WorldWideScience

Sample records for green commerce protocol

  1. Symbolic Model Checking and Analysis for E-Commerce Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jing-Hua; ZHANG Mei; LI Xiang

    2005-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for analyzing non-repudiation and fairness of e-commerce protocols. The authentication e-mail protocol CMP1 is modeled as finite state machine and analyzed in two vital aspects - non-repudiation and fairness using SMV. As a result, the CMP1 protocol is not fair and we have improved it. This result shows that it is effective to analyze and check the new features of e-commerce protocols using SMV model checker

  2. Green certification, e-commerce, and low-carbon economy for international tourist hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Fei

    2018-05-22

    Increasing population and over-consumption are placing unprecedented demands on agriculture and natural resources. The Earth is suffering from global warning and environmental destruction while our agricultural systems are concurrently degrading land, water, biodiversity, and climate on a global scale. For a sustainable future, green certification, e-commerce, and environment education can boost low-carbon economy with decreasing carbon emissions, but very few researches address them for the hotel industry. This research studies the performance impact of e-commerce, international hotel chain, local hotel chain, and green certification for carbon emission reductions of international tourist hotels of Taiwan. It reveals that, after a sufficiently long time, there is an improvement in the environmental and economic performance of the green-certified hotel group. In addition, it reveals that, as recommended by the operation policy, the international hotel chain group together with e-commerce has better performance than local hotel chain. It is also discussed how to sustain the continuing improvement in low-carbon performance of the hotel industry.

  3. Using Green Star Metrics to Optimize the Greenness of Literature Protocols for Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rita C. C.; Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adélio A. S. C.

    2015-01-01

    A procedure to improve the greenness of a synthesis, without performing laboratory work, using alternative protocols available in the literature is presented. The greenness evaluation involves the separate assessment of the different steps described in the available protocols--reaction, isolation, and purification--as well as the global process,…

  4. Provable Fair Document Exchange Protocol with Transaction Privacy for E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Ren-Junn Hwang; Chih-Hua Lai

    2015-01-01

    Transaction privacy has attracted a lot of attention in the e-commerce. This study proposes an efficient and provable fair document exchange protocol with transaction privacy. Using the proposed protocol, any untrusted parties can fairly exchange documents without the assistance of online, trusted third parties. Moreover, a notary only notarizes each document once. The authorized document owner can exchange a notarized document with different parties repeatedly without disclosing the origin o...

  5. Secure E-Commerce Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Haseeb, Muhammad Arshad, Shoukat Ali, Shazia Yasin

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce has presented a new way of doing business all over the world using internet.Organizations have changed their way of doing business from a traditional approach to embrace ecommerceprocesses. As individuals and businesses increase information sharing, a concernregarding the exchange of money securely and conveniently over the internet increases. Therefore,security is a necessity in an e-commerce transaction. The purpose of this paper is to present atoken based Secure E-commerce Proto...

  6. Provable Fair Document Exchange Protocol with Transaction Privacy for E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Junn Hwang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transaction privacy has attracted a lot of attention in the e-commerce. This study proposes an efficient and provable fair document exchange protocol with transaction privacy. Using the proposed protocol, any untrusted parties can fairly exchange documents without the assistance of online, trusted third parties. Moreover, a notary only notarizes each document once. The authorized document owner can exchange a notarized document with different parties repeatedly without disclosing the origin of the document or the identities of transaction participants. Security and performance analyses indicate that the proposed protocol not only provides strong fairness, non-repudiation of origin, non-repudiation of receipt, and message confidentiality, but also enhances forward secrecy, transaction privacy, and authorized exchange. The proposed protocol is more efficient than other works.

  7. A Survey of E-Commerce Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Zhiguang; LUO Xucheng; GAO Rong

    2004-01-01

    E-commerce is a very active field of Intemet research. A very important aspect of e-commerce is its security. Because of the variety of e-commerce applications, many security policies,protocols and techniques are involved in the deployment of the security. The related standards and protocols ofe-commerce are studied in this paper. The general model of e-commerce security is set forth.In this model, two most important e-commerce protocols including secure sockets layer (SSL) and secure electronic transaction (SET) are analyzed. The open problems and new trends of e-commerce security are presented.

  8. Urban green spaces and cancer: a protocol for a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Mathilde; Gaudel, Marion; Pommier, Jeanine; Faure, Emmanuelle; Heritage, Zoé; Rican, Stéphane; Simos, Jean; Cantoreggi, Nicola Luca; Roué Le Gall, Anne; Cambon, Linda; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Green space in the built environment is an important topic on the health agenda today. Studies have shown that access to green spaces is associated with better mental and physical health, yet green spaces can also be detrimental to health if they are not managed appropriately. Despite the increasing interest in urban green spaces, little research has so far been conducted into the links between green spaces and cancer. Objective The purpose of this scoping review is therefore to map the literature available on the types of relationship between urban green spaces and cancer. Method and analysis We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols 2015 guideline to report the protocol. To conduct this scoping review, we will use a structured search strategy based on controlled vocabulary and relevant key terms related to green space, urban space and cancer. We will search MEDLINE (PubMed), GreenFILE (EBSCOhost), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (EBSCOhost) and ScienceDirect as electronic database as well as hand-search publications for grey literature. This review will therefore provide evidence on this current topic, one which could have practical implications for policy-makers involved in choices which are more conducive to healthy living. Ethics and dissemination No primary data will be collected since all data that will be presented in this review are based on published articles and publicly available documents, and therefore ethics committee approval is not a requirement. The findings of this review will be presented at workshops and conferences, and will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID:29453298

  9. Urban green spaces and cancer: a protocol for a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcherie, Marion; Lejeune, Mathilde; Gaudel, Marion; Pommier, Jeanine; Faure, Emmanuelle; Heritage, Zoé; Rican, Stéphane; Simos, Jean; Cantoreggi, Nicola Luca; Roué Le Gall, Anne; Cambon, Linda; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe

    2018-02-16

    Green space in the built environment is an important topic on the health agenda today. Studies have shown that access to green spaces is associated with better mental and physical health, yet green spaces can also be detrimental to health if they are not managed appropriately. Despite the increasing interest in urban green spaces, little research has so far been conducted into the links between green spaces and cancer. The purpose of this scoping review is therefore to map the literature available on the types of relationship between urban green spaces and cancer. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols 2015 guideline to report the protocol. To conduct this scoping review, we will use a structured search strategy based on controlled vocabulary and relevant key terms related to green space, urban space and cancer. We will search MEDLINE (PubMed), GreenFILE (EBSCOhost), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (EBSCOhost) and ScienceDirect as electronic database as well as hand-search publications for grey literature. This review will therefore provide evidence on this current topic, one which could have practical implications for policy-makers involved in choices which are more conducive to healthy living. No primary data will be collected since all data that will be presented in this review are based on published articles and publicly available documents, and therefore ethics committee approval is not a requirement. The findings of this review will be presented at workshops and conferences, and will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Pengembangan Sistem Keamanan untuk E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Indra Saputra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce is a remote goods or services transaction activity between two company (business to business or between company with customers (business to consumer. Ecommerce was simplifying the transaction process between producers and consumers, butthere is a risk of security issue if doing transactions on e-commerce. A common e-commercesecurity system using another protocol security e.g. SSL (Secure Socket Layer so these ecommerce security system is very dependent with these security protocol. The e-commercesecurity problem was fixed by developed security system that using security system directly onthe web page. The system is designed to securing transaction data using RC6 encryption, RC6encryption key is secured by RSA encryption, and encrypted data is encoded by Base64. Theresulting security system is blocking transaction data when users clicking submit transactionbutton, then these transaction data encrypted using applied algorithm before send it into serverso transaction data was secured without aid of another security protocol e.g. SSL (SecureSocket Layer.

  11. Pengembangan Sistem Keamanan untuk E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ngurah Indra Saputra; Gusti Made Arya Sasmita; Anak Agung Ketut Agung Cahyawan Wiranatha

    2017-01-01

    E-commerce is a remote goods or services transaction activity between two company (business to business) or between company with customers (business to consumer). Ecommerce was simplifying the transaction process between producers and consumers, butthere is a risk of security issue if doing transactions on e-commerce. A common e-commercesecurity system using another protocol security e.g. SSL (Secure Socket Layer) so these ecommerce security system is very dependent with these security protoc...

  12. Research on mobile electronic commerce security technology based on WPKI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-07-01

    Through the in-depth study on the existing mobile e-commerce and WAP protocols, this paper presents a security solution of e-commerce system based on WPKI, and describes its implementation process and specific implementation details. This solution uniformly distributes the key used by the various participating entities , to fully ensure the confidentiality, authentication, fairness and integrity of mobile e-commerce payments, therefore has some pract ical value for improving the security of e-commerce system.

  13. A Review of Fair Exchange Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah AlOtaibi; Hamza Aldabbas

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the Internet has become an essential business platform, aiding trading, distribution and sales between organisations, consumers and even between consumers themselves. This technology revolution has brought e-commerce to an entirely new level, which therefore has raised some new security issues. Security protocols in e-commerce are required to manage the transactions between buyers and sellers. In order to engage customers in e-commerce, these protocols should be well formulated and ...

  14. An efficient protocol for the synthesis of highly sensitive indole imines utilizing green chemistry: optimization of reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Bushra; Rubab, Syeda Laila; Raza, Abdul Rauf; Tariq, Sobia; Sultan, Ayesha; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2018-04-11

    Novel and highly sensitive indole-based imines have been synthesized. Their synthesis has been compared employing a variety of protocols. Ultimately, a convenient, economical and high yielding set of conditions employing green chemistry have been designed for their synthesis.

  15. Improved security detection strategy in quantum secure direct communication protocol based on four-particle Green-Horne-Zeilinger state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Nie, Jin-Rui; Li, Rui-Fan [Beijing Univ. of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing (China). School of Computer; Jing, Bo [Beijing Univ. of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing (China). School of Computer; Beijing Institute of Applied Meteorology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Computer Science

    2012-06-15

    To enhance the efficiency of eavesdropping detection in the quantum secure direct communication protocol, an improved quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a four-particle Green-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is presented. In the protocol, the four-particle GHZ state is used to detect eavesdroppers, and quantum dense coding is used to encode the message. In the security analysis, the method of entropy theory is introduced, and two detection strategies are compared quantitatively by using the constraint between the information that the eavesdroppers can obtain and the interference that has been introduced. If the eavesdropper wants to obtain all the information, the detection rate of the quantum secure direct communication using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair block will be 50% and the detection rate of the presented protocol will be 87%. At last, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed. The analysis results indicate that the protocol proposed is more secure than the others. (orig.)

  16. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  17. Green Sturgeon Acoustic Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is used to hold tracking data for green sturgeon tagged in Central California. The data collection began in late 2002 and is ongoing.

  18. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  19. 75 FR 1591 - Green Technology Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed... methods: E-mail: [email protected] . Include A0651-0062 Green Technology Pilot Program [email protected] in... (USPTO) is implementing a streamlined examination pilot program for patent applications pertaining to...

  20. 78 FR 66337 - Request for Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright Policy, Creativity, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Change in Public Meeting Date and Change in Public Comment Periods. SUMMARY: On October 3, 2013, the Department of Commerce's Internet Policy Task Force... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office National Telecommunications and...

  1. 75 FR 64692 - Green Technology Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed...- 0062 Green Technology Pilot Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: 571-273-0112... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) implemented a pilot program on December 8, 2009, that...

  2. Electronic commerce versus traditional commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Vicentiu Popescu; Manoela Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The internet represents new opportunities for the traditional companies, including the diversification of the given services and also the promotion of the new ones, which are personalized and attractive and they are possible thanks to the information and communication technologies. According to this, the Internet impact, which has allowed the development of a new form of commerce- the commerce via Internet (which is a component of the electronic commerce), against the traditional global comme...

  3. 75 FR 69049 - Expansion and Extension of the Green Technology Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... under the Green Technology Pilot Program is available on the USPTO's Internet Web site at http://www... Extension of the Green Technology Pilot Program AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce...) implemented the Green [[Page 69050

  4. Building eCommerce sites with Drupal commerce cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Building eCommerce Sites with Drupal Commerce Cookbook is written in a helpful, practical style with numerous hands-on recipes to help you build attractive eCommerce sites.This book is primarily for store owners and web designers with little or no experience of Drupal and Drupal Commerce who want to build and customise a store in Drupal Commerce. You will have a basic knowledge of websites, but you don't need to be familiar with Drupal or PHP. However, this book would also suit experienced Drupal and Ubercart users who want to migrate to or build a Drupal Commerce store

  5. Agents Based e-Commerce and Securing Exchanged Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaljouli, Raja; Abawajy, Jemal

    Mobile agents have been implemented in e-Commerce to search and filter information of interest from electronic markets. When the information is very sensitive and critical, it is important to develop a novel security protocol that can efficiently protect the information from malicious tampering as well as unauthorized disclosure or at least detect any malicious act of intruders. In this chapter, we describe robust security techniques that ensure a sound security of information gathered throughout agent’s itinerary against various security attacks, as well as truncation attacks. A sound security protocol is described, which implements the various security techniques that would jointly prevent or at least detect any malicious act of intruders. We reason about the soundness of the protocol usingSymbolic Trace Analyzer (STA), a formal verification tool that is based on symbolic techniques. We analyze the protocol in key configurations and show that it is free of flaws. We also show that the protocol fulfils the various security requirements of exchanged information in MAS, including data-integrity, data-confidentiality, data-authenticity, origin confidentiality and data non-repudiability.

  6. E-commerce and Business Case of a US E-commerce firm

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Sanchez, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    What do we know as E-commerce and E-Business? Unique features of E-commerce. Types of E-commerce. History and feature of E-commerce. Why does E-commerce develop better in some places than in others? What make a current E-commerce success? Introduction of the US E-commerce firm studied. Bussiness case (customer, product, company and competition). Conclusions.

  7. e-Commerce versus m-Commerce: Where is the Dividing Line?

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Omonedo; Paul Bocij

    2014-01-01

    Since the emergence of e-Commerce, the world of business has witnessed a radical shift in the way business activities are conducted. However, the emergence of m-Commerce has further pushed the boundaries of virtual commerce revolution. As a result, there seems to be a growing blur in the distinction between e- Commerce and m-Commerce. In addition, existing definitions for both forms of commerce highlight characteristics (e.g. type of device and activity conducted) that ma...

  8. E-Commerce and Mobile Commerce in South Africa: Regulatory Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    JOBODWANA, Z NTOZINTLE

    2009-01-01

    E-commerce refers to all forms of commercial transactions that involve individuals and organizations based on the electronic processing of data. Mobile commerce (M-commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services using mobile telephones or personal digital assistants (PDA). M-commerce is emerging in Africa and South Africa especially as either a complement or an alternative to e-commerce as originally conceived, though there are arguments that mobile telephone technology “m-commerc...

  9. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DISTINCT SECURED AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOLS USED IN THE RESOURCE CONSTRAINED PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prasanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the e-commerce and m-commerce applications in the current e-business world, has adopted asymmetric key cryptography technique in their authentication protocol to provide an efficient authentication of the involved parties. This paper exhibits the performance analysis of distinct authentication protocol which implements the public key cryptography like RSA, ECC and HECC. The comparison is made based on key generation, sign generation and sign verification processes. The results prove that the performance achieved through HECC based authentication protocol is better than the ECC- and RSA based authentication protocols.

  10. Green sea turtle age, growth, population characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Morphology, sex ratio, body condition, disease status, age structure, and growth patterns were characterized for 448 green sea turtles cold stunned in St. Joseph...

  11. 15 CFR 19.7 - When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt? 19.7 Section 19.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.7 When will Commerce entities compromise...

  12. OSPF-TE Extensions for Green Routing in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Ricciardi, S.; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes extensions to the OSPF-TE protocol to enable green routing in GMPLS-controlled optical networks. Simulation results show a remarkable reduction in CO2 emissions by preferring network elements powered by green energy sources in the connection routing.......This paper proposes extensions to the OSPF-TE protocol to enable green routing in GMPLS-controlled optical networks. Simulation results show a remarkable reduction in CO2 emissions by preferring network elements powered by green energy sources in the connection routing....

  13. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli t...

  14. BSEA: A Blind Sealed-Bid E-Auction Scheme for E-Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar Das

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to an increase in the number of internet users, electronic commerce has grown significantly during the last decade. Electronic auction (e-auction is one of the famous e-commerce applications. Even so, security and robustness of e-auction schemes still remain a challenge. Requirements like anonymity and privacy of the b i d value are under threat from the attackers. Any auction protocol must not leak the anonymity and the privacy of the b i d value of an honest Bidder. Keeping these requirements in mind, we have firstly proposed a controlled traceable blind signature scheme (CTBSS because e-auction schemes should be able to trace the Bidders. Using CTBSS, a blind sealed-bid electronic auction scheme is proposed (BSEA. We have incorporated the notion of blind signature to e-auction schemes. Moreover, both the schemes are based upon elliptic curve cryptography (ECC, which provides a similar level of security with a comparatively smaller key size than the discrete logarithm problem (DLP based e-auction protocols. The analysis shows that BSEA fulfills all the requirements of e-auction protocol, and the total computation overhead is lower than the existing schemes.

  15. m-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    VACKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to suggest practical use of m-commerce in the company Elektra PV based on analysis of options of m-commerce in the Czech Republic and in the world. First part of this thesis investigates theoretical basics of mobile commerce. Next part processes three case studies about the companies Amazon, Argos and Alza.cz, then followed the analysis of m-commerce. Based on previous findings is suggested for the company Elektra PV to implement mobile application.

  16. Secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deyun; Zhang, Junfeng; Pei, Shujun

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce the situation of electronic commercial security, then we analyze the working process and security for SSL protocol. At last, we propose a secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA. The system provide secure services such as encryption, integer, peer authentication and non-repudiation for application layer communication software of browser clients' and web server. The system can implement automatic allocation and united management of key through setting up the CA in the network.

  17. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  18. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains weekly Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) derived from VIIRS. The Green Vegetation Fraction product is updated daily and is used as an input to...

  19. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies.

  20. WooCommerce cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rauland, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    If you have ever built or managed a WordPress site and want to add e-commerce functionality into your site, WooCommerce and this book are perfect for you. Learning how to use WooCommerce through this series of recipes will give you a solid platform to add any future e-commerce needs.

  1. E-Commerce untuk Mendukung Business to Business Menggunakan Dynamic Dbmss: Studi Kasus pada Perusahaan Dagang Cross Tech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Subekti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an e-commerce that can distribute any information about the products of PD Cross Tech. The e-commerce is supported by dynamic DBMS and can be connected via database reseller server so that it can do information sharing. The distribution is performed using the DistributedRelational Database Management System (DRDBMS, supported by the File Transfer Protocol and Virtual Private Network. In other words the e-Commerce supports multiplatform database. Research methodologies used are analytical methods, design methods, and literature study. Results showed that PD Cross Tech needs anew e-Commerce that supports multiplatform database. With this e-Commerce, it is expected that similar computer equipment needs for many organization in Indonesia can be designed in the same way.

  2. 15 CFR 19.14 - How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus? 19.14 Section 19.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.14 How will Commerce entities...

  3. M-commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Jørgensen, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Når små og mellemstore virksomheder (SMVer [F1] ) vover sig ud i nye forretningsmuligheder, som baserer sig på mobile devices via trådløs kommunikation med et forretningsmæssigt formål for øje eller 'Mobile Commerce' (M-commerce), skal de være meget dygtige til både at udnytte forkantsteknologier...... af disse netværk som en central del af nye M-commerce forretningsmodeller for SMVer og at redegøre for de foreløbige resultater fra projektets indledende fase. Projektets formål er at udforske, beskrive og facilitere udviklingen af nye forretningsmodeller for M-commerce i danske SMVer. Data er blevet...... indsamlet gennem dybdeinterview. Artiklen bidrager til teori om M-commerce forretningsmodeller, og i særdeleshed, modeller der karakteriseres af intenst netværkssamarbejde.   [F1] Jeg er ikke overbevist, at vi ikke skulle bruge SMEs, da det er meget mere kendt, også herhjemme....

  4. E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Vancauteren, Mark

    2011-01-01

    International e-commerce, which involves cross-border transactions over the internet, shows every sign of continuing to expand rapidly. The potential savings of transaction costs from e-commerce are substantial. The most important cost-saving aspect of e-commerce is the reduction in travel, administration, communication and search costs. One consequence of such cost advantages is that many small cross-border transactions have now become economic. In addi...

  5. Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  6. Electronic Commerce: a battle on regulation, standards transportation media and business integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Andersen

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The drive towards the electronic commerce organisation is both a troublesome and a strifted path for government, enterprises and consumers worldwide. In this article we analyse the evolution of electronic commerce in Denmark during the period 1995-1998 from four perspectives: regulation, standards, transportation media and business integration. The Danish government is stimulating the use of electronic commerce using direct and indirect policy initiatives on central, governmental regulation and establishment of greens enabling self-regulation. Also, the governments own, organisational management is in Denmark seen as a mean to exalt electronic commerce. Onwards, the fist on proprietary standards and the UN/EDIFACT is an ongoing source of delaying, stimulating or reventing electronic commerce depending on the business sector and the size of market actor addressed. In Denmark, the direct access and value added network supporters have so far been the dominating mean to transport the electronic documents in the business transaction. The Internet and XML technology is at the turn of the century challenging the way of doing business within this field. Some view this as the big blue to speed the diffusion of electronic commerce; others are worried that the incentive to investment and pull the partners in the value chain to use EDI might be lost. Finally, our study conclude that the debate on business integration issues is ambiguous and characterised by substantial uncertainty on for example the role of intermediates, direct sale, hyper-shift in business partners and the pull/push of global enterprises at the local markets.

  7. The Social Commerce System

    OpenAIRE

    Dubovyk Tetiana V.; Ortynska Valentyna V.

    2017-01-01

    The social commerce is a relatively new phenomenon, found in the little researched direction of trade. Research results by the authors have provided to systematize the views on the concept of «social commerce», characterize the social commerce system, propose measures to develop a social commerce strategy. The authors have defined the social commerce as expansion of e-commerce in the social networks on the Internet, in which social factors are significant, and consumers use the right to creat...

  8. Social Commerce – E-Commerce in Social Media Context

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Sau-ling LAI

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to address the new trend of social commerce as electronic commerce leverages Web 2.0 technologies and online social media. The infusions of new technologies on the World Wide Web connect users in their homes and workplaces, thus transforming social formations and business transactions. An in-depth study of the growth and success of a social commerce site, Facebook was conducted. The investigation is finalized with a triad relational model which reflects so...

  9. 75 FR 47536 - Application Deadline Extended; Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Application Deadline Extended; Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency... are organizing an Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City from September... & Communication Technology (ICT)'' solutions, as well as energy efficiency technologies to enter or increase their...

  10. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  11. 15 CFR 19.15 - How will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to private collection agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to private collection agencies? 19.15 Section 19.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.15 How will...

  12. From E-commerce to Social Commerce: A Framework to Guide Enabling Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdadi, Youcef

    2013-01-01

    Social commerce is doing commerce in a collaborative and participative way, by using social media, through an enterprise interactive interface that enables social interactions. Technologies such as Web 2.0, Cloud Computing and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) enable social commerce. Yet, a framework for social commerce, putting Enterprise Social Interactions as central entities, would provide a strong business justification for social commerce design and adoption with these enabling techno...

  13. A Rapid and Reproducible Genomic DNA Extraction Protocol for Sequence-Based Identification of Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and Green Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Farkhondeh Saba; Moslem Papizadeh; Javad Khansha; Mahshid Sedghi; Mehrnoosh Rasooli; Mohammad Ali Amoozegar; Mohammad Reza Soudi; Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh Fazeli

    2016-01-01

    Background:  Sequence-based identification of various microorganisms including Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and green algae necessitates an efficient and reproducible genome extraction procedure though which a pure template DNA is yielded and it can be used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Considering the fact that DNA extraction from these microorganisms is time consuming and laborious, we developed and standardized a safe, rapid and inexpensive miniprep protocol. Me...

  14. E-COMMERCE MARKET AND PERSPECTIVES FOR THE REVERSE COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Laskowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has been evolving from being a purely niche phenomenon to owning a vital share in economies of developed countries. Growth of such distribution and sales channel has been highly correlated with technological improvements penetrating modern societies. Today we stand in front of new ideas, adoption barriers and profit opportunities. There are a few trends ready to take off in the near future, one of them is the idea of reverse e-commerce, which is engaging the consumer even more into a highly personalized buying process. Nevertheless, every new idea needs the suitable time and place to launch. The purpose of this analysis is to verify prospects for the reverse e-commerce, which has a huge market potential. Reverse e-Commerce has every chance of becoming a new, still undiscovered now, marketing channel.

  15. The Social Commerce System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubovyk Tetiana V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The social commerce is a relatively new phenomenon, found in the little researched direction of trade. Research results by the authors have provided to systematize the views on the concept of «social commerce», characterize the social commerce system, propose measures to develop a social commerce strategy. The authors have defined the social commerce as expansion of e-commerce in the social networks on the Internet, in which social factors are significant, and consumers use the right to create content through the media via forums, ratings, reviews, and recommendations on different platforms. Enterprises are advised to use social tools to perform social interaction with consumers in social networks, create a social climate in view of the social support on the Web. The authors have proposed the concept of «social commerce system», structure of which contains the following elements: individuality of consumer, social communications, social communities, e-commerce; defined the multidimensional attributes that are naturally associated with all four elements of the social commerce. They cover the quality of information, system quality, quality of service, convenience and ease-of-use, payment mechanism.

  16. NWHI Basking Green Turtle Data (Turtle Sightings from Seal Surveys)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of green turtle sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) since 1982 at Lisianski Island, and since 1983 for most other...

  17. Performance comparison of secure comparison protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerschbaum, F.; Biswas, D.; Hoogh, de S.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Secure multiparty computation (SMC) has gained tremendous importance with the growth of the Internet and e-commerce, where mutually untrusted parties need to jointly compute a function of their private inputs. However, SMC protocols usually have very high computational complexities, rendering them

  18. E-COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Moraru

    2008-01-01

    E-commerce (Electronic Commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. In practice, this term and a newer term, e-business is often used interchangeably. For online retail selling, the term e-tailing sometimes used.

  19. E-COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai MORARU

    2009-01-01

    E-commerce (Electronic Commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. In practice, this term and a newer term, e-business is often used interchangeably. For online retail selling, the term e-tailing sometimes used.

  20. STUDI EMPIRIK SOCIAL COMMERCE (S-COMMERCE DARI SUDUT PANDANG KUALITAS WEBSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Supriyati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK E-commerce berevolusi dengan mengadopsi web 2.0 yang mempunyai kapabilitas meningkatkan partisipasi pelanggan dan meningkatkan nilai ekonomi. Fenomena baru ini dikenal dengan istilah social commerce (s-commerce. Kualitas website dipengaruhi tiga hal yaitu kulitas system (system quality, kualitas layanan(service quality dan kualitas informasi (information quality. Kualitas pelayanan yang baik dapat membantu pengguna mendapatkan kekuatan penuh dari website dengan cara mencocokan dengan harapan mereka. Kualitas informasi menunjukkan sejauh mana isi dari website tersebut tepat waktu (up date, akurat, dan lengkap.Penelitian ini bersifat empirik dengan menerapkan model kualitas website pada dua s-commerce yaitu tokopedia.com dan lazada.co.id. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisa sistemmatis, perbandingan dan observasi. Dari model yang diterapkan didapat hasil bahwa tokopedia memiliki lebih banyak atribut-atribut kualitas website. Kata kunci: s-commerce, kualitas web site, system, service, informasi.

  1. E-COMMERCE SIDEWALK CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ariffiana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce merupakan aplikasi perdagangan barang atau jasa berbasis web melalui media internet.  Sidewalk Clothing saat ini dalam melakukan proses jual beli masih mengharuskan pembeli dan penjual bertatap muka secara langsung. E-commerce atau yang lebih dikenal dengan toko online memberikan kemudahan dalam melakukan proses jual beli sehingga transaksi jual beli menjadi lebih efektif dan efisien. Hasil yang dicapai dalam pembuatan e-commerce ini adalah mempermudah proses transaksi jual beli tanpa terikat waktu dan tempat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini pemilik toko dimudahkan dalam memperbaharui informasi mengenai produk yang dijual dan dapat sekaligus meningkatkan penjualan. Pembeli dimudahkan dalam dalam mendapatkan informasi produk yang ditawarkan dan pembeli bisa membeli produk tersebut setiap saat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini dapat memudahkan transaksi jual beli antara pemilik toko dan pembeli, serta memudahkan pemilik toko dalam memperbaharui informasi sehingga dengan adanya e- commerce omset penjualan akanmeningkat. Kata Kunci:E-commerce, website, Sidewalk Clothing

  2. 15 CFR 19.16 - When will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to the Department of Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to the Department of Justice? 19.16 Section 19.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.16 When will...

  3. The Application of Dynamic Capabilities in E-commerce Innovation Context : The Implications for Chinese E-commerce companies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, YongJia; Liang, WeiMin

    2007-01-01

    This study mainly investigated how Chinese E-commerce companies should cope with E-commerce innovation with specific dynamic capabilities. E-commerce (Electronic Commerce) innovation includes three phases of innovation based on technology and time. They are web-based commerce, mobile commerce (M-commerce) and ubiquitous commerce (U-commerce). They caused not only technological changes but also organizational changes. To cope with E-commerce innovation, a prerequisite is to understand the impa...

  4. 29 CFR 779.12 - Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce. 779.12 Section 779.12 Labor Regulations Relating... OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.12 Commerce. Commerce as used in the Act includes interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act to mean “trade, commerce...

  5. E-Commerce for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malicky, M. [Metzler and Associates, Deerfield, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of E-Commerce by energy utility and service companies was discussed. E-Commerce was described as being all communication via the web including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce communication includes the exchange of information, data, money services, products, ideas, conversations, knowledge, inventory and events. E-Commerce can be applied to electric and gas utilities to enhance energy marketing, delivery, retail energy, energy services, retail services and customer satisfaction. This means of communication is quickly becoming an essential part of customer care strategy. It reduces costs and improves performance. It was forecasted that E-Commerce will more than double from 1998 to 2001. 15 refs.

  6. The research on electronic commerce security payment system based on set protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongliang

    2012-04-01

    With the rapid development of network technology, online transactions have become more and more common. In this paper, we firstly introduce the principle and the basic principal and technical foundation of SET, and then we analyze the progress of designing a system in the foundation of the procedure of the electronic business based on SET. On this basis, we design a system of the Payment System for Electronic Business. It will not only take on crucial realism signification for large-scale, medium-sized and mini-type corporations, but also provide guide meaning with programmer and design-developer to realize Electronic Commerce (EC).

  7. 7 CFR 1220.103 - Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce. 1220.103 Section 1220.103 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.103 Commerce. The term commerce means interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce. ...

  8. 15 CFR 19.11 - How will Commerce entities use tax refund offset to collect a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities use tax refund offset to collect a Commerce debt? 19.11 Section 19.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.11 How will...

  9. 15 CFR 19.8 - When will Commerce entities suspend or terminate debt collection on a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities suspend or terminate debt collection on a Commerce debt? 19.8 Section 19.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.8 When will...

  10. INTERNET COMMERCE IN MARITIME INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szyda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet commerce in Poland is growing rapidly, entering into new industries and of-fering a wider and wider range of goods and services. For electronic commerce is open maritime industry, as evidenced by the maritime e-commerce. This aspect of e-commerce is not a popular topic of publications and research. In this article the author presents the genesis of electronic commerce in the maritime industry taking into account the particular business relationship business-to-business (B2B. Then attempt to characterize maritime e-commerce in business-to-customer (B2C relationship. The purpose of this article is to identify the attributes of internet commerce in the maritime industry, having particular re-gard to Polish online market, especially retail.

  11. Designing Systems for E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Leitch

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is an important element in all aspects of computing, but proves to be a real problem in the development and delivery of E-Commerce systems. There are many aspects of ethics that can affect E-Commerce systems, but often research is focused on the ethics after the E-Commerce system has been implemented, focusing on issues such as trust, privacy and disclosure. This paper will discuss how ethical matters can affect the design of E-Commerce systems and how a framework designed for E-Commerce can be used to create and deliver effective, ethical E-Commerce systems.

  12. 29 CFR 401.1 - Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce. 401.1 Section 401.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.1 Commerce. Commerce means trade, traffic, commerce, transportation...

  13. Strategiske udfordringer for e-commerce og m-commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2005-01-01

    For at være forretningsmæssigt levedygtige, må m-portaler tiltrække og fastholde kunderne. Kernebudskabet i dette afsnit er at muligheden for at være succesfuld med dette vil afhænge af dynamiske strategier, der blander elementer af personalisering, adgang og specifikation af indhold. Vi gennemgå...... her kerneforskelle mellem traditionel e-handel (e-commerce) og m-commerce og hvordan de to handelsformer adskiller sig med hensyn til personalisering, adgang og specifikation af indhold....

  14. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Zvolánková, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  15. 15 CFR 19.9 - When will Commerce entities transfer a Commerce debt to the Treasury Department's Financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities transfer a Commerce debt to the Treasury Department's Financial Management Service for collection? 19.9 Section 19.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To...

  16. E-Commerce Education In China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Juhua; Hu Yong; Wang Wei

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduced the development of e-commerce education in China within the framework that the advantages, development, and education of e-commerce are functionally interactive. The first part of the paper is dedicated to explaining the advantage of e-commerce as well as the present situation and prospects of e-commerce in China. Then, the next two sections are focused on reporting the rapid progress of e-commerce education and its limitation in China. Next, we analyze its irrationality...

  17. INTERNET COMMERCE IN MARITIME INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Szyda

    2014-01-01

    Internet commerce in Poland is growing rapidly, entering into new industries and of-fering a wider and wider range of goods and services. For electronic commerce is open maritime industry, as evidenced by the maritime e-commerce. This aspect of e-commerce is not a popular topic of publications and research. In this article the author presents the genesis of electronic commerce in the maritime industry taking into account the particular business relationship business-to-business (B2B). Then at...

  18. Electronic commerce: beyond the euphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, J L; DeLuca, J M

    2000-01-01

    As the center of considerable media attention, case study articles, vendor research, and development efforts, electronic commerce technology is entering healthcare and having a profound effect. The simple truth, however, is that after the drama and excitement begins to wear off, completing a successful e-commerce implementation remains good old-fashioned hard, sometimes monotonous work. To be successful, e-commerce technologies must be planned and implemented with rigorous project standards, and incorporated with significant process and workflow reengineering to actually return significant value to the organization. This article briefs readers on the organizational issues they must consider in evaluating e-commerce readiness--cultural, executive and technological factors that either support or inhibit project and technology success. Readers will be left with the tools to conduct an electronic commerce "readiness assessment" to evaluate the immediate, mid- and long-term potential of electronic commerce; practical remediation strategies for better preparing the organization for the changes inherent in moving to an e-commerce-enabled business model; and comments from the field--advice from organizations that have successfully implemented e-commerce technologies into their ongoing operations.

  19. E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Zákorová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    E-commerce presents realization of business processes, which are realised through the electronic communication instruments (especially Internet). E-commerce brings positives and negatives, which go from traditional business. Presentation of firms with WWW pages becomes an impulsion for steps to implementation of e-business resolution. In last years are rising special logistic centres, an example of this are logistic centres of net courier, express and parcel services or logistic centres of in...

  20. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce debt? 19.5 Section 19.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce...

  1. Trust and Privacy in the Shift from E-Commerce to M-Commerce: A Comparative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulou , Panagiota; Pelet , Jean-Eric

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: Trust and Privacy; International audience; Trust and privacy have been widely studied as key issues and success factors for e-commerce. The advent of m-commerce calls for revisiting these concepts and re-examining their antecedents in the mobile context. This paper attempts a comparative approach to the issues of trust and privacy in e-commerce and m-commerce. It investigates how trust and privacy are differentiated with the shift from the context of e-commerce to the context of m-com...

  2. IT IN COMMERCE: E-COMMERCE AND OMNI-CHANNEL SALES IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    PHILIPP A. ANTIPIN

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses the use of information technologies and possibilities provided by the Internet in commerce. The global and European experience of omni-channel sales is discussed. The prospects and conditions of the development of e-commerce and omni-channel sales are identified.

  3. Security of M-Commerce transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this material electronic market are defined. How they are structured. Security in E-Commerce applications is very important both at the administrative level and from the user perspective. The new trend in the field is the M-commerce that involves making purchases through mobile devices. And for M-commerce transactions the security is a very important thing. Here's how to analyze the security of M-commerce transactions and ways to increase security for these transactions taking into account the organization of M-Commerce applications, software used, hardware used and other important issues in the development of these applications.

  4. Comprehensive plan for activating E-commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    With the development of Information Technology and Internet, the world economy is facing an era of E-commerce. Internet E-commerce becomes valid over whole economic activities and internet-oriented economic paradigm is emerging. The advanced countries, such as USA and UK, are providing a vision for E-commerce development competitively and concentrating a national-wide capacity. Although the level of Korean E-commerce has a little gap with that of advanced countries, the fundamental foundation for activating E-commerce is established. To improve a reliability of cyber market, the plan for establishing foundation of cyber trade should be provided by revising E-commerce legislation system, expanding infrastructure, promoting E-commerce in public sector, and extending E-commerce between industry sectors.

  5. Green buildings: Implications for acousticians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    This presentation will deal with the practical implications of green design protocols of the US Green Building Council on interior acoustics of buildings. Three areas of particular consequence to acousticians will be discussed. Ventilation Systems: reduced energy consumption goals dictate reliance on natural cooling and ventilation using ambient air when possible. The consequent large openings in the building envelope to bring fresh air into rooms, and similar sized openings to transfer the mixed air out, can severely compromise the noise isolation of the rooms concerned. Radiant Cooling: the heavy concrete floors of buildings can be used as a thermal flywheel to lessen the cooling load, which forces the concrete ceilings to be exposed to the occupied rooms for heat transfer, and strictly limits the application of acoustical absorption on the ceilings. This challenges the room acoustics design. Green Materials: the LEED protocols require the elimination of potentially harmful finishes, including fibrous materials which may impact air quality or contribute to health problems. Since the backbone of sound absorption is glass and mineral fibres, this further challenges provision of superior room acoustics. Examples and commentary will be provided based on current and recent projects.

  6. Getting started with nopCommerce

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A friendly, tutorial style book, which will help you learn your way through creating a live storefront with nopCommerce in a step-by-step manner.Getting Started with nopCommerce is for anyone who wants to sell products online using nopCommerce. If you are a non-technical person and are discouraged by the complexity of this powerful e-commerce application, then this book is for you.

  7. Regulating e-commerce using XML

    OpenAIRE

    Spiteri, Kenneth J.; 2nd Computer Science Annual Workshop (CSAW’04)

    2004-01-01

    E-commerce, which is short for ‘Electronic Commerce’, is simply the idea of replacing physical business transactions with electronic business transactions using the Internet. E-commerce cuts through boundaries such as time and geography to put business owners and customers into virtual contact with one another. A key idea behind E-commerce is the ability to take orders and receive payments through an electronic storefront. Philosophically, E-commerce is about openness, connectivity, and integ...

  8. Climate Change And The Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of global warming is addressed. Changes in earth surface temperature, emission of CO 2 and other four major green house gases are presented. Effect of global warming on weather, ocean, and ecosystem is discussed. A brief history of the Kyoto protocol starting from the 151 Earth Summit in 1972 is outlined. An overview of the protocol and a brief summary are given

  9. Stable transformation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) using a non-meristematic regeneration protocol and green fluorescent protein as a vital marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A; Iser, M; Hess, D

    2001-10-01

    Stable transformation of sunflower was achieved using a non-meristematic hypocotyl explant regeneration protocol of public inbred HA300B. Uniformly transformed shoots were obtained after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying a gfp (green fluorescent protein) gene containing an intron that blocks expression of gfp in Agrobacterium. Easily detectable, bright green fluorescence of transformed tissues was used to establish an optimal regeneration and transformation procedure. By Southern blot analysis, integration of the gfp and nptll genes was confirmed. Stable transformation efficiency was 0.1%. From 68 T1 plants analyzed, 17 showed transmission of transgene DNA and 15 of them contained the intact gfp gene. Expression of gfp was detected in 10 T1 plants carrying the intact gfp gene using a fluorimetric assay or western blot analysis. Expression of the nptll gene was confirmed in 13 T1 plants. The transformation system enables the rapid transfer of agronomically important genes.

  10. E-Commerce: How Can Businesses Benefit From E-Commerce?

    OpenAIRE

    Amca, Hasan; Jönsson, Anders

    2005-01-01

    E-business in general and e-commerce in particular is changing the way people do business and sell their product and services to the entire world without the need of physically existing around the globe. As enterprises exploit business opportunities via the Internet, they have discovered that not only they need a reliable and scalable IT infrastructure to support their online business, but also they must have the capability to deploy new online applications rapidly and integrate e-commerce to...

  11. E-commerce and the energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.; Biedenharn, J.

    2000-01-01

    The impact of e-commerce on the future of the energy industry is examined, and the size and scope of business-to-business e-commerce activities are explored. Identification of e-commerce needs in relation to sales and purchasing requirements, and the selection of the e-commerce course and considerations to be taken into account in introducing e-commerce into a business are discussed

  12. E-commerce and the energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.; Biedenharn, J. [Global Energy Assets, Inc. (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The impact of e-commerce on the future of the energy industry is examined, and the size and scope of business-to-business e-commerce activities are explored. Identification of e-commerce needs in relation to sales and purchasing requirements, and the selection of the e-commerce course and considerations to be taken into account in introducing e-commerce into a business are discussed.

  13. 15 CFR 19.19 - Will Commerce entities issue a refund if money is erroneously collected on a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will Commerce entities issue a refund if money is erroneously collected on a Commerce debt? 19.19 Section 19.19 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.19...

  14. Security of M-Commerce transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ion IVAN; Daniel MILODIN; Alin ZAMFIROIU

    2013-01-01

    In this material electronic market are defined. How they are structured. Security in E-Commerce applications is very important both at the administrative level and from the user perspective. The new trend in the field is the M-commerce that involves making purchases through mobile devices. And for M-commerce transactions the security is a very important thing. Here’s how to analyze the security of M-commerce transactions and ways to increase security for these transactions taki...

  15. 29 CFR 779.237 - Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. 779.237 Section 779.237 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. Under section 3(s) the “enterprise” to be covered must...

  16. 29 CFR 779.22 - Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. 779.22 Section 779.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Definitions § 779.22 Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. The portions...

  17. An eCommerce Development Case: Your Company's eCommerce Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    This case provides a real-world semester long project-oriented case study for students enrolled in an electronic commerce course that has a significant development component. The case provides the technical framework in the form of functional requirements for students to design and build a fully functional transaction processing e-commerce Web…

  18. The Effectiveness of the Multilateral Coalition to Develop a Green Agricultural Products Market in China Based on a TU Cooperative Game Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Deng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Green agriculture can improve biodiversity, increase farmers’ income, reduce agricultural non-point source pollution, solve food safety issues, and will be an important way to promote sustainable development in China. At present, the green transformation of China’s agriculture has encountered a bottleneck in the development of a green agricultural product market. How to develop a green agricultural product market has become an issue worthy of in-depth study in the academia. Previous studies have already given persuasive explanations for the inability to form a green agricultural product market, but few have explored its development path from the angle of cooperation. By employing the method of a Transferable Utilities (TU cooperative game, and based on theoretical analyses and hypothetical data, this thesis aims to prove the effectiveness of the multilateral coalition to develop the green agricultural product market in China. The results show the effectiveness of the developed model of the green agricultural product market in which producers, consumers, food safety inspection departments, and e-commerce platforms cooperate with each other. This model meets the objective needs of the times and that of the market economy. According to the marginal contribution value of participants in different coalition orders, this thesis finds 6 kinds of coalition orders. When producers and consumers of green agricultural products enter the coalition in the last place, the marginal contribution value is maximized, which reflects the importance of the supply side and demand side of green agricultural products. In other words, the development of the green agricultural product market is a dynamic process—determined by consumers and promoted by producers—in which both sides promote and restrict each other. Finally, this article presents two policy recommendations: at the national level, to clearly proposes a strategy to build a green agricultural product e-commerce

  19. 2012 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: Green Peter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Green Peter study area for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) in Linn County, Oregon. The collection of...

  20. 2015 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: Green Peter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Green Peter study area for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) in Linn County, Oregon. The collection of...

  1. B2C E-COMMERCE WEBSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savulea Dorel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web represents a new frontier towards a global industry, leading the way for new businesses. Commerce now deals with a whole different concept: electronic commerce (e-commerce. This kind of commerce provides new means for a large variety o

  2. Innovation and development of exhibition electronic-commerce based on the properties of electronic-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    There are two roadmaps of accomplishing exhibition electronic-commerce innovation and development. The first roadmap is that the exhibition organizers should seek mutual benefit cooperation with professional electronic-commerce platform of correspondent area with exhibition projects, thus help exhibitors realize their market object. The second roadmap is to promote innovation and development of electronic-commerce (Business-to-Customer) between both exhibitors and purchasers. Exhibition electronic-commerce must focus on innovative development in the following functions: market research and information service; advertising and business negotiation; online trading and online payment. With the aid of electronic-commerce, exhibition enterprise could have distinctive strengths such as transactions with virtualization, transparency, high efficiency and low cost, enhancing market link during enterprise research and development, promoting the efficiency of internal team collaboration and the individuation of external service, and optimizing resource allocation.

  3. KEAMANAN DALAM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Andre M. R. Wajong; Carolina Rizki Putri

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give information and understanding about security threat that could happen in security system in e-commerce. The approach used is how the transaction system is, how the security is applied, and also the possible security threat in e-commerce. The result of this research is that there are still gaps in e-commerce. It is hoped that the business actors will be more realized about the security importance and more aware about the possible threat. 

  4. Green-Frag: Energy-Efficient Frame Fragmentation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Daghistani, Anas H.

    2013-01-01

    that is optimized to be energy efficient, which is originated from the chosen frame fragmentation scheme. This new energy-efficient frame fragmentation protocol is called (Green-Frag). Green-Frag uses an algorithm that gives sensor nodes the ability to transmit data

  5. Designing Systems for E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Shona Leitch; Matthew Warren

    2003-01-01

    Ethics is an important element in all aspects of computing, but proves to be a real problem in the development and delivery of E-Commerce systems. There are many aspects of ethics that can affect E-Commerce systems, but often research is focused on the ethics after the E-Commerce system has been implemented, focusing on issues such as trust, privacy and disclosure. This paper will discuss how ethical matters can affect the design of E-Commerce systems and how a framework designed for E-Com...

  6. 15 CFR 19.13 - How will Commerce entities use administrative wage garnishment to collect a Commerce debt from a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities use administrative wage garnishment to collect a Commerce debt from a debtor's wages? 19.13 Section 19.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect...

  7. An Architecture for Information Commerce Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hauswirth, Manfred; Jazayeri, Mehdi; Miklós, Zoltan; Podnar, Ivana; Di Nitto, Elisabetta; Wombacher, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The increasing use of the Internet in business and commerce has created a number of new business opportunities and the need for supporting models and platforms. One of these opportunities is information commerce (i-commerce), a special case of ecommerce focused on the purchase and sale of information as a commodity. In this paper we present an architecture for i-commerce systems using OPELIX (Open Personalized Electronic Information Commerce System) [11] as an example. OPELIX provides an open...

  8. Keamanan Dalam Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Michael Ricky Wajong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to give information and understanding about security threat that could happen in security system in e-commerce. The approach used is how the transaction system is, how the security is applied, and also the possible security threat in e-commerce. The result of this research is that there are still gaps in e-commerce. It is hoped that the business actors will be more realized about the security importance and more aware about the possible threat. 

  9. The electronic-commerce-oriented virtual merchandise model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaocui; Lu, Dongming

    2004-03-01

    Electronic commerce has been the trend of commerce activities. Providing with Virtual Reality interface, electronic commerce has better expressing capacity and interaction means. But most of the applications of virtual reality technology in EC, 3D model is only the appearance description of merchandises. There is almost no information concerned with commerce information and interaction information. This resulted in disjunction of virtual model and commerce information. So we present Electronic Commerce oriented Virtual Merchandise Model (ECVMM), which combined a model with commerce information, interaction information and figure information of virtual merchandise. ECVMM with abundant information provides better support to information obtainment and communication in electronic commerce.

  10. Combining the Benefits of Traditional Commerce and E-Commerce with M-Commerce benefits in the Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Corbitso, Kenneth; Ash, Thomas; Pisone, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The convergence of traditional and electronic commerce practices is being driven by the need for businesses to keep up with the ever increasing competition of online retailing. This thesis aims to examine and analyze the possible benefits that may arise via the use and development of rapidly evolving mobile technology, through analyzing the benefits of each of the forms of commerce during outlined stages of retail process, in order to evaluate to what extend the benefits can be combined. The ...

  11. Planning and management of E-commerce Website : Guide for startup B2C E-commerce companies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to help startup B2C E-commerce companies to plan and manage e-commerce website. This thesis is intended to equip current and future e-commerce managers or entrepreneurs with some basic knowledge and practical skills to help them navigate their organisations towards e-business. It does not have any specific commissioner. Thesis will contain most aspects when plan and manage e-commerce website for startups.

  12. Estimation of survival rates and abundance of green turtles along the U.S. West Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine abundance and survival rates of the east Pacific green turtles in the northern most foraging grounds, the turtle research groups at SWFSC have been...

  13. Green certificates: a new currency for trading the environmental benefits of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crookall-Fallon, C.; Crozier-Cole, T.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the driving force of the Kyoto Protocol on the EU's proposed Directive to stimulate the use of renewable energy sources for generating electricity, and the forthcoming sixth conference of the Parties to the UN National Framework Convention on Climatic Change where it is hoped that the EU will ratify the 1997 Kyoto Protocol requiring the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases. Details of the EU's Directive on the liberalisation of the internal market for electricity and targets for increasing renewable energy electricity consumption are given. Trading environmental benefits of renewable generation, the concept of trading green certificates, the challenges to creating a green certificate market, national green certificate systems such as the Dutch and Danish systems, and the progress towards Europe-wide green certificate trading are discussed

  14. Holistic Metrics for Assessment of the Greenness of Chemical Reactions in the Context of Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adelio A. S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Two new semiquantitative green chemistry metrics, the green circle and the green matrix, have been developed for quick assessment of the greenness of a chemical reaction or process, even without performing the experiment from a protocol if enough detail is provided in it. The evaluation is based on the 12 principles of green chemistry. The…

  15. E-Commerce: easy access, easy business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappel, A. [Union Gas Ltd., Chatham, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this workshop presentation which dealt with the increased use of E-Commerce in the energy industries. E-Commerce refers to the use of any kind of electronic communication, including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce offers real-time access and real-time solutions to energy marketers. This paper discussed growth trends and the driving force behind E-Commerce. Market and regulatory changes such as unbundling and business transformation are some of the factors responsible for the increased used of E-Commerce. This workshop also described some of the intricacies of the Union Gas web site.

  16. Beginning Django E-Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    McGaw, James

    2009-01-01

    Beginning Django E-Commerce guides you through producing an e-commerce site using Django, the most popular Python web development framework. Topics covered include how to make a shopping cart, a checkout, and a payment processor; how to make the most of Ajax; and search engine optimization best practices. Throughout the book, you'll take each topic and apply it to build a single example site, and all the while you'll learn the theory behind what you're architecting. * Build a fully functional e-commerce site. * Learn to architect your site properly to survive in an increasingly competitive onl

  17. Declarative Specification of Fault Tolerant Auction Protocols: The English Auction Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragoni, Nicola; Gaspari, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Auction mechanisms are nowadays widely used in electronic commerce Web sites for buying and selling items among different users. The increasing importance of auction protocols in the negotiation phase is not limited to online marketplaces. In fact, the wide applicability of auctions as resource‐a...... about the specification of an English Auction protocol which tolerate crashes of bidding agents and we discuss its properties....

  18. 29 CFR 779.239 - Meaning of “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meaning of âengaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.â 779.239 Section 779.239 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.” The term “engaged in commerce or in the production of...

  19. 15 CFR 19.6 - When will Commerce entities allow a debtor to pay a Commerce debt in installments instead of one...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities allow a debtor to pay a Commerce debt in installments instead of one lump sum? 19.6 Section 19.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce...

  20. Nutzung und Akzeptanz von E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Michael; Wolf, Malthe

    2001-01-01

    Even with the so-called New Markets facing a world-wide break-down and the euphoria around electronic commerce subsequently cooling down market forecasts still predict a great future for electronic commerce. Influenced by electronic communication technologies, business transactions change rapidly. Although business-to-consumer e-commerce is expected to become a successful sales and communication channel world-wide, e-commerce was not accepted by broad consumer groups the way it was hoped for....

  1. A language for information commerce processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aberer, Karl; Wombacher, Andreas

    Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce

  2. Determine sex ratios of green turtles along the U.S. West Coast through examinations of hormones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A testosterone (T) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was validated for use with green turtle plasma in order to determine the sex of juvenile turtles. We...

  3. 15 CFR 738.3 - Commerce Country Chart structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce Country Chart structure. 738.3 Section 738.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... COMMERCE CONTROL LIST OVERVIEW AND THE COUNTRY CHART § 738.3 Commerce Country Chart structure. (a) Scope...

  4. Shaping the norms that regulate international commerce of embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Julie A; Stringfellow, David A

    2014-01-01

    As various embryo technologies in livestock were developed and evolved to a state of usefulness over the past 40 years, scientists with a specific interest in infectious diseases sought to determine the epidemiologic consequences of movement, especially international movement, of increasing numbers of embryos. Many of the foundational studies in this area were reported in Theriogenology, beginning in the 1970s and especially throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Unquestionably, Theriogenology has been a widely used venue for dissemination of basic information on this subject, which ultimately led to the development of the now universally accepted techniques for certification of embryo health. Today it is well-recognized that movement in commerce of embryos, especially in vivo-derived embryos, is a very low-risk method for exchange of animal germ plasm. This paper chronicles the evolution of strategies for health certification of embryos. An overview is provided of the calculated efforts of practitioners, scientists, and regulators to organize, forge necessary partnerships, stimulate needed research, provide purposeful analysis of the results, and, through these processes, guarantee the universal acceptance of efficient protocols for certifying the health of embryos intended for movement in international commerce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Department of Commerce Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... the Assistant General Counsel for Legislation and Regulation, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington... Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Building 1, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle, WA... Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle, WA 98115 Phone...

  6. Green extraction of natural products: concept and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Vian, Maryline Abert; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    The design of green and sustainable extraction methods of natural products is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Herein we aimed to introduce the six principles of green-extraction, describing a multifaceted strategy to apply this concept at research and industrial level. The mainstay of this working protocol are new and innovative technologies, process intensification, agro-solvents and energy saving. The concept, principles and examples of green extraction here discussed, offer an updated glimpse of the huge technological effort that is being made and the diverse applications that are being developed.

  7. Green Extraction of Natural Products: Concept and Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Cravotto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of green and sustainable extraction methods of natural products is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Herein we aimed to introduce the six principles of green-extraction, describing a multifaceted strategy to apply this concept at research and industrial level. The mainstay of this working protocol are new and innovative technologies, process intensification, agro-solvents and energy saving. The concept, principles and examples of green extraction here discussed, offer an updated glimpse of the huge technological effort that is being made and the diverse applications that are being developed.

  8. Social Commerce Design: A Framework and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hui; Trimi, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Social commerce is a new business model of e-commerce, which utilizes of Web 2.0 technologies and social media to support social-related exchange activities. While its popularity, being a subset of e-commerce, has been increasing tremendously since its introduction in 2005, there exists a general paucity of research on its framework and its applications’ effectiveness, especially in areas beyond the common social commerce practices. This study develops a comprehensive social commerc...

  9. E-commerce sebagai Pendukung Pemasaran Perusahaan

    OpenAIRE

    Medah, Melgiana

    2009-01-01

    E- commerce as a manufacturing marketing support. E-commerce very support in raise, development for manufacturing. E-commerce will give a proper to management in a labor to do of process. Between labor, e-commerce is very support marketing in manufacturing to get income, because it can change of service. A time ago the consumer came and bought at a manufacturing but now the consumer canon line every time, everywhere they can make a transaction.Consumer can see the all activities and produc...

  10. Analysis of Chinese e-commerce development

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Mengti

    2010-01-01

    Electronic commerce as a new field of application of internet technology was started in North America 1994. The developing speed of e-commerce has proved to be successful in the commercial world. Moreover, Chinese e-commerce as late comer also has shown its great potential in all the IT related-industries. This thesis focuses on the development of the Chinese e-commerce over recent years. The data for conducting the thesis are collected from the primary sources like company reports, newsp...

  11. Kyoto protocol and Nepal's energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokharel, Shaligram

    2007-01-01

    Nepal has recently ratified Kyoto Protocol, which considers justifiable use of resources to limit or reduce the emission of gases that contribute to green house gas inventory in the atmosphere. Nepal's per capita green gas (GHG) emission from energy use is insignificant. However, it is important for Nepal to adopt environmentally friendly energy options based on local resources like hydropower and biomass. Nepal can benefit from the provisions of clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) or carbon funds being promoted by various organizations in order to obtain funding for new projects that reduce GHG emissions (ER). Funding can be generated through Carbon trading in international market as well. In this paper, the country's current contribution to GHG due to energy consumption is evaluated. Options for promoting more sustainable and environmentally friendly projects have also been discussed

  12. An Architecture for Information Commerce Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauswirth, Manfred; Jazayeri, Mehdi; Miklós, Zoltan; Podnar, Ivana; Di Nitto, Elisabetta; Wombacher, Andreas

    The increasing use of the Internet in business and commerce has created a number of new business opportunities and the need for supporting models and platforms. One of these opportunities is information commerce (i-commerce), a special case of ecommerce focused on the purchase and sale of

  13. E-commerce in the energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sioshansi, F.P. [Menlo Energy Economics (MEE), Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2000-09-18

    E-commerce and e-business are now part of the lexicon of modern business everywhere. The energy industry is no exception, although it is somewhat of a latecomer to the field, trailing a number of others. This article, which is based on a multi-client study titled 'E-commerce in the Energy Sector', is focused on the business applications of e-commerce in the energy sector, broadly defined to include oil, electricity, and natural gas industries. The study was conducted by Menlo Energy Economics (MEE) in collaboration with Global Business Network (GBN). (orig.) [German] E-commerce und E-business gehoeren heute im Geschaeftsleben zum guten Ton. Obwohl ein Nachzuegler auf diesem Gebiet, macht die Energiewirtschaft hier keine Ausnahme. Der Artikel, der auf einer von Menlo Energy Economics (MEE) und Global Business Network (GBN) durchgefuehrten Studie zum Thema 'E-commerce im Energie-Sektor' beruht, beschreibt die Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten fuer E-commerce im Energie-Sektor worunter hier Oel-, Elektrizitaets- und Erdgaswirtschaft zu verstehen sind. (orig.)

  14. E-commerce and Regulation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dragos Vasile

    2007-01-01

    E-commerce is a relatively new business field with a high potential of growth, thanks primarily to advantages provided to companies and consumers. At the same time, e-commerce raises technical and economic issues and problems to be solved, which are a concern for businesses, states and international organizations. The growth is accompanied by a need of regulation, including the observance of competition rules. The analysis of the practice in states with developed e-commerce markets highlights...

  15. 15 CFR 19.4 - What notice will Commerce entities send to a debtor when collecting a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Commerce entity intends to garnish the debtor's private sector (i.e., non-Federal) wages (see § 19.... 3201(e); 31 U.S.C. 3720B, 31 CFR 285.13, and § 19.17(a) of this Part); (16) If applicable, the Commerce... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What notice will Commerce entities...

  16. Green Extraction of Natural Products: Concept and Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Cravotto; Maryline Abert Vian; Farid Chemat

    2012-01-01

    The design of green and sustainable extraction methods of natural products is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Herein we aimed to introduce the six principles of green-extraction, describing a multifaceted strategy to apply this concept at research and industrial level. The mainstay of this working protocol are new and innovative technologies, process intensification, agro-solvents and energy saving. The concept, princi...

  17. 29 CFR 401.3 - Industry affecting commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industry affecting commerce. 401.3 Section 401.3 Labor... STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.3 Industry affecting commerce. Industry affecting commerce means any activity, business, or industry in commerce or in which a labor dispute would hinder or...

  18. Model Kepercayaan Konsumen pada Situs E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Purbasari, Wika

    2017-01-01

    The world trading system has now grown to online commerce (electronic commerce) because a lot of people who buy goods through e-commerce. This can be evidenced by a study Consumer Web Watch reported that 86% of Internet users have switched make purchases traditional to online purchases, because that's important to know what factors are forming a model of consumer confidence in e-commerce, then it is necessary a prediction to determine any factors that shape consumer confidence in e-commerce. ...

  19. Consumer protection in electronic commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and other participants.

  20. Data extraction in e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Daniel Jorge Ribeiro Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado, Engenharia Eléctrica e Electrónica, Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Universidade do Algarve, 2016 Eletronic commerce, know as e-commerce, is a system that consists in buying and selling produtcs/services over the internet. The internet is used by millions of people, making the management of the available information (e.g. competitor analysis market) a very difficult task for those operationg an e-commerce business. So that the managers can better posi...

  1. 75 FR 14496 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 48 CFR Part 1352 [Document Number: 080730954-0129-03] RIN 0605-AA26 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Correction AGENCY: Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: We, the Department of Commerce, issue a final rule to bring the Commerce Acquisition...

  2. Nutzung und Akzeptanz von Electronic Commerce : E-Commerce und die Bürger

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Michael; Wolf, Malthe

    2000-01-01

    Marktprognosen bescheinigen dem elektronischen Handel eine große Zukunft. Business-Transaktionen verändern sich rapide unter dem Einfluss elektronischer Kommunikationstechnologien. Wenngleich auch erwartet wird, dass sich Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce weltweit als erfolgreicher Vertriebs- und Kommunikationskanal etablieren wird, stößt E-Commerce derzeit noch nicht auf die erhoffte Akzeptanz in breiten Konsumentenschichten. Dies hängt nicht zuletzt mit der Verbreitung des Internet zusammen, ...

  3. E-Commerce Marketing State Competency Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Tech Prep Curriculum Services.

    This profile provides the curricular framework for Ohio Tech Prep programs in e-commerce marketing beginning in high school and continuing through the end of the associate degree. It includes a comprehensive set of e-commerce marketing competencies that reflect job opportunities and skills required for e-commerce marketing professionals today and…

  4. Grocery E-commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Bjerre, Mogens

    Kornum and Mogens Bjerre bring key researchers together to investigate the factors contributing to the success of "Grocery e-commerce", particularly in countries that had the earliest and most extensive experiences in this field: the USA, the UK and Scandinavia. The authors argue that "Grocery e......-commerce" is especially difficult to implement because it differs from other types of consumer sales in numerous aspects including low profit margins, low value density of products and high frequency purchases. As well as examining these unique characteristics, the authors present research on consumer behaviour, cross...

  5. 16 CFR 240.6 - Interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...(d) and 2(e) of the Act. (The commerce standard for sections 2 (d) and (e) is at least as inclusive... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate commerce. 240.6 Section 240.6... ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.6 Interstate commerce. The term interstate...

  6. SISTEM E-COMMERCE PADA PT UNIBINDO PERTIWI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Rudy

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Article to designed e-Commerce system application based on analysis of the ordering and selling system.The used research methods were analysis and design system. This research tries to achieve an e-Commerce sitefacility that was able to be used by customer. Hopefully, the e-Commerce system functioned as service supportingsystem in a company, able to help the customer in making buying transaction more easily, there is online chatfacility , message and suggestion, also providing full information so it is easy to use and interesting.Keywords: e-Commerce, e-Commerce system

  7. Workflow Management in Electronic Commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Spaccapietra, S.; March, S.T.; Kambayashi, Y.

    In electronic commerce scenarios, effectiveness and efficiency of business process execution are of paramount importance for business success. Even more than in traditional commerce scenarios, they determine the chances of survival of organizations in fast moving, highly competitive electronic

  8. Green-Frag: Energy-Efficient Frame Fragmentation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Daghistani, Anas H.

    2013-05-15

    Power management is an active area of research in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Efficient power management is necessary because WSNs are battery-operated devices that can be deployed in mission-critical applications. From the communications perspective, one main approach to reduce energy is to maximize throughput so the data can be transmitted in a short amount of time. Frame fragmentation techniques aim to achieve higher throughput by reducing retransmissions. Using experiments on a WSN testbed, we show that frame fragmentation helps to reduce energy consumption. We then study and compare recent frame fragmentation schemes to find the most energy-efficient scheme. Our main contribution is to propose a new frame fragmentation scheme that is optimized to be energy efficient, which is originated from the chosen frame fragmentation scheme. This new energy-efficient frame fragmentation protocol is called (Green-Frag). Green-Frag uses an algorithm that gives sensor nodes the ability to transmit data with optimal transmit power and optimal frame structure based on environmental conditions. Green-Frag takes into consideration the channel conditions, interference patterns and level, as well as the distance between sender and receiver. The thesis discusses various design and implementation considerations for Green-Frag. Also, it shows empirical results of comparing Green-Frag with other frame fragmentation protocols in terms of energy efficiency. Green-Frag performance results shows that it is capable of choosing the best transmit according to the channel conditions. Subsequently, Green-Frag achieves the least energy consumption in all environmental conditions.

  9. 2. E-Commerce System Architecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Electronic Commerce - E-Commerce System Architecture. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 26-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Electronic Commerce - Hürden, Entwicklungspotential, Konsequenzen : Ergebnisse aus der Electronic Commerce Enquete

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Günter; Schoder, Detlef

    1999-01-01

    Vorhersagen zu Wachstum und Volumen elektronisch gestützten Geschäftsverkehrs zeichnen überwiegend ein sehr positives Zukunftsbild. In krassem Gegensatz dazu stehen Aussagen aus ex post-Analysen des Electronic Commerce zu „harten“ ökonomischen Variablen wie etwa Umsatz- oder Gewinnsteigerung, Kostensenkung und Erhöhung von Marktanteilen. In vielen Fällen bewahrheiten sich euphorische Voraussagen zum Erfolg von Electronic Commerce-Aktivitäten für Unternehmen nicht einmal annähernd. Verlustmeld...

  11. Factors influencing e-commerce development in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinić, Zoran; Ranković, Vladimir; Kalinić, Ljubina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of current state of e-commerce development in Serbia is presented. Also, some important factors influencing e-commerce diffusion are discussed. The factors are divided into four groups: technical factors, which cover e- commerce telecommunication and logistics infrastructure; legal factors, i.e. necessary laws and regulations on e-commerce; economic factors, and psychological factors and local culture. The study showed very strong correlation between broadband inter...

  12. Green power marketing : fasten your seat belt, the ride has begun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [Enron Wind Development Corp., Tehachapi, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A review of the status of the renewable energy markets in California was provided. Public response in California has been very favourable to `green` power. Approximately 50 per cent of residential consumers have chosen a green product. Only one marketer is actively offering a non-green product. The major players in the California green market are Enron Wind Development Corp, PG and E Energy Services, Edison Source, and Green Mountain Energy Resources. A 1.5 cents per kWh green product credit rebated by the Public Utilities Commission through 1999 has been a useful marketing tool. A comparison was made between the California green market and the green market in Pennsylvania. Green market opportunities for Massachusetts, Arizona, and New York were also briefly reviewed. To make successful inroads into the energy market with green energy the following conditions are considered essential: choice for all consumers, meaningful affiliate standards, unbundling of revenue cycle services, no artificial barriers to entry, shopping credit, customer education and reasonable, meaningful disclosure protocols.

  13. Green power marketing : fasten your seat belt, the ride has begun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the status of the renewable energy markets in California was provided. Public response in California has been very favourable to 'green' power. Approximately 50 per cent of residential consumers have chosen a green product. Only one marketer is actively offering a non-green product. The major players in the California green market are Enron Wind Development Corp, PG and E Energy Services, Edison Source, and Green Mountain Energy Resources. A 1.5 cents per kWh green product credit rebated by the Public Utilities Commission through 1999 has been a useful marketing tool. A comparison was made between the California green market and the green market in Pennsylvania. Green market opportunities for Massachusetts, Arizona, and New York were also briefly reviewed. To make successful inroads into the energy market with green energy the following conditions are considered essential: choice for all consumers, meaningful affiliate standards, unbundling of revenue cycle services, no artificial barriers to entry, shopping credit, customer education and reasonable, meaningful disclosure protocols

  14. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  15. How E-Commerce Affects The Trading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Albinsaad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is a commercial activity through computer systems and networks. E-commerce is not limited to selling but extends to include business operations electronic data interchange and point of sale systems. Also the associated growth of e-commerce relies on the growth techniques and security of financial transactions. This paper will help to show how e-commerce impacted the trading system by indication to some of its benefits and limitations.

  16. Alternating-Offers Protocol for Multi-issue Bilateral Negotiation in Semantic-Enabled Marketplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragone, Azzurra; di Noia, Tommaso; di Sciascio, Eugenio; Donini, Francesco M.

    We present a semantic-based approach to multi-issue bilateral negotiation for e-commerce. We use Description Logics to model advertisements, and relations among issues as axioms in a TBox. We then introduce a logic-based alternating-offers protocol, able to handle conflicting information, that merges non-standard reasoning services in Description Logics with utility thoery to find the most suitable agreements. We illustrate and motivate the theoretical framework, the logical language, and the negotiation protocol.

  17. 1. What is E-Commerce?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. Electronic Commerce - What is E-Commerce? V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 13-23 ... Author Affiliations. V Rajaraman1. IBM Professor of Information Technology, JNCASR, Bangalore 560 064, India.

  18. Term-driven E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Rolletschek, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Die Arbeit nimmt sich der textuellen Dimension des E-Commerce an. Grundlegende Hypothese ist die textuelle Gebundenheit von Information und Transaktion im Bereich des elektronischen Handels. Überall dort, wo Produkte und Dienstleistungen angeboten, nachgefragt, wahrgenommen und bewertet werden, kommen natürlichsprachige Ausdrücke zum Einsatz. Daraus resultiert ist zum einen, wie bedeutsam es ist, die Varianz textueller Beschreibungen im E-Commerce zu erfassen, zum anderen können die umfangrei...

  19. E-Commerce and Security Governance in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, Ali.; Rajabion, Lila

    Security is very often mentioned as one of the preconditions for the faster growth of e-commerce. Without a secure and reliable internet, customer will continue to be reluctant to provide confidential information online, such as credit card number. Moreover, organizations of all types and sizes around the world rely heavily on technologies of electronic commerce (e-commerce) for conducting their day-to-day business transaction. Providing organizations with a secure e-commerce environment is a major issue and challenging one especially in Middle Eastern countries. Without secure e-commerce, it is almost impossible to take advantage of the opportunities offered by e-commerce technologies. E-commerce can create opportunities for small entrepreneurs in Middle Eastern countries. This requires removing infrastructure blockages in telecommunications and logistics alongside the governance of e-commerce with policies on consumer protection, security of transactions, privacy of records and intellectual property. In this paper, we will explore the legal implications of e-commerce security governance by establishing who is responsible for ensuring compliance with this discipline, demonstrating the value to be derived from information security governance, the methodology of applying information security governance, and liability for non-compliance with this discipline. Our main focus will be on analyzing the importance and implication of e-commerce security governance in developing countries.

  20. Consumer demand : e-commerce or traditional technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Burinskienė, Aurelija; Burinskas, Arūnas

    2012-01-01

    The application of e-commerce technologies is associated with more efficient purchasing system. The research combines both: the application of e-commerce technologies by consumers and economic efficiency of such application. The research is aimed to propose profile, which can be used to identify cases when it is worth enough to choose e-commerce technologies instead of traditional ones. The paper presents new cash-flow model, which can be applied to evaluate efficiency when e-commerce technol...

  1. Cryptography Based E-Commerce Security: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shazia Yasin; Khalid Haseeb; Rashid Jalal Qureshi

    2012-01-01

    E-commerce is a powerful tool for business transformation that allows companies to enhance their supply-chain operation, reach new markets, and improve services for customers as well as for providers. Implementing the E-commerce applications that provide these benefits may be impossible without a coherent, consistent approach to E-commerce security. E-commerce has presented a new way of doing transactions all over the world using internet. Organizations have changed their way of doing busines...

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF E-COMMERCE IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao , Ziyan

    2017-01-01

    E-commerce provides an immediate global marketplace and business transactions, which can occur seamlessly and very quickly from opposite sides of the world. From a regional perspective, the European region has become the world's largest cross-border E-commerce market. This thesis introduced the current situation of the European E-commerce market and the situation of the E-commerce developed countries through a large number of statistical data. By a variety of data comparison, this paper analy...

  3. 75 FR 44759 - Department of Commerce Business Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Department of Commerce Business Forum AGENCY: U.S. Department of Commerce... Commerce (DOC) is seeking vendors that currently conduct business with, or have previously conducted business with or hope to conduct business with DOC. Interested parties are asked to offer comments on the...

  4. Research on JD e-commerce's delivery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhiguo; Ma, Mengkun; Feng, Chaoying

    2017-03-01

    E-commerce enterprises represented by JD have made a great contribution to the economic growth and economic development of our country. Delivery, as an important part of logistics, has self-evident importance. By establishing efficient and perfect self-built logistics systems and building good cooperation models with third-party logistics enterprises, e-commerce enterprises have created their own logistics advantages. Characterized by multi-batch and small-batch, e-commerce is much more complicated than traditional transaction. It's not easy to decide which delivery model e-commerce enterprises should adopt. Having e-commerce's logistics delivery as the main research object, this essay aims to find a more suitable logistics delivery model for JD's development.

  5. 29 CFR 776.13 - Commerce crossing international boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce crossing international boundaries. 776.13 Section... Engaging âin Commerceâ § 776.13 Commerce crossing international boundaries. Under the Act, as amended, an employee engaged in “trade commerce, transportation, transmission, or communication” between any State and...

  6. Problem and Prospects of E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Alka Raghunath; Murli Dhar Panga

    2013-01-01

    E-commerce as anything that involves an online transaction. E-commerce provides multiple benefits to the consumers in form of availability of goods at lower cost, wider choice and saves time. The general category of ecommerce can be broken down into two parts: Emerchandise: E-finance. E commerce involves conducting business using modern communication instruments: telephone, fax, e-payment, money transfer systems, e-data interchange and the Internet. Online businesses like financial services, ...

  7. E Commerce : Pasar Maya Di Dunia Nyata

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Lydia Mutiara

    2008-01-01

    Internet has been a maior tool of communication in this globalized world since these two decades. This tool can be used for many purposes so that one can fulfill interests and necessities. One purpose that arises within this virtual world is E-Commerce. lf this one implements worldwide virtual commerce correctly, E-Commerce will provide benefits for its users, E-Merchant and E-Customer. Thus, one should understand how this electronic commerce works so that one does not suffer a financial loss...

  8. Handbook on electronic commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems

    2000-07-01

    The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)

  9. EU Regulation of E-Commerce A Commentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, A.R.; Murray, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    For the last twenty years the European Union has been extremely active in the field of e-commerce. This important new book addresses the key pieces of EU legislation in the field of e-commerce, including the E-Commerce Directive, the Services Directive, the Consumer Directive, the General Data

  10. Implications of e-commerce for banking and finance

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Michael S.H.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show that e-commerce holds the potential to transform banking and financial systems. There are three aspects in which e-commerce can affect banking and finance. First, banks and financial firms can use the technology and business practice of e-commerce to market their products to the customers. Second, e-commerce provides a business opportunity for banks to offer new products and services to serve the needs of e-commerce. Third, the new business environment associat...

  11. Configuring Mobile Commerce Portals for Business Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Rask, Morten

    2004-01-01

    -portals must attract and retain customers. Success in mobile portal markets will depend on dynamic strategies that blend elements of personalization, permission, and specification of content. This chapter reviews the key differences between traditional e-commerce and the emergent m-commerce. It reviews...... the core concepts of personalization, permission, and content specification as they apply to e-commerce and m-commerce. The chapter presents a framework for developing effective business strategies for developing and managing mobile portals. http://www.morten-rask.dk/2003c.htm......M-commerce entails transactions conducted via mobile telecommunications networks using communication, information, and payment devices such as mobile phones or palmtop units. Geographic positioning and location capabilities are also being added to such networks and devices. Rather than using...

  12. 15 CFR 738.2 - Commerce Control List (CCL) structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce Control List (CCL) structure. 738.2 Section 738.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF E-COMMERCE IN WORLD AND TURKEY AND THE IMPACTS OF MARKETING STRATEGIES IN E-COMMERCE ON TURKEY’S ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Terzi, Nuray; Gokce, Cemre

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate thedevelopment of e-commerce and the impact of marketing strategies in e-commerceon economy. Economic indicators is used and and questionnaire method is appliedto analyze the development of e-commerce and the impact of marketing strategiesin e-commerce on economy. Results show that e-commerce is gaining a momentum inthe world and Turkey as well, and e-marketing strategies are positively relatedon economy, both macroeconomic and microeconomic. E-commerce...

  14. E-commerce Dalam Perspektif Perlindungan Konsumen

    OpenAIRE

    Wariati, Ambar; Irma Susanti, Nani

    2015-01-01

    Thisstudy is to findout how legal protection forconsumers ine-commerce is. When consumers harm-ed in e-commerce remedy what can be done by consumers and how should the model of consumerprotection in e-commerce.This research is a normative-empirical, the research by reviewing legislation related to the problem and empirical research to gather information in the field with observations, distribute question-naires and interviews to the competent authorities to the problems examined.H Results of ...

  15. Customer Retention in E-commerce business

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Feihua

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce is growing fast with the fast development of internet and communication technology. Now E-commerce brings the businesses a world wide market and a huge population of protential csutomer. For customers the price information is more transparent and there are much more buying choices than before. Online businesses are competeing for customers on a word wide market like never before. The customer retention gained increased value among the E-commerc businesses. But the research of cust...

  16. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  17. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  18. 29 CFR 779.108 - Goods produced for commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods produced for commerce. 779.108 Section 779.108 Labor... Coverage Employees Engaged in Commerce Or in the Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.108 Goods produced for commerce. Goods are “produced for commerce” if they are “produced, manufactured, mined, handled or...

  19. 29 CFR 784.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 784.18 Section 784.18... Exemptions Provisions of the Act § 784.18 Commerce activities of employees. The Fair Labor Standards Act has... foreign commerce or (b) in the production of goods for such commerce, which is defined to include any...

  20. 33 CFR 329.6 - Interstate or foreign commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate or foreign commerce... commerce. (a) Nature of commerce: type, means, and extent of use. The types of commercial use of a waterway... transportation of commerce which is the determinative factor, and not the time, extent or manner of that use. As...

  1. DEVELOPMENTS IN E-COMMERCE : An Evaluation of Uncontrollable Elements of International Marketing in International E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Asamoah, Theophilus; アサモア, ティオフィラス

    2005-01-01

    High expectations were placed on e-commerce as a tool of developmentwith the emergence of IT. However, it appears that e-commerce has been more of aboom rather than a systematic nurtured system of development. In the application ofthe traditional marketin

  2. Business-to-business electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    John Wenninger

    1999-01-01

    To improve efficiency, some large retailers, suppliers, and distributors have begun to conduct business-to-business commerce electronically. This practice could grow rapidly if the Internet becomes the primary low-cost network for such transactions. Before the Internet can fully support business-to-business commerce, however, companies must overcome several technological and security obstacles.

  3. Predicting Internet/E-Commerce Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Randall S.; Johnson, Richard A.; Hignite, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed variables in order to identify accurate predictors of individuals' use of the Internet and e-commerce. Results of survey research and a neural network identifies gender, overall computer use, job-related use, and home access as important characteristics that should influence use of the Internet and e-commerce.…

  4. Adoption of E-commerce in Nigerian Businesses : A Change from Traditional to E-commerce Business Model in Richbol Environmental Services Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel, Abdulazeez

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of e-commerce is changing many traditional ways of doing business and there are lots of success story regarding e-commerce in developed countries. These successes have prompted governments and business organizations in developing countries including Nigeria to step up their effort in the adoption and use of e-commerce technology. The rapid rise of e-commerce has brought with it a large amount of e-commerce business models which are more easy to implement, run, and profit-ori...

  5. Green-Frag: Energy-efficient frame fragmentation scheme for wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Daghistani, Anas

    2013-10-01

    Frame fragmentation techniques aim to achieve higher throughput by reducing retransmissions. Using experiments on a WSN testbed, we show that frame fragmentation also helps to reduce energy consumption. In this paper we propose Green-Frag, a new energy-efficient protocol based on efficient frame fragmentation technique. Green-Frag allows sensor nodes to transmit data with optimal transmit power and frame structure based on environmental conditions. Green-Frag takes into consideration the channel conditions, interference patterns and level, as well as the distance between sender and receiver. The paper discusses various design and implementation considerations for Green-Frag. Using experimental evaluation on a sensor mote testbed, we show that Green-Frag achieves the least energy consumption by choosing the best transmit power according to the channel conditions.

  6. 76 FR 81793 - The Commerce Control List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 300 to 799, revised as of Jan. 1... Commerce Control List), Category 9 Aerospace and Propulsion, Product Group E is amended by revising the...

  7. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in explosives. 70... Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 55 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations..., explosives, (b) Permits for users who buy or transport explosives in interstate or foreign commerce, (c...

  8. Consumer-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce: A Distinct Research Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Kiku Jones; Lori N.K. Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce is a growing area of e-commerce. However, according to a meta-analysis of critical themes of e-commerce, C2C e-commerce was only represented in the area of online auctions (Wareham, Zheng, & Straub, 2005). C2C e-commerce can encompass much more than just auctions. The question then becomes, “is C2C e-commerce a different research area that deserves its own stream of research?†This study adapts constructs from a business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce st...

  9. 15 CFR 16.10 - The Department of Commerce Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Department of Commerce Mark. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY CONSUMER PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELING PROGRAM § 16.10 The Department of Commerce Mark. The Department of...

  10. EU ACQUIS ON E-COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Antonia CAPISIZU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of a new form of communication between people, the Internet, was a premise of commerce development. The emergence of a new form of economic relation manifestation, e-commerce, led to important changes in the sphere of legal regulation. The need for these changes derives from the global and complex nature of the Internet.

  11. Green sea turtle age, growth, and population characteristics in St. Joseph Bay, Florida from 1998 to 2010 (NCEI Accession 0159273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains morphology, sex ratio, body condition, disease status, age structure, and growth patterns of 448 green sea turtles cold stunned in St. Joseph...

  12. A concept of applications in the electronic commerce market

    OpenAIRE

    Oboyanskiy, Andrey; Shuvalova, Mariya

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the potential of mobile applications in the e-commerce. The current state of e-commerce has been considered. The Internet users' involvement in the e-commerce has been analyzed. Analyzed example of the most popular applications for further analysis sphere of e-commerce. The work analyzes the successful e-commerce site on the market. The different concepts for using mobile applications on e-commerce market. Examples of the use of augmented reality applications aimed at p...

  13. Framing the Future: An E-Commerce Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John

    This document reports on a study that analyzes the business management processes of Australia's Framing the Future program (FTF) in terms of the extent to which they demonstrate e-commerce principles. Chapter 1 describes the concept of e-commerce in relation to vocational education and training (VET). It defines e-commerce as any business…

  14. Robust Multi-unit Auction Protocol against False-name Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoo, Makoto; Sakurai, Yuko; Matsubara, Shigeo

    This paper presents a new multi-unit auction protocol (IR protocol) that is robust against false-name bids. Internet auctions have become an integral part of Electronic Commerce and a promising field for applying agent and Artificial Intelligence technologies. Although the Internet provides an excellent infrastructure for executing auctions, the possibility of a new type of cheating called false-name bids has been pointed out. A false-name bid is a bid submitted under a fictitious name. A protocol called LDS has been developed for combinatorial auctions of multiple different items and has proven to be robust against false-name bids. Although we can modify the LDS protocol to handle multi-unit auctions, in which multiple units of an identical item are auctioned, the protocol is complicated and requires the auctioneer to carefully pre-determine the combination of bundles to obtain a high social surplus or revenue. For the auctioneer, our newly developed IR protocol is easier to use than the LDS, since the combination of bundles is automatically determined in a flexible manner according to the declared evaluation values of agents. The evaluation results show that the IR protocol can obtain a better social surplus than that obtained by the LDS protocol.

  15. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as a reporter gene for the plant pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko Riedel; Gautier Calmin; Lassaad Belbahri; Francois Lefort; Monika Gotz; Stefan Wagner; Sabine. Werres

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic Phytophthora ramorum strains that produce green fluorescent protein (GFP) constitutively were obtained after stable DNA integration using a polyethylene glycol and CaCl2-based transformation protocol. Green fluorescent protein production was studied in developing colonies and in different propagules of the pathogen...

  16. E-commerce platform acceptance suppliers, retailers, and consumers

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Hing; Yip, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This book aims to offer a comprehensive overview of the issues facing organizations when deciding whether to accept e-commerce as a platform for business. It provides a detailed evaluation of how the implementation of e-commerce may affect all parties within the supply chain: suppliers, retailers and consumers. It also compares various opportunities and threats of accepting e-commerce in order to conclude whether it might offer access to a new digital era, or whether it is an uncertain option yielding potential pitfalls. This book helps to reveal existing and future consequences of e-commerce acceptance, which are crucial for business decisions and operations in the present and going forward. It therefore provides a unique insight into emerging e-commerce platform acceptance, and is one of the first to provide a holistic perspective of how each party in the supply chain is affected  by e-commerce acceptance. E-commerce is bringing into view more flexible, effective and efficient ways of conducting business a...

  17. Privacy and security in e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mandić

    2009-01-01

    Consumer distrust and concerns, mainly in regards to the protection of their private information and risk of being exposed to online frauds, have been the main obstacles in online commerce. This paper analyzes some of the most significant aspects of trust in e-commerce, with a focus on online security and privacy issues. With all the potential that e-commerce provides to both companies and consumers, it is in the interest of the company to increase trust among its online users. Some of the mo...

  18. Electronic Commerce: Themes, Concepts and Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsun Yu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, bibliometric (co-citation analysis and social network analysis techniques are used to investigate the intellectual pillars of the electronic commerce literature as reported in SSCI and SCI journals between 2002 and 2006. By analyzing 22,760 citations of 840 articles, this study maps an invisible network of knowledge of electronic commerce studies. The results of the mapping can help identify the research direction of electronic commerce research and provide a valuable tool for researchers to access the literature in this area.

  19. The European legal framework regarding e-commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, M.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The year 2000 is a memorable year in the history of e-commerce. This is the year of the so-called 'dot.com shake-out'. The year 2000 is also the year the European Union issued its e-commerce directive. The directive means to regulate but also facilitate e-commerce in the internal market, by laying

  20. 29 CFR 784.12 - “Commerce.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCommerce.â 784.12 Section 784.12 Labor Regulations... FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS General Some Basic Definitions § 784.12 “Commerce.” “Commerce” as used in the Act includes interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act...

  1. Critical Success Factors influencing E-Commerce in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Al-Fadhli

    2011-01-01

    Electronic Commerce which enables business transactions to be conducted electronically has demonstrated significant operational and strategic benefits. Developed countries have actively adopted e-Commerce and have made it an integral part of business activities. Despite its ability to bridge economic and digital gap between developing and developed countries, developing countries are still slow in e-Commerce adoption. Currently, there is still a lack of e-Commerce readines...

  2. Internet and e-Commerce Use by Agribusiness Firms: 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Jason R.; Akridge, Jay T.; Dooley, Frank J.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the dot.com bubble burst and U.S. e-commerce growth slowed. Slower e-commerce growth may signal changes in the use and perceptions of the Internet and e-commerce in agribusiness companies. Agribusiness firm managers were surveyed in 2004 to identify agribusiness use of the Internet and e-commerce and to solicit their perceptions about the Internet and e-commerce. The survey was developed from a similar survey conducted in 1999. In 2004, agribusiness firms were using e-commerce more w...

  3. 75 FR 72792 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting by teleconference. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee...

  4. ANALISA DAN PERANCANGAN WEB SITE SOCIAL-COMMERCE UMKM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Supriyati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pertumbuhan internet mengubah perilaku konsumen dalam mengambil keputusan. Pertukaran informasi melalui media sosial menjadi referensi penting bagi konsumen dalam mengambil keputusan pembelian. Transaksi bisnis secara online dan kesuksesan e-commerce tergantung pada ketepatan desain dari sebuah produk. Setiap situs social commerce, paling tidak mempunyai satu set minimal fitur desain social commerce. UMKM merupakan salah satu tiang ekonomi bangsa. Salah satu permasalahan pada UMKM adalah pemasaran produk. Untuk membangun UMKM yang lebih kuat dalam pemasaran maka perlu dibuat website yang mampu memasarkan produk secara lebih luas. Dengan adanya social commerce, akan mampu memasarkan produk, merekomendasi produk dan menampilkan berbagai informasi produk-produk UMKM. Sebelum membangun sistem, didahului dengan perancangan sistem, perancangan ini menggunakan UML (Unified Modeling Language. Hasil penelitian ini berupa rancangan website social commerce untuk UMKM. Kata kunci: social commerce, UMKM, UML.

  5. 75 FR 38779 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). The Committee provides...

  6. 75 FR 7234 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). The Committee provides...

  7. 75 FR 64699 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). The Committee provides...

  8. 75 FR 21602 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). The Committee provides...

  9. 75 FR 75968 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). The Committee provides...

  10. 77 FR 25145 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). The Committee provides...

  11. M&E-NetPay: A Micropayment System for Mobile and Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As an increasing number of people purchase goods and services online, micropayment systems are becoming particularly important for mobile and electronic commerce. We have designed and developed such a system called M&E-NetPay (Mobile and Electronic NetPay. With open interoperability and mobility, M&E-NetPay uses web services to connect brokers and vendors, providing secure, flexible and reliable credit services over the Internet. In particular, M&E-NetPay makes use of a secure, inexpensive and debit-based off-line protocol that allows vendors to interact only with customers, after validating coins. The design of the architecture and protocol of M&E-NetPay are presented, together with the implementation of its prototype in ringtone and wallpaper sites. To validate our system, we have conducted its evaluations on performance, usability and heuristics. Furthermore, we compare our system to the CORBA-based (Common Object Request Broker Architecture off-line micro-payment systems. The results have demonstrated that M&E-NetPay outperforms the .NET-based M&E-NetPay system in terms of performance and user satisfaction.

  12. An incremental approach to a secure e-commerce environment

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Sc. (Computer Science) The terms "Electronic Commerce" and "Internet Commerce" are often used interchangeably to mean similar processes. By definition, electronic commerce (e-commerce) means any exchange of information that occurs electronically. There are various types of electronic commerce transactions to name a few; electronic data interchange (EDI), fax, electronic funds transfer, interorganisational systems, technical data and document exchange, customer credit approval systems, in...

  13. A Rapid and Reproducible Genomic DNA Extraction Protocol for Sequence-Based Identification of Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and Green Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhondeh Saba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Sequence-based identification of various microorganisms including Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and green algae necessitates an efficient and reproducible genome extraction procedure though which a pure template DNA is yielded and it can be used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR. Considering the fact that DNA extraction from these microorganisms is time consuming and laborious, we developed and standardized a safe, rapid and inexpensive miniprep protocol. Methods:  According to our results, amplification of various genomic regions including SSU, LSU, ITS, β-tubulin, actin, RPB2, and EF-1 resulted in a reproducible and efficient DNA extraction from a wide range of microorganisms yielding adequate pure genomic material for reproducible PCR-amplifications. Results:   This method relies on a temporary shock of increased concentrations of detergent which can be applied concomitant with multiple freeze-thaws to yield sufficient amount of DNA for PCR amplification of multiple or single fragments(s of the genome. As an advantage, the recipe seems very flexible, thus, various optional steps can be included depending on the samples used.Conclusion:   Having the needed flexibility in each step, this protocol is applicable on a very wide range of samples. Hence, various steps can be included depending on the desired quantity and quality.

  14. A Rapid and Reproducible Genomic DNA Extraction Protocol for Sequence-Based Identification of Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and Green Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhondeh Saba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Sequence-based identification of various microorganisms including Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and green algae necessitates an efficient and reproducible genome extraction procedure though which a pure template DNA is yielded and it can be used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR. Considering the fact that DNA extraction from these microorganisms is time consuming and laborious, we developed and standardized a safe, rapid and inexpensive miniprep protocol. Methods:  According to our results, amplification of various genomic regions including SSU, LSU, ITS, β-tubulin, actin, RPB2, and EF-1 resulted in a reproducible and efficient DNA extraction from a wide range of microorganisms yielding adequate pure genomic material for reproducible PCR-amplifications. Results:   This method relies on a temporary shock of increased concentrations of detergent which can be applied concomitant with multiple freeze-thaws to yield sufficient amount of DNA for PCR amplification of multiple or single fragments(s of the genome. As an advantage, the recipe seems very flexible, thus, various optional steps can be included depending on the samples used.Conclusion:   Having the needed flexibility in each step, this protocol is applicable on a very wide range of samples. Hence, various steps can be included depending on the desired quantity and quality.

  15. Trade-related Electronic Commerce Issues in the OECD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-In Yoon

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The trade committee of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD has begun the study of the trade related to electronic commerce since 1997. The scale of the study on one hand has avoided the fact of copy and duplication of WTO and its organizational principles, on the other hand it has played a supplementary and supportive function. At present, digital-related product, such as computers, software and travel is the key point to the trade which resorts to electronic commerce. It is predicted that this trend will go on. The study on electronic commerce could be summed up into three main components: First, according to the phase of the trade, it could be divided into advertisement, purchase, delivery and payment. Second, issues on electronic commerce in the international trade; such as the issue that leads to the unfairness and non-neutrality of the searching engine in international service trade. Besides, domain name, trademarks and the issue of middleman which exist at the moment in the electronic commerce are activated and will also be discussed. Third, issues of the trade policy related to the electronic commerce. For instance, the kernel principles which support the multi-trade regulation, including transparency, indiscrimination, anti-dumping, flexible trade, government arrangement, tariff and competition policy and so on. Under this background, we should explore way in formulating hypotheses with preconceived issues, validating the electronic commerce trade on the spot, actualizing the study on the application of electronic commerce coming with the GATS regulation, seeking the countermeasure in the future trade policy, such as benefit policy to the electronic commerce department and electronic commerce strategy approach of certain enterprises, etc.

  16. 76 FR 27636 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting, room location change. SUMMARY: This notice announces a change in the room location of a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management...

  17. MODEL ADOPSI UKM DI KUDUS TERHADAP E-COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Malik Hakim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu fungsi e-commerce adalah memungkinkan layanan pemasaran dan penjualan dapat dilakukan secara online di internet. Dengan e-commerce, pembeli dapat dengan mudah melihat produk unggulan dan bertransaksi sesuai dengan produk secara elektornik yang dipilihnya kapan dan dimana saja. Namun para pelaku UKM yang memiliki kemampuan dan fasilitas masih banyak yang belum memanfaatkan e-commerce secara optimal, yang berdampak pada kurang majunya perkembangan usahanya. Penelitian ini menjelaskan hubungan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi e-commerce oleh UKM dengan model UTAUT di Padurenan – Kabupaten Kudus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa adopsi e-commerce belum efektif dikarenakan UKM belum memiliki niat dan keyakinan yang tinggi terhadap manfaat penggunaan e-commerce; kurangnya faktor pengaruh sosial dari komunitas sesama UKM; serta kurangnya dukungan fasilitas baik sarana maupun prasarana dan tenaga ahli dari pihak pembina UKM terkait.

  18. Intelligent Agents in E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin LITOIU; Amelia BADICA; Cristian ETEGAN

    2006-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the importance of intelligent agents in e-commerce, with a particular focus on the B2C and B2B context. From the consumer buying behaviour perspective, agents can be used to assist the following stages: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering and negotiation. Related to B2B commerce, intelligent agents are involved in partnership formation, brokering and negotiation.

  19. Middle and small manufacture enterprise e-commerce application systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingqiang

    2017-04-01

    With the extensive application of electronic commerce in manufacturing enterprises, e-commerce the influence of operation is increasingly becoming the focus of academic and business circles on the basis, this paper probes into the influence of e-commerce on the operation of the enterprise for the manufacturing enterprises to correctly understand the performance of e-commerce to provide a little help. The article first analyses e-commerce new environment on medium manufacturing enterprise requires, current medium manufacturing enterprise achieved e-commerce has many difficult, should e-commerce correctly awareness, and full planning, and points step implementation, and e-commerce and enterprise integration, and construction features of e-commerce platform, and procurement and supply chain of collaborative management, and attention customer management, and variety e-commerce of mode mixed, and flexible effective operations, and logistics socialization, views, focus on small and medium manufacturing enterprises in e-commerce applications to be innovative in design, production and management of agile and flexible production strategies.

  20. A Fast lattice-based polynomial digital signature system for m-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinzhou; Leung, Lin; Anshel, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The privacy and data integrity are not guaranteed in current wireless communications due to the security hole inside the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) version 1.2 gateway. One of the remedies is to provide an end-to-end security in m-commerce by applying application level security on top of current WAP1.2. The traditional security technologies like RSA and ECC applied on enterprise's server are not practical for wireless devices because wireless devices have relatively weak computation power and limited memory compared with server. In this paper, we developed a lattice based polynomial digital signature system based on NTRU's Polynomial Authentication and Signature Scheme (PASS), which enabled the feasibility of applying high-level security on both server and wireless device sides.

  1. E-commerce strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Zheng; Li, Shundong; Li, Fengxiang

    2014-01-01

    This book helps deepen understanding of key e-commerce strategies. It brings together theoretical perspectives based on academic research, integrated use of technologies and a large amount of cases, especially those of China.

  2. 15 CFR 19.21 - What does a Commerce entity do upon receipt of a request to offset the salary of a Commerce...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) of this section. (e) Request for hearing official. A Commerce entity will provide a hearing official... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What does a Commerce entity do upon receipt of a request to offset the salary of a Commerce entity employee to collect a debt owed by the...

  3. Investigating Social Commerce as an Alternate Model for Online Commerce in Developing Countries: a case of Pakistani Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Talat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is an empirical quantitative research. In light of intense literature review it proposes a new model for effectiveness of social commerce in Pakistan. It has three objectives. It firstly investigates the relationship between perceived risk, social networking focus, and perceived value effect trust. It secondly investigates the relationship between affective influence, word of mouth, affective influence, advertising influence, purchasing experience and viral reach on social commerce. Lastly it investigates how consumer value (adoption and purchase intention is affected by social commerce focus and trust. The software used is SPSS 15.0. Multiple regression equation has been employed to verify the hypotheses. Results show and validate the literature that positive or favorable views of users trigger positive attitude. However, there are two variables and dimensions that do not affect the attitude of users on social networks from the perspective of shopping i.e. social commerce; these are viral reach and previous purchasing experience on different websites. The results show that Pakistani users will welcome social commerce even if they have no previous experience for purchasing goods and services online.

  4. Analisis Terhadap Perilaku Bertransaksi Online Pengguna Facebook Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Sahfitri, Vivi

    2016-01-01

    The concept of electronic commerce is widely used today's society, or better known as e-commerce, information technology was born as globalization in economics. Social networking is one of the media of electronic commerce, which currently has a lot of users. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence e-commerce user on social networks, one of which is the facebook for online transactions. Data analysis performed in this study using multiple linear regression techniques to...

  5. ASME Evaluation on Grid Mobile E-Commerce Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Chang; Wei Liao

    2012-01-01

    With the development of E-commerce, more scholars have paid attention to research on Mobile E-commerce and mostly focus on the optimization and evaluation of existing process. This paper researches the evaluation of Mobile E-commerce process with a method called ASME. Based on combing and analyzing current mobile business process and utilizing the grid management theory, mobile business process based on grid are constructed. Firstly, the existing process, namely Non-grid Mobile E-commerce, an...

  6. Determine age-at-recruitment for green turtles into neritic habitats along the U.S. West Coast using stable isotope analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A total of 19 green turtle humeri were sampled for stable isotope analysis during 2013-2014. Turtle body size ranged from 51-95cm CCL, and all turtles had been...

  7. Intelligent Agents in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin LITOIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of intelligent agents in e-commerce, with a particular focus on the B2C and B2B context. From the consumer buying behaviour perspective, agents can be used to assist the following stages: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering and negotiation. Related to B2B commerce, intelligent agents are involved in partnership formation, brokering and negotiation.

  8. 77 FR 15605 - Mobile Commerce and Personalization Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mobile Commerce and Personalization Promotion AGENCY: Postal... reduction for the mobile commerce and personalization promotion, and the revised mailing standards to... * * * * * [Revise the title of 3.0 as follows:] 3.0 Mobile Commerce and Personalization Promotion 3.1 Program...

  9. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Garfinkel, Simson

    2011-01-01

    Since the first edition of this classic reference was published, World Wide Web use has exploded and e-commerce has become a daily part of business and personal life. As Web use has grown, so have the threats to our security and privacy--from credit card fraud to routine invasions of privacy by marketers to web site defacements to attacks that shut down popular web sites. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce goes behind the headlines, examines the major security risks facing us today, and explains how we can minimize them. It describes risks for Windows and Unix, Microsoft Internet Exp

  10. APLIKASI M–COMMERCE BERBASIS ANDROID PADA ZONA KOMPUTER BANJARNEGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Dwi Riyanto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transaksi bisnis jual beli e-Commerce saat ini memasuki mulai bergeser memanfaatkan perangkat gadget/smartphone. Perkembangan inilah yang disebut dengan m-Commerce, yakni memanfaatkan smartphone untuk melakukan transaksi jual beli barang. Zona Komputer Banjarnegara telah memiliki website e-Commerce. Namun demikian, Zona Komputer berinovasi untuk menjadi yang terdepan dalam melayani konsumen yakni dengan membuat m-Commerce untuk memudahkan pelanggan dalam transaksi jual beli. Metode pengembangan sistem yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu menggunakan metode waterfall. Dari hasil penelitian ini akan dihasilkan sebuah aplikasi mobile untuk melakukan transaksi jual beli pada toko komputer Zona Komputer Banjarnegara.Kata Kunci: e-Commerce, m-Commerce, android

  11. A Flexible Electronic Commerce Recommendation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Songjie

    Recommendation systems have become very popular in E-commerce websites. Many of the largest commerce websites are already using recommender technologies to help their customers find products to purchase. An electronic commerce recommendation system learns from a customer and recommends products that the customer will find most valuable from among the available products. But most recommendation methods are hard-wired into the system and they support only fixed recommendations. This paper presented a framework of flexible electronic commerce recommendation system. The framework is composed by user model interface, recommendation engine, recommendation strategy model, recommendation technology group, user interest model and database interface. In the recommender strategy model, the method can be collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, mining associate rules method, knowledge-based filtering method or the mixed method. The system mapped the implementation and demand through strategy model, and the whole system would be design as standard parts to adapt to the change of the recommendation strategy.

  12. Modeling the customer in electronic commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, M G; Khalid, H M

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews interface design of web pages for e-commerce. Different tasks in e-commerce are contrasted. A systems model is used to illustrate the information flow between three subsystems in e-commerce: store environment, customer, and web technology. A customer makes several decisions: to enter the store, to navigate, to purchase, to pay, and to keep the merchandize. This artificial environment must be designed so that it can support customer decision-making. To retain customers it must be pleasing and fun, and create a task with natural flow. Customers have different needs, competence and motivation, which affect decision-making. It may therefore be important to customize the design of the e-store environment. Future ergonomics research will have to investigate perceptual aspects, such as presentation of merchandize, and cognitive issues, such as product search and navigation, as well as decision making while considering various economic parameters. Five theories on e-commerce research are presented.

  13. The Consumer Choice in the E-Commerce Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pražáková, Hana

    2014-01-01

    The bachelor thesis The Consumer Choice in the E-Commerce Environment analyzes factors influencing the loyalty of e-commerce customers. The first part of the thesis describes the current situation of the e-commerce market in the Czech Republic. The second part introduces concepts that are connected to the theory of the consumer choice and CRM in the e-commerce environment. The third empirical part uses the theoretical concepts to create an empirical model which examines how the behaviour loya...

  14. How Much is E-Commerce Worth to Rural Businesses?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Susan; Nwoha, Ogbonnaya John; Kennedy, Gary A.; Rea, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    The probability of a business paying for an e-commerce presence ultimately depends on demographic features, experiences with e-commerce, technological expertise, and knowledge of e-commerce opportunities and limitations. Results allow for the assignment of probabilities associated with various business profiles to determine the willingness to pay for an e-commerce presence.

  15. Universities Improve Services with E-Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Gina Adams

    2001-01-01

    This follow-up to a December 2000 article provides more details on Stanford University's venture into the "sell-side" of e-commerce, then describes another "sell-side" success story at the University of Wisconsin. Madison. Discusses experiences on the "buy-side" of e-commerce at the Massachusetts Institute of…

  16. Occupational safety and health, green chemistry, and sustainability: a review of areas of convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul A; McKernan, Lauralynn T; Heidel, Donna S; Okun, Andrea H; Dotson, Gary Scott; Lentz, Thomas J; Geraci, Charles L; Heckel, Pamela E; Branche, Christine M

    2013-04-15

    With increasing numbers and quantities of chemicals in commerce and use, scientific attention continues to focus on the environmental and public health consequences of chemical production processes and exposures. Concerns about environmental stewardship have been gaining broader traction through emphases on sustainability and "green chemistry" principles. Occupational safety and health has not been fully promoted as a component of environmental sustainability. However, there is a natural convergence of green chemistry/sustainability and occupational safety and health efforts. Addressing both together can have a synergistic effect. Failure to promote this convergence could lead to increasing worker hazards and lack of support for sustainability efforts. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has made a concerted effort involving multiple stakeholders to anticipate and identify potential hazards associated with sustainable practices and green jobs for workers. Examples of potential hazards are presented in case studies with suggested solutions such as implementing the hierarchy of controls and prevention through design principles in green chemistry and green building practices. Practical considerations and strategies for green chemistry, and environmental stewardship could benefit from the incorporation of occupational safety and health concepts which in turn protect affected workers.

  17. E-Commerce Dalam Manajemen Pemasaran

    OpenAIRE

    Setyawan, Surya

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays development of telecommunication technologies set out to the development of internet. It can be said that everyone over the world use internet as communication media to communicate to everybody in every place in the world. Marketing management has to follow this development in satisfiying customers ' needs. Commercial business move from traditional commerce to e-commerce by usinginternet as world wide communication device. And so does marketing management change from local to global ...

  18. Business ethics in E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Khanh

    2016-01-01

    The thesis studies about business ethics generally and business ethics implementation in E-commerce particularly. The main objective of the thesis is to explore how ethics is implemented in electronic business, hence research problems are those following: which kinds of ethical issues organizations have to deal with when doing online commerce; what are opportunities and challenges regards to ethics they have and how they manage them. The thesis is inclined to exploit aspects from organization...

  19. E-Commerce in OIC members: Facts - Challenges - Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Abdali, Abid

    2005-01-01

    The study seeks to explore the importance of E-Commerce and ICT and their impact on economies of OIC members. Challenges and obstacles of E-Commerce application in member states are analyzed and discussed. The study has concluded that E-Commerce has become an important application in most member states. It also showed that despite there has been growth in the application of E-Commerce in some countries, but in general OIC members as a whole are still behind in the track compared to other grou...

  20. Reducing the sampling periods required in protocols for establishing ammonia emissions from pig fattening buildings using measurements and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Losada, J.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) emission factors for animal housing systems in the Netherlands are based on measurements using standardised measurement protocols. Both the original Green Label (GL) protocol and the newly developed multi-site sampling protocol are based on year-round sampling periods. The objective

  1. Privacy and security in e-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mandić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumer distrust and concerns, mainly in regards to the protection of their private information and risk of being exposed to online frauds, have been the main obstacles in online commerce. This paper analyzes some of the most significant aspects of trust in e-commerce, with a focus on online security and privacy issues. With all the potential that e-commerce provides to both companies and consumers, it is in the interest of the company to increase trust among its online users. Some of the most common online crimes are analyzed and practical guidelines to achieving trust in the online environment are provided.

  2. E-COMMERCE IN THE ASIAN CONTEXT

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lower transaction costs and improved management of customer and supplier ... To provide a geographic context to the Pan Asia e-commerce initiative, it is ... The second model uses a private application service provider (ASP) to handle the ... As an inaugural activity, a regional e-commerce training workshop was held in ...

  3. The Evolution of Electronic Commerce Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Business schools began introducing electronic commerce programs in the late 1990s at unprecedented rates. In this study, the author examined the evolution in electronic commerce programs offered by AACSB-accredited colleges and universities from 2001 to 2005. Although these programs are declining in number, they provide the necessary skills and…

  4. Imposition of direct taxes on elektronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Baltaduonienė, Vaida

    2006-01-01

    Problems, relating to the imposition of direct taxes on e-commerce, calculation and collection thereof in e-commerce are discussed in the final Master's thesis with reference to the laws of the Republic of Lithuania, by comparing them with the model of the double taxation avoidance agreement of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development as well as the remarks of the experts of this Organization. Criteria, according to which the e-commerce taxation jurisdiction is applicable, a...

  5. MOBILE COMMERCE APPROACH BASED ON MOBILE AGENT

    OpenAIRE

    Oussama Zerdoumi; Okba Kazar; Saber Benharzallah

    2011-01-01

    Telecommunications technologies are advanced; they introduced new technologies to meet the needs of individuals and organizations to make commercial transactions, where we find the birth of e-commerce after the emergence of the Internet. But this approach has limits like the use of a client / server model, which limit the use of these transactions in anytime and anywhere. Recently and after the emergence of the wireless networking, the commerce increase the range of the E-commerce application...

  6. A Service-Oriented E-Commerce Reference Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Aulkemeier, Fabian; Schramm, Milan; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is getting more and more important in people's every day shopping routines. Vendors who want to establish an online channel besides their traditional retail practice have to integrate the two supply chains. The underlying information technology systems should be able to support the integration of the new and old processes. While reference models are a popular means in designing this type of systems, the existing reference models in the field of e-commerce only...

  7. Cambridge Marketing College - interview about e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Paa-Kerner, Greta; Cambridge Marketing College

    2015-01-01

    Interview about e-commerce.\\ud \\ud The Cambridge Marketing College interviews Greta Paa-Kerner to learn about the dynamic world of e-commerce. She discusses online retail trends and shopping influencers.

  8. Electronic Commerce Versus Traditional Commerce: Trends, Similarities, Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Boldureanu Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    The unprecedented development of information technologies in recent decades has revolutionized global trade, wholesale and retail, redefining, from a radical way of organizing and operating system business, requiring a new way to trade, to enter relationship and partnership with consumers connect. Thus, this paper presents the main developments in trade, from classic to electronic commerce trade, concluding that, in fact, widespread Internet and information technology contribute to the develo...

  9. A 3D Virtual Space for the E-Commerce Strategy Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gong Cheng; Changrui Yu; Kecheng Liu

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, innovative applications of electronic commerce (e-commerce) are facing the challenges of mobile commerce (m-commerce) and ubiquitous commerce (u-commerce). To address these challenges and improve the competitiveness of e-commerce, the three-dimensional e-commerce (3DEC) theory is proposed and a 3DEC business strategy model is built up in this study. The new conceptual 3DEC model incorporates the industrial environment analysis, SWOT analysis, and business model canvas (BMC). ...

  10. PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM BAGI KONSUMEN DALAM TRANSAKSI E-COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Eka Rusmawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mengetahui dan memahami mengenai perlindungan hukum bagi konsumen dalam transaksi e-commerce adalah tujuan yang hendak dicapai. Berdasarkan pendekatan normatif, perlindungan hokum bagi konsumen dalam transaksi e-commerce dapat dilihat berdasarkan proses transaksinya, yaitu Proses transaksi menggunakan media on-line secara keseluruhan atau proses transaksinya saja yang menggunakan media on-line tapi pembayarannya dilakukan secara manual. Bentuk Perlindungan hukum bagi konsumen dalam transaksi e-commerce diatur dalam ketentuan Pasal 4 huruf b dan c UUPK dan Ps 2 serta Pasal 9 UUITE.Kata Kunci: perlindungan hukum, konsumen, e-commerce

  11. 29 CFR 783.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 783.18 Section 783.18... Commerce activities of employees. Prior to the 1961 Amendments, the Fair Labor Standards Act applied to all employees, not specifically exempted, who are engaged (a) in interstate or foreign commerce or (b) in the...

  12. Pengaruh Dimensi E – Servqual, Satisfaction dan Trust terhadap Loyalitas Pengguna Layanan E-Commerce Indonesia (Studi Kasus : Pengguna Layanan E-commerce di Pulau Jawa)

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanudin, Mochammad; Pujotomo, Darminto; Sriyanto, Sriyanto

    2017-01-01

    Besarnya peluang dalam dunia e-commerce di Indonesia harus disikapi dengan bijak oleh para pengelola e-commerce yang ada. Menurut data penelitian APJII, tingkat penggunaan layanan e-commerce di Indonesia masih rendah. Rendahnya tingkat pengguna layanan e-commerce ini di indikasikan karena adanya ketidakpuasan pengguna dan adanya persepsi akan buruknya kualitas pelayanan yang diberikan oleh pengelola e-commerce selain itu juga adanya ketakutan pengguna akan tingginya angka kriminal mengenai tr...

  13. Customers repurchase intention formation in e-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader S. Safa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic loyalty (e-loyalty has become important in the context of electronic commerce (e-commerce in recent years. Loyal customers bring long-term revenue to companies and are known to be a valuable asset to them. However, firms lose their customers in a competitive environment on the Internet because of a lack of trust, satisfaction and loyalty. Objectives: This study explains how e-loyalty, e-trust and e-satisfaction form in e-commerce with a focus on customer purchase intention formation. Method: A conceptual framework was formed based upon the literature review. Data were collected from e-customers of online firms in South Africa. After data clarification, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. The structural equation modelling was applied to test the hypotheses. IBM SPSS AMOS 20 was used for this purpose. Results: Firstly, convenience, customer benefit and enjoyment affect customer satisfaction in e-commerce. In other words, when customers do business activities easily with enjoyment and take benefit, they are satisfied and they will purchase again in future. Secondly, our study demonstrated that customer perception of security, clear shopping process and reliable payment system have a positive relationship with e-trust. Finally, e-satisfaction and e-trust have a positive and strong relationship with e-loyalty formation in e-commerce. Conclusion: The results of the study shed light on important issues relating to e-loyalty formation from a new perspective. Online companies are interested in launching e-loyalty programmes because of the long-term benefits that come from loyal customers. To remain competitive, e-commerce companies should constantly work at enhancing customer trust, satisfaction and loyalty. Keywords: E-commerce; customer satisfaction; trust; loyalty

  14. Analysis of Spatial Pattern and Influencing Factors of E-Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, S.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to study the relationship between e-commerce development and geographical characteristics using data of e-commerce, economy, Internet, express delivery and population from 2011 to 2015. Moran's I model and GWR model are applied to analyze the spatial pattern of E-commerce and its influencing factors. There is a growth trend of e-commerce from west to east, and it is obvious to see that e-commerce development has a space-time clustering, especially around the Yangtze River delta. The comprehensive factors caculated through PCA are described as fundamental social productivity, resident living standard and population sex structure. The first two factors have positive correlation with e-commerce, and the intensity of effect increases yearly. However, the influence of population sex structure on the E-commerce development is not significant. Our results suggest that the clustering of e-commerce has a downward trend and the impact of driving factors on e-commerce is observably distinct from year to year in space.

  15. Electronic commerce in China:current status, development strategies, and new trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Junyong; Jing Linbo

    2014-01-01

    After years of development in China's electronic commerce sector,there has been a drastic increase not only in the number of electronic commerce enterprises and online shoppers,but also in electronic commerce market turnover in China.During this process,the Chinese government has played a key role in establishing legislation and market disciplines for the electronic commerce market.This paper explores policy regarding electronic commerce development in China and analyzes new trends in China's electronic commerce,including the rise of mobile commerce,social commerce,and cross-border electronic commerce,and the booming industries of internet financing and Big Data.This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the development,uniqueness,and trends of electronic commerce in China.In addition,this paper also provides policymakers in China and other developing countries with policy suggestions regarding electronic commerce.

  16. The Direction of Marketing in E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    E-commerce is the execution of business transactio ns over the Internet. Companies conducting e-commerce can perform most of the tra nsactions which they are doing now. Most of the marketing method should coincide nt with the changes in e-commerce world. Brand ability will be depressed, but corporate identity and brand identity will be upgraded. So the enterprise should lower the cost of distribution, manufactur ing, and supplying. We can also upgrade the product value which consumer con ceded. Logis...

  17. Customers repurchase intention formation in e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Sohrabi Safa, Nader; von Solms, Rossouw

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electronic loyalty (e-loyalty) has become important in the context of electronic commerce (e-commerce) in recent years. Loyal customers bring long-term revenue to companies and are known to be a valuable asset to them. However, firms lose their customers in a competitive environment on the Internet because of a lack of trust, satisfaction and loyalty. Objectives: This study explains how e-loyalty, e-trust and e-satisfaction form in e-commerce with a focus on customer purchase ...

  18. Use of e-Commerce in Carpet Industry

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rashid Malik; Rekha Prasad

    2014-01-01

    This research study is motivated by the growing use of e-commerce in Indian Industries. ECommerce encompasses all business conducted by the use of Information and communication technology. Many business houses have started implementing the use of e-commerce solutions to conduct their businesses. But carpet industry is lagging behind in the use of this very critical tool as we found in our study only 18% carpet exporters are using e-commerce solutions to sell their products across the borders....

  19. APLIKASI M–COMMERCE BERBASIS ANDROID PADA ZONA KOMPUTER BANJARNEGARA

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Dwi Riyanto; Khatirudin Ma’arif

    2016-01-01

    Transaksi bisnis jual beli e-Commerce saat ini memasuki mulai bergeser memanfaatkan perangkat gadget/smartphone. Perkembangan inilah yang disebut dengan m-Commerce, yakni memanfaatkan smartphone untuk melakukan transaksi jual beli barang. Zona Komputer Banjarnegara telah memiliki website e-Commerce. Namun demikian, Zona Komputer berinovasi untuk menjadi yang terdepan dalam melayani konsumen yakni dengan membuat m-Commerce untuk memudahkan pelanggan dalam transaksi jual beli. Metode pengembang...

  20. Financing green energy projects in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddynor Manshor; Yvonne Lunsong; Norhayati Kamaruddin

    2000-01-01

    Kyoto Protocol is the first global commitment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Malaysia, which signed the Protocol on 12 March 1999, must also take steps to address the climate change concerns. The use of renewable energy sources is seen as a feasible way to address the issue. Despite their environment-friendliness, these sources of energy are grossly under-utilised even though Malaysia is amply endowed with renewable energies, particularly biomass and solar. As a unique domestic resource, recurring energy savings from energy efficiency could also qualify as renewable energy. At present, the contribution of renewable energy in the country's energy mix is very small compared to its large potential. The Malaysian Government recognizes the potential of this form of energy. As part of its fuel diversification policy, the government plans to expand the four-fuel strategy to include renewable energy as the fifth fuel. Due to all year constant sunshine and vast oil palm cultivation, both solar and palm oil residues are identified as the most promising green energy option. Efforts are underway to embark on programs to demonstrate and evaluate the viability of these emerging green technologies. A few organizations are given grants to undertake pre-feasibility studies of pre-commercialization demonstration projects. When approved, viable projects could also qualify for technical and financial assistance from foreign partners. However, grants are limited and under World Trade Organization rules such subsidies should not exceed 30 percent in most cases. Commercialization of green energy projects must therefore involve full participation of private developers and financial institutions. Yet, virtually no attempt is made to promote financing of such projects in Malaysia. In most cases, financial institutions are not aware of the economic potential of these unique and under exploited sources. This paper will discuss problems in financing green energy projects and then

  1. Getting started with Drupal commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A simple yet concise step-by-step tutorial that starts from scratch and builds up your knowledge with focused examples that will enable you to set up and run an e-commerce website.This book is for beginners and will take you through the installation and configuration of Drupal Commerce from scratch, but some familiarity with Drupal 7 will be an advantage. All examples are based on development on a local computer - you do not need a hosted Drupal environment.

  2. Pemanfaatan Web E-Commerce untuk Meningkatkan Strategi Pemasaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Atun Mumtahana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available UMKM merupakan salah satu usaha Mikoro yang memberdayakan Industri Rumahan. UMKM Indonesia meemiliki kontribusi sebersar 15.8% terhadap rantai pasok produksi global di tingkat Asean. Perkembangan UMKM dari tahun ke tahun dipengaruhi dengan pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi dan Sistem Informasi. E-commerce merupakan salah satu teknologi yang mendukung perkembangan UMKM dan perdagangan saat ini. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak yang pemanfaatan Teknologi E-Commerce dalam peningkatan strategi pemasaran produksi. Teknologi E-commerce dibangun dengan mengunakan aplikasi berbasis webside, sehingga para pelaku usaha dapat mempromosikan hasil usaha dengan mudah. Sasaran utama pemanfaatan Teknolohi E-commerce ini adalah UMKM Industri Kerajinan Kulit di  Magetan. Dari hasil uji coba dan evaluasi yang dilakukan pada Koperasi Mahasiswa STT Dharma Iswara Madiun, menunjukkan bahwa dengan memanfaatkan Teknologi E-commerce memenuhi strategi pemasaran produk yang dapat berdampak pada peningkatan pendapatan.

  3. Evaluation of Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce with SWOT Analysis as an Alternative Network Marketing at Agricultural Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Kızılaslan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Compulsory competition occurring in the world trade has led the enterprises to different marketing system. Marketing problems seems to be a problem in Turkey rather than agricultural production problems. In this aspect, marketing alternatives are sought. E-commerce is a system with more opportunities in agricultural marketing. Increasing the applicability of this system in Turkey will eliminate many problems associated with marketing in agriculture. With an active use of E-commerce in agricultural marketing, it provides convenience at marketing products of agro-related industries agencies and producers and all country will have a potential market position. In this study, possibilities offered by e-commerce to the agricultural sector, opportunities, threats, deficiencies and contributions to agricultural sector have been addressed. Without the limitations of place and time via the internet and computers, establishing national and international supply and demand balance of e-commerce seems to play important roles in maintaining an active and alive marketing. Furthermore, it is an important tool in reducing agricultural marketing problems.

  4. ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL PATTERN AND INFLUENCING FACTORS OF E-COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the relationship between e-commerce development and geographical characteristics using data of e-commerce, economy, Internet, express delivery and population from 2011 to 2015. Moran’s I model and GWR model are applied to analyze the spatial pattern of E-commerce and its influencing factors. There is a growth trend of e-commerce from west to east, and it is obvious to see that e-commerce development has a space-time clustering, especially around the Yangtze River delta. The comprehensive factors caculated through PCA are described as fundamental social productivity, resident living standard and population sex structure. The first two factors have positive correlation with e-commerce, and the intensity of effect increases yearly. However, the influence of population sex structure on the E-commerce development is not significant. Our results suggest that the clustering of e-commerce has a downward trend and the impact of driving factors on e-commerce is observably distinct from year to year in space.

  5. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  6. Factor-structure of economic growth in E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴隽; 刘洪久; 栾天行

    2003-01-01

    In order to analyze the factors having effect on economic growth of E-commerce, the economic growthprocess of E-commerce is divided into three stages; growth stage, stabilization stage and re-growth stage. Thesethree different stages are analysed using several economic growth theories, a set of factor-structure is proposedfor each stage of the economic growth process of E-commerce.

  7. Traditional Commerce Versus Electronic Commerce: A Case Study Under The Logistics Costs Management View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to see how a large Brazilian company of the retail sector makes the measurement and analysis of logistics costs of both its physical operations (traditional trade as their virtual transactions (e-commerce. The research has been conducted in the contributions of strategic cost management for business sustainability. This is an unique descriptive case study, with a qualitative approach, performed in the 2nd half of 2013. Data were collected through interviews, document analysis and in situ observations. Data analyzes occurred by comparative interpretations. The main results showed no significant differences in the analysis and measurement of logistics costs between the two forms of trading. This can be explained partly by the fact that the company does not deal with electronic commerce differently in relation to the management of logistics costs. That is, both the operations of the virtual store as physical stores share the same logistics structure. Additional logistics costs in e-commerce are offset by higher margin practiced in this business model.

  8. Formal Analysis of SET and NSL Protocols Using the Interpretation Functions-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Houmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most applications in the Internet such as e-banking and e-commerce use the SET and the NSL protocols to protect the communication channel between the client and the server. Then, it is crucial to ensure that these protocols respect some security properties such as confidentiality, authentication, and integrity. In this paper, we analyze the SET and the NSL protocols with respect to the confidentiality (secrecy property. To perform this analysis, we use the interpretation functions-based method. The main idea behind the interpretation functions-based technique is to give sufficient conditions that allow to guarantee that a cryptographic protocol respects the secrecy property. The flexibility of the proposed conditions allows the verification of daily-life protocols such as SET and NSL. Also, this method could be used under different assumptions such as a variety of intruder abilities including algebraic properties of cryptographic primitives. The NSL protocol, for instance, is analyzed with and without the homomorphism property. We show also, using the SET protocol, the usefulness of this approach to correct weaknesses and problems discovered during the analysis.

  9. Opportunity and Implications of Grocery E-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, Mads

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To incorporate the element of sustainability of advantages into the concept ofFirst-Mover Advantage for analysis on grocery e-commerce. Grocery e-commerce is a relatively unexplored phenomenon in Denmark and I seek to explain this via the concept of FMA. In order to fully understand...... and coupled with previous empirical findings on grocery e-commerce. Findings: a) Providing insights into the concept of first- mover advantage, b) sustainability of advantages and c) providing a framework for analysis on advantages sought by acting entrepreneurial. Value: The applicability of the concept...... of first-mover advantage is very descriptive to date. With thispaper and hopefully more to follow, I wish to transform the FMA concepts into a tool for analysis addressing the very crucial element that is not dealt with today -sustainability.Keywords : First-Mover Advantage; e-commerce; grocery industry...

  10. Designing a Virtual Center for E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina ROSCA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the actual context of developing digital services, the promotion of a system that manages multiple e-commerce sites can be extremely valuable in increasing the economic effects for the companies. This paper presents the current stage of the experimental system design and implementation, an open system website-based (called Single Way for E-Commerce - SWEC having the goal to collaborate with many database servers of the companies that offer e-commerce sevices and also to interract with electronic payment and e-administration systems. This new approach allows the clients, after them authentication, to navigate on e-commerce websites and search different products, grouping on domains, companies and geographic areas. SWEC System will offer to the customer the opportunity to visualize and compare similar products, to order and receive a single invoice for all the products he wants to buy.

  11. Shari’ah-Compliant E-Commerce Models and Consumer Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kholifatul I Ardiansyah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out the real picture of Shari’ah-compliant E-commerce model and consumer trust in e-commerce today, analyzing its drawbacks, and finding out how they influence each other. Shari'ah-compliant E-commerce model is a model that describes how e-commerce should run in accordance with the provisions of the Shari’ah. Broadly speaking, e-commerce in the perspective of Shari’ah must comply with some rules, namely: 1. the form of the offer and transaction agreement; 2. the transacting parties (buyers and sellers; 3. Objects and prices in the transaction; 4. Free from major prohibitions in transactions. The sample in this study is Indonesian citizen who are consumers of e-commerce. This research uses descriptive and statistical methods with multiple linear regression model. This model is considered relevant and good to be studied in order to enlighten how e-commerce is currently in the perspective of IslamDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i2.2913

  12. Microbiological Examination of Ready-to-Eat Salads (Crispy Green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of ready-to-eat salads (crispy Green) from retail establishments in the United Kingdom, was undertaken to determine their microbiological quality. The salads were collected and examined according to a standardized protocol. Total count was carried out and all colonies on CFC and MRS were counted as ...

  13. Electronic Commerce Success Model: A Search for Multiple Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Achjari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study attempts to develop and examine framework of e-commerce success. In order to obtain comprehensive and robust measures, the framework accomodates key factors that are identified in the literature concerning the success of electronic commerce. The structural model comprises of four exogenous variables (Internal Driver, Internal Impediment, External Driver and Exgternal Impediment and one endogenous variable (Electornic Commerce Success eith 24 observed variables. The study that was administered within large Australian companies using questionaire survey concluded that benefits for both internal organization and external parties from the use of e-commerce were the main factor tro predict perceived and/or expected success of electronic commerce.

  14. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce. The issue of cross-border commerce was mainly analysed with the use of reports of the European Commission. The aim of the article is to propose a conception of an integrator of cross-border e-commerce, which will make it possible, among other things, to solve logistic problems. Results: The article presents an authorial conception of an integrator in cross-border e-commerce. Its main task is to integrate the whole supply chain. Thanks to the economies of scale, obtained as a result of consolidation of parcels from many e-shops, the integrator is able to achieve lower delivery costs in international transport, make returns of goods more effective and serve customers from different countries better. Conclusions: The conception of an integrator in cross-border commerce proposed in the article may increase competitiveness of micro and small e-enterprises, especially in the international arena. Moreover, applying this conception may contribute to a rise in the attractiveness of cross-border commerce, which, as result of a greater sale level, would contribute to an increase in the total e-commerce.

  15. Marketing mix for e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Pogorelova, E. V.; Yakhneeva, I. V.; Agafonova, A. N.; Prokubovskaya, A. O.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the need to study the process of transformation of marketing in e-commerce, as the active involvement of business organizations in the field of e-business is often accompanied by problems of applying the usual marketing tools in a virtual environment. The article seeks to identify changes in the elements of the marketing mix in e-commerce in accordance with the trend of e-business and Internet technology. The leading approach to the study of th...

  16. The Future of Traditional Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Iancu Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the concept that seems to be getting more and more bigger, namely electronic commerce. The theme is a debate about what the world of commerce means and attracts through its timeliness. Entry into the third millennium has triggered one of the greatest changes in our daily lives - the move towards an Internet-based society. But one of the most significant changes is manifested in the way business is conducted, especially in the way to lead and manage markets and in the way...

  17. Construction and Arena Simulation of Grid M-Commerce Process

    OpenAIRE

    Danqing Li; Dan Chang

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development and the wide use of mobile technology, m-commerce research has gradually become the focus of scholars. Difficulties exist in m-commerce, such as information sharing, business collaboration, and process reengineering. Grid management, a new managerial concept, has the potential of being a powerful weapon that affects the study on m-commerce process. This study systematically analyzes the traditional m-commerce process and its problems. On that basis, this paper const...

  18. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwha Lee

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The reason why questions related to Electronic Commerce are in the back of the spotlight is that US and major countries in EU lead the international research to maximize their own benefits. These researches are related to rectify legal system framework for protecting development of Electronic Commerce and to work out international standards. Also, enlarging Electronic Commerce on online resources is also regarded as the core issue by OECD, APEC and other international organization and it is inevitable to have multilateral negotiation regarding this issue. Based on the opinion above mentioned, we collect all the problems brought by Electronic Commerce Activeness in each area in this paper and try to find out corresponding solutions to face these problems.

  19. Have SMEs Benefited from E-Commerce?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Poon

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been a surge in research projects on how small and medium enterprises (SMEs use E-Commerce/E-Business for business purposes. These include a mixture of academic, industry and government studies. The outcomes have presented a mixed message. While there are anecdotal success stories, SMEs found their E-Commerce/E-Business endeavours successful to a point but face difficulties in achieving many speculations portrayed by the media and visionaries. In this paper, I try to address the issue based on published works in the domain of E-Commerce/E-Business adoption among SMEs. The answer may lie in a more refined research strategy and consolidation of research outcomes. Lessons from EDI adoption might be useful to formulate impetus to further adoption.

  20. M-Commerce: Global Experiences and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Rask, Morten; Dholakia, Ruby

    -Pacific - and highlights several countries from each region. These countries are significant because of their large existing base of mobile telecom users, their future potential, their innovativeness in mobile telecom technology development, and their leadership in launching new mobile applications. M-Commerce: Global...... Experiences and Perspectives contains chapters from authors of many countries, and while each chapter examines a specific country in-depth, all the chapters use a common integrative framework called the CLIP (communications, locatability, information provision, and payment processing) application......M-Commerce: Global Experiences and Perspectives focuses on the emerging growth of mobile telecommunications and mobile commerce around the world. To provide a global perspective, this book describes approaches from three major regions of the world - North America, Europe, and Asia...

  1. New Rage on Campus: E-Commerce Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    As electronic commerce expands, higher education attempts to keep up with the demand for instruction. Some universities have added a concentration in e-commerce to their master of business administration program and others are adding majors, certifications, or degrees. (JOW)

  2. E-commerce Review System to Detect False Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhar, Manjur

    2017-08-15

    E-commerce sites have been doing profitable business since their induction in high-speed and secured networks. Moreover, they continue to influence consumers through various methods. One of the most effective methods is the e-commerce review rating system, in which consumers provide review ratings for the products used. However, almost all e-commerce review rating systems are unable to provide cumulative review ratings. Furthermore, review ratings are influenced by positive and negative malicious feedback ratings, collectively called false reviews. In this paper, we proposed an e-commerce review system framework developed using the cumulative sum method to detect and remove malicious review ratings.

  3. Investment in Electronic Commerce: Financial Perspectives and Profit Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bergendahl, Göran

    2002-01-01

    Electronic Commerce ("eCommerce") is a concept for trade based upon products and services that are being marketed, contracted, and paid for over the Internet. Consequently, electronic commerce demands for the investment in computer systems, marketing, logistics and payments. This paper will focus on the profitability of investments in eCommerce with a special focus on outlays for information technology systems and sales management. If the services are made more standardized, if they do not ch...

  4. The impact of e-commerce on warehouse operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Żuchowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We often encounter opinions concerning the unusual nature of warehouses used for the purposes of e-commerce, most often spread by providers of modern technological equipment and designers of such solutions. Of course, in the case of newly built facilities, it is advisable to consider innovative technologies, especially in terms of order picking. However, in many cases, the differences between "standard" warehouses, serving, for example, the vehicle spare parts market, and warehouses that are ready to handle retail orders placed electronically (defined as e-commerce are negligible. The scale of the differences between the existing "standard" warehouses and those adapted to handle e-commerce is dependent on the industry and supported of customers' structure. Methods: On the basis of experiences and on examples of enterprises two cases of the impact of a hypothetical e-commerce implementation for the warehouse organization and technology have been analysed. Results: The introduction of e-commerce into warehouses entails respective changes to previously handled orders. Warehouses serving the retail market are in principle prepared to process electronic orders. In this case, the introduction of (direct electronic sales is justified and feasible with relatively little effort. Conclusions: It cannot be said with certainty that the introduction of e-commerce in the warehouse is a revolution for its employees and managers. It depends on the markets in which the company operates, and on customers served by the warehouse prior to the introduction of e-commerce.

  5. Protocol: methodology for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strenkert Daniela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a detailed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP protocol for the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The protocol is suitable for the analysis of nucleosome occupancy, histone modifications and transcription factor binding sites at the level of mononucleosomes for targeted and genome-wide studies. We describe the optimization of conditions for crosslinking, chromatin fragmentation and antibody titer determination and provide recommendations and an example for the normalization of ChIP results as determined by real-time PCR.

  6. Business-To-Consumer E-Commerce In Japan: Implications For Marketers

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Seitz; Nabil Razzouk; Haruyoshi Takaoka

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine Japanese consumers B2C e-commerce purchases, their attitudes toward e-commerce, and the attributes that affect their Internet patronage among Japanese e-commerce businesses. Findings from a survey among 112 Japanese respondents indicated that most had made online purchases in the past and intended to use e-commerce in the future. Respondents reported that convenience was the primary advantage of e-commerce, while security issues were the major disadv...

  7. E-Commerce Audit Judgment Expertise: Does Expertise in System Change Management and Information Technology Auditing Mediate E-Commerce Audit Judgment Expertise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish PATHAK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A global survey of 203 E-commerce auditors was conducted to investigate the perceptions about the potential determinants of expertise in E-commerce audits. We hypothesize and find evidence indicating that information technology and communication expertise are positively related to expertise in E-commerce audit judgment. We also find that system change management expertise and information technology audit expertise mediate this relationship.

  8. Live chat alternative security protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, J. P. R.; Nugraha, E.; Febriany, A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest e-commerce markets in Southeast Asia, as many as 5 million people do transactions in e-commerce, therefore more and more people use live chat service to communicate with customer service. In live chat, the customer service often asks customers’ data such as, full name, address, e-mail, transaction id, which aims to verify the purchase of the product. One of the risks that will happen is sniffing which will lead to the theft of confidential information that will cause huge losses to the customer. The anticipation that will be done is build an alternative security protocol for user interaction in live chat by using a cryptographic algorithm that is useful for protecting confidential messages. Live chat requires confidentiality and data integration with encryption and hash functions. The used algorithm are Rijndael 256 bits, RSA, and SHA256. To increase the complexity, the Rijndael algorithm will be modified in the S-box and ShiftRow sections based on the shannon principle rule, the results show that all pass the Randomness test, but the modification in Shiftrow indicates a better avalanche effect. Therefore the message will be difficult to be stolen or changed.

  9. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents...

  10. ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL PATTERN AND INFLUENCING FACTORS OF E-COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Zhang; J. Chen; S. Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to study the relationship between e-commerce development and geographical characteristics using data of e-commerce, economy, Internet, express delivery and population from 2011 to 2015. Moran’s I model and GWR model are applied to analyze the spatial pattern of E-commerce and its influencing factors. There is a growth trend of e-commerce from west to east, and it is obvious to see that e-commerce development has a space-time clustering, especially around the Yangtze R...

  11. Five reasons to join local Chamber of Commerce and Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Verbovskii, Vladislav; Kosov, Vladimir; Chaika (Chayka), Yuliya Aleksandrovna

    2016-01-01

    The article describes five useful things that Chamber of Commerce and Industry membership may give to business owners after joining it. These things are the reasons to become a part of business community formed by Chambers of Commerce that may be considered by those business owner who are deciding whether to join Chamber of Commerce or not. Mentioned reasons are given with examples related to Tomsk Chamber of Commerce and Industry and are relevant to any Chamber of Commerce located in Russian...

  12. A Service-Oriented E-Commerce Reference Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aulkemeier, Fabian; Schramm, Milan; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is getting more and more important in people's every day shopping routines. Vendors who want to establish an online channel besides their traditional retail practice have to integrate the two supply chains. The underlying information technology systems should be able

  13. E-Commerce and Privacy: Conflict and Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Badie N.; Higby, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic commerce has intensified conflict between businesses' need to collect data and customers' desire to protect privacy. Web-based privacy tools and legislation could add to the costs of e-commerce and reduce profitability. Business models not based on profiling customers may be needed. (SK)

  14. Regulasi Hukum Dalam Transaksi E-Commerce: Menuju Optimalisasi Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi

    OpenAIRE

    Riswandi, Budi Agus

    2002-01-01

    The development of informational technology have appeared new transaction pattern that is called electronic commerce (e-commerce). E-commerce is a transaction pattern which uses technology of information. Through e-commerce transaction, it gained much of things economically. But if it is viewed from jurisdical side, the e-commerce transaction model still have problem in law. Regulation of law support for optimalisation of utility thetechonology of information, especially in the e-commerce the...

  15. E-commerce trend and E-customer analyzing : Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    Tracing to the history of e-commerce, in the beginning it only shared documents or electronic files through electronic networks, but in the later years it emerged large amount of individuals sharing electronic documents with other people. When e-commerce appeared, many people would like to select and purchase products through typical websites or other e-commerce monitors. China is one of the largest e-commerce markets in the world, it has from the small retailors developed to the biggest ...

  16. Spam:One Puzzled Problem for E-Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Qiansheng; YANG Jingmin

    2004-01-01

    E-commerce has advantages of low bargaining cost, full field service, and convenient. Its development forms and promotes the key factor of the global economic growth, and the security problem of e-commerce becomes more and more important thereupon. It is the subject of a great meaning to structure the safe, convenient e-commerce running environment. The task of anti-spam is a concrete content among them. This paper discusses the source and danger of spam, and the precautionary and radical cure measures of spam are put forwarded, and the technologies of the anti-spam are discussed especially.

  17. TAXATION PECULIARITIES OF E-COMMERCE MARKET PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Zatonatska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article carried out with complex overview of tax regulation approaches of e-Commerce market, the features of international practices of taxation are revealed, in particular, EU countries, USA, China, etc. The nature and characteristics of e-Commerce market tax regulation is also revealed by international organizations, in particular, the OECD .It is provided with the best practices of leading countries in the sphere of e-Commerce market tax regulation and those which are the most appropriate for implementation in Ukraine are singled out. Based on experience of EU countries, USA and China the necessity of improving tax system is justified. It is provided with recommendations of tax regulation improvement in respect of a such groups of e-Commerce market subjects as "Producers" and "Intermediaries". Moreover it is determined with the most priority recommendations for implementation, in particular, tax-free period for hosting providers, the exemption of income tax for Internet retail trade enterprises and increase the maximum level of duty-free import of goods to Ukraine. Expected predicted effects are provided from implementation of such measures, the main of which are legalization, increasing the number of employees, attracting the world leaders of e-Commerce market to the domestic market, innovation incentives for market development and the intensification of cross-border trade.

  18. Plunkett's E-Commerce & Internet Business Almanac 2012 E-Commerce & Internet Business Industry Market Research, Statistics, Trends & Leading Companies

    CERN Document Server

    Plunkett, Jack W

    2012-01-01

    Market research guide to the e-commerce and Internet business-a tool for strategic planning, competitive intelligence, employment searches or financial research. Contains trends analysis, globalization, trade, statistical tables and an industry glossary. Includes our profiles of nearly 450 top e-commerce and internet industry firms, featuring addresses, phone numbers and executive names.

  19. Efficient in vitro regeneration protocol of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present communication reports an efficient in vitro plantlet regeneration protocol for endemic umbellifer Centella asiatica (L.) urban via callus mediated organogenesis from leaf and stem explants. The plant is pharmacologically very important and its consumption as underutilized green leafy vegetable affluent in ...

  20. SMEs' E-commerce Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - Proposes providing an insight about factors affecting business-to-business e-commerce adoption and implementation in small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), highlighting similarities and differences between Danish and Australian SMEs.    Design/methodology/approach - The research...... conducted in Danish and Australian companies. Findings - The findings both corroborate previous results about significant factors affecting SMEs' b-to-b e-commerce adoption and implementation and provide new, interesting insights. The study also finds many similarities and differences between Denmark...... and Australia.  Research limitations/implications - The main limitation relates to the difficulty of generalization of the findings to a larger population of SMEs.  To overcome this, a statistical survey is planned to be conducted in the future. Practical implications - The results of the empirical research...

  1. Designing a Secure E-commerce with Credential Purpose-based Access Control

    OpenAIRE

    Norjihan Abdul Ghani; Harihodin Selamat; Zailani Mohamed Sidek

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of e-commerce has created a great opportunities for both businesses and end users. The essential e-commerce process is required for the successful operation and management of e-commerce activities. One of the processes is access control and security. E-commerce must establish a secure access between the parties in an e-commerce transaction by authenticating users, authorizing access, and enforcing security features. The e-commerce application must authorize access to only tho...

  2. Direct regeneration protocols of five Capsicum annuum L. varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bud induction obtained is a simple and efficient protocol developed for in vitro propagation of five varieties of cultivars. Seeds of Capsicum annuum L. of five varieties red, yellow, green, purple and white were decontaminated and placed in a culture bottle containing a Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with ...

  3. 29 CFR 779.103 - Employees “engaged in commerce.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees âengaged in commerce.â 779.103 Section 779.103... and Individual Coverage Employees Engaged in Commerce Or in the Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.103 Employees “engaged in commerce.” Employees are “engaged in commerce” within the meaning of the Act...

  4. Libraries and E-Commerce: Improving Information Services and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lesley Ellen

    2000-01-01

    Explains e-commerce and discusses how it can be used by special libraries. Highlights include library goals; examples of successful uses of e-commerce; how e-commerce can improve information services, including access to information, new information resources, delivery of information, and broadening information markets; and developing an…

  5. 27 CFR 479.192 - Commerce in firearms and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in firearms and..., AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.192 Commerce in firearms and ammunition. For provisions relating to commerce in firearms and ammunition, including the movement of destructive devices...

  6. Study on the Development of Yunnan Floral E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulan; KUANG; Qifang; LI; Wangyun; NING

    2013-01-01

    Cut flower production in Yunnan accounts for 80%nationwide.In order to expand the Yunnan Flower sales channels,the promotion of the development of e-commerce is necessary.In 2012 China’s online shopping users reached 247 million people,but e-commerce of fresh flowers lagged behind due to the constraints of preservation facilities and logistics cost.The analysis of the factors restricting the development of floral e-commerce and the proposition of solutions to this problem can promote faster development of Yunnan floral e-commerce.

  7. The emerging geography of e-commerce in British retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, GP; Thompson, C; Birkin, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the growth of e-commerce in British grocery retailing and examines the spatial variations in e-commerce usage. The main data source is a large commercial consumer survey (Acxiom’s Research Opinion Data) rarely used by academics to date. Using these data in combination with census data, the paper addresses a number of key questions. After outlining key trends in the dataset on e-commerce usage (by product and over time) the first research question is: How do e-commerce purc...

  8. Implications of Electronic Commerce for Fiscal Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsbee, Austan

    In this chapter, I will consider both sides of the relationship between electronic commerce and fiscal policy. For the impact of electronic commerce on fiscal policy, I will pay particular attention to the potential sales-tax revenue losses. The data suggest that the potential losses are actually modest over the next several years. I will also consider the reverse relationship - how fiscal policy affects Internet commerce. Here the evidence suggests that taxes have a sizable effect. I point out, though, that this only supports special treatment if there is some positive externality. Without one, the tax system will lead to excessive online buying to avoid taxes. I will then deal the neglected issue of taxes and Internet access, which can create large deadweight costs both because demand may be price-sensitive and because taxes can slow the spread of new technologies. Finally, I offer some discussion of the international context of taxes and the Internet and the international temptations to raise rates on E-commerce.

  9. Reducing e-commerce risks using digital certificates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piščević Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce means buying and selling goods and services across the Internet. Secured communication in e-commerce, across unsecured medium, such as the Internet, represents one of the major components in a domain of providing necessary security- critical demands, so the flow of information could go in a secure way. The Internet, as a global computer network must provide five major security services: confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, availability, and non-repudiation of information. Without guaranteeing aformentioned security goals, risks may be very high in e-commerce systems. A possible way to reduce these risks is to use digital certificates. Digital certificates provide a means of proving identity in electronic transactions, and from the point of view of computer communication they are irreplacable, but nevertheless they provide a good mechanism for implementing the major part of this security goal, and therefore, their usage in e-commerce is the major topic of this paper.

  10. Application of Component Technology to E-commerce System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jianfeng

    2004-01-01

    At present E-commerce system tends to become more complex, and traditional system designing methods can not fufil the need of E-commerce system, thus requiring an effective methodas solution. With this concern, this paper introduces some concepts of component technology, then brings forward the new connotation and basic features of component technology through the analysis of its technological character. This paper finally discusses the application of component technology to E-commerce system.

  11. The Research of Design Based on Social Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Juhua Wu; Meng Xu; Zan Mo; Luo Liao

    2015-01-01

    Based on previous design theories which focus only on artifacts, we study the factors of social commerce design with application environment and human capabilities. By comparing social commerce design model and information model, we develop a new social commerce design model, further exploring user requirements after shopping, including the exploration of brand community, sharing offline social shopping experience and the improvement of user social skills. According to the new model, we revea...

  12. User acceptance of mobile commerce: an empirical study in Macau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ivan K. W.; Lai, Donny C. F.

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to examine the positive and negative factors that can significantly explain user acceptance of mobile commerce (m-commerce) in Macau. A technology acceptance model for m-commerce with five factors is constructed. The proposed model is tested using data collected from 219 respondents. Confirmatory factor analysis is performed to examine the reliability and validity of the model, and structural equation modelling is performed to access the relationship between behaviour intention and each factor. The acceptance of m-commerce is influenced by factors including performance expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and privacy concern; while effort expectancy is insignificant in this case. The results of the study are useful for m-commerce service providers to adjust their strategies for promoting m-commerce services. This study contributes to the practice by providing a user technology acceptance model for m-commerce that can be used as a foundation for future research.

  13. 29 CFR 782.7 - Interstate commerce requirements of exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interstate commerce). (Walling v. Craig, 53 F. Supp. 479 (D. Minn). See also Engbretson v. E. J. Albrecht Co... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate commerce requirements of exemption. 782.7... HOURS PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN EMPLOYEES OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 782.7 Interstate commerce requirements of...

  14. The Importance of Trust in Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingham, Pauline

    1998-01-01

    Introduces the new concept of trust and how it influences the process of managing the security of an organization operating in an electronic commerce environment. Theoretically, the study aims to develop a framework of trust and security to provide a set of guidelines for secure electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  15. Trust and Relationship Building in Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…

  16. China's B2C e-commerce development and its future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Guming

    2012-01-01

    China’s E-commerce environment is improving all the time. Consumers are getting more and more habituated to this form of consumption mode. The recent trend shows that China’s e- commerce market is booming mainly because of major enterprises’ fierce competition within Business To Customer E-commerce market. People are optimistic about B2C E-commerce which strengthens the China’s B2C E-commerce market. Even though E-commerce business in China is soaring, there still persists a problem, too. ...

  17. 16 CFR 801.3 - Activities in or affecting commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities in or affecting commerce. 801.3... in or affecting commerce. Section 7A(a)(1) is satisfied if any entity included within the acquiring person, or any entity included within the acquired person, is engaged in commerce or in any activity...

  18. Legal issues in E-commerce and E-contract in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uarda Roshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce has become a key aspect for many businesses all around the world. This new form of commerce has reshaped the ways of trading, revolutionizing the way of doing business and has brought competitive advantages for both consumer and business. Over the last few years Albania is witnessing a digital revolution too, however although internet access has grown significantly only a few enterprises and a small number of companies have engaged in e-commerce activities. The development of e-commerce is an important element of national economy. Being a new important sector, e-commerce can only flourish where there is a good infrastructure, both legal and technological, which is attractive to consumers and business. So the need for rules and principles facilitating e-commerce has become increasingly evident, too. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the regulatory framework, legal issues and the challenges in the development of electronic commerce in Albania.

  19. M-Commerce Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Jørgensen, Frances

    2008-01-01

    into this emerging market may well depend on development of new business models that emphasize the socio-technical intricacies of these networks. The objective of this paper is to examine the development of these networks as a central part of new M-commerce business models in SME's and report on initial findings...

  20. The Influence of Social Commerce on Consumer Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A.H. Hettiarachchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, comprehending consumer behavior is becoming dynamically challenging with the emergence of social commerce. Business organizations are now striving to convince consumers by exploiting the advantage of social support empowered by online social networks. Importantly, social ties in such online social networks facilitate trust as the most compelling benefit while alleviating the perceived risk, which happened to be the major concerns with electronic commerce over the years. This research study is aimed at understanding the impact of social commerce on the consumer behavior, particularly consumer decision-making stages. Hence, this research was conducted as a quantitative study involving a cross-sectional survey and gathered valid responses from Facebook users. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM was used to analyze data and test hypotheses. The findings exhibited significant positive effects from social commerce on all the consumer decision-making stages namely; need recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision and post-purchase decision. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of employing an appropriate social commerce strategy for business organizations.

  1. Green engineering: Green composite material, biodiesel from waste coffee grounds, and polyurethane bio-foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiang-Fu

    In this thesis we developed several ways of producing green materials and energy resources. First, we developed a method to fabricate natural fibers composites, with the purpose to develop green textile/woven composites that could potentially serve as an alternative to materials derived from non-renewable sources. Flax and hemp fabrics were chosen because of their lightweight and exceptional mechanical properties. To make these textile/woven composites withstand moist environments, a commercially available marine resin was utilized as a matrix. The tensile, three-point bending, and edgewise compression strengths of these green textile/woven composites were measured using ASTM protocols. Secondly, we developed a chemical procedure to obtain oil from waste coffee grounds; we did leaching and liquid extractions to get liquid oil from the solid coffee. This coffee oil was used to produce bio-diesel that could be used as a substitute for petroleum-based diesel. Finally, polyurethane Bio-foam formation utilized glycerol that is the by-product from the biodiesel synthesis. A chemical synthesis procedure from the literature was used as the reference system: a triol and isocynate are mixed to produce polyurethane foam. Moreover, we use a similar triol, a by-product from bio-diesel synthesis, to reproduce polyurethane foam.

  2. EU Regulation of E-Commerce A Commentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, A.R.; Murray, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    For the last twenty years the European Union has been extremely active in the field of e-commerce. This important new book addresses the key pieces of EU legislation in the field of e-commerce, including the E-Commerce Directive, the Services Directive, the Consumer Directive, the General Data

  3. E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    KUBIČKA, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Diploma thesis "E-commerce" aimed to create a suitable solution for marketing mix of the e-shop Levneelektro.cz. Based on performed analyzes I concluded that improvement of a communication with customers is very important for company ELEKTRA PV. I found that a crucial step for maintenance of competitiveness is the foundation of a loyalty program which is responsible for keeping customer loyalty. I have designed two different solutions of the loyalty program that are appropriate for the company.

  4. Study on storage efficiency of the fresh food e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Sun, Jie; Li, Huihui

    2017-06-01

    As the last cake in the area of e-commerce industry, the temperature of fresh food e-commerce is always rising starting from about 2014. This paper is based on the imperfection that the existing study about fresh food e-commerce is lack of studies on storage efficiency. And we took some variables in this paper such as consumers’ satisfaction and length for preservation and storage time. On this basis we built the model of storage efficiency of fresh food e-commerce. We find that as the development of fresh food e-commerce, the fresh food e-commerce enterprise will pay more attention to the consumers’ satisfaction. They can take some effective ways like reducing the wastage of fresh food and lengthening the refreshing time of fresh food and so on.

  5. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Ching-Hsun Chang; Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green min...

  6. ELECTRONIC BANKING AND ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana B. Petrevska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we may witness to dramatic and visible changes in our life environment. Business ambient for companies is different every day, and it is very hard to predict a direction of future changes. There is an environment characterized by sharp competition and increasing number of competitors, fast technological improvements and highly sophisticated and informed costumers. Technological process influences the humanity strongly, changing the way that people live, work and spend. Electronic commerce and electronic banking has become incontinent, and makes a great part of today's total transactions. There are an increasing number of companies that perform their business that way and make profit. Social networks are proven to be the least expensive way of information exchange, and they are present in almost every part of the world. The globalization has reached the most distant parts of the Earth. Every resistance to new technologies is dangerous and may lead to bankruptcy. Due to the EU expansion, Internet users are to be expected, and prosperity of the e-commerce business models at the same time. In Serbia, electronic commerce is present, but not as developed as in EU countries. E-commerce, however it might be successful throughout the world, it is somewhat slow in its growth in Serbia. The reasons are numerous, and main obstacles are the lack of trust, still limited usage of banking cards, avoiding of e-payments by older population etc. Also, the recent scandals over the misuse of personal data, and e-crime are discouraging factors for the growth of e-trade and ebanking. The younger generations are ever more ready to use e-commerce, since they are open to new technologies and do not have the defensive attitude towards it. E-commerce and e-banking has growing potential even among older population, if the society prevents them from fear and mistrust.

  7. Software Technology for E-Commerce Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet usage and electronic commerce(e-commerce) applica t ions will push traditional industries to transform their business models and to re-engineer their information systems. This direction will give the software in d ustry either great opportunities for their business growth or crucial challenges to their existence. This article describes two essential challenges the softwar e industry will face and presents relevant new technologies that will be helpful for overcoming those challenges.

  8. Transaksi E-commerce: Perspektif Hukum Islam

    OpenAIRE

    ,SH,MH, Triana Sofiani

    2008-01-01

    The dynamism of global economy followed by the development of sophisticated information technology, has changed the business transaction model. Former business transactions have been done in traditional model, but the trends of modern business utilize the virtual world that is well known as e-commerce. E-commerce becomes one of contemporary problems in Islamic economic points of view due to: (1) the buyer and seller do not physically meet each other; (2) the absence of object of transaction w...

  9. E-COMMERCE AREA FOR TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Aileni; D. Farima; M. Ciocoiu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some management aspects concerning the e-commerce area for textile industry.Here it can have database management – customers, products and brand visualisation management. The databasemanagement can be doing by using a database management system. For database management it was use therelational model based on first-order predicate logic [1]. In this paper it was analyzed the relational databasemodel. The e-commerce area is born from need to simplify the buying and selling g...

  10. E-Commerce In Slovenia: Kindergarten Years

    OpenAIRE

    Metka Tekavcic; Mojca Marc

    2011-01-01

    After the initial few years that witnessed the birth and first steps of e-commerce applications, this paper presents the present state of e-commerce in Slovenia. The EU accession process has brought many changes and challenges for companies in candidate countries Slovenia being among them including the use of e-business technology. The vast majority of Slovenian companies have been increasingly recognizing the need to operate electronically. However, most companies are still at the beginning ...

  11. Electronic commerce can cut purchasing costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    1995-06-01

    Electronic commerce could be the most important strategy exercised by utilities involved in transmission and distribution in the next five to ten years. One key element of electronic commerce is electronic data interchange (EDI). EDI is the direct, standardized computer-to-computer exchange of business documents, such as purchase orders, invoices, payments and inventory analysis between trading partners. EDI enables business documents delivery in seconds instead of days. Inventory has been a big expense for utilities, especially in the transmission and distribution area. In order to provide and restore electrical service to customers, utilities have been required to stock high levels of many different items. At times, warehouse personnel have had difficulty determining the minimum quantity needed for a particular part so items are stocked just-in-case.Electronic commerce will allow utilities to more accurately determine minimum stocking requirements and reduce inventory without sacrificing customer service.

  12. Getting real about virtual commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, P; Wurster, T S

    1999-01-01

    In its first generation, electronic commerce has been a landgrab. Space on the Internet was claimed by whoever got there first with enough resources to create a credible business. It took speed, a willingness to experiment, and a lot of cybersavvy. Companies that had performed brilliantly in traditional settings seemed hopelessly flat-footed on the Web. And despite their astronomical valuations, the new e-commerce stars have appeared to be just as confused. Many have yet to make a profit, and no one has any idea when they will. Now, the authors contend, we are entering the second generation of e-commerce, and it will be shaped more by strategy than by experimentation. The key players--branded-goods suppliers, physical retailers, electronic retailers, and pure navigators--will shift their attention from claiming territory to defending or capturing it. They will be forced to focus on strategies to achieve competitive advantage. Success will go to the businesses that get closest to consumers, the ones that help customers navigate their way through the Web. Indeed, the authors argue, navigation is the battlefield on which competitive advantage will be won or lost. There are three dimensions of navigation: Reach is about access and connection. Affiliation is about whose interests the business represents. And richness is the depth of the information that a business gives to or collects about its customers. Navigators and e-retailers have the natural advantage in reach and affiliation, while traditional product suppliers and retailers have the edge in richness. The authors offer practical advice to each player on competing in the second generation of e-commerce.

  13. Study on the E-commerce platform based on the agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ruixue; Qin, Lishuan; Gao, Yinmin

    2011-10-01

    To solve problem of dynamic integration in e-commerce, the Multi-Agent architecture of electronic commerce platform system based on Agent and Ontology has been introduced, which includes three major types of agent, Ontology and rule collection. In this architecture, service agent and rule are used to realize the business process reengineering, the reuse of software component, and agility of the electronic commerce platform. To illustrate the architecture, a simulation work has been done and the results imply that the architecture provides a very efficient method to design and implement the flexible, distributed, open and intelligent electronic commerce platform system to solve problem of dynamic integration in ecommerce. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the architecture of electronic commerce platform system, and the approach how Agent and Ontology support the electronic commerce platform system.

  14. Water mediated eco-friendly green protocol for one-pot synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the synthesis of important products, we describe here a simple, elegant and high yielding protocol for the syn- thesis of α-aminophosphonates in ..... In order to prove the involvement of water in the reac- tion mechanism unambiguously, the ...

  15. E-commerce System Security Assessment based on Bayesian Network Algorithm Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Li; Xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of e-commerce network security is based on assessment method Bayesian networks, and it first defines the vulnerability status of e-commerce system evaluation index and the vulnerability of the state model of e-commerce systems, and after the principle of the Bayesian network reliability of e-commerce system and the criticality of the vulnerabilities were analyzed, experiments show that the change method is a good evaluation of the security of e-commerce systems.

  16. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Santoso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawanggede Village, Lowokwaru Sub-district, Malang City. The sampling method used nonprobability accidential sampling techniques. The numbers of respondents were 113 consumers in study site. Data were collected by interview using questionnaires. The method of analysis used Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA. The analysis showed that the green packaging, green products, and green advertising had positive significant influence on consumer perceptions. Meanwhile, green product and consumer perception had positive significant influence on purchasing interest, but the green packaging and green advertising has not found sufficient evidence in influencing purchasing intention.

  17. The European legal framework regarding e-commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, M.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The year 2000 is a memorable year in the history of e-commerce. This is the year of the so-called 'dot.com shake-out'. The year 2000 is also the year the European Union issued its e-commerce directive. The directive means to regulate but also facilitate e-commerce in the internal market, by laying

  18. RESEARCH ON OBTAINING AND USING MARKETING INFORMATION IN COMMERCE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona BALASESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the issue of using marketing instruments(concepts, policies, strategies, research etc. in commerce companies inBrasov. The research is about identifying the marketing instruments that areused in the activity of the commerce companies in Brasov and it underlinesthe peculiarities of marketing in commerce companies. The informationobtained contributes to a better understanding of the way marketing activityworks in commerce companies in Brasov. The method used to identify theattitudes and opinions of commerce companies’ managers in Brasov,regarding collecting and using marketing information, is the focus group. Thepaper ends with the conclusions of this research at the level of a single city –Brasov.

  19. Benchmarking the implementation of E-Commerce A Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    von Ettingshausen, C. R. D. Freiherr

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a guideline to support the implementation of E-Commerce with E-Commerce benchmarking. Because of its importance as an interface with the customer, web-site benchmarking has been a widely researched topic. However, limited research has been conducted on benchmarking E-Commerce across other areas of the value chain. Consequently this thesis aims to extend benchmarking into E-Commerce related subjects. The literature review examined ...

  20. E-commerce in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Karina Esparza Cruz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, companies have been forced to create new media with their customers that allow them to obtain the sales volume necessary to make a profit, which is why e-commerce is an invaluable tool for the sales department of the Business. Over the years e-commerce has evolved facing major challenges, especially those related to information security and the little Ecuadorian culture of buying online. However, thanks to the fact that in the last decade the number of Internet users has increased, this has allowed online sales to start increasing their amounts annually, however, compared with the rest of South American countries to Ecuador still It lacks much way to go not only in the implementation of secure web portals for Internet purchases, but also in computer culture and security rules in Internet users.

  1. Aplikasi E-Commerce: Studi Kasus pada PT Eigl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Rudy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cosmetics trend is apparently in line with the fashion trend which is likely to change from time to time. Competition in the cosmetics industry today, coupled with the increasing number of imported cosmetic products on the market require cosmetic companies to continue innovating and taking advantage of opportunities as possible. A very rapid development of Internet opens opportunities for cosmetic companies, especially PT EIGL, to be able to offer products to Internet users. The purpose of this study is to build a prototype e-commerce application, preceded by identifying the odds and the readiness of companies in conducting e-commerce. The methodology used is the analysis of the company's readiness using the preparation analysis of a market opportunity and design application using object-oriented approach. The research results in an e-commerce application that consists of the front-end and content management system. From this study it can be concluded that PT EIGL retains the opportunity to run e-commerce. To facilitate the company in managing e-commerce website a content management system is created in an easy way to operate. 

  2. Analysis on the integration of ERP and e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqing; Shi, Yuliana

    2017-08-01

    With the continuous development of China's modern economic construction, a variety of information technology are emerging. The new economic development characterized by e-commerce has accelerated the globalization of the economy. In face of increasingly fierce market competition, for enterprises, the constructions of ERP and e-commerce are necessary ways to enhance the core competitiveness of enterprises. At present, most of the internal ERP systems and external e-commerce systems are in relatively independent state. However, with the increasing fierce market competition, a single mode of operation has been unable to meet the requirements of enterprise development. Accordingly, the effective integration of ERP and e-commerce in the new era has become one of the most important topics for enterprise development. This paper firstly analyzes the relationship between ERP and e-commerce, and then analyzes the necessity and feasibility of integration, and finally discusses the integration strategies and technologies.

  3. Turismo Activo y Protocolos de Seguridad: BTT en la Vía Verde de Morata de Tajuña. Active Tourism and Security Protocols: BTT at Tajuña´S Green Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Martín, Pedro Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa normativa actual referente al turismo activo en España ha establecido que para poder darse de alta en el registro oficial las empresas del sector están obligadas a presentar un protocolo de seguridad para el desarrollo de sus actividades. Sin embargo, en la normativa no se especifica en qué debe consistir el citado protocolo dejando la iniciativa totalmente abierta. Este artículo presenta una propuesta de cómo podría establecerse un protocolo de seguridad para una actividad: excursión en bicicleta de montaña por la vía verde de Tajuña en la Comunidad de Madrid. Hemos elegido como entorno de trabajo el Programa Vías Verdes por el gran potencial recreativo y medioambiental que nos brinda para las empresas de turismo activo y los profesionales de la actividad física y el deporte, así como por las ventajas de: oportunidades laborales, seguridad y fácil acceso.AbstractActive tourism regulations currently in force in Spain establish that companies must present a security protocol for the performance of their activities to become officially registered. However, normative does not specify what this protocol entails keeping opened the initiative. This paper proposes the way a security protocol could be designed for a certain activity: mountain-bike at Tajuña´s Green Way, located at Madrid Community. We have chosen the Program Green Routes as framework due to the great recreational and environmental potential they offer to companies of active tourism and professionals of the physical activity and sport, as well as good labour opportunities, high security and easy access.

  4. An Efficient Green Synthesis of 3-Amino-1 H -chromenes Catalyzed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Efficient Green Synthesis of 3-Amino-1 H -chromenes Catalyzed by ZnO Nanoparticles Thin-film. ... South African Journal of Chemistry ... The mild reaction conditions, reusability of the catalyst, easy work-up and high yields of products make the present protocol sustainable and advantageous compared to conventional ...

  5. No Small Change: E-Commerce in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Evan T.

    2002-01-01

    Explains how electronic commerce (e-commerce) principles can be useful for distance education in higher education. Topics include business-to-business and business-to-consumer models; entering the marketplace; understanding the institution's capabilities; knowing the competition; and sound financial models. (LRW)

  6. Content management systems and E-commerce: a comparative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rasheed, Amal A.; El-Masri, Samir D.

    2011-12-01

    The need for CMS's to create and edit e-commerce websites has increased with the growing importance of e-commerce. In this paper, the various features essential for e-commerce CMS's are explored. The aim of the paper was to find the best CMS solution for e-commerce which includes the best of both CMS and store management. Accordingly, we conducted a study on three popular open source CMS's for e-commerce: VirtueMart from Joomla!, Ubercart from Drupal, and Magento. We took into account features like hosting and installation, performance, support/community, content management, add on modules and functional features. We concluded with improvements that could be made in order to alleviate problems.

  7. E-commerce adoption by SMEs in developing countries: evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahayu, Rita; Day, John

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide an overview of e-commerce adoption by SMEs in developing countries and, in particular, the extent of the adoption of e-commerce by Indonesian SMEs. It identifies the e-commerce benefits realized by these SMEs and investigates the relationship between the levels of e-commerce adoption and the benefits thus realized. The study was motivated by the limited studies related to e-commerce adoption by SMEs, especially in developing countries. In addition, it seems that mos...

  8. Bright green light treatment of depression for older adults [ISRCTN69400161

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knickerbocker Nancy C

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bright white light has been successfully used for the treatment of depression. There is interest in identifying which spectral colors of light are the most efficient in the treatment of depression. It is theorized that green light could decrease the intensity duration of exposure needed. Late Wake Treatment (LWT, sleep deprivation for the last half of one night, is associated with rapid mood improvement which has been sustained by light treatment. Because spectral responsiveness may differ by age, we examined whether green light would provide efficient antidepressant treatment in an elder age group. Methods We contrasted one hour of bright green light (1,200 Lux and one hour of dim red light placebo ( Results The protocol was completed by 33 subjects who were 59 to 80 years old. Mood improved on average 23% for all subjects, but there were no significant statistical differences between treatment and placebo groups. There were negligible adverse reactions to the bright green light, which was well tolerated. Conclusion Bright green light was not shown to have an antidepressant effect in the age group of this study, but a larger trial with brighter green light might be of value.

  9. Data mining in e-commerce: A survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Data mining has matured as a field of basic and applied research in computer science in general and e-commerce in particular. In this paper, we survey some of the recent approaches and architectures where data mining has been applied in the fields of e-commerce and e-business. Our intent is not to survey the plethora ...

  10. Usability evaluation techniques in mobile commerce applications: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.

  11. E-Commerce Education in China: Driving Forces, Status, and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Xianfeng Zhang; Qi Li; Z. Lin

    2005-01-01

    With an explosive growth of e-businesses worldwide, e-commerce in China is booming, leading to the development of e-commerce education. This paper is intended to investigate whether the education system in China accords well with the market demand and the status of e-commerce programs in China in order to seek strategies for China to cope with the challenges of global e-commerce empowered by fast updated information technologies. First, we construct a four-layer conceptual model to describe t...

  12. CHINESE E-COMMERCE MODEL: Using ALIBABA as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This report aims to analyze Alibaba’s e-commerce mode. With the development of internet technology, e-commerce is attracting more and more attention from governments, businesses and individuals which is one of the major reasons for Alibaba’s quick development. The author has seen the importance of e-commerce and important role of Alibaba in e-commerce field. This report will start by introducing Alibaba briefly. And then the major theories and concepts used by the report will be analyzed, esp...

  13. Study on supply chain management in tourism e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaodong; Wu, Shuyan; Ma, Haiyan

    2009-07-01

    On-line customer research has been conducted for European and American markets by marketers and academics. Whilst e-Commerce and tourism develop rapidly in China, and the fraud information in E-commerce market makes the conditions of information asymmetry becoming more seriously, understanding of Chinese internet travelers is required. This paper reviews current research on supply chain management (SCM) within the context of tourism. SCM in the manufacturing industry has attracted widespread research interest over the past two decades, whereas studies of SCM in the tourism e-commerce are very limited. The potential benefit of considering not only individual enterprises but also the tourism value chain becomes evident. This paper presents the model e-market structure and process analysis of tourism e-commerce, and also sets up tourism supply chain and tourism e-commerce system to probe how to apply tourism ecommerce to promote the sustainable development of tourism. The paper also identifies key research questions in TSCM worthy of future theoretical and empirical exploration.

  14. Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and…

  15. Semi-quantum communication: protocols for key agreement, controlled secure direct communication and dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Chitra; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban

    2017-12-01

    Semi-quantum protocols that allow some of the users to remain classical are proposed for a large class of problems associated with secure communication and secure multiparty computation. Specifically, first-time semi-quantum protocols are proposed for key agreement, controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue, and it is shown that the semi-quantum protocols for controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue can be reduced to semi-quantum protocols for e-commerce and private comparison (socialist millionaire problem), respectively. Complementing with the earlier proposed semi-quantum schemes for key distribution, secret sharing and deterministic secure communication, set of schemes proposed here and subsequent discussions have established that almost every secure communication and computation tasks that can be performed using fully quantum protocols can also be performed in semi-quantum manner. Some of the proposed schemes are completely orthogonal-state-based, and thus, fundamentally different from the existing semi-quantum schemes that are conjugate coding-based. Security, efficiency and applicability of the proposed schemes have been discussed with appropriate importance.

  16. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Santoso; Rengganis Fitriani

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawangg...

  17. Automatic detection of e-commerce availability from web data

    OpenAIRE

    Blázquez Soriano, Mª Desamparados; Domenech, Josep; Gil, José A.; Pont Sanjuan, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Resumen de la ponencia [EN] In the transition to the digital economy, the implementation of e-commerce strategies contributes to foster economic growth and obtain competitive advantages. Indeed, national and supranational statistics offices monitor the adoption of e-commerce solutions by conducting periodic surveys to businesses. However, the information about e-commerce adoption is often available online in each company corporate website, which is usually public and suitable for being aut...

  18. What impact will E-commerce have on the U.S. economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan L. Willis

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, e-commerce has emerged as the fastest growing sector of the U.S. marketplace. Despite the contraction in the high-tech industry during the recent recession, firms have continued to enter and expand their presence in e-commerce, and consumers have increased the number of purchases made online. E-commerce currently represents a very small share of overall commerce, but it is expected to continue to expand rapidly in coming years. As e-commerce grows, so will its impact on the o...

  19. Grocery e-commerce in the UK and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Bjerre, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a framework for the analysis of market creation and apply this to the grocery e-commerce business. The article develops a model of four forces that interplay when companies engage in the process of creating new markets. The applicability of the model...... is exemplified by examining the interaction of the forces having created grocery e-commerce markets in the UK and Denmark. The application of the model reveals that besides the usual identification of competition intensity, the persistency of market reach efforts of a focal firm and the value attraction of its...... offerings play a significant role in the creation of grocery e-commerce markets. The practical implications are that retailers should not just transfer a grocery e-commerce set-up from one national market to another without considering the mentioned four forces in their own national markets....

  20. Communication and Procedural Models of the E-Commerce Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr SUCHÁNEK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce systems became a standard interface between sellers (or suppliers and customers. One of basic condition of an e-commerce system to be efficient is correct definitions and describes of the all internal and external processes. All is targeted the customers´ needs and requirements. The optimal and most exact way how to obtain and find optimal solution of e-commerce system and its processes structure in companies is the modeling and simulation. In this article author shows basic model of communication between customers and sellers in connection with the customer feedback and procedural models of e-commerce systems in terms of e-shops. Procedural model was made with the aid of definition of SOA.

  1. Social Engineering hits Social Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Werner; Wiele, Johannes

    Looking at social commerce, a bunch of bewildering phenomena attracts the attention of social psychologists. The way customers participate today shows attitudes and ethical behavior which cannot be explained from the inherent conditions of Web 2.0 environments alone. Fraud often succeeds, when you do not expect it, and honesty can be found under circumstances that do not support honesty at all. The current situation seems to result from customers assigning experience and ethics from real world business to virtual business environments. But there are indications that this situation may change. Social commerce could suffer as soon as customers would use its inherent weaknesses to their own advantage. The following article outlines first approaches to research into this topic.

  2. 20 CFR 656.12 - Improper commerce and payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Improper commerce and payment. 656.12 Section 656.12 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR....12 Improper commerce and payment. The following provision applies to applications filed under both...

  3. E-Commerce Comes Slowly But Surely to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenaugh, Mickey

    2000-01-01

    Discusses why e-commerce is being used so sparingly by big business and school purchasers alike, the benefits on going on-line for school buyers, and the integration of e-commerce with the district's accounting and management information systems. Available online services are detailed. (GR)

  4. Intelligent agents for e-commerce applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuppala, Krishna

    1999-12-01

    This thesis focuses on development of intelligent agent solutions for e-commerce applications. E-Commerce has several complexities like: lack of information about the players, learning the nature of one's business partners/competitors, finding the right business partner to do business with, using the right strategy to get best profit out of the negotiations etc. The agent models developed can be used in any agent solution for e-commerce. Concepts and techniques from Game Theory and Artificial Intelligence are used. The developed models have several advantages over the existing ones as: the models assume the non-availability of information about other players in the market, the models of players get updated over the time as and when new information comes about the players, the negotiation model incorporates the patience levels of the players and expectations from other players in the market. Power industry has been chosen as the application area for the demonstration of the capabilities and usage of the developed agent models. Two e-commerce scenarios where sellers and buyers can go through the power exchanges to bid in auctions, or make bilateral deals outside of the exchange are addressed. In the first scenario agent helps market participants in coordinating strategies with other participants, bidding in auctions by analyzing and understanding the behavior of other participants. In the second scenario, called "Power Traders Assistant" agent helps power trader, who buys and sells power through bilateral negotiations, in negotiating deals with his customers.

  5. Customer vs. e-tailer:how tablet affects mobile commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Olaleye, S. A. (Sunday Adewale)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The emergence of mobile devices, especially the tablet, has created chances and challenges for mobile commerce vendors across the continents, as they seek to increase their profits and optimize the users’ online shopping experience. This study examines how mobile devices affect mobile commerce with regards to tablet usage for online shopping in developed and developing nations. The intervention of mobile devices in mobile commerce should be aboveboard, so that it ca...

  6. E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa, João Batista

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Esta dissertação tem como objetivo identificar as principais características do e-commerce que influenciam no processo de decisão de compra via internet, tendo o consumidor on-line como centro deste estudo. Evidenciou-se o processo de decisão de compra por este possibilitar uma análise de cada etapa "percorrida" pelo consumidor ao realizar s...

  7. 44 CFR 351.28 - The Department of Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Department of Commerce. 351.28 Section 351.28 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Assignments § 351.28 The Department of Commerce. (a) Assist State and local governments in determining their...

  8. 49 CFR 387.321 - Operations in foreign commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operations in foreign commerce. 387.321 Section 387.321 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... Carriers and Property Brokers § 387.321 Operations in foreign commerce. No motor carrier may operate in the...

  9. Feasibility Analysis of E-commerce for the Middle and Small Enterprises Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文茜; 李敏

    2012-01-01

    Small and middle enterprises play an important role in the international economy and social development, and governments attach much importance to them and adopt various policy measure to help them develop. This paper introduces basic concept of small and middle enterprises and e-commerce, characters of these enterprises,benefits that e-commerce brings and analysis on e-commerce of these enterprises abstractly and feasibly. And then, on the base of analysis on the development of SMEs e-commerce trancaction cost theory.it is discussed that e-commerce can reduce the cost of small and middle enterprise's commerce.Finally ,it analyese the feasibility to improve e-commerce for small and middie enterprises.

  10. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  11. Contemporary Legal Issues in Electronic Commerce in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TI Akomolede

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has no doubt added a great deal to the quality of human life today. It has knitted the world together as a global village. Many difficulties which hampered international and even national commercial transactions in the past have now been consigned to the dust-bin of history. The emergence of electronic commerce is as a result of the creation of the internet, through which commercial transactions are conducted between parties from different parts of the world and who may never see themselves in their lifetimes. However, the emergence of electronic commerce has also brought with it a number of legal and socio-economic problems, especially in the developing nations such as Nigeria – problems which pose significance challenges to the legal regime of electronic commerce in those countries. This paper examines these legal issues within the context of the current legal and regulatory framework for electronic commerce in Nigeria.

  12. The Green and Lean Dairy Supply Chain Model: The case of a Libyan Dairy Company

    OpenAIRE

    BADI, MESBAH SALEH

    2015-01-01

    Lean management was first implemented by Toyota in the automobile industry and has attracted the attention of many companies worldwide from various industries and sectors due to cost pressures and resource scarcity issues. Moreover, contemporary human activities have caused concern regarding its negative effects on the environment. Therefore, global agreements such as the Kyoto protocol were initiated to force companies to adopt green production and eliminate green wastes. The adoption of lea...

  13. A pluggable service platform architecture for e-commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aulkemeier, Fabian; Paramartha, Mohammad Anggasta; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2016-01-01

    In the beginning of the e-commerce era, retailers mostly adopted vertically integrated solutions to control the entire e-commerce value chain. However, they began to realize that to achieve agility, a better approach would be to focus on certain core capabilities and then create a partner ecosystem

  14. Implications of e-commerce for banking and finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, Michael S.H.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show that e-commerce holds the potential totransform banking and financial systems. There are three aspects in which e-commercecan affect banking and finance. First, banks and financial firms can use thetechnology and business practice of e-commerce to market their

  15. Mobile Commerce and Applications: An Exploratory Study and Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed, Khawar; Ahsan, Kamran; Yang, Weijun

    2010-01-01

    Mobile commerce is enabling the development of additional revenue streams for organizations through the delivery of chargeable mobile services. According to the European Information Technology Observatory, the total amount of revenue generated by mobile commerce was reported to be less than {\\pounds}9 million in the United Kingdom in 2001. By 2005 this had, at least, doubled and more recent industry forecasts project significant global growth in this area. Mobile commerce creates a range of b...

  16. Study on the Development of Yunnan Floral E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Yulan; Li, Qifang; Ning, Wangyun

    2013-01-01

    Cut flower production in Yunnan accounts for 80% nationwide. In order to expand the Yunnan Flower sales channels, the promotion of the development of e-commerce is necessary. In 2012 China's online shopping users reached 247 million people, but e-commerce of fresh flowers lagged behind due to the constraints of preservation facilities and logistics cost. The analysis of the factors restricting the development of floral e-commerce and the proposition of solutions to this problem can promote fa...

  17. Strategic renewal in retail companies by means of social e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Kirilka, Vilius; Stukas, Tautvydas

    2012-01-01

    Social media has changed the way of communication and information exchange while e-commerce was a big inno- vation in retail business. The merge of social media and e- commerce has created social e-commerce which is a new phenomenon in retail business during past few years. More and more companies develop social e-commerce and there is a need to study this phenomenon in more depth. The purpose of this master thesis is to analyse   and   explain   the   phenomena  of   social   e- commerce and...

  18. Security concerns and trust in the adoption of m-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Vasileiadis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to deeply examine customers’ perception in terms of how the determinants of trust and perceived risk affect their intention to adopt mobile commerce.Design/methodology/approach – literature review, conceptual framework, modelling method, quantitative survey methodology (questionnaire instrument.Findings – the perception of risk in terms of privacy, m-payments, m-commerce legislation and quality of delivered products has negative effect in the intention to adopt mobile commerce, while the good online vendors’ reputation, enticing promises, good encryption security and transparency, reduce the effect of risk and increase the intention to use m-commerce. The availability of easy to understand and find policies have positive effect in the intention to use m-commerce. When customers feel free of risks and have high level of trust in the intention to use mobile commerce they actually adopt it.Research limitation/implications –this empirical research contributed to the theory by exploring which factors influence or deter the m-commerce adoption. However, the UTAUT model, simple random sampling method and case studies on how the online vendors perform towards this topic are worth-exploring by future researchers.Practical implications – the research results show that mobile technology manufacturers and developers should improve both software and wireless network security, online vendors should improve their online reputation, transparency, and mobile website navigation. Lawmakers should improve m-commerce legislation to better protect customers in case of dispute with online vendors.Originality/value – previous researchers have never focused solely and in-depth on the determinants of perceived risk and trust. Moreover, this object had never been examined in the Greek Population.Keywords: mobile commerce adoption, security concerns, trust, perceived risksResearch type: literature review, Conceptual paper, Research paper

  19. Model Bisnis Dan Antarmuka Pelanggan E-Commerce Pada PT. SMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Rudy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PT. SMG is a company which sells music and movies product in CDs, VCDs and DVDs. PT. SMG relies its business on direct selling through its outlets. PT. SMG needs a solution to facilitate the customers’ needs in getting product information and online transactions. E-commerce can be use to develop business and provide an alternative solution to customers on how to transact and obtain product information from PT. SMG using the internet. The objective of this study is to design a business model and customer interface of e-commerce website for PT. SMG. The methodology uses e-commerce business model and customer interface design by Rayport and Jaworski. The website interface design uses a 7C framework approach: Context, Content, Communication, Commerce, Connection, Community and Customization. The result achieved is an e-commerce website that helps sales system and enhances the company competitiveness. The conclusions obtained are that PT. SMG can take advantage of e-commerce to support their sales system and the business model online for PT. SMG is the widest-assortment model. 

  20. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun

    2000-12-01

    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  1. THE COMMERCE AND THE PRODUCTION OF THE URBAN SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucy Oliveira Freire

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to contribute with the studies concerning the joints between commerce and city in the measure where the appearance of new commercial forms has an striking in the process of production of the urban space. Functioning, relations social, merchandises, movements internal and external, and everything what of the life to the traditional markets, fairs and other said types of commerce, they are each time more attractive to the point of if becoming, today, in different, that it resists in way what if became homogeneous, the such as the forms that shelters the called modern commerce, as shopping centers. This dynamics of the commerce motivated a in progress research, which comes studying the paper of the markets, the fairs, the grocery, the diverse galleries and other types of commerce, which, historically, they incur into changes in the city. The starting point of the analyses is the markets and the fairs surviving in way to the pressure it growth of the metropolis, a time transformed into leisure centers (cultural, gastronomical, tourist, etc.. The text privileges the first part of the research; systemize a survey of bibliographical sources/theoreticians, especially to those related to the historical development of the commerce, of the unfolding of the commercial exchanges that, to the few, demand shelters for the permanent functioning in the city.

  2. Learning in Introductory E-Commerce: A Project-Based Teamwork Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Eric W. T.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an e-commerce teamwork-based project designed and implemented at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) for undergraduate business and management students. The teaching objectives of this e-commerce project are to develop the students' knowledge and skills, such as in the use of e-commerce site building tools,…

  3. Modelling the ICE standard with a formal language for information commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Wombacher, A.; Aberer, K.

    2001-01-01

    Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce processes. We introduce a language that is specifically designed for information commerce. It can be directly used for the implementation of the processes and communication required in information comme...

  4. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  5. Ferment in Business Education: E-Commerce Master's Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlabhji, Subhash; Fusilier, Marcelline R.

    2002-01-01

    A review of curriculum and course descriptions of 67 Web-based electronic commerce master's programs showed that the number of programs grew 76% over 8 months. More nontechnical than technology-centered courses are offered. Business schools are apparently viewing e-commerce as a completely new discipline. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  6. Consumer’s Buying Decision-Making Process in E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Puspitasari Nia; Nugroho W P Susatyo; Nilan Amyhorsea Deya; Susanty Aries

    2018-01-01

    The e-commerce growth and development in Indonesia is very rapid as well as the internet grows, but it is not well-balanced with the number of online buying transaction which is still relatively low. Even the today’s biggest B2C e-commerce people in Indonesia, Lazada, has continually decreased online purchasing. This research is aimed to describe factors affecting online buying decision- making in the e-commerce Lazada. The type of this research is confirmatory research. The variable used is ...

  7. Communication and Procedural Models of the E-commerce Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Suchánek, Petr

    2009-01-01

    E-commerce systems became a standard interface between sellers (or suppliers) and customers. One of basic condition of an e-commerce system to be efficient is correct definitions and describes of the all internal and external processes. All is targeted the customers´ needs and requirements. The optimal and most exact way how to obtain and find optimal solution of e-commerce system and its processes structure in companies is the modeling and simulation. In this article author shows basic model...

  8. E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: adoption and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sait

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.

  9. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE, PART OF THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU ANA-MARIA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the role of electronic commerce in the digital economy, where information is the main resource. Internet, information society technology vector, made possible transition to a knowledge society at the beginning of XXI century. New economy involves transition from a traditional economy based on resources, to a knowledge-based economy. The development of information technology leads to major changes in the economic and social fields. In a world of globalization, e-commerce, part of the information society, manages to eliminate geographical barriers between participants at economic transactions. I presented e-commerce history, definitions. I pointed out the importance of this sector at european level by quantification of indicators. I used a theoretical research and qualitative analysis of the data. I presented values indicators at the european level, the lowest and highest value, and recorded values for Romania.

  10. Consumer Decision - Making Process in E - Commerce: Case of Salzburg - Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Gürbüz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized world, companies need to track the changes occur in their internal and external stakeholders in order to develop consistent strategies, structures and systems for success in e-commerce. Tracking and researching the existing and potential customers and companies as external stakeholders has become very important. This study aims to reveal a scientific approach about the purchasing decisions of e-commerce companies’ customers, to carry the e-commerce applications in Austria to Turkey, to transfer the e-commerce applications in Turkey to Austria and to contribute for the development of e-commerce. To achieve this, in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 female e-commerce users in Ankara/Turkey and in Salzburg/Austria to reveal the similarities and differences between the purchasing decision processes of different countries’ citizens. Similarities and differences in the purchasing decision process of customers were determined for the dimensions of price compatibility, practicality, accessibility, speed, comfort, convenience and cost and suggestions are offered for the development of e-commerce in Turkey.

  11. Online Banking on E-Commerce in India

    OpenAIRE

    Navpreet Kaur; Dr. Ashutosh Pathak

    2015-01-01

    Online Banking is becoming an important aspect of worldwide commerce. Online Banking is also known as ebanking, cyber banking, virtual banking, net banking, and internet banking. Online banking includes various banking activities conducted from home business, instead of at a physical bank location Customer relationship management worked as a tool increased use of e-commerce makes CRM. Online banking is based on internet or web- based interaction to create a high volatile relations...

  12. Rule-based statistical data mining agents for an e-commerce application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Zhang, Yan-Qing; King, K. N.; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar

    2003-03-01

    Intelligent data mining techniques have useful e-Business applications. Because an e-Commerce application is related to multiple domains such as statistical analysis, market competition, price comparison, profit improvement and personal preferences, this paper presents a hybrid knowledge-based e-Commerce system fusing intelligent techniques, statistical data mining, and personal information to enhance QoS (Quality of Service) of e-Commerce. A Web-based e-Commerce application software system, eDVD Web Shopping Center, is successfully implemented uisng Java servlets and an Oracle81 database server. Simulation results have shown that the hybrid intelligent e-Commerce system is able to make smart decisions for different customers.

  13. Rapid Development of Petroleum E-Commerce in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Haifeng

    2005-01-01

    @@ E-commerce is known as the most advanced business mode, being the new point for global economic growth in 21 century. Comparing to the traditional purchase mode,E-commerce is available for reducing the purchasing cost and improving the working efficiency, thus lifting the whole benefit for the company through centralized purchasing.

  14. Borderless Educational Practices in the Development of Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, James O., III

    2010-01-01

    Commerce transcends the boundaries of nations. With so many people involved, a common approach and articulation is necessary to advance the interests of commerce for everyone involved. This paper addresses online MBA (Master of Business Administration) degrees and the nature of its presence alongside the more traditional face-to-face MBA program.…

  15. Research Reveals Scale of College Union E-Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Guy Patrick; Henry, Wilma J.

    2000-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of member schools of the Association of College Unions International concerning extent of e-commerce being conducted on the Web. College Web sites were also evaluated for information on e-commerce activities. A list of institutions currently conducting interactive business and the type of business being conducted is…

  16. ADDED VALUE-BASED APROACH TO ANALYZE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AND MOBILE COMMERCE BUSINESS MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Weizmann

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Se propone aplicar la teoría del valor informacional agregado (Theory of Informational Added Values, IAV al Electronic Commerce (EC y al Mobile Commerce (MC. El trabajo presentado es una propuesta para acercarse a modelos de negocio, con el foco de criterios típicos de evaluación para modelos de negocio de Internet y del MC. Es también conveniente para comparar modelos de negocio distintos y para poner el valor añadido para los participantes en un contexto. De esta manera, se establecen criterios objetivos que reducen la subjetividad y permiten hacer ciertas predicciones. El artículo termina con un análisis crítico del estado del arte y un comentario sobre las perspectivas futuras.

  17. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positively affects green product development performance. In addition, our findings also indicate that the relationship between proactive green innovation and green product development performance is partially mediated by green creativity. Accordingly, green creativity plays a critical role for companies to achieve a great green product development performance. However, reactive green innovation does not significantly influence green creativity and green product development performance. Companies should develop proactive green innovation rather than reactive green innovation in order to enhance their green creativity and increase their product development performance.

  18. "Does e-Commerce Always Increase Social Welfare in the Long Run?"

    OpenAIRE

    Yuji Nakayama; Kiyohiko G. Nishimura

    2002-01-01

    We examine the effect of electronic commerce ("e-commerce") on social welfare, in the framework of conventional spatial competition models. We consider the case where both conventional and electronic retailers coexist in equilibrium. We show that e-commerce does not necessarily increase social welfare in the long run. In particular, when electronic retailers have clear cost advantage over conventional retailers, then the advent of e-commerce is shown to reduce social welfare.

  19. Modelling the ICE standard with a formal language for information commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas; Aberer, K.

    Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce

  20. Building blocks of e-commerce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    e-commerce possible are: html (hyper text markup language), XML (extensible markup .... Standard word processor outputs can be converted to ..... various types of transactions between organizations and it requires an expert to understand.

  1. The E-Commerce solutions for Small and Medium Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya M Salya

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that small and medium enterprises have embraced e-commerce to strengthen their competitive. The e-commerce is supposed to be useful in reaching out to markets. In this case of the best distro companies in Bandung, Indonesia: unkl347 and ouvalresearch that focus on selling apparel and clothing for teen segment. In this paper, we discuss findings from the support and barriers of e-commerce to entry the market, How social media such as: Google and face book could help their bu...

  2. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  3. Rancang Bangun E-commerce Template Untuk Aplikasi Content and Management Electronic Mall (Came-mall)

    OpenAIRE

    Maulana, Kamal; Sugiharto, Aris; Wibawa, Helmie Arif

    2012-01-01

    Kebanyakan e-commerce di Indonesia masih berorientasi ke pasar regional. Sehingga e-commerce tersebut masih menggunakan bahasa Indonesia. Adanya e-commerce template memudahkan pembuatan sebuah e-commerce. Namun, kebanyakan e-commerce template menggunakan bahasa Inggris sebagai default. Dibutuhkan aplikasi pembuat e-commerce yang menggunakan bahasa Indonesia dan memiliki fungsi-fungsi yang hanya dibutuhkan oleh pengguna pemula. Came-mall adalah salah satu aplikasi e-commerce template yang meng...

  4. Factors Influencing Individuals’ Voluntary Adoption of Mobile Commerce Services Among Malaysians

    OpenAIRE

    Suncheleeva, Yuliya

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid spread of mobile devices, such as mobile phones,PDAs,and tablet computers,mobile commerce is widely considered to be a driving force for next generation e-commerce.Telecom companies are offering new opportunities to users over mobile devices like cellular phones and personal digital assistants. Reading-emails, surfing the WEB and sending SMS messages between cellular phones are becoming natural in our daily lives. M-commerce is an extension of e-commerce,whereby the transaction...

  5. Adoption of e-Commerce in micro tourism firms located in Umeå

    OpenAIRE

    Gharibyan, Tatevik

    2016-01-01

    A new and an effective Internet business model such as electronic commerce (e-Commerce) has obtained great importance in the tourism industry (Li & Suomi, 2008). e-Commerce has great importance also for small firms. Despite this, the majority of  literature concerning  tourism and e-Commerce does not tend to discuss the adoption of e-Commerce within small and medium sized firms (SMEs), whereas most studies have focused on the information that can be found on broader aspects of the Interne...

  6. The Development Model Electronic Commerce of Regional Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan

    With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.

  7. Research on the Model of E-commerce of China’s Urban Informatization Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban informatization e-commerce is a business model of the combination of e-commerce operators and organizational forms of community property management, and the import of people management and property management into e-commerce. This paper analyzes the current situation of Chinese urban community e-commerce and informatization community building. It puts forward the model of community e-commerce based on informatization, and its feasibility was verified by PIECE method. Finally, focusing on the application, the model of community e-commerce based on informatization community is analyzed in detail from the perspective of the role and value, supply chain and collaborative management works. Information services are most likely to succeed in the entry point of e-commerce. The study has shown that the establishment of community e-commerce on the basis of urban informatization community can be regarded as a solution of e-commerce development.

  8. The Use of Marketing Management Tools in E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Svatošová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing management increasingly occupies an important position in the world of business as well as in the sphere of e-commerce. However, some companies underestimate the importance of marketing support. This paper focuses on the e-commerce marketing management and its importance that is currently in theory and practice underestimated. Based on the analysis of the current state, synthesis of knowledge are literature research, quantitative survey was conducted using questionnaires, which aims to determine the use of marketing management tools, weaknesses and effectiveness of the marketing management concept among Internet companies, focusing on online retailing. The results of the survey reject or not reject the hypotheses (by the Pearson’s χ2-test of independence, the Chi-square test, Friedman test, Nemenyi test of multiple comparisons and the Wilcoxon matched pairs test. The results of the survey show that the concept of e-commerce marketing management is not used effectively as well as marketing management tools. The survey founded out that the analysis phase, compared to other phases, the e-commerce marketing management is significantly undervalued. The survey also showed that the e-commerce marketing management concept is used at the tactical level, strategic tools are used to a limited extent. However, marketing management concept in e-commerce is not used in most cases (53.84%. The survey also has confirmed that the marketing activities of Internet companies are limited to Internet marketing, which is controlled only at the tactical level.

  9. Optimization of an Efficient and Sustainable Sonogashira Cross-Coupling Protocol

    KAUST Repository

    Walter, Philipp E.

    2012-12-01

    Cross coupling reactions are a well-established tool in modern organic synthesis and play a crucial role in the synthesis of a high number of organic compounds. Their importance is highlighted by the Nobel Prize in chemistry to Suzuki, Heck and Negishi in 2010. The increasing importance of sustainability requirements in chemical production has furthermore promoted the development of cross-coupling protocols that comply with the principles of “Green Chemistry”1. The Sonogashira reaction is today the most versatile and powerful way to generate aryl alkynes, a moiety recurring in many pharmaceutical and natural products. Despite many improvements to the original reaction, reports on generally applicable protocols that work under sustainable conditions are scarce. Our group recently reported an efficient protocol for a copperfree Sonogashira cross-coupling at low temperature, in aqueous medium and with no addition of organic solvents or additives2. The goal of this work was to further investigate the effects of different reaction parameters on the catalytic activity in order to optimize the protocol. Limitations of the protocol were tested in respect to reaction temperature, heating method, atmosphere, base type and amount, catalyst loading, reaction time and work up procedure. The reaction worked successfully under air and results were not affected by the presence of oxygen in the water phase. Among a variety of bases tested, triethylamine was confirmed to give the best results and its required excess could be reduced from nine to four equivalents. Catalyst loading could also be reduced by up to 90%: Good to near quantitative yields for a broad range of substrates were achieved using a catalyst concentration of 0.25mol% and 5 eq of Et3N at 50°C while more reactive substrates could be coupled with a catalyst concentration as low as 0.025mol%. Filtration experiments showed the possibility of a simplified work up procedure and a protocol completely free of organic

  10. Review Electronic Commerce Untuk Memperluas Jaringan Pemasaran

    OpenAIRE

    Sidiq, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    To day, For the part of corporation, e-commerce bot merely buy and sell product according to online, on the contrary, e-commerce cover entire process from developments, marketing, sale, delivery, service, and payment to various product and service, buy in base global network customers, with support from network business partners throughout world. in this article be discussed about sisitem e-comerce will base on internet resource and many another information technology to support every step fr...

  11. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE PORTAL

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta Soava

    2011-01-01

    Today companies are faced with the need to exploit technology changing computer environments, in order to improve customer satisfaction and reduce costs. A successful approach to electronic portals is an effective demonstration of the new ways of relating to the client. The objectives that we have considered for the realization of e-commerce portal can be summarized as follows: structured communication, effective collaboration, complet and closed circuit of orders and deliveries, inventory op...

  12. Revising legislative system for E-commerce activation and expansion of infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Hee [Ministry of Infomatiion and Communications, Kwachon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Since the rapidly developing E-commerce in worldwide enables direct transactions between producers and consumers, it improves efficiency over whole economy with cutbacks of intermediate trade and growth of parcel service business. However, E-commerce is basically a trade without meeting each other and the side effects of E-commerce, such as a fraud and outflow of personal information, are emerging by abusing its feature that cannot be known a counterpart of trade. To be developed as an advanced country in E-commerce area by 2003, Korea should settle the revision of legislative system on E-commerce and the expansion of infrastructure first for a continuous development of such a new business.

  13. Customers' Beliefs Behind Business-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Nena Lim

    2001-01-01

    With the rising importance of electronic commerce, it is important for researchers and company executives to understand customers' beliefs behind online shopping behaviour. This proposed study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) to test the influence of experience, self-efficacy, perceived risk, and social influence on customers' acceptance of the business-to consumer (b2c) e-commerce.

  14. Exploring Leadership in E-commerce Adoption in Australian SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of a study investigating leadership and leadership styles in e-commerce adoption in small and medium size enterprises in Australia. The results show that top management and CEO' leadership have a key role in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in developing...... a vision for e-commerce adoption and that the dominant leadership style is directive with some signs of consultative. Furthermore the study shows that e-commerce adoption is becoming a strategic process and in this process top management is taking into consideration both the organizational knowledge...

  15. Modelling User Preferences and Mediating Agents in Electronic Commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.M.; Jacobs, N.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2005-01-01

    An important ingredient in agent-mediated electronic commerce is the presence of intelligent mediating agents that assist electronic commerce participants (e.g. individual users, other agents, organisations). These mediating agents are in principle autonomous agents that interact with their

  16. Mining e-commerce goes mainstream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.A.

    2002-11-01

    E-activity is growing as coal industry producers and suppliers map out the most useful routes to the digital marketplace. The paper analyses the development of E-commerce in mining and coal industry. 2 figs.

  17. Modeling User Preferences and Mediating Agents in Electronic Commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.M.; Jacobs, N.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Dignum, F.; Sierra, C.

    2001-01-01

    An important ingredient in agent-mediated Electronic Commerce is the presence of intelligent mediating agents that assist Electronic Commerce participants (e.g., individual users, other agents, organisations). These mediating agents are in principle autonomous agents that will interact with their

  18. A Framework for Global Electronic Commerce: An Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of the Press Secretary of the White House

    1997-01-01

    An abbreviated version of a longer policy document on electronic commerce released by the Clinton Administration, this article examines principles and recommendations on tariffs, taxes, electronic payment systems, uniform commercial code for electronic commerce, intellectual property protection, privacy, security, telecommunications infrastructure…

  19. 78 FR 33019 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ...-0269; Airspace Docket No. 13-ASW-3] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Commerce, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Commerce Municipal Airport (AAF). The FAA...

  20. Signcryption-Based Key Management for MANETs Applications in Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jingfeng; ZHU Yuefei; ZHANG Yajuan; PAN Heng

    2006-01-01

    Mobile commerce uses wireless device and wireless link to result in the transfer of values in exchange of information, services or goods. Wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) will bring a revolution to the business model of mobile commerce if such networks are used as the underlying network technology for mobile commerce. Mobile commerce will remain in a niche market until the security issue is properly addressed. Hence, security is also very important for MANET applications in mobile commerce. Robust key management is one of the most crucial technologies for security of MANETs. In this paper, a new solution for key management is proposed using identity-based (ID-based) signcryption and threshold secret sharing. It enables flexible and efficient key management while respecting the constraints of MANETs. In our solution, each mobile host uses its globally unique identity as its public key. It greatly decreases the computation and storage costs of mobile hosts, as well as communication cost for system key management.

  1. E-commerce: compras coletivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pasqualini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia da informação está atualmente inserida diretamente no comércio de maneira geral; entretanto, é no comércio eletrônico, e-commerce, que sua aplicação ocorre de forma mais direta. Contudo, essa modalidade de comércio ainda é pouco difundida e, por apresentar problemas de segurança e disparidade de informações, faz com que os consumidores comprem produtos e serviços com parcimônia. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo mapear a utilização da tecnologia de e-commerce na região do município de Blumenau (SC, por meio do estudo do funcionamento de ambientes web de compra coletiva. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa “censo” qualitativo, durante os meses de outubro e novembro de 2012 nos sites de compra coletiva que oferecem produtos na região de Blumenau. Os resultados apresentados demonstram o perfil dos compradores e comerciantes, os principais produtos ofertados, comercializados e procurados, as formas de pagamentos, as garantias e seguranças oferecidas pelos sites, entre outros. Os resultados demonstraram que produtos de alimentação, estética e beleza, e viagens estão entre os mais ofertados e comercializados na região, o que evidencia os principais tipos de consumidores. Diante dos dados encontrados, notou-se que os produtos e serviços oferecidos ainda são restritos, o que torna tal modalidade de comércio pouco utilizada na região. Contudo, o aumento da variedade de ofertas bem como segurança e confiabilidade nessa modalidade de comércio podem fazer com que o e-commerce torne-se mais atrativo e consolidado nos próximos anos.

  2. E-Commerce Strategy : Being Physical or Virtual?

    OpenAIRE

    Olsberg, Hans; Perrakoski, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The developments of Electronic Commerce applications origins back to the early 1970s and were primarily used within the financial sector. As the potential of E-commerce was recognized its use also reached into other sectors. The trend according of intensively, in-creasing sales is persistent and areas such as music, books and tickets are predicted to have the largest increase. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how traditional companies, as we call click-and-mortar corporations, per...

  3. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  4. CROSS-BORDER E-COMMERCE – PROBLEMS IN IDENTIFICATION AND MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Talar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border e-commerce is a relatively new phenomenon in the contemporary world economy and very little examined. The aim of this paper is to specify and charac-terize basic problems for the cross-border e-commerce research. It was carried out a wide literature review, including methodological manuals, studies, reports and statistics. The problems with definition of the cross-border e-commerce notion were studied, as well as the scope of official statistics and private sources of data in this area. The finding is that the studies of cross-border e-commerce are currently faced with serious problems of fundamental nature, which are identification of meaning and quantitative dimension of this phenomenon.

  5. Paradigm of E-commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jae Hoon [Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy, Kwachon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The world economy is in the era of a big revolution. With the development of information and telecommunication technology and the expansion of Internet and E-commerce, a new type of company is emerging such as Carboy mall or Portal and the existing manufacturers, like automobiles or heavy industry, are changing by joining with Information Technology and Internet. With an expansion of E-commerce, the speed of change is accelerated. The petroleum industry has achieved a considerable level of process automation. Moreover, companies like SK or LG-Caltex are going to reorganize suitable to a digital environment. However, there is a limit on establishing an efficient B2B model due to the lack of cooperation among the same kind industries with the excessive supply. Now the change to Information Technology in oil refinery industry is not a problem of choice but is directly connected to a survival. To survive in this global competitive era, it should improve its efficiency through making on-line on the whole company activities in addition to enabling Information Technology in production process.

  6. Customers' Beliefs Behind Business-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Lim

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rising importance of electronic commerce, it is important for researchers and company executives to understand customers' beliefs behind online shopping behaviour. This proposed study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM to test the influence of experience, self-efficacy, perceived risk, and social influence on customers' acceptance of the business-to consumer (b2c e-commerce.

  7. The Comparison of Personalization Recommendation for E-Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Luo

    Personalization recommendation is the key technology in E-commerce, which affects the performance of E-commerce system. This paper mainly introduces personalization recommendation system and its role, and several widely used recommendation technology. Through comparing and analyzing on the strengths and weaknesses of recommendation technology, it concludes that the combined application for a variety of techniques should satisfy the actual needs better.

  8. Green communications theoretical fundamentals, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jinsong; Zhang, Honggang

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays energy crisis and global warming problems are hanging over everyone's head, urging much research work on energy saving. In the ICT industry, which is becoming a major consumer of global energy triggered by the telecommunication network operators experiencing energy cost as a significant factor in profit calculations, researchers have started to investigate various approaches for power consumption reduction. Standards bodies are already developing standards for energy-efficient protocols. However, research in green communications is still at an early stage, and the space of potential s

  9. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu Dumitru

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The technological revolution of recent years about the spectacular development of the Internet has made its presence felt in the economy. Electronic commerce is already a major component of the economy and thus influences the labor market. In this article, we present electronic commerce as an alternative to increase the number of employees. Given that only 6% of Romanian currently use electronic commerce, its growth potential is huge and in terms of thoughtful strategies it can be achieved their guidance to specific regions. Attracting companies operating on the Internet in a given region can be done by providing incentives and beneficial effects will be felt not only through the number of employees but also through the services used by these companies.

  10. 5 CFR 5001.103 - Impartiality determinations for members of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Interstate Commerce Commission. 5001.103 Section 5001.103 Administrative Personnel INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION § 5001.103 Impartiality determinations for members of the Interstate Commerce Commission. A member...

  11. TANTANGAN DAN PELUANG E-COMMERCE SEBAGAI BASIS BISNIS GLOBAL DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumijan Sumijan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia computers today have become a necessity, either by businesses or other community groups. Information is not enough just through text and graphics alone, but the information includes text, graphics, animated images, video and audio. Multimedia computer applications that are widely used today is e-commerce, e-commerce where the buying or selling activity conducted electronically on the Internet. E-commerce can also be more specific means of advertising, sales, delivery and service to take advantage of a web show 24 hours a day for all customers. E-commerce is a fraction of the facilities provided in the wilds Internet (cyber space. However, its existence is vital to boost the business of a company that wants to go-International. E-commerce is a combination of technology, apllications, proceses and strategic bussinees. Object of this study discusses the success factors (opportunities and failures (challenges in e-commerce menerepkan especially in Indonesia and this study also discusses the application of e-commerce as a bridge to cyber trade transactions between the consumer and the merchant bank, a payment server that will authorize a credit card or debit card online. Data taken from the successes and failures of previous studies beberpa survey were analyzed and presented in this study. Based on the results of this study found that the role of government to impose regulations to create a market trend and pioneering e-commerce, especially in the improvement of the trading system. To boost interest in e-commerce is not independent of consciousness, beliefs, customs and culture of a society of Indonesia. Cultures in Indonesia who still believe in the traditional trades of the e-commerce. However, e-commerce will still be needed in the face of the global market. To petrify the small and medium industries (SMEs in creating a market trend of digital government intervention is needed in creating a framework in a comprehensive system such as

  12. Comparative analysis of the terms "electronic commerce" and "electronic business"

    OpenAIRE

    Kavaliauskienė, Virginija; Šarapovas, Tadas

    2002-01-01

    Establishing the terms that clearly and consistently describe growing and dynamic networked economy is a critical first step toward further analysis and evaluation of electronic commerce and electronic business processes. Electronic commerce is making an impact on the ways that purchasing activities are being conducted. Much of the early literature on this subject was very speculative. However, the growth of e-commerce has enabled more observations to be made of the use of electronic business...

  13. Augmented Reality E-Commerce: How the Technology Benefits People's Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yuzhu; Smith, Shana

    2008-01-01

    Traditional e-commerce systems have reached a limitation that needs to be overcome, because they do not provide enough direct information for online shoppers, especially when they are shopping for products like furniture, clothing, shoes, jewelry, and other decorative products. In this study, we developed an AR e-commerce system and studied the effectiveness of AR for enhancing e-commerce. A formal usability study was designed and conducted. Usability experiment results verified that the deve...

  14. THE EFFECTS OF E-COMMERCE ON SUPPLY CHAIN IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Gülsüm; BAYAR ÇAĞLAK, Sibel; ALKAN, Güler

    2011-01-01

    Electronic commerce (e-commerce) and the internet are fundamentally changing the nature of supply chains, and redefining consumer reaction in supply chain era. In addition to standard forms for business-to-business transactions, ecommerce encompasses much wider activity. A new form of cooperation known as a virtual company, performing some of the processes needed to manufacture a product or deliver a service, has flourished. Nowadays, promoting the development of electronic commerce is one of...

  15. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2007-01-01

      The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents...... that the solution may be relaxed enforcement of the regulatory framework and/or self-regulation, e.g. by codes of conduct. However, the article argues that other possible solutions should be considered, e.g. the use of specific symbols and sounds that - like road traffic rules - could help the consumer to navigate...

  16. The Strategies for the Development of the E-commerce in China Post

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Since the beginning of the new century, all trades in China have started to introduce e-commerce, and many traditional enterprises have scrambled for this newly born business. It is important and urgent for China Post to introduce and develop e-commerce. But what measures should we adopt to develop e-commerce? This paper provides some practical and reasonable approaches and strategies to develop e-commerce.

  17. Effects of Knowledge Management on Electronic Commerce: An Exploratory Study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Jang Kenny Jih; Marilyn M. Helms; Donna Taylor Mayo

    2005-01-01

    The Internet-enabled e-commerce field provides capabilities for firms in all sectors to reach global buyers and suppliers. Knowledge management provides frameworks to manage intellectual capital as a valuable organizational and strategic resource. Current literature on e-commerce and knowledge management primarily emphasizes the benefit of knowledge management for innovative e-commerce operations. Do knowledge management practices significantly benefit electronic commerce? If so, does the rel...

  18. Analisis Faktor Kredibilitas Website E-Commerce Indonesia Studi pada Online Purchasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Cordiaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the number of Internet users in Indonesia continues to increase. Internet increasingly being used for purchasing online. There are many e-commerce websites that offer goods and services online. Internet users should be able to distinguish which websites are credible before engaging in electronic commerce activities. Be an interesting question, what factors are rated by visitors of a website as an e-commerce website that is credible or reliable. Using a web-based survey methods, respondents were asked what factors support the credibility of the website in electronic commerce purchasing transactions. The respondents were Internet users. Proposed survey questions are grouped into four factors, namely, kerpercayaan factors, factors expertise, sponsorship factors and specific factors. The survey results were tested with descriptive statistic. Based on the data obtained, the Trust Factor respondents prefer e-commerce website that is trusted by his close associates, while the respondents assess the Skill Factor of websites that apply when payments online transactions through banks Indonesia is considered more reliable. In the Sponsorship Factor and Specific Factor, respondents believe the e-commerce website that does television ads in the media and managed by official institutions. Keywords : credibility, trustworthiness, expertise, electronic commerce, online purchasing

  19. Faktor - Faktor Keberhasilan Proses Virtualisasi Dalam Perspektif E-Commerce Di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rustam Sandegi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan dunia IT di Indonesia yang semakin pesat sehingga semakin menggantikan berbagai kegiatan yang dilakukan secara tradisional mulai perlahan berpindah ke arah virtual, termasuk salah satunya adalah di bidang perdagangan yang sekarang dikenal dengan e-commerce, perkembangan dan animo masyarakat dalam menggunakan e-commerce bisa dilihat dari mulai banyaknya perusahaan besar baik lokal maupun internasional berusaha masuk dan menguasai pasar online di Indonesia, kucuran dana yang tidak sedikit kerap kali diberitakan oleh media nasional untuk perusahaan-perusahaan e-commerce tanah air. Tentu dengan harapan dapat menguasai atau minimal bertahan di persaingan bisnis e-commerce di Indonesia, untuk itu harus memperhatikan beberapa faktor apa saja mengapa orang memiliki minat untuk melakukan transaksi online. Hasil dari penelitian ini memberikan model keberhasilan proses virtualisasi dilihat dari perspektif e-commerce dengan memperhatikan minat belanja online.

  20. Evaluation of E-Commerce Website Functionality Using a Mamdani Fuzzy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Al-Qaisi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of leader companies are running their businesses using online E-commerce websites. These E-commerce websites are becoming significant revenue drivers and major retailers. Hence, it is critical to evaluate the functionality of these websites which are expected to support growing business needs. The evaluation of the functionality of E-commerce websites is not a straightforward process due to the many constraints and standards that should be considered. Fuzzy logic is a powerful technique used in modeling impreciseness and uncertainties. This paper proposes a Mamdani fuzzy system that evaluates the functionality of E-commerce websites over different parameters: accuracy, flexibility, client support, and availability of product information. Experimental results provide positive relations between accuracy and flexibility on the functionality of E-commerce websites.

  1. Interorganizational Trust in Business to Business E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Puvanasvari Ratnasingam, P.

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMost previous research in the Information Systems discipline focused on information systems and technology, e-commerce applications such as Inter-Organizational Systems (IOSs), competitive advantages, and security issues. The emphasis on IOSs' gave rise to concerns about Inter-Organizational Relationships (IORs), as trading partners became aware of the social-political factors that affected their relationships. IOSs involve the sharing of e-commerce applications in different locat...

  2. E-commerce is the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, M.S. [ENRON Global Markets, LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2000-07-01

    18 overheads/viewgraphs outline the presentation which traces the growth in e-commerce in coal in the US and worldwide. It discusses current online products and the production cost of 'E' coal. Business conducted by EnronOnline is described.

  3. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.

  4. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE: TANTANGAN KOMPETENSI AKUNTAN DALAM MENGHADAPI ISU INTERNAL KONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyarini Santosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging of the internet and world wide web as enabler of electronic commerce has resulted in some complexities for accountants in conducting their engagement. In electronic commerce, which trading activities have been facilitated with computer network such as intranet, extranet or internet, internal control structure has become more complicated than those without network. Confidentiality, integrity, authenticity and non-repudiation are some of the major complex issues in the application of electronic commerce these days.Those complexities, which do not occur in non computer-based trading, are based on the fact that electronic commerce not only involves accounting disiplines but also technical comprehension from other diciplines. Accountants find difficulties in facing the internal control issues in computer-based information system environment, especially in a situation that business has already been implementing computer network in conducting its primary and support activities. This article will discuss material related to the current issues of internal control structure, the implication of electronic commerce on internal control structure and opportunities for accountants. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kemunculan internet dan world wide web sebagai dasar berkembangnya perdagangan elektronik atau electronic commerce telah menimbulkan permasalahan yang cukup pelik bagi seorang akuntan dalam menjalankan penugasannya. Dalam lingkungan perdagangan yang sudah memanfaatkan jaringan komputer, baik dalam kapasitasnya sebagai intranet, extranet, maupun internet, sistem pengendalian internal menjadi semakin rumit. Beberapa isu seperti keamanan dan keaslian transaksi yang dulunya nampak sederhana dalam lingkungan yang tidak berbasis komputer, sekarang menjadi sangat kompleks. Dalam electronic commerce, isu-isu tersebut dikenal dengan istilah confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, non-repudiation dan sebagainya. Kekompleksan ini dikarenakan hal

  5. The adoption of e-commerce in small and medium-sized enterprises in Vietnam : recommendations for building an e-commerce strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Huong

    2013-01-01

    It is highly recommended for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to integrate e-commerce into their business operations because it is an opportunity to increase profitability, enhance effectiveness, and increase corporate values. However, the number of Vietnamese SMEs adopting e-commerce is insignificant due to lack of understanding of the process of integrating it into business operations. This research is conducted for the purpose of providing SMEs attempting to move towards the e-com...

  6. A decision technology system for health care electronic commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgionne, G A; Gangopadhyay, A; Klein, J A; Eckhardt, R

    1999-08-01

    Mounting costs have escalated the pressure on health care providers and payers to improve decision making and control expenses. Transactions to form the needed decision data will routinely flow, often electronically, between the affected parties. Conventional health care information systems facilitate flow, process transactions, and generate useful decision information. Typically, such support is offered through a series of stand-alone systems that lose much useful decision knowledge and wisdom during health care electronic commerce (e-commerce). Integrating the stand-alone functions can enhance the quality and efficiency of the segmented support, create synergistic effects, and augment decision-making performance and value for both providers and payers. This article presents an information system that can provide complete and integrated support for e-commerce-based health care decision making. The article describes health care e-commerce, presents the system, examines the system's potential use and benefits, and draws implications for health care management and practice.

  7. Greening the networks: a comparative analysis of different energy efficient techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, M.J.; Saeed, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    From a room electric bulb to the gigantic backbone networks energy savings have now become a matter of considerable concern. Issues such as resource depletion, global warming, high energy consumptions and environmental threats gave birth to the idea of green networking. Serious efforts have been done in this regard on large scale in the ICT sector. In this work first we give an idea of how and why this modern technology emerged. We then formulate a precise definition of the term green technology. We then discuss some leading techniques which are promising to produce green-results when implemented on real time network systems. These technologies are viewed from different perspectives e.g. hardware implementations, software mechanisms and protocol changing etc. We then compare these techniques based on some pivotal points. The main conclusion is that a detailed comparison is needed for selecting a technology to implement on a network system. (author)

  8. Legal issues in E-commerce and E-contract in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Uarda Roshi; Naim Mecalla

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce has become a key aspect for many businesses all around the world. This new form of commerce has reshaped the ways of trading, revolutionizing the way of doing business and has brought competitive advantages for both consumer and business. Over the last few years Albania is witnessing a digital revolution too, however although internet access has grown significantly only a few enterprises and a small number of companies have engaged in e-commerce activities. The development...

  9. Building the DAML Electronic Commerce Domain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anyiwo, David

    2001-01-01

    The project captured additional functional and technical requirements for collaboration and exchange in the electronics industry's value chain, and refined the eCommerce domain ontology requirements...

  10. Investigating the Identity Theft Prevention Strategies in M-Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mahmood Hussain; Ahmed, Javed; Soomro, Zahoor Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Mobile commerce has provided extended business opportunities for online organisations and made it easier for customers to purchase products on-line from anywhere at any time. However, there are several risks associated with it, especially the identity theft. Online organisations commonly use electronic commerce approaches; however, these have some…

  11. The Influence of Information Ecology on E-Commerce Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlor, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Explores the influence of an organization's information ecology, or internal information environment, on a firm's electronic commerce initiatives and plans. Reports results from a case study investigation on the adoption and use of an e-commerce initiative, a corporate portal, by participants at a large Canadian company. (Author/LRW)

  12. From EDI to Internet Commerce: The BHP Steel Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Caroline; Swatman, Paula M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the issue of business-to-business electronic commerce implementation and the factors affecting it. Discusses electronic data interchange technology, describes the results of a case study of BHP Steel (Australia), and considers paradigm shifts in implementation issues related to electronic commerce that occur over time. (Author/LRW)

  13. Emission Trading and the Kyoto protocol: Are they efficient economic instruments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez Londono, Ana Maria

    1998-02-01

    The Kyoto Protocol establishes a tradeable permits market for green house gases -GHG- emissions to reduce the costs of meeting the Protocol obligations. Economic theory provides the arguments to support the creation of GHG tradeable permits. Several economic researches have shown that vis-a-vis command and control regulations, tradeable permits induce economic agents to achieve environmental goals at a minimum cost. However, the conditions to minimize costs through tradeable permits are stringent. Tradeable permits require well functioning markets, e.g. perfect competition and perfect information. The tradeable permits market created by the Kyoto Protocol hardly meet these necessary conditions. Some countries like Japan, Great Britain and the United Stated are large emitters and thus may exert market power. Price manipulation may have implications over the static and dynamic efficiency of the permits. This paper takes a first look to the consequences of imperfect markets on the tradeable permit system of the Kyoto Protocol

  14. Rancang Bangun Portal E-Commerce Semarang-Handycraft Berorientasi Obyek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinta Tridian Galih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of  emerging  Small  and  Medium  Enterprises  (SMEs  in  Indonesia  has  not  been  matched  with  optimal  performance.  Manyproblems  arise  such  as  difficulty  in  marketing  products  and  limited  costs  for  marketing.  This  problem  can  be  overcome  by  utilizingInternet technology to build e-commerce portal. Portal help online marketing with no borders zone, facilitate for searching a consumer,can automate the promotion and business transactions that can help win the competition.In this research, to be built e -commerce portalSemarang-Handycraft. Design of e-commerce portal is using system development methodologies Model Driven Development (MDDand UML modeling language (Unified Modeling Language which is a visual language for modeling object -oriented language and byusing the  Open Source  Content Management  Systems  that  is  called  Joomla  and  using  e-commerce  modules Virtuemart.  Produced  ecommerce portal that can provide information with better quality and can be accessed at http://semarang-handycraft.cz.cc, which is a newalternative  for  the  production  of  marketing  handicraft  products  of  SMEs  in  Semarang.  For  security  and  convinience  of   informationretrieval in e-commerce portal is divided into several access rights, ie rights of access to regular visitors, members and administratorsKeywords: E-commerce; Portals; UML; Object-oriented

  15. An Empirical Analysis of Impact of E-commerce on Banking Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, e-commerce grows rapidly in the whole world. In the United State and European countries, e-commerce has become a significant financial service channel and played an irreplaceable role comparing with traditional banking. In these ten years, the banking industry in China has begun to implement e-commerce in order to serve their customers better. The implementation of e-commerce has changed people’s understanding of financial issues. Meanwhile, e-commerce brings new profit point...

  16. 7 CFR 1215.4 - Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce. 1215.4 Section 1215.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.4...

  17. 7 CFR 1209.2 - Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce. 1209.2 Section 1209.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  18. Business Relations in Electronic Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarup, Søren; Henten, Anders

    The analysis addresses the issues of how businesses interact in the light of continuous maturation of business-to-business e-commerce. Development of cheaper and more standardised information and communication technologies enhances the depth and width of electronic networks, which may lead...

  19. Emissions trading and green investments in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, A.; Tangen, K.; Berdin, V.; Pluzhnikov, O.

    2003-01-01

    In simple terms a Green Investment Scheme entails connecting revenues from emissions trading to investments in environmental activities in Russia. This article presents insights derived from an international project on the GIS, focusing on issues that must be addressed if the concept is to become operational, on the background of the domestic, as well as international interests connected to a GIS. GIS is a worthwhile concept with the potential to bring real environmental benefits and meet profound concerns from several of the key actors in the Kyoto regime. However, establishing a well-functioning GIS means removing many of the current barriers that hold back investments in Russia. At the time of writing, Russia has still not decided whether it will ratify Kyoto Protocol. GIS illustrates that there will be substantial benefits for Russia from ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, which is a prerequisite for its entering into force. (Author)

  20. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Chongwha Lee; Seongbong Lee

    1998-01-01

    "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The r...

  1. Technology Trust in Internet-Based Interorganizational Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Pauline Ratnasingam; Paul A. Pavlou

    2003-01-01

    Trust in Internet-based Business-to-Business (B2B) e-commerce is an important issue for both practicioners and academicians. Whereas the traditional notion of dyadic interfirm trust primarily focuses on trust in a trading partner firm, trust in e-commerce also implicitly incorporates the notion of trust in the transaction infrastructure and underlying control mechanisms (technology trust), which deals with transaction integrity, authentication, confidentliality, non-repudiation, and best busi...

  2. CROSS-BORDER E-COMMERCE – PROBLEMS IN IDENTIFICATION AND MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Talar

    2017-01-01

    Cross-border e-commerce is a relatively new phenomenon in the contemporary world economy and very little examined. The aim of this paper is to specify and charac-terize basic problems for the cross-border e-commerce research. It was carried out a wide literature review, including methodological manuals, studies, reports and statistics. The problems with definition of the cross-border e-commerce notion were studied, as well as the scope of official statistics and private sources of data in thi...

  3. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  4. Evaluation of customer oriented success factors in mobile commerce using fuzzy AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Kabir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: With the development of information technology, ordinary commercial activities are evolving into e-commerce. In e-commerce, users can access services from any place as long as information technology is available. Currently, e-commerce is moving toward mobile commerce that allows users to do commercial activities while they are moving. This study aims to elucidate the factors that affect success in mobile commerce, and then evaluate and rate these factors by analyzing components of commercial activity in the mobile internet environment and give an evaluation method for mobile commerce in order to help researches and managers to determine the drawbacks and opportunities.Design/methodology/approach: A consumer survey was conducted through a structured undisguised questionnaire towards meeting the objectives of the study. An online questionnaire constituted the data collection instrument, while only internet users participated in the sample. The main goal of the questionnaire is to identify the success factors or criteria and sub-criteria for mobile commerce from the viewpoint of users' perception and to assess the decision-making executives for pair-wise comparisons using the fuzzy analytic hierarchical process (FAHP.Findings: A subjective and objective integrated approach has been put forward to determine attributes weights in Fuzzy AHP problems. The study identified the success factors or criteria and sub-criteria for mobile commerce from the viewpoint of users' perception. The main attractive factors for the customer are the trust and mobility factors. In addition, content quality, system quality, use, support, personalization factors are also important.Research limitations/implications: Sampling is a major limitation in this study. Since the survey was conducted based on a sample in Bangladesh, the prudent reader may need to interpret the results of the study with caution, particularly with respect to the generalization of research

  5. An Exploratory Investigation of Requisite Skills Needed by Developers of E-Commerce Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladwani, Adel M.

    The aim of this exploratory study is to identify the skills needed by developers of Electronic Commerce (e-Commerce) systems. The paper proposes a framework pertaining to three categories of e-Commerce development knowledge: technical, human, and organizational. The initial findings reveal that there are some 16 possible e-Commerce skills tapping…

  6. E-commerce opens up new opportunities for energy trading in the competitive markets; eCommerce: Neue Chancen im Energiewettbewerb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titzrath, B. [Anderson Consulting Unternehmensberatung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Scholtissek, S.

    2000-09-01

    The article discusses the opportunities opened up for energy supply companies in building or maintaining their competitive edge in the rapidly changing competitive environment. Pitfalls are described, and successful e-commerce strategies employing all available tools are explained, referring to the business-to-business segment as well as customer relationship management. (orig./CB) [German] Die Electronic Economy stellt die Energieversorgungsunternehmen (EVU) nicht nur vor Herausforderungen, sondern eroeffnet auch grosse Chancen. Es ist jedoch Vorsicht geboten. Wer hier nicht seine eigene eCommerce-Strategie entwickelt und implementiert, dem drohen Marktanteilsverluste. (orig./CB)

  7. Infrared Irradiation: Toward Green Chemistry, a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, René; Miranda, René; Martínez, Joel

    2016-03-26

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of where infrared irradiation has been employed, mainly as regards activating green mode for natural products extractions, as well as to favor a reaction, highlighting its actual importance. It is also underlined that infrared irradiation heating has been around for a long time; however, only in the last eighteen years have many of its advantages been applied to satisfy a wide range of chemical processes, natural products extractions, and for the promotion of many kinds of reactions. In addition, it is brought to light that near infrared irradiation is more efficient than middle and far infrared irradiations, being easily controllable and with the quality of a fast responding heat source. Thus, the main objective of this review is to offer infrared irradiation as an alternative clean energy source to activate reactions, in addition to favor the selective extraction of natural products, all of which is within the Green Chemistry protocol. Some recent results from our laboratory are also included.

  8. 7 CFR 201.31 - Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interstate commerce. 201.31 Section 201.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce. The following germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce, which shall be construed to include hard seed, are determined and...

  9. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  10. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Tai-Wei Chang; Chun-Yu Lin; Pi-Yu Lai; Kuan-Hung Wang

    2016-01-01

    This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positivel...

  11. Pengaruh Dukungan Dan Hubungan Sosial Terhadap Niat Membeli Produk Pada Social Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Rahayu, Puji; Budi, Nur Fitriah Ayuning; Sensuse, Dana Indra

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of social networking sites, particularly Facebook, encouraging the emergence of a new paradigm in e-commerce, known as social commerce (s-commerce). S-commerce business model is currently a trend in the commercial world. Based on literature studies that have been done, we obtained two factors in the behavior and interaction of social networking site Facebook users that affect a person's intention to make purchases through social media, there is social support and relationship qu...

  12. The Impact of Satisfaction and Trust on Loyalty of E-Commerce Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Mochammad Auditya Brilliant; Adrian Achyar

    2013-01-01

    The number of Internet users in Indonesia and e-commerce sales is growing. However, Indonesia is less active in e-commerce research compared to other Asian countries, and existing studies cover limited area. The purpose of this study is identifying the impact of customer satisfaction and trust on loyalty in e-commerce and identifying the factors that influence satisfaction. The results are that information quality affects trust and that trust affects loyalty. E-commerce websites should focus ...

  13. ADVANTAGES AND CHALLENGES OF E-COMMERCE CUSTOMERS AND BUSINESSES: IN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. C. Eugine Franco; Bulomine Regi. S

    2017-01-01

    E - Commerce allows consumers to electronically exchange goods and services with no barriers of time or distance. Electronic commerce has expanded rapidly over the past five years and is predicted to continue at this rate, or even accelerate. In the near future the boundaries between "conventional" and "electronic" commerce will become increasingly blurred as more and more businesses move sections of their operations onto the Internet. The e-commerce industry in India is growing at a remarkab...

  14. The impact of electronic commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Kaiyin

    1997-01-01

    The development of electronic commerce offers a promising way for business to meet challenges of the ever changing market. The fast advancing information infrastructure makes the connectiviry possible to reach almost everywhere in the world, but it does not ensure a successful business process. The

  15. Analysis of performance measures to handle medical E-commerce shopping cart abandonment in cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedhanayagam Priya

    Full Text Available The E-commerce zone is crowded with many Internet users. Medical E-commerce has had significant growth in part because of a great deal of growth in the Indian E-commerce field. Medical E-commerce sites use cloud computing to guarantee a high quality of service anywhere and anytime in the world. For online access, the customer's expectations are very high. Medical E-commerce retailers are directed towards cloud service providers based on their quality of service. During online shopping, impatient customers may abandon a specific medical E-commerce shopping cart due to slow response. This is quite difficult to endure for a medical E-commerce firm. The research described herein observed the effect of shopping cart abandonment on medical E-commerce websites deployed in cloud computing. The impact of the idle virtual machine on customer impatience during medical E-commerce shopping was also studied. The ultimate aim of this study was to propose a stochastic queueing model and to yield results through probability generating functions. The results of the model may be highly useful for a medical E-commerce firm facing customer impatience, so as to design its service system to offer satisfactory quality of service. Keywords: Cloud computing, Queueing, Virtual machine, E-commerce, Cart abandonment, Quality of Service

  16. Linking the customer purchase process to website development and e-commerce performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawczyk, Adriana Cecylia

    2008-01-01

    Electronic commerce is fundamentally changing the way consumers search and buy goods and services. E-commerce is informing, promoting, buying and/or selling of products or services over electronic media such as the Internet. E-commerce has become a critical factor for competitiveness and

  17. Issues and Challenges on Venturing into Facebook Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Sumathi; Manimekalai Jambulingam; Gobindran Raj Rajagopal

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the challenges encountered by small entrepreneurs when venturing into Facebook commerce. Social media has revolutionized not only our daily lives, but also the business world. This study involved 50 small entrepreneurs and adopted mixed method of quantitative and qualitative designs to collect data. The study revealed that lack of IT knowledge and set of cost significantly affected the respondents ‘decision to venture into Facebook commerce. However, many small entrepreneur...

  18. E-Commerce Content in Business School Curriculum: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krovi, Ravindra; Vijayaraman, B. S.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the opportunities and challenges of introducing e-commerce concepts in business school curriculums. Examines the knowledge components of electronic commerce, including Web-based technology skills; and discusses the need for faculty training and development. (Author/LRW)

  19. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions in aqueous media: green and sustainable syntheses of biaryls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Decottignies, Audrey; Len, Christophe; Fihri, Aziz

    2010-05-25

    Carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions are among the most important processes in organic chemistry, and Suzuki-Miyaura reactions are among the most widely used protocols for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. These reactions are generally catalyzed by soluble palladium complexes with various ligands. However, the use of toxic organic solvents remains a scientific challenge and an aspect of economical and ecological relevance. This Review will summarize various recently developed significant methods by which the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling was conducted in aqueous media, and analyzes if they are "real green" protocols.

  20. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  1. Interferences Between e-Commerce and Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius GAVRILETEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet use grew faster than any other technology in the last few years and it has a powerful impact on international commerce development. New opportunities appear for small and medium companies which use the internet to make commerce across the borders. Citizens save their time and money making payments on the internet, ordering goods and services using their home computers. With all this advantages, a wide variety of barriers show up and disturb the internet activity. Using the internet, companies can be affected by the losses of revenues, losses of information, security dates, reputation damage, interruption of activity, theft of private information, etc. To cover all this internet risks, insurers develop new products in order to meet all the company and citizens expectations.

  2. Development strategy of green energy industry for Taipei—A modern medium-sized city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shyi-Min; Huang, May-Yao; Su, Pu-Ti; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    Taipei, a subtropical modern medium city, is essentially featured with high population density, scarce land, and large traffic flow. Moreover, there are abundant green energy resources reserved in Taipei. If they were fully developed, there would be 13,040 GWh electricity generated per year, resulting in a total of 9.37 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions abatement. The development of the green energy industry in this city not only can bring significant energy-saving and carbon-reducing benefits, but also may create huge derivative business opportunities. For example, the total output values of the solar PV and electric vehicles industries would be as high as 700 billion yuan. In this study, through Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis, we concluded that the top priorities for Taipei for the development of green energy industries are building energy conservation and electrified transportation, specifically, the following four items: electric vehicles, Light-Emitting Diode (LED) lighting, inverter air conditioning, and Energy Service Company (ESCO). Meanwhile, Taipei is a domestic and international key of politics, transportation, technology, commerce, and finance. Taipei is very likely to become an internationalized green energy industrial hub, achieving the “3E” goals of economic prosperousness, environmental protection, and energy security. -- Highlights: •Building energy conservation and electrified transportation are top priorities. •SWOT analysis applied to systematically conclude four green energy industrial items for Taipei. •Specifically, electric vehicles, LED lighting, inverter air conditioning, and ESCO. •13,040 GWh electricity would be generated per year from Taipei's rich renewables. •The derivative business opportunities would exceed 700 billion yuan

  3. E-Commerce and Exchange Rate Exposure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to address the impact of E-commerce on the balance between real hedging and financial hedging in the context of exchange rate exposure management in non-financial companies. A cross-case study of industrial companies highlights the inadequacy in taking a partial and static...... financial approach when managing exchange rate exposures. The paper argues that the emergence of E-commerce - by reducing the cost of obtaining, analyzing and allocating information - affects the dynamics of the markets and the dynamics of the company in such a way that a general tilt towards real hedging...

  4. M-commerce e o comportamento de compra dos consumidores portugueses

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Ana Rute Antunes

    2015-01-01

    Mestrado em Ciências Empresariais O m-commerce tem vindo a ganhar atratividade no contexto internacional e nacional. Nesta investigação é analisado o impacto das crenças normativas, motivações de compra, experiência de compra, satisfação, benefício percebido, risco percebido, diversas etapas do processo de compra e a complementaridade entre canais, na intenção de utilização do m-commerce. Adicionalmente, pretende-se compreender qual o perfil de compra do utilizador de m-commerce português....

  5. Paris Chamber of Commerce Examinations and ACTFL/ETS Proficiency Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Patricia W.

    1987-01-01

    Compares the Paris Chamber of Commerce Exams (both certificate and diploma levels) and the ACTFL Guidelines for language proficiency for the benefit of language teachers. Teaching strategies are suggested for preparing students for the Chamber of Commerce exams. (LMO)

  6. 29 CFR 401.10 - Labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commerce. 401.10 Section 401.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce. A labor organization shall be deemed to be engaged in an industry affecting commerce if it: (a) Is the certified representative of employees under the...

  7. Building the DAML Electronic Commerce Domain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anyiwo, David

    2001-01-01

    .... A major strategic business assumption underlying the modeling process is that worldwide B2B e-commerce will continue to grow at aggressive rates through 2003, when e-business becomes the predominant...

  8. TWO-LAYER SECURE PREVENTION MECHANISM FOR REDUCING E-COMMERCE SECURITY RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    Sen-Tarng Lai

    2015-01-01

    E-commerce is an important information system in the network and digital age. However, the network intrusion, malicious users, virus attack and system security vulnerabilities have continued to threaten the operation of the e-commerce, making e-commerce security encounter serious test. How to improve ecommerce security has become a topic worthy of further exploration. Combining routine security test and security event detection procedures, this paper proposes the Two-Layer Secure ...

  9. THE MARKET FOR E-COMMERCE SERVICES IN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ehmke, Cole; Ernst, Stanley C.; Hopkins, Jeffrey W.; Tweeten, Luther G.

    2001-01-01

    We report results of a survey of 608 Ohio agribusinesses in 1999 and show them to be divided in their attitudes and acceptance of e-commerce. Half of the respondents report that their business has a web site, although many had taken a negative stance toward such a move. Nearly all say that the internet will significantly change their sector, and the majority of managers report that e-commerce has significantly affected the way they view their business.

  10. Consumer Emotions and E-commerce : A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lievonen, Matias

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to take a look at the current state of the research related to consumer emotions in the context of electronic commerce (e-commerce). As the popularity of online shopping is constantly growing, the author performed an integrative literature review of 66 journal articles on e-emotions (consumer emotions visible in an online environment) and classified the articles into four groups. According to the analysis of the groups, consumer emotions are pres...

  11. 29 CFR 776.10 - Employees participating in the actual movement of commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees participating in the actual movement of commerce... commerce. (a) Under the principles stated in § 776.9, the wage and hours provisions of the Act apply... instrumentalities and channels of interstate and foreign commerce. Similarly, employees of such businesses as...

  12. A new tool for the evaluation of the analytical procedure: Green Analytical Procedure Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotka-Wasylka, J

    2018-05-01

    A new means for assessing analytical protocols relating to green analytical chemistry attributes has been developed. The new tool, called GAPI (Green Analytical Procedure Index), evaluates the green character of an entire analytical methodology, from sample collection to final determination, and was created using such tools as the National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI) or Analytical Eco-Scale to provide not only general but also qualitative information. In GAPI, a specific symbol with five pentagrams can be used to evaluate and quantify the environmental impact involved in each step of an analytical methodology, mainly from green through yellow to red depicting low, medium to high impact, respectively. The proposed tool was used to evaluate analytical procedures applied in the determination of biogenic amines in wine samples, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon determination by EPA methods. GAPI tool not only provides an immediately perceptible perspective to the user/reader but also offers exhaustive information on evaluated procedures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An Investigation into the Feasibility of Tasmanian Stonefruit Growers Employing Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Pedersen

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an assessment of the feasibility of Tasmanian stonefruit growers adopting electronic commerce. In order to achieve this aim a number of qualitative techniques were employed under an action research methodology. Although not all applications of electronic commerce are suitable within the environment under study, it is suggested that there are ways in which electronic commerce could provide value. However, inhibitors, some common to Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs, do exist. There is a need for these issues to be understood prior to adopting electronic commerce.

  14. E-commerce influence on changes in logistics processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Żurek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background: The aim of this publication is to address the changes in retail trade, which have a direct influence on the development of e-commerce which in turn causes modifications to logistics chain management strategies and methods of flow control. Materials: The article has been written on the basis of an analysis of subject literature together with determining the influence of e-commerce to changes in logistics processes. The publications included in this study have been selected in order to present the subject of e-commerce development as well as evaluate changes in methods of flow control. The analysis has been prepared based on the author's experience and available reports and publications. Results: As a result of the conducted analysis, an assessment of the proficiency level of the changes in logistics processes on the local and international market as well as of the trends for these changes has been made. Conclusions: With the development of e-commerce, a new logistics chain management strategy began to appear, which covered both the process of handling the online and offline sales channel. Therefore, it can be concluded that properly adapted flow control methods will be the means for achieving the goal. Tasks will include: streamlining flow processes, improving the efficiency of logistic processes as well as adjusting them to market requirements.    

  15. Le ministre du Commerce international du Canada rencontre des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 juil. 2017 ... La promotion de l'entrepreneuriat, la façon dont le commerce peut profiter aux femmes et à leur famille, et la création d'emplois pour les plus vulnérables étaient au coeur de la discussion en table ronde du ministre du Commerce international du Canada, l'honorable François-Philippe Champagne, et des ...

  16. Electronic Commerce – An International Phenomenon, Generating Commercial Litigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Roşu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the e-commerce boom of the past few years has produced plenty of satisfied e-shoppersand successful Web-based companies, many consumers and businesses are left wondering where they can goto resolve their online disputes. The legal system (such as the court system and classical arbitration cannoteffectively respond to the challenges posed by conducting electronic commerce and this paper is proposed toanalyse the types of disputes that can arise from those e-commerce operations. The aim of this approach isrepresented by our attempt to explain why conflict resolution cannot be reasonably accomplished usingtraditional legal system and consequently the measures that have been taken by the international bodies tofacilitate consumers' right to a fair and effective trial services.

  17. Trade-related Electronic Commerce Issues in the OECD

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-In Yoon

    1998-01-01

    The trade committee of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has begun the study of the trade related to electronic commerce since 1997. The scale of the study on one hand has avoided the fact of copy and duplication of WTO and its organizational principles, on the other hand it has played a supplementary and supportive function. At present, digital-related product, such as computers, software and travel is the key point to the trade which resorts to electronic commerce...

  18. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz Kawa; Wojciech Zdrenka

    2016-01-01

    Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce...

  19. Branding and Channel Issues in E-commerce from an Information System’s Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rina; Tambo, Torben

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce has matured and become mainstream. The fashion industry is now competing strongly in the digital markets. Beside traditional web-shops, new sales and branding channels are emerging e.g. M-commerce (mobile); social commerce; marketplaces; gaming etc. E-commerce and multi-channel retailing...... fashion companies’ existing and future sales and branding channels from an IS perspective. Future research suggestions include long-term challenges and benefits of distinct electronic channels....

  20. 78 FR 48298 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...-0269; Airspace Docket No. 13-ASW-3] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Commerce, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV...