha(-1,) Zhangzagu 10 was similar to the control, whereas Jingu 21 was markedly lower. An increase in TBM dosage led to a decrease in grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations. In conclusion, the recommended dosage of TBM was relatively safe for Zhangzagu 10, but not for Jingu 21. Additionally, the hybrid variety Zhangzagu 10 had a greater tolerance to TBM than the conventional variety Jingu 21.

  4. [Determination of flavor compounds in foxtail millet wine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Zhang, Aixia; Li, Shaohui; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yuzong; Xing, Guosheng

    2017-11-08

    To comprehensively understand flavor compounds and aroma characteristics of foxtail millet wine, extraction conditions were optimized with 85 μm polyacrylate (PA), 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), 75 μm carboxen (CAR)/PDMS and 50/30 μm divinylbenzene (DVB)/CAR/PDMS fibers. The flavor compounds in foxtail millet wine were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and the odor characteristics and intensity were analyzed by odor active values (OAVs). The samples of 8 mL were placed in headspace vials with 1.5 g NaCl, then the headspace vials were heated at 60℃ for 40 min. Using HS-SPME with different fibers, a total of 55 flavor compounds were identified from the samples, including alcohols, esters, benzene derivatives, hydrocarbons, acids, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes, phenols and heterocycle compounds. The main flavor compounds were alcohols compounds. According to their OAVs, phenylethyl alcohol, styrene, 1-methyl-naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and 2-methoxy-phenol were established to be odor-active compounds. Phenylethyl alcohol and benzeneacetaldehyde were the most prominent odor-active compounds. PA and PDMS fibers had good extraction effect for polar and nonpolar compounds, respectively. CAR/PDMS and DVB/CAR/PDMS provided a similar compounds profile for moderate polar compounds. This research comprehensively determined flavor compounds of foxtail millet wine, and provided theoretical basis for product development and quality control.

  5. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  6. Increasing Selenium and Yellow Pigment Concentrations in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) Grain with Foliar Application of Selenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Na; Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Dong, Shu-Qi; Wen, Yin-Yuan; Gao, Zhen-Pan; Guo, Mei-Jun; Guo, Ping-Yi

    2016-03-01

    Although addition of selenium (Se) is known to increase Se in crops, it is unclear whether exogenous Se is linked to nutritional and functional components in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). In this study, we examined the potential of increasing Se and yellow pigment (YP) in foxtail millet grain by foliar application of Se. Field experiments were conducted during the growing season of foxtail millet in 2013 and 2014 to assess the effects of foliar spray of sodium selenite (10-210 g Se ha(-1)) on the yield, Se uptake and accumulation, total YP, and microminerals in the grain. Average grain yields with Se application were 5.60 and 4.53 t ha(-1) in the 2 years, showing no significant differences from the unfertilized control. However, grain Se concentration increased linearly with Se application rate, by 8.92 and 6.09 μg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1) (maximum grain recovery rates of Se fertilizer, 52 and 28 %). Likewise, total grain YP concentration markedly increased by 0.038 and 0.031 mg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1). Grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations were not significantly affected by Se application. This study indicated that foliar application of Se effectively and reliably increased the concentrations of Se and YP in foxtail millet grain without affecting the yield or mineral micronutrient concentrations. Thus, foliar-applied selenite has a significant potential to increase the concentrations of selenium and YP (putative lutein (Shen, J Cereal Sci 61:86-93, 2015; Abdel-Aal, Cereal Chem 79:455-457, 2002; Abdel-Aal, J Agric Food Chem 55:787-794, 2007)) of foxtail millet and, thus, the health benefits of this crop.

  7. Green Retrofits to Bring Jobs, Stormwater Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community-based public-private partnership fostered by EPA’s Mid-Atlantic Water Protection Division is underway in Prince George’s County, Maryland, to generate “faster, cheaper, greener” controls for stormwater and benefit the local economy and community.

  8. Genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) provides insights into grass evolution and biofuel potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gengyun; Liu, Xin; Quan, Zhiwu; Cheng, Shifeng; Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Xie, Min; Zeng, Peng; Yue, Zhen; Wang, Wenliang; Tao, Ye; Bian, Chao; Han, Changlei; Xia, Qiuju; Peng, Xiaohua; Cao, Rui; Yang, Xinhua; Zhan, Dongliang; Hu, Jingchu; Zhang, Yinxin; Li, Henan; Li, Hua; Li, Ning; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Chanchan; Wang, Renyi; Guo, Tao; Cai, Yanjie; Liu, Chengzhang; Xiang, Haitao; Shi, Qiuxiang; Huang, Ping; Chen, Qingchun; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Zhihai; Wang, Jian

    2012-05-13

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a member of the Poaceae grass family, is an important food and fodder crop in arid regions and has potential for use as a C(4) biofuel. It is a model system for other biofuel grasses, including switchgrass and pearl millet. We produced a draft genome (∼423 Mb) anchored onto nine chromosomes and annotated 38,801 genes. Key chromosome reshuffling events were detected through collinearity identification between foxtail millet, rice and sorghum including two reshuffling events fusing rice chromosomes 7 and 9, 3 and 10 to foxtail millet chromosomes 2 and 9, respectively, that occurred after the divergence of foxtail millet and rice, and a single reshuffling event fusing rice chromosome 5 and 12 to foxtail millet chromosome 3 that occurred after the divergence of millet and sorghum. Rearrangements in the C(4) photosynthesis pathway were also identified.

  9. Occurrence of Viruses Infecting Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Youl Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, a nationwide survey was carried out to investigate about occurrence pattern of virus infecting foxtail millet. A total 100 foxtail millet leaf samples showing virus-like and abnormal symptoms were collected in the seven main cultivated regions of Korea. Four viruses were identified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and RNA sequencing. Of the collected 100 foxtail millet samples, 10 were Barley virus G (BVG, 4 were Rice stripe virus (RSV, 1 was Northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV, and 1 was Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (ScYLV infection. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of BVG and NCMV infecting foxtail millet in Korea and ScYLV is expected as new Polerovirus species. This research will be useful in breeding for improved disease-resistant foxtail millet cultivars.

  10. Water hammer prediction and control: the Green's function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Li-Jun; Mao, Feng; Wu, Jie-Zhi

    2012-04-01

    By Green's function method we show that the water hammer (WH) can be analytically predicted for both laminar and turbulent flows (for the latter, with an eddy viscosity depending solely on the space coordinates), and thus its hazardous effect can be rationally controlled and minimized. To this end, we generalize a laminar water hammer equation of Wang et al. (J. Hydrodynamics, B2, 51, 1995) to include arbitrary initial condition and variable viscosity, and obtain its solution by Green's function method. The predicted characteristic WH behaviors by the solutions are in excellent agreement with both direct numerical simulation of the original governing equations and, by adjusting the eddy viscosity coefficient, experimentally measured turbulent flow data. Optimal WH control principle is thereby constructed and demonstrated.

  11. Long Term Cost Efficiency through Green Management Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vukania Adda, Nancy; Qin, Xiaochen

    2012-01-01

    Title: Long term cost efficiency through green management control systems.Authors: Nancy Vukania &Xiaochen QinSupervisor: Åsa Karin-EngstrandBackground: The worldwide financial crisis of 2008 has reconfigured the economic turf leading to a more uncertain and turbulent playing field – a greater challenge for business strategy and the quest for optimization- The oil price hike of 2008 (Furlong 2010)1 caused its rippling effect to affect various cost categories including energy, labor and lo...

  12. Weed Control in White Bean with Various Halosulfuron Tankmixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Soltani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four field trials were conducted over a three-year period (2011–2013 in southwestern Ontario to evaluate the level of weed control provided by various halosulfuron tankmixes applied preplant incorporated (PPI in white bean. Trifluralin, s-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr applied alone or in combination caused 4% or less visible injury 1 and 4 weeks after emergence (WAE in white bean. Trifluralin, s-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr applied PPI provided 80–96%, 84–95%, 83–100%, and 75–92% control of redroot pigweed; 19–28%, 30–40%, 97–99%, and 73–84% control of common ragweed; 94–96%, 63–82%, 96–100%, and 96–100% control of common lambsquarters; 14-15%, 12–35%, 100%, and 96–97% control of wild mustard; and 96–97%, 95–97%, 53–56%, and 80–82% control of green foxtail, respectively. The two- and three-way tankmixes of halosulfuron with trifluralin, s-metolachlor, or imazethapyr provided 85–100% control of redroot pigweed, 90–98% control of common ragweed, 97–100% control of common lambsquarters, 100% control of wild mustard, and 93–98% control of green foxtail. Weed density, weed biomass and white bean seed yields reflected the level of visible weed control.

  13. Dehydration-responsive miRNAs in foxtail millet: genome-wide identification, characterization and expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Amita; Khan, Yusuf; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-03-01

    A set of novel and known dehydration-responsive miRNAs have been identified in foxtail millet. These findings provide new insights into understanding the functional role of miRNAs and their respective targets in regulating plant response to dehydration stress. MicroRNAs perform significant regulatory roles in growth, development and stress response of plants. Though the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks under dehydration stress remain largely unexplored in plant including foxtail millet (Setaria italica), which is a natural abiotic stress tolerant crop. To find out the dehydration-responsive miRNAs at the global level, four small RNA libraries were constructed from control and dehydration stress treated seedlings of two foxtail millet cultivars showing contrasting tolerance behavior towards dehydration stress. Using Illumina sequencing technology, 55 known and 136 novel miRNAs were identified, representing 22 and 48 miRNA families, respectively. Eighteen known and 33 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed during dehydration stress. After the stress treatment, 32 dehydration-responsive miRNAs were up-regulated in tolerant cultivar and 22 miRNAs were down-regulated in sensitive cultivar, suggesting that miRNA-mediated molecular regulation might play important roles in providing contrasting characteristics to these cultivars. Predicted targets of identified miRNAs were found to encode various transcription factors and functional enzymes, indicating their involvement in broad spectrum regulatory functions and biological processes. Further, differential expression patterns of seven known miRNAs were validated by northern blot and expression of ten novel dehydration-responsive miRNAs were confirmed by SL-qRT PCR. Differential expression behavior of five miRNA-target genes was verified under dehydration stress treatment and two of them also validated by RLM RACE. Overall, the present study highlights the importance of dehydration stress-associated post

  14. Postprandial glycaemic response of foxtail millet dosa in comparison to a rice dosa in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Janani; Sanjeevi, Vimala; Rohini, U.; Trueman, Patricia; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Millets are rich source of dietary fibre and non-starchy polysaccharides with low glycaemic index (GI), hence can be used as a therapeutic diet. This study was conducted to estimate the effects of a millet-based dosa (foxtail dosa) compared to a rice dosa for breakfast on postprandial glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: The GI of rice dosa and foxtail millet dosa was estimated. A total of 105 T2DM participants were randomly selected for the study. The participants were on oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA) and not on insulin. In this study, each individual served as their own control and experimental group. The postprandial increase in blood glucose was compared after a breakfast of rice dosa and millet dosa. Single and paired t test was used to note the change in blood glucose levels and the level of the significance. Results: The GI of foxtail millet dosa was 59.25 and rice dosa was 77.96. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001) in the postprandial glucose level of patients who consumed a millet-based dosa when compared to those who consumed a rice-based dosa. No significant reduction was observed in the fasting glucose levels. Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggested that replacing a rice-based breakfast item with a millet-based breakfast item lowers the postprandial blood glucose levels in T2DM patients. Thus, millets may have a protective role in the management of hyperglycaemia. Further studies need to be done in a systematic manner to confirm these findings. PMID:28361824

  15. Effectiveness of SCADA Systems in Control of Green Sands Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper undertakes an important topic of evaluation of effectiveness of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems, used for monitoring and control of selected processing parameters of classic green sands used in foundry. Main focus was put on process studies of properties of so-called 1st generation molding sands in the respect of their preparation process. Possible methods of control of this processing are presented, with consideration of application of fresh raw materials, return sand (regenerate and water. The studies conducted in one of European foundries were aimed at pointing out how much application of new, automated plant of sand processing incorporating the SCADA systems allows stabilizing results of measurement of selected sand parameters after its mixing. The studies concerned two comparative periods of time, before an implementation of the automated devices for green sands processing (ASMS - Automatic Sand Measurement System and MCM – Main Control Module and after the implementation. Results of measurement of selected sand properties after implementation of the ASMS were also evaluated and compared with testing studies conducted periodically in laboratory.

  16. Development of Genomic and Genetic Tools for Foxtail Millet, and Use of These Tools in the Improvement of Biomass Production for Bioenergy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doust, Andrew, N.

    2011-11-11

    The overall aim of this research was to develop genomic and genetic tools in foxtail millet that will be useful in improving biomass production in bioenergy crops such as switchgrass, napier grass, and pearl millet. A variety of approaches have been implemented, and our lab has been primarily involved in genome analysis and quantitative genetic analysis. Our progress in these activities has been substantially helped by the genomic sequence of foxtail millet produced by the Joint Genome Institute (Bennetzen et al., in prep). In particular, the annotation and analysis of candidate genes for architecture, biomass production and flowering has led to new insights into the control of branching and flowering time, and has shown how closely related flowering time is to vegetative architectural development and biomass accumulation. The differences in genetic control identified at high and low density plantings have direct relevance to the breeding of bioenergy grasses that are tolerant of high planting densities. The developmental analyses have shown how plant architecture changes over time and may indicate which genes may best be manipulated at various times during development to obtain required biomass characteristics. This data contributes to the overall aim of significantly improving genetic and genomic tools in foxtail millet that can be directed to improvement of bioenergy grasses such as switchgrass, where it is important to maximize vegetative growth for greatest biomass production.

  17. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  18. A high-density genetic map and QTL analysis of agronomic traits in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] using RAD-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Zhilan; Du, Xiaofen; Yang, Huiqing; Han, Fang; Han, Yuanhuai; Yuan, Feng; Zhang, Linyi; Peng, Shuzhong; Guo, Erhu

    2017-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a very important grain crop in China, has become a new model plant for cereal crops and biofuel grasses. Although its reference genome sequence was released recently, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling complex agronomic traits remains limited. The development of massively parallel genotyping methods and next-generation sequencing technologies provides an excellent opportunity for developing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for linkage map construction and QTL analysis of complex quantitative traits. In this study, a high-throughput and cost-effective RAD-seq approach was employed to generate a high-density genetic map for foxtail millet. A total of 2,668,587 SNP loci were detected according to the reference genome sequence; meanwhile, 9,968 SNP markers were used to genotype 124 F2 progenies derived from the cross between Hongmiaozhangu and Changnong35; a high-density genetic map spanning 1648.8 cM, with an average distance of 0.17 cM between adjacent markers was constructed; 11 major QTLs for eight agronomic traits were identified; five co-dominant DNA markers were developed. These findings will be of value for the identification of candidate genes and marker-assisted selection in foxtail millet.

  19. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion in Skin Cancer Radiation Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Shin; Cheol; Lee, Kyung Jae; Jung, Sung Min; Oh, Tae Seong; Park, Jong Il; Shin, Hyun Kye [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The sufficiency of skin dose and the reemergence of patient set-up position to the success of skin cancer radiation treatment is a very important element. But the conventional methods to increase the skin dose were used to vacuum cushion, bolus and water tank have several weak points. For this reason, we produced Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion and evaluated the efficiency of the Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion in skin cancer Radiation treatment. We measured absolute dose for 3 materials (Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion, bolus and solid water phantom) and compared each dose distribution. We irradiated 6 MV 100 MU photon radiation to every material of 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm thickness at three times. We measured absolute dose and compared dose distribution. Finally we inspected the CT simulation and radiation therapy planing using the Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion. Absolute dose of Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion was similar to absolute dose of bolus and solid water phantom's result in each thickness. it Showed only the difference of 0.1-0.2% between each material. Also the same result in dose distribution comparison. About 97% of the dose distribution was within the margin of error in the prescribed ranges (100{+-}3%), and achieved the enough skin dose (Gross Tumor Volume dose : 100{+-}5%) in radiation therapy planing. We evaluated important fact that Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion is no shortage of time to replace the soft tissue equivalent material and normal vacuum cushion at the low energy radiation transmittance. Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion can simultaneously achieve the enough skin dose in radiation therapy planing with maintaining normal vacuum cushion' function. Therefore as above We think that Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion is very useful in skin cancer radiation treatment.

  20. Foxtail millet: nutritional and eating quality, and prospects for genetic improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu HE,Bin ZHANG,Xingchun WANG,Hongying LI,Yuanhuai HAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet is a minor yet important crop in some areas of the world, particularly northern China. It has strong adaptability to abiotic stresses, especially drought, and poor soil. It also has high nutritional value. Foxtail millet is rich in essential amino acids, fatty acids and minerals, and is considered to be one of the most digestible and non-allergenic grains available and has significant importance for human health. Given foxtail milletrsquo;s ability to adapt to abiotic stresses associated with climate change, it is more important than ever to develop breeding strategies that facilitate the increasing demand for high quality grain that better satisfies consumers. Here we review research on foxtail millet quality evaluation, appearance, cooking and eating quality at the phenotypic level. We review analysis of the main nutrients in foxtail millet, their relationships and the biochemical and genetic factors affecting their accumulation. In addition, we review past progress in breeding this regionally important crop, outline current status of breeding of foxtail millet, and make suggestions to improve grain quality.

  1. Utilization of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica from Papua as an Alternative Feedstuff to Substitute Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Tirajoh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Papua foxtail millet (Setaria italica is a plant which has been used as a source of carbohydrate, but it has not been used optimally. High demand in consuming corn as a poultry feeds provides an opportunity for Papua foxtail millet to be used as a substitute for corn in feed. Evaluation of nutritive values and antinutrient shows that Papua foxtail millet potential to be used as feed stuff. Studies on cultivation technology, evaluation of the nutritive values and antinutrient and its benefits as an alternative feed are relatively limited. The results shows that the Papua foxtail millet contains dry matter (88.37%, ash (0.86%, protein (12.07%, fat (2.76%, crude fiber (1.93%, metabolizable energy (3,139 kcal/kg and anti-nutritional factors (3.07% of phytate and 0.01% of tannins. Several studies reported that the use of Papua foxtail millet at various levels (25-100% in feed, can substitute corn and give a positive response on consumption, daily weight gain, feed conversion, carcass composition and percentages and egg production. It can be concluded that the Papua foxtail millet can be used as a corn substitution in poultry feed.

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunfang; Jia, Guanqing; Zhi, Hui; Niu, Zhengang; Chai, Yang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yongfang; Li, Haiquan; Lu, Ping; Zhao, Baohua; Diao, Xianmin

    2012-07-01

    As an ancient cereal of great importance for dryland agriculture even today, foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is fast becoming a new plant genomic model crop. A genotypic analysis of 250 foxtail millet landraces, which represent 1% of foxtail millet germplasm kept in the Chinese National Gene Bank (CNGB), was conducted with 77 SSRs covering the foxtail millet genome. A high degree of molecular diversity among the landraces was found, with an average of 20.9 alleles per locus detected. STRUCTURE, neighbor-jointing, and principal components analyses classify the accessions into three clusters (topmost hierarchy) and, ultimately, four conservative subgroups (substructuring within the topmost clusters) in total, which are in good accordance with eco-geographical distribution in China. The highest subpopulation diversity was identified in the accessions of Pop3 from the middle regions of the Yellow River, followed by accessions in Pop1 from the downstream regions of the Yellow River, suggesting that foxtail millet was domesticated in the Yellow River drainage area first and then spread to other parts of the country. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay of less than 20 cM of genetic distance in the foxtail millet landrace genome was observed, which suggests that it could be possible to achieve resolution down to the 20 cM level for association mapping.

  3. Loose Panicle1 encoding a novel WRKY transcription factor, regulates panicle development, stem elongation, and seed size in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L. P. Beauv.].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jishan Xiang

    Full Text Available Panicle development is an important agronomic trait that aids in determining crop productivity. Foxtail millet and its wild ancestor green foxtail have recently been used as model systems to dissect gene functions. Here, we characterized a recessive mutant of foxtail millet, loose-panicle 1 (lp1, which showed pleiotropic phenotypes, such as a lax primary branching pattern, aberrant branch morphology, semi-dwarfism, and enlarged seed size. The loose panicle phenotype was attributed to increased panicle lengths and decreased primary branch numbers. Map-based cloning, combined with high-throughput sequencing, revealed that LP1, which encodes a novel WRKY transcription factor, is responsible for the mutant phenotype. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that LP1 belongs to the Group I WRKY subfamily, which possesses two WRKY domains (WRKY I and II. A single G-to-A transition in the fifth intron of LP1 resulted in three disorganized splicing events in mutant plants. For each of these aberrant splice variants, the normal C2H2 motif in the WRKY II domain was completely disrupted, resulting in a loss-of-function mutation. LP1 mRNA was expressed in all of the tissues examined, with higher expression levels observed in inflorescences, roots, and seeds at the grain-filling stage. A subcellular localization analysis showed that LP1 predominantly accumulated in the nucleus, which confirmed its role as a transcriptional regulator. This study provides novel insights into the roles of WRKY proteins in regulating reproductive organ development in plants and may help to develop molecular markers associated with crop yields.

  4. Loose Panicle1 encoding a novel WRKY transcription factor, regulates panicle development, stem elongation, and seed size in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jishan; Tang, Sha; Zhi, Hui; Jia, Guanqing; Wang, Huajun; Diao, Xianmin

    2017-01-01

    Panicle development is an important agronomic trait that aids in determining crop productivity. Foxtail millet and its wild ancestor green foxtail have recently been used as model systems to dissect gene functions. Here, we characterized a recessive mutant of foxtail millet, loose-panicle 1 (lp1), which showed pleiotropic phenotypes, such as a lax primary branching pattern, aberrant branch morphology, semi-dwarfism, and enlarged seed size. The loose panicle phenotype was attributed to increased panicle lengths and decreased primary branch numbers. Map-based cloning, combined with high-throughput sequencing, revealed that LP1, which encodes a novel WRKY transcription factor, is responsible for the mutant phenotype. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that LP1 belongs to the Group I WRKY subfamily, which possesses two WRKY domains (WRKY I and II). A single G-to-A transition in the fifth intron of LP1 resulted in three disorganized splicing events in mutant plants. For each of these aberrant splice variants, the normal C2H2 motif in the WRKY II domain was completely disrupted, resulting in a loss-of-function mutation. LP1 mRNA was expressed in all of the tissues examined, with higher expression levels observed in inflorescences, roots, and seeds at the grain-filling stage. A subcellular localization analysis showed that LP1 predominantly accumulated in the nucleus, which confirmed its role as a transcriptional regulator. This study provides novel insights into the roles of WRKY proteins in regulating reproductive organ development in plants and may help to develop molecular markers associated with crop yields.

  5. Application of Special Cause Control Charts to Green Sand Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perzyk M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical Process Control (SPC based on the well known Shewhart control charts, is widely used in contemporary manufacturing industry, including many foundries. However, the classic SPC methods require that the measured quantities, e.g. process or product parameters, are not auto-correlated, i.e. their current values do not depend on the preceding ones. For the processes which do not obey this assumption the Special Cause Control (SCC charts were proposed, utilizing the residual data obtained from the time-series analysis. In the present paper the results of application of SCC charts to a green sand processing system are presented. The tests, made on real industrial data collected in a big iron foundry, were aimed at the comparison of occurrences of out-of-control signals detected in the original data with those appeared in the residual data. It was found that application of the SCC charts reduces numbers of the signals in almost all cases It is concluded that it can be helpful in avoiding false signals, i.e. resulting from predictable factors.

  6. Genome-wide characterization of microRNA in foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei; Xie, Shaojun; Liu, Yuwei; Qi, Xin; Yu, Jingjuan

    2013-12-13

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding, endogenous RNAs that play key roles in many biological processes in both animals and plants. Although many miRNAs have been identified in a large number of organisms, the miRNAs in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) have, until now, been poorly understood. In this study, two replicate small RNA libraries from foxtail millet shoots were sequenced, and 40 million reads representing over 10 million unique sequences were generated. We identified 43 known miRNAs, 172 novel miRNAs and 2 mirtron precursor candidates in foxtail millet. Some miRNA*s of the known and novel miRNAs were detected as well. Further, eight novel miRNAs were validated by stem-loop RT-PCR. Potential targets of the foxtail millet miRNAs were predicted based on our strict criteria. Of the predicted target genes, 79% (351) had functional annotations in InterPro and GO analyses, indicating the targets of the miRNAs were involved in a wide range of regulatory functions and some specific biological processes. A total of 69 pairs of syntenic miRNA precursors that were conserved between foxtail millet and sorghum were found. Additionally, stem-loop RT-PCR was conducted to confirm the tissue-specific expression of some miRNAs in the four tissues identified by deep-sequencing. We predicted, for the first time, 215 miRNAs and 447 miRNA targets in foxtail millet at a genome-wide level. The precursors, expression levels, miRNA* sequences, target functions, conservation, and evolution of miRNAs we identified were investigated. Some of the novel foxtail millet miRNAs and miRNA targets were validated experimentally.

  7. Green FLASH: energy efficient real-time control for AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratadour, D.; Dipper, N.; Biasi, R.; Deneux, H.; Bernard, J.; Brule, J.; Dembet, R.; Doucet, N.; Ferreira, F.; Gendron, E.; Laine, M.; Perret, D.; Rousset, G.; Sevin, A.; Bitenc, U.; Geng, D.; Younger, E.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Patauner, C.; Pescoller, D.; Porta, F.; Dufourcq, G.; Flaischer, A.; Leclere, J.-B.; Nai, A.; Palazzari, P.; Pretet, D.; Rouaud, C.

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of Green Flash is to design and build a prototype for a Real-Time Controller (RTC) targeting the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) Adaptive Optics (AO) instrumentation. The E-ELT is a 39m diameter telescope to see first light in the early 2020s. To build this critical component of the telescope operations, the astronomical community is facing technical challenges, emerging from the combination of high data transfer bandwidth, low latency and high throughput requirements, similar to the identified critical barriers on the road to Exascale. With Green Flash, we will propose technical solutions, assess these enabling technologies through prototyping and assemble a full scale demonstrator to be validated with a simulator and tested on sky. With this R&D program we aim at feeding the E-ELT AO systems preliminary design studies, led by the selected first-light instruments consortia, with technological validations supporting the designs of their RTC modules. Our strategy is based on a strong interaction between academic and industrial partners. Components specifications and system requirements are derived from the AO application. Industrial partners lead the development of enabling technologies aiming at innovative tailored solutions with potential wide application range. The academic partners provide the missing links in the ecosystem, targeting their application with mainstream solutions. This increases both the value and market opportunities of the developed products. A prototype harboring all the features is used to assess the performance. It also provides the proof of concept for a resilient modular solution to equip a large scale European scientific facility, while containing the development cost by providing opportunities for return on investment.

  8. Controlling Smart Green House Using Fuzzy Logic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To increase agricultural output it is needed a system that can help the environmental conditions for optimum plant growth. Smart greenhouse allows for plants to grow optimally, because the temperature and humidity can be controlled so that no drastic changes. It is necessary for optimal smart greenhouse needed a system to manipulate the environment in accordance with the needs of the plant. In this case the setting temperature and humidity in the greenhouse according to the needs of the plant. So using an automated system for keeping such environmental condition is important. In this study, the authors use fuzzy logic to make the duration of watering the plants more dynamic in accordance with the input temperature and humidity so that the temperature and humidity in the green house plants maintained in accordance to the reference condition. Based on the experimental results using fuzzy logic method is effective to control the duration of watering and to maintain the optimum temperature and humidity inside the greenhouse

  9. Controlling Smart Green House Using Fuzzy Logic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To increase agricultural output it is needed a system that can help the environmental conditions for optimum plant growth. Smart greenhouse allows for plants to grow optimally, because the temperature and humidity can be controlled so that no drastic changes. It is necessary for optimal smart greenhouse needed a system to manipulate the environment in accordance with the needs of the plant. In this case the setting temperature and humidity in the greenhouse according to the needs of the plant. So using an automated system for keeping such environmental condition is important. In this study, the authors use fuzzy logic to make the duration of watering the plants more dynamic in accordance with the input temperature and humidity so that the temperature and humidity in the green house plants maintained in accordance to the reference condition. Based on the experimental results using fuzzy logic method is effective to control the duration of watering and to maintain the optimum temperature and humidity inside the greenhouse

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of elite foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] germplasm in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    China is among the countries that have the most severe water deficiency. Due to its excellent drought tolerance, foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] has become one of the important cereal crops in China. Information on genetic diversity and population structure of foxtail millet may faci...

  11. Phytoliths analysis for the discrimination of Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wu, Naiqin; Liu, Kam-Biu; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

    2009-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum) are the oldest domesticated dry farming crops in Eurasia. Identifying these two millets in the archaeobotanical remains are still problematic, especially because the millet grains preserve only when charred. Phytoliths analysis provides a viable method for identifying this important crop. However, to date, the identification of millet phytoliths has been questionable, because very little study has been done on their morphometry and taxonomy. Particularly, no clear diagnostic feature has been used to distinguish between Foxtail millet and Common millet. Here we examined the anatomy and silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from the inflorescence bracts in 27 modern plants of Foxtail millet, Common millet, and closely related grasses, using light microscopy with phase-contrast and microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that five key diagnostic characteristics in phytolith morphology can be used to distinguish Foxtail millet from Common millet based on the presence of cross-shaped type, regularly arranged papillae, Omega-undulated type, endings structures of epidermal long cell, and surface ridgy line sculpture in the former species. We have established identification criteria that, when used together, give the only reliable way of distinguishing between Foxtail millet and Common millet species based on their phytoliths characteristics, thus making a methodological contribution to phytolith research. Our findings also have important implications in the fields of plant taxonomy, agricultural archaeology, and the culture history of ancient civilizations.

  12. Differential gene expression in foxtail millet during incompatible interaction with Uromyces setariae-italicae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yong Li

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica is an important food and fodder grain crop that is grown for human consumption. Production of this species is affected by several plant diseases, such as rust. The cultivar Shilixiang has been identified as resistant to the foxtail millet rust pathogen, Uromyces setariae-italicae. In order to identify signaling pathways and genes related to the plant's defense mechanisms against rust, the Shilixiang cultivar was used to construct a digital gene expression (DGE library during the interaction of foxtail millet with U. setariae-italicae. In this study, we determined the most abundant differentially expressed signaling pathways of up-regulated genes in foxtail millet and identified significantly up-regulated genes. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis was used to analyze the expression of nine selected genes, and the patterns observed agreed well with DGE analysis. Expression levels of the genes were also compared between a resistant cultivar Shilixiang and a susceptible cultivar Yugu-1, and the result indicated that expression level of Shilixiang is higher than that of Yugu-1. This study reveals the relatively comprehensive mechanisms of rust-responsive transcription in foxtail millet.

  13. Phytoliths analysis for the discrimination of Foxtail millet (Setaria italica and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houyuan Lu

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum are the oldest domesticated dry farming crops in Eurasia. Identifying these two millets in the archaeobotanical remains are still problematic, especially because the millet grains preserve only when charred. Phytoliths analysis provides a viable method for identifying this important crop. However, to date, the identification of millet phytoliths has been questionable, because very little study has been done on their morphometry and taxonomy. Particularly, no clear diagnostic feature has been used to distinguish between Foxtail millet and Common millet. Here we examined the anatomy and silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from the inflorescence bracts in 27 modern plants of Foxtail millet, Common millet, and closely related grasses, using light microscopy with phase-contrast and microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that five key diagnostic characteristics in phytolith morphology can be used to distinguish Foxtail millet from Common millet based on the presence of cross-shaped type, regularly arranged papillae, Omega-undulated type, endings structures of epidermal long cell, and surface ridgy line sculpture in the former species. We have established identification criteria that, when used together, give the only reliable way of distinguishing between Foxtail millet and Common millet species based on their phytoliths characteristics, thus making a methodological contribution to phytolith research. Our findings also have important implications in the fields of plant taxonomy, agricultural archaeology, and the culture history of ancient civilizations.

  14. A haplotype map of genomic variations and genome-wide association studies of agronomic traits in foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guanqing; Huang, Xuehui; Zhi, Hui; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Wenjun; Chai, Yang; Yang, Lifang; Liu, Kunyan; Lu, Hengyun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Lu, Yiqi; Zhou, Congcong; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Guo, Yunli; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Tingting; Feng, Qi; Hao, Hangfei; Liu, Hongkuan; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Ning; Li, Yuhui; Guo, Erhu; Wang, Shujun; Wang, Suying; Liu, Jinrong; Zhang, Wenfei; Chen, Guoqiu; Zhang, Baojin; Li, Wei; Wang, Yongfang; Li, Haiquan; Zhao, Baohua; Li, Jiayang; Diao, Xianmin; Han, Bin

    2013-08-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important grain crop that is grown in arid regions. Here we sequenced 916 diverse foxtail millet varieties, identified 2.58 million SNPs and used 0.8 million common SNPs to construct a haplotype map of the foxtail millet genome. We classified the foxtail millet varieties into two divergent groups that are strongly correlated with early and late flowering times. We phenotyped the 916 varieties under five different environments and identified 512 loci associated with 47 agronomic traits by genome-wide association studies. We performed a de novo assembly of deeply sequenced genomes of a Setaria viridis accession (the wild progenitor of S. italica) and an S. italica variety and identified complex interspecies and intraspecies variants. We also identified 36 selective sweeps that seem to have occurred during modern breeding. This study provides fundamental resources for genetics research and genetic improvement in foxtail millet.

  15. Foxtail millet: a model crop for genetic and genomic studies in bioenergy grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Charu; Gupta, Sarika; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-09-01

    Foxtail millet is one of the oldest domesticated diploid C4 Panicoid crops having a comparatively small genome size of approximately 515 Mb, short life cycle, and inbreeding nature. Its two species, Setaria italica (domesticated) and Setaria viridis (wild progenitor), have characteristics that classify them as excellent model systems to examine several aspects of architectural, evolutionary, and physiological importance in Panicoid grasses especially the biofuel crops such as switchgrass and napiergrass. Foxtail millet is a staple crop used extensively for food and fodder in parts of Asia and Africa. In its long history of cultivation, it has been adapted to arid and semi-arid areas of Asia, North Africa, South and North America. Foxtail millet has one of the largest collections of cultivated as well as wild-type germplasm rich with phenotypic variations and hence provides prospects for association mapping and allele-mining of elite and novel variants to be incorporated in crop improvement programs. Most of the foxtail millet accessions can be primarily abiotic stress tolerant particularly to drought and salinity, and therefore exploiting these agronomic traits can enhance its efficacy in marker-aided breeding as well as in genetic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance. In addition, the release of draft genome sequence of foxtail millet would be useful to the researchers worldwide in not only discerning the molecular basis of biomass production in biofuel crops and the methods to improve it, but also for the introgression of beneficial agronomically important characteristics in foxtail millet as well as in related Panicoid bioenergy grasses.

  16. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals differential gene expression in response to salt stress in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Ananthi; Puranik, Swati; Rai, Neeraj Kumar; Vidapu, Sudhakar; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Lata, Charu; Prasad, Manoj

    2008-11-01

    Plant growth and productivity are affected by various abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, cold, salinity, etc. The mechanism of salt tolerance is one of the most important subjects in plant science as salt stress decreases worldwide agricultural production. In our present study we used cDNA-AFLP technique to compare gene expression profiles of a salt tolerant and a salt-sensitive cultivar of foxtail millet (Seteria italica) in response to salt stress to identify early responsive differentially expressed transcripts accumulated upon salt stress and validate the obtained result through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression profile was compared between a salt tolerant (Prasad) and susceptible variety (Lepakshi) of foxtail millet in both control condition (L0 and P0) and after 1 h (L1 and P1) of salt stress. We identified 90 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) that are differentially expressed, out of which 86 TDFs were classified on the basis of their either complete presence or absence (qualitative variants) and 4 on differential expression pattern levels (quantitative variants) in the two varieties. Finally, we identified 27 non-redundant differentially expressed cDNAs that are unique to salt tolerant variety which represent different groups of genes involved in metabolism, cellular transport, cell signaling, transcriptional regulation, mRNA splicing, seed development and storage, etc. The expression patterns of seven out of nine such genes showed a significant increase of differential expression in tolerant variety after 1 h of salt stress in comparison to salt-sensitive variety as analyzed by qRT-PCR. The direct and indirect relationship of identified TDFs with salinity tolerance mechanism is discussed.

  17. Research on the Implementation of Technological Measures for Controlling Indoor Environmental Quality in Green Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruozhu; Liu, Pengda; Qian, Yongmei

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the design technology of controlling indoor quality in engineering practice, it is proposed that, in framework system of green residential building design, how to realize the design idea of controlling the indoor environment quality, and the design technology with feasibility, including the sunshine and lighting, indoor air quality and thermal environment, sound insulation and noise reduction measures, etc.. The results of all will provide a good theoretical supportting for the design of green residential building.

  18. Salinity induced differential methylation patterns in contrasting cultivars of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Garima; Yadav, Chandra Bhan; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Prasad, Manoj

    2017-05-01

    Genome-wide methylation analysis of foxtail millet cultivars contrastingly differing in salinity tolerance revealed DNA demethylation events occurring in tolerant cultivar under salinity stress, eventually modulating the expression of stress-responsive genes. Reduced productivity and significant yield loss are the adverse effects of environmental conditions on physiological and biochemical pathways in crop plants. In this context, understanding the epigenetic machinery underlying the tolerance traits in a naturally stress tolerant crop is imperative. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is known for its better tolerance to abiotic stresses compared to other cereal crops. In the present study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique was used to quantify the salt-induced methylation changes in two foxtail millet cultivars contrastingly differing in their tolerance levels to salt stress. The study highlighted that the DNA methylation level was significantly reduced in tolerant cultivar compared to sensitive cultivar. A total of 86 polymorphic MSAP fragments were identified, sequenced and functionally annotated. These fragments showed sequence similarity to several genes including ABC transporter, WRKY transcription factor, serine threonine-protein phosphatase, disease resistance, oxidoreductases, cell wall-related enzymes and retrotransposon and transposase like proteins, suggesting salt stress-induced methylation in these genes. Among these, four genes were chosen for expression profiling which showed differential expression pattern between both cultivars of foxtail millet. Altogether, the study infers that salinity stress induces genome-wide DNA demethylation, which in turn, modulates expression of corresponding genes.

  19. Antioxidant activity, total phenolics, flavonoids and antinutritional characteristics of germinated foxtail millet (Setaria italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A central composite rotatable design was applied to analyse the effects of independent variables [soaking time (ST, germination time (Gt and temperature (GT] on responses [antioxidant activity (AoxA, total phenolic contents (TPC and flavonoid contents (TFC]. The results indicated that with increase in ST, Gt and GT, AoxA, TPC (free/bound and TFC (free/bound of foxtail millet increased significantly. The best combination of germination bioprocess variables for producing optimized germinated foxtail millet flour with the highest AoxA (90.5%, TPC (45.67 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g sample and TFC (30.52–43.96 mg RU/g sample were found with soaking time of 15.84 min having germination temperature of 25°C. The optimized germinated foxtail millet flour was nutritionally rich as it produced higher protein (14.32 g/100 g, dietary fibre (27.42 g/100 g, calcium (25.62 mg/kg, iron (54.23 mg/kg, magnesium (107.16 mg/kg and sodium (69.45 mg/kg per kg as compared to un-germinated foxtail millet flour.

  20. FmMDb: a versatile database of foxtail millet markers for millets and bioenergy grasses research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Suresh B

    Full Text Available The prominent attributes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. including its small genome size, short life cycle, inbreeding nature, and phylogenetic proximity to various biofuel crops have made this crop an excellent model system to investigate various aspects of architectural, evolutionary and physiological significances in Panicoid bioenergy grasses. After release of its whole genome sequence, large-scale genomic resources in terms of molecular markers were generated for the improvement of both foxtail millet and its related species. Hence it is now essential to congregate, curate and make available these genomic resources for the benefit of researchers and breeders working towards crop improvement. In view of this, we have constructed the Foxtail millet Marker Database (FmMDb; http://www.nipgr.res.in/foxtail.html, a comprehensive online database for information retrieval, visualization and management of large-scale marker datasets with unrestricted public access. FmMDb is the first database which provides complete marker information to the plant science community attempting to produce elite cultivars of millet and bioenergy grass species, thus addressing global food insecurity.

  1. High Efficacy Green LEDs by Polarization Controlled MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Christian [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2013-03-31

    Amazing performance in GaInN/GaN based LEDs has become possible by advanced epitaxial growth on a wide variety of substrates over the last decade. An immediate push towards product development and worldwide competition for market share have effectively reduced production cost and generated substantial primary energy savings on a worldwide scale. At all times of the development, this economic pressure forced very fundamental decisions that would shape huge industrial investment. One of those major aspects is the choice of epitaxial growth substrate. The natural questions are to what extend a decision for a certain substrate will limit the ultimate performance and to what extent, the choice of a currently more expensive substrate such as native GaN could overcome any of the remaining performance limitations. Therefore, this project has set out to explore what performance characteristic could be achieved under the utilization of bulk GaN substrate. Our work was guided by the hypotheses that line defects such as threading dislocations in the active region should be avoided and the huge piezoelectric polarization needs to be attenuated – if not turned off – for higher performing LEDs, particularly in the longer wavelength green and deep green portions of the visible spectrum. At their relatively lower performance level, deep green LEDs are a stronger indicator of relative performance improvements and seem particular sensitive to the challenges at hand.

  2. Development and genetic mapping of SSR markers in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zhongbao; Liu, Yinghui; Zhang, Chengwei; Shi, Yunsu; Song, Yanchun; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu

    2009-02-01

    SSR markers are desirable markers in analysis of genetic diversity, quantitative trait loci mapping and gene locating. In this study, SSR markers were developed from two genomic libraries enriched for (GA)n and (CA)n of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], a crop of historical importance in China. A total of 100 SSR markers among the 193 primer pairs detected polymorphism between two mapping parents of an F(2) population, i.e. "B100" of cultivated S. italica and "A10" of wild S. viridis. Excluding 14 markers with unclear amplifications, and five markers unlinked with any linkage group, a foxtail millet SSR linkage map was constructed by integrating 81 new developed SSR markers with 20 RFLP anchored markers. The 81 SSRs covered nine chromosomes of foxtail millet. The length of the map was 1,654 cM, with an average interval distance between markers of 16.4 cM. The 81 SSR markers were not evenly distributed throughout the nine chromosomes, with Ch.8 harbouring the least (3 markers) and Ch.9 harbouring the most (18 markers). To verify the usefulness of the SSR markers developed, 37 SSR markers were randomly chosen to analyze genetic diversity of 40 foxtail millet accessions. Totally 228 alleles were detected, with an average 6.16 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value for each locus ranged from 0.413 to 0.847, with an average of 0.697. A positive correlation between PIC and number of alleles and between PIC and number of repeat unit were found [0.802 and 0.429, respectively (P < 0.01)]. UPGMA analysis revealed that the 40 foxtail millet cultivars could be grouped into five clusters in which the landraces' grouping was largely consistent with ecotypes while the breeding varieties from different provinces in China tended to be grouped together.

  3. Slurry dispersion state as a parameter to control internal structure of alumina green compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M.; Shui, A.; Tanaka, S.; Uchida, N.; Uematsu, K. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The dispersion state of slurry must be controlled to produce granules with appropriated properties for pressing. In this study dispersion state of alumina slurry is changed to form granules with different morphology, deformation property and packing density, and the influence on the internal structure of green compact are presented. Novel methods applying liquid immersion technique coupled with different type of microscopy were used to characterize the internal structures of green compacts. Two types of granules were obtained: dimpled, hard and dense granule, and spherical, soft and loose granule. The respective internal structures of green compacts were totally different. (orig.)

  4. Development of a green bipropellant hydrogen peroxide thruster for attitude control on satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woschnak, A.; Krejci, D.; Schiebl, M.; Scharlemann, C.

    2013-03-01

    This document describes the selection assessment of propellants for a 1-newton green bipropellant thruster for attitude control on satellites. The development of this thruster was conducted as a part of the project GRASP (Green Advanced Space Propellants) within the European FP7 research program. The green propellant combinations hydrogen peroxide (highly concentrated with 87.5 %(wt.)) with kerosene or hydrogen peroxide (87.5 %(wt.)) with ethanol were identified as interesting candidates and were investigated in detail with the help of an experimental combustion chamber in the chemical propulsion laboratory at the Forschungsund Technologietransfer GmbH ― Fotec. Based on the test results, a final selection of propellants was performed.

  5. Design and control strategy for a hybrid green energy system for mobile telecommunication sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okundamiya, Michael S.; Emagbetere, Joy O.; Ogujor, Emmanuel A.

    2014-07-01

    The rising energy costs and carbon footprint of operating mobile telecommunication sites in the emerging world have increased research interests in green technology. The intermittent nature of most green energy sources creates the problem of designing the optimum configuration for a given location. This study presents the design analysis and control strategy for a cost effective and reliable operation of the hybrid green energy system (HGES) for GSM base transceiver station (BTS) sites in isolated regions. The design constrains the generation and distribution of power to reliably satisfy the energy demand while ensuring safe operation of the system. The overall process control applies the genetic algorithm-based technique for optimal techno-economic sizing of system's components. The process simulation utilized meteorological data for 3 locations (Abuja, Benin City and Sokoto) with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Simulation results presented for green GSM BTS sites are discussed and compared with existing approaches.

  6. Green synthesis and structural control of metal and mineral nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian

    of nanoparticle formation which, however, entails the development of new methods. Two approaches to the advancement of solution synthesis of gold nanomaterials for energy technology were exploited, namely the development of techniques to study nanoparticle formation and the synthesis of active, composite...... nanomaterials. In the first approach, time-resolved chronopotentiometry, pH, conductivity and turbidity, and ultraviolet-visible light spectroscopy were employed to follow the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Several distinct phases were observed with all techniques providing a broad picture...... of the complex processes. Strong indications of sequential reduction were found and details about ligands and surface immobilized molecules disclosed. This platform is a widely available alternative to traditionally used synchrotron techniques. In the second approach, systematic efforts toward size and shape...

  7. Saturation flow versus green time at two-stage signal controlled intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boumediene

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intersections are the key components of road networks considerably affecting capacity. As flow levels and experience have increased over the years, methods and means have been developed to cope with growing demand for traffic at road junctions. Among various traffic control devices and techniques developed to cope with conflicting movements, traffic signals create artificial gaps to accommodate the impeded traffic streams. The majority of parameters that govern signalised intersection control and operations such as a degree of saturation, delays, queue lengths, the level of service etc. are very sensitive to saturation flow. Therefore, it is essential to reliably evaluate saturation flow for correctly setting traffic signals to avoid unnecessary delays and conflicts. Generally, almost all guidelines support the constancy of saturation flow irrespective of green time duration. This paper presents the results of field studies carried out to enable the performance of signalised intersections to be compared at different green time durations. It was found that saturation flow decreased slightly with growing green time. Reduction corresponded to between 2 and 5 pcus/gh per second of green time. However, the analyses of the discharge rate during the successive time intervals of 6-seconds showed a substantial reduction of 10% to 13% in saturation flow levels after 36 seconds of green time compared to those relating to 6–36 seconds range. No reduction in saturation flow levels was detected at the sites where only green periods of 44 seconds or less were implemented.

  8. The research of automatic speed control algorithm based on Green CBTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Xiong, Hui; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wu, Youyou; Zhang, Chuanqi

    2017-06-01

    Automatic speed control algorithm is one of the core technologies of train operation control system. It’s a typical multi-objective optimization control algorithm, which achieve the train speed control for timing, comfort, energy-saving and precise parking. At present, the train speed automatic control technology is widely used in metro and inter-city railways. It has been found that the automatic speed control technology can effectively reduce the driver’s intensity, and improve the operation quality. However, the current used algorithm is poor at energy-saving, even not as good as manual driving. In order to solve the problem of energy-saving, this paper proposes an automatic speed control algorithm based on Green CBTC system. Based on the Green CBTC system, the algorithm can adjust the operation status of the train to improve the efficient using rate of regenerative braking feedback energy while ensuring the timing, comfort and precise parking targets. Due to the reason, the energy-using of Green CBTC system is lower than traditional CBTC system. The simulation results show that the algorithm based on Green CBTC system can effectively reduce the energy-using due to the improvement of the using rate of regenerative braking feedback energy.

  9. TUNGRO DISEASE CONTROL THROUGH THE ELIMINATION VECTOR ROLE OF GREEN LEAF HOPPER WITH ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Yuliani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Green leafhopper (GLHplays an important role in tungro disease epidemics. Reduce the activity of GLHsuckasvectorsof tungro virus was effective to limit transmission of the virus. Integrated control of tungro disease may involve multiple components at once including using sambilata with entomopathogenicfungus Metarhiziumanisopliae. This research was conducted to determine the effect of sambilata and M.anisopliaein controlling the GLH as tungro virus vectors. The experiment was conducted in tungro endemic areas in Tanjungsiang,Subang District at dry season 2013 and wet season 2013/2014. Experiments using split plot design with four replications. The main plot was consists of GLH resistant varieties(IR66, tungro resistant varieties (Inpari 9, and check varieties(Ciherang. The subplots were M.anisopliae applications, sambilata, and control. Application was done on rice plant age 14, 28 and 42 days after planting (DAP.The results showed that the intensity of tungro on Ciherang showed the highest intensity compared toIR66 and Inpari9. Effect of entomopathogenic fungus M.anisopliae application to tungro disease showed a lower intensity compared with sambilata extracts and control. The intensity of tungro disease in farmers’ fields as a comparison of experiment was high enough on average between 1 until 69%. In general, the density of GLH population began to increase on the observation of 14 to 28 DAP. GLH population density was highest at 28 DAP. However, the population density of GLH decreased at 42 until 56 DAP.

  10. Control Aspects of a LCL Grid-Connected Green Power Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Andersen, Gert Karmisholt; Klumpner, Christian

    2002-01-01

    A full-bridge inverter for interfacing the utility grid is developed for using in a Green Power Inverter application. The inverter is feed from an arbitrary green power source (fuel cell, photovoltaic, small wind turbine etc.) through a rectifier into the dc-link. In order to maintain a sinusoidal...... grid current with low harmonic distortion and a high power factor, the inverter is controlled to emulate a negative resistance towards the grid. The size of the emulated resistor is determined by the dc-link voltage controller, which tries to maintain a constant dc-link voltage. This is however...

  11. Nucleotide Sequence Diversity and Linkage Disequilibrium of Four Nuclear Loci in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Lian He

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L. Beauv is one of the earliest domesticated grains, which has been cultivated in northern China by 8,700 years before present (YBP and across Eurasia by 4,000 YBP. Owing to a small genome and diploid nature, foxtail millet is a tractable model crop for studying functional genomics of millets and bioenergy grasses. In this study, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity, geographic structure, and levels of linkage disequilibrium at four nuclear loci (ADH1, G3PDH, IGS1 and TPI1 in representative samples of 311 landrace accessions across its cultivated range. Higher levels of nucleotide sequence and haplotype diversity were observed in samples from China relative to other sampled regions. Genetic assignment analysis classified the accessions into seven clusters based on nucleotide sequence polymorphisms. Intralocus LD decayed rapidly to half the initial value within ~1.2 kb or less.

  12. Nucleotide Sequence Diversity and Linkage Disequilibrium of Four Nuclear Loci in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shui-Lian; Yang, Yang; Morrell, Peter L; Yi, Ting-Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv) is one of the earliest domesticated grains, which has been cultivated in northern China by 8,700 years before present (YBP) and across Eurasia by 4,000 YBP. Owing to a small genome and diploid nature, foxtail millet is a tractable model crop for studying functional genomics of millets and bioenergy grasses. In this study, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity, geographic structure, and levels of linkage disequilibrium at four nuclear loci (ADH1, G3PDH, IGS1 and TPI1) in representative samples of 311 landrace accessions across its cultivated range. Higher levels of nucleotide sequence and haplotype diversity were observed in samples from China relative to other sampled regions. Genetic assignment analysis classified the accessions into seven clusters based on nucleotide sequence polymorphisms. Intralocus LD decayed rapidly to half the initial value within ~1.2 kb or less.

  13. The complete chloroplast genome of an irreplaceable dietary and model crop, foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an important food and fodder crop in the family Poaceae, is first reported in this study. The genome consists of 1 35 516 bp containing a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 21 804 bp separated by a large single-copy (LSC) region and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 79 896 bp and 12 012 bp, respectively. Coding sequences constitute 58.8% of the genome harboring 111 unique genes, 71 of which are protein-coding genes, 4 are rRNA genes, and 36 are tRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated foxtail millet clustered with Panicum virgatum and Echinochloa crus-galli belonging to the tribe Paniceae of the subfamily Panicoideae. This newly determined chloroplast genome will provide valuable information for the future breeding programs of valuable cereal crops in the family Poaceae.

  14. Bioinformatic identification and experimental validation of miRNAs from foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Xie, Hao; Sun, Qingpeng; Wang, Jun; Lu, Min; Wang, Weixiang; Guo, Erhu; Pan, Jinbao

    2014-08-10

    MiRNAs are a novel group of non-coding small RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. Many miRNAs have been identified and investigated extensively in plant species with sequenced genomes. However, few miRNAs have been identified in foxtail millet (Setaria italica), which is an ancient cereal crop of great importance for dry land agriculture. In this study, 271 foxtail millet miRNAs belonging to 44 families were identified using a bioinformatics approach. Twenty-three pairs of sense/antisense miRNAs belonging to 13 families, and 18 miRNA clusters containing members of 8 families were discovered in foxtail millet. We identified 432 potential targets for 38 miRNA families, most of which were predicted to be involved in plant development, signal transduction, metabolic pathways, disease resistance, and environmental stress responses. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that 101, 56, and 23 target genes were involved in molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components, respectively. We investigated the expression patterns of 43 selected miRNAs using qRT-PCR analysis. All of the miRNAs were expressed ubiquitously with many exhibiting different expression levels in different tissues. We validated five predicted targets of four miRNAs using the RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA end (5'-RLM-RACE) method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rice and foxtail millet cultivation reconstructed from weed seed assemblages in the Chengtoushan site, central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Momohara, A.; Jiejun, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Crop weeds have been successfully used for evaluation of farming practices in archaeological sites and reconstruction of the environmental condition. In rice agricultural sites in East Asia, however, a few studies of crop remains have been attempted. We evaluated the crop husbandry based on plant macrofossils including crop grains and weed seeds in the Chengtoushan site, Hunan Province, central China, which is one of the oldest rice agricultural site around the Yangtze River Basin. In the moat surrounding the site that is located on a loess plateau that juts out into the alluvial plain, we recognized three cultural layers during the Daxi Culture. Plant macrofossils in silty clay deposits in the moat consist of abundant rice and foxtail millet grains with many weed seeds. Radiocarbon age of these fossils shows that rice and foxtail millet cultivation dated back to 6400 cal. years B.P. The weed seed composition characterizes farmland and ruderal environments in the site surrounded by the moat. We assumed foxtail millet and rice cultivation practiced within the site on loess plateau, along with a paddy style rice cultivation in the alluvial lowland outside of the site. (author)

  16. Green Walls for a Restorative Classroom Environment : A Controlled Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Agnes E; Wesselius, Janke E; Maas, Jolanda; Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin

    2017-01-01

    In the present research, we evaluated the restorative impacts of green walls with living plants in classrooms of two elementary schools using a controlled, prospective design with baseline measurements and follow-ups at 2 and 4 months. At each time of measurement, children's (n = 170, age = 7-10)

  17. Cost Comparison of Conventional Gray Combined Sewer Overflow Control Infrastructure versus a Green/Gray Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin, in Kansas City, MO. The plan area of this Bas...

  18. The function of green belt Jatibarang as quality control for the environment of Semarang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtini, Titien Woro; Harani, Arnis Rochma; Ernadia, Loretta

    2017-06-01

    The quality of the healthy environment in a neighborhood city is decreasing in number. According to the government regulation, Act No. 26 of 2007, a city should have 20% of green areas from the total area of the city. Now, Semarang only has 7.5% of green areas from the total city area. One of the efforts made by the Government of Semarang is the establishment of a greenbelt in Jatibarang area. It consists of several parts, namely, the reservoirs in the green belt area and also the plant zone in other sectors. The reservoir has a function as the controller of water resources sustainability where the crops serve as the balance for the combination. Thus, it is interesting to study how the interplay of these two functions in a green belt area. The primary data used in this study was obtained from the locus of research by direct observation, interview, and physical data collection. Based on the data collection, data was then processed and analyzed in accordance with the indicators that had been compiled based on theories of reservoirs, green belts, and the quality of the urban environment. Government regulations regarding with the greenbelt and tanks were also used as references in the discussion. The research found out that the presence of the reservoir and the plants in the green belt of Jatibarang can improve the function of the green belt optimally which is a real influence for the improvement of the environment quality, especially water. The Greenbelt was divided into four zones, namely the Arboretum, Argo - Forestry, Ecotourism, Buffer - Zone also made the region became a beautiful greenbelt that brought a positive influence to environmental quality.

  19. Control of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer) in organic apple production

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Slobodan; Marčić Dejan; Ružičić Lazar

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of different methods for controlling populations of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer) in organic apple orchard was compared over three consecutive years. The following three control methods were tested: a) predator activity (Coccinela septempunctata), b) predator activity (C. septempunctata) + selective spraying of trees with infestation level exceeding 10% with a botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S), and c) predator activity (C. septempun...

  20. Determination of ploidy level and isolation of genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase in Japanese Foxtail (Alopecurus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Xu

    Full Text Available Ploidy level is important in biodiversity studies and in developing strategies for isolating important plant genes. Many herbicide-resistant weed species are polyploids, but our understanding of these polyploid weeds is limited. Japanese foxtail, a noxious agricultural grass weed, has evolved herbicide resistance. However, most studies on this weed have ignored the fact that there are multiple copies of target genes. This may complicate the study of resistance mechanisms. Japanese foxtail was found to be a tetraploid by flow cytometer and chromosome counting, two commonly used methods in the determination of ploidy levels. We found that there are two copies of the gene encoding plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase in Japanese foxtail and all the homologous genes are expressed. Additionally, no difference in ploidy levels or ACCase gene copy numbers was observed between an ACCase-inhibiting herbicide-resistant and a herbicide-sensitive population in this study.

  1. Allelic variation of the Waxy gene in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] by single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, K; Onoda, S; Kim, M Y; Kim, K D; Lee, S-H

    2008-03-01

    The Waxy (Wx) gene product controls the formation of a straight chain polymer of amylose in the starch pathway. Dominance/recessiveness of the Wx allele is associated with amylose content, leading to non-waxy/waxy phenotypes. For a total of 113 foxtail millet accessions, agronomic traits and the molecular differences of the Wx gene were surveyed to evaluate genetic diversities. Molecular types were associated with phenotypes determined by four specific primer sets (non-waxy, Type I; low amylose, Type VI; waxy, Type IV or V). Additionally, the insertion of transposable element in waxy was confirmed by ex1/TSI2R, TSI2F/ex2, ex2int2/TSI7R and TSI7F/ex4r. Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphims (SNPs) were observed from non-coding regions, while three SNPs from coding regions were non-synonymous. Interestingly, the phenotype of No. 88 was still non-waxy, although seven nucleotides (AATTGGT) insertion at 2,993 bp led to 78 amino acids shorter. The rapid decline of r (2) in the sequenced region (exon 1-intron 1-exon 2) suggested a low level of linkage disequilibrium and limited haplotype structure. K (s) values and estimation of evolutionary events indicate early divergence of S. italica among cereal crops. This study suggested the Wx gene was one of the targets in the selection process during domestication.

  2. Identification and molecular characterization of MYB Transcription Factor Superfamily in C4 model plant foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Khandelwal, Rohit; Yadav, Chandra Bhan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Khan, Yusuf; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    MYB proteins represent one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, playing important roles in diverse developmental and stress-responsive processes. Considering its significance, several genome-wide analyses have been conducted in almost all land plants except foxtail millet. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is a model crop for investigating systems biology of millets and bioenergy grasses. Further, the crop is also known for its potential abiotic stress-tolerance. In this context, a comprehensive genome-wide survey was conducted and 209 MYB protein-encoding genes were identified in foxtail millet. All 209 S. italica MYB (SiMYB) genes were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes of foxtail millet. Gene duplication study showed that segmental- and tandem-duplication have occurred in genome resulting in expansion of this gene family. The protein domain investigation classified SiMYB proteins into three classes according to number of MYB repeats present. The phylogenetic analysis categorized SiMYBs into ten groups (I-X). SiMYB-based comparative mapping revealed a maximum orthology between foxtail millet and sorghum, followed by maize, rice and Brachypodium. Heat map analysis showed tissue-specific expression pattern of predominant SiMYB genes. Expression profiling of candidate MYB genes against abiotic stresses and hormone treatments using qRT-PCR revealed specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiMYBs. Taken together, the present study provides a foundation for evolutionary and functional characterization of MYB TFs in foxtail millet to dissect their functions in response to environmental stimuli.

  3. Spatial and temporal activity of the foxtail millet (Setaria italica) seed-specific promoter pF128.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yanlin; Ma, Xin; Liang, Hanwen; Zhao, Qian; Zhu, Dengyun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2015-01-01

    pF128 drives GUS specifically expressed in transgenic seeds of foxtail millet and Zea mays with higher activity than the constitutive CaMV35S promoter and the maize seed-specific 19Z promoter. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a member of the Poaceae family, is an important food and fodder crop in arid regions. Foxtail millet is an excellent C4 crop model owing to its small genome (~490 Mb), self-pollination and availability of a complete genome sequence. F128 was isolated from a cDNA library of foxtail millet immature seeds. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that F128 mRNA was specifically expressed in immature and mature seeds. The highest F128 mRNA level was observed 5 days after pollination and gradually decreased as the seed matured. Sequence analysis suggested that the protein encoded by F128 is likely a protease inhibitor/seed storage protein/lipid-transfer protein. The 1,053 bp 5' flanking sequence of F128 (pF128) was isolated and fused to the GUS reporter gene. The corresponding vector was then transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana, foxtail millet and Zea mays. GUS analysis revealed that pF128 drove GUS expression efficiently and specifically in the seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, foxtail millet and Zea mays. GUS activity was also detected in Arabidopsis cotyledons. Activity of pF128 was higher than that observed for the constitutive CaMV35S promoter and the maize seed-specific 19 Zein (19Z) promoter. These results indicate that pF128 is a seed-specific promoter. Its application is expected to be of considerable value in plant genetic engineering.

  4. Identification and molecular characterization of MYB Transcription Factor Superfamily in C4 model plant foxtail millet (Setaria italica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehanathan Muthamilarasan

    Full Text Available MYB proteins represent one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, playing important roles in diverse developmental and stress-responsive processes. Considering its significance, several genome-wide analyses have been conducted in almost all land plants except foxtail millet. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. is a model crop for investigating systems biology of millets and bioenergy grasses. Further, the crop is also known for its potential abiotic stress-tolerance. In this context, a comprehensive genome-wide survey was conducted and 209 MYB protein-encoding genes were identified in foxtail millet. All 209 S. italica MYB (SiMYB genes were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes of foxtail millet. Gene duplication study showed that segmental- and tandem-duplication have occurred in genome resulting in expansion of this gene family. The protein domain investigation classified SiMYB proteins into three classes according to number of MYB repeats present. The phylogenetic analysis categorized SiMYBs into ten groups (I-X. SiMYB-based comparative mapping revealed a maximum orthology between foxtail millet and sorghum, followed by maize, rice and Brachypodium. Heat map analysis showed tissue-specific expression pattern of predominant SiMYB genes. Expression profiling of candidate MYB genes against abiotic stresses and hormone treatments using qRT-PCR revealed specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiMYBs. Taken together, the present study provides a foundation for evolutionary and functional characterization of MYB TFs in foxtail millet to dissect their functions in response to environmental stimuli.

  5. Effectiveness of Postharvest Treatment with Chitosan to Control Citrus Green Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Guilli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Control of green mold, caused by Penicillium digitatum, by fungicides raises several problems, such as emergence of resistant pathogens, as well as concerns about the environment and consumers’ health. As potential alternatives, the effects of chitosan on green mold disease and the quality attributes of citrus fruits were investigated. Fruits were wounded then treated with different concentrations of chitosan 24 h before their inoculation with P. digitatum. The results of in vitro experiment demonstrated that the antifungal activity against P. digitatum was improved in concert to the increase of chitosan concentration. In an in vivo study, green mold was significantly reduced by chitosan treatments. In parallel, chitinase and glucanase activities were enhanced in coated fruits. Evidence suggested that effects of chitosan coating on green mold of mandarin fruits might be related to its fungitoxic properties against the pathogen and/or the elicitation of biochemical defense responses in coated fruits. Further, quality attributes including fruit firmness, surface color, juice content, and total soluble solids, were not affected by chitosan during storage. Moreover, the loss of weight was even less pronounced in chitosan-coated fruit.

  6. Spatially controlled immobilisation of biomolecules: A complete approach in green chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinenval, Eva; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Vinet, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    The development of 'green' sensors is a challenging task in the field of biomolecule sensing, for example in the detection of cardiac troponin-I (cTnI). In the present work a complete approach in green chemistry was developed to create chemically active patterns for the immobilisation of biological probes. This key technology is discussed on the basis of the twelve green chemistry principles, and is a combination of surface patterning by spotting and surface chemistries modified by molecular vapour deposition. The (1H,1H,2H,2H)-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) was used as a novel anti-adsorption layer while the 3,4-epoxybutyltrimethoxysilane (EBTMOS) was used to immobilise probes. Oligonucleotides and the anti-cTnI antibody were studied. The spatially controlled immobilisation of probes was characterised by fluorescence. The demonstrated surface modification has broad applications in areas such as diagnostics and bio-chemical sensing. Moreover, the environmental impacts of surface patterning and surface chemistry were discussed from a 'greenness' point of view.

  7. Evaluating an ensemble classification approach for crop diversityverification in Danish greening subsidy control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferre, Ty; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2015, Danish farmers are obliged to meet specific crop diversification rules based on total land area and number of crops cultivated to be eligible for new greening subsidies. Hence, there is a need for the Danish government to extend their subsidy control system to verify farmers......’ declarations to war-rant greening payments under the new crop diversification rules. Remote Sensing (RS) technology has been used since 1992 to control farmers’ subsidies in Denmark. However, a proper RS-based approach is yet to be finalised to validate new crop diversity requirements designed for assessing...... compliance under the recent subsidy scheme (2014–2020); This study uses an ensemble classification approach(proposed by the authors in previous studies) for validating the crop diversity requirements of the new rules. The approach uses a neural network ensemble classification system with bi-temporal (spring...

  8. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of an EtherCAT enabled digital servo controller for the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteis, Peter G.; Mello, Melinda J.

    2012-09-01

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is gaining wide spread popularity in the automation industry as a real time field bus based on low cost, Ethernet hardware. EtherCAT maximizes use of 100Mbps Ethernet hardware by using a collision free ring topology, efficient Ethernet frame utilization (> 95%), and data exchange "on the fly". These characteristics enable EtherCAT to achieve Master to Slave node data exchange rates of > 1000 Hz. The Green Bank Telescope, commissioned in 2000, utilizes an analog control system for motion control of 8 elevation and 16 azimuth motors. This architecture, while sufficient for observations at frequencies up to 50GHz, has significant limitations for the current scientific goals of observing at 115GHz. Accordingly, the Green Bank staff has embarked on a servo upgrade project to develop a digital servo system which accommodates development and implementation of advanced control algorithms. This paper describes how the new control system requirements, use of existing infrastructure and budget constraints led us to define a distributed motion control architecture where EtherCAT real-time Ethernet was selected as the communication bus. Finally, design details are provided that describe how NRAO developed a custom EtherCAT-enabled motor controller interface for the GBT's legacy motor drives in order to provide technical benefits and flexibility not available in commercial products.

  10. Investigation on Smoke Movement and Smoke Control for Atrium in Green and Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lui; Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik

    The concepts of green buildings and sustainable buildings are promoted actively in the developed countries. Targets are on protecting the environment, using less energy through natural ventilation provisions and daylight utilization, developing better waste management and taking resource...... design in the green or sustainable buildings with an atrium. Since the physics of air entrainment is not yet clearly understood, most of the fire plume expressions reported in the literature was derived empirically. Experiments and CFD simulation were used to study the different types of thermal plumes...... conservation into account. Architectural and building design, electrical and mechanical systems, and building management have to be upgraded. However, there are problems in dealing with fire safety, especially in complying with the existing prescriptive fire codes. A hot argument is that smoke control system...

  11. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma wodyetiae’, a new taxon associated with yellow decline disease of foxtail palm (Wodyetia bifurcata) in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape grown foxtail palm (Wodyetia bifurcata A.K. Irvine) trees displaying symptoms of severe foliar chlorosis, stunting, general decline and mortality reminiscent of coconut yellow decline disease were observed in Bangi, Malaysia during 2012. DNA samples from foliage tissues of 15 symptomatic ...

  12. Development and utilization of novel intron length polymorphic markers in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sarika; Kumari, Kajal; Das, Jyotirmoy; Lata, Charu; Puranik, Swati; Prasad, Manoj

    2011-07-01

    Introns are noncoding sequences in a gene that are transcribed to precursor mRNA but spliced out during mRNA maturation and are abundant in eukaryotic genomes. The availability of codominant molecular markers and saturated genetic linkage maps have been limited in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.). Here, we describe the development of 98 novel intron length polymorphic (ILP) markers in foxtail millet using sequence information of the model plant rice. A total of 575 nonredundant expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences were obtained, of which 327 and 248 unique sequences were from dehydration- and salinity-stressed suppression subtractive hybridization libraries, respectively. The BLAST analysis of 98 EST sequences suggests a nearly defined function for about 64% of them, and they were grouped into 11 different functional categories. All 98 ILP primer pairs showed a high level of cross-species amplification in two millets and two nonmillets species ranging from 90% to 100%, with a mean of ∼97%. The mean observed heterozygosity and Nei's average gene diversity 0.016 and 0.171, respectively, established the efficiency of the ILP markers for distinguishing the foxtail millet accessions. Based on 26 ILP markers, a reasonable dendrogram of 45 foxtail millet accessions was constructed, demonstrating the utility of ILP markers in germplasm characterizations and genomic relationships in millets and nonmillets species.

  13. Genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) provides insights into grass evolution and biofuel potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gengyun; Liu, Xin; Quan, Zhiwu

    2012-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a member of the Poaceae grass family, is an important food and fodder crop in arid regions and has potential for use as a C(4) biofuel. It is a model system for other biofuel grasses, including switchgrass and pearl millet. We produced a draft genome (∼423 Mb) an...

  14. Characteristics and expression patterns of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH gene superfamily of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Chen

    Full Text Available Recent genomic sequencing of the foxtail millet, an abiotic, stress-tolerant crop, has provided a great opportunity for novel gene discovery and functional analysis of this popularly-grown grass. However, few stress-mediated gene families have been studied. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs comprise a gene superfamily encoding NAD (P +-dependent enzymes that play the role of "aldehyde scavengers", which indirectly detoxify cellular ROS and reduce the effect of lipid peroxidation meditated cellular toxicity under various environmental stresses. In the current paper, we identified a total of 20 ALDH genes in the foxtail millet genome using a homology search and a phylogenetic analysis and grouped them into ten distinct families based on their amino acid sequence identity. Furthermore, evolutionary analysis of foxtail millet reveals that both tandem and segmental duplication contributed significantly to the expansion of its ALDH genes. The exon-intron structures of members of the same family in foxtail millet or the orthologous genes in rice display highly diverse distributions of their exonic and intronic regions. Also, synteny analysis shows that the majority of foxtail millet and rice ALDH gene homologs exist in the syntenic blocks between the two, implying that these ALDH genes arose before the divergence of cereals. Semi-quantitative and real-time quantitative PCR data reveals that a few SiALDH genes are expressed in an organ-specific manner and that the expression of a number of foxtail millet ALDH genes, such as, SiALDH7B1, SiALDH12A1 and SiALDH18B2 are up-regulated by osmotic stress, cold, H2O2, and phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA. Furthermore, the transformation of SiALDH2B2, SiALDH10A2, SiALDH5F1, SiALDH22A1, and SiALDH3E2 into Escherichia coli (E.coli was able to improve their salt tolerance. Taken together, our results show that genome-wide identification characteristics and expression analyses provide unique opportunities for assessing

  15. Characteristics and expression patterns of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu; Chen, Ming; Xu, Zhao-shi; Li, Lian-cheng; Chen, Xue-ping; Ma, You-zhi

    2014-01-01

    Recent genomic sequencing of the foxtail millet, an abiotic, stress-tolerant crop, has provided a great opportunity for novel gene discovery and functional analysis of this popularly-grown grass. However, few stress-mediated gene families have been studied. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) comprise a gene superfamily encoding NAD (P) +-dependent enzymes that play the role of "aldehyde scavengers", which indirectly detoxify cellular ROS and reduce the effect of lipid peroxidation meditated cellular toxicity under various environmental stresses. In the current paper, we identified a total of 20 ALDH genes in the foxtail millet genome using a homology search and a phylogenetic analysis and grouped them into ten distinct families based on their amino acid sequence identity. Furthermore, evolutionary analysis of foxtail millet reveals that both tandem and segmental duplication contributed significantly to the expansion of its ALDH genes. The exon-intron structures of members of the same family in foxtail millet or the orthologous genes in rice display highly diverse distributions of their exonic and intronic regions. Also, synteny analysis shows that the majority of foxtail millet and rice ALDH gene homologs exist in the syntenic blocks between the two, implying that these ALDH genes arose before the divergence of cereals. Semi-quantitative and real-time quantitative PCR data reveals that a few SiALDH genes are expressed in an organ-specific manner and that the expression of a number of foxtail millet ALDH genes, such as, SiALDH7B1, SiALDH12A1 and SiALDH18B2 are up-regulated by osmotic stress, cold, H2O2, and phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Furthermore, the transformation of SiALDH2B2, SiALDH10A2, SiALDH5F1, SiALDH22A1, and SiALDH3E2 into Escherichia coli (E.coli) was able to improve their salt tolerance. Taken together, our results show that genome-wide identification characteristics and expression analyses provide unique opportunities for assessing the functional

  16. C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors in foxtail millet define response to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Khandelwal, Rohit; Khan, Yusuf; Roy, Riti; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-09-01

    C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in plant stress response and hormone signal transduction. Hence considering its importance, genome-wide investigation and characterization of C2H2 zinc finger proteins were performed in Arabidopsis, rice and poplar but no such study was conducted in foxtail millet which is a C4 Panicoid model crop well known for its abiotic stress tolerance. The present study identified 124 C2H2-type zinc finger TFs in foxtail millet (SiC2H2) and physically mapped them onto the genome. The gene duplication analysis revealed that SiC2H2s primarily expanded in the genome through tandem duplication. The phylogenetic tree classified these TFs into five groups (I-V). Further, miRNAs targeting SiC2H2 transcripts in foxtail millet were identified. Heat map demonstrated differential and tissue-specific expression patterns of these SiC2H2 genes. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet SiC2H2 genes and its orthologs of sorghum, maize and rice revealed the evolutionary relationships of C2H2 type of zinc finger TFs. The duplication and divergence data provided novel insight into the evolutionary aspects of these TFs in foxtail millet and related grass species. Expression profiling of candidate SiC2H2 genes in response to salinity, dehydration and cold stress showed differential expression pattern of these genes at different time points of stresses.

  17. Design of a High Performance Green-Mode PWM Controller IC with Smart Sensing Protection Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Li Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A design of high performance green-mode pulse-width-modulation (PWM controller IC with smart sensing protection circuits for the application of lithium-ion battery charger (1.52 V ~ 7.5 V is investigated in this paper. The protection circuits architecture of this system mainly bases on the lithium battery function and does for the system design standard of control circuit. In this work, the PWM controller will be with an automatic load sensing and judges the system operated in the operating mode or in the standby mode. Therefore, it reduces system’s power dissipation effectively and achieves the saving power target. In the same time, many protection sensing circuits such as: (1 over current protection (OCP and under current protection (UCP, (2 over voltage protection (OVP and under voltage protection (UVP, (3 loading determintion and short circuit protection (SCP, (4 over temperature protection (OTP, (5 VDD surge-spiking protection are included. Then, it has the characteristics of an effective monitoring the output loading and the harm prevention as a battery charging. Eventually, this green-mode pulse-width-modulation (PWM controller IC will be that the operation voltage is 3.3 V, the operation frequency is 0.98 MHz, and the output current range is from 454 mA to 500 mA. Meanwhile, the output convert efficiency is range from 74.8 % to 91 %, the power dissipation efficiency in green-mode is 25 %, and the operation temperature range is between -20 0C ~ 114 0C.

  18. Green leafy porridges: how good are they in controlling glycaemic response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuruddhika Subhashinie Senadheera, Senadheera Pathirannehelage; Ekanayake, Sagarika

    2013-03-01

    Green leafy porridges made with leaf water extracts, rice and coconut milk are common Sri Lankan dietary remedies for diabetes. Though water and ethanolic extracts of most leaves elicit hypoglycaemic effects, data are not available on the efficacy when leaf extracts are incorporated into porridges. Thus, an effort was made to evaluate the proximate compositions and glycaemic index (GI) of some commonly consumed green leafy porridges. The GI of rice porridge and coconut milk porridge were measured to evaluate the effect of other ingredients other than the leaf extracts. Rice was the main contributor to carbohydrate (56-68% on dry weight) and water was the main component in porridges (89-93%). Fat and total dietary fibre contents ranged between 2.5-27% and 5-10%, respectively. The GI of all porridges was low (GI ≤ 55), except Cassia auriculata which had a high GI of 77 ± 12. The GIs of coconut milk, Aerva lanata, Hemidesmus indicus, Scoparia dulcis, Asparagus racemosus, Cephalandra indica, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Murraya koenigii and Aegle marmelos were 31 ± 5, 32 ± 5, 40 ± 8, 39 ± 8, 37 ± 4, 49 ± 8, 46 ± 8, 44 ± 8 and 50 ± 8, respectively. All porridges had a low or medium glycaemic loads ( ≤ 19). However, peak blood glucose reductions of ≥ 25% were observed in all leafy and coconut milk porridges, except in C. auriculata and Atlantia zeylanica, when compared with the glucose control. Therefore, green leafy porridges, except Cassia, can be recommended as breakfast meals for diabetics due to their low GI, peak blood glucose reduction and presence of other nutrients in green leaves.

  19. Plant Extract Synthesized PLA Nanoparticles for Controlled and Sustained Release of Quercetin: A Green Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has been extensively carried out by using plant extracts (PEs) which have property of stabilizers/ emulsifiers. To our knowledge, there is no comprehensive study on applying a green approach using PEs for fabrication of biodegradable PLA NPs. Conventional methods rely on molecules like polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, D-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol 1000) succinate as stabilizers/emulsifiers for the synthesis of such biodegradable NPs which are known to be toxic. So, there is urgent need to look for stabilizers which are biogenic and non-toxic. The present study investigated use of PEs as stabilizers/emulsifiers for the fabrication of stable PLA NPs. Synthesized PLA NPs through this green process were explored for controlled release of the well known antioxidant molecule quercetin. Methodology/Principal Findings Stable PLA NPs were synthesized using leaf extracts of medicinally important plants like Syzygium cumini (1), Bauhinia variegata (2), Cedrus deodara (3), Lonicera japonica (4) and Eleaocarpus sphaericus (5). Small and uniformly distributed NPs in the size range 70±30 nm to 143±36 nm were formed with these PEs. To explore such NPs for drugs/ small molecules delivery, we have successfully encapsulated quercetin a lipophilic molecule on a most uniformly distributed PLA-4 NPs synthesized using Lonicera japonica leaf extract. Quercetin loaded PLA-4 NPs were observed for slow and sustained release of quercetin molecule. Conclusions This green approach based on PEs mediated synthesis of stable PLA NPs pave the way for encapsulating drug/small molecules, nutraceuticals and other bioactive ingredients for safer cellular uptake, biodistribution and targeted delivery. Hence, such PEs synthesized PLA NPs would be useful to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated small molecules/drugs. Furthermore, different types of plants can be explored for the synthesis of PLA as well as other

  20. Genome-wide development and use of microsatellite markers for large-scale genotyping applications in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Garima; Misra, Gopal; Kumari, Kajal; Gupta, Sarika; Parida, Swarup Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-04-01

    The availability of well-validated informative co-dominant microsatellite markers and saturated genetic linkage map has been limited in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). In view of this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified 28 342 microsatellite repeat-motifs spanning 405.3 Mb of foxtail millet genome. The trinucleotide repeats (∼48%) was prevalent when compared with dinucleotide repeats (∼46%). Of the 28 342 microsatellites, 21 294 (∼75%) primer pairs were successfully designed, and a total of 15 573 markers were physically mapped on 9 chromosomes of foxtail millet. About 159 markers were validated successfully in 8 accessions of Setaria sp. with ∼67% polymorphic potential. The high percentage (89.3%) of cross-genera transferability across millet and non-millet species with higher transferability percentage in bioenergy grasses (∼79%, Switchgrass and ∼93%, Pearl millet) signifies their importance in studying the bioenergy grasses. In silico comparative mapping of 15 573 foxtail millet microsatellite markers against the mapping data of sorghum (16.9%), maize (14.5%) and rice (6.4%) indicated syntenic relationships among the chromosomes of foxtail millet and target species. The results, thus, demonstrate the immense applicability of developed microsatellite markers in germplasm characterization, phylogenetics, construction of genetic linkage map for gene/quantitative trait loci discovery, comparative mapping in foxtail millet, including other millets and bioenergy grass species.

  1. Optical solar energy adaptations and radiative temperature control of green leaves and tree barks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrion, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut [Department of Si-Photovoltaik and Solare Energetik, Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Trees have adapted to keep leaves and barks cool in sunshine and can serve as interesting bionic model systems for radiative cooling. Silicon solar cells, on the other hand, loose up to one third of their energy efficiency due to heating in intensive sunshine. It is shown that green leaves minimize absorption of useful radiation and allow efficient infrared thermal emission. Since elevated temperatures are detrimental for tensile water flow in the Xylem tissue below barks, the optical properties of barks should also have evolved so as to avoid excessive heating. This was tested by performing optical studies with tree bark samples from representative trees. It was found that tree barks have optimized their reflection of incoming sunlight between 0.7 and 2 {mu}m. This is approximately the optical window in which solar light is transmitted and reflected by green vegetation. Simultaneously, the tree bark is highly absorbing and thus radiation emitting between 6 and 10 {mu}m. These two properties, mainly provided by tannins, create optimal conditions for radiative temperature control. In addition, tannins seem to have adopted a function as mediators for excitation energy towards photo-antioxidative activity for control of radiation damage. The results obtained are used to discuss challenges for future solar cell optimization. (author)

  2. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Glamočlija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by ¹H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC. Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32% and geranial (50.94%. The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300-1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600-1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025-0.500 to 0.100-0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250-0.100 to 0.200-0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides.

  3. Phycoerythrin-specific bilin lyase-isomerase controls blue-green chromatic acclimation in marine Synechococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Animesh; Biswas, Avijit; Blot, Nicolas; Partensky, Frédéric; Karty, Jonathan A; Hammad, Loubna A; Garczarek, Laurence; Gutu, Andrian; Schluchter, Wendy M; Kehoe, David M

    2012-12-04

    The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus is the second most abundant phytoplanktonic organism in the world's oceans. The ubiquity of this genus is in large part due to its use of a diverse set of photosynthetic light-harvesting pigments called phycobiliproteins, which allow it to efficiently exploit a wide range of light colors. Here we uncover a pivotal molecular mechanism underpinning a widespread response among marine Synechococcus cells known as "type IV chromatic acclimation" (CA4). During this process, the pigmentation of the two main phycobiliproteins of this organism, phycoerythrins I and II, is reversibly modified to match changes in the ambient light color so as to maximize photon capture for photosynthesis. CA4 involves the replacement of three molecules of the green light-absorbing chromophore phycoerythrobilin with an equivalent number of the blue light-absorbing chromophore phycourobilin when cells are shifted from green to blue light, and the reverse after a shift from blue to green light. We have identified and characterized MpeZ, an enzyme critical for CA4 in marine Synechococcus. MpeZ attaches phycoerythrobilin to cysteine-83 of the α-subunit of phycoerythrin II and isomerizes it to phycourobilin. mpeZ RNA is six times more abundant in blue light, suggesting that its proper regulation is critical for CA4. Furthermore, mpeZ mutants fail to normally acclimate in blue light. These findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling an ecologically important photosynthetic process and identify a unique class of phycoerythrin lyase/isomerases, which will further expand the already widespread use of phycoerythrin in biotechnology and cell biology applications.

  4. Modification of foxtail millet starch by combining physical, chemical and enzymatic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ashim; Sit, Nandan

    2017-02-01

    Modification of foxtail millet starch was carried out by heat moisture treatment (HT), acid hydrolysis (AH), enzymatic treatment (EH), Ultrasound treatment (UT) and their combinations. A total of 15 modified starches were prepared by combining the various methods and properties were compared with native starch. The solubilities of the starches modified by HT were found to decrease whereas for other single modifications it increased. It also increased with number of modifications applied. The swelling power decreased for all the modified starches and a decrease in swelling power was observed with increase in number of modifications. Freeze-thaw stability improved for starches modified by single physical modifications i.e. HT and UT. Decrease in viscosities was observed for the modified starches and was particularly affected by AH. The pasting temperature was found to increase for those modified starches where HT was carried out. The modified starches gave softer gels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Control of Green Apple Aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer in Organic Apple Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Milenković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different methods for controlling populations of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer in organic apple orchard was compared over three consecutive years. The following three control methods were tested: a predator activity (Coccinela septempunctata, b predator activity (C. septempunctata + selective spraying of trees with infestation level exceeding 10% with a botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S, and c predator activity (C. septempunctata + total spraying of all orchard trees with the botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S. In terms of maintaining a biological balance within an orchard, the combination of natural regulation by C. septempunctata and selective spraying of individual trees with NeemAzal T/S proved to be the most efficient method.

  6. Particle swarm optimization based fuzzy logic controller for autonomous green power energy system with hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safari, S.; Ardehali, M.M.; Sirizi, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optimized fuzzy logic controller for a hybrid green power system is developed. ► PSO algorithm is used to optimize membership functions of controller. ► Optimized fuzzy logic controller results in lower O and M costs and LPSP. ► Optimization results in less variation of battery state of charge. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to develop an optimized fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for operating an autonomous hybrid green power system (HGPS) based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. An electrolyzer produces hydrogen from surplus energy generated by the wind turbine and photovoltaic array of HGPS for later use by a fuel cell. The PSO algorithm is used to optimize membership functions of the FLC. The FLC inputs are (a) net power flow and (b) batteries state of charge (SOC) and FLC output determines the time for hydrogen production or consumption. Actual data for weekly residential load, wind speed, ambient temperature, and solar irradiation are used for performance simulation and analysis of the HGPS examined. The weekly operation and maintenance (O and M) costs and the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) are considered in the optimization procedure. It is determined that FLC optimization results in (a) reduced fluctuations in batteries SOC which translates into longer life for batteries and the average SOC is increased by 6.18% and (b) less working hours for fuel cell, when the load is met by wind and PV. It is found that the optimized FLC results in lower O and M costs and LPSP by 57% and 33%, respectively, as compared to its un-optimized counterpart. In addition, a reduction of 18% in investment cost is achievable by optimal sizing and reducing the capacity of HGPS equipment.

  7. Optimization of foramsulfuron doses for post-emergence weed control in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannacci, E.

    2016-11-01

    Four field experiments were carried out from 2011 to 2014 in order to evaluate the effects of foramsulfuron, applied at the recommended (60.8 g a.i./ha) and reduced doses (1/3 and 2/3), on the efficacy against several of the most important weeds in maize. For each “year-weed” combination, dose-response curves were applied to estimate the dose of foramsulfuron required to obtain 90% and 95% weed control (ED90 and ED95). Foramsulfuron phytotoxicity on maize and crop yield were assessed. Foramsulfuron at 1/3 of the recommended dose (20.3 g a.i./ha) provided 95% efficacy against redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.), wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.). Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.) were satisfactorily controlled (95% weed efficacy) with ED95 ranged from 20 to 50 g/ha of foramsulfuron (about from 1/3 to 5/6 of the recommended dose) depending on growth stage. The recommended dose was effective against pale smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium L.) at 2-4 true leaves (12-14 BBCH scale), but this dose did not kill plants larger than 2-4 true leaves. The ranking among weed species based on their susceptibility to foramsulfuron was: redroot pigweed = green foxtail = wild mustard = black nightshade > velvetleaf = common lambsquarters = barnyardgrass > pale smartweed. Dose of foramsulfuron can be reduced below recommended dose depending on weed species and growth stage. Foramsulfuron showed a good crop selectivity and had no negative effect on maize yield. (Author)

  8. Effectiveness of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais: A randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvichayapat, Paradee; Prapochanung, Montira; Tunkamnerdthai, Oratai; Sripanidkulchai, Bung-orn; Auvichayapat, Narong; Thinkhamrop, Bandit; Kunhasura, Soontorn; Wongpratoom, Srisuda; Sinawat, Supat; Hongprapas, Pranithi

    2008-02-27

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais. A randomized, controlled trial involving 60 obese subjects (body mass index, BMI > 25 kg/m2) was conducted. All subjects consumed a Thai diet containing 3 meals (8373.6 kJ/day) for 12 weeks, prepared by the Nutritional Unit at Srinagarind Hospital. The diet contained 65% carbohydrates, 15% protein, and 20% fat. Body weight, BMI, body composition, resting energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation were measured at baseline, and during weeks 4, 8, and 12 of the study. Serum levels of leptin and urine VMA were measured at baseline and during the 12th week. Differences over time and between the treatments (green tea or placebo) over time were determined using two-factor ANOVA with repeated measures. In comparing the two groups, differences in weight loss were 2.70, 5.10, and 3.3 kg during the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks of the study, respectively. At the 8th and 12th weeks of the study, body weight loss was significantly different (P tea can reduce body weight in obese Thai subjects by increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation.

  9. Genetic structure of Florida green turtle rookeries as indicated by mitochondrial DNA control region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamblin, Brian M.; Bagley, Dean A.; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M.; Desjardin, Nicole A.; Martin, R. Erik; Hart, Kristen M.; Naro-Maciel, Eugenia; Rusenko, Kirt; Stiner, John C.; Sobel, Debra; Johnson, Chris; Wilmers, Thomas; Wright, Laura J.; Nairn, Campbell J.

    2014-01-01

    Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) nesting has increased dramatically in Florida over the past two decades, ranking the Florida nesting aggregation among the largest in the Greater Caribbean region. Individual beaches that comprise several hundred kilometers of Florida’s east coast and Keys support tens to thousands of nests annually. These beaches encompass natural to highly developed habitats, and the degree of demographic partitioning among rookeries was previously unresolved. We characterized the genetic structure of ten Florida rookeries from Cape Canaveral to the Dry Tortugas through analysis of 817 base pair mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 485 nesting turtles. Two common haplotypes, CM-A1.1 and CM-A3.1, accounted for 87 % of samples, and the haplotype frequencies were strongly partitioned by latitude along Florida’s Atlantic coast. Most genetic structure occurred between rookeries on either side of an apparent genetic break in the vicinity of the St. Lucie Inlet that separates Hutchinson Island and Jupiter Island, representing the finest scale at which mtDNA structure has been documented in marine turtle rookeries. Florida and Caribbean scale analyses of population structure support recognition of at least two management units: central eastern Florida and southern Florida. More thorough sampling and deeper sequencing are necessary to better characterize connectivity among Florida green turtle rookeries as well as between the Florida nesting aggregation and others in the Greater Caribbean region.

  10. The 5 x 5 plan for asthma control: the green route to asthma control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015 The Author(s). REVIEW. Introduction. Apart from medication to control asthmatic inflammation, ... therapeutic step in achieving asthma control and normal life. ... important at every visit, and is not time consuming or difficult to perform.

  11. Sequence-based novel genomic microsatellite markers for robust genotyping purposes in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sarika; Kumari, Kajal; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Vidapu, Sudhakar; Prasad, Manoj

    2012-02-01

    The unavailability of microsatellite markers and saturated genetic linkage map has restricted the genetic improvement of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], despite the fact that in recent times it has been documented as a new model species for biofuel grasses. With the objective to generate a good number of microsatellite markers in foxtail millet cultivar 'Prasad', 690 clones were sequenced which generated 112.95 kb high quality sequences obtained from three genomic libraries each enriched with different microsatellite repeat motifs. Microsatellites were identified in 512 (74.2%) of the 690 positive clones and 172 primer pairs (pp) were successfully designed from 249 (48.6%) unique SSR-containing clones. The efficacies of the microsatellite containing genomic sequences were established by superior primer designing ability (69%), PCR amplification efficiency (85.5%) and polymorphic potential (52%) in the parents of F(2) mapping population. Out of 172 pp, functional 147 markers showed high level of cross-species amplification (~74%) in six grass species. Higher polymorphism rate and broad range of genetic diversity (0.30-0.69 averaging 0.58) obtained in constructed phylogenetic tree using 52 microsatellite markers, demonstrated the utility of markers in germplasm characterizations. In silico comparative mapping of 147 foxtail millet microsatellite containing sequences against the mapping data of sorghum (~18%), maize (~16%) and rice (~5%) indicated the presence of orthologous sequences of the foxtail millet in the respective species. The result thus demonstrates the applicability of microsatellite markers in various genotyping applications, determining phylogenetic relationships and comparative mapping in several important grass species.

  12. Spraying Brassinolide improves Sigma Broad tolerance in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) through modulation of antioxidant activity and photosynthetic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Li-Guang; Huang, Lei; Yang, Hui-Jie; Zhong, Yan-Ting; Ning, Na; Wen, Yin-Yuan; Dong, Shu-Qi; Song, Xi-E; Wang, Hong-Fu; Guo, Ping-Yi

    2017-09-11

    To explore the role of Brassinolide (BR) in improving the tolerance of Sigma Broad in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), effects of 0.1 mg/L of BR foliar application 24 h before 3.37 g/ha of Sigma Broad treatment at five-leaf stage of foxtail millet on growth parameters, antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate (P N ), chlorophyll fluorescence and P 700 parameters were studied 7 and 15 d after herbicide treatment, respectively. Results showed that Sigma Broad significantly decreased plant height, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), chlorophyll content, P N , PS II effective quantum yield (Y (II)), PS II electron transport rate (ETR (II)), photochemical quantum yield of PSI(Y (I)) and PS I electron transport rate ETR (I), but significantly increased MDA. Compared to herbicide treatment, BR dramatically increased plant height, activities of SOD, Y (II), ETR (II), Y (I) and ETR (I). This study showed BR pretreatment could improve the tolerance of Sigma Broad in foxtail millet through improving the activity of antioxidant enzymes, keeping electron transport smooth, and enhancing actual photochemical efficiency of PS II and PSI.

  13. Development of micronutrients rich homemade extruded food products with the incorporation of processed foxtail millet, wheat and chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gautam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food based approaches are recognized as an essential part of an urgently needed more comprehensive strategy for improving nutrition by increasing the availability and consumption to combat iron and other micronutrient deficiencies. Aims & Objective: The specific objective of the study was utilization of Foxtail millet (Setariaitalica along with other flour for production of micronutrients rich ready-to-eat snack products using homemade extrusion cooking. Material and methods: Methods Composite flour were prepared using processed Foxtail millet flour (FMF and other processed flours namely; wheat flour (WF, and chick pea flour (CPF. Nutritional properties of the blends were analyzed by using standard procedure. Two homemade extruded products namely; namkeensev, seviyan were prepared with four treatments T0, T1, T2, & T3. The commonly consumed recipes were developed by incorporating 50%, 75% and 100% of best result malted composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF. Results: The organoleptic qualities of these extruded samples were analyzed by panelists on a 9 point hedonic scale. The result indicate that the processed composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF based products were significantly accepted at the level of p<0.05 50% incorporation followed by 75% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The present study conclude that, processed composite flour (Foxtail millet; wheat; chickpea in the ratios of (50:50 could be used to produce nutritive quality of homemade extrudates with acceptable sensory properties as they deliver vehicles for malnourished children.

  14. Green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

    2014-08-01

    The shell extract of green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

  15. A Controlled Agitation Process for Improving Quality of Canned Green Beans during Agitation Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anika; Pratap Singh, Anubhav; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-06-01

    This work introduces the concept of a controlled agitation thermal process to reduce quality damage in liquid-particulate products during agitation thermal processing. Reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) was used as the agitation thermal process. In order to reduce the impact of agitation, a new concept of "stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperature" was proposed. Green beans were processed in No. 2 (307×409) cans filled with liquids of various consistency (0% to 2% CMC) at various frequencies (1 to 3 Hz) of RA-TP using a full-factorial design and heat penetration results were collected. Corresponding operator's process time to impart a 10-min process lethality (Fo ) and agitation time (AT) were calculated using heat penetration results. Accordingly, products were processed again by stopping agitations as per 3 agitation regimes, namely; full time agitation, equilibration time agitation, and partial time agitation. Processed products were photographed and tested for visual quality, color, texture, breakage of green beans, turbidity, and percentage of insoluble solids in can liquid. Results showed that stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperatures is an effective way of reducing product damages caused by agitation (for example, breakage of beans and its leaching into liquid). Agitations till one-log temperature difference gave best color, texture and visual product quality for low-viscosity liquid-particulate mixture and extended agitations till equilibration time was best for high-viscosity products. Thus, it was shown that a controlled agitation thermal process is more effective in obtaining high product quality as compared to a regular agitation thermal process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Green synthesis of dimension-controlled silver nanoparticle–graphene oxide with in situ ultrasonication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, K.S.; Hui, K.N.; Dinh, D.A.; Tsang, C.H.; Cho, Y.R.; Zhou, Wei; Hong, Xiaoting; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: A green chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide (AgNP–GO) composites was proposed by in situ ultrasonication of a mixture of AgNO 3 and GO solution with the assistance of vitamin C acting as an environmentally friendly reducing agent at room temperature. The AgNP–GO composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra. The results demonstrated that Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of ∼15 nm were uniformly dispersed on the surface of GO nanosheets by in situ ultrasonication of 1 min with vitamin C. Increasing the ultrasonication times resulted in Ag nanoparticles with tunable dimensions ranging from 15 to 55 nm being formed on the surface of GO nanosheets. The amount of silver nitrate and the ultrasonication time play a key role in the control of the dimension of Ag nanoparticles on GO, and a formation mechanism of the as-prepared AgNP–GO composites is proposed. This study provides a guide to controlling the dimensions of AgNP–GO composites, which may hold promise as advanced materials for various analytical applications such as catalysis, sensors and microchips

  17. Controlled fermentation of Moroccan picholine green olives by oleuropein-degrading Lactobacilli strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabbour, N.; Rokni, Y.; Lamzira, Z.; Thonart, P.; Chihib, N.E.; Peres, C.; Asehraou, A.

    2016-07-01

    The control of the spontaneous fermentation process of un-debittered Moroccan Picholine green olives was undertaken basing the inoculation with two lactobacilli strains (Lactobacillus plantarum S175 and Lactobacillus pentosus S100). These strains, previously selected in our laboratory for their oleuropein-degrading capacity, were inoculated in olives brined at 5% of NaCl, and then incubated at 30 °C. The physico-chemical parameters (pH, free acidity, reducing sugars, sodium chloride, oleuropein and its hydrolysis products), and the microbiological parameters (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Staphylococcus, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and moulds), were regularly analyzed during the fermentation time. The results obtained showed the effectiveness of the lactic acid bacteria strains to develop suitable oleuropein biodegradation and controlled lactic fermentation processes more than the un-inoculated olives (control). This result was confirmed by the rapid elimination of coliforms and staphylococcus, the accumulation of hydroxytyrosol as a result of oleuropein biodegradation, and a drastic reduction in spoiled olives with good quality fermented olives. (Author)

  18. Biomimetic approaches for green tribology: from the lotus effect to blood flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maani, Nazanin; Rayz, Vitaliy S; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The research in Green tribology combines several areas including biomimetic tribomaterials and surfaces for controlled adhesion. Biomimetic surfaces mimic living nature and thus they are eco-friendly. The most famous biomimetic surface effect is the Lotus effect (reduction of water adhesion to a solid surface due to micro/nanostructuring of the solid surface). Several extensions of the Lotus effect have been discussed in the literature including the oleophobicity (repelling organic liquids such as oils), underwater oleophobicity to reduce fouling, and the shark skin effect (flow drag reduction due to specially oriented micro-riblets). Here we suggest a potentially important application of micro/nanostructured surfaces in the biomedical area: the micro/nanostructure controlled adhesion in blood flow. Blood is a suspension, and its adhesion properties are different from those of water and oil. For many cardiovascular applications, it is desirable to reduce stagnation and clotting of blood. Therefore, both the underwater oleophobicuity and shark-skin effect can be used. We discuss how computational fluid dynamics models can be used to investigate the structure–property relationships of surface pattern-controlled blood flow adhesion. (paper)

  19. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstedt Sandra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. Methods The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times. Results Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water. Conclusions Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea. Trial registration number NCT01086189

  20. Effect of Irrigation with Wastewater and Foliar Application of Complete Fertilizer on Forage Yield and Yield Components of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ahmadi Aghtape

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study effect of irrigation with wastewater and foliar application of complete fertilizer on forage yield and seed yield and yield components of foxtail millet (Setaria italica. A split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the Agriculture Institute of Zabol University in year 2009. Treatments included three levels of irrigation: Irrigation with well water at all stages of grows (control, Irrigation with wastewater and tap water alternately, Irrigation with wastewater for all growing stages, as the main plot and sprayed with three levels of complete fertilizer (NATBA-LIB: Non spraying (control, sprayed with 600 and 1200 gram of complete fertilizer in each hectare, as were the subplots. Results showed that irrigation with wastewater and complete fertilizer sprayed had significant effect on all traits except leaf to stem ratio. Furthermore, among the irrigation treatments, irrigation with wastewater in total growing period, and wastewater and tap water alternately lead to significant increase in grain yield, forage yield and yield components. Among the sprayed treatments, sprayed with 1200 gram of complete fertilizer had highest forage yield and grain.

  1. The Effectiveness of Green Tea or Green Tea Extract on Insulin Resistance and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyue Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea or green tea extract (GT/GTE has been demonstrated to reduce insulin resistance and improve glycemic control. However, evidence for this health beneficial effect is inconsistent. This systematic review evaluated the effect of GT/GTE on insulin resistance and glycemic control in people with pre-diabetes/type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to April 2017 for randomised controlled trials of participants with pre-diabetes or T2DM, where the intervention was GT/GTE. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the standardised mean difference (SMD in biomarkers of insulin resistance and glycemic control between GT/GTE and placebo groups. Six studies (n=382 were pooled into random-effects meta-analysis. Overall, no differences were found between GT/GTE and the placebo for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c: SMD, −0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.86 to 0.23, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR: SMD, 0.10; 95% CI, −0.17 to 0.38, fasting insulin (SMD, −0.25; 95% CI, −0.64 to 0.15, and fasting glucose (SMD, −0.10; 95% CI, −0.50 to 0.30. No evidence support the consumption of GT/GTE could reduce the levels of HbA1c, HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, or fasting glucose in people with pre-diabetes/T2DM. However, the studies included were small and of varying quality.

  2. Highly controllable and green reduction of graphene oxide to flexible graphene film with high strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Wubo; Zhao, Zongbin; Hu, Han; Gogotsi, Yury; Qiu, Jieshan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highly controllable and green reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film, of which the tensile strength strongly depends on the deoxygenation degree of graphene sheets. - Highlights: • Graphene was synthesized by an effective and environmentally friendly approach. • We introduced a facile X-ray diffraction analysis method to investigate the reduction process from graphene oxide to graphene. • Flexible graphene films were prepared by self-assembly of the graphene sheets. • The strength of the graphene films depends on the reduction degree of graphene. - Abstract: Graphene film with high strength was fabricated by the assembly of graphene sheets derived from graphene oxide (GO) in an effective and environmentally friendly approach. Highly controllable reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant, in which the reduction process was monitored by XRD analysis and UV–vis absorption spectra. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film. This method may open an avenue to the easy and scalable preparation of graphene film with high strength which has promising potentials in many fields where strong, flexible and electrically conductive films are highly demanded

  3. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized open-label active-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Sadrneshin, Sara; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Ashraf, Alireza

    2018-02-01

    Green tea is known as a dietary supplement and a novel functional food worldwide. Since there are increasing preclinical evidence about efficacy of green tea for treating osteoarthritis, this study has aimed at assessing its efficacy and safety for patients with knee osteoarthritis. This is a randomized open-label active-controlled clinical trial. As many as fifty adults with osteoarthritis of knee were randomly allocated to receive the green tea extract (in dosage form of tablet) plus diclofenac tablet as "intervention group"; or: diclofenac tablet alone as "control group" for a period of four weeks. Patients were assessed at the beginning of intervention, and then 4 weeks later, in terms of pain score via visual analogue scale (VAS), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire's total score in addition to its 3 sub-scores. Furthermore, they were asked about any adverse effects during intervention period. Mean differences of VAS pain, total WOMAC, and WOMAC physical function scores in green tea group showed a significant reduction, compared with the control group (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P = 0.004, respectively). However, No significant differences between the two groups were observed, regarding mean differences of WOMAC pain and stiffness scores of the enrolled patients (P = 0.163, and P = 0.150, respectively). Additionally, only 1 patient reported gastric upset [in control group]. It seems that green tea extract might well be considered as an adjunctive treatment both for control of pain and for the betterment of knee joint physical function in adults with osteoarthritis. However, further studies of longer duration and larger sample size are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  5. Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and protective effect against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Min; He, Shujian; Wang, Lu; Cao, Xinmin; Cao, Lili; Jiang, Shaotong

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate physicochemical characterization of the oil extracted from foxtail millet bran (FMBO), and the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice. GC-MS analysis revealed that unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) account for 83.76% of the total fatty acids; in particular, the linoleic acid (C18:2) is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and the compounds of squalene and six phytosterols (or phytostanols) were identified in unsaponifiable matter of FMBO. The antioxidant activity examination of FMBO in vitro showed highly ferric-reducing antioxidant power and scavenging effects against DPPH· and HO· radicals. Furthermore, the protective effect of FMBO against acute hepatic injuries induced by ethanol was verified in mice. In this, intragastric administration with different dosages of FMBO in mice ahead of acute ethanol administration could observably antagonize the ethanol-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), and the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, respectively, along with enhanced hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels relative to the control. Hepatic histological changes were also observed and confirmed that FMBO is capable of attenuating ethanol-induced hepatic injury.

  6. In Silico and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Mapping Reveals Collinearity between the Pennisetum squamulatum Apomixis Carrier-Chromosome and Chromosome 2 of Sorghum and Foxtail Millet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirjan Sapkota

    Full Text Available Apomixis, or clonal propagation through seed, is a trait identified within multiple species of the grass family (Poaceae. The genetic locus controlling apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum (syn Cenchrus squamulatus and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn Pennisetum ciliare, buffelgrass is the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR. Previously, the ASGR was shown to be highly conserved but inverted in marker order between P. squamulatum and C. ciliaris based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and varied in both karyotype and position of the ASGR on the ASGR-carrier chromosome among other apomictic Cenchrus/Pennisetum species. Using in silico transcript mapping and verification of physical positions of some of the transcripts via FISH, we discovered that the ASGR-carrier chromosome from P. squamulatum is collinear with chromosome 2 of foxtail millet and sorghum outside of the ASGR. The in silico ordering of the ASGR-carrier chromosome markers, previously unmapped in P. squamulatum, allowed for the identification of a backcross line with structural changes to the P. squamulatum ASGR-carrier chromosome derived from gamma irradiated pollen.

  7. In Silico and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Mapping Reveals Collinearity between the Pennisetum squamulatum Apomixis Carrier-Chromosome and Chromosome 2 of Sorghum and Foxtail Millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Sirjan; Conner, Joann A; Hanna, Wayne W; Simon, Bindu; Fengler, Kevin; Deschamps, Stéphane; Cigan, Mark; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Apomixis, or clonal propagation through seed, is a trait identified within multiple species of the grass family (Poaceae). The genetic locus controlling apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum (syn Cenchrus squamulatus) and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn Pennisetum ciliare, buffelgrass) is the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Previously, the ASGR was shown to be highly conserved but inverted in marker order between P. squamulatum and C. ciliaris based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and varied in both karyotype and position of the ASGR on the ASGR-carrier chromosome among other apomictic Cenchrus/Pennisetum species. Using in silico transcript mapping and verification of physical positions of some of the transcripts via FISH, we discovered that the ASGR-carrier chromosome from P. squamulatum is collinear with chromosome 2 of foxtail millet and sorghum outside of the ASGR. The in silico ordering of the ASGR-carrier chromosome markers, previously unmapped in P. squamulatum, allowed for the identification of a backcross line with structural changes to the P. squamulatum ASGR-carrier chromosome derived from gamma irradiated pollen.

  8. In Vitro Regeneration of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica (L. Beauv. cv. Buru Hotong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro regeneration of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L. Beauv. was done using basal shoot explants of 10-day old seedlings. Explants were cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 1.5 ppm NiSO4. Shoot multiplication and root induction were done in Murashige and Skoog (MS basal media. Plantlets were then acclimatized in rice husk charcoal, cocopeat, or mixed media. Results showed that MS basal medium containing 0.5 ppm kinetin, 2 ppm BAP, and 0.1 ppm 2,4-D was the optimal medium for shoot induction, in which 60% of explants developed direct shoot organogenesis. In addition, callus was optimally formed in MS medium supplemented by 1 ppm kinetin, 1 ppm BAP, and 0.5 ppm 2,4-D. Regenerated shoots spontaneously developed roots after being transferred into MS basal media without growth regulator. During acclimatization, the highest survival rate of plantlets (47% was obtained in rice husk charcoal. The developed method could be useful towards improvement of this species using in vitro tissue culture techniques.

  9. Genome-wide characterization of the SiDof gene family in foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Baoling; Zheng, Gewen; Zhang, Aiying; Li, Runzhi

    2017-01-01

    Dof (DNA binding with one finger) proteins, which constitute a class of transcription factors found exclusively in plants, are involved in numerous physiological and biochemical reactions affecting growth and development. A genome-wide analysis of SiDof genes was performed in this study. Thirty five SiDof genes were identified and those genes were unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes in the Seteria italica genome. Protein lengths, molecular weights, and theoretical isoelectric points of SiDofs all vary greatly. Gene structure analysis demonstrated that most SiDof genes lack introns. Phylogenetic analysis of SiDof proteins and Dof proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, sorghum, and Setaria viridis revealed six major groups. Analysis of RNA-Seq data indicated that SiDof gene expression levels varied across roots, stems, leaves, and spike. In addition, expression profiling of SiDof genes in response to stress suggested that SiDof 7 and SiDof 15 are involved in drought stress signalling. Overall, this study could provide novel information on SiDofs for further investigation in foxtail millet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) during dehydration stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Charu; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Prasad, Manoj

    2010-03-19

    Dehydration stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that adversely influence crop growth and productivity. With the aim to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying dehydration stress tolerance in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), a drought tolerant crop, we examined its transcriptome changes at two time points (early and late) of dehydration stress. Two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) forward libraries were constructed from 21-day old seedlings of tolerant cv. Prasad at 0.5 and 6h PEG-induced dehydration stress. A total of 327 unique ESTs were identified from both libraries and were classified into 11 different categories according to their putative functions. The plant response against dehydration stress was complex, representing major transcripts involved in metabolism, stress, signaling, transcription regulation, translation and proteolysis. By Reverse Northern (RN) technique we identified the differential expression pattern of 327 transcripts, 86 (about 26%) of which showed > or = 1.7-fold induction. Further the obtained results were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to have a comparative expression profiling of randomly chosen 9 up-regulated transcripts (> or =2.5 fold induction) between cv. Prasad (tolerant) and cv. Lepakshi (sensitive) upon dehydration stress. These transcripts showed a differential expression pattern in both cultivars at different time points of stress treatment as analyzed by qRT-PCR. The possible relationship of the identified transcripts with dehydration tolerance mechanism is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Mauro-Herrera

    Full Text Available The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail. In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  12. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Doust, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail). In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  13. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application for mosquito control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize and characterize silver nanoparticles from aqueous root extract of Parthenium hysterophorus (P. hysterophorus and also to evaluate the potentiality of synthesized silver nanoparticles as larvacidal agent against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: The silver nano particles were generated using root extract of P. hysterophorus. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was done by visual color change, UV-Vis spectrum, scanning electron micrograph, fluorescent microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results: It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous root extract of P. hysterophorus to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in aqueous medium. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts, aqueous silver nitrate solution and synthesized silver nanoparticles for 0, 24 and 48 h separately. Aqueous root extract showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the maximum efficacy (60.18% was observed with the synthesized silver nanoparticles against the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusions: These results suggest that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friently approach for the control of the Cx. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the nano particle synthesized by P. hysterophorus.

  14. Approach and case-study of green infrastructure screening analysis for urban stormwater control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Timothy T

    2018-03-01

    Urban stormwater control is an urgent concern in megacities where increased impervious surface has disrupted natural hydrology. Water managers are increasingly turning to more environmentally friendly ways of capturing stormwater, called Green Infrastructure (GI), to mitigate combined sewer overflow (CSO) that degrades local water quality. A rapid screening approach is described to evaluate how GI strategies can reduce the amount of stormwater runoff in a low-density residential watershed in New York City. Among multiple possible tools, the L-THIA LID online software package, using the SCS-CN method, was selected to estimate relative runoff reductions expected with different strategies in areas of different land uses in the watershed. Results are sensitive to the relative areas of different land uses, and show that bioretention and raingardens provide the maximum reduction (∼12%) in this largely residential watershed. Although commercial, industrial and high-density residential areas in the watershed are minor, larger runoff reductions from disconnection strategies and porous pavement in parking lots are also possible. Total stormwater reductions from various combinations of these strategies can reach 35-55% for individual land uses, and between 23% and 42% for the entire watershed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  16. A high density genetic map and QTL for agronomic and yield traits in Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaomei; Dong, Kongjun; Wang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Tianpeng; He, Jihong; Ren, Ruiyu; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xueying; Li, Man; Huang, Mengzhu; Zhang, Zhengsheng; Yang, Tianyu

    2016-05-04

    Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], a crop of historical importance in China, has been adopted as a model crop for studying C-4 photosynthesis, stress biology and biofuel traits. Construction of a high density genetic map and identification of stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) lay the foundation for marker-assisted selection for agronomic traits and yield improvement. A total of 10598 SSR markers were developed according to the reference genome sequence of foxtail millet cultivar 'Yugu1'. A total of 1013 SSR markers showing polymorphism between Yugu1 and Longgu7 were used to genotype 167 individuals from a Yugu1 × Longgu7 F2 population, and a high density genetic map was constructed. The genetic map contained 1035 loci and spanned 1318.8 cM with an average distance of 1.27 cM between adjacent markers. Based on agronomic and yield traits identified in 2 years, 29 QTL were identified for 11 traits with combined analysis and single environment analysis. These QTL explained from 7.0 to 14.3 % of phenotypic variation. Favorable QTL alleles for peduncle length originated from Longgu7 whereas favorable alleles for the other traits originated from Yugu1 except for qLMS6.1. New SSR markers, a high density genetic map and QTL identified for agronomic and yield traits lay the ground work for functional gene mapping, map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection in foxtail millet.

  17. Differential antioxidative responses to dehydration-induced oxidative stress in core set of foxtail millet cultivars [Setaria italica (L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Charu; Jha, Sarita; Dixit, Vivek; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Prasad, Manoj

    2011-10-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) known as a relatively drought-tolerant crop across the world is grown in arid and semi-arid regions. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic study on drought tolerance screening of foxtail millet germplasm being a drought-tolerant crop has been reported so far. To explore genetic diversity of drought-induced oxidative stress tolerance in foxtail millet, we employed lipid peroxidation measure to assess membrane integrity under stress as biochemical marker to screen 107 cultivars and classified the genotypes as highly tolerant, tolerant, sensitive, and highly sensitive. From this comprehensive screening, four cultivars showing differential response to dehydration tolerance were selected to understand the physiological and biochemical basis of tolerance mechanisms. The dehydration-tolerant cultivars (IC-403579 and Prasad) showed considerably lower levels of lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage as compared with dehydration-sensitive cultivars (IC-480117 and Lepakshi), indicating better cell membrane integrity in tolerant cultivars. Correspondingly, tolerant genotypes maintained higher activity of catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) across different time-course period of polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments in comparison to sensitive ones. The above biochemical results were further validated through quantitative real-time PCR analysis of APX and GR, whose transcripts were substantially induced by PEG treatments in tolerant cultivars. These results suggest that tolerant cultivars possess wider array of antioxidant machinery with efficient ascorbate-glutathione pathway to cope with drought-induced oxidative stress.

  18. Genetic Diversity of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) From Main Asian Habitats Based on the NRDNA ITS Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y. L.; Zheng, S. L.; Lee, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) is a crop of historical importance in some Asian and European countries. In this study, we selected the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) as the DNA marker to analyze genetic diversity and relationships of 20 foxtail millet strains collected from three representative Asian countries, including China, Korea, and Pakistan. Due to the length limitation of the nrDNA ITS region, 17 typical variable nucleotide sites were only found, of which 4 sites belonged to insertion, 3 sites deletion, and 10 sites substitution. According to the result of sequence alignment, strains were grouped clearly with the relevant of collected geographical region. Based on the sequence similarity and nucleotide variation, one Main China Group (MCG) and one Main Korea Group (MKG) occurred, and the strains from Pakistan were found to be close to MKG, considered to be originally transmitted from Korea and spread to Pakistan. Certain genetic diversity between strains from Pakistan and Korea were recognized as long-time environment evolution and adaptation. Among strains from Korea, K2, K3, K4, and K5 showed nearer phylogenetic relationship to MCG, considered as Chinese populations. All strains from China showed relatively near phylogenetic relationship with each other, supporting the statement that China is one of origin areas. The result also suggested that there was no introduced strain found in the Chinese strains investigated in this study. This work would provide more sequence sources and help clearer strain distinguishing, genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of foxtail millet. (author)

  19. Development of micronutrients rich homemade extruded food products with the incorporation of processed foxtail millet, wheat and chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gautam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food based approaches are recognized as an essential part of an urgently needed more comprehensive strategy for improving nutrition by increasing the availability and consumption to combat iron and other micronutrient deficiencies. Aims & Objective: The specific objective of the study was utilization of Foxtail millet (Setariaitalica along with other flour for production of micronutrients rich ready-to-eat snack products using homemade extrusion cooking. Material and methods: Methods Composite flour were prepared using processed Foxtail millet flour (FMF and other processed flours namely; wheat flour (WF, and chick pea flour (CPF. Nutritional properties of the blends were analyzed by using standard procedure. Two homemade extruded products namely; namkeensev, seviyan were prepared with four treatments T0, T1, T2, & T3. The commonly consumed recipes were developed by incorporating 50%, 75% and 100% of best result malted composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF. Results: The organoleptic qualities of these extruded samples were analyzed by panelists on a 9 point hedonic scale. The result indicate that the processed composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF based products were significantly accepted at the level of p<0.05 50% incorporation followed by 75% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The present study conclude that, processed composite flour (Foxtail millet; wheat; chickpea in the ratios of (50:50 could be used to produce nutritive quality of homemade extrudates with acceptable sensory properties as they deliver vehicles for malnourished children.

  20. Green and brown propolis: efficient natural biocides for the control of bacterial contamination of alcoholic fermentation of distilled beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of natural biocides, brown and green propolis, for the control of bacterial contamination in the production of sugarcane spirit. The treatments consisted of brown and green propolis extracts, ampicillin, and a control and were assessed at the beginning and end of harvest season in ten fermentation cycles. In the microbiological analyses, the lactic acid bacteria were quantified in the inoculum before and after the treatment with biocides, and the viability of yeast cells during fermentation was evaluated. The levels of acids, glycerol, total residual reducing sugars, and ethanol were analyzed for the wine resulting from each fermentation cycle. A reduction in the number of bacterial contaminants in the inoculum in the treatments with the natural biocides was observed, but it did not affect the viability of yeast cells. The control of the contaminants led to the production of higher levels of ethanol and reduced acidity in the wine produced. The results of the use of brown and green propolis to control the growth microorganisms in the fermentation of sugarcane spirit can be of great importance for using alternative strategies to synthetic antibacterials in fermentation processes including other distilled beverage or spirits.

  1. Distribution of 15N fertilizer in field-lysimeters sown with garlic (Allium sativum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the distribution of residual 15 N and its uptake by a foxtail millet crop grown in field lysimeters following a previous garlic crop fertilized with either 15 N-urea or 15 N-ammonium sulphate. Garlic apparently removed more N from the lysimeters treated with urea-N than from those treated with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Fertilizer-N in the lysimeters was similar (ca. 32% of original) following millet harvest. About 16 per cent of both fertilizers in the lysimeters was removed by the millet. (orig.)

  2. Genome-wide investigation and expression profiling of AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Charu; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Khan, Yusuf; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF) family is one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in plants that includes four major sub-families, namely AP2, DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ERF (ethylene responsive factors) and RAV (Related to ABI3/VP). AP2/ERFs are known to play significant roles in various plant processes including growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Considering this, a comprehensive genome-wide study was conducted in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). A total of 171 AP2/ERF genes were identified by systematic sequence analysis and were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis grouped AP2/ERF genes into six classes (I to VI). Duplication analysis revealed that 12 (∼7%) SiAP2/ERF genes were tandem repeated and 22 (∼13%) were segmentally duplicated. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet AP2/ERF genes and its orthologs of sorghum (18 genes), maize (14 genes), rice (9 genes) and Brachypodium (6 genes) showed the evolutionary insights of AP2/ERF gene family and also the decrease in orthology with increase in phylogenetic distance. The evolutionary significance in terms of gene-duplication and divergence was analyzed by estimating synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates. Expression profiling of candidate AP2/ERF genes against drought, salt and phytohormones revealed insights into their precise and/or overlapping expression patterns which could be responsible for their functional divergence in foxtail millet. The study showed that the genes SiAP2/ERF-069, SiAP2/ERF-103 and SiAP2/ERF-120 may be considered as potential candidate genes for further functional validation as well for utilization in crop improvement programs for stress resistance since these genes were up-regulated under drought and salinity stresses in ABA dependent manner. Altogether the present study provides new insights into evolution, divergence and systematic

  3. Genome-wide investigation and expression profiling of AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Lata

    Full Text Available The APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF family is one of the largest transcription factor (TF families in plants that includes four major sub-families, namely AP2, DREB (dehydration responsive element binding, ERF (ethylene responsive factors and RAV (Related to ABI3/VP. AP2/ERFs are known to play significant roles in various plant processes including growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Considering this, a comprehensive genome-wide study was conducted in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.. A total of 171 AP2/ERF genes were identified by systematic sequence analysis and were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis grouped AP2/ERF genes into six classes (I to VI. Duplication analysis revealed that 12 (∼7% SiAP2/ERF genes were tandem repeated and 22 (∼13% were segmentally duplicated. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet AP2/ERF genes and its orthologs of sorghum (18 genes, maize (14 genes, rice (9 genes and Brachypodium (6 genes showed the evolutionary insights of AP2/ERF gene family and also the decrease in orthology with increase in phylogenetic distance. The evolutionary significance in terms of gene-duplication and divergence was analyzed by estimating synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates. Expression profiling of candidate AP2/ERF genes against drought, salt and phytohormones revealed insights into their precise and/or overlapping expression patterns which could be responsible for their functional divergence in foxtail millet. The study showed that the genes SiAP2/ERF-069, SiAP2/ERF-103 and SiAP2/ERF-120 may be considered as potential candidate genes for further functional validation as well for utilization in crop improvement programs for stress resistance since these genes were up-regulated under drought and salinity stresses in ABA dependent manner. Altogether the present study provides new insights into evolution, divergence and

  4. Distribution of /sup 15/N fertilizer in field-lysimeters sown with garlic (Allium sativum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, M.A. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Dept. de Ciencas Agrarias)

    1982-01-01

    We examined the distribution of residual /sup 15/N and its uptake by a foxtail millet crop grown in field lysimeters following a previous garlic crop fertilized with either /sup 15/N-urea or /sup 15/N-ammonium sulphate. Garlic apparently removed more N from the lysimeters treated with urea-N than from those treated with (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Fertilizer-N in the lysimeters was similar (ca. 32% of original) following millet harvest. About 16 per cent of both fertilizers in the lysimeters was removed by the millet.

  5. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  6. In situ green synthesis of antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan-nanosilver hybrids with controlled silver release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siqi; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng

    2017-01-01

    In order to fabricate antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan-nanosilver (CMC-Ag) hybrids with controlled silver release, this study demonstrated comparable formation via three synthetic protocols: 1) carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and glucose (adding glucose after AgNO 3 ), 2) CMC and glucose (adding glucose before AgNO 3 ), and 3) CMC only. Under principles of green chemistry, the synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 10 minutes with nontoxic chemicals. The structure and formation mechanisms of the three CMC-Ag hybrids were explored using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. Additionally, antimicrobial activity and in vitro silver release of the three synthesized hybrids were investigated in detail. The results revealed that a large number of stable, uniform, and small silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on CMC chains via protocol 1. AgNPs were well dispersed with narrow size distribution in the range of 6-20 nm, with mean diameter only 12.22±2.57 nm. The addition of glucose resulted in greater AgNP synthesis. The order of addition of glucose and AgNO 3 significantly affected particle size and size distribution of AgNPs. Compared to CMC alone and commercially available AgNPs, the antimicrobial activities of three hybrids were significantly improved. Of the three hybrids, CMC-Ag1 synthesized via protocol 1 exhibited better antimicrobial activity than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3, and showed more effective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli . Due to strong coordination and electrostatic interactions between CMC and silver and good steric protection provided by CMC, CMC-Ag1 displayed stable and continuous silver release and better performance in retaining silver for prolonged periods than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3.

  7. In situ green synthesis of antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan–nanosilver hybrids with controlled silver release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siqi; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng

    2017-01-01

    In order to fabricate antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan–nanosilver (CMC-Ag) hybrids with controlled silver release, this study demonstrated comparable formation via three synthetic protocols: 1) carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and glucose (adding glucose after AgNO3), 2) CMC and glucose (adding glucose before AgNO3), and 3) CMC only. Under principles of green chemistry, the synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 10 minutes with nontoxic chemicals. The structure and formation mechanisms of the three CMC-Ag hybrids were explored using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. Additionally, antimicrobial activity and in vitro silver release of the three synthesized hybrids were investigated in detail. The results revealed that a large number of stable, uniform, and small silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on CMC chains via protocol 1. AgNPs were well dispersed with narrow size distribution in the range of 6–20 nm, with mean diameter only 12.22±2.57 nm. The addition of glucose resulted in greater AgNP synthesis. The order of addition of glucose and AgNO3 significantly affected particle size and size distribution of AgNPs. Compared to CMC alone and commercially available AgNPs, the antimicrobial activities of three hybrids were significantly improved. Of the three hybrids, CMC-Ag1 synthesized via protocol 1 exhibited better antimicrobial activity than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3, and showed more effective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. Due to strong coordination and electrostatic interactions between CMC and silver and good steric protection provided by CMC, CMC-Ag1 displayed stable and continuous silver release and better performance in retaining silver for prolonged periods than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3. PMID:28458539

  8. Identification of a locus control region for quadruplicated green-sensitive opsin genes in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Taro; Chinen, Akito; Kawamura, Shoji

    2007-01-01

    Duplication of opsin genes has a crucial role in the evolution of visual system. Zebrafish have four green-sensitive (RH2) opsin genes (RH2–1, RH2–2, RH2–3, and RH2–4) arrayed in tandem. They are expressed in the short member of the double cones (SDC) but differ in expression areas in the retina and absorption spectra of their encoding photopigments. The shortest and the second shortest wavelength subtypes, RH2–1 and RH2–2, are expressed in the central-to-dorsal retina. The longer wavelength subtype, RH2–3, is expressed circumscribing the RH2–1/RH2–2 area, and the longest subtype, RH2–4, is expressed further circumscribing the RH2–3 area and mainly occupying the ventral retina. The present report shows that a 0.5-kb region located 15 kb upstream of the RH2 gene array is an essential regulator for their expression. When the 0.5-kb region was deleted from a P1-artificial chromosome (PAC) clone encompassing the four RH2 genes and when one of these genes was replaced with a reporter GFP gene, the GFP expression in SDCs was abolished in the zebrafish to which a series of the modified PAC clones were introduced. Transgenic studies also showed that the 0.5-kb region conferred the SDC-specific expression for promoters of a non-SDC (UV opsin) and a nonretinal (keratin 8) gene. Changing the location of the 0.5-kb region in the PAC clone conferred the highest expression for its proximal gene. The 0.5-kb region was thus designated as RH2-LCR analogous to the locus control region of the L-M opsin genes of primates. PMID:17646658

  9. Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mike; Gladwell, Valerie F.; Gallagher, Daniel J.; Barton, Jo L.

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States. During the exercise session, visual and verbal interactions were recorded by means of experimenter observations. After each exercise session, participants provided self-reports of their enjoyment of the exercise, perceived exertion and intention for future exercise in the same environment. Social interaction time was significantly greater during outdoors exercise versus indoors; on average, participants engaged in three minutes more social interaction during exercise outdoors compared to indoors. Social interaction time significantly predicted intention for future exercise in the outdoors condition, but did not in the indoor condition. There was a significant time by condition interaction for directed attention. Scores worsened in the indoors condition, but improved in the outdoors condition. There was no statistically-significant time by condition interaction for mood and no significant difference between conditions for either perceived exertion or intention. Taken together, these findings show that exercise in a natural environment may promote directed attention and social interactions, which may positively influence future

  10. Controlled fermentation of Moroccan picholine green olives by oleuropein-degrading Lactobacilli strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghabbour, N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The control of the spontaneous fermentation process of un-debittered Moroccan Picholine green olives was undertaken basing the inoculation with two lactobacilli strains (Lactobacillus plantarum S175 and Lactobacillus pentosus S100. These strains, previously selected in our laboratory for their oleuropein-degrading capacity, were inoculated in olives brined at 5% of NaCl, and then incubated at 30 ÅãC. The physico-chemical parameters (pH, free acidity, reducing sugars, sodium chloride, oleuropein and its hydrolysis products, and the microbiological parameters (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Staphylococcus, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and moulds, were regularly analyzed during the fermentation time. The results obtained showed the effectiveness of the lactic acid bacteria strains to develop suitable oleuropein biodegradation and controlled lactic fermentation processes more than the un-inoculated olives (control. This result was confirmed by the rapid elimination of coliforms and staphylococcus, the accumulation of hydroxytyrosol as a result of oleuropein biodegradation, and a drastic reduction in spoiled olives with good quality fermented olives.Se llevó a cabo el control del proceso de fermentación espontánea de aceitunas verdes sin desamargar picholine marroquí basado en la inoculación con dos cepas de lactobacilos (Lactobacillus plantarum S175 y Lactobacillus pentosus S100. Estas cepas, seleccionadas previamente en nuestro laboratorio por su capacidad de degradar a la oleuropeína, se inocularon en las aceitunas en salmuera al 5 % de NaCl, y después se incubaron a 30 °C. Los parámetros físico-químicos (pH, acidez libre, reducción de azúcares, cloruro sódico, oleuropeína y sus productos de hidrólisis y los parámetros microbiológicos (bacterias aerobias mesófilas, coliformes, estafilococos, bacterias lácticas y levaduras y mohos, fueron analizados regularmente durante el tiempo de fermentación. Los resultados

  11. Changes in the GABA and polyphenols contents of foxtail millet on germination and their relationship with in vitro antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Seema; Saxena, Dharmesh C; Riar, Charanjit S

    2018-04-15

    Germination along with ultrasonic assisted extraction induced a significant beneficial effect on the characteristics of polyphenolic components profile, GABA contents and in vitro antioxidant capacity of the foxtail millet flour extracts. The total antioxidant activity (29.0-45.23 mgAAE/g) and reducing power (0.53-0.76 µg/ml) increase during germination were due to quantitative increase in phthalicacid; hex-3yl-ester; hexadecanoicacid methylester etc. whereas, increase in DPPH (48.32-59.62%) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities (35.44-63.07 mM-Trolox/g) were attributed to increase in hexadecanoic acid methylester; 9,12-Octadecadienoicacid ethylester and synthesis of new compounds like pentadecanoicacid; 14-methyl-methylester etc. The metal chelating abilities (34.92-57.38 mgEDTA/g) and in vitro antioxidant activity increase due to overall increase in phenolics, flavonoids along with GABA contents. Synthesis of additional polyphenolic components viz. astaxanthin, propanoicacid, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilylether, 9,12,15-octadecatrienoicacid etc. as a result of germinated explored the possible potential utilization of germinated foxtail millet grains in various functional and convenience food formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Solvent optimization extraction of antioxidants from foxtail millet species' insoluble fibers and their free radical scavenging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangoura, Mohamed Lamine; Nsor-Atindana, John; Ming, Zhou Hui

    2013-11-15

    In this study, water and 80% of four organic solvents were employed to optimize the extraction of antioxidants from two species of foxtail millet's insoluble fibers under the same temperature, time, and solid/solvent ratio. The results showed that the acetone was able to extract the maximum amount of antioxidants (2.32 mg/g fiber for white specie and 3.86 mg/g fiber for yellow specie) followed by methanol and propanol from both samples. The neutral and the ethanol on the other hand extracted small amount of the antioxidants from the two fiber materials. While considerable level of Total Polyphenols Content (TPC) was recorded in both the water and the organic solvents' extracts, only traces of Total Flavonoid content (TFC) were observed in water, methanol and ethanol extracts. Propanol and acetone extracts was negative to the TFC test. The potency of both white and yellow foxtail millets' insoluble fibers antioxidant extracts was investigated using five different in vitro tests. It was realized that there was a variation in their capacities to quench DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals for the time running of 0-60 min. The samples from the yellow cereal exhibited high inhibition capacity against ABTS(+). No correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging capacities for DPPH and ABTS(+). In general, the yellow species contained more antioxidants in comparison with the white one and this accounted for its high antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 ubiquitously regulates plant growth and development from Arabidopsis to foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaige; Qi, Shuanghui; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Gao, Chenhao; Duan, Shaowei; Feng, Baili; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTTG1) is a WD40 repeat transcription factor that plays multiple roles in plant growth and development, particularly in seed metabolite production. In the present study, to determine whether SiTTG1 of the phylogenetically distant monocot foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has similar functions, we used transgenic Arabidopsis and Nicotiana systems to explore its activities. We found that SiTTG1 functions as a transcription factor. Overexpression of the SiTTG1 gene rescued many of the mutant phenotypes in Arabidopsis ttg1-13 plants. Additionally, SiTTG1 overexpression fully corrected the reduced expression of mucilage biosynthetic genes, and the induced expression of genes involved in accumulation of seed fatty acids and storage proteins in developing seeds of ttg1-13 plants. Ectopic expression of SiTTG1 restored the sensitivity of the ttg1-13 mutant to salinity and high glucose stresses during germination and seedling establishment, and restored altered expression levels of some stress-responsive genes in ttg1-13 seedlings to the wild type level under salinity and glucose stresses. Our results provide information that will be valuable for understanding the function of TTG1 from monocot to dicot species and identifying a promising target for genetic manipulation of foxtail millet to improve the amount of seed metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Green Infrastructure for Stormwater Control: Gauging its Effectiveness with Community Partners, Summary of EPA GI Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a summary of the green infrastructure reports, journal articles, and conference proceedings published to date. This summary will be updated as more reports are completed. The Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development has an ambitious ...

  15. Green rust formation controls nutrient availability in a ferruginous water column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zegeye, Asfaw; Bonneville, Steeve; Benning, Liane G.

    2013-01-01

    a mechanism for reconstructing ancient ocean chemistry. Such reconstructions depend, however, on precise knowledge of the iron minerals formed in the water column. Here, we combine mineralogical and geochemical analyses to demonstrate formation of the mixed-valence iron mineral, green rust, in ferruginous...

  16. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Liu, A.M.; Kampman, E.; Zhang, Z.F.; Veer, P. van 't; Wu, D.L.; Wang, P.H.; Yang, J.; Qin, Y.; Mu, L.N.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a

  17. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high and low risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Liu, A.; Kampman, E.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Veer, van 't P.; Wu, P.; Wang, P.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a

  18. Green tea polyphenols and Tai Chi for bone health: Designing a placebo-controlled randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyu Ming-Chien

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem in postmenopausal women. Evidence suggests the importance of oxidative stress in bone metabolism and bone loss. Tea consumption may be beneficial to osteoporosis due to its antioxidant capability. However, lack of objective data characterizing tea consumption has hindered the precise evaluation of the association between tea ingestion and bone mineral density in previous questionnaire-based epidemiological studies. On the other hand, although published studies suggest that Tai Chi (TC exercise can benefit bone health and may reduce oxidative stress, all studies were conducted using a relatively healthy older population, instead of a high-risk one such as osteopenic postmenopausal women. Therefore, this study was designed to test an intervention including green tea polyphenol (GTP and TC exercise for feasibility, and to quantitatively assess their individual and interactive effects on postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Methods/Design One hundred and forty postmenopausal women with osteopenia (defined as bone mineral density T-score at the spine and/or hip between 1 to 2.5 SD below the reference database were randomly assigned to 4 treatment arms: (1 placebo group receiving 500 mg medicinal starch daily, (2 GTP group receiving 500 mg of GTP per day, (3 placebo+TC group receiving both placebo treatment and TC training (60-minute group exercise, 3 times per week, and (4 GTP+TC group receiving both GTP and TC training for 24 weeks. The outcome measures were bone formation biomarker (serum bone alkaline phosphatase, bone resorption biomarker (serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, and oxidative DNA damage biomarker (urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. All outcome measures were determined at baseline, 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Urinary and serum GTP concentrations were also determined at baseline, 4, 12, and 24 weeks for bioavailability. Liver function was monitored monthly for safety. A

  19. Effect of elevated [CO2] on growth and attack of Asian corn borers (Ostrinia furnacalis) in foxtail millet (Setaria italica)%大气CO2浓度升高对谷子生长发育及玉米螟发生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘紫娟; 李萍; 宗毓铮; 董琦; 郝兴宇

    2017-01-01

    Since industrial revolution, global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ([CO2]) has risen from 280mmol·mol–1 to the current level of about 392mmol·mol–1. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the most important C4 crops in the semiarid regions of North China, yet there is lack of sufficient information on how the crop responds to climate change in China. Here, we studied the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2] on foxtail millet in order to understand the changes in foxtail millet production under future CO2 concentrations along with the response of C4 crops to climate change. An open top chamber (OTC) system was used to test the effect of elevated [CO2] on foxtail millet. One OTC was used as the control chamber, which maintained the ambient [CO2]. In another OTC, elevated [CO2] (ambient [CO2] + 200 mmol×mol–1) was constantly maintained from crop emergence to harvest. Foxtail millet was sown in 40 cm × 60 cm pots (28 cm depth). Ten plants were grown in each pot and 10 pots were put in every OTC. Leaf photosynthesis was measured using a portable gas exchange system. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameter was assessed using a miniaturized pulse-amplitude modulated fluorescence analyzer with a leaf clip holder. The changes in morphological parameters, biomass, yield and damage of Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) in response to elevated [CO2] were also determined. The results showed that elevated [CO2] increased the net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (Tr) and water use efficiency (WUE) of foxtail millet by 38.73%, 27.53%, 6.93% and 40.56%, respectively. The maximal photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) of foxtail millet leaf photosystem Ⅱ significantly decreased under elevated [CO2]. Photosystem Ⅱ quantum yield (ΦPSII) and apparent electron transfer rate (ETR) increased, but the change in photochemical quenching destruction coefficient (qP) was

  20. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  1. Controllable synthesis of green and blue fluorescent carbon nanodots for pH and Cu(2+) sensing in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lihong; Li, Yanyan; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Bo; Wen, Xiangping; Zhang, Guomei; Dong, Chuan; Shuang, Shaomin

    2016-03-15

    We report a controllable strategy for fabrication of green and blue fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs), and demonstrate their applications for pH and Cu(2+) sensing in living cells. Green and blue fluorescent CDs have been synthesized by hydrothermal method and pyrolysis of leeks, respectively, providing an easy way for the production of CDs without the request of tedious synthetic methodology or the use of toxic/expensive solvents and starting materials. Green fluorescent CDs (G-CDs) exhibit high tolerance to pH values and external cations. Blue fluorescent CDs (B-CDs) can be applied to pH and Cu(2+) sensing. The linear range of Cu(2+) detection is 0.01-10.00 μM and the detection limit is 0.05 μM. For pH detection, there is a good linearity in the pH range of 3.5-10.0. The linear and rapid response of B-CDs to Cu(2+) and pH is valuable for Cu(2+) and pH sensing in living cells. Confocal fluorescent imaging of human cervical carcinoma cells indicates that B-CDs could visualize Cu(2+) and pH fluctuations in living cells with negligible autofluorescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperature Control & Comfort Level of Elementary School Building with Green Roof in New Taipei City, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Ming Su; Mei-Shu Huang

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate the urban heat island effect has become a global issue when we are faced with the challenge of climate change. Through literature review, plant photosynthesis can reduce the carbon dioxide and mitigate the urban heat island effect to a degree. Because there are not enough open space and parks, green roof has become an important policy in Taiwan. We selected elementary school buildings in northern New Taipei City as research subjects since elementary schools ar...

  3. Satellite view of seasonal greenness trends and controls in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Sangeeta; Jia, Gensuo; Zhang, Anzhi

    2018-03-01

    South Asia (SA) has been considered one of the most remarkable regions for changing vegetation greenness, accompanying its major expansion of agricultural activities, especially irrigated farming. The influence of the monsoon climate on the seasonal trends and anomalies of vegetation greenness is poorly understood in this area. Herein, we used the satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to investigate various spatiotemporal patterns in vegetation activity during summer and winter monsoon (SM and WM) seasons and among irrigated croplands (IC), rainfed croplands (RC), and natural vegetation (NV) areas during 1982–2013. Seasonal NDVI variations with climatic factors (precipitation and temperature) and land use and cover changes (LUCC) have also been investigated. This study demonstrates that the seasonal dynamics of vegetation could improve the detailed understanding of vegetation productivity over the region. We found distinct greenness trends between two monsoon seasons and among the major land use/cover classes. Winter monsoons contributed greater variability to the overall vegetation dynamics of SA. Major greening occurred due to the increased productivity over irrigated croplands during the winter monsoon season; meanwhile, browning trends were prominent over NV areas during the same season. Maximum temperatures had been increasing tremendously during the WM season; however, the precipitation trend was not significant over SA. Both the climate variability and LUCC revealed coupled effects on the long term NDVI trends in NV areas, especially in the hilly regions, whereas anthropogenic activities (agricultural advancements) played a pivotal role in the rest of the area. Until now, advanced cultivation techniques have proven to be beneficial for the region in terms of the productivity of croplands. However, the crop productivity is at risk under climate change.

  4. Investigation on Smoke Movement and Smoke Control for Atrium in Green and Sustainable Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Lui; Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik

    2007-01-01

     The concepts of green buildings and sustainable buildings are promoted actively in the developed countries. Targets are on protecting the environment, using less energy through natural ventilation provisions and daylight utilization, developing better waste management and taking resource conservation into account. Architectural and building design, electrical and mechanical systems, and building management have to be upgraded. However, there are problems in dealing with fire safety, especial...

  5. An optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller by Water Cycle Algorithm for power management of Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvi, Mohammad; Avanaki, Isa Nasiri

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method to improve the performance of renewable power management is proposed. • The proposed method is based on Fuzzy Logic optimized by the Water Cycle Algorithm. • The proposed method characteristics are compared with two other methods. • The comparisons confirm that the proposed method is robust and effectiveness one. - Abstract: This paper aims to improve the power management system of a Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power generation based on the Fuzzy Logic Controller optimized by the Water Cycle Algorithm. The proposed Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power consists of wind energy conversion and photovoltaic systems as primary power sources and a battery, fuel cell, and Electrolyzer as energy storage systems. Hydrogen is produced from surplus power generated by the wind energy conversion and photovoltaic systems of Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power and stored in the hydrogen storage tank for fuel cell later using when the power generated by primary sources is lower than load demand. The proposed optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller based power management system determines the power that is generated by fuel cell or use by Electrolyzer. In a hybrid system, operation and maintenance cost and reliability of the system are the important issues that should be considered in studies. In this regard, Water Cycle Algorithm is used to optimize membership functions in order to simultaneously minimize the Loss of Power Supply Probability and operation and maintenance. The results are compared with the particle swarm optimization and the un-optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller power management system to prove that the proposed method is robust and effective. Reduction in Loss of Power Supply Probability and operation and maintenance, are the most advantages of the proposed method. Moreover the level of the State of Charge of the battery in the proposed method is higher than other mentioned methods which leads to increase battery lifetime.

  6. The Healthy Steps Study: A randomized controlled trial of a pedometer-based Green Prescription for older adults. Trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schluter Philip J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Graded health benefits of physical activity have been demonstrated for the reduction of coronary heart disease, some cancers, and type-2 diabetes, and for injury reduction and improvements in mental health. Older adults are particularly at risk of physical inactivity, and would greatly benefit from successful targeted physical activity interventions. Methods/Design The Healthy Steps study is a 12-month randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a pedometer-based Green Prescription with the conventional time-based Green Prescription in increasing and maintaining physical activity levels in low-active adults over 65 years of age. The Green Prescription interventions involve a primary care physical activity prescription with 3 follow-up telephone counselling sessions delivered by trained physical activity counsellors over 3 months. Those in the pedometer group received a pedometer and counselling based around increasing steps that can be monitored on the pedometer, while those in the standard Green Prescription group received counselling using time-based goals. Baseline, 3 month (end of intervention, and 12 month measures were assessed in face-to-face home visits with outcomes measures being physical activity (Auckland Heart Study Physical Activity Questionnaire, quality of life (SF-36 and EQ-5D, depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale, blood pressure, weight status, functional status (gait speed, chair stands, and tandem balance test and falls and adverse events (self-report. Utilisation of health services was assessed for the economic evaluation carried out alongside this trial. As well, a process evaluation of the interventions and an examination of barriers and motives for physical activity in the sample were conducted. The perceptions of primary care physicians in relation to delivering physical activity counselling were also assessed. Discussion The findings from the Healthy Steps trial are due in late

  7. Mechanical and thermal property characterization of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) scaffold developed using pressure-controllable green foaming technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Shen-Jun; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Fang; Ma, Qing-Yu; Gu, Min-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) is one of the most promising biological materials used for tissue engineering scaffolds (TES) because of their excellent biodegradability and tenability. Here, microcellular PLLA foams were fabricated by pressure-controllable green foaming technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction measurement (WAXRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, enzymatic degradation study and MTT assay were used to analyze the scaffolds' morphologies, structures and crystallinities, mechanical and biodegradation properties, as well as their cytotoxicity. The results showed that PLLA foams with pore sizes from 8 to 103 μm diameters were produced when the saturation pressure decreased from 7.0 to 4.0 MPa. Through a combination of StepScan DSC (SSDSC) and WAXRD approaches, it was observed in PLLA foams that the crystallinity, highly-oriented metastable state and rigid amorphous phase increased with the increasing foaming pressure. It was also found that both the glass transition temperature and apparent enthalpy of PLLA significantly increased after the foaming process, which suggested that the changes of microcellular structure could provide PLLA scaffolds better thermal stability and elasticity. Moreover, MTT assessments suggested that the smaller pore size should benefit cell attachment and growth in the scaffold. The results of current work will give us better understanding of the mechanisms involved in structure and property changes of PLLA at the molecular level, which enables more possibilities for the design of PLLA scaffold to satisfy various requirements in biomedical and green chemical applications. - Highlights: • Pressure-controllable green foaming technology is used. • The crystallinity and rigid amorphous fraction is calculated by using DSC and XRD. • We examine the changes of

  8. Mechanical and thermal property characterization of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) scaffold developed using pressure-controllable green foaming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shen-Jun [Center of Analysis and Testing, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Hu, Xiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028 (United States); Department of Biomedical and Translational Sciences, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028 (United States); Wang, Fang, E-mail: wangfang@njnu.edu.cn [Center of Analysis and Testing, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028 (United States); Ma, Qing-Yu [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics of Jiangsu Province, School of Physics and Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Gu, Min-Fen [Center of Analysis and Testing, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) is one of the most promising biological materials used for tissue engineering scaffolds (TES) because of their excellent biodegradability and tenability. Here, microcellular PLLA foams were fabricated by pressure-controllable green foaming technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction measurement (WAXRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, enzymatic degradation study and MTT assay were used to analyze the scaffolds' morphologies, structures and crystallinities, mechanical and biodegradation properties, as well as their cytotoxicity. The results showed that PLLA foams with pore sizes from 8 to 103 μm diameters were produced when the saturation pressure decreased from 7.0 to 4.0 MPa. Through a combination of StepScan DSC (SSDSC) and WAXRD approaches, it was observed in PLLA foams that the crystallinity, highly-oriented metastable state and rigid amorphous phase increased with the increasing foaming pressure. It was also found that both the glass transition temperature and apparent enthalpy of PLLA significantly increased after the foaming process, which suggested that the changes of microcellular structure could provide PLLA scaffolds better thermal stability and elasticity. Moreover, MTT assessments suggested that the smaller pore size should benefit cell attachment and growth in the scaffold. The results of current work will give us better understanding of the mechanisms involved in structure and property changes of PLLA at the molecular level, which enables more possibilities for the design of PLLA scaffold to satisfy various requirements in biomedical and green chemical applications. - Highlights: • Pressure-controllable green foaming technology is used. • The crystallinity and rigid amorphous fraction is calculated by using DSC and XRD. • We examine the changes of

  9. Understanding the Seasonal Greenness Trends and Controls in South Asia Using Satellite Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, S.; Jia, G.; Zhang, A.; Singha, M.

    2017-12-01

    South Asia (SA) is one of the most remarkable regions in changing vegetation greenness along with its major expansion of agricultural activity, especially irrigated farming. However, SA is predicted to be a vulnerable agricultural regions to future climate changes. The influence of monsoon climate on the seasonal trends and anomalies of vegetation greenness are not well understood in the region which can provide valuable information about climate-ecosystem interaction. This study analyzed the spatio-temporal patterns of seasonal vegetation trends and variability using satellite vegetation indices (VI) including AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (1982-2013) and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) (2000-2013) in summer monsoon (SM) (June-Sept) and winter monsoon (WM) (Dec-Apr) seasons among irrigated cropland (IC), rainfed cropland (RC) and natural vegetation (NV). Seasonal VI variations with climatic factors (precipitation and temperature) and LULC changes have been investigated to identify the forcings behind the vegetation trends and variability. We found that major greening occurred in the last three decades due to the increase in IC productivity noticeably in WM, however, recent (2000-2013) greening trends were lower than the previous decades (1982-1999) in both the IC and RC indicating the stresses on them. The browning trends, mainly concentrated in NV areas were prominent during WM and rigorous since 2000, confirmed from the moderate resolution EVI and LULC datasets. Winter time maximal temperature had been increasing tremendously whereas precipitation trend was not significant over SA. Both the climate variability and LULC changes had integrated effects on the vegetation changes in NV areas specifically in hilly regions. However, LULC impact was intensified since 2000, mostly in north east India. This study also revealed a distinct seasonal variation in spatial distribution of correlation between VI's and climate anomalies over SA

  10. Vegetation greenness trend (2000 to 2009) and the climate controls in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Ji, Lei; Lei, Liping; Wang, Cuizhen; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Bin; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been experiencing a distinct warming trend, and climate warming has a direct and quick impact on the alpine grassland ecosystem. We detected the greenness trend of the grasslands in the plateau using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data from 2000 to 2009. Weather station data were used to explore the climatic drivers for vegetation greenness variations. The results demonstrated that the region-wide averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) increased at a rate of 0.036  yr−1. Approximately 20% of the vegetation areas, which were primarily located in the northeastern plateau, exhibited significant NDVI increase trend (p-value plateau. A strong positive relationship between NDVI and precipitation, especially in the northeastern plateau, suggested that precipitation was a favorable factor for the grassland NDVI. Negative correlations between NDVI and temperature, especially in the southern plateau, indicated that higher temperature adversely affected the grassland growth. Although a warming climate was expected to be beneficial to the vegetation growth in cold regions, the grasslands in the central and southwestern plateau showed a decrease in trends influenced by increased temperature coupled with decreased precipitation.

  11. Genome-wide analysis and identification of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX gene family in foxtail millet (Setaria italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuange Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX; EC.1.5.99.12 regulates cytokinin (CK level in plants and plays an essential role in CK regulatory processes. CKX proteins are encoded by a small gene family with a varying number of members in different plants. In spite of their physiological importance, systematic analyses of SiCKX genes in foxtail millet have not yet been examined. In this paper, we report the genome wide isolation and characterization of SiCKXs using bioinformatic methods. A total of 11 members of the family were identified in the foxtail millet genome. SiCKX genes were distributed in seven chromosomes (chromosome 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 11. The coding sequences of all the SiCKX genes were disrupted by introns, with numbers varying from one to four. These genes expanded in the genome mainly due to segmental duplication events. Multiple alignment and motif display results showed that all SiCKX proteins share FAD- and CK-binding domains. Putative cis-elements involved in Ca2 +-response, abiotic stress response, light and circadian rhythm regulation, disease resistance and seed development were present in the promoters of SiCKX genes. Expression data mining suggested that SiCKX genes have diverse expression patterns. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that all 11 SiCKX genes were up-regulated in embryos under 6-BA treatment, and some were NaCl or PEG inducible. Collectively, these results provide molecular insights into CKX research in plants.

  12. Impact of a native Streptomyces flavovirens from mushroom compost on green mold control and yield of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantrić, Ljiljana; Potočnik, Ivana; Radivojević, Ljiljana; Umiljendić, Jelena Gajić; Rekanović, Emil; Duduk, Bojan; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2018-05-18

    Thirty-five actinobacterial isolates, obtained from button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrates (i.e., compost in different phases of composting, black peat or casing layer) in Serbia in 2014-2016 were tested in vitro against the causal agents of green mold in cultivated mushroom. Out of six most promising isolates, A06 induced 42.4% in vitro growth inhibition of Trichoderma harzianum T54, and 27.6% inhibition of T. aggressivum f. europaeum T77. The novel strain A06 was identified as Streptomyces flavovirens based on macroscopic and cultural characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence and used in mushroom growing room experiments. Actinobacteria had no negative influence on mycelial growth of the cultivated mushroom in compost in situ. Isolate S. flavovirens A06 enhanced mushroom yield significantly, up to 31.5%. The A06 isolate was more efficient in enhancing yield after inoculation with the compost mold T. aggressivum (26.1%), compared to casing mold T. harzianum (8%). Considering disease incidence, actinobacteria significantly prevented green mold in compost caused by T. aggressivum (6.8%). However, fungicide prochloraz-Mn had a more significant role in reducing symptoms of casing mold, T. harzianum, in comparison with actinobacteria (24.2 and 11.8%, respectively). No significant differences between efficacies of S. flavovirens A06 and the fungicide prochloraz-Mn against T. aggressivum were revealed. These results imply that S. flavovirens A06 can be used to increase mushroom yield and contribute to disease control against the aggressive compost green mold disease caused by Trichoderma aggressivum.

  13. Red, green, and blue lanthanum phosphate phosphors obtained via surfactant-controlled hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Filho, Paulo C. de; Serra, Osvaldo A.

    2009-01-01

    A new solution route for the obtainment of highly pure luminescent rare-earth orthophosphates in hydrothermal conditions was developed. By starting from soluble precursors (lanthanide tripolyphosphato complexes, i.e. with P 3 O 10 5- as a complexing agent and as an orthophosphate source) and by applying surfactants in a water/toluene medium, the precipitations are confined to reverse micelle structures, thus yielding nanosized and homogeneous orthophosphates. The method was employed to obtain lanthanide-activated lanthanum phosphates, which can be applied as red (LaPO 4 :Eu 3+ ), green (LaPO 4 :Ce 3+ ,Tb 3+ ) and blue (LaPO 4 :Tm 3+ ) phosphors. The produced materials were analyzed by powder X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and luminescence spectroscopy (emission, excitation, lifetimes and chromaticity coordinates).

  14. Optimization and evaluation of foxtail millet (Setaria italica bran oil by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A Box-Behnken central composite design combined with the response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the parameters of a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of foxtail millet bran oil (FMBO. Results showed that a maximum oil yield of 7.97% was achieved under the optimal conditions with an extracting pressure of 30.03MPa, extracting temperature of 47.93 °C; and an extraction time of 2.3 h. The quality of the oil obtained from SFE and solvent extraction (SE was evaluated by proximate analysis to include physicochemical properties, fatty acids and sterol compounds. The FBMO obtained from SFE showed a much lower phospholipid (0.188 mg/g content and a preferable color compared to the oil from SE, while it contained a higher content of total sterols, 1.55%. The thermal gravimetric analysis results showed one major regime of weight loss over a temperature range of 300–500 °C. The results show that FBMO obtained by SFE can be a promising nutritional source for food fortification and is understood to have more potentially healthy biological properties.Un diseño Box-Behnken combinado con la metodología de superficie de respuesta (RSM se usó para optimizar los parámetros de extracción mediante fluido supercrítico (SFE de aceite de salvado de mijo (FMBO. Los resultados mostraron que un rendimiento máximo de extracción de aceite del 7,97% se logró en las condiciones óptimas correspondientes a una presión de 30.03MPa, una temperatura 47.93 °C y un tiempo 2,3H. Además, se evaluó la calidad del aceite obtenido por SFE y mediante extracción con disolvente (SE a partir de un análisis proximal que incluye propiedades fisicoquímicas, ácidos grasos y esteroles. El aceite de FBMO obtenido mediante SFE mostró un contenido mucho menor de fosfolípidos (0.188 mg/g y un color mas aceptable que el aceite de la SE, mientras que contenía un mayor contenido de esteroles totales: 1,55%. El resultado del análisis térmico gravimétrico mostr

  15. Is there any association between renal failure and hepatotoxic photosensitization caused by feeding foxtail millet (Setaria italica in sheep and goats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitivity is an abnormal skin reaction to direct sunlight exposure. Photosen sitivity occurred because of failure to excrete phylloerythrin due to hepatic dysfunction. Foxtail millet feeding can induce hepatotoxic photosensitization and influence on different organs. This study attempts to evaluate renal function and serum electrolyte status in sheep and goats experimentally feeding foxtail millet. Twelve male goats and sheep were kept in the sunlight. The animals were fed foxtail millet diet freely in a eight-week experimental period. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, hematocrit and hemoglobin were measured until last day of experiment in a weekly manner. On the last day, the animals were euthanized and kidneys were removed for pathologic examination. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement analysis by SPSS software (version 20. Three sheep showed clinical signs of photosensitivity. BUN showed a decreasing trend from the second week of the experiment. Creatinine was increased in the six and second weeks. An increase in sodium concentration in goats from fourth week was significant. Sodium levels in sheep showed a fluctuational change. Potassium and phosphorus of sheep and phosphorus in the blood of goats were increased from the second week. Potassium in goats was constant during the time. Magnesium in the blood of sheep and goats was increased from the third and fourth weeks, respectively. The hematocrit and hemoglobin increased significantly over time. Moderate to severe hyperemia with abundant deposits of blue-violet material in the collecting ducts and mild degenerative changes in the convoluted tubules in sheep kidneys and congestion in the center of the goats’ kidney were seen. In conclusion, feeding the foxtail millet can cause renal dysfunction, and changes in the balance of some serum electrolytes.

  16. Use of Vegetable Waste Extracts for Controlling Microstructure of CuO Nanoparticles: Green Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical syntheses involve either hazardous reactants or byproducts which adversely affect the environment. It is, therefore, desirable to develop synthesis processes which either do not involve hazardous reactants or consume all the reactants giving no byproducts. We have synthesized CuO nanoparticles (NPs adhering to some of the principles of green chemistry. The CuO NPs have been synthesized exploiting extracts of vegetable wastes, that is, Cauliflower waste and Potatoes and Peas peels. The extracts were aimed to work as capping agents to get control over the microstructure and morphology of the resulting CuO NPs. The green synthesized CuO NPs were characterized to explore the microstructure, morphology, optical bandgaps, and photocatalytic performances. XRD revealed that the CuO NPs of all the samples crystallized in a single crystal system, that is, monoclinic. However, the morphologies and the optical bandgaps energies varied as a function of the extract of vegetable waste. Similarly, the CuO NPs obtained through different extracts have shown different photocatalytic activities. The CuO NPs produced with extract of Cauliflower have shown high degradation of MB (96.28% compared to obtained with Potatoes peels (87.37% and Peas peels (79.11%.

  17. Efficient predictive model-based and fuzzy control for green urban mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidnejad, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we develop efficient predictive model-based control approaches, including model-predictive control (MPC) andmodel-based fuzzy control, for application in urban traffic networks with the aim of reducing a combination of the total time spent by the vehicles within the network and the

  18. Green House Gas Control and Agricultural Biomass for Sustainable Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Takahashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Important green house gases (GHG attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, though carbon dioxide (CO2 contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellulose and animal wastes was proposed as a renewable energy and nitrogen sources. The ammonia stripping from digested slurry of animal manure in biogas plant applied three options of nitrogen recycling to mitigate nitrous oxide emission. In the first option of the ammonia stripping, the effect of ammonolysis on feed value of cellulose biomass was evaluated on digestibility, energy metabolism and protein utilization. Saccharification of the NH3 treated cellulose biomass was confirmed in strictly anaerobic incubation with rumen cellulolytic bacteria, Ruminoccous flavefaciens, to produce bio-ethanol as the second option of ammonia stripping. In an attempt of NH3 fuel cell, the reformed hydrogen from the NH3 stripped from 20 liter of digested slurry in thermophilic biogas plant could generate 0.12 W electricity with proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM as the third option.

  19. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  20. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  1. Foxtail millet NF-Y families: genome-wide survey and evolution analyses identified two functional genes important in abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Juan eFeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It was reported that Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y genes were involved in abiotic stress in plants. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica, an elite stress tolerant crop, provided an impetus for the investigation of the NF-Y families in abiotic responses. In the present study, a total of 39 NF-Y genes were identified in foxtail millet. Synteny analyses suggested that foxtail millet NF-Y genes had experienced rapid expansion and strong purifying selection during the process of plant evolution. De novo transcriptome assembly of foxtail millet revealed 11 drought up-regulated NF-Y genes. SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 were highly activated in leaves and/or roots by drought and salt stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA and H2O2 played positive roles in the induction of SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 under stress treatments. Transient luciferase (LUC expression assays revealed that SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate the LUC gene driven by the tobacco (Nicotiana tobacam NtERD10, NtLEA5, NtCAT, NtSOD or NtPOD promoter under normal or stress conditions. Overexpression of SiNF-YA1 enhanced drought and salt tolerance by activating stress-related genes NtERD10 and NtCAT1 and by maintaining relatively stable relative water content (RWC and contents of chlorophyll, superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde (MDA in transgenic lines under stresses. SiNF-YB8 regulated expression of NtSOD, NtPOD, NtLEA5 and NtERD10 and conferred relatively high RWC and chlorophyll contents and low MDA content, resulting in drought and osmotic tolerance in transgenic lines under stresses. Therefore, SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate stress-related genes and improve physiological traits, resulting in tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. All these results will facilitate functional characterization of foxtail millet NF-Ys in future studies.

  2. Effectiveness of Green Tea Mouthwash in Postoperative Pain Control Following Surgical Removal of Impacted Third Molars: Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Eshghpour

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Pain following surgical removal of impacted molars has remained an important concern among practitioners. Various protocols have been proposed to reduce postoperative pain. However, each one has special side effects and limitations. As green tea possesses anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of green tea mouthwash in controlling postoperative pain.Materials and methods:In a study with split-mouth and double blind design, 44 patients in need of bilateral removal of impacted third molars underwent randomized surgical extraction; following one surgery patients rinsed with a green tea mouthwash from the first to seventh postoperative day and after other extraction rinsed with placebo mouthwash in the same duration. Both patients and surgeon were blinded to the type of mouthwash. The predictor variable was type of mouthwash and primary outcome variable was postoperative pain measured by visual analogue scale (VAS during first week after surgery. In addition, number of analgesics patients used after surgery recorded. To measure the effect of green tea mouthwash, repeated measures test with confidence interval of 95% was performed.Results:Total of 43 patients with mean age of 24 years underwent total of 86 surgeries. VAS value had no statistically difference prior rinsing among groups (P-value > 0.05. However, the mean value of VAS following rinsing with green tea was statistically lower than placebo in postoperative days of 3–7 (P-value < 0.05. In addition, while rinsing with green tea, patients took significantly lower number of analgesics after surgery (P-value < 0.05. No side effects reported.Conclusion:Green tea mouthwash could be an appropriate and safe choice to control postoperative pain after third molar surgery.

  3. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  4. Cooperation control strategies for China's cross-region pollution in a lake basin based on green reduction cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changmin; Sun, Dong; Xie, Xiaoqiang; Xue, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The cross-region water pollution issue has always been the widespread concern around the world. It becomes especially critical for China due to the imbalance relates to environmental costs that have accompanied rapid growth of economy. Though the government makes great efforts to improve it, the potential for water pollution conflict is still great. We consider the problem of determining combined control strategies for China's cross-region lake pollution based on the environmental green costs. The problem is first formulated as a generalized bilevel mathematical program where the upper level consists in each region that reduces environmental green costs including three parts: the reduction cost, pollution permit trade cost and cost of environment damage, while the lower level is represented by pollution permit equilibrium market. Finally, we take an empirical analysis in Taihu lake. The numerical study shows that the minimum costs of both total and regional are obviously superior to the current processing costs, which provides theoretical basis for the price of emission permits. Today, China's rapid gross domestic product (GDP) growth has come at a very high cost, as real estate prices have skyrocketed, the wealth gap has widened, and environmental pollution has worsened. China's central government is urged to correct the GDP-oriented performance evaluation system that is used to judge administrative region leaders. The cross-region water pollution issue has become a troubling issue that urgently needs to be resolved in China. This paper will not only actively aid efforts to govern Lake Taihu and other cross-region valleys, but it will also provide a supplement for theoretical research on cross-region pollution issues.

  5. Genetic control and comparative genomic analysis of flowering time in Setaria (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Wang, Xuewen; Barbier, Hugues; Brutnell, Thomas P; Devos, Katrien M; Doust, Andrew N

    2013-02-01

    We report the first study on the genetic control of flowering in Setaria, a panicoid grass closely related to switchgrass, and in the same subfamily as maize and sorghum. A recombinant inbred line mapping population derived from a cross between domesticated Setaria italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative Setaria viridis (green millet), was grown in eight trials with varying environmental conditions to identify a small number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control differences in flowering time. Many of the QTL across trials colocalize, suggesting that the genetic control of flowering in Setaria is robust across a range of photoperiod and other environmental factors. A detailed comparison of QTL for flowering in Setaria, sorghum, and maize indicates that several of the major QTL regions identified in maize and sorghum are syntenic orthologs with Setaria QTL, although the maize large effect QTL on chromosome 10 is not. Several Setaria QTL intervals had multiple LOD peaks and were composed of multiple syntenic blocks, suggesting that observed QTL represent multiple tightly linked loci. Candidate genes from flowering time pathways identified in rice and Arabidopsis were identified in Setaria QTL intervals, including those involved in the CONSTANS photoperiod pathway. However, only three of the approximately seven genes cloned for flowering time in maize colocalized with Setaria QTL. This suggests that variation in flowering time in separate grass lineages is controlled by a combination of conserved and lineage specific genes.

  6. Protocol for MInimizing the Risk of Metachronous Adenomas of the CoLorectum with Green Tea Extract (MIRACLE: a randomised controlled trial of green tea extract versus placebo for nutriprevention of metachronous colon adenomas in the elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockmöller Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of colorectal cancer is a major health care issue. People who have undergone colonoscopy screening and had colorectal polyps removed have a higher risk of being diagnosed with polyps again compared to the normal population. Therefore, it would be ideal to find appropriate means that effectively help to prevent the reoccurrence of polyps after polypectomy. So far, pharmaceutical chemoprevention with NSAIDs including aspirin has been shown to be effective but not gained general acceptance due to side effects. Nutraceuticals such as polyphenols from tea plants have demonstrated remarkable therapeutic and preventive effects in molecular, epidemiological and clinical trials. However, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating the efficacy of nutraceuticals for the (secondary prevention of colorectal polyps as precursors for colorectal cancer are missing. Methods/Design We present the design of a randomized, placebo controlled, multicentre trial to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with green tea extract containing 300 mg epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the major polyphenol in green tea, on the recurrence of colon adenomas. Patients who have undergone polypectomy for colonic polyps will be randomized to receive either green tea extract containing 150 mg EGCG two times daily or a placebo over the course of three years. After a one month run-in period in which all patients will receive the active intervention, 2534 patients will be randomized, and 2028 patients are expected to complete the whole study course. Incidence, number and histology of adenoma at endpoint colonoscopy at three years will be compared in both groups. Discussion The beneficial safety profile of decaffeinated green tea extract, the quantifiable and known active content EGCG, and the accumulating evidence of its cancer preventive potential require, in our view, a validation of this compound for the nutriprevention of colorectal adenoma. Good

  7. Control strategy of an electrically actuated morphing flap for the next generation green regional aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Maurizio; Noviello, Maria Chiara; Rea, Francesco; Amoroso, Francesco; Pecora, Rosario

    2018-03-01

    The design and application of adaptive devices are currently ambitious targets in the field of aviation research addressed at new generation aircraft. The development of intelligent structures involves aspects of multidisciplinary nature: the combination of compact architectures, embedded electrical systems and smart materials, allows for developing a highly innovative device. The paper aims to present the control system design of an innovative morphing flap tailored for the next generation regional aircraft, within Clean Sky 2 - Airgreen 2 European Research Scenario. A distributed system of electromechanical actuators (EMAs) has been sized to enable up to three operating modes of a structure arranged in four blocks along the chord-wise direction: •overall camber-morphing; •upwards/downwards deflection and twisting of the final tip segment. A state-of-art feedback logic based on a decentralized control strategy for shape control is outlined, including the results of dynamic stability analysis based on the blocks rational schematization within Matlab/Simulink® environment. Such study has been performed implementing a state-space model, considering also design parameters as the torsional stiffness and damping of the actuation chain. The design process is flowing towards an increasingly "robotized" system, which can be externally controlled to perform certain operations. Future developments will be the control laws implementation as well as the functionality test on a real flap prototype.

  8. Rend Lake, Illinois (Operation and Maintenance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    Lippia lanc6Tahta Foxtail, Bristly Setaria Faberfi Foxtail, Green Setaria viridis Foxtail, Yellow Setaria lutescens Galingale C Verus strigosus Garlic...Stickseed, Virginian Hackelia virginiana Stink-Grass Lraqrostis cilialensis Strawberry Fragaria virginiana Sunflower, Common Helianthus annuus Swamp

  9. A combined flamer-cultivator for weed control during the harvesting season of asparagus green spears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelloni, L.; Fontanelli, M.; Frasconi, C.; Raffaelli, M.; Pirchio, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Weed competition during spears harvesting reduces asparagus yields. The application of herbicides during this period is illegal, and alternative non-chemical practices are needed. This research tested the effectiveness and efficiency of a custom-built combined flamer-cultivator to control weeds (both in the inter- and intra- spears production bands) during the spears harvest season. It also analysed the effects of various liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses on total asparagus yield, mean spear weight, and total number of marketable spears. In both years, the asparagus spears were generally not damaged by flame weeding using LPG doses of between 43 to 87 kg/ha. The same LPG doses were effective in controlling weeds, showing the same total marketable yields as the weed-free control. At high LPG doses (e.g. 130 and 260 kg/ha), yields decreased as a consequence of the damage caused to the spears, resulting in a lower number of marketable spears. Flaming did not affect the mean spear weight, and can be applied repeatedly during harvesting to maintain the weeds at a level that does not lead to a yield reduction. The repeated use of the combined flamer-cultivator (every seven days) led to higher yields than plots where weed control was not conducted. The new machine can be used in a period when herbicides are not possible. Flaming could be introduced by asparagus producers as an alternative, or in addition to herbicides applied in the pre-emergence and post-harvest of spears.

  10. A combined flamer-cultivator for weed control during the harvesting season of asparagus green spears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelloni, L.; Fontanelli, M.; Frasconi, C.; Raffaelli, M.; Pirchio, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Weed competition during spears harvesting reduces asparagus yields. The application of herbicides during this period is illegal, and alternative non-chemical practices are needed. This research tested the effectiveness and efficiency of a custom-built combined flamer-cultivator to control weeds (both in the inter- and intra- spears production bands) during the spears harvest season. It also analysed the effects of various liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses on total asparagus yield, mean spear weight, and total number of marketable spears. In both years, the asparagus spears were generally not damaged by flame weeding using LPG doses of between 43 to 87 kg/ha. The same LPG doses were effective in controlling weeds, showing the same total marketable yields as the weed-free control. At high LPG doses (e.g. 130 and 260 kg/ha), yields decreased as a consequence of the damage caused to the spears, resulting in a lower number of marketable spears. Flaming did not affect the mean spear weight, and can be applied repeatedly during harvesting to maintain the weeds at a level that does not lead to a yield reduction. The repeated use of the combined flamer-cultivator (every seven days) led to higher yields than plots where weed control was not conducted. The new machine can be used in a period when herbicides are not possible. Flaming could be introduced by asparagus producers as an alternative, or in addition to herbicides applied in the pre-emergence and post-harvest of spears.

  11. A green paper on the regulation and control of sources of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication reviews the evidences that sources of ionizing radiation are potentially hazardous to the public and the environment unless appropriate measures are taken to regulate and control their possession, use and the ultimate disposal. The current regulations, subject to some amendments are described and the impacts likely to result from the amendments are discussed. 9 tabs

  12. Transaction Costs (TCs) in Building Regulations and Control for Green Buildings : Case Study of Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Ke; Qian, K.; Chan, EHW; Kähkönen, Kalle; Keinänen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    About 40% of global energy consumption and nearly one-third of global CO2 emissions are on account of buildings. In Hong Kong, buildings consume up to 90% of electricity during construction and operation, where all the design and construction of private developments is subject to control under the

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF GENOMIC AND GENETIC TOOLS FOR FOXTAIL MILLET, AND USE OF THESE TOOLS IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION FOR BIOENERGY CROPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xinlu; Zale, Janice; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-22

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is a warm-season, C4 annual crop commonly grown for grain and forage worldwide. It has a relatively short generation time, yet produces hundreds of seeds per inflorescence. The crop is inbred and it has a small-size genome (~500 Mb). These features make foxtail millet an attractive grass model, especially for bioenergy crops. While a number of genomic tools have been established for foxtail millet, including a fully sequenced genome and molecular markers, the objectives of this project were to develop a tissue culture system, determine the best explant(s) for tissue culture, optimize transient gene expression, and establish a stable transformation system for foxtail millet cultivar Yugu1. In optimizing a tissue culture medium for the induction of calli and somatic embryos from immature inflorescences and mature seed explants, Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2.5 mg l-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.6 mg l-1 6- benzylaminopurine was determined to be optimal for callus induction of foxtail millet. The efficiency of callus induction from explants of immature inflorescences was significantly higher at 76% compared to that of callus induction from mature seed explants at 68%. The calli induced from this medium were regenerated into plants at high frequency (~100%) using 0.2 mg l-1 kinetin in the regeneration media. For performing transient gene expression, immature embryos were first isolated from inflorescences. Transient expression of the GUS reporter gene in immature embryos was significantly increased after sonication, a vacuum treatment, centrifugation and the addition of L-cysteine and dithiothreitol, which led to the efficiency of transient expression at levels greater than 70% after Agrobacterium inoculation. Inoculation with Agrobacterium was also tested with germinated seeds. The radicals of germinated seeds were pierced with needles and dipped into Agrobacterium solution. This method achieved a 10% transient

  14. A combined flamer-cultivator for weed control during the harvesting season of asparagus green spears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Martelloni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Weed competition during spears harvesting reduces asparagus yields. The application of herbicides during this period is illegal, and alternative non-chemical practices are needed. This research tested the effectiveness and efficiency of a custom-built combined flamer-cultivator to control weeds (both in the inter- and intra- spears production bands during the spears harvest season. It also analysed the effects of various liquefied petroleum gas (LPG doses on total asparagus yield, mean spear weight, and total number of marketable spears. In both years, the asparagus spears were generally not damaged by flame weeding using LPG doses of between 43 to 87 kg/ha. The same LPG doses were effective in controlling weeds, showing the same total marketable yields as the weed-free control. At high LPG doses (e.g. 130 and 260 kg/ha, yields decreased as a consequence of the damage caused to the spears, resulting in a lower number of marketable spears. Flaming did not affect the mean spear weight, and can be applied repeatedly during harvesting to maintain the weeds at a level that does not lead to a yield reduction. The repeated use of the combined flamer-cultivator (every seven days led to higher yields than plots where weed control was not conducted. The new machine can be used in a period when herbicides are not possible. Flaming could be introduced by asparagus producers as an alternative, or in addition to herbicides applied in the pre-emergence and post-harvest of spears.

  15. Tolerance to high soil temperature in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is related to shoot and root growth and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Moses Kwame; Bdolach, Eyal; Fait, Aaron; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2016-09-01

    Roots play important roles in regulating whole-plant carbon and water relations in response to extreme soil temperature. Three foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) lines (448-Ames 21521, 463-P1391643 and 523-P1219619) were subjected to two different soil temperatures (28 and 38 °C). The gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, root morphology and central metabolism of leaves and roots were studied at the grain-filling stage. High soil temperature (38 °C) significantly influenced the shoot transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, root growth and metabolism of all lines. The root length and area were significantly reduced in lines 448 and 463 in response to the stress, while only a small non-specific reduction was observed in line 523 in response to the treatment. The shift of root metabolites in response to high soil temperature was also genotype specific. In response to high soil temperature, glutamate, proline and pyroglutamate were reduced in line 448, and alanine, aspartate, glycine, pyroglutamate, serine, threonine and valine were accumulated in line 463. In the roots of line 523, serine, threonine, valine, isomaltose, maltose, raffinose, malate and itaconate were accumulated. Root tolerance to high soil temperature was evident in line 523, in its roots growth potential, lower photosynthesis and stomatal conductance rates, and effective utilization and assimilation of membrane carbon and nitrogen, coupled with the accumulation of protective metabolites. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Soft computing modelling of moisture sorption isotherms of milk-foxtail millet powder and determination of thermodynamic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simha, H V Vikram; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Franklin, Magdaline Eljeeva Emerald; Kumar, P Arun; Manimala, K

    2016-06-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms of spray-dried milk-foxtail millet powder were determined at 10, 25 and 40 °C. Sorption data was fitted using classical and soft-computing approaches. The isotherms were of type II, and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) was temperature dependent. The BET monolayer moisture content decreased from 3.30 to 2.67 % as temperature increased from 10 to 40 °C. Amongst the classical models, Ferro-Fontan gave the best fit of EMC-aw data. However, the Sugeno-type adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with generalized bell-shaped membership function performed better than artificial neural network and classical models with RMSE as low as 0.0099. The isosteric heat of sorption decreased from 150.32 kJ mol(-1) at 1 % moisture content to 44.11 kJ mol(-1) at 15 % moisture. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was validated, and the isokinetic and harmonic mean temperatures were determined as 333.1 and 297.5 K, respectively.

  17. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  18. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available , beetles and spiders); and the number of birds that nest in vegetated roofs (including kestrels, swallows, and wagtails). Objective The primary objective of a green roof is to create a living habitat in an otherwise barren environment, hence the use... the negative environmental impacts including plant and insect specie loss. Thus at a philosophical level green roofs support the notion “replace what you displace”. Key ecological issues that can be addressed through green roofs include: Negative effects...

  19. Camino Verde (The Green Way: evidence-based community mobilisation for dengue control in Nicaragua and Mexico: feasibility study and study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Andersson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus can breed in clean water, WHO-endorsed vector control strategies place sachets of organophosphate pesticide, temephos (Abate, in household water storage containers. These and other pesticide-dependent approaches have failed to curb the spread of dengue and multiple dengue virus serotypes continue to spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. A feasibility study in Managua, Nicaragua, generated instruments, intervention protocols, training schedules and impact assessment tools for a cluster randomised controlled trial of community-based approaches to vector control comprising an alternative strategy for dengue prevention and control in Nicaragua and Mexico. Methods/Design The Camino Verde (Green Way is a pragmatic parallel group trial of pesticide-free dengue vector control, adding effectiveness to the standard government dengue control. A random sample from the most recent census in three coastal regions of Guerrero state in Mexico will generate 90 study clusters and the equivalent sampling frame in Managua, Nicaragua will generate 60 clusters, making a total of 150 clusters each of 137–140 households. After a baseline study, computer-driven randomisation will allocate to intervention one half of the sites, stratified by country, evidence of recent dengue virus infection in children aged 3–9 years and, in Nicaragua, level of community organisation. Following a common evidence-based education protocol, each cluster will develop and implement its own collective interventions including house-to-house visits, school-based programmes and inter-community visits. After 18 months, a follow-up study will compare dengue history, serological evidence of recent dengue virus infection (via measurement of anti-dengue virus antibodies in saliva samples and entomological indices between intervention and control sites. Discussion Our hypothesis is that

  20. Camino Verde (The Green Way): evidence-based community mobilisation for dengue control in Nicaragua and Mexico: feasibility study and study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Arostegui, Jorge; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Harris, Eva; Ledogar, Robert J

    2017-05-30

    Since the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus can breed in clean water, WHO-endorsed vector control strategies place sachets of organophosphate pesticide, temephos (Abate), in household water storage containers. These and other pesticide-dependent approaches have failed to curb the spread of dengue and multiple dengue virus serotypes continue to spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. A feasibility study in Managua, Nicaragua, generated instruments, intervention protocols, training schedules and impact assessment tools for a cluster randomised controlled trial of community-based approaches to vector control comprising an alternative strategy for dengue prevention and control in Nicaragua and Mexico. The Camino Verde (Green Way) is a pragmatic parallel group trial of pesticide-free dengue vector control, adding effectiveness to the standard government dengue control. A random sample from the most recent census in three coastal regions of Guerrero state in Mexico will generate 90 study clusters and the equivalent sampling frame in Managua, Nicaragua will generate 60 clusters, making a total of 150 clusters each of 137-140 households. After a baseline study, computer-driven randomisation will allocate to intervention one half of the sites, stratified by country, evidence of recent dengue virus infection in children aged 3-9 years and, in Nicaragua, level of community organisation. Following a common evidence-based education protocol, each cluster will develop and implement its own collective interventions including house-to-house visits, school-based programmes and inter-community visits. After 18 months, a follow-up study will compare dengue history, serological evidence of recent dengue virus infection (via measurement of anti-dengue virus antibodies in saliva samples) and entomological indices between intervention and control sites. Our hypothesis is that informed community mobilisation adds effectiveness in controlling

  1. Coping with the green revolution: Pollution control in the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, S.

    1990-12-31

    There is little novelty in Canadian pulp and paper companies facing public pressure to reduce the environmental effects of their production processes. What is new is the intensity of that pressure, and the extent and rate at which it is being reflected in government legislation. Indeed, the rapid shift in public opinion caught most companies napping, forcing public relations departments across Canada to concentrate on little more than reactive damage control. While several companies have developed environmental education programs for both the public and their employees, this can only be at best a detail in the overall solution.

  2. Sub-1GHz wireless sensing and control instruments for green house farming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardana, I. N. K.; Ciptayani, P. I.; Suranata, I. W. A.

    2018-01-01

    Radio frequency enabled devices was developed to make the data gathering and instruments control process become wirelessly possible for greenhouse. This research used 915 MHz radio frequency band, which is also known as ISM (industrial, scientific, and medical) band. To accomplish the experiments, three main devices was developed. They are node sensors (NoSe), node actuators (NoAc), and gateway. According to communication range test, the devices can transmit flawlessly up to 43 meters in harsh environment (Non-Line of Sight or Non-LoS). The result was increased dramatically in an open field (Line of Sight or LoS ) with maximum range that can be achieved is up to 280 meters. The RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) for LoS and Non-LoS measurements were recorded. The number of transmitted data was approximately 500 samples and transferred approximately every 200 ms. In Non-Los scenario, RSSI ranged from -74 dB to -96 dB with average -82 dB. The better performance was shown in LoS measurement that is RSSI varied from -67 dB to -89 dB with average -76 dB. Based on that results, this technology have a great prospect as an option to greenhouse wireless sensing and controlling technology.

  3. TAS::89 0927::TAS RECOVERY - The Lean Green Energy Controller Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeter, John; Wang, Gene; Moss, David

    2012-12-30

    Achieving efficiency improvements and providing demand-response programs have been identified as key elements of our national energy initiative. The residential market is the largest, yet most difficult, segment to engage in efforts to meet these objectives. This project developed Energy Management System that engages the consumer and enables Smart Grid services, applications, and business processes to address this need. Our innovative solution provides smart controller providing dynamic optimization of energy consumption for the residential energy consumer. Our solution extends the technical platform to include a cloud based Internet of Things (IoT) aggregation of data sensors and actuators the go beyond energy management and extend to life style services provided through compelling mobile and console based user experiences.

  4. Green thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank Woolsey, III

    Many people around the world have observed green light apparently emanating from severe thunderstorms, but until recently there has been no scientific study of the phenomenon. Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm suggest that they are some kind of illusion. The existence of green thunderstorms has been objectively demonstrated by recording spectra of light from thunderstorms using a handheld spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 and the spring of 1996 numerous storms were observed and spectra of the light emanating from these storms were recorded. Observations were made both at the ground and aboard research aircraft. Furthermore, time series of spectra were recorded as the observed color of some storms changed from dark blue to a bluish-green. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the occurrence of green light in connection with severe storms. Fankhauser gave some observational support to the belief that green light from thunderstorms is possible and believed that the source of the light is from the blue sky penetrating thin regions in the clouds. Fraser believes that light from the setting sun, in combination with the process of scattering by atmospheric molecules, creates the green light associated with severe weather and the thunderstorm acts only as a black backdrop. Unfortunately, no cloud illuminated by the sun is black and the green airlight produced by the Fraser theory is in reality overwhelmed by light reflected by the cloud. Often the unusual coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflection of light from foliage on the ground. The quantitative measurements made during the observation period fail to support these assumptions. We have observed thunderstorms to be green over ground that was not green and we have observed blue thunderstorms over ground that was green

  5. Combined Effects of Radiation and Nitrogen Limitations on Competition of Two C4 Plants Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L. and Pigweed (Amaranthus albus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sara parande

    2018-02-01

    plant and biomass were measured. Data analyses were performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA by SAS 9.1 software. Means of treatments were compared between nitrogen, shade treatments and pigweed densities according to protected least significance differences (LSD test at the 5% level. Results and Discussion: Nitrogen had a significant effect on all millet traits except for peduncle length and biomass and also on pigweed height. Nitrogen led to significant increase in plant height, lodging percentage, number of leaf, spike length and grain yield of millet and also pigweed height. Shading had a significant (P < 0.01 influence on millet lodging, spike length, stem diameter and grain yield but no significant effects were observed on number of leaf per plant, plant height, peduncle length and biomass. Shading at level of 75% increased millet lodging and its biomass and grain yield. With shading stress at its highest level, grain yield was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced by 61% from 3.70 to 1.44 ton per ha. Shading significantly (P < 0.01 increased pigweed height and reduced its number of seeds (P < 0.05, number of stem and biomass (P < 0.01. The effect of pigweed density on grain yield (P < 0.05 and plant height and stem diameter was significant (P < 0.01. The effect of pigweed density was also significant (P < 0.01 on pigweed height, its number of stem, number of seed and biomass. Pigweed density of 24 plants per square meter led to 21% reduction in millet grain yield relative to control. However, the interaction between nitrogen and pigweed density on millet traits was limited, and only significantly (P < 0.05 affected stem diameter and grain yield. The interaction between nitrogen, shading and pigweed density also significantly (P < 0.05 affected millet biomass. Conclusions: This research provides information on how pigweed and foxtail millet respond to reduced radiation and low nitrogen environments. Under low-radiation environments, pigweed produced less

  6. The progressive onset of cholinergic and adrenergic control of heart rate during development in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Marina R; Leite, Cleo A C; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A; Taylor, Edwin W

    2015-10-01

    The autonomic control of heart rate was studied throughout development in embryos of the green iguana, Iguana iguana by applying receptor agonists and antagonists of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems. Acetylcholine (Ach) slowed or stopped the heart and atropine antagonized the response to Ach indicating the presence of muscarinic cholinoceptors on the heart of early embryos. However, atropine injections had no impact on heart rate until immediately before hatching, when it increased heart rate by 15%. This cholinergic tonus increased to 34% in hatchlings and dropped to 24% in adult iguanas. Although epinephrine was without effect, injection of propranolol slowed the heart throughout development, indicating the presence of β-adrenergic receptors on the heart of early embryos, possibly stimulated by high levels of circulating catecholamines. The calculated excitatory tonus varied between 33% and 68% until immediately before hatching when it fell to 25% and 29%, a level retained in hatchlings and adults. Hypoxia caused a bradycardia in early embryos that was unaffected by injection of atropine indicating that hypoxia has a direct effect upon the heart. In later embryos and hatchlings hypoxia caused a tachycardia that was unaffected by injection of atropine. Subsequent injection of propranolol reduced heart rate both uncovering a hypoxic bradycardia in late embryos and abolishing tachycardia in hatchlings. Hypercapnia was without effect on heart rate in late stage embryos and in hatchlings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. On the Green's function of the partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction for radiation chemistry codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Several computer codes simulating chemical reactions in particles systems are based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). Indeed, many types of chemical systems have been simulated using the exact GFDE, which has also become the gold standard for validating other theoretical models. In this work, a simulation algorithm is presented to sample the interparticle distance for partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction. This algorithm is considered exact for 2-particles systems, is faster than conventional look-up tables and uses only a few kilobytes of memory. The simulation results obtained with this method are compared with those obtained with the independent reaction times (IRT) method. This work is part of our effort in developing models to understand the role of chemical reactions in the radiation effects on cells and tissues and may eventually be included in event-based models of space radiation risks. However, as many reactions are of this type in biological systems, this algorithm might play a pivotal role in future simulation programs not only in radiation chemistry, but also in the simulation of biochemical networks in time and space as well

  8. On the Green's function of the partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction for radiation chemistry codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plante, Ianik, E-mail: ianik.plante-1@nasa.gov [Wyle Science, Technology & Engineering, 1290 Hercules, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Devroye, Luc, E-mail: lucdevroye@gmail.com [School of Computer Science, McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E9 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Several computer codes simulating chemical reactions in particles systems are based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). Indeed, many types of chemical systems have been simulated using the exact GFDE, which has also become the gold standard for validating other theoretical models. In this work, a simulation algorithm is presented to sample the interparticle distance for partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction. This algorithm is considered exact for 2-particles systems, is faster than conventional look-up tables and uses only a few kilobytes of memory. The simulation results obtained with this method are compared with those obtained with the independent reaction times (IRT) method. This work is part of our effort in developing models to understand the role of chemical reactions in the radiation effects on cells and tissues and may eventually be included in event-based models of space radiation risks. However, as many reactions are of this type in biological systems, this algorithm might play a pivotal role in future simulation programs not only in radiation chemistry, but also in the simulation of biochemical networks in time and space as well.

  9. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Examining the Effects of Green Tea Extract on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamekhi, Z; Amani, R; Habibagahi, Z; Namjoyan, F; Ghadiri, Ata; Saki Malehi, A

    2017-07-01

    Antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory benefit of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in autoimmune disease has been proven in recent studies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of green tea on disease activity and quality of life in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. A randomized controlled trial on subjects with lupus was conducted, and 68 patients in the age range of 39.1 ± 10.3 years and body mass index of 25.7 ± 5.21 kg/m 2 completed the 12-week study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (1000 mg green tea extract, two capsules/day) and control (1000 mg of starch, two capsules/day). Main outcome measure, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity, was assessed by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index at the first and after 3 months of intervention. In addition, patient's quality of life was evaluated by short form of quality-of-life questionnaire at baseline and after 3 months. Green tea extract supplementation significantly reduced disease activity in lupus patients (p tea extracts for 12 weeks improves the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity as well as some aspects of quality of life. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The development of low glycemic index cookie bars from foxtail millet (Setaria italica), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) flour, and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Lily Arsanti; Huriyati, Emy; Marsono, Yustinus

    2017-05-01

    Wholegrain foods are becoming increasingly popular as a high fiber dietary supplement recommended for people with diabetes. In Indonesia, the incidence of diabetes mellitus has almost doubled recently and poses a significant health risk with the high prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular diseases. The present research aimed to develop cookie bars from foxtail millet, arrowroot flour, and kidney beans. The physical, chemical, and sensory properties were evaluated by selecting the best formula to test the glycemic index. Three formulae of cookie bars, which had different percentages of foxtail millet, kidney beans, and arrowroot flour were evaluated. The results showed that the three formulae (F1, F2, F3) had °Hue values of 53.77, 58.46, and 58.31, and breaking force of 8.37, 10.12, and 5.87 N, respectively. While all other nutritional content were significantly different between formulae, the total crude fat was not. The F2 cookie bar was selected and evaluated for the glycemic index because it has the best sensory properties, lowest total sugar and available carbohydrate content. F2 cookie bars that contain 15% foxtail millet, 15% arrowroot flour, and 30% of kidney beans have a glycemic index of 37.6 hence it could be classified as a low glycemic index cookie bar. In conclusion, our findings indicated that F2 cookie bars can be further developed as a suitable diabetic food since it has the best physico-chemical properties, sensory properties, and low glycemic index.

  11. Comprehensive genome-wide survey, genomic constitution and expression profiling of the NAC transcription factor family in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Puranik

    Full Text Available The NAC proteins represent a major plant-specific transcription factor family that has established enormously diverse roles in various plant processes. Aided by the availability of complete genomes, several members of this family have been identified in Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and poplar. However, no comprehensive investigation has been presented for the recently sequenced, naturally stress tolerant crop, Setaria italica (foxtail millet that is famed as a model crop for bioenergy research. In this study, we identified 147 putative NAC domain-encoding genes from foxtail millet by systematic sequence analysis and physically mapped them onto nine chromosomes. Genomic organization suggested that inter-chromosomal duplications may have been responsible for expansion of this gene family in foxtail millet. Phylogenetically, they were arranged into 11 distinct sub-families (I-XI, with duplicated genes fitting into one cluster and possessing conserved motif compositions. Comparative mapping with other grass species revealed some orthologous relationships and chromosomal rearrangements including duplication, inversion and deletion of genes. The evolutionary significance as duplication and divergence of NAC genes based on their amino acid substitution rates was understood. Expression profiling against various stresses and phytohormones provides novel insights into specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiNAC genes, which may be responsible for functional divergence among individual members in this crop. Further, we performed structure modeling and molecular simulation of a stress-responsive protein, SiNAC128, proffering an initial framework for understanding its molecular function. Taken together, this genome-wide identification and expression profiling unlocks new avenues for systematic functional analysis of novel NAC gene family candidates which may be applied for improvising stress adaption in plants.

  12. Development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers using genome-wide microsatellite variant analysis in Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Tang, Chanjuan; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Jing; Yang, Lifang; Qie, Lufeng; Fan, Xingke; Li, Lin; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Meicheng; Liu, Xiaotong; Chai, Yang; Zhang, Xue; Wang, Hailong; Li, Yingtao; Li, Wen; Zhi, Hui; Jia, Guanqing; Diao, Xianmin

    2014-01-28

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.) is an important gramineous grain-food and forage crop. It is grown worldwide for human and livestock consumption. Its small genome and diploid nature have led to foxtail millet fast becoming a novel model for investigating plant architecture, drought tolerance and C4 photosynthesis of grain and bioenergy crops. Therefore, cost-effective, reliable and highly polymorphic molecular markers covering the entire genome are required for diversity, mapping and functional genomics studies in this model species. A total of 5,020 highly repetitive microsatellite motifs were isolated from the released genome of the genotype 'Yugu1' by sequence scanning. Based on sequence comparison between S. italica and S. viridis, a set of 788 SSR primer pairs were designed. Of these primers, 733 produced reproducible amplicons and were polymorphic among 28 Setaria genotypes selected from diverse geographical locations. The number of alleles detected by these SSR markers ranged from 2 to 16, with an average polymorphism information content of 0.67. The result obtained by neighbor-joining cluster analysis of 28 Setaria genotypes, based on Nei's genetic distance of the SSR data, showed that these SSR markers are highly polymorphic and effective. A large set of highly polymorphic SSR markers were successfully and efficiently developed based on genomic sequence comparison between different genotypes of the genus Setaria. The large number of new SSR markers and their placement on the physical map represent a valuable resource for studying diversity, constructing genetic maps, functional gene mapping, QTL exploration and molecular breeding in foxtail millet and its closely related species.

  13. Comprehensive genome-wide survey, genomic constitution and expression profiling of the NAC transcription factor family in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Swati; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Mandal, Sambhu Nath; B, Venkata Suresh; Parida, Swarup Kumar; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The NAC proteins represent a major plant-specific transcription factor family that has established enormously diverse roles in various plant processes. Aided by the availability of complete genomes, several members of this family have been identified in Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and poplar. However, no comprehensive investigation has been presented for the recently sequenced, naturally stress tolerant crop, Setaria italica (foxtail millet) that is famed as a model crop for bioenergy research. In this study, we identified 147 putative NAC domain-encoding genes from foxtail millet by systematic sequence analysis and physically mapped them onto nine chromosomes. Genomic organization suggested that inter-chromosomal duplications may have been responsible for expansion of this gene family in foxtail millet. Phylogenetically, they were arranged into 11 distinct sub-families (I-XI), with duplicated genes fitting into one cluster and possessing conserved motif compositions. Comparative mapping with other grass species revealed some orthologous relationships and chromosomal rearrangements including duplication, inversion and deletion of genes. The evolutionary significance as duplication and divergence of NAC genes based on their amino acid substitution rates was understood. Expression profiling against various stresses and phytohormones provides novel insights into specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiNAC genes, which may be responsible for functional divergence among individual members in this crop. Further, we performed structure modeling and molecular simulation of a stress-responsive protein, SiNAC128, proffering an initial framework for understanding its molecular function. Taken together, this genome-wide identification and expression profiling unlocks new avenues for systematic functional analysis of novel NAC gene family candidates which may be applied for improvising stress adaption in plants.

  14. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...

  15. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  16. Association of an SNP in a novel DREB2-like gene SiDREB2 with stress tolerance in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Charu; Bhutty, Sarita; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad; Majee, Manoj; Prasad, Manoj

    2011-06-01

    The DREB genes code for important plant transcription factors involved in the abiotic stress response and signal transduction. Characterization of DREB genes and development of functional markers for effective alleles is important for marker-assisted selection in foxtail millet. Here the characterization of a cDNA (SiDREB2) encoding a putative dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 2 from foxtail millet and the development of an allele-specific marker (ASM) for dehydration tolerance is reported. A cDNA clone (GenBank accession no. GT090998) coding for a putative DREB2 protein was isolated as a differentially expressed gene from a 6 h dehydration stress SSH library. A 5' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) was carried out to obtain the full-length cDNA, and sequence analysis showed that SiDREB2 encoded a polypeptide of 234 amino acids with a predicted mol. wt of 25.72 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.14. A theoretical model of the tertiary structure shows that it has a highly conserved GCC-box-binding N-terminal domain, and an acidic C-terminus that acts as an activation domain for transcription. Based on its similarity to AP2 domains, SiDREB2 was classified into the A-2 subgroup of the DREB subfamily. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed significant up-regulation of SiDREB2 by dehydration (polyethylene glycol) and salinity (NaCl), while its expression was less affected by other stresses. A synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with dehydration tolerance was detected at the 558th base pair (an A/G transition) in the SiDREB2 gene in a core set of 45 foxtail millet accessions used. Based on the identified SNP, three primers were designed to develop an ASM for dehydration tolerance. The ASM produced a 261 bp fragment in all the tolerant accessions and produced no amplification in the sensitive accessions. The use of this ASM might be faster, cheaper, and more reproducible than other SNP genotyping methods, and thus will enable

  17. [MYB-like transcription factor SiMYB42 from foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) enhances Arabidopsis tolerance to low-nitrogen stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qing Qian; Wang, Xiao Ting; Hu, Li Qin; Qi, Xin; Ge, Lin Hao; Xu, Wei Ya; Xu, Zhao Shi; Zhou, Yong Bin; Jia, Guan Qing; Diao, Xian Min; Min, Dong Hong; Ma, You Zhi; Chen, Ming

    2018-04-20

    Myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcription factors in higher plants. They play an important role in plant development, defense response processes, and non-biological stresses, i.e., drought stress. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), originated in China, is resistant to drought and low nutrition stresses and has been regarded as an ideal material for studying abiotic stress resistance in monocotyledon. In this study, we ran a transcription profile analysis of zheng 204 under low-nitrogen conditions and identified a MYB-like transcription factor SiMYB42, which was up-regulated under low-nitrogen stress. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that SiMYB42 belongs to R2R3-MYB subfamily and has two MYB conserved domains. Expression pattern analysis showed that SiMYB42 was significantly up-regulated under various stress conditions, including low-nitrogen stress, high salt, drought and ABA conditions. The results of subcellular localization, quantitative real-time PCR and transcriptional activation analysis indicated that SiMYB42 protein localizes to the nucleus and cell membrane of plant cells, mainly expressed in the leaf or root of foxtail millet, and has transcription activation activity. Functional analysis showed that there was no significant difference between transgenic SiMYB42 Arabidopsis and wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis under normal conditions; however, under low-nitrogen condition, the root length, surface area and seedling fresh weight in transgenic SiMYB42 Arabidopsis, were significantly higher than their counterparts in WT. These results suggest that SiMYB42 transgenic plants exhibit higher tolerance to low-nitrogen stress. Expression levels of nitrate transporters genes NRT2.1, NRT2.4 and NRT2.5, which are the transcriptional targets of SiMYB42, were higher in transgenic SiMYB42 Arabidopsis plants than those in WT; the promoter regions of NRT2.1, NRT2.4 and NRT2.5 all have MYB binding sites. These results indicate

  18. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...

  19. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  20. Control System and Data Logger for 800 Ci Machine RSL6050 137Cs Pencil Source at Gamma Green House

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub Muhamad

    2015-01-01

    Gamma irradiation plant Green House installed and commissioned in 2005. The plant uses gamma radiation from a power source 137 Cesium 800 Ci. This radiation is aimed at the study of plants to find the mutation. The system developed for ease of operator Gamma Green House and also help researchers get a more accurate total dose exposure. The system developed by the coach of the University by using software lib-view, 2014. (author)

  1. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington--Part II: controlled exposure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp have a negative impact on the growth and survival of oysters reared on intertidal mudflats in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington (USA). To maintain viable harvests, oyster growers proposed the application of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds for the control of burrowing shrimp. In test applications, water column concentrations of imidacloprid were relatively low and dissipated rapidly. The foraging activities of the green sturgeon (listed in the US Endangered Species Act) could result in exposure to higher, more sustained imidacloprid concentrations within sediment porewater and from the consumption of contaminated shrimp. Controlled experiments were conducted using surrogate white sturgeon to determine acute and chronic effect concentrations, to examine overt effects at more environmentally realistic concentrations and durations of exposure, and to assess chemical depuration. The 96-h median lethal concentration was 124 mg L(-1) , and the predicted 35-d no-observed-adverse-effect concentration was 0.7 mg L(-1) . No overt effects were observed following environmentally relevant exposures. Imidacloprid half-life in plasma was greater than 32 h. Measured concentrations of imidacloprid in porewater were significantly lower than the derived acute and chronic effect concentrations for white sturgeon. Exposure risk quotients were calculated using the effect concentrations and estimated environmental exposure. The resulting values were considerably below the level of concern for direct effects from either acute or chronic exposure to an endangered species. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Polyamine metabolism influences antioxidant defense mechanism in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) cultivars with different salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Chinta; Veeranagamallaiah, Gounipalli; Nareshkumar, Ambekar; Sudhakarbabu, Owku; Sivakumar, M; Pandurangaiah, Merum; Kiranmai, K; Lokesh, U

    2015-01-01

    Polyamines can regulate the expression of antioxidant enzymes and impart plants tolerance to abiotic stresses. A comparative analysis of polyamines, their biosynthetic enzymes at kinetic and at transcriptional level, and their role in regulating the induction of antioxidant defense enzymes under salt stress condition in two foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) cultivars, namely Prasad, a salt-tolerant, and Lepakshi, a salt-sensitive cultivar was conducted. Salt stress resulted in elevation of free polyamines due to increase in the activity of spermidine synthase and S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase enzymes in cultivar Prasad compared to cultivar Lepakshi under different levels of NaCl stress. These enzyme activities were further confirmed at the transcript level via qRT-PCR analysis. The cultivar Prasad showed a greater decrease in diamine oxidase and polyamine oxidase activity, which results in the accumulation of polyamine pools over cultivar Lepakshi. Generation of free radicals, such as O 2 (·-) and H2O2, was also analyzed quantitatively. A significant increase in O 2 (·-) and H2O2 in the cultivar Lepakshi compared with cultivar Prasad was recorded in overall pool sizes. Further, histochemical staining showed lesser accumulation of O 2 (·-) and of H2O2 in the leaves of cultivar Prasad than cultivar Lepakshi. Our results also suggest the ability of polyamine oxidation in regulating the induction of antioxidative defense enzymes, which involve in the elimination of toxic levels of O 2 (·-) and H2O2, such as Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The contribution of polyamines in modulating antioxidative defense mechanism in NaCl stress tolerance is discussed.

  3. Bioinformatic analysis of the nucleotide binding site-encoding disease-resistance genes in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y B; Xie, X Q; Li, Z Y; Bai, H; Dong, L; Dong, Z P; Dong, J G

    2014-08-28

    The nucleotide-binding site (NBS) disease-resistance genes are the largest category of plant disease-resistance gene analogs. The complete set of disease-resistant candidate genes, which encode the NBS sequence, was filtered in the genomes of two varieties of foxtail millet (Yugu1 and 'Zhang gu'). This study investigated a number of characteristics of the putative NBS genes, such as structural diversity and phylogenetic relationships. A total of 269 and 281 NBS-coding sequences were identified in Yugu1 and 'Zhang gu', respectively. When the two databases were compared, 72 genes were found to be identical and 164 genes showed more than 90% similarity. Physical positioning and gene family analysis of the NBS disease-resistance genes in the genome revealed that the number of genes on each chromosome was similar in both varieties. The eighth chromosome contained the largest number of genes and the ninth chromosome contained the lowest number of genes. Exactly 34 gene clusters containing the 161 genes were found in the Yugu1 genome, with each cluster containing 4.7 genes on average. In comparison, the 'Zhang gu' genome possessed 28 gene clusters, which had 151 genes, with an average of 5.4 genes in each cluster. The largest gene cluster, located on the eighth chromosome, contained 12 genes in the Yugu1 database, whereas it contained 16 genes in the 'Zhang gu' database. The classification results showed that the CC-NBS-LRR gene made up the largest part of each chromosome in the two databases. Two TIR-NBS genes were also found in the Yugu1 genome.

  4. Effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) mouthwash containing 1% tannin on dental plaque and chronic gingivitis: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radafshar, Golpar; Ghotbizadeh, Mahshid; Saadat, Farshid; Mirfarhadi, Nastaran

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of Iranian green tea mouthwash containing 1% tannin on dental plaque and chronic gingivitis. In this randomized, double-blinded, parallel, controlled clinical trial, 40 volunteer dental students with a gingival index ≥1 were enrolled. At baseline, gingival, plaque, and bleeding indices were recorded and all the participants received dental polishing. Based on random allocation, 20 participants used the test and 20 used chlorhexidine mouthwash with no change in regular toothbrushing methods. The participants were asked to use 15 mL of the respective mouthwash for 1 min, twice a day for 28 days. All indices, as well as stain index, were recorded after 1 and 4 weeks post-rinsing. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. Significant in-group differences, but not between-group differences, were observed in all indices after 1 and 4 weeks compared to baseline. The test mouthwash resulted in significantly less tooth staining than the control. The 1% tannin green tea mouthwash could be a safe and feasible adjunct to mechanical plaque control. The tested green tea mouthwash could be considered a good alternative for chlorhexidine in contraindicating situations. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Effect of Drought Stress on Water Use Efficiency and Its Components in Several Genotypes and Cultivars of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khazaei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction According to NASA reports about atmospheric earth conditions, in the 30 years later, 45 countries will face with severe droughts and Iran is in the fourth place in this list. Water shortage is one of the most important limiting factors of production that affects plants growth by changing physiological conditions. Using adapted plants is a proper strategy to deal with the effects of water shortage on the status of water restrictions. Foxtail millet is a C4 plant with good compatibility to dry areas and it has high water use efficiency. In medium stress partial stomata closure reduces transpiration more than photosynthesis in this plant and as a result, increase water use efficiency. Materials and Methods This experiment was carried out as split-plot layout based on randomized complete blocks design with four replications at the Agricultural Research Station, University of Birjand in 2014-2015. The main factor was drought stress in three levels including 100, 75 and 50 percent of plant water requirement (no stress as control, moderate stress and severe stress, respectively and the sub-factor was millet genotype in three levels (including Bastan, KFM5 and KFM20. At four leaf stage, 75 plants per square meter were maintained and applied stress. Water use efficiency, evapotranspiration efficiency, harvest index for seed and ear, economic and biological yield were measured at maturity. . Data were analyzed with the SAS software ver 9.1 and the means were compared with Tukey’s test. Results and Discussion The results showed that water use efficiency (WUE was significantly decreased with increasing the intensity of drought stress in all three genotypes but not evapotranspiration efficiency (ETE, ratio of total dry matter to water used. Bastan cultivar had higher water use efficiency in all stress levels and was more affected under moderate stress while it was less affected under severe stress (33 and 31 percent compared to the control

  6. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  7. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  8. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of autophagy-associated genes in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) and characterization of the function of SiATG8a in conferring tolerance to nitrogen starvation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Chen, Ming; Wang, Erhui; Hu, Liqin; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Zhong, Li; Chen, Zhu; Xu, Zhaoshi; Li, Liancheng; Zhou, Yongbin; Guo, Changhong; Ma, Youzhi

    2016-10-12

    Autophagy is a cellular degradation process that is highly evolutionarily-conserved in yeast, plants, and animals. In plants, autophagy plays important roles in regulating intracellular degradation and recycling of amino acids in response to nutrient starvation, senescence, and other environmental stresses. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has strong resistance to stresses and has been proposed as an ideal material for use in the study of the physiological mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Although the genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is available, the characteristics and functions of abiotic stress-related genes remain largely unknown for this species. A total of 37 putative ATG (autophagy-associated genes) genes in the foxtail millet genome were identified. Gene duplication analysis revealed that both segmental and tandem duplication events have played significant roles in the expansion of the ATG gene family in foxtail millet. Comparative synteny mapping between the genomes of foxtail millet and rice suggested that the ATG genes in both species have common ancestors, as their ATG genes were primarily located in similar syntenic regions. Gene expression analysis revealed the induced expression of 31 SiATG genes by one or more phytohormone treatments, 26 SiATG genes by drought, salt and cold, 24 SiATG genes by darkness and 25 SiATG genes by nitrogen starvation. Results of qRT-PCR showing that among 37 SiATG genes, the expression level of SiATG8a was the highest after nitrogen starvation treatment 24 h, suggesting its potential role in tolerance to nutrient starvation. Moreover, the heterologous expression of SiATG8a in rice improved nitrogen starvation tolerance. Compared to wild type rice, the transgenic rice performed better and had higher aboveground total nitrogen content when the plants were grown under nitrogen starvation conditions. Our results deepen understanding about the characteristics and functions of ATG genes in

  10. Drought-Tolerant Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Associated with Foxtail Millet in a Semi-arid Agroecosystem and Their Potential in Alleviating Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguang Niu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR to agro-ecosystems is considered to have the potential for improving plant growth in extreme environments featured by water shortage. Herein, we isolated bacterial strains from foxtail millet (Setaria italica L., a drought-tolerant crop cultivated in semiarid regions in the northeast of China. Four isolates were initially selected for their ability to produce ACC deaminase as well as drought tolerance. The isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Pseudomonas migulae on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. All of these drought-tolerant isolates were able to produce EPS (exopolysaccharide. Inoculation with these strains stimulated seed germination and seedling growth under drought stress. Pseudomonas fluorescens DR7 showed the highest level of ACC deaminase and EPS-producing activity. DR7 could efficiently colonize the root adhering soil, increased soil moisture, and enhance the root adhering soil/root tissue ratio. These results suggest drought tolerant PGPR from foxtail millet could enhance plant growth under drought stress conditions and serve as effective bioinoculants to sustain agricultural production in arid regions.

  11. A remorin gene SiREM6, the target gene of SiARDP, from foxtail millet (Setaria italica) promotes high salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jing; Li, Cong; Liu, Yuwei; Yu, Jingjuan

    2014-01-01

    Remorin proteins (REMs) form a plant-specific protein family, with some REMs being responsive to abiotic stress. However, the precise functions of REMs in abiotic stress tolerance are not clear. In this study, we identified 11 remorin genes from foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and cloned a remorin gene, SiREM6, for further investigation. The transcript level of SiREM6 was increased by high salt stress, low temperature stress and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, but not by drought stress. The potential oligomerization of SiREM6 was examined by negative staining electron microscopy. The overexpression of SiREM6 improved high salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis at the germination and seedling stages as revealed by germination rate, survival rate, relative electrolyte leakage and proline content. The SiREM6 promoter contains two dehydration responsive elements (DRE) and one ABA responsive element (ABRE). An ABA responsive DRE-binding transcription factor, SiARDP, and an ABRE-binding transcription factor, SiAREB1, were cloned from foxtail millet. SiARDP could physically bind to the DREs, but SiAREB1 could not. These results revealed that SiREM6 is a target gene of SiARDP and plays a critical role in high salt stress tolerance.

  12. A remorin gene SiREM6, the target gene of SiARDP, from foxtail millet (Setaria italica promotes high salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yue

    Full Text Available Remorin proteins (REMs form a plant-specific protein family, with some REMs being responsive to abiotic stress. However, the precise functions of REMs in abiotic stress tolerance are not clear. In this study, we identified 11 remorin genes from foxtail millet (Setaria italica and cloned a remorin gene, SiREM6, for further investigation. The transcript level of SiREM6 was increased by high salt stress, low temperature stress and abscisic acid (ABA treatment, but not by drought stress. The potential oligomerization of SiREM6 was examined by negative staining electron microscopy. The overexpression of SiREM6 improved high salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis at the germination and seedling stages as revealed by germination rate, survival rate, relative electrolyte leakage and proline content. The SiREM6 promoter contains two dehydration responsive elements (DRE and one ABA responsive element (ABRE. An ABA responsive DRE-binding transcription factor, SiARDP, and an ABRE-binding transcription factor, SiAREB1, were cloned from foxtail millet. SiARDP could physically bind to the DREs, but SiAREB1 could not. These results revealed that SiREM6 is a target gene of SiARDP and plays a critical role in high salt stress tolerance.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of heat shock proteins in C4 model, foxtail millet identifies potential candidates for crop improvement under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Roshan Kumar; Jaishankar, Jananee; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Shweta, Shweta; Dangi, Anand; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-09-02

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) perform significant roles in conferring abiotic stress tolerance to crop plants. In view of this, HSPs and their encoding genes were extensively characterized in several plant species; however, understanding their structure, organization, evolution and expression profiling in a naturally stress tolerant crop is necessary to delineate their precise roles in stress-responsive molecular machinery. In this context, the present study has been performed in C4 panicoid model, foxtail millet, which resulted in identification of 20, 9, 27, 20 and 37 genes belonging to SiHSP100, SiHSP90, SiHSP70, SiHSP60 and SisHSP families, respectively. Comprehensive in silico characterization of these genes followed by their expression profiling in response to dehydration, heat, salinity and cold stresses in foxtail millet cultivars contrastingly differing in stress tolerance revealed significant upregulation of several genes in tolerant cultivar. SisHSP-27 showed substantial higher expression in response to heat stress in tolerant cultivar, and its over-expression in yeast system conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Methylation analysis of SiHSP genes suggested that, in susceptible cultivar, higher levels of methylation might be the reason for reduced expression of these genes during stress. Altogether, the study provides novel clues on the role of HSPs in conferring stress tolerance.

  14. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  15. Green Nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Nicholas; Eickers, Stephanie; Geene, Leonie; Todorovic, Marijana; Villmow, Annika; Forschungsstelle für Umweltpolitik (FFU), Freie Universität Berlin

    2018-01-01

    Traditional environmental policy instruments have not always proven successful in fostering environmentally friendly behaviour. The question remains: how can policymakers tackle the attitude-behaviour gap when it comes to pro-environmental choices and sustainable lifestyles? One solution that has emerged is green nudging, a new and potentially promising policy tool born of behavioural economics and experimental psychology. This paper contributes to the current discussion surrounding green nud...

  16. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  17. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington-Part I: exposure characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Sadilek, Martin; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor (WA, USA) comprise the largest region of commercial oyster cultivation on the Pacific Coast. The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp impair growth and survival of oysters reared on the intertidal mudflats. To maintain viable harvests, the oyster growers have proposed controlling the shrimp by applying the insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds. Green sturgeon (listed in the Endangered Species Act) forage on burrowing shrimp and could be exposed to imidacloprid in the sediment porewater and through consumed prey. Studies were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that green sturgeon would be exposed to imidacloprid and to characterize the subsequent environmental exposure. Comparisons between treated and untreated control beds following test application of the insecticide suggested that green sturgeon fed opportunistically on imidacloprid-impaired shrimp. The highest interpolated imidacloprid residue concentrations in field samples following chemical application were 27.8 µg kg(-1) and 31.4 µg kg(-1) in porewater and shrimp, respectively. Results from modeled branchial and dietary uptake, based on conservative assumptions, indicated that the porewater exposure route had the greatest contribution to systemic absorption of imidacloprid. The highest average daily uptake from porewater (177.9 µg kg(-1) body wt) was 9.5-fold greater than total dietary uptake (18.8 µg kg(-1) body wt). Concentrations and durations of exposure would be lower than the levels expected to elicit direct acute or chronic toxic effects. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Combining essential oils and olive extract for control of multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the combined antimicrobial effects of plant essential oils and olive extract against antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Newport on organic leafy greens. Organic baby spinach, mature spinach, romaine lettuce, and iceberg lettuce were inoculated with S. Newport and dip-t...

  19. Enhanced Emission Efficiency of Size-Controlled InGaN/GaN Green Nanopillar Light-Emitting Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Iida, Daisuke; Fadil, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Nanopillar InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diode (LED) arrays were fabricated by self-assembled Au nanoparticles patterning and dry etching process. Structure size and density of the nanopillar arrays have been modified by varying the Au film thickness in the nanopatterning process. Fabricated...

  20. Field experiments using the rhabditid nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita or salt as control measures against slugs in green asparagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Rozen, van K.; Molendijk, L.P.G.

    2003-01-01

    Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) crops are frequently damaged by the grey field slug (Deroceras reticulatum). Most damage occurs in the soil, although some asparagus spears are attacked above ground. In the Netherlands damage occurs especially during the first 5 weeks of harvesting, from

  1. Product management in green markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čajka Zoran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the concept of green product management. To create a significantly greener economy, there will need to be a range of new and greener products and technologies. Today we are faced with a growth in more innovative "clean technology" solutions. Successful development of new green products requires high levels of communication and integration, good information, early consideration of green issues, support from top management, and benchmarking. The set of controllable tactical marketing tools (product, price, place and promotion that the company blends to produce the response it wants in the target green market, is the matter of the primary importance to the management.

  2. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Green Helmet Project (China, Steel industry - Coal moisture control facilities); 1999 nendo green helmet jigyo (Chugoku seitetsugyo) sekitan choshitsu setsubi chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of meeting the needs of Chinese steelmaking corporations disclosed at an energy conservation diagnosing session of a Japan-China steelmaking energy conservation seminar held in July 1999, Japanese specialists were sent to Chinese steelmaking plants, namely, Benxi Iron and Steel (Group) Complex, Wuhan Iron and Steel (Group) Company, and Nanjing Iron and Steel Works. They described the CMC (coal moisture control) technique for its popularization and for effectively utilizing the same for coke ovens. Also, feasibility studies were conducted for CMC installation at the respective plants. Engineers were invited from the Chinese plants to Japan for the observation of associated facilities and for the exchange of opinions. As the result, leading members of the Chinese steelmaking plants now learned the usefulness of CMC. In the feasibility studies, CMC installation led to a reduction in dry distillation energy, that is, a reduction in the amount of fuel gas required, to an improvement on coke production, and to the selection of the fluidized bed dryer as the optimum system. At Chungching Iron and Steel Works, the existing CMC facilities were not in continuous operation because of an inclined conveyer failure, yet there was a strong will to utilize the CMC technique. (NEDO)

  3. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  4. Fungal Microbiomes Associated with Green and Non-Green Building Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Kanistha; Vesper, Stephen; Green, Brett J; Yermakov, Mikhail; Reponen, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Water-damaged buildings can lead to fungal growth and occupant health problems. Green building materials, derived from renewable sources, are increasingly utilized in construction and renovations. However, the question as to what fungi will grow on these green compared to non-green materials, after they get wet, has not been adequately studied. By determining what fungi grow on each type of material, the potential health risks can be more adequately assessed. In this study, we inoculated green and non-green pieces of ceiling tile, composite board, drywall, and flooring with indoor dust containing a complex mixture of naturally occurring fungi. The materials were saturated with water and incubated for two months in a controlled environment. The resulting fungal microbiomes were evaluated using ITS amplicon sequencing. Overall, the richness and diversity of the mycobiomes on each pair of green and non-green pieces were not significantly different. However, different genera dominated on each type of material. For example, Aspergillus spp. had the highest relative abundance on green and non-green ceiling tiles and green composite boards, but Peniophora spp. dominated the non-green composite board. In contrast, Penicillium spp. dominated green and non-green flooring samples. Green gypsum board was dominated by Phialophora spp. and Stachybotrys spp., but non-green gypsum board by Myrothecium spp. These data suggest that water-damaged green and non-green building materials can result in mycobiomes that are dominated by fungal genera whose member species pose different potentials for health risks.

  5. Green times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenclever, W.D.; Hasenclever, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors, founding members of the ''Green Party'' have in mind to make a very personal contribution to a better understanding of the present political situation which, although it seems to have reached a deadlock, still offers positive chances and prospects. New approaches in policy are mentioned which may help to overcome the present state of resignation of many adolescents and adults. Among other things, they describe themselves setting out for new pathways, the ''Greens'' in Parliament, prospect for the future, opportunities of the ecologically oriented economic policy. Finally, they call upon the reader to think and develop further under the motto ''What we all can do''. (HSCH) [de

  6. Bridging “green gap” of LEDs: Giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Yu-Lin; Liu, Che-Yu; Krishnan, Chirenjeevi; Lin, Da-Wei; Chu, You-Chen; Chen, Tzu-Pei; Shen, Tien-Lin; Kao, Tsung-Sheng; Charlton, Martin; Yu, Peichen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is so-called “green gap”. In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boosting light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimating the view angle of LEDs from 131.5゜to 114.0゜. This could be because the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and strain relief by the NVPCs, the internal quantum efficiency was increased by 25% and droop behavior was reduced from 37.4% to 25.9%. The enhancement of light output power can be achieved as high as 151% at a driving current of 350 mA. Giant light output enhancement and directional control via NVPCs points the way towards a promising avenue of solid-state lighting.

  7. Bridging “green gap” of LEDs: Giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Yu-Lin

    2015-11-23

    Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is so-called “green gap”. In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boosting light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimating the view angle of LEDs from 131.5゜to 114.0゜. This could be because the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and strain relief by the NVPCs, the internal quantum efficiency was increased by 25% and droop behavior was reduced from 37.4% to 25.9%. The enhancement of light output power can be achieved as high as 151% at a driving current of 350 mA. Giant light output enhancement and directional control via NVPCs points the way towards a promising avenue of solid-state lighting.

  8. The influence of gamma radiation on the aflatoxigenic fungi, phenolics content and antioxidant activity of the green tea; Irradiacao do cha verde para controle de fungos Aspergillus sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, S.G.; Silva, E.B.; Costa, L.F., E-mail: sloana.lemos@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias; Nascimento, M.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Departamento de Antibioticos; Oliveira, I.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CAV/UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria

    2013-08-15

    The use of raw plants, including the green tea (Camelia sinensis), has been increasing in Brazil. Along with this increasing tea consumption, there are risks due to its unsuitable handling and storage, which points to the need of controlling possible contaminations. This could be achieved with the use of ionizing radiation. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation over the total phenolics amount, antioxidants and fungic activities of the green tea aqueous extract aiming its processing. Aliquots of the bulk samples have been analyzed before and after gamma irradiation (dosages of 0; 5; 7,5 and 10 kGy). The total phenolics content of the aqueous extracts was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent having the catechin as the standard. Those same extracts were used to evaluate its ability of scavenging the free radical DPPH. The microbiological analysis were performed through irradiated samples and control. The results have allowed to check that different dosages of radiation (5; 7,5 e 10 kGy) did not induce significant differences on the content of total phenols and on the antioxidant capacity of the analyzed samples when compared to control. Also, it was also observed that the radiation may have had a catalytic effect on the oxidation of the DPPH and was effective on the microbiological control, even though it was not possible to kill the aflatoxigenic fungus. (author)

  9. A Daily Snack Containing Leafy Green Vegetables, Fruit, and Milk before and during Pregnancy Prevents Gestational Diabetes in a Randomized, Controlled Trial in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahariah, Sirazul A; Potdar, Ramesh D; Gandhi, Meera; Kehoe, Sarah H; Brown, Nick; Sane, Harshad; Coakley, Patsy J; Marley-Zagar, Ella; Chopra, Harsha; Shivshankaran, Devi; Cox, Vanessa A; Jackson, Alan A; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2016-07-01

    Prospective observational studies suggest that maternal diets rich in leafy green vegetables and fruit may help prevent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Our objective was to test whether increasing women's dietary intake of leafy green vegetables, fruit, and milk before conception and throughout pregnancy reduced their risk of GDM. Project SARAS ("excellent") (2006-2012) was a nonblinded, individually randomized, controlled trial in women living in slums in the city of Mumbai, India. The interventions included a daily snack made from leafy green vegetables, fruit, and milk for the treatment group or low-micronutrient vegetables (e.g., potato and onion) for the control group, in addition to the usual diet. Results for the primary outcome, birth weight, have been reported. Women were invited to take an oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 28-32 wk gestation to screen for GDM (WHO 1999 criteria). The prevalence of GDM was compared between the intervention and control groups, and Kernel density analysis was used to compare distributions of 120-min plasma glucose concentrations between groups. Of 6513 women randomly assigned, 2291 became pregnant; of these, 2028 reached a gestation of 28 wk, 1008 (50%) attended for an OGTT, and 100 (9.9%) had GDM. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the prevalence of GDM was reduced in the treatment group (7.3% compared with 12.4% in controls; OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86; P = 0.008). The reduction in GDM remained significant after adjusting for prepregnancy adiposity and fat or weight gain during pregnancy. Kernel density analysis showed that this was explained by the fact that fewer women in the treatment group had a 2-h glucose concentration in the range 7.5-10.0 mmol/L. In low-income settings, in which women have a low intake of micronutrient-rich foods, improving dietary micronutrient quality by increasing intake of leafy green vegetables, fruit, and/or milk may have an important protective effect against the development of GDM

  10. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  11. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  12. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  13. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  14. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  15. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  16. Genome-wide investigation and expression analyses of WD40 protein family in the model plant foxtail millet (Setaria italica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awdhesh Kumar Mishra

    Full Text Available WD40 proteins play a crucial role in diverse protein-protein interactions by acting as scaffolding molecules and thus assisting in the proper activity of proteins. Hence, systematic characterization and expression profiling of these WD40 genes in foxtail millet would enable us to understand the networks of WD40 proteins and their biological processes and gene functions. In the present study, a genome-wide survey was conducted and 225 potential WD40 genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis categorized the WD40 proteins into 5 distinct sub-families (I-V. Gene Ontology annotation revealed the biological roles of the WD40 proteins along with its cellular components and molecular functions. In silico comparative mapping with sorghum, maize and rice demonstrated the orthologous relationships and chromosomal rearrangements including duplication, inversion and deletion of WD40 genes. Estimation of synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates revealed its evolutionary significance in terms of gene-duplication and divergence. Expression profiling against abiotic stresses provided novel insights into specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiWD40 genes. Homology modeling enabled three-dimensional structure prediction was performed to understand the molecular functions of WD40 proteins. Although, recent findings had shown the importance of WD40 domains in acting as hubs for cellular networks during many biological processes, it has invited a lesser research attention unlike other common domains. Being a most promiscuous interactors, WD40 domains are versatile in mediating critical cellular functions and hence this genome-wide study especially in the model crop foxtail millet would serve as a blue-print for functional characterization of WD40s in millets and bioenergy grass species. In addition, the present analyses would also assist the research community in choosing the candidate WD40s for comprehensive studies towards crop improvement

  17. Genome-wide investigation and expression analyses of WD40 protein family in the model plant foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Khan, Yusuf; Parida, Swarup Kumar; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    WD40 proteins play a crucial role in diverse protein-protein interactions by acting as scaffolding molecules and thus assisting in the proper activity of proteins. Hence, systematic characterization and expression profiling of these WD40 genes in foxtail millet would enable us to understand the networks of WD40 proteins and their biological processes and gene functions. In the present study, a genome-wide survey was conducted and 225 potential WD40 genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis categorized the WD40 proteins into 5 distinct sub-families (I-V). Gene Ontology annotation revealed the biological roles of the WD40 proteins along with its cellular components and molecular functions. In silico comparative mapping with sorghum, maize and rice demonstrated the orthologous relationships and chromosomal rearrangements including duplication, inversion and deletion of WD40 genes. Estimation of synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates revealed its evolutionary significance in terms of gene-duplication and divergence. Expression profiling against abiotic stresses provided novel insights into specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiWD40 genes. Homology modeling enabled three-dimensional structure prediction was performed to understand the molecular functions of WD40 proteins. Although, recent findings had shown the importance of WD40 domains in acting as hubs for cellular networks during many biological processes, it has invited a lesser research attention unlike other common domains. Being a most promiscuous interactors, WD40 domains are versatile in mediating critical cellular functions and hence this genome-wide study especially in the model crop foxtail millet would serve as a blue-print for functional characterization of WD40s in millets and bioenergy grass species. In addition, the present analyses would also assist the research community in choosing the candidate WD40s for comprehensive studies towards crop improvement of millets and

  18. Phosphate concentration and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation influence the growth, yield and expression of twelve PHT1 family phosphate transporters in foxtail millet (Setaria italica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Antony Ceasar

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential element which plays several key roles in all living organisms. Setaria italica (foxtail millet is a model species for panacoid grasses including several millet species widely grown in arid regions of Asia and Africa, and for the bioenergy crop switchgrass. The growth responses of S. italica to different levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi and to colonisation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae were studied. Phosphate is taken up from the environment by the PHT1 family of plant phosphate transporters, which have been well characterized in several plant species. Bioinformatic analysis identified 12 members of the PHT1 gene family (SiPHT1;1-1;12 in S. italica, and RT and qPCR analysis showed that most of these transporters displayed specific expression patterns with respect to tissue, phosphate status and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation. SiPHT1;2 was found to be expressed in all tissues and in all growth conditions tested. In contrast, expression of SiPHT1;4 was induced in roots after 15 days growth in hydroponic medium of low Pi concentration. Expression of SiPHT1;8 and SiPHT1;9 in roots was selectively induced by colonisation with F. mosseae. SiPHT1;3 and SiPHT1;4 were found to be predominantly expressed in leaf and root tissues respectively. Several other transporters were expressed in shoots and leaves during growth in low Pi concentrations. This study will form the basis for the further characterization of these transporters, with the long term goal of improving the phosphate use efficiency of foxtail millet.

  19. Phosphate concentration and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation influence the growth, yield and expression of twelve PHT1 family phosphate transporters in foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceasar, S Antony; Hodge, Angela; Baker, Alison; Baldwin, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element which plays several key roles in all living organisms. Setaria italica (foxtail millet) is a model species for panacoid grasses including several millet species widely grown in arid regions of Asia and Africa, and for the bioenergy crop switchgrass. The growth responses of S. italica to different levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and to colonisation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) were studied. Phosphate is taken up from the environment by the PHT1 family of plant phosphate transporters, which have been well characterized in several plant species. Bioinformatic analysis identified 12 members of the PHT1 gene family (SiPHT1;1-1;12) in S. italica, and RT and qPCR analysis showed that most of these transporters displayed specific expression patterns with respect to tissue, phosphate status and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation. SiPHT1;2 was found to be expressed in all tissues and in all growth conditions tested. In contrast, expression of SiPHT1;4 was induced in roots after 15 days growth in hydroponic medium of low Pi concentration. Expression of SiPHT1;8 and SiPHT1;9 in roots was selectively induced by colonisation with F. mosseae. SiPHT1;3 and SiPHT1;4 were found to be predominantly expressed in leaf and root tissues respectively. Several other transporters were expressed in shoots and leaves during growth in low Pi concentrations. This study will form the basis for the further characterization of these transporters, with the long term goal of improving the phosphate use efficiency of foxtail millet.

  20. Green dynamics as the motor for sustainable welfare. An essay on economic control with regard to the process of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, J.; Warmenhoven, H.

    2011-03-01

    The core question in this essay is how, in these times of economic turbulence in which ecological awareness is crumbling, we can change the course of our ecological development into a sustainable direction. Chapter 2 - in the light of the economic theory - characterizes sustainability issues as a new type of scarcity. In chapter 3, the analysis broadens towards the new generation of environmental problems that dominate the 21st century. Chapter 4 explores points of action for 'green dynamics': a strategic perspective in which countries and businesses with sustainable ambitions expand their action opportunities to bring the targeted scenario closer. The focus in the final chapter is on the Netherlands in 2011. [nl

  1. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  2. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  3. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  4. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  5. Prey Acceptability and Preference of Oenopia conglobata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, a Candidate for Biological Control in Urban Green Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Lumbierres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oenopia conglobata is one of the most common ladybird species in urban green areas of the Mediterranean region. We have obtained data about its prey acceptability and prey preferences. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated the acceptability of seven aphid and one psyllid species as prey for this coccinellid: the aphids Chaitophorus populeti, Aphis gossypii, Aphis craccivora Monelliopsis caryae, Eucallipterus tiliae, Aphis nerii (on white poplar, pomegranate, false acacia, black walnut, lime, and oleander, respectively, and the psyllid Acizzia jamatonica on Persian silk tree. These species are abundant in urban green areas in the Mediterranean region. In addition, we tested the acceptability of Rhopalosiphum padi on barley, an aphid species easily reared in the laboratory. We also tested preferences of the predator in cafeteria experiments with three aphid species and one aphid and the psyllid. Adults and larvae of the coccinellid accepted all of the preys offered, except A. nerii, with a clear preference for M. caryae. The predator also showed preference for M. caryae when it was offered in a cafeteria experiment with other aphid species or with the psyllid. The aphid R. padi obtained a good acceptability and could be used for rearing O. conglobata in the laboratory.

  6. Intraspecific carbon and nitrogen isotopic variability in foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Emma; Przelomska, Natalia; Craven, Martha; O Connell, Tamsin C; He, Lu; Hunt, Harriet V; Jones, Martin K

    2016-07-15

    Isotopic palaeodietary studies generally focus on bone collagen from human and/or animal remains. While plant remains are rarely analysed, it is known that plant isotope values can vary as a result of numerous factors, including soil conditions, the environment and type of plant. The millets were important food crops in prehistoric Eurasia, yet little is known about the isotopic differences within millet species. Here we compare the stable isotope ratios within and between Setaria italica plants grown in a controlled environment chamber. Using homogenised samples, we compare carbon isotope ratios of leaves and grains, and nitrogen isotope ratios of grains, from 29 accessions of Setaria italica. We find significant isotopic variability within single leaves and panicles, and between leaves and panicles within the same plant, which must be considered when undertaking plant isotope studies. We find that the leaves and grains from the different accessions have a ca 2‰ range in δ(13) C values, while the nitrogen isotope values in the grains have a ca 6‰ range. We also find an average offset of 0.9‰ between leaves and grains in their δ(13) C values. The variation found is large enough to have archaeological implications and within- and between-plant isotope variability should be considered in isotope studies. The range in δ(15) N values is particularly significant as it is larger than the typical values quoted for a trophic level enrichment, and as such may lead to erroneous interpretations of the amount of animal protein in human or animal diets. It is therefore necessary to account for the variability in plant stable isotope values during palaeodietary reconstructions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effect of green tea catechins in patients with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: Results of a short-term double-blind placebo controlled phase II clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Micali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and study objective: Several studies suggest a protective role of green tea catechins against prostate cancer (PCa. In order to evaluate the efficacy of green tea catechins for chemoprevention of PCa in patients with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN we performed a phase II clinical trial. Methods: Sixty volunteers with HG-PIN were enrolled to carry out a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial. Treated group took daily 600 mg of green tea catechins (Categ Plus® for 1 year. Patients were screened at 6 and 12 months through prostatic biopsy and measurements of prostate-specific antigen (PSA. Results: Despite the statistically significant reduction of PSA observed in subjects who received green tea catechins for 6 and 12 months, we did not find any statistical difference in PCa incidence between the experimental groups neither after 6 nor after 12 months. However, throughout the one-year follow- up we observed very limited adverse effects induced by green tea catechins and a not significant improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life. Conclusions: Although the small number of patients enrolled in our study and the relatively short duration of intervention, our findings seems to deny the efficacy of green tea catechins. However, results of our clinical study, mainly for its low statistical strength, suggest that the effectiveness of green tea catechins should be evaluated in both a larger cohort of men and longer trial.

  8. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  9. Overexpression of the autophagy-related gene SiATG8a from foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) confers tolerance to both nitrogen starvation and drought stress in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-wei; Chen, Ming; Zhong, Li; Liu, Jia-ming; Xu, Zhao-shi; Li, Lian-cheng; Zhou, Yong-Bin; Guo, Chang-Hong; Ma, You-Zhi

    2015-12-25

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved biological process in all eukaryotes for the degradation of intracellular components for nutrient recycling. Autophagy is known to be involved in responses to low nitrogen stress in Arabidopsis. Foxtail millet has strong abiotic stress resistance to both low nutrient and drought stress. However, to date, there have only been a few genes reported to be related with abiotic stress resistance in foxtail millet. In this study, we identified an autophagy-related gene, SiATG8a, from foxtail millet. SiATG8a is mainly expressed in stems and its expression was dramatically induced by drought stress and nitrogen starvation treatments. SiATG8a was localized in the membrane and cytoplasm of foxtail millet. Overexpression of SiATG8a in Arabidopsis conferred tolerance to both nitrogen starvation and to drought stress. Under nitrogen starvation conditions, the SiATG8a transgenic plants had larger root and leaf areas and accumulated more total nitrogen than wild-type plants. The transgenic plants had lower total protein concentrations than did the WT plants. Under drought stress, the SiATG8a transgenic plants had higher survival rates, chlorophyll content, and proline content, but had lower MDA content than wild type plants. Taken together, our results represent the first identified case where overexpression of autophagy related gene can simultaneously improve plant resistance to low nitrogen and drought stresses. These findings implicate plant autophagy in plant stress responses to low nitrogen and drought and should be helpful in efforts to improve stresses resistance to nitrogen starvation and drought of crops by genetic transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A nucleotide substitution at the 5′ splice site of intron 1 of rice HEADING DATE 1 (HD1 gene homolog in foxtail millet, broadly found in landraces from Europe and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Fukunaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated genetic variation of a rice HEADING DATE 1(HD1 homolog in foxtail millet. First, we searched for a rice HD1 homolog in a foxtail millet genome sequence and designed primers to amplify the entire coding sequence of the gene. We compared full HD1 gene sequences of 11 accessions (including Yugu 1, a Chinese cultivar used for genome sequencing from various regions in Europe and Asia, found a nucleotide substitution at a putative splice site of intron 1, and designated the accessions with the nucleotide substitution as carrying a splicing variant. We verified by RT-PCR that this single nucleotide substitution causes aberrant splicing of intron 1. We investigated the geographical distribution of the splicing variant in 480 accessions of foxtail millet from various regions of Europe and Asia and part of Africa by dCAPS and found that the splicing variant is broadly distributed in Europe and Asia. Differences of heading times between accessions with wild type allele of the HD1 gene and those with the splicing variant allele were unclear. We also investigated variation in 13 accessions of ssp. viridis, the wild ancestor, and the results suggested that the wild type is predominant in the wild ancestor.

  11. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  12. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  13. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  14. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  15. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  16. GREEN MARKETING –GO GREEN FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kavitha

    2016-01-01

    Environment plays an important role in our lives. The Humans are only responsible for the environment. The initiatives should be taken from every individual then the day is not so far when global warming could be controlled. In the phrase “GREEN MARKETING” green signifies eco-friendly innovation. The objective of this study is to examine the growth of green marketing sector & its future. The concept of green marketing is originated primarily in the developed markets and rapidly gaining scope ...

  17. The sporulation of the green alga Ulva prolifera is controlled by changes in photosynthetic electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Lin, Apeng; Gu, Wenhui; Huan, Li; Gao, Shan; Wang, Guangce

    2016-04-22

    Sporulation and spore release are essential phases of the life cycle in algae and land plants. Ulva prolifera, which is an ideal organism for studying sporulation and spore release, was used as the experimental material in the present study. The determination of photosynthetic parameters, combined with microscopic observation, treatment with photosynthetic inhibitors, limitation of carbon acquisition, and protein mass spectrometry, was employed in this experiment. Cycle electron transport (CEF) was found enhanced at the onset of sporangia formation. The inhibition effect of dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB) towards sporulation was always strong during the sporulation process whereas the inhibition effect of 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) was continuously declined accompanied with the progress of sporulation. The changes of photosynthesis resulted from the limitation of CO2 acquisition could stimulate sporulation onset. Quantitative protein analysis showed that enzymes involved in carbon fixation, including RUBISCO and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, declined during sporogenesis, while proteins involved in sporulation, including tubulin and centrin, increased. These results suggest that enhanced cyclic electron flow (CEF) and oxidation of the plastoquinone pool are essential for sporangia formation onset, and changes in photosynthetic electron transport chain have significant impacts on sporulation of the green algae.

  18. The Use of Green Leaf Membranes to Promote Appetite Control, Suppress Hedonic Hunger and Loose Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Albertsson, Per-Åke

    2015-09-01

    On-going research aims at answering the question, which satiety signal is the most potent or which combination of satiety signals is the most potent to stop eating. There is also an aim at finding certain food items or food additives that could be used to specifically reduce food intake therapeutically. Therapeutic attempts to normalize body weight and glycaemia with single agents alone have generally been disappointing. The success of bariatric surgery illustrates the rationale of using several hormones to treat obesity and type-2-diabetes. We have found that certain components from green leaves, the thylakoids, when given orally have a similar rationale in inducing the release of several gut hormones at the same time. In this way satiety is promoted and hunger suppressed, leading to loss of body weight and body fat. The mechanism is a reduced rate of intestinal lipid hydrolysis, allowing the lipolytic products to reach the distal intestine and release satiety hormones. The thylakoids also regulate glucose uptake in the intestine and influences microbiota composition in the intestine in a prebiotic direction. Using thylakoids is a novel strategy for treatment and prevention of obesity.

  19. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Carneiro Proietti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64% and CM-A5 (22% were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies ( 0.05. Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively. These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.

  20. Cloud characteristics, thermodynamic controls and radiative impacts during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giangrande, Scott E.; Feng, Zhe; Jensen, Michael P.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Johnson, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Routine cloud, precipitation and thermodynamic observations collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) and Aerial Facility (AAF) during the 2-year US Department of Energy (DOE) ARM Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) campaign are summarized. These observations quantify the diurnal to large-scale thermodynamic regime controls on the clouds and precipitation over the undersampled, climatically important Amazon basin region. The extended ground deployment of cloud-profiling instrumentation enabled a unique look at multiple cloud regimes at high temporal and vertical resolution. This longer-term ground deployment, coupled with two short-term aircraft intensive observing periods, allowed new opportunities to better characterize cloud and thermodynamic observational constraints as well as cloud radiative impacts for modeling efforts within typical Amazon wet and dry seasons.

  1. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  2. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  3. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  4. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  5. Do Pleistocene Glacial-Interglacial Cycles Control Methane Hydrate Formation? An Example from Green Canyon, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, B.; Malinverno, A.; Goldberg, D.; Fortin, W.

    2017-12-01

    Well GC955-H was drilled in the Green Canyon region under the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrates Joint Industry Project in 2009. Logging-while-drilling resistivity logs obtained at the well indicate that the saturation of gas hydrate varies between high and low values in an alternating fashion. This trend is observed from 180 to 360mbsf, depths that correspond to the Late Pleistocene. Similar gas hydrate saturation patterns have been observed in other Gulf of Mexico locations (Walker Ridge sites WR313-G and 313-H) in Late Pleistocene sediments. Our hypothesis is that these variations in saturation can be explained by sea level changes through time during glacial-interglacial cycles. A higher amount of organic matter is deposited and buried in the sediment column during glacial intervals when sea level is low. Microbes in the sediment column degrade organic matter and produce methane gas as a byproduct. Higher availability of organic matter in the sediment column can increase the concentration of methane in the sediment pore water and in turn lead to the formation of gas hydrate. We use a time-dependent numerical model of the formation of gas hydrate to test this hypothesis. The model predicts the volume and distribution of gas hydrates using mass balance equations. Model inputs include in situ porosity determined from bulk density logs; local thermal gradient estimated from the depth of the bottom of the gas hydrate stability zone in proximity to the well; and sedimentation rate determined using the biostratigraphy of an industry well in the vicinity of GC955-H. Initial results show a good match between gas hydrate saturation predicted by the model and resistivity logs obtained in the well. We anticipate that this correlation will establish whether a causal link exists between the saturation of gas hydrate in this reservoir and glacioeustatic sea level changes in the Late Pleistocene.

  6. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  7. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  8. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Site controlled Red-Yellow-Green light emitting InGaN Quantum Discs on nano-tipped GaN rods

    KAUST Repository

    Conroy, Michele Ann; Li, Haoning; Kusch, Gunnar; Zhao, Chao; Ooi, Boon S.; Paul, Edwards; Martin, Robert; Holmes, Justin D.; Parbrook, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips’ broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD’s confinement dimensions, rather than significantly increasing the In%. This article details the easily controlled method of manipulating the QDs dimensions producing high crystal quality InGaN without complicated growth conditions needed for strain relaxation and alloy compositional changes seen for bulk planar GaN templates.

  10. Site controlled Red-Yellow-Green light emitting InGaN Quantum Discs on nano-tipped GaN rods

    KAUST Repository

    Conroy, Michele Ann

    2016-03-10

    We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips’ broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD’s confinement dimensions, rather than significantly increasing the In%. This article details the easily controlled method of manipulating the QDs dimensions producing high crystal quality InGaN without complicated growth conditions needed for strain relaxation and alloy compositional changes seen for bulk planar GaN templates.

  11. pH-Controlled Oxidation of an Aromatic Ketone: Structural Elucidation of the Products of Two Green Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, C. Eric

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory experiment emphasizing the structural elucidation of organic compounds has been developed as a discovery exercise. The "unknown" compounds are the products of the pH-controlled oxidation of 4'-methoxyacetophenone with bleach. The chemoselectivity of this reaction is highly dependent on the pH of the reaction media: under basic…

  12. Arid Green Infrastructure for Water Control and Conservation State of the Science and Research Needs for Arid/Semi-Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure is an approach to managing wet weather flows using systems and practices that mimic natural processes. It is designed to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible and protect the quality of receiving waters. Although most green infrastructure pract...

  13. Lowered risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and intake of plant vitamin, fresh fish, green tea and coffee: a case-control study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Lun Hsu

    Full Text Available A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of adult diet on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC in Taiwan.A total of 375 incident NPC cases and 327 controls matched to the cases on sex, age, and residence were recruited between July 1991 and December 1994. A structured questionnaire inquiring complete dietary history, socio-demographic characteristics, and other potential confounding factors was used in the personal interview. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR(adj with 95% confidence interval (CI after accounting for known risk factors.Fresh fish (OR(adj, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38-0.83 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake, green tea (OR(adj, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.91 for drinking ≥1 times/week vs. never and coffee (OR(adj, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37-0.85 for drinking ≥0.5 times/week vs. never were inversely associated with the NPC risk. No association with NPC risk was observed for the intake of meats, salted fish, fresh vegetables, fruits and milk. Intake of vitamin A from plant sources was associated with a decreased NPC risk (OR(adj, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41-0.94 for the highest vs. lowest tertile.The study findings suggest that certain adult dietary patterns might protect against the development of NPC.

  14. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  15. Green industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2014-01-01

    Green growth requires green technologies: production techniques that economize on exhaustible resources and emit fewer greenhouse gases. The availability of green technologies both lowers social costs in the transition to a green growth path and helps achieve a satisfactory rate of material progress under that path. The theoretical case in favour of using industrial policy to facilitate green growth is quite strong. Economists’ traditional scepticism on industrial policy is grounded instead o...

  16. Modeling a Hydrologically Optimal Green Roof Media Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Questions/MethodsA key environmental concern in managing urban ecosystems is controlling stormwater runoff to ameliorate pollution problems and sewage overflows. Vegetated green roofs have become an important green infrastructure tool to collect, store, and gradually r...

  17. The C-terminal motif of SiAGO1b is required for the regulation of growth, development and stress responses in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaotong; Tang, Sha; Jia, Guanqing; Schnable, James C; Su, Haixia; Tang, Chanjuan; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2016-05-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv), which belongs to the Panicoideae tribe of the Poaceae, is an important grain crop widely grown in Northern China and India. It is currently developing into a novel model species for functional genomics of the Panicoideae as a result of its fully available reference genome sequence, small diploid genome (2n=18, ~510Mb), short life cycle, small stature and prolific seed production. Argonaute 1 (AGO1), belonging to the argonaute (AGO) protein family, recruits small RNAs and regulates plant growth and development. Here, we characterized an AGO1 mutant (siago1b) in foxtail millet, which was induced by ethyl methanesulfonate treatment. The mutant exhibited pleiotropic developmental defects, including dwarfing stem, narrow and rolled leaves, smaller panicles and lower rates of seed setting. Map-based cloning analysis demonstrated that these phenotypic variations were attributed to a C-A transversion, and a 7-bp deletion in the C-terminus of the SiAGO1b gene in siago1b Yeast two-hybrid assays and BiFC experiments revealed that the mutated region was an essential functional motif for the interaction between SiAGO1b and SiHYL1. Furthermore, 1598 differentially expressed genes were detected via RNA-seq-based comparison of SiAGO1b and wild-type plants, which revealed that SiAGO1b mutation influenced multiple biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell growth, programmed death and abiotic stress responses in foxtail millet. This study may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms by which SiAGO1b regulates the growth and development of crops. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Controlled silver delivery by silver-cellulose nanocomposites prepared by a one-pot green synthesis assisted by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ana Rosa; Unali, Gianfranco, E-mail: ana.rosa.silva@ua.pt [Structured Materials Expertise Group, Unilever Discover Port Sunlight, Quarry Road East, Bebington CH63 3JW (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-05

    Controlled silver release from cellulosic nanocomposites was achieved by synthesizing silver nanoparticles, under microwave heating for 1-15 min, in a one-pot, versatile and sustainable process in which microcrystalline cellulose simultaneously functions as reducing, stabilizing and supporting agent in water; chitin, starch and other cellulose derivatives could also be used as reducing, stabilizing and supporting agents for silver nanoparticles and the method was also found to be extensible to the preparation of noble metal (Au, Pt) and metal oxide nanoparticle (ZnO, Cu, CuO and Cu{sub 2}O) nanocomposites.

  19. Controlled silver delivery by silver-cellulose nanocomposites prepared by a one-pot green synthesis assisted by microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ana Rosa; Unali, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    Controlled silver release from cellulosic nanocomposites was achieved by synthesizing silver nanoparticles, under microwave heating for 1-15 min, in a one-pot, versatile and sustainable process in which microcrystalline cellulose simultaneously functions as reducing, stabilizing and supporting agent in water; chitin, starch and other cellulose derivatives could also be used as reducing, stabilizing and supporting agents for silver nanoparticles and the method was also found to be extensible to the preparation of noble metal (Au, Pt) and metal oxide nanoparticle (ZnO, Cu, CuO and Cu 2 O) nanocomposites.

  20. Development of a keratinocyte-based screening model for antipsoriatic drugs using green fluorescent protein under the control of an endogenous promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Arno; van Ruissen, Fred; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2002-08-01

    Inflamed epidermis (psoriasis, wound healing, ultraviolet-irradiated skin) harbors keratinocytes that are hyperproliferative and display an abnormal differentiation program. A distinct feature of this so-called regenerative maturation pathway is the expression of proteins such as the cytokeratins CK6, CK16, and CK17 and the antiinflammatory protein SKALP/elafin. These proteins are absent in normal skin but highly induced in lesional psoriatic skin. Expression of these genes can be used as a surrogate marker for psoriasis in drug-screening procedures of large compound libraries. The aim of this study was to develop a keratinocyte cell line that contained a reporter gene under the control of a psoriasis-associated endogenous promoter and demonstrate its use in an assay suitable for screening. We generated a stably transfected keratinocyte cell line that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), under the control of a 0.8-kb fragment derived from the promoter of the SKALP/elafin gene, which confers high levels of tissue-specific expression at the mRNA level. Induction of the SKALP promoter by tumor necrosis factor-alpha resulted in increased expression levels of the secreted SKALP-EGFP fusion protein as assessed by direct readout of fluorescence and fluorescence polarization in 96-well cell culture plates. The fold stimulation of the reporter gene was comparable to that of the endogenous SKALP gene as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Although the dynamic range of the screening system is limited, the small standard deviation yields a Z factor of 0.49. This indicates that the assay is suitable as a high-throughput screen, and provides proof of the concept that a secreted EGFP fusion protein under the control of a physiologically relevant endogenous promoter can be used as a fluorescence-based high-throughput screen for differentiation-modifying or antiinflammatory compounds that act via the keratinocyte.

  1. Quality control of the soil moisture probe response patterns from a green infrastructure site using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and association rule learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Bedig, A.; Quigley, M.; Montalto, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    In-situ field monitoring can help to improve the design and management of decentralized Green Infrastructure (GI) systems in urban areas. Because of the vast quantity of continuous data generated from multi-site sensor systems, cost-effective post-construction opportunities for real-time control are limited; and the physical processes that influence the observed phenomena (e.g. soil moisture) are hard to track and control. To derive knowledge efficiently from real-time monitoring data, there is currently a need to develop more efficient approaches to data quality control. In this paper, we employ dynamic time warping method to compare the similarity of two soil moisture patterns without ignoring the inherent autocorrelation. We also use a rule-based machine learning method to investigate the feasibility of detecting anomalous responses from soil moisture probes. The data was generated from both individual and clusters of probes, deployed in a GI site in Milwaukee, WI. In contrast to traditional QAQC methods, which seek to detect outliers at individual time steps, the new method presented here converts the continuous time series into event-based symbolic sequences from which unusual response patterns can be detected. Different Matching rules are developed on different physical characteristics for different seasons. The results suggest that this method could be used alternatively to detect sensor failure, to identify extreme events, and to call out abnormal change patterns, compared to intra-probe and inter-probe historical observations. Though this algorithm was developed for soil moisture probes, the same approach could easily be extended to advance QAQC efficiency for any continuous environmental datasets.

  2. Optimized design and control of an off grid solar PV/hydrogen fuel cell power system for green buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenai, C.; Bettayeb, M.

    2017-11-01

    Modelling, simulation, optimization and control strategies are used in this study to design a stand-alone solar PV/Fuel Cell/Battery/Generator hybrid power system to serve the electrical load of a commercial building. The main objective is to design an off grid energy system to meet the desired electric load of the commercial building with high renewable fraction, low emissions and low cost of energy. The goal is to manage the energy consumption of the building, reduce the associate cost and to switch from grid-tied fossil fuel power system to an off grid renewable and cleaner power system. Energy audit was performed in this study to determine the energy consumption of the building. Hourly simulations, modelling and optimization were performed to determine the performance and cost of the hybrid power configurations using different control strategies. The results show that the hybrid off grid solar PV/Fuel Cell/Generator/Battery/Inverter power system offers the best performance for the tested system architectures. From the total energy generated from the off grid hybrid power system, 73% is produced from the solar PV, 24% from the fuel cell and 3% from the backup Diesel generator. The produced power is used to meet all the AC load of the building without power shortage (system produces 18.2% excess power that can be used to serve the thermal load of the building. The proposed hybrid power system is sustainable, economically viable and environmentally friendly: High renewable fraction (66.1%), low levelized cost of energy (92 /MWh), and low carbon dioxide emissions (24 kg CO2/MWh) are achieved.

  3. GREEN ROOFS — A GROWING TREND

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most interesting stormwater control systems under evaluation by EPA are “green roofs”. Green roofs are vegetative covers applied to building roofs to slow, or totally absorb, rainfall runoff during storms. While the concept of over-planted roofs is very ancient, the go...

  4. Cranial nerve contrast using nerve-specific fluorophores improved by paired-agent imaging with indocyanine green as a control agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Veronica C.; Vuong, Victoria D.; Wilson, Todd; Wewel, Joshua; Byrne, Richard W.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2017-09-01

    Nerve preservation during surgery is critical because damage can result in significant morbidity. This remains a challenge especially for skull base surgeries where cranial nerves (CNs) are involved because visualization and access are particularly poor in that location. We present a paired-agent imaging method to enhance identification of CNs using nerve-specific fluorophores. Two myelin-targeting imaging agents were evaluated, Oxazine 4 and Rhodamine 800, and coadministered with a control agent, indocyanine green, either intravenously or topically in rats. Fluorescence imaging was performed on excised brains ex vivo, and nerve contrast was evaluated via paired-agent ratiometric data analysis. Although contrast was improved among all experimental groups using paired-agent imaging compared to conventional, solely targeted imaging, Oxazine 4 applied directly exhibited the greatest enhancement, with a minimum 3 times improvement in CNs delineation. This work highlights the importance of accounting for nonspecific signal of targeted agents, and demonstrates that paired-agent imaging is one method capable of doing so. Although staining, rinsing, and imaging protocols need to be optimized, these findings serve as a demonstration for the potential use of paired-agent imaging to improve contrast of CNs, and consequently, surgical outcome.

  5. Chronic Effects of a Wild Green Oat Extract Supplementation on Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narelle M. Berry

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Preliminary evaluation of a wild green oat extract (WGOE (Neuravena® ELFA®955, Frutarom, Switzerland revealed an acute cognitive benefit of supplementation. This study investigated whether regular daily WGOE supplementation would result in sustained cognitive improvements. Method: A 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial of WGOE supplementation (1500 mg/day versus placebo was undertaken in 37 healthy adults aged 67 ± 0.8 years (mean ± SEM. Cognitive assessments included the Stroop colour-word test, letter cancellation, the rule-shift task, a computerised multi-tasking test battery and the trail-making task. All assessments were conducted in Week 12 and repeated in Week 24 whilst subjects were fasted and at least 18 h after taking the last dose of supplement. Result: Chronic WGOE supplementation did not affect any measures of cognition. Conclusion: It appears that the cognitive benefit of acute WGOE supplementation does not persist with chronic treatment in older adults with normal cognition. It remains to be seen whether sustained effects of WGOE supplementation may be more evident in those with mild cognitive impairment.

  6. An effective and optimal quality control approach for green energy manufacturing using design of experiments framework and evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Juan Alejandro

    Quality Control (QC) and Quality Assurance (QA) strategies vary significantly across industries in the manufacturing sector depending on the product being built. Such strategies range from simple statistical analysis and process controls, decision-making process of reworking, repairing, or scraping defective product. This study proposes an optimal QC methodology in order to include rework stations during the manufacturing process by identifying the amount and location of these workstations. The factors that are considered to optimize these stations are cost, cycle time, reworkability and rework benefit. The goal is to minimize the cost and cycle time of the process, but increase the reworkability and rework benefit. The specific objectives of this study are: (1) to propose a cost estimation model that includes energy consumption, and (2) to propose an optimal QC methodology to identify quantity and location of rework workstations. The cost estimation model includes energy consumption as part of the product direct cost. The cost estimation model developed allows the user to calculate product direct cost as the quality sigma level of the process changes. This provides a benefit because a complete cost estimation calculation does not need to be performed every time the processes yield changes. This cost estimation model is then used for the QC strategy optimization process. In order to propose a methodology that provides an optimal QC strategy, the possible factors that affect QC were evaluated. A screening Design of Experiments (DOE) was performed on seven initial factors and identified 3 significant factors. It reflected that one response variable was not required for the optimization process. A full factorial DOE was estimated in order to verify the significant factors obtained previously. The QC strategy optimization is performed through a Genetic Algorithm (GA) which allows the evaluation of several solutions in order to obtain feasible optimal solutions. The GA

  7. Cross-platform comparison of SYBR® Green real-time PCR with TaqMan PCR, microarrays and other gene expression measurement technologies evaluated in the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dial Stacey L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC project evaluated the inter- and intra-platform reproducibility of seven microarray platforms and three quantitative gene expression assays in profiling the expression of two commercially available Reference RNA samples (Nat Biotechnol 24:1115-22, 2006. The tested microarrays were the platforms from Affymetrix, Agilent Technologies, Applied Biosystems, GE Healthcare, Illumina, Eppendorf and the National Cancer Institute, and quantitative gene expression assays included TaqMan® Gene Expression PCR Assay, Standardized (Sta RT-PCR™ and QuantiGene®. The data showed great consistency in gene expression measurements across different microarray platforms, different technologies and test sites. However, SYBR® Green real-time PCR, another common technique utilized by half of all real-time PCR users for gene expression measurement, was not addressed in the MAQC study. In the present study, we compared the performance of SYBR Green PCR with TaqMan PCR, microarrays and other quantitative technologies using the same two Reference RNA samples as the MAQC project. We assessed SYBR Green real-time PCR using commercially available RT2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays from SuperArray, containing primer pairs that have been experimentally validated to ensure gene-specificity and high amplification efficiency. Results The SYBR Green PCR Arrays exhibit good reproducibility among different users, PCR instruments and test sites. In addition, the SYBR Green PCR Arrays have the highest concordance with TaqMan PCR, and a high level of concordance with other quantitative methods and microarrays that were evaluated in this study in terms of fold-change correlation and overlap of lists of differentially expressed genes. Conclusion These data demonstrate that SYBR Green real-time PCR delivers highly comparable results in gene expression measurement with TaqMan PCR and other high-density microarrays.

  8. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  9. Biofumigation for control of pale potato cyst nematodes: activity of brassica leaf extracts and green manures on Globodera pallida in vitro and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, James S; Lazzeri, Luca; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2011-07-27

    The effects of brassica green manures on Globodera pallida were assessed in vitro and in soil microcosms. Twelve of 22 brassica accessions significantly inhibited the motility of G. pallida infective juveniles in vitro. Green manures of selected brassicas were then incorporated into soil containing encysted eggs of G. pallida. Their effect on egg viability was estimated by quantifying nematode actin 1 mRNA by RT-qPCR. The leaf glucosinolate profiles of the plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Three Brassica juncea lines (Nemfix, Fumus, and ISCI99) containing high concentrations of 2-propenyl glucosinolate were the most effective, causing over 95% mortality of encysted eggs of G. pallida in polyethylene-covered soil. The toxic effects of green manures were greater in polyethylene-covered than in open soil. Toxicity in soil correlated with the concentration of isothiocyanate-producing glucosinolate but not total glucosinolate in green manures.

  10. Green Infrastructure Models and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project is to modify and refine existing models and develop new tools to support decision making for the complete green infrastructure (GI) project lifecycle, including the planning and implementation of stormwater control in urban and agricultural settings,...

  11. Application of green concept in mechanical design and manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing ping

    2017-11-01

    With the development of productive forces, the relationship between human and nature is becoming tight increasingly, especially environmental pollution and resource consumption that comes from equipment manufacturing industry mainly. Green development concept is a new concept which can solve the current ecological environment. The philosophical foundation and theoretical basis of green idea are expounded through the study of scientific development and green concept. The difference between the traditional design and the green design is analyzed; the meaning and content of the mechanical design for green concept are discussed. And the evaluation method of green design is discussed too. The significance of green development concept in the mechanical design and manufacturing science is pinpointed clearly. The results show that the implementation of green design under the mechanical design, from the source of pollution control to achieve green manufacturing, is the only way to achieve sustainable development.

  12. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  13. Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L. Beauv.] Grown under Low Nitrogen Shows a Smaller Root System, Enhanced Biomass Accumulation, and Nitrate Transporter Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Nadeem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (FM [Setaria italica (L. Beauv.] is a grain and forage crop well adapted to nutrient-poor soils. To date little is known how FM adapts to low nitrogen (LN at the morphological, physiological, and molecular levels. Using the FM variety Yugu1, we found that LN led to lower chlorophyll contents and N concentrations, and higher root/shoot and C/N ratios and N utilization efficiencies under hydroponic culture. Importantly, enhanced biomass accumulation in the root under LN was in contrast to a smaller root system, as indicated by significant decreases in total root length; crown root number and length; and lateral root number, length, and density. Enhanced carbon allocation toward the root was rather for significant increases in average diameter of the LN root, potentially favorable for wider xylem vessels or other anatomical alterations facilitating nutrient transport. Lower levels of IAA and CKs were consistent with a smaller root system and higher levels of GA may promote root thickening under LN. Further, up-regulation of SiNRT1.1, SiNRT2.1, and SiNAR2.1 expression and nitrate influx in the root and that of SiNRT1.11 and SiNRT1.12 expression in the shoot probably favored nitrate uptake and remobilization as a whole. Lastly, more soluble proteins accumulated in the N-deficient root likely as a result of increases of N utilization efficiencies. Such “excessive” protein-N was possibly available for shoot delivery. Thus, FM may preferentially transport carbon toward the root facilitating root thickening/nutrient transport and allocate N toward the shoot maximizing photosynthesis/carbon fixation as a primary adaptive strategy to N limitation.

  14. Evaluation of water-use efficiency in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) using visible-near infrared and thermal spectral sensing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Zhou, Jianfeng; Cousins, Asaph B; Sankaran, Sindhuja

    2016-05-15

    Water limitations decrease stomatal conductance (g(s)) and, in turn, photosynthetic rate (A(net)), resulting in decreased crop productivity. The current techniques for evaluating these physiological responses are limited to leaf-level measures acquired by measuring leaf-level gas exchange. In this regard, proximal sensing techniques can be a useful tool in studying plant biology as they can be used to acquire plant-level measures in a high-throughput manner. However, to confidently utilize the proximal sensing technique for high-throughput physiological monitoring, it is important to assess the relationship between plant physiological parameters and the sensor data. Therefore, in this study, the application of rapid sensing techniques based on thermal imaging and visual-near infrared spectroscopy for assessing water-use efficiency (WUE) in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) was evaluated. The visible-near infrared spectral reflectance (350-2500 nm) and thermal (7.5-14 µm) data were collected at regular intervals from well-watered and drought-stressed plants in combination with other leaf physiological parameters (transpiration rate-E, A(net), g(s), leaf carbon isotopic signature-δ(13)C(leaf), WUE). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was used to predict leaf physiological measures based on the spectral data. The PLSR modeling on the hyperspectral data yielded accurate and precise estimates of leaf E, gs, δ(13)C(leaf), and WUE with coefficient of determination in a range of 0.85-0.91. Additionally, significant differences in average leaf temperatures (~1°C) measured with a thermal camera were observed between well-watered plants and drought-stressed plants. In summary, the visible-near infrared reflectance data, and thermal images can be used as a potential rapid technique for evaluating plant physiological responses such as WUE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] Grown under Low Nitrogen Shows a Smaller Root System, Enhanced Biomass Accumulation, and Nitrate Transporter Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Faisal; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Wang, Ruifeng; Han, Jienan; Shen, Qi; Chang, Feiran; Diao, Xianmin; Zhang, Fusuo; Li, Xuexian

    2018-01-01

    Foxtail millet (FM) [ Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] is a grain and forage crop well adapted to nutrient-poor soils. To date little is known how FM adapts to low nitrogen (LN) at the morphological, physiological, and molecular levels. Using the FM variety Yugu1, we found that LN led to lower chlorophyll contents and N concentrations, and higher root/shoot and C/N ratios and N utilization efficiencies under hydroponic culture. Importantly, enhanced biomass accumulation in the root under LN was in contrast to a smaller root system, as indicated by significant decreases in total root length; crown root number and length; and lateral root number, length, and density. Enhanced carbon allocation toward the root was rather for significant increases in average diameter of the LN root, potentially favorable for wider xylem vessels or other anatomical alterations facilitating nutrient transport. Lower levels of IAA and CKs were consistent with a smaller root system and higher levels of GA may promote root thickening under LN. Further, up-regulation of SiNRT1.1, SiNRT2.1, and SiNAR2.1 expression and nitrate influx in the root and that of SiNRT1.11 and SiNRT1.12 expression in the shoot probably favored nitrate uptake and remobilization as a whole. Lastly, more soluble proteins accumulated in the N-deficient root likely as a result of increases of N utilization efficiencies. Such "excessive" protein-N was possibly available for shoot delivery. Thus, FM may preferentially transport carbon toward the root facilitating root thickening/nutrient transport and allocate N toward the shoot maximizing photosynthesis/carbon fixation as a primary adaptive strategy to N limitation.

  16. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  17. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  18. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  19. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  20. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  1. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  2. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  3. Differential tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in ‘Green mice’

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, De-Fu; Tezuka, Hideo; Kondo, Tetsuo; Sudo, Katsuko; Niu, Dong-Feng; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Yamane, Tetsu; Nakamura, Nobuki; Katoh, Ryohei

    2010-01-01

    In order to clarify tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in ‘green mice’ from a transgenic line having an EGFP cDNA under the control of a chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer, we studied the expression of EGFP in various organs and tissues from these ‘green mice’ by immunohistochemistry with anti- EGFP antibody in conjunction with direct observation for EGFP fluorescence using confocal laser scanning microscopy. On i...

  4. Show Me the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  5. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  6. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  7. In the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  8. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  9. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  10. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Ching-Hsun Chang; Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green min...

  11. Multiple origins of the phenol reaction negative phenotype in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv., were caused by independent loss-of-function mutations of the polyphenol oxidase (Si7PPO) gene during domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takahiko; Yuo, Takahisa; Ohta, Takeshi; Hitomi, Eriko; Ichitani, Katsuyuki; Kawase, Makoto; Taketa, Shin; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    Foxtail millet shows variation in positive phenol color reaction (Phr) and negative Phr in grains, but predominant accessions of this crop are negative reaction type, and the molecular genetic basis of the Phr reaction remains unresolved. In this article, we isolated polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene responsible for Phr using genome sequence information and investigated molecular genetic basis of negative Phr and crop evolution of foxtail millet. First of all, we searched for PPO gene homologs in a foxtail millet genome database using a rice PPO gene as a query and successfully found three copies of the PPO gene. One of the PPO gene homologs on chromosome 7 showed the highest similarity with PPO genes expressed in hulls (grains) of other cereal species including rice, wheat, and barley and was designated as Si7PPO. Phr phenotypes and Si7PPO genotypes completely co-segregated in a segregating population. We also analyzed the genetic variation conferring negative Phr reaction. Of 480 accessions of the landraces investigated, 87 (18.1 %) showed positive Phr and 393 (81.9 %) showed negative Phr. In the 393 Phr negative accessions, three types of loss-of-function Si7PPO gene were predominant and independently found in various locations. One of them has an SNP in exon 1 resulting in a premature stop codon and was designated as stop codon type, another has an insertion of a transposon (Si7PPO-TE1) in intron 2 and was designated as TE1-insertion type, and the other has a 6-bp duplication in exon 3 resulting in the duplication of 2 amino acids and was designated as 6-bp duplication type. As a rare variant of the stop codon type, one accession additionally has an insertion of a transposon, Si7PPO-TE2, in intron 2 and was designated as "stop codon +TE2 insertion type". The geographical distribution of accessions with positive Phr and those with three major types of negative Phr was also investigated. Accessions with positive Phr were found in subtropical and tropical regions at

  12. Green Thunderstorms Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank W., III; Beasley, William H.; Bohren, Craig F.

    1996-12-01

    Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Often the green coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflections of light from green foliage on the ground. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm do not believe that green thunderstorms exist. They suggest that the green storms may be fabrications by excited observers. The authors have demonstrated the existence of green thunderstorms objectively using a spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 the authors observed numerous storms and recorded hundreds of spectra of the light emanating corn these storms. It was found that the subjective judgment of colors can vary somewhat between observers, but the variation is usually in the shade of green. The authors recorded spectra of green and nongreen thunderstorms and recorded spectral measurements as a storm changed its appearance from dark blue to a bluish green. The change in color is gradual when observed from a stationary position. Also, as the light from a storm becomes greener, the luminance decreases. The authors also observed and recorded the spectrum of a thunderstorm during a period of several hours as they flew in an aircraft close to a supercell that appeared somewhat green. The authors' observations refute the ground reflection hypothesis and raise questions about explanations that require the presence of hail.

  13. The effect of green tea ointment on episiotomy pain and wound healing in primiparous women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrahmani, Hadis; Kariman, Nourossadat; Jannesari, Sharareh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mirzaei, Moghadameh; Ghalandari, Sahar; Shahrahmani, Nasim; Mardani, Gashtasb

    2018-03-01

    The delayed healing of episiotomy wound and its associated pain is a major problem in obstetrics. Because green tea has analgesic and wound-healing properties, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of green tea ointment on episiotomy pain and wound-healing. The green tea extract was also standardized by measuring its Phenolic and flavonoid compounds, antioxidant activity, and one of its active components, that is, Epigallocatechin gallate. The present clinical trial was conducted on 99 primiparous women visiting Afzalipour Hospital in Kerman in 2015. The subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups, including a green tea ointment group, a placebo ointment group, and a routine care group. The 2 ointment groups smeared 2 cm of the green tea or placebo ointments onto their sutured area twice daily for a total of 10 days. The severity of pain was assessed in the subjects using the visual pain scale and wound-healing using the Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA) scale before the intervention and on the 5th and 10th days after delivery. To standardize the extract, Epigallocatechin gallate was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phenolic and flavonoid compounds, as well as antioxidant activity of the extract were also determined by spectrometry methods. Before the intervention, no significant differences were observed between the 3 groups in terms of their personal and obstetric details (p > .05), the severity of pain (p = .118), and the REEDA score (p = .212). On the 5th and 10th days after delivery, the severity of pain was significantly lower in the green tea group than in the other 2 groups (p tea group compared to the other 2 groups (p tea were 74.2 mg/g Gallic acid equivalent and 16.3 mg/g Rutin equivalent, respectively, and its antioxidant capacity was 46% of b-carotene. Green tea ointment appears to be effective in relieving episiotomy pain and improving wound-healing in this study

  14. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous research focusing on development of micro-TLC methodology under temperature-controlled conditions. The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple analytical protocols without multi-steps sample pre-purification. One of the advantages of planar chromatography over its column counterpart is that each TLC run can be performed using non-previously used stationary phase. Therefore, it is possible to fractionate or separate complex samples characterized by heavy biological matrix loading. In present studies components of interest, mainly steroids, were isolated from biological samples like fish bile using single pre-treatment steps involving direct organic liquid extraction and/or deproteinization by freeze-drying method. Low-molecular mass compounds with polarity ranging from estetrol to progesterone derived from the environmental samples (lake water, untreated and treated sewage waters) were concentrated using optimized solid-phase extraction (SPE). Specific bands patterns for samples derived from surface water of the Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland can be easily observed on obtained micro-TLC chromatograms. This approach can be useful as simple and non-expensive complementary method for fast control and screening of treated sewage water discharged by the municipal wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, our experimental results show the potential of micro-TLC as an efficient tool for retention measurements of a wide range of steroids under reversed-phase (RP) chromatographic conditions. These data can be used for further optimalization of SPE or HPLC systems working under RP conditions. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that micro-TLC based analytical approach can be applied as an effective method for the internal standard (IS) substance search. Generally, described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of the

  15. GREEN MANAGEMENT: THE REALITY OF BEING GREEN IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Green management and going green are not as clear cut and easy as hyped by the general media. While going ecologically green is indeed beneficial and appropriate, the process and procedure of becoming green is anything but easy. Firstly, turning green is largely not a legal requirement, but a voluntary process. Thus, even though LEED (which is by far the more publicly known green certification standard) governs the certification of the green management effort, it is not a compulsory condition...

  16. Efeito de produtos alternativos para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros Effect of the alternative products for control of green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL ANDRADE DE SIQUEIRA FRANCO

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de sinergismo entre misturas de produtos alternativos aos fungicidas, para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros. Foram testados dez produtos individualmente e trinta e cinco combinações destes produtos dois a dois, em comparação com tiabendazole e testemunha, com e sem inoculação. Os produtos testados não apresentaram efeito de sinergismo, exceto a mistura carbonato de Na + ácido bórico. Carbonato de Na e ácido bórico controlaram a doença em 78 e 87%, respectivamente, e, utilizando a mistura, o controle foi de 93%. Destacaram-se, ainda no controle da doença, o bicarbonato de Na, metabissulfito de Na e as misturas de bicarbonato de sódio + ácido bórico, carbonato de Na + carbonato de K, carbonato de Na + sorbato de K, bicarbonato de Na + carbonato de Na, controlando 92; 77; 81; 77; 75 e 71%, respectivamente. O tiabendazole utilizado como padrão controlou totalmente a doença.The objective of this work was verify the ocurrence of synergism of mixtures for alternative products to the fungicides for the control of the green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruits. The efficiency of ten products, tested individually, and thirty five combinations among them, in pairs, were compared to thiabendazole and control, with and without inoculation. The products didn't present a synergism effect, except the mixture sodium carbonate + boric acid, that had a disease control of 93%. The products, sodium carbonate and boric acid controled 78 and 87%, respectively. The sodium bicarbonate, sodium methabisulphite and the mixtures of sodium bicarbonate + boric acid, sodium carbonate + potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate + potassium sorbate, sodium bicarbonate + sodium carbonate had a disease control of 92%, 77%, 81%, 77%, 75% and 71%, respectively. The fungicide treatment with thiabendazole used by standard had a whole disease control.

  17. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  18. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  19. Green roofs : a resource manual for municipal policy makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, G.; Currie, B.A.; Doshi, H.; Wieditz, I. [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    As knowledge of the environmental benefits of green roofs and technology improves, green roofs are quickly gaining acceptance in North America. European jurisdictions have been using green roof technology for stormwater management, to reduce energy use in buildings and to increase amenity space. By reviewing the reasons that municipalities throughout the world have set green roof policies and programs, policy makers can more easily determine which policies suit their needs. This manual provided an overview of international and Canadian green roof policies and programs. It presented information on 12 jurisdictions that demonstrated leadership in green roof policy development. The manual also presented information on an additional 13 jurisdictions with less-developed green roof policies. Activities that were discussed for each of these jurisdictions included: description of jurisdiction; key motivators; green roof policy; process to establish policy; effectiveness; lessons learned; future predictions; and applicability to Canada of international jurisdictions. The manual also provided general information on green roofs such as a definition of green roofs and green roof terminology. Key motivators for green roofs include stormwater runoff control; reduction in urban heat-island effect; reduction in building energy consumption; and air pollution control. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2010 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winner, Clarke, developed Natular, a plaster matrix that encapsulates the pesticide spinosad, slowly releasing it into water and effectively controlling mosquito larvae.

  1. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop......Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  2. Green Application for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Most space vehicle auxiliary power units (APUs) use hydrazine propellant for generating power. Hydrazine is a toxic, hazardous fuel that requires special safety equipment and processes for handling and loading. In recent years, there has been development of two green propellants (less toxic) that could enable their use in APUs. The Swedish government, in concert with the Swedish Space Corporation, has developed a propellant based on ammonium dinitramide (LMP-103S) that was flown on the Prisma spacecraft in 2010. The United States Air Force (USAF) has been developing a propellant based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (AFM315E) that is scheduled to fly on the Green Propellant Infusion Mission in the spring of 2016 to demonstrate apogee and reaction control thrusters. However, no one else in the Agency is currently pursuing use of green propellants for application to the APUs. Per the TA-01 Launch Propulsion Roadmap, the Space Technology Mission Directorate had identified the need to have a green propellant APU by 2015. This is our motivation for continuing activities.

  3. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  4. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Santoso; Rengganis Fitriani

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawangg...

  5. Modelling Lean and Green Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Susana Carla Vieira Lino Medina

    The success of an organization depends on the effective control of its supply chain. It is important to recognize new opportunities for organization and its supply chain. In the last few years the approach to lean, agile, resilient and green supply chain paradigms has been addressed in the scientific literature. Research in this field shows that the integration of these concepts revealed some contradictions among so many paradigms. This thesis is mainly focused on the lean and green approaches. Thirteen different management frameworks, embodied in awards, standards and tools were studied to understand if they could contribute for the modelling process of a lean and green approach. The study reveals a number of categories that are common in most management frameworks, providing adequate conditions for a lean and green supply chain transformation. A conceptual framework for the evaluation of a lean and green organization`s supply chain was proposed. The framework considers six key criteria, namely, leadership, people, strategic planning, stakeholders, processes and results. It was proposed an assessment method considering a criteria score for each criterion. The purpose is to understand how lean and green supply chain can be compatible, using principles, practices, techniques or tools (i.e. elements) that support both, a lean and a green approach, in all key criteria. A case study in the automotive upstream supply chain was performed to understand more deeply if the elements proposed for the conceptual framework could be implemented in a real-scenario. Based on the conceptual framework and the case study, a roadmap to achieve a lean-green transformation is presented. The proposed roadmap revealed its contribution to the understanding on how and when an organization`s supply chain should apply the lean and green elements. This study is relevant to practice, as it may assist managers in the adoption of a lean and green supply chain approach, giving insights for the

  6. Allelopathic effects of eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf leachate on the growth of wheat and green gram and its control by farm yard manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Bibi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Farm Yard Manure (FYM) significantly reduced the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leachate. This influence was studied on morphological and physiological aspect of two taxonomically different plants (wheat and green gram). E. camaldulensis aqueous leachate applied (4), 1% and 5% alone and together with FYM and the results showed that E. camaldulensis leaf leachate had inhibitory effects on wheat growth, while promoted shoot and root growth in green gram when supplied in low concentration. The combined effects of litter and FYM reduced the inhibitory effects of leachate and supported the growth of both plants. These results suggested that, if both studied crops have to be cultivated in an agricultural land surrounded by E. camaldulensis tree, the possible growth rate could be supported by the application of FYM. But in the absence of this support, the plant growth was significantly arrested due to allelopathic effect of E. ctunaldulensis leaf leachate. (author)

  7. Allelopathic effects of eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf leachate on the growth of wheat and green gram and its control by farm yard manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Bibi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Farm Yard Manure (FYM) significantly reduced the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leachate. This influence was studied on morphological and physiological aspect of two taxonomically different plants (wheat and green gram). E. camaldtllensis aqueous leachate applied at the rate of 1% and 5% alone and together with FYM and the results showed that E. camaldulensis leaf leachate had inhibitory effects on wheat growth, while promoted shoot and root growth in green gram when supplied in low concentration. The combined effects of litter and FYM reduced the inhibitory effects of leachate and supported the growth of both plants. These results suggested that, if both studied crops have to be cultivated in an agricultural land surrounded by E. camaldulensis tree, the possible growth rate could be supported by the application Of FYM. But in the absence of this support, the plant growth was significantly arrested due to allelopathic effect of E. camaldulensis leaf leachate. (author)

  8. Monitoring and research to describe geomorphic effects of the 2011 controlled flood on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Alexander, Jason A.; Kohl, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, occurred in response to high snowpack in the middle Rocky Mountains. This was the third highest recorded discharge along the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, since its initial closure in November 1962 and motivated a research effort to document effects of these flows on channel morphology and sedimentology at four long-term monitoring sites within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah. Data collected in September 2011 included raft-based bathymetric surveys, ground-based surveys of banks, channel cross sections and vegetation-plot locations, sand-bar stratigraphy, and painted rock recovery on gravel bars. As part of this surveying effort, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were collected at benchmarks on the canyon rim and along the river corridor to establish a high-resolution survey control network. This survey control network allows for the collection of repeatable spatial and elevation data necessary for high accuracy geomorphic change detection. Nearly 10,000 ground survey points and more than 20,000 bathymetric points (at 1-meter resolution) were collected over a 5-day field campaign, allowing for the construction of reach-scale digital elevation models (DEMs). Additionally, we evaluated long-term geomorphic change at these sites using repeat topographic surveys of eight monumented cross sections at each of the four sites. Analysis of DEMs and channel cross sections show a spatially variable pattern of erosion and deposition, both within and between reaches. As much as 5 meters of scour occurred in pools downstream from flow constrictions, especially in channel segments where gravel bars were absent. By contrast, some channel cross sections were stable during the 2011 floods, and have shown almost no change in over a decade of monitoring. Partial mobility of gravel bars occurred, and although in some locations

  9. PENGEMBANGAN PRODUK MI INSTAN DARI TEPUNG HOTONG (Setaria italica Beauv. DAN PENDUGAAN UMUR SIMPANNYA DENGAN METODE AKSELERASI [Development of Instant Noodle Made from Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica Beauv. Flour and Prediction of Its Shelf Life using Acceleration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyono1*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop instant noodle products made from foxtail millet flour and to predict their shelf life using acceleration method. The instant noodle was produced using 30, 35, 40% water, and steaming process for 10, 15, 20 minutes. The best noodle product was achieved with 30% water addition and 10 minutes steaming. The noodle contained 2.33% moisture, 1.86% ash, 9.83% protein, 14.66% fat, and 71.33% carbohydrate. The product had 70.47 Hue value, 68.64 whiteness (L, 1641.33 gramforce hardness, 473.43 gramforce stickiness, 160.02% water absorption, 19.38% cooking loss, and 6.5 minutes rehydration time. Prediction of the product shelf life using the acceleration method showed that the noodle product had a shelf life of 99.86 days based on its rancidity.

  10. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  11. Greening the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  12. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  13. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  14. Green for rarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raal, F.A.; Robinson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Green diamonds once recovered from Witwatersrand gold/uranium deposits, are now a thing of the past with the modernisation of extraction metallurgy methods. The green colouration has been shown to be due to radiation from uranium present in the ore

  15. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  16. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  17. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  18. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  19. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  20. Green IT engineering components, networks and systems implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratenko, Yuriy; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    This book presents modern approaches to improving the energy efficiency, safety and environmental performance of industrial processes and products, based on the application of advanced trends in Green Information Technologies (IT) Engineering to components, networks and complex systems (software, programmable and hardware components, communications, Cloud and IoT-based systems, as well as IT infrastructures). The book’s 16 chapters, prepared by authors from Greece, Malaysia, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine and the United Kingdom, are grouped into four sections: (1) The Green Internet of Things, Cloud Computing and Data Mining, (2) Green Mobile and Embedded Control Systems, (3) Green Logic and FPGA Design, and (4) Green IT for Industry and Smart Grids. The book will motivate researchers and engineers from different IT domains to develop, implement and propagate green values in complex systems. Further, it will benefit all scientists and graduate students pursuing research in computer science with a focus on green ...

  1. Influence of governance structure on green stormwater infrastructure investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kristina G.; Grimm, Nancy B.; York, Abigail M.

    2018-01-01

    Communities are faced with the challenge of meeting regulatory requirements mandating reductions in water pollution from stormwater and combined sewer overflows (CSO). Green stormwater infrastructure and gray stormwater infrastructure are two types of water management strategies communities can use to address water pollution. In this study, we used long-term control plans from 25 U.S. cities to synthesize: the types of gray and green infrastructure being used by communities to address combined sewer overflows; the types of goals set; biophysical characteristics of each city; and factors associated with the governance of stormwater management. These city characteristics were then used to identify common characteristics of “green leader” cities—those that dedicated >20% of the control plan budget in green infrastructure. Five “green leader” cities were identified: Milwaukee, WI, Philadelphia, PA, Syracuse, NY, New York City, NY, and Buffalo, NY. These five cities had explicit green infrastructure goals targeting the volume of stormwater or percentage of impervious cover managed by green infrastructure. Results suggested that the management scale and complexity of the management system are less important factors than the ability to harness a “policy window” to integrate green infrastructure into control plans. Two case studies—Philadelphia, PA, and Milwaukee, WI—indicated that green leader cities have a long history of building momentum for green infrastructure through a series of phases from experimentation, demonstration, and finally—in the case of Philadelphia—a full transition in the approach used to manage CSOs.

  2. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  3. Mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTLs that contribute to germination and early seedling drought tolerance in the interspecific cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufeng Qie

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines derived from a cross between Yugu1, a S. italica cultivar developed in China, and a wild S. viridis genotype collected from Uzbekistan. Quantitative trait loci were identified which contribute to a number of traits including promptness index, radical root length, coleoptile length and lateral root number at germinating stage and seedling survival rate was characterized by the ability of desiccated seedlings to revive after rehydration. A genetic map with 128 SSR markers which spans 1293.9 cM with an average of 14 markers per linkage group of the 9 linkage groups was constructed. A total of eighteen QTLs were detected which included nine that explained over 10% of the phenotypic variance for a given trait. Both the wild green foxtail genotype and the foxtail millet cultivar contributed the favorite alleles for traits detected in this trial, indicating that wild Setaria viridis populations may serve as a reservoir for novel stress tolerance alleles which could be employed in foxtail millet breeding.

  4. Mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTLs) that contribute to germination and early seedling drought tolerance in the interspecific cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Lufeng; Jia, Guanqing; Zhang, Wenying; Schnable, James; Shang, Zhonglin; Li, Wei; Liu, Binhui; Li, Mingzhe; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica) and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis) are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines derived from a cross between Yugu1, a S. italica cultivar developed in China, and a wild S. viridis genotype collected from Uzbekistan. Quantitative trait loci were identified which contribute to a number of traits including promptness index, radical root length, coleoptile length and lateral root number at germinating stage and seedling survival rate was characterized by the ability of desiccated seedlings to revive after rehydration. A genetic map with 128 SSR markers which spans 1293.9 cM with an average of 14 markers per linkage group of the 9 linkage groups was constructed. A total of eighteen QTLs were detected which included nine that explained over 10% of the phenotypic variance for a given trait. Both the wild green foxtail genotype and the foxtail millet cultivar contributed the favorite alleles for traits detected in this trial, indicating that wild Setaria viridis populations may serve as a reservoir for novel stress tolerance alleles which could be employed in foxtail millet breeding.

  5. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinson JA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Joe A Vinson1, Bryan R Burnham3, Mysore V Nagendran31Chemistry Department, 2Psychology Department, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA, USA; 3Health Sciences Clinic, Bangalore, IndiaBackground: Adult weight gain and obesity have become worldwide problems. Issues of cost and potential side effects of prescription weight loss drugs have led overweight and obese adults to try nutraceuticals that may aid weight loss. One promising nutraceutical is green coffee extract, which contains high concentrations of chlorogenic acids hat are known to have health benefits and to influence glucose and fat metabolism. A 22-week crossover study was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of a commercial green coffee extract product GCA™ at reducing weight and body mass in 16 overweight adults.Methods: Subjects received high-dose GCA (1050 mg, low-dose GCA (700 mg, or placebo in separate six-week treatment periods followed by two-week washout periods to reduce any influence of preceding treatment. Treatments were counterbalanced between subjects. Primary measurements were body weight, body mass index, and percent body fat. Heart rate and blood pressure were also measured.Results: Significant reductions were observed in body weight (-8.04 ± 2.31 kg, body mass index (-2.92 ± 0.85 kg/m2, and percent body fat (-4.44% ± 2.00%, as well as a small decrease in heart rate (-2.56 ± 2.85 beats per minute, but with no significant changes to diet over the course of the study. Importantly, the decreases occurred when subjects were taking GCA. Body mass index for six subjects shifted from preobesity to the normal weight range (<25.00 kg/m2.Conclusion: The results are consistent with human and animal studies and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of green coffee extract in weight loss. The results suggest that GCA may be an effective nutraceutical in reducing weight in preobese adults, and may be an inexpensive means of preventing obesity in overweight adults

  6. Study on the factors that influence the intention of college students to participate in the green building

    OpenAIRE

    Hung ChienJen; Lai Chenchen; Chen Meiyan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of green building has been extended for a period of time on both sides of the Taiwan Strait. However, there still is curiosity and skepticism in Fujian on green building. While in Taiwan, villages are filled with green-evolved houses and modern environmental farmhouses. With Theory of Planned Behavior as the framework, this study investigates influences of college students’ attitude toward green building, subjective norms of green building and perceived behavioral control of green...

  7. Green Tribology Biomimetics, Energy Conservation and Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    Tribology is the study of friction, wear and lubrication. Recently, the concept of “green tribology” as “the science and technology of the tribological aspects of ecological balance and of environmental and biological impacts” was introduced. The field of green tribology includes tribological technology that mimics living nature (biomimetic surfaces) and thus is expected to be environmentally friendly, the control of friction and wear that is of importance for energy conservation and conversion, environmental aspects of lubrication and surface modification techniques, and tribological aspects of green applications such as wind-power turbines or solar panels. This book is the first comprehensive volume on green tribology. The chapters are prepared by leading experts in their fields and cover such topics as biomimetics, environmentally friendly lubrication, tribology of wind turbines and renewable sources of energy, and ecological impact of new technologies of surface treatment.

  8. OSPF-TE Extensions for Green Routing in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Ricciardi, S.; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes extensions to the OSPF-TE protocol to enable green routing in GMPLS-controlled optical networks. Simulation results show a remarkable reduction in CO2 emissions by preferring network elements powered by green energy sources in the connection routing.......This paper proposes extensions to the OSPF-TE protocol to enable green routing in GMPLS-controlled optical networks. Simulation results show a remarkable reduction in CO2 emissions by preferring network elements powered by green energy sources in the connection routing....

  9. Selling the green dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the marketing and sales of energy generated from renewable energy sources. To purchase environmental energy in the USA, the consumer need do no more than tick a box on a sheet of paper. But, it is not just households that opt for green energy: businesses are also willing customers. A factor in the success in selling green energy to big business is that the retail price of wind power can be held constant over periods of several years, whereas fossil fuel prices can fluctuate wildly. Details of sources and sales of the top ten companies selling green energy are given

  10. Manufacturing Green Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Ooi, Can Seng

    2014-01-01

    In an increasingly global economy, being green, or having an environmentally sustainbale place brand, provides a competitive advantage. Singapore, long known as the ``garden city´´ has been a leader in green city imaging since the founding of the equatorial city-state, contributing, in large part...... to the city’s profile as the economic giant of Southeast Asia. Using a political ecology lens, the paper aims to uncover the contested socio-economic narratives of green city imaging by examining the evolution of the garden city branding scheme since Singapore’s independence in 1959. Results show...

  11. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  12. Gene mapping and functional analysis of the novel leaf color gene SiYGL1 in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Tang, Sha; Zhang, Shuo; Shan, Jianguo; Tang, Chanjuan; Chen, Qiannan; Jia, Guanqing; Han, Yuanhuai; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2016-05-01

    Setaria italica and its wild ancestor Setaria viridis are emerging as model systems for genetics and functional genomics research. However, few systematic gene mapping or functional analyses have been reported in these promising C4 models. We herein isolated the yellow-green leaf mutant (siygl1) in S. italica using forward genetics approaches. Map-based cloning revealed that SiYGL1, which is a recessive nuclear gene encoding a magnesium-chelatase D subunit (CHLD), is responsible for the mutant phenotype. A single Phe to Leu amino acid change occurring near the ATPase-conserved domain resulted in decreased chlorophyll (Chl) accumulation and modified chloroplast ultrastructure. However, the mutation enhanced the light-use efficiency of the siygl1 mutant, suggesting that the mutated CHLD protein does not completely lose its original activity, but instead, gains novel features. A transcriptional analysis of Chl a oxygenase revealed that there is a strong negative feedback control of Chl b biosynthesis in S. italica. The SiYGL1 mRNA was expressed in all examined tissues, with higher expression observed in the leaves. Comparison of gene expression profiles in wild-type and siygl1 mutant plants indicated that SiYGL1 regulates a subset of genes involved in photosynthesis (rbcL and LHCB1), thylakoid development (DEG2) and chloroplast signaling (SRP54CP). These results provide information regarding the mutant phenotype at the transcriptional level. This study demonstrated that the genetic material of a Setaria species could be ideal for gene discovery investigations using forward genetics approaches and may help to explain the molecular mechanisms associated with leaf color variation. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Sustainable green urban planning: the Green Credit Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The Green Credit Tool is evaluated as a method to quantify the value of green-spaces and to determine how these green-space-values can be replaced or compensated for within urban spatial planning projects. Design/methodology/approach – Amersfoort Local Municipality created the Green Credit

  14. Structural and Stratigraphic Controls on Methane Hydrate occurrence and distribution: Gulf of Mexico, Walker Ridge 313 and Green Canyon 955: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Priyank [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this project was to determine structural and stratigraphic controls on hydrate occurrence and distribution in Green Canyon (GC) 955 and Walker Ridge (WR) 313 blocks using seismic and well data. Gas hydrate was discovered in these blocks in coarse- and fine-grained sediments during the 2009 Joint Industrial project (JIP) Leg 11 drilling expedition. Although the immediate interest of the exploration community is exclusively hydrate which is present in coarse–grained sediments, factors that control hydrate and free gas distribution in the two blocks and whether coarse and fine-grained hydrate-bearing units are related in any manner, formed the core of this research. The project spanned from 10/01/2012 to 07/31/2016. In the project, in both the leased blocks, the interval spanning the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) was characterized using a joint analysis of sparse Ocean Bottom Seismic (OBS) and dense, surface–towed multichannel seismic (MCS) data. The project team had the luxury of calibrating their results with two well logs. Advance processing methods such as depth migration and full-waveform inversion (FWI) were used for seismic data analysis. Hydrate quantification was achieved through interpretation of the FWI velocity field using appropriate rock physics models at both blocks. The seismic modeling/inversion methodology (common to both GC955 and WR313 blocks) was as follows. First, the MCS data were depth migrated using a P-wave velocity (VP) model constructed using inversion of reflection arrival times of a few (four in both cases) key horizons carefully picked in the OBS data to farthest possible offsets. Then, the resolution of the traveltime VP model was improved to wavelength scale by inverting OBS gathers up to the highest frequency possible (21.75 Hz for GC955 and 17.5 for WR313) using FWI. Finally, the hydrate saturation (or the volume fraction) was estimated at the well location assuming one of the other hydrate morphology (filling the

  15. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  16. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  17. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  18. Green certificates causing inconvenience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    From early 2002, producers of green energy in selected countries have been able to benefit from generous financial support in the Netherlands. Thus, there has been increased sale of green certificates from Norway and Sweden. But the condition that physical energy delivery should accompany the certificates has caused a marked rise in the price of energy in transit through Germany to the Netherlands. This article discusses the green certificate concept and the experience gained from the Netherlands. One conclusion is that if large-scale trade with green certificates is introduced in Europe without the condition of accompanying energy delivery, then producers of hydro-electric power in Norway and Sweden may be the losers

  19. Green space as classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Peter; Schipperijn, Jasper; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    More and more Danish teachers have started introducing curriculum-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly ‘outdoor school’ day for school children. This move towards schooling in non-classroom spaces presents a challenge for green space managers. Basic managerial knowledge related to what......, who, when and where has thus far only been supported by anecdotal evidence, but seems fundamental to the decision-making of a range of green space providers. The present study aims to describe, characterise and discuss outdoor teachers’ use, preferences and ecostrategies in relation to green space....... A nationwide survey was conducted among Danish teachers practising outdoor teaching (107 respondents), and it showed that a majority used and preferred forest areas. The outdoor teachers used mainly school grounds and local green space for their outdoor teaching with a majority using the same place or mostly...

  20. Green by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on the two sources of energy including green energy and gray energy. It discusses several facts which includes lower levels of greenhouse gases and conventional pollutants, relationship between economic incentives and underlying preferences and potential effects...

  1. Green Sturgeon Acoustic Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is used to hold tracking data for green sturgeon tagged in Central California. The data collection began in late 2002 and is ongoing.

  2. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  3. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  4. Decon Green (trademark)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Procell, Lawrence R; Henderson, Vikki D; Sorrick, David C; Hess, Zoe A; Gehring, David G; Brickhouse, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    ...; it affords the broad-spectrum decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. Composed entirely of ingredients commonly found in cosmetics, detergents, laundry boosters, and vitamins, Decon Green (trademark...

  5. Superfund Green Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  6. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goron, Travis L; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed "orphan cereals." Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa.

  7. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Luc Goron

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana, foxtail millet (Setaria italica, kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum, proso millet (Panicum miliaceum, barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp., and little millet (Panicum sumatrense. Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed orphan cereals. Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers (e.g. nutritional quality which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa.

  8. ADVANTAGES OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanshyam Das Soni

    2017-01-01

    Technology is application of knowledge to practical requirements. Green technologies encompass various aspects of technology which help us reduce the human impact on the environment and create ways of sustainable development. Social equitability, economic feasibility and sustainability are the key parameters for green technologies. Today the environment is racing towards the tipping point at which we would have done permanent irreversible damage to the planet earth. Our current actions are pu...

  9. What is a green building?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreenegoor, R.C.P.; Krikke, T.; Mierlo, van B.P.; Pluijm, van der W.M.P.; Poortvliet, R.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2009-01-01

    What is a green building? A large amount of definitions and green rating tools prove that an exact definition is still a point of discussion. To research the differences between green rating tools, four different buildings are assessed with: EPN, BREEAM, LEED, GreenCalc+ and EcoQuantum. These tools

  10. Study on the factors that influence the intention of college students to participate in the green building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung ChienJen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of green building has been extended for a period of time on both sides of the Taiwan Strait. However, there still is curiosity and skepticism in Fujian on green building. While in Taiwan, villages are filled with green-evolved houses and modern environmental farmhouses. With Theory of Planned Behavior as the framework, this study investigates influences of college students’ attitude toward green building, subjective norms of green building and perceived behavioral control of green building on the intention to participate in the green building. Findings show that college students’ attitude toward green building and the perceived behavioral control of green building significantly influence the intention to participate in the green building, but “subjective norms of green building” doesn’t have significant influence. The reason is probably that college students are at the rebellious stage and have high self consciousness and independent viewpoints.

  11. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positively affects green product development performance. In addition, our findings also indicate that the relationship between proactive green innovation and green product development performance is partially mediated by green creativity. Accordingly, green creativity plays a critical role for companies to achieve a great green product development performance. However, reactive green innovation does not significantly influence green creativity and green product development performance. Companies should develop proactive green innovation rather than reactive green innovation in order to enhance their green creativity and increase their product development performance.

  12. Green economy and green jobs; Vihreae talous ja vihreaet tyoet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkasalo, A.

    2012-05-15

    This report looks at discussions on a green economy and green jobs in international organizations such as the OECD, EU and UNEP. It also studies the structural change in the green economy in Finland and how this change will be brought forward by the year 2050 through low carbon technology and innovations. It draws special attention to how citizens' perception of risks and their development impact the approval and acceptance of climate policies and measures. Finland will continue to be a country that utilises natural resources, and where a large part of its industrial sector will be energy- and material-intensive forest, mining and basic metal industries. The following factors will have an impact on work: Energy production is mainly based on renewable energy sources such as bio-, wind and solar power. Energy and material efficiency are important targets; emissions will decrease also in work places. Repairs and wood-based building will increase; new houses will produce energy. Reuse will increase; former waste disposal sites will function as mines. Organic and GMO foodstuffs will become popular. Electric and hybrid cars will take over the markets. Environmental applications of gene- and nanotechnology will become widely used. Physical workplaces and strictly controlled working times will lose their importance; virtual offices and remote work become popular. Products will be produced to last, with renewable usage in mind, and repair and maintenance of products will become more common. Occupational health and safety issues are of paramount importance especially in bio-energy production, repair and maintenance work, as well as waste management. Especially nano- and biotechnology and hazardous chemicals require careful risk management; the precautionary principle is applied to them. Studies on a green economy and green jobs usually look very positively at the possibilities of creating new jobs through environmental policies. Employment estimates done in the past may

  13. Situating Green Infrastructure in Context: Adaptive Socio-Hydrology for Sustainable Cities - poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefits of green infrastructure (GI) in controlling urban hydrologic processes have largely focused on practical matters like stormwater management, which drives the planning stage. Green Infrastructure design and implementation usually takes into account physical site chara...

  14. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  15. Green technology meets ecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Radošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying concept and principles of green chemistry into different technological processes, green technologies are developed. The environmental and economic benefits of “green” approach is achieved through several directions, such as the use of renewable raw materials, creation of economic efficiency, the use of alternative reaction conditions, as well as the application of non-conventional solvents. From the point view of green chemistry, alternative solvents, in order to be a “green“ substitution to hazardous organic solvents, should be: non-volatile, non-flammable, stabile, synthesized by an environmentally friendly procedure, nontoxic and biodegradable. The toxic impact of all newly synthesized chemicals, such as alternative solvents, could be determined by methods and techniques of ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology, an interdisciplinary scientific field, can serve as a way of monitoring the greenness of the processes. In vivo and in vitro experiments are used to study the effects of chemicals on different levels of organizations, from molecules to communities and ecosystem. The usage of in vitro methods is encouraged by a scientific community and regulatory agencies as an alternative to in vivo studies in order to reduce the number of laboratory animals used in the toxicological studies. Therefore, in this paper we gave a brief overview on the usage of animal cell cultures within the field of green chemistry and technology.

  16. Labelling it green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.; Brocklehurst, F. [ETSU, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The first two rounds of contracts awarded through the NFFO will expire in December 1998. These generators will then be looking for new contracts to supply renewable electricity. Since these projects were initiated the renewable energy market has grown steadily, but it is still mainly restricted to the protected market within NFFO. Consumer interest has grown steadily too, fuelled by the emergence of green energy supply companies. Market research has indicated that consumers would like the choice of green electricity, what remains unclear is if they would exercise this choice and to what extent they might pay a premium price for the privilege. From September 1998 the phased introduction of domestic sector franchise de-regulation commences. In principle, consumers can purchase their electricity from any supplier. This provides a golden opportunity for green generation. To make the most of this opportunity generators and suppliers will need to clearly explain to the public what their product is, how it is different and how everyone benefits from its use. A major marketing issue will be to provide assurance to the general public, that for example, they can indeed purchase energy from a windfarm in Wales, despite living in areas other than Wales. The DTI is assisting the expansion of the green market into the domestic sector via funding a project which plans to deliver an accreditation scheme in September 1998. This will provide a means of verifying the green claims of generators/supply companies. (Author)

  17. Studies towards the sex pheromone of the green capsid bug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, F.P.

    2001-01-01

    The green capsid bug, Lygocoris pabulinus (L.) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a serious pest in fruit orchards, which is difficult to control. Because it is difficult to determine the actual population density, fruit growers apply insecticides against the green capsid bug on

  18. Predicting women purchase intention for green food products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiyanti, Sudiyanti

    2009-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2009 This study investigated the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting women consumers on their intention towards purchasing green food products among 406 participants. Using linear regression, five independent variables had been examined: attitude towards green food products, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and perceived difficulty in predicting purchase intention. The ...

  19. Trading green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out into the feasibility of developing an electricity trading mechanism which would allow consumers to purchase electricity which has been derived from renewable energy resources. This study was part funded by the European Commission (ALTENER), the Department of Trade and Industry and a number of private sector companies. The trading mechanism is known as the Green Pool. As a result of the findings of this study discussions are being held with potential generators and suppliers to establish a Green Pool plc. The aim is to encourage the development of new renewable energy projects outside the NFFO and SRO schemes. The Green Pool plc will be owned by the generators and its main objective will be to market the electricity produced by its members. (Author)

  20. Certified: green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, S.; Brown, L.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the energy industry in the USA may be a force favouring the environment but for the consumer it is something of a nightmare since there are so many options with respect to both price, service and environmental awareness. However, there is now a marked tendency for companies wishing to be seen as 'green' to favour environmentally aware suppliers. Indeed, some suppliers holding formal qualifications in 'greenness' believe they are justified in charging a premium for their energy. The question is asked 'what is green?' and the authors discuss the answers at some length: the hydro industry fares well in such a discussion. The authors (from Scientific Certification Systems) believe that certification provides a rational explanation of prices and why charging a premium may be justifiable.(UK)

  1. GREEN BANKING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the green banking in Romania, a new approach of conducting the banking business through considering the corporate social responsibility and environmental aspects. Nowadays, it is difficult to face the globalization and competition in order to asssure the implementation of the green banking practices. The aim of the present study is to identify corporations that have sustainability concerns. To achieve this objective, we set some hypothesis and after this we showed that the corporations are more likely to be included in the list of top banks in the world. Our study is relevant for future research in this area, because of the importance of such aspects in corporations nowadays.The conclusions of our study is that green banking practices in Romania is in an incipient stage

  2. Green Logistics Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  3. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...... and much in favour of industry. In fact, CO2 tax rates for industry are, on average, six times lower than those for households. We argue that the reason for this tax differentiation is that industry, in contrast to households, has a strong capability to lobby. Therefore, green taxation is effectively...... blocked and the desired environmental results are not being achieved. Why then is green taxation persistently applied in relation to industry? We argue that strong fiscal incentives drive this policy choice at the expense of environmental concerns because it allows environmental bureaucracies to budget-maximize....

  4. Genetic conservation and utilization of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv. for nutritious food production: a case of sustainable agriculture responding to climate change in the mountainous region in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Van Cuong; Hoang Viet Cuong; Nguyen Duc Doan; Duong Thi Thu Hang; Nguyen Thi Thanh Thuy; Cao Huong Giang

    2009-01-01

    Foxtail millet a plant with high nutrient and high heavy metal content in the grain, is suitable to grow under drought conditions. Using millet grain to produce food for man is necessary and will bring higher economic impacts for farmers in the mountainous regions. In this study, a total of four varieties of foxtail millet (CM1, CM9, CM10 and CM11), collected in Vietnam, are described and their botanical characters characterized. Correlations were made between photosynthetic characters and dry matter accumulation under irrigated, drought and recovering conditions in a pot experiment. A field experiment was also conducted to estimate the effect of three ecological regions such as Gialam (Red River Delta with an altitude of 5-20 meters), Bacha (northern mountainous region with an altitude of 800-1000 meters) and Sapa (northern mountainous region with an altitude of 1500-1800 meters) on several agronomic characters viz., growth duration, dry matter accumulation, grain yield and grain quality of four cultivars. The average grain yield of all millet varieties were the highest in Sapa (2.7 ton/ha), followed by Bacha (2.0 ton/ha) and Gialam (1.1 ton/ha), mainly because of the large number spikelets per panicle and the higher 1000-grain weight. The highest grain yield was observed for CM1 in Gialam, whereas it was CM9 in Bacha and Sapa. This was due to the different varietal response to temperature, water supply and/or radiation. Protein content was highest for CM1 in Hanoi (14.44%) and Sapa (12.66%) but it was CM11 in Bacha (11.69%). CM11 showed the highest starch content in all three ecological regions. In Hanoi and Sapa, CM9 manifested the highest lipid content but in Bacha, it was CM10. Four levels of N fertilizer (0, 30, 45 and 60 kg N per ha) were applied in Gialam, resulting in highest grain yield for CM1 at 60 kg N level (2.78 ton per ha), but the highest for CM10 was at 45 kg N level (3.02 ton per ha). This was due to the higher chlorophyll content at the

  5. Green-synthesised nanoparticles from Melia azedarach seeds and the cyclopoid crustacean Cyclops vernalis: an eco-friendly route to control the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbu, Priya; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Suresh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    The impact of green-synthesised mosquitocidal nanoparticles on non-target aquatic predators is poorly studied. In this research, we proposed a single-step method to synthesise silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) using the seed extract of Melia azedarach. Ag NP were characterised using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In laboratory assays on Anopheles stephensi, Ag NP showed LC50 ranging from 2.897 (I instar larvae) to 14.548 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of Ag NP (10 × LC50) lead to complete elimination of larval populations after 72 h. The application of Ag NP in the aquatic environment did not show negative adverse effects on predatory efficiency of the mosquito natural enemy Cyclops vernalis. Overall, this study highlights the concrete possibility to employ M. azedarach-synthesised Ag NP on young instars of malaria vectors.

  6. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  7. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  8. Green in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Calero Munoz, Coral

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book that presents a comprehensive overview of sustainability aspects in software engineering. Its format follows the structure of the SWEBOK and covers the key areas involved in the incorporation of green aspects in software engineering, encompassing topics from requirement elicitation to quality assurance and maintenance, while also considering professional practices and economic aspects. The book consists of thirteen chapters, which are structured in five parts. First the "Introduction" gives an overview of the primary general concepts related to Green IT, discussing wha

  9. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tobiszewski; Mariusz Marć; Agnieszka Gałuszka; Jacek Namieśnik

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-establis...

  10. Sustainable house construction and green financing. Explanation for 'green mortgages'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Dutch government finances the sustainable construction of new houses by means of so-called 'green loans'. Extra costs for the construction of a sustainable house are compensated by a lower interest rate for a green loan. In this brochure it is explained when green financing of house construction is possible and how to apply for such loans

  11. Prospective Randomized Controlled Study on the Efficacy of Multimedia Informed Consent for Patients Scheduled to Undergo Green-Light High-Performance System Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yeub Ham

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multimedia informed consent (IC presentation on the understanding and satisfaction of patients who were scheduled to receive 120-W green-light high-performance system photoselective vaporization of the prostate (HPS-PVP. Materials and Methods: A multimedia IC (M-IC presentation for HPS-PVP was developed. Forty men with benign prostatic hyperplasia who were scheduled to undergo HPS-PVP were prospectively randomized to a conventional written IC group (W-IC group, n=20 or the M-IC group (n=20. The allocated IC was obtained by one certified urologist, followed by a 15-question test (maximum score, 15 to evaluate objective understanding, and questionnaires on subjective understanding (range, 0∼10 and satisfaction (range, 0∼10 using a visual analogue scale. Results: Demographic characteristics, including age and the highest level of education, did not significantly differ between the two groups. No significant differences were found in scores reflecting the objective understanding of HPS-PVP (9.9±2.3 vs. 10.6±2.8, p=0.332 or in subjective understanding scores (7.5±2.1 vs. 8.6±1.7, p=0.122; however, the M-IC group showed higher satisfaction scores than the W-IC group (7.4±1.7 vs. 8.4±1.5, p=0.033. After adjusting for age and educational level, the M-IC group still had significantly higher satisfaction scores. Conclusions: M-IC did not enhance the objective knowledge of patients regarding this surgical procedure. However, it improved the satisfaction of patients with the IC process itself.

  12. Prospective Randomized Controlled Study on the Efficacy of Multimedia Informed Consent for Patients Scheduled to Undergo Green-Light High-Performance System Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Dong Yeub; Choi, Woo Suk; Song, Sang Hoon; Ahn, Young-Joon; Park, Hyoung Keun; Kim, Hyeong Gon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multimedia informed consent (IC) presentation on the understanding and satisfaction of patients who were scheduled to receive 120-W green-light high-performance system photoselective vaporization of the prostate (HPS-PVP). Materials and Methods A multimedia IC (M-IC) presentation for HPS-PVP was developed. Forty men with benign prostatic hyperplasia who were scheduled to undergo HPS-PVP were prospectively randomized to a conventional written IC group (W-IC group, n=20) or the M-IC group (n=20). The allocated IC was obtained by one certified urologist, followed by a 15-question test (maximum score, 15) to evaluate objective understanding, and questionnaires on subjective understanding (range, 0~10) and satisfaction (range, 0~10) using a visual analogue scale. Results Demographic characteristics, including age and the highest level of education, did not significantly differ between the two groups. No significant differences were found in scores reflecting the objective understanding of HPS-PVP (9.9±2.3 vs. 10.6±2.8, p=0.332) or in subjective understanding scores (7.5±2.1 vs. 8.6±1.7, p=0.122); however, the M-IC group showed higher satisfaction scores than the W-IC group (7.4±1.7 vs. 8.4±1.5, p=0.033). After adjusting for age and educational level, the M-IC group still had significantly higher satisfaction scores. Conclusions M-IC did not enhance the objective knowledge of patients regarding this surgical procedure. However, it improved the satisfaction of patients with the IC process itself. PMID:27169129

  13. Plants as green phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Plants can act as vertical communication channels or `green phones¿ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The

  14. Putting on the green

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green chemistry movement is scrutinized for marks of tangible success in this short perspective. Beginning with the easily identified harm of the Union Carbide Bhopal, India disaster and the concerns of Love Canal site in Niagara Falls, NY the public can begin to more easily ...

  15. Green, Brown, and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Kai Lai

    1995-01-01

    This volume shows modern probabilistic methods in action: Brownian Motion Process as applied to the electrical phenomena investigated by Green et al., beginning with the Newton-Coulomb potential and ending with solutions by first and last exits of Brownian paths from conductors.

  16. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...

  17. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  18. The Green Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    As the green movement grows, studies provide conclusive evidence about the benefits of environmentally conscious practices indoors and outdoors. Schools are no exception. Many of these studies demonstrate how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools adversely affects many of the nation's 55 million students with health problems such as asthma and…

  19. A green chemistry approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    One-pot synthesis of quinaldine derivatives by using microwave irradiation without any solvent – A green chemistry approach. JAVAD SAFARI*, SAYED HOSSEIN BANITABA and SEPEHR SADEGH SAMIEI. Department of Chemistry, The Faculty of sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan,. P.O. Box 87317-51167, I.R. Iran.

  20. Between green and grey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg

    2016-01-01

    Original title: Tussen groen en grijs Taking cuttings is cool. Growing vegetables is all the rage. Green oases can now be found scattered throughout Dutch towns and cities: community gardens and roof gardens where residents can go to relax and enjoy themselves, improve the appearance of their

  1. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  2. Being 'green' helps profitability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect [it

  3. Lean Green Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been among the leaders nationwide in adopting green initiatives, partly due to their demographics, but also because they are facing their own budget pressures. Virtualization has become the poster child of many schools' efforts, because it provides significant bang for the buck. However, more and more higher…

  4. Greening China Naturally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shixiong Cao; Ge Sun; Zhiqiang Zhang; Liding Che; Qi Feng; et. al.

    2011-01-01

    China leads the world in afforestation, and is one of the few countries whose forested area is increasing. However, this massive “greening” effort has been less effective than expected; afforestation has sometimes produced unintended environmental, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences, and has failed to achieve the desired ecological benefits. Where afforestation...

  5. Nanoreactors for green catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Martino, M.T.; Abdelmohsen, L.K.E.A.; Rutjes, Floris P.J.T.; van Hest, J.C.M.; Hessel, V.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable and environmentally benign production are key drivers for developments in the chemical industrial sector, as protecting our planet has become a significant element that should be considered for every industrial breakthrough or technological advancement. As a result, the concept of green

  6. Green Maritime Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    By green maritime logistics we mean achieving an acceptable environmental performance of the maritime transport logistical supply chain while at the same time respecting traditional economic criteria. In this paper the environmental focus is on maritime emissions. Achieving such goal may involve ...

  7. Green Software Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagroep, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    The rising energy consumption of the ICT industry has triggered a quest for more green, energy efficient ICT solutions. The role of software as the true consumer of power and its potential contribution to reach sustainability goals has increasingly been acknowledged. At the same time, it is shown to

  8. Frobenius Green functors

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    These notes provide an informal introduction to a type of Mackey functor that arises naturally in algebraic topology in connection with Morava $K$-theory of classifying spaces of finite groups. The main aim is to identify key algebraic aspects of the Green functor structure obtained by applying a Morava $K$-theory to such classifying spaces.

  9. Global Green Growth Institute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel

    2017-01-01

    Har man fulgt historien om Venstres gruppeformand Lars Løkkes rejser på 1. klasse i forbindelse med formandsposten for Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) er der sikkert nogle der undrer sig over, hvad GGGI er for en størrelse. Medierne præsenterer GGGI som en international klimaorganisation, der...

  10. Green Building Tools for Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribal green building tools and funding information to support tribal building code adoption, healthy building, siting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, water conservation, green building materials, recycling and adaptation and resilience.

  11. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  12. Benefits of Green Power Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn about the benefits of becoming a Green Power Partner.

  13. The green highway forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  14. Green function on product networks

    OpenAIRE

    Arauz Lombardía, Cristina; Carmona Mejías, Ángeles; Encinas Bachiller, Andrés Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Our objective is to determine the Green function of product networks in terms of the Green function of one of the factor networks and the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Schr odinger operator of the other factor network, which we consider that are known. Moreover, we use these results to obtain the Green function of spider networks in terms of Green functions over cicles and paths. Peer Reviewed

  15. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  16. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Santoso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawanggede Village, Lowokwaru Sub-district, Malang City. The sampling method used nonprobability accidential sampling techniques. The numbers of respondents were 113 consumers in study site. Data were collected by interview using questionnaires. The method of analysis used Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA. The analysis showed that the green packaging, green products, and green advertising had positive significant influence on consumer perceptions. Meanwhile, green product and consumer perception had positive significant influence on purchasing interest, but the green packaging and green advertising has not found sufficient evidence in influencing purchasing intention.

  17. Refractive Index of Black and Green Liquors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Avramenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of reliable data on the optical properties of black and green liquors complicates control of their composition in technological process of sulphate cellulose production. In this regard the paper presents measurement results of refraction index of black liquors n (k,t at concentration in solutions of bone-dry solids up to k = 70% and at temperatures t = 10-90 °C, as well as in green liquors n(C,t at the total alkalinity of C = 0-250 g/l and in the same temperature range. All samples of solutions of black and green liquors were provided by Segezha Pulp and Paper Mill and certified in factory laboratory. Measurements were taken by means of the laboratory Abbe refractometer (URL-1, digital refractometer "Expert pro", goniometer spectrometer GS-5, and ultra-violet spectrophotometer as well. The work also presents optical D density spectra in the ultra-violet region of the wavelengths for the samples of a green liquor and main mineral component to form it, i.e. Na2S (sodium sulphide. To calculate dispersion of n (λ in the visible spectral range, here a Lorentz single-oscillator model was used. The paper discusses study results of dispersive dependence of refraction index in green liquors with various concentration and chemical components of n (λ, C forming them at t = 20°C. Computing and experimental dependences of n (λ had not only good qualitative, but also quite satisfactory quantitative compliance. The work also describes main mineral components defining optical properties in these liquors. Given here data on concentration and temperature dependences of a refraction index in black n(k,t and green n(C,t liquors have been never published before. These data are of essential interest to control soda recovery technologies in manufacturing sulphate cellulose. The received results can be also used to tune and calibrate modern domestic and foreign industrial refractometers.

  18. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  19. Green mortgages in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, N.

    1997-01-01

    Since November 1996 sustainable building of houses is also part of the fiscal Regulation for Green Projects (i.e. the stimulation of environment-friendly investments). The extension of that financial regulation resulted in a new product: Green Mortgages. The conditions that have to be met to be qualified for a Green Mortgage are briefly outlined

  20. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  1. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  2. Investing in a green future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Christa

    2018-01-01

    The growing green bond market reflects the financial sector's awakening to climate risk. New research examining the US municipal bond market suggests a positive green bond premium in recent years, driven by differences in credit quality. As climate-risk disclosure becomes more widespread, investors may show willingness to pay green premiums.

  3. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  4. A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blind, Two-Period Crossover Pharmacokinetic Trial Comparing Green Coffee Bean Extract-A Botanically Sourced Caffeine-With a Synthetic USP Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kayce; Knight, Katelin; Kalman, Douglas; Hewlings, Susan

    2018-04-16

    Coffee is a primary dietary source of the chlorogenic acids (CGAs) of phenolic compounds. Coffee contains caffeine and other phytonutrients, including CGAs. Caffeine on its own has been well characterized and descried pharmacokinetically in the literature, less so for CGAs. The purpose of this double-blind crossover study was to determine the comparative pharmacokinetics of CGAs with caffeine (natural extract) with synthetic caffeine (US Pharmacopeia [USP] standard). Sixteen healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to take 1 dose of product 1, 60 mg of botanically sourced caffeine from 480 mg of green coffee bean extract, or product 2, 60 mg of synthetic USP caffeine, with 5 days between. Blood analysis was done to determine the levels of CGA compounds, more specifically 3-, 4-, and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), and serum caffeine. The natural caffeine extract exhibited mean peak concentrations (C max ) of 3-CQA (11.4 ng/mL), 4-CQA (6.84 ng/mL), and 5-CQA (7.20 ng/mL). The mean systemic 4-hour exposure (AUC 0-4 h ) was 3-CQA (27.3 ng·h/mL), 4-CQA (16.1 ng·h/mL), and 5-CQA (15.7 ng·h/mL). The median t max was 3-CQA (1.00 hour), 4-CQA (1.00 hour), and 5-CQA (1.50 hours). The t max of caffeine was 0.75 hours (natural extract) and 0.63 hours (synthetic caffeine). C max and AUC 0-4 h of serum caffeine were statistically equivalent between products. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (GMRs) of C max and AUC 0-4 h of caffeine were 97.77% (natural extract) and 98.33% (synthetic caffeine). It would appear that CGA compounds from the natural caffeine extract are bioavailable, and 3-CGA may be the compound most absorbed. In addition, caffeine sourced from natural extract versus synthetic were statistically similar for pharmacokinetic parameters. There were no adverse events or safety concerns. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. Improving the urban green system and green network through the rehabilitation of railway rust areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutter Dóra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Industrial Revolution had a negative impact on both the city and the environment. By the second half of the 19th century, the urban erosion of industrial cities cried for direct intervention and curing. The methods developed either along an urban or an anti-urban philosophy: they resulted in the new models of green belt systems aimed at solving all the main urban problems with restructuring the urban fabric, controlling the urban spread into the rural landscape, the lack of green areas and open spaces for recreation and social life, and the lack of green spaces for ventilation. Nowadays, the major cities and capitals around the globe are competing for titles such as healthier, more liveable or even greener city. Given the unfortunate attributes of the urban structure in the historical cities, the development of new transportation sites or green areas is an extremely difficult issue. On the other hand, in the big cities, the brownfield sites are considered as reserve areas for sustainable urban development. Reusing the brownfields and rust areas is already a land saving urban development approach and in case of a complex and ecological urban rehabilitation it can underlie the development of an efficient urban green system and green network.

  6. A Governance and Management Framework for Green IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Patón-Romero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Green Information Technology (IT has grown enormously, and has become an increasingly important and essential area, providing multiple benefits to the organizations that focus on it. It is for this reason that there is an increasing number of organizations embracing the idea of Green IT. However, Green IT is a very young field and each organization implements it according to its own criteria. That is why it is extremely important to develop the bases or best practices of governance and management that allow organizations to implement Green IT practices correctly and standardize them. In this article, we propose the “Governance and Management Framework for Green IT”, establishing the characteristics needed to carry out the governance and management of Green IT in an organization, and perform audits in this area. This framework is based on COBIT 5, which is a general framework for the control and audit of different areas related to IT. The results obtained through different validations demonstrate the validity and usefulness of the framework developed in the field of Green IT, providing a complete guide to the organizations in their efforts to implement, control and/or improve the practices of Green IT in their processes and day-to-day operations.

  7. Green Consumerism : an Eco-Friendly Behaviour Form Through The Green Product Consumption and Green Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Wiwik

    2017-01-01

    This research is referred to analyse the influence of consumer attitude of green product towards purchase intention. The consumer attitude of green product is a psychological tendencies that is expressed by evaluating a certain entity with some advantage or disadvantage considerations. The problem of this research is the low of cunsumer awareness to consume green product, because the lack to comprehend the importance of green product usage for health and eco-friendly. The purpose of this rese...

  8. A Complete Set of Technologies for Green Food Pork Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing-wu; SHAN An-shan; JIANG Jiu-tian; ZHANG Tian-feng

    2003-01-01

    Key technologies for green food pork production were described in this article,as aspects of business standardization;production equipments and facilities,product quality control;and pork production site establishment.

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1999 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, developed spinosad, a highly selective, low-toxicity, nonpersistant insecticide made by a soil microorganism. It controls many chewing insect pests.

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1996 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Rohm and Haas, developed Sea-Nine, a marine antifoulant to control plants and animals on ship hulls. Sea-Nine replaces persistent, toxic organotin antifoulants.

  11. Green roofs; Les toitures vegetalisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seghier, C.

    2006-03-15

    Impervious surface coverage keeps spreading in cities. Streets, sidewalks, parking lots and roofs are waterproof, meaning greater amounts of water to channel and treat and higher flood risks during heavy rainfalls. Green roofing can play a key part in addressing this alarming issue. There are three types of green roofs: extensive, semi-intensive and intensive. The extensive green roof technique uses a thin soil covering with a variety of species providing year-round plant coverage. The plants are not necessarily horticultural in which case routine maintenance is minimal. No watering is needed. Usually extensive green roofs create an ecosystem. The semi-intensive green roof technique uses a soil covering of average thickness and serves to create decorative roofing. Although maintenance is moderate, watering is essential. The intensive green roof technique produces a terrace roof garden. Another advantage of green roofs is they increase the life cycle of the sealing. Roof sealing protection may see the span of its life cycle, now at about fifteen years, doubled if the building has a green roof. planning professionals still know very little about green roofing solutions. Yet, green roofing provides unquestionable ecological qualities and thermal and acoustic performance that have proven to be environmentally friendly. Yet France lags behind northern European countries in green roofing. The Germans, Swiss, Austrians, Scandinavians and Dutch have been using the technique for more than twenty years. (A.L.B.)

  12. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... that environmental design has altered how we design, construct and manage buildings. The book has relevance to those who not only design and engineer buildings but to those who commission architecture and those who occupy the products of this process. Hence, the user is a key consideration. The book examines via...... a number of LEED and BREEAM cases the buildings which flow from corporate environmental responsibility. A number of office and university buildings are examined from three main perspectives- the architect, client and user. One key finding is that architectural innovation has been driven by ecological...

  13. The green protest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, R.

    1978-01-01

    The increasing public interest in the 'green' and the 'coloured' made the politicians alert. The ecological movement and the public initiatives show their effects. What 'utopists', 'crazy people' think about large technical development gains public importance. The uneasiness about a social development which was directed only by increasing spending power and permanent expansion, begins to articulate itself. Values such as solidarity and community, considerateness for fellow men and environment which had been eliminated in the past, are regaining their meaning. From the point of view of this steadily increasing movement, the phenomenon of the 'green parties' is investigated. In this context, the persons involved give their opinions, as well as representatives of the established parties, thus giving this volume the character of a documentation on an important trend in today's events. (orig.) [de

  14. Green and lean management

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J

    2017-01-01

    This book focusses on the challenges and changes organizational management faces in an era when the need to develop environmentally aware processes meets high levels of competition. It covers the synergetic effects, how re-use, recycling, waste reduction, and other sustainable production strategies can add value, low costs and time of production. Sustainable business behavior is not only an environmental perspective on management, but more and more contains an organizational perspective. Taking into account these issues, green and lean management appears as the way managers can drive their employees to continuously improve the management processes that add value to the organization and costumers. This book provides information on principles, strategies, models, and applications of green and lean management, and at the same time communicates the latest research activity relating to this scientific field world-wide.

  15. Towards green construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajracharya, Bijaya B.; Shrestha, Prasanna M.

    2000-01-01

    Sustainability is the key to any development works. In the operation phase, hydro power is the most sustainable form of energy. However construction activities for the same power station are usually far from being green. The popular myth is that construction activity converts green into grey. Despite this popular myth, construction of a hydro power project in Nepal has made the project area greener than earlier during the construction phase itself. Choice of construction technology, appropriate level of environmental impact assessment, monitoring of environmental parameters along side the construction progress followed by mitigation at the right time; launching community development programmes side by side, having environmental specification in contractual documents and self-reliance to fulfill environmental obligations by contractors itself are the key factors in the environmental management within the construction activities. The main conclusions in the paper is the need to change the way to think about the project constraints

  16. of Brilliant Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Seyrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel hydrogel nanocomposites, based on κ-carrageenan polysaccharide, were prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAM and maleic anhydride (MAH as comonomers in the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, using methylene bisacrylamide (MBA and ammonium persulfate (APS,former as a crosslinking agent and the latter as an initiator. The hydrogel nanocomposites structure was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and XRD patterns, and their thermal stability was investigated by TGA thermal analysis. The hydrogel nanocomposites were evaluated using gel content measurements and swelling rate in distilled water and in saline solutions. The carbon nanotube content was examined in relation to its effect on the properties of nanocomposites. The results showed that with increasing carbon nanotube content, the rate of water absorbency and equilibrium swelling in distilled water decreased whereas the water absorbency in the saline solutions increased. Water retention capacity was also studied and the results indicated that the inclusion of carbon nanotube increased water retention under heating condition. Furthermore, the experimental conditions of adsorption kinetics and dynamics for the removal of cationic dye, Brilliant Green (BG, were studied in the range of 6-8 for pH, 10-60 min for time (t, and 10-300 mg/L for initial concentration (C0 of the dye. The optimum conditions obtained for adsorption of Brilliant Green dye were pH 7, t= 50 min and C0= 10 mg/L. Also, the results indicated that more than 98% of the maximum adsorption capacity toward Brilliant Green dye was achieved within the initial 10 min. The experimental tests showed that the hydrogels could be used as fast–responsive and high capacity sorbents in Brilliant Green removal processes from industrial waste water.

  17. Green dentistry: The future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensudar Rathakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry is a profession dedicated to promote health and wellness of the people. Green dentistry is a relatively new emerging concept in dentistry. Most dental offices are privately-owned small businesses and have no financial advantage to invest in many environmental-friendly practices. For this reason, more research is needed to find cost-effective environmental alternatives in dentistry. The aim of this article is to expand awareness and practice of eco-friendly dentistry.

  18. The Influence of Consumers Perception of Green Products on Green Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Kong; Amran Harun; Rini Suryati Sulong; Jaratin Lily

    2014-01-01

    Green consumerism has increasingly received attention since the increased level of consumer awareness towards green products. Therefore, the aim of this paper had been to examine the influence of consumer perception of green products on green purchase intention. In this study, perception of green products was conceptualized as a multidimensional variable comprised of green corporate perception, eco-label, green advertising, green packaging, and green product value. By using a survey, a total ...

  19. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tobiszewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  20. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  1. Green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives:Some empirical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria eDi Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM, the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work.

  2. Reduction of malachite green to leucomalachite green by intestinal bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, A L; Schmitt, T C; Heinze, T M; Cerniglia, C E

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal microfloras from human, rat, mouse, and monkey fecal samples and 14 pure cultures of anaerobic bacteria representative of those found in the human gastrointestinal tract metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green to leucomalachite green. The reduction of malachite green to the leuco derivative suggests that intestinal microflora could play an important role in the metabolic activation of the triphenylmethane dye to a potential carcinogen.

  3. The Green Experiment: Cities, Green Stormwater Infrastructure, and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Chini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure is a unique combination of economic, social, and environmental goals and benefits that requires an adaptable framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating. In this study, we propose an experimental framework for policy, implementation, and subsequent evaluation of green stormwater infrastructure within the context of sociotechnical systems and urban experimentation. Sociotechnical systems describe the interaction of complex systems with quantitative and qualitative impacts. Urban experimentation—traditionally referencing climate change programs and their impacts—is a process of evaluating city programs as if in a laboratory setting with hypotheses and evaluated results. We combine these two concepts into a singular framework creating a policy feedback cycle (PFC for green infrastructure to evaluate municipal green infrastructure plans as an experimental process within the context of a sociotechnical system. After proposing and discussing the PFC, we utilize the tool to research and evaluate the green infrastructure programs of 27 municipalities across the United States. Results indicate that green infrastructure plans should incorporate community involvement and communication, evaluation based on project motivation, and an iterative process for knowledge production. We suggest knowledge brokers as a key resource in connecting the evaluation stage of the feedback cycle to the policy phase. We identify three important needs for green infrastructure experimentation: (i a fluid definition of green infrastructure in policy; (ii maintenance and evaluation components of a green infrastructure plan; and (iii communication of the plan to the community.

  4. Buying and selling green: deregulation and green power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the increasing trend towards deregulation of electricity markets, and the driving forces for liberalisation in the EU and North America. The use of green tariffs offered by utilities to differentiate themselves from competitors and to gain and keep customers is reported, and the situation with regard to green energy within the deregulated electricity markets in Australia, the EU, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, the UK, Canada and the USA is outlined. Customers switching as a result of green tariffs, the growing role of renewables, and opportunities for the promotion of green tariffs are discussed. (UK)

  5. Green roofs and the LEED green building rating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, R. [Sustainable Solutions Inc., Wagoner, OK (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The sustainable building industry is becoming increasingly aware of the host of public and private benefits that green roofs can provide in built environments. In dense urban environments, green roofs function to reduce stormwater runoff, urban heat island effects, and particulate matter (PM) pollution. The emerging green roof industry is now poised to support the efforts of green building networks in North America. This paper discussed the general benefits of green roofs, and their recognition within the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System. A case study of Mountain Equipment Co-op's Winnipeg site was presented. The building's green roof was directly responsible for earning 5 credits and contributing to the achievement of an additional 2 credits under the LEEDS certification process. Credits were earned for reduced site disturbance; landscape design to reduce heat islands; and water efficiency. The green roof at the site provided the vast majority of the building's cooling needs through an evaporative cooling trough. A photovoltaic pump was used to feed the building's irrigation system, as well as to pump ground water through cooling valances. It was concluded that the rise of sustainable building practices and the LEED Green Building Rating System will revolutionize the way new buildings are constructed.

  6. Regulating the Emission Spectrum of CsPbBr3 from Green to Blue via Controlling the Temperature and Velocity of Microchannel Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to precisely obtain tunable spectrum of lead halide perovskite quantum dots (QDs is very important for applications, such as in lighting and display. Herein, we report a microchannel reactor method for synthesis of CsPbBr3 QDs with tunable spectrum. By adjusting the temperature and velocity of the microchannel reactor, the emission peaks of CsPbBr3 QDs ranging from 520 nm to 430 nm were obtained, which is wider than that of QDs obtained in a traditional flask without changing halide component. The mechanism of photoluminescence (PL spectral shift of CsPbBr3 QDs was investigated, the result shows that the supersaturation control enabled by the superior mass and heat transfer performance in the microchannel is the key to achieve the wide range of PL spectrum, with only a change in the setting of the temperature controller required. The wide spectrum of CsPbBr3 QDs can be applied to light-emitting diodes (LEDs, photoelectric sensors, lasers, etc.

  7. Regulating the Emission Spectrum of CsPbBr3 from Green to Blue via Controlling the Temperature and Velocity of Microchannel Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Lu, Hanguang; Rao, Longshi; Ding, Xinrui; Yan, Caiman; Yu, Binhai

    2018-01-01

    The ability to precisely obtain tunable spectrum of lead halide perovskite quantum dots (QDs) is very important for applications, such as in lighting and display. Herein, we report a microchannel reactor method for synthesis of CsPbBr3 QDs with tunable spectrum. By adjusting the temperature and velocity of the microchannel reactor, the emission peaks of CsPbBr3 QDs ranging from 520 nm to 430 nm were obtained, which is wider than that of QDs obtained in a traditional flask without changing halide component. The mechanism of photoluminescence (PL) spectral shift of CsPbBr3 QDs was investigated, the result shows that the supersaturation control enabled by the superior mass and heat transfer performance in the microchannel is the key to achieve the wide range of PL spectrum, with only a change in the setting of the temperature controller required. The wide spectrum of CsPbBr3 QDs can be applied to light-emitting diodes (LEDs), photoelectric sensors, lasers, etc. PMID:29498710

  8. Regulating the Emission Spectrum of CsPbBr₃ from Green to Blue via Controlling the Temperature and Velocity of Microchannel Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Lu, Hanguang; Rao, Longshi; Li, Zongtao; Ding, Xinrui; Yan, Caiman; Yu, Binhai

    2018-03-02

    The ability to precisely obtain tunable spectrum of lead halide perovskite quantum dots (QDs) is very important for applications, such as in lighting and display. Herein, we report a microchannel reactor method for synthesis of CsPbBr₃ QDs with tunable spectrum. By adjusting the temperature and velocity of the microchannel reactor, the emission peaks of CsPbBr₃ QDs ranging from 520 nm to 430 nm were obtained, which is wider than that of QDs obtained in a traditional flask without changing halide component. The mechanism of photoluminescence (PL) spectral shift of CsPbBr₃ QDs was investigated, the result shows that the supersaturation control enabled by the superior mass and heat transfer performance in the microchannel is the key to achieve the wide range of PL spectrum, with only a change in the setting of the temperature controller required. The wide spectrum of CsPbBr₃ QDs can be applied to light-emitting diodes (LEDs), photoelectric sensors, lasers, etc.

  9. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Tai-Wei Chang; Chun-Yu Lin; Pi-Yu Lai; Kuan-Hung Wang

    2016-01-01

    This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positivel...

  10. Commercial green energy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalweit, B.

    1998-11-01

    Firms offering a Green electricity product have discovered that residential customers are willing to pay extra for the assurance that their electricity is generated through the use of non-polluting or renewable resources. This research investigated the market potential for Green energy at the next level of the energy consuming chain, commercial establishments at which small and medium sized businesses interface with customers. Green energy is proving to be an attractive proposition to some consumers in the residential marketplace. Is there a possibility that Green energy can also be sold to commercial enterprises? This research project sought to answer this question and to investigate the factors that might lead small business people to opt for Green. Answers to these questions will help energy companies target the businesses most likely to accept Green power with the right product set and product features

  11. Picturing Urban Green Attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Meilvang, Marie Leth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the cultural-political tensions and ambiguities of urban ecology, by way of following how activists move and translate between ‘familiar’ and ‘public’ engagements in the green city. Empirically, we locate our exploration in and around Nordhavnen (The North Harbor......), a large-scale sustainable urban development project in Copenhagen. Invoking Laurent Thévenot’s pragmatic sociology of ‘regimes of engagement’, we sketch a culturally sensitive approach to urban ecological activism, highlighting the critical moral capacities involved in building new forms of ‘commonality...

  12. Legume Logic & Green Manuring

    OpenAIRE

    Basavanagowda Nagabhushana, Nandeesh

    2014-01-01

    Brown plant hopper showed me the way into organic farming. In 2001, I started my practice with logic of legumes just to cut down the 45 percent expenses of my paddy on fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Later as I realized each and every plant carries it’s own nutrients, medicinal values and characters. Plants like millets, oil seeds, spices, di-cots, monocots and weeds all being used as a green manure. For all my agriculture problems and crop demands, I look for the answers only thro...

  13. Harmonic supergraphs. Green functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Gievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1985-01-01

    The quantization procedure in the harmonic superspace approach is worked out. Harmonic distributions are introduced and are used to construct the analytic superspace delta-functions and the Green functions for the hypermultiplet and the N=2 Yang-Mills superfields. The gauge fixing is described and the relevant Faddeev-Popov ghosts are defined. The corresponding BRST transformations are found. The harmonic superspace quantization of the N=2 gauge theory turns out to be rather simple and has many parallels with that for the standard (N=0) Yang-Mills theory. In particular, no ghosts-forghosts are needed

  14. Campaign Country Going Green?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    justification. This paper finally discusses the reason for this greening of government initiated Danish energy saving campaigns, which is seen as an indirect result of the 1987 UN report, Our Common Future. The 1988 general election in Denmark led to the formation of a new center-right government coalition...... economics and not least a significant portion of patriotism. Environmental justification was almost entirely absent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. This changed only from 1989 onwards, as government initiatives to curb the ever rising consumption of energy commenced an extensive use of environmental...

  15. Green Consumption Behavior Antecedents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i...... for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them...... are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias....

  16. Green Tourism Marketing Model1

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Green Tourism Marketing Model research as efforts to develop environmentally friendly tourism destination, the synergy of government, business and community participation become the driving force of tourism product development with highly competitive. In the long term, this research aims to provide the marketing concept of green tourism as economic development efforts and strengthen the environment (eco-growth) through the development of green tourism marketing models. The ...

  17. The trashing of Big Green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felten, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Big Green initiative on California's ballot lost by a margin of 2-to-1. Green measures lost in five other states, shocking ecology-minded groups. According to the postmortem by environmentalists, Big Green was a victim of poor timing and big spending by the opposition. Now its supporters plan to break up the bill and try to pass some provisions in the Legislature

  18. The guide to greening cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Sadhu Aufochs

    2013-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 CHAPTER 3. Leading in the Community: Using City Assets, Policy, Partnerships, and Persuasion . . Case in Point: Returning to Green City Roots and Loving El...

  19. Toronto green roof construction standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aster, D.

    2007-01-01

    Toronto City Council adopted a green roof strategy in February 2006. This paper reviewed the by-law governing the strategy as well as the work in progress to develop minimum standards for the design and construction of green roofs in Toronto. The strategy included a series of recommendations regarding the installation of green roofs on city buildings; a pilot grant program; using the development process to encourage green roofs; and, public education and promotion. It was noted that compared to Europe, the development of standards for green roofs in North America is in its early stages. As an emerging sustainable technology, there currently are no standards incorporated into Ontario's Building Code against which Toronto can measure the design and construction of green roofs. Therefore this paper included an analysis detailing how the recommended design requirements were able to support the City's green roof policy objectives and integrate the performance criteria for green roofs previously established and supported by Toronto City Council. The key policy objectives of the City's green roof strategy were to reduce the urban heat island effect; to address stormwater management implications in terms of quality and quantity; to improve the energy budgets of individual buildings; and, to improve air quality

  20. Ecological Transition and Green Investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    By introducing an exhaustible resource into an AK growth model, we can identify the determinants of the scale of green investment needs and its impact on capital accumulation dynamics. The role of green capital in the transition to a low-carbon economy depends, in particular, on the relative magnitudes of the elasticities of demand for polluting goods and of the substitutability between green capital and natural resources. The impact on the optimal savings rate also depends on the productivity of green capital and on the ability to adapt existing capital

  1. The Geography of Green Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-25

    Green power refers to the voluntary purchase of renewable electricity by retail electricity customers. Green power is unlike compliance-based renewable energy procurement imposed by law or regulation. In 2016, over six million customers procured about 95 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of green power in the United States, which represents about 28% of all U.S. renewable energy sales, excluding large hydropower. In this fact sheet, we use available data to illustrate the geography of green power demand (in terms of number of customers) and supply (in terms of MWh of generation) by state.

  2. Green Communications and Networks : Proceedings of the International Conference on Green Communications and Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Maode

    2012-01-01

    Green Communications and Networks presents 95 papers chosen for publication from among 190 reviewed papers accepted for presentation to the International Conference on Green Communications and Networks (GCN 2011), held in Chongqing, China, July 15-17, 2011. GCN 2011 provided a venue for leading academic and industrial researchers to exchange their views, ideas and research results on innovative technologies and sustainable solutions leading to greener communications and networks. In addition to paper presentations, the conference featured keynote speakers and a panel discussion. Reflecting the broad scope of the conference, the contents are organized in these topical categories: Communication Systems Data Management and Database System Digital Image Processing Education and Informatics Enabling Technologies Forensics, Recognition Technologies and Applications Fuzzy System and Control Graphics and Visualizing Green Computing Internet Growth Modelling and Virtualized Networks Network Components and Application ...

  3. Pollution prevention initiatives at US EPA: 'Green Lights'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.; Kwartin, R.

    1991-01-01

    US EPA is initiating a pollution prevention approach to supplement its historic command-control, regulatory approach to environmental protection. EPA believes polllution prevention, where applicable and possible, represents a quicker, less expensive and even profitable strategy for environmental protection. Most clearly, energy-efficiency provides an opportunity to prevent significant amounts of pollution related to the inefficeint generation and use of electricity. EPA's first energy productivity and pollution prevention program is Green Lights. Beyond its own merits, Green Lights will also provide important experience to EPA as it develops its Green Machines program to accelerate the market for efficient appliances and equipment

  4. Differential tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in 'green mice'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, De-Fu; Tezuka, Hideo; Kondo, Tetsuo; Sudo, Katsuko; Niu, Dong-Feng; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Yamane, Tetsu; Nakamura, Nobuki; Katoh, Ryohei

    2010-06-01

    In order to clarify tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in 'green mice' from a transgenic line having an EGFP cDNA under the control of a chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer, we studied the expression of EGFP in various organs and tissues from these 'green mice' by immunohistochemistry with anti- EGFP antibody in conjunction with direct observation for EGFP fluorescence using confocal laser scanning microscopy. On immunohistochemical examination and on direct observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy, the level of EGFP expression varied among organs and tissues. EGFP expression was diffusely and strongly observed in the skin, pituitary, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, heart, gall bladder, pancreas, adrenals and urinary bladder. There was only sporadic and weak expression of EGFP in the epithelium of the trachea, bronchus of the lung, stratified squamous epithelium and gastric glands of the stomach, hepatic bile ducts of the liver, glomeruli and renal tubules of the kidney and endo-metrial glands of the uterus. Furthermore, EGFP was only demonstrated within the goblet and paneth cells in the colon and small intestine, the tall columnar cells in the ductus epididymis, and the leydig cells in the testis. In conclusion, our results show that EGFP is differentially expressed in organs and tissues of 'green mice', which indicates that 'green mice' may prove useful for research involving transplantation and tissue clonality.

  5. Quantum thermodynamics: a nonequilibrium Green's function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Ochoa, Maicol A; Galperin, Michael

    2015-02-27

    We establish the foundations of a nonequilibrium theory of quantum thermodynamics for noninteracting open quantum systems strongly coupled to their reservoirs within the framework of the nonequilibrium Green's functions. The energy of the system and its coupling to the reservoirs are controlled by a slow external time-dependent force treated to first order beyond the quasistatic limit. We derive the four basic laws of thermodynamics and characterize reversible transformations. Stochastic thermodynamics is recovered in the weak coupling limit.

  6. Can Growth Be Green?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This short article, based on a presentation at the London School of Economics, criticizes the common opinion that "green growth" offers a relatively painless - some even say pain-free - transition path for capitalist economies. After a brief summary of the daunting arithmetic entailed in combining fast decarbonization with continuing growth, the article advances 3 propositions. First, market-based carbon mitigation programs, such as carbon trading, cannot be sufficient and must be coupled with other policy pillars that foster transformative investment and widespread regulation. Second, a political economy of climate policy needs to draw on the lessons of comparative social policy research, which emphasizes the role of international pressures, interests, institutions, and ideas. Taking these into account gives a more realistic perspective on climate policy making in today's neoliberal world. Third, more radical policies on both consumption and production are called for, to ensure that carbon mitigation is not pursued at the expense of equity and social welfare. These include policies to restrain high-carbon luxury consumption and a transition toward shorter paid working time. The conclusion is that a realistic program of green growth will be immensely difficult and entail radical political change. © SAGE Publications 2015.

  7. Greening of orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rushyuan J; Mears, Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Every year, 4 billion pounds of waste are produced by health care facilities, and the amount continues to increase annually. In response, a movement toward greening health care has been building, with a particular focus on the operating room. Between 20% and 70% of health care waste originates from a hospital's operating room, and up to 90% of operating room waste is improperly sorted and sent for costly and unneeded hazardous waste processing. Recent successful changes include segregation of hospital waste, substitution of the ubiquitous polypropylene plastic wrap used for the sterilization and handling of surgical equipment with metal cases, and the reintroduction of reusable surgical gowns. Orthopedic-related changes include the successful reprocessing and reuse of external fixators, shavers, blades, burs, and tourniquets. These changes have been shown to be environmentally and economically beneficial. Early review indicates that these changes are feasible, but a need exists for further evaluation of the effect on the operating room and flow of the surgical procedure and of the risks to the surgeons and operating room staff. Other key considerations are the effects of reprocessed and reused equipment on patient care and outcome and the role of surgeons in helping patients make informed decisions regarding surgical care. The goals of this study were to summarize the amount and types of waste produced in hospitals and operating rooms, highlight the methods of disposal used, review disposal methods that have been developed to reduce waste and improve recycling, and explore future developments in greening health care. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Green power certification: environmental and consumer protection benefits of the Green-e programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J. [Center for Resource Solutions (United States); Rabago, K. [Rocky Mountain Inst. (United States); Wiser, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This article gives details of the Green-e environmental certification programme which certifies electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the US. This first non-profit certification programme originally was set up for California, and has now spread to other regions. The objectives of the Green-e programme, the need for the electricity product to meet minimum criteria to qualify, marketer requirements, verification of product claims, administration of the programme, and the second year programme results are discussed. The way in which the Green-e programme fits in with other programmes such as those set up by the state and federal customer protection agencies to help consumers select environmentally superior power is described.

  9. Green Consumerism : an Eco-Friendly Behaviour Form Through The Green Product Consumption and Green Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Handayani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is referred to analyse the influence of consumer attitude of green product towards purchase intention. The consumer attitude of green product is a psychological tendencies that is expressed by evaluating a certain entity with some advantage or disadvantage considerations. The problem of this research is the low of cunsumer awareness to consume green product, because the lack to comprehend the importance of green product usage for health and eco-friendly. The purpose of this research is to test the influence of consumer attitude of green products towards purchase intention. Hypothesis testing using Partial Least Square (PLS. The result of analysis show that there is influence among consumer attitude of green product towards consumer purchase intention significantly.

  10. Enhanced green upconversion by controlled ceramization of Er3+–Yb3+ co-doped sodium niobium tellurite glass–ceramics for low temperature sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, J.; Pavani, K.; Graça, M.P.F.; Soares, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Upconversion luminescence improved in glass–ceramics compared to host glass. • Judd–Ofelt and radiative parameters calculated. • NIR decay curve results concur the results of improved luminescence. • Temperature dependent upconversion support the use of materials for sensors. - Abstract: Tellurite based glasses are well-known for their upconversion properties besides having a disadvantage of low mechanical strength dragging them away from practical applications. The present work deals with preparation of sodium niobium tellurite (SNT) glasses using melt quenching method, in which small quantities of boron and silicon in the form of oxides are added to improve their mechanical properties. Controlled heat treatment is performed to ceramize the prepared glasses based on the thermal data given by DTA. XRD and SEM profiles of the glass–ceramics which confirmed the formation of crystalline monoclinic Sodium Tellurium Niobium Oxide (Na 1.4 Nb 3 Te 4.9 O 18 ) phase (JCPDS card No. 04–011-7556). Upconversion measurements in the visible region were made for the prepared Er 3+ –Yb 3+ co-doped glasses and glass–ceramics with 980 nm laser excitation varying the laser power and concentration of Er 3+ ions. Results showed that the upconversion luminescence intensity was enhanced by ten times in SNT glass–ceramics compared to that in the SNT glasses. Decay curves give evidence of high performance of glass–ceramics compared to glasses due to ceramization and structural changes. Temperature dependent visible upconversion was performed to test the ability of efficient SNT glass–ceramic at low temperatures and variation of upconversion intensities was studied

  11. The Green Experiment: Cities, Green Stormwater Infrastructure, and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher M. Chini; James F. Canning; Kelsey L. Schreiber; Joshua M. Peschel; Ashlynn S. Stillwell

    2017-01-01

    Green infrastructure is a unique combination of economic, social, and environmental goals and benefits that requires an adaptable framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating. In this study, we propose an experimental framework for policy, implementation, and subsequent evaluation of green stormwater infrastructure within the context of sociotechnical systems and urban experimentation. Sociotechnical systems describe the interaction of complex systems with quantitative and qualitative...

  12. 77 FR 2296 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee; Notification of Upcoming... teleconference meetings of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the Committee). The teleconference meetings are... Federal High Performance Green Buildings, Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration...

  13. Green Tea Modulation of Obesity and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    tea on weight reduction in obese Thais : A randomized, controlled trial. Physiology & behavior 2008; 93(3):486-491. 4. Nagao T, Meguro S, Hase T...1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0013 TITLE: Green Tea Modulation of Obesity...2013 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Summary 3. DATES COVERED 1 March 2012 – l 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Green Tea Modulation of Obesity and Breast Cancer Risk

  14. [A review of green roof performance towards management of roof runoff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-ping; Huang, Pei; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Gao, Chi

    2015-08-01

    Green roof has a significant influence on reducing runoff volume, delaying runoff-yielding time, reducing the peak flow and improving runoff quality. This paper addressed the related research around the world and concluded from several aspects, i.e., the definition of green roof of different types, the mechanism how green roof manages runoff quantity and quality, the ability how green roof controls roof runoff, and the influence factors of green roof toward runoff quantity and quality. Afterwards, there was a need for more future work on research of green roof toward roof runoff, i.e., vegetation selection of green roof, efficient construction model selection of green roof, the regulating characteristics of green roof on roof runoff, the value assessment of green roof on roof runoff, analysis of source-sink function of green roof on the water pollutants of roof runoff and the research on the mitigation measures of roof runoff pollution. This paper provided a guideline to develop green roofs aiming to regulating roof runoff.

  15. Optimization of mNeonGreen for Homo sapiens increases its fluorescent intensity in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida-Miyake, Emiko; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Tanida, Isei

    2018-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is tremendously useful for investigating many cellular and intracellular events. The monomeric GFP mNeonGreen is about 3- to 5-times brighter than GFP and monomeric enhanced GFP and shows high photostability. The maturation half-time of mNeonGreen is about 3-fold faster than that of monomeric enhanced GFP. However, the cDNA sequence encoding mNeonGreen contains some codons that are rarely used in Homo sapiens. For better expression of mNeonGreen in human cells, we synthesized a human-optimized cDNA encoding mNeonGreen and generated an expression plasmid for humanized mNeonGreen under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The resultant plasmid was introduced into HEK293 cells. The fluorescent intensity of humanized mNeonGreen was about 1.4-fold higher than that of the original mNeonGreen. The humanized mNeonGreen with a mitochondria-targeting signal showed mitochondrial distribution of mNeonGreen. We further generated an expression vector of humanized mNeonGreen with 3xFLAG tags at its carboxyl terminus as these tags are useful for immunological analyses. The 3xFLAG-tagged mNeonGreen was recognized well with an anti-FLAG-M2 antibody. These plasmids for the expression of humanized mNeonGreen and mNeonGreen-3xFLAG are useful tools for biological studies in mammalian cells using mNeonGreen.

  16. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  17. Green grabbing debate and Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Razafy, Fara Lala; Wurtzebach, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    and capitalise natural assets. First, to provide some context on the green grabbing debate, we discuss the trade-offs between conservation and development objectives. In addition, we refer briefly to the broader land grabbing debate of which green grabbing is a sub-component. Second, we question the theoretical...

  18. Green investment: Trends and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyraud, Luc; Clements, Benedict; Wane, Abdoul

    2013-01-01

    This paper fills a gap in the macroeconomic literature on renewable sources of energy. It offers a definition of green investment and analyzes the trends and determinants of this investment over the last decade for 35 advanced and emerging countries. We use a new multi-country historical dataset and find that green investment has become a key driver of the energy sector and that its rapid growth is now mostly driven by China. Our econometric results suggest that green investment is boosted by economic growth, a sound financial system conducive to low interest rates, and high fuel prices. We also find that some policy interventions, such as the introduction of carbon pricing schemes or “feed-in-tariffs,” which require use of “green” energy, have a positive and significant impact on green investment. Other interventions, such as biofuel support, do not appear to be associated with higher green investment. - Highlights: • We offer a definition of green investment and review its trend since 2000. • We analyze its determinants from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. • Green investment is boosted by economic growth, interest rates, and fuel prices. • Feed-in-tariffs and carbon pricing schemes impact positively green investment

  19. Summary of Green Building Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-08-01

    In early 2002, the National Association of Home Builders completed a census of residential green building programs across the United States to assess differences and similarities among programs. This report catalogs different ways that builders participate in residential green building programs.

  20. Green accounts & day high schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1997-01-01

    The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools.......The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools....