WorldWideScience

Sample records for green chemistry approaches

  1. A green chemistry approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    One-pot synthesis of quinaldine derivatives by using microwave irradiation without any solvent – A green chemistry approach. JAVAD SAFARI*, SAYED HOSSEIN BANITABA and SEPEHR SADEGH SAMIEI. Department of Chemistry, The Faculty of sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan,. P.O. Box 87317-51167, I.R. Iran.

  2. Green Goggles: Designing and Teaching a General Chemistry Course to Nonmajors Using a Green Chemistry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A novel course using green chemistry as the context to teach general chemistry fundamentals was designed, implemented and is described here. The course design included an active learning approach, with major course graded components including a weekly blog entry, exams, and a semester project that was disseminated by wiki and a public symposium.…

  3. Multiconfigurational Green's function approaches in quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeager, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses multiconfigurational Green's function techniques and generalizations. In particular he is interested in developing and applying these techniques for isolated atoms and small molecules. Furthermore, he develops formalisms that are fairly clear, accurate, and capable of being applied to open-shell and highly-correlated systems as well as to closed-shell systems with little electronic correlation. The two kinds of Green's functions that this article discusses are the single-particle Green's function and the retarded two-time Green's function in the energy representation. The poles of the former give the ionization potentials and electron affinities while the poles of the latter give the excitation energies. The multiconfigurational approximations are known as the multiconfigurational electron propagator (MCEP) and the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) (also known as the multiconfigurational random phase approximation (MCRPA) or the multiconfigurational linear response), respectively. 44 references

  4. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  5. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  6. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-01-01

    Background Graphene is a single-atom thick, two-dimensional sheet of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms isolated from its three-dimensional parent material, graphite. One of the most common methods for preparation of graphene is chemical exfoliation of graphite using powerful oxidizing agents. Generally, graphene is synthesized through deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO) by using hydrazine, which is one of the most widespread and strongest reducing agents. Due to the high toxicity of hydrazine, it is not a promising reducing agent in large-scale production of graphene; therefore, this study focused on a green or sustainable synthesis of graphene and the biocompatibility of graphene in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (PMEFs). Methods Here, we demonstrated a simple, rapid, and green chemistry approach for the synthesis of reduced GO (rGO) from GO using triethylamine (TEA) as a reducing agent and stabilizing agent. The obtained TEA reduced GO (TEA-rGO) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)–visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results The transition of graphene oxide to graphene was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. XRD and SEM were used to investigate the crystallinity of graphene and the surface morphologies of prepared graphene respectively. The formation of defects further supports the functionalization of graphene as indicated in the Raman spectrum of TEA-rGO. Surface morphology and the thickness of the GO and TEA-rGO were analyzed using AFM. The presented results suggest that TEA-rGO shows significantly more biocompatibility with PMEFs cells than GO. Conclusion This is the first report about using TEA as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent for the preparation of biocompatible graphene. The proposed safe and green method offers substitute routes for large-scale production of graphene

  7. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurunathan S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jae Woong Han, Jin-Hoi Kim Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea Background: Graphene is a single-atom thick, two-dimensional sheet of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms isolated from its three-dimensional parent material, graphite. One of the most common methods for preparation of graphene is chemical exfoliation of graphite using powerful oxidizing agents. Generally, graphene is synthesized through deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO by using hydrazine, which is one of the most widespread and strongest reducing agents. Due to the high toxicity of hydrazine, it is not a promising reducing agent in large-scale production of graphene; therefore, this study focused on a green or sustainable synthesis of graphene and the biocompatibility of graphene in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (PMEFs. Methods: Here, we demonstrated a simple, rapid, and green chemistry approach for the synthesis of reduced GO (rGO from GO using triethylamine (TEA as a reducing agent and stabilizing agent. The obtained TEA reduced GO (TEA-rGO was characterized by ultraviolet (UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, particle size dynamic light scattering (DLS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Results: The transition of graphene oxide to graphene was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. XRD and SEM were used to investigate the crystallinity of graphene and the surface morphologies of prepared graphene respectively. The formation of defects further supports the functionalization of graphene as indicated in the Raman spectrum of TEA-rGO. Surface morphology and the thickness of the GO and TEA-rGO were analyzed using AFM. The presented results suggest that TEA-rGO shows significantly more biocompatibility with PMEFs cells than GO. Conclusion: This is the first report about using TEA as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent for the

  8. Green Chemistry Approach for Synthesis of Effective Anticancer Palladium Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, EunSu; Han, Jae Woong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to design and synthesize Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using an environmentally friendly approach and evaluate the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the conversion of Pd(II) ions to Pd(0)NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystallinity of the as-synthesized PdNPs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) further confirmed the role of the leaf extract of Evolvulus alsinoides as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of PdNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the average size of the NPs was 5 nm. After a 24-h exposure to PdNPs, cell viability and light microscopy assays revealed the dose-dependent toxicity of the PdNPs. Furthermore, the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of the PdNPs was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of PdNPs-induced autophagy, impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), enhanced caspase-3 activity, and detection of TUNEL-positive cells. Our study demonstrates a single, simple, dependable and green approach for the synthesis of PdNPs using leaf extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides. Furthermore, the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer cells suggests that it could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer therapy.

  9. Green Chemistry Approach for Synthesis of Effective Anticancer Palladium Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangiliyandi Gurunathan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and synthesize Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs using an environmentally friendly approach and evaluate the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to monitor the conversion of Pd(II ions to Pd(0NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed the crystallinity of the as-synthesized PdNPs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR further confirmed the role of the leaf extract of Evolvulus alsinoides as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of PdNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed that the average size of the NPs was 5 nm. After a 24-h exposure to PdNPs, cell viability and light microscopy assays revealed the dose-dependent toxicity of the PdNPs. Furthermore, the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of the PdNPs was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, activation of PdNPs-induced autophagy, impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and detection of TUNEL-positive cells. Our study demonstrates a single, simple, dependable and green approach for the synthesis of PdNPs using leaf extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides. Furthermore, the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer cells suggests that it could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer therapy.

  10. Spatially controlled immobilisation of biomolecules: A complete approach in green chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinenval, Eva; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Vinet, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    The development of 'green' sensors is a challenging task in the field of biomolecule sensing, for example in the detection of cardiac troponin-I (cTnI). In the present work a complete approach in green chemistry was developed to create chemically active patterns for the immobilisation of biological probes. This key technology is discussed on the basis of the twelve green chemistry principles, and is a combination of surface patterning by spotting and surface chemistries modified by molecular vapour deposition. The (1H,1H,2H,2H)-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) was used as a novel anti-adsorption layer while the 3,4-epoxybutyltrimethoxysilane (EBTMOS) was used to immobilise probes. Oligonucleotides and the anti-cTnI antibody were studied. The spatially controlled immobilisation of probes was characterised by fluorescence. The demonstrated surface modification has broad applications in areas such as diagnostics and bio-chemical sensing. Moreover, the environmental impacts of surface patterning and surface chemistry were discussed from a 'greenness' point of view.

  11. A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, JaeWoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp . We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp . mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 μM) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge

  12. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  13. Designing green derivatives of β-blocker Metoprolol: a tiered approach for green and sustainable pharmacy and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Tushar; Leder, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    The presences of micro-pollutants (active pharmaceutical ingredients, APIs) are increasingly seen as a challenge of the sustainable management of water resources worldwide due to ineffective effluent treatment and other measures for their input prevention. Therefore, novel approaches are needed like designing greener pharmaceuticals, i.e. better biodegradability in the environment. This study addresses a tiered approach of implementing green and sustainable chemistry principles for theoretically designing better biodegradable and pharmacologically improved pharmaceuticals. Photodegradation process coupled with LC-MS(n) analysis and in silico tools such as quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) analysis and molecular docking proved to be a very significant approach for the preliminary stages of designing chemical structures that would fit into the "benign by design" concept in the direction of green and sustainable pharmacy. Metoprolol (MTL) was used as an example, which itself is not readily biodegradable under conditions found in sewage treatment and the aquatic environment. The study provides the theoretical design of new derivatives of MTL which might have the same or improved pharmacological activity and are more degradable in the environment than MTL. However, the in silico toxicity prediction by QSAR of those photo-TPs indicated few of them might be possibly mutagenic and require further testing. This novel approach of theoretically designing 'green' pharmaceuticals can be considered as a step forward towards the green and sustainable pharmacy field. However, more knowledge and further experience have to be collected on the full scope, opportunities and limitations of this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Growing your green chemistry mindset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmas, Steven

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this article is not to delineate the steps to move across the continuum to being a greener chemist, but to analyse the cognitive processes involved in fostering a green chemistry growth mindset (GCGM) [Dweck C. (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York, NY: Ballatine]. The focus is on changing the mindset, which inevitably will lead to a more mindful approach to chemistry practices before the laboratory begins. A green chemistry fixed mindset (GCFM) is closed to making improvements, since the attitude is that the techniques and processes in the laboratory are already employing a green chemistry mindset [Dweck C. (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York, NY: Ballatine]. The problem with the GCFM is that it precludes the possibility of making improvements. However, the GCGM employs a continuous, intentional focus on the attitude towards green chemistry, with the ultimate goal being a change in chemistry practices that is greener. The focus of this article will be on the GCGM.

  15. Green Chemistry with Microwave Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green chemistry utilizes a set of 12 principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products (1). This newer chemical approach protects the environment by inventing safer and eco-friendl...

  16. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  17. A context based approach using Green Chemistry/Bio-remediation principles to enhance interest and learning of organic chemistry in a high school AP chemistry classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tricia

    The ability of our planet to sustain life and heal itself is not as predictable as it used to be. Our need for educated future scientists who know what our planet needs, and can passionately apply that knowledge to find solutions should be at the heart of science education today. This study of learning organic chemistry through the lens of the environmental problem "What should be done with our food scraps?" explores student interest, and mastery of certain concepts in organic chemistry. This Green Chemistry/ Bio-remediation context-based teaching approach utilizes the Nature MillRTM, which is an indoor food waste composting machine, to learn about organic chemistry, and how this relates to landfill reduction possibilities, and resource production. During this unit students collected food waste from their cafeteria, and used the Nature MillRTM to convert food waste into compost. The use of these hands on activities, and group discussions in a context-based environment enhanced their interest in organic chemistry, and paper chromatography. According to a one-tailed paired T-test, the result show that this context-based approach is a significant way to increase both student interest and mastery of the content.

  18. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  19. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tobiszewski; Mariusz Marć; Agnieszka Gałuszka; Jacek Namieśnik

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-establis...

  20. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tobiszewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  1. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  2. Green Chemistry Challenge: 2017 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Chemistry Challenge 2017 award winner, Professor Schelter, developed a new, targeted approach for separating mixtures of rare earth metals obtained from consumer waste streams comprising mixtures of Nd/Dy and Eu/Y

  3. Silver/polysaccharide-based nanofibrous materials synthesized from green chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, M A; Garza-Navarro, M A; Moreno-Cortez, I E; Lucio-Porto, R; González-González, V A

    2016-01-20

    In this contribution a novel green chemistry approach for the synthesis of nanofibrous materials based on blends of carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC)-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) composite and polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) is proposed. These nanofibrous materials were obtained from the electrospinning of blends of aqueous solutions of CMC-AgNPs composite and PVA, which were prepared at different CMC/PVA weight ratios in order to electrospin nanofibers applying a constant tension of 15kV. The synthesized materials were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy; as well as Fourier-transform infrared, ultraviolet and Raman spectroscopic techniques. Experimental evidence suggests that the diameter of the nanofibers is thinner than any other reported in the literature regarding the electrospinning of CMC. This feature is related to the interactions of AgNPs with carboxyl functional groups of the CMC, which diminish those between the later and acetyl groups of PVA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provide a solution for this requirement, green chemistry rules and under standings should be primarily taken in the university curriculum and at all educational levels.

  5. Green chemistry; La chimie verte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colonna, P. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Dept. Caracterisation et Elaboration des Produits, 78 - Versailles (France)

    2006-07-01

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  6. Revisiting the Reaction Between Diaminomaleonitrile and Aromatic Aldehydes: a Green Chemistry Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco León

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The reaction between diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN and aldehydes and the resulting monoimines are well known. Since the standard reaction conditions involve the use of toxic solvents (typically methanol, we have sought to apply green chemistry principles to this reaction by either using water as the solvent without any catalysts or employing “solvent-free” conditions. The monoimines derived from DAMN are of interest as precursors for obtaining different heterocyclic systems and linear polymers. The methodologies used have significant advantages with regards to cost and environmental considerations.

  7. Catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria dei Materiali, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2003-01-15

    Catalysis is a key technology to achieve the objectives of sustainable (green) chemistry. After introducing the concepts of sustainable (green) chemistry and a brief assessment of new sustainable chemical technologies, the relationship between catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry is discussed and illustrated via an analysis of some selected and relevant examples. Emphasis is also given to the concept of catalytic technologies for scaling-down chemical processes, in order to develop sustainable production processes which reduce the impact on the environment to an acceptable level that allows self-depuration processes of the living environment.

  8. Promoting sustainability through green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, Mary M. [American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Green chemistry is an important tool in achieving sustainability. The implementation of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is essential if the expanding global population is to enjoy an increased standard of living without having a negative impact on the health of the planet. Cleaner technologies will allow the chemical enterprise to provide society with the goods and services on which it depends in an environmentally responsible manner. Green chemistry provides solutions to such global challenges as climate change, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics in the environment, and the depletion of natural resources. A collaborative effort by industry, academia, and government is needed to promote the adoption of the green chemistry technologies necessary to achieve a sustainable society.

  9. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provid...

  10. Enzymes - important players in green chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Tarczykowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry has become a worldwide approach that leads to sustainable growth through application and development of its principles. A lot of work has to be put into designing new processes comprising of materials which do not emit pollutants to the atmosphere. Inventing new safer methods and finding less harmful products can be challenging. Enzymes are a great hope of scientists in the field of green chemistry. Enzymes as catalysts require mild conditions therefore it is a great way of saving resources such as energy or water. Processes with the use of enzymes have become more feasible by being more cost effective and eco friendly. Taking into account the benefits of green chemistry, enzyme biocatalysis has quickly replaced traditional chemical processes in several fields, and this substitution is going to reach even more areas because of new emerging technologies in enzyme engineering.

  11. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.

  12. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M

    2008-09-09

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.

  13. Educational benefits of green chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Serenity; Ray, Christian; Andino Martínez, José G.

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we present our current state of affairs in the "greening" of general chemistry laboratories, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. We recognize the need to quantify our environmental mark and what we plan to do to continue to strive to make our work more sustainable and educational.

  14. GREEN CHEMISTRY: NEW CHEMICAL PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Tykhomirova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The review deals with the principles and guidelines of “Green chemistry” in comparison with the philosophy of nanotechnology. Modern philosophy and methodology of science research focus is on the process of the growth of scientific knowledge. Modern chemistry is complex, hierarchical, multilevel and multidimensional system. Philosophy of nanotechnology relies heavily on the value of scientism and the idea of domination of man over nature , there is an apology of human intervention in nature. “Green chemistry” is called “new thinking”of chemistry, philosophy of modern chemical research. The chemicals and processes in accordance with the principles of “Green chemistry” are considered not only in terms of production of substances and materials with desired properties, but also taking into account the consequences for the environment. In the “Green chemistry” created image of the “ideal customer” – he uses a minimum number of products understands the need to preserve the environment. Ideological landmark “Green chemistry” – co-evolution of man and nature, preservation of the biosphere. It emphasized the need to implement the ideology of “Green chemistry” in the training of future specialists.

  15. Green chemistry at work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The 1.7 billion pounds of benzene produced each year in the US provide one measure of its utility. At the same time, there are a number of environmental reasons for avoiding the use of benzene in chemical manufacture. Perhaps most compelling: benzene is a potent carcinogen. Scrutiny of many of the chemicals derived from benzene reveals that each molecule contains at least one oxygen atom while benzene completely lacks oxygen atoms. Introduction of oxygen to make up for this lack can require processes that are environmentally problematic. One of the steps used to introduce oxygen atoms during manufacture of adipic acid, a component of Nylon 66, is responsible for 10% of the annual global increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide. This by-product is a causative agent of atmospheric ozone depletion and has been implicated in global warming. With support from EPA and the National Science Foundation, alternative manufacturing processes are being explored. By these new methods, chemicals usually created from benzene are made instead from nontoxic glucose, a component of table sugar. Unlike benzene, glucose is obtained from such renewable resources as plant starch and cellulose. ``Green`` manufacturing routes ideally should lead to chemicals that are economically competitive with chemicals produced by traditional methods. For two chemicals of roughly comparable cost, the consumer or producer can then be realistically expected to choose in favor of the chemical produced by a ``green`` process. Projections indicate that catechol and hydroquinone can be biocatalytically produced from glucose at a cost competitive with current market prices. Synthesis of chemicals from glucose using biocatalysis offers the premise of achieving fundamental environmental improvement while increasing the demand for agricultural products. In the final analysis, what is good for the environment can also be good for American agriculture.

  16. Microbial reduction of graphene oxide by Escherichia coli: a green chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-02-01

    Graphene and graphene related materials are an important area of research in recent years due to their unique properties. The extensive industrial application of graphene and related compounds has led researchers to devise novel and simple methods for the synthesis of high quality graphene. In this paper, we developed an environment friendly, cost effective, simple method and green approaches for the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using Escherichia coli biomass. In biological method, we can avoid use of toxic and environmentally harmful reducing agents commonly used in the chemical reduction of GO to obtain graphene. The biomass of E. coli reduces exfoliated GO to graphene at 37°C in an aqueous medium. The E. coli reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) was characterized with UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, particle analyzer, high resolution X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Besides the reduction potential, the biomass could also play an important role as stabilizing agent, in which synthesized graphene exhibited good stability in water. This method can open up the new avenue for preparing graphene in cost effective and large scale production. Our findings suggest that GO can be reduced by simple eco-friendly method by using E. coli biomass to produce water dispersible graphene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. On being green: can flow chemistry help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Steven V

    2012-08-01

    The principles of Green Chemistry are important but challenging drivers for most modern synthesis programs. To meet these challenges new flow chemistry tools are proving to be very effective by providing improved heat/mass transfer opportunities, lower solvent usage, less waste generation, hazardous compound containment, and the possibility of a 24/7 working regime. This machine-assisted approach can be used to effect repetitive or routine scale-up steps or when combined with reagent and scavenger cartridges, to achieve multi-step synthesis of complex natural products and pharmaceutical agents. Copyright © 2012 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Green chemistry for nanoparticle synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haohong; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2015-08-21

    The application of the twelve principles of green chemistry in nanoparticle synthesis is a relatively new emerging issue concerning the sustainability. This field has received great attention in recent years due to its capability to design alternative, safer, energy efficient, and less toxic routes towards synthesis. These routes have been associated with the rational utilization of various substances in the nanoparticle preparations and synthetic methods, which have been broadly discussed in this tutorial review. This article is not meant to provide an exhaustive overview of green synthesis of nanoparticles, but to present several pivotal aspects of synthesis with environmental concerns, involving the selection and evaluation of nontoxic capping and reducing agents, the choice of innocuous solvents and the development of energy-efficient synthetic methods.

  19. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis and stabilization of biocompatible gold nanoparticles and their potential applications in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sushma, V; Patra, Sujata; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2012-01-01

    The biological approach to synthesis of AuNPs is eco-friendly and an ideal method to develop environmentally sustainable nanoparticles alternative to existing methods. We have developed a simple, fast, clean, efficient, low-cost and eco-friendly single-step green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from chloroauric acid (HAuCl 4 ) using a water extract of Eclipta Alba leaves at room temperature. The AuNPs using Eclipta extract have been formed in very short time, even in less than 10 min. The as-synthesized AuNPs were thoroughly characterized by several physico-chemical techniques. The in vitro stability of as-synthesized AuNPs was studied in different buffer solutions. A plausible mechanism for the synthesis of AuNPs by Eclipta extract has been discussed. The biocompatibility of AuNPs was observed by in vitro cell culture assays. Finally, we have designed and developed a AuNPs-based drug delivery system (DDS) (Au-DOX) containing doxorubicin (DOX), a FDA approved anticancer drug. Administration of this DDS to breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) shows significant inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation compared to pristine doxorubicin. Therefore we strongly believe that the use of Eclipta Alba offers large-scale production of biocompatible AuNPs that can be used as a delivery vehicle for the treatment of cancer diseases. (paper)

  20. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis and stabilization of biocompatible gold nanoparticles and their potential applications in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sushma, V.; Patra, Sujata; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Pal Bhadra, Manika; Sreedhar, Bojja; Ranjan Patra, Chitta

    2012-11-01

    The biological approach to synthesis of AuNPs is eco-friendly and an ideal method to develop environmentally sustainable nanoparticles alternative to existing methods. We have developed a simple, fast, clean, efficient, low-cost and eco-friendly single-step green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) using a water extract of Eclipta Alba leaves at room temperature. The AuNPs using Eclipta extract have been formed in very short time, even in less than 10 min. The as-synthesized AuNPs were thoroughly characterized by several physico-chemical techniques. The in vitro stability of as-synthesized AuNPs was studied in different buffer solutions. A plausible mechanism for the synthesis of AuNPs by Eclipta extract has been discussed. The biocompatibility of AuNPs was observed by in vitro cell culture assays. Finally, we have designed and developed a AuNPs-based drug delivery system (DDS) (Au-DOX) containing doxorubicin (DOX), a FDA approved anticancer drug. Administration of this DDS to breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) shows significant inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation compared to pristine doxorubicin. Therefore we strongly believe that the use of Eclipta Alba offers large-scale production of biocompatible AuNPs that can be used as a delivery vehicle for the treatment of cancer diseases.

  1. Green chemistry by nano-catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2010-01-01

    Nano-materials are important in many diverse areas, from basic research to various applications in electronics, biochemical sensors, catalysis and energy. They have emerged as sustainable alternatives to conventional materials, as robust high surface area heterogeneous catalysts and catalyst supports. The nano-sized particles increase the exposed surface area of the active component of the catalyst, thereby enhancing the contact between reactants and catalyst dramatically and mimicking the homogeneous catalysts. This review focuses on the use of nano-catalysis for green chemistry development including the strategy of using microwave heating with nano-catalysis in benign aqueous reaction media which offers an extraordinary synergistic effect with greater potential than these three components in isolation. To illustrate the proof-of-concept of this "green and sustainable" approach, representative examples are discussed in this article. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2009 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winner, Professor Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, developed Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization to make polymers with copper catalysts and environmentally friendly reducing agents.

  3. Green chemistry of carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiuk, Elena V; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of looking for more ecologically friendly, "green" techniques manifested itself in the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials. The main principles of green chemistry emphasize how important it is to avoid the use, or at least to reduce the consumption, of organic solvents for a chemical process. And it is precisely this aspect that was systematically addressed and emphasized by our research group since the very beginning of our work on the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials in early 2000s. The present review focuses on the results obtained to date on solvent-free techniques for (mainly covalent) functionalization of fullerene C60, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs, respectively), as well as nanodiamonds (NDs). We designed a series of simple and fast functionalization protocols based on thermally activated reactions with chemical compounds stable and volatile at 150-200 degrees C under reduced pressure, when not only the reactions take place at a high rate, but also excess reagents are spontaneously removed from the functionalized material, thus making its purification unnecessary. The main two classes of reagents are organic amines and thiols, including bifunctional ones, which can be used in conjunction with different forms of nanocarbons. The resulting chemical processes comprise nucleophilic addition of amines and thiols to fullerene C60 and to defect sites of pristine MWNTs, as well as direct amidation of carboxylic groups of oxidized nanotubes (mainly SWNTs) and ND. In the case of bifunctional amines and thiols, reactions of the second functional group can give rise to cross-linking effects, or be employed for further derivatization steps.

  4. Challenges of green chemistry in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevtsova Ganna Ziyvna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with study of Ukrainian chemical enterprises’ ecologisation issues and elaboration of the economic problems to realize principles of green chemistry. Theoretical aspects of green chemistry as a modern interdisciplinary conception, which reveals peculiarities to implement sustainable development paradigm in the chemical industry, are studied. Based on the analysis of essence and effectiveness to introduce international initiatives on sustainable development at the chemical industry enterprises, it is concluded that the implemented measures are only first steps on the way to realize key principles of green chemistry.It is proved that in order to promote conceptual ideas of the green chemistry further, it is reasonable to consider economic and marketing aspects of the ecological innovations: to provide economic effectiveness of green chemical products and technologies, to form ecological culture of consumption, to motivate green demand and to prevent market asymmetry of information.

  5. Green's functions in quantum chemistry II - Improving the Σ perturbation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, K.L.; Narayanan, P.; Rama Varma, K.T.

    1978-01-01

    Two methods, which are expected to lead to results better than those of the Σ perturbation approach given earlier are investigated. Within the algebraic approximation, the methods are applied to the hydrogen molecule and to ethylene in the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) approximation. Both the methods are seen to suffer from the defect of not conserving the number of particles in the system. The methods are (a) the use of a partitioning other than Hartree-Fock. Due to the non-conservation of particle number, the method does not seem to be suited for the calculation of the ground state energy, but it gives good results for ionisation potentials. The investigation reveals that the only partitioning which conserves the number of particles is the Hartree-Fock partitioning (b) the renormalised Σ perturbation method, suggested by Csnak and others. For ethylene in the PPP approximation, the method does conserve the number of particles (but not in general). However, the energy obtained is not as good as that in the Σ perturbation method. This method therefore seems to be of limited applicability in molecular calculations. (author)

  6. Catalysis as a foundational pillar of green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, Paul T. [White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, Department of Chemistry, University of Nottingham Nottingham, (United Kingdom); Kirchhoff, Mary M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Trinity College, Washington, DC (United States); Williamson, Tracy C. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-11-30

    Catalysis is one of the fundamental pillars of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The design and application of new catalysts and catalytic systems are simultaneously achieving the dual goals of environmental protection and economic benefit. Green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is an overarching approach that is applicable to all aspects of chemistry. From feedstocks to solvents, to synthesis and processing, green chemistry actively seeks ways to produce materials in a way that is more benign to human health and the environment. The current emphasis on green chemistry reflects a shift away from the historic 'command-and-control' approach to environmental problems that mandated waste treatment and control and clean up through regulation, and toward preventing pollution at its source. Rather than accepting waste generation and disposal as unavoidable, green chemistry seeks new technologies that are cleaner and economically competitive. Utilizing green chemistry for pollution prevention demonstrates the power and beauty of chemistry: through careful design, society can enjoy the products on which we depend while benefiting the environment. The economic benefits of green chemistry are central drivers in its advancement. Industry is adopting green chemistry methodologies because they improve the corporate bottom line. A wide array of operating costs are decreased through the use of green chemistry. When less waste is generated, environmental compliance costs go down. Treatment and disposal become unnecessary when waste is eliminated. Decreased solvent usage and fewer processing steps lessen the material and energy costs of manufacturing and increase material efficiency. The environmental, human health, and the economic advantages realized through green chemistry

  7. Using an innovative combination of quality-by-design and green analytical chemistry approaches for the development of a stability indicating UHPLC method in pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussès, Christine; Ferey, Ludivine; Vedrines, Elodie; Gaudin, Karen

    2015-11-10

    An innovative combination of green chemistry and quality by design (QbD) approach is presented through the development of an UHPLC method for the analysis of the main degradation products of dextromethorphan hydrobromide. QbD strategy was integrated to the field of green analytical chemistry to improve method understanding while assuring quality and minimizing environmental impacts, and analyst exposure. This analytical method was thoroughly evaluated by applying risk assessment and multivariate analysis tools. After a scouting phase aimed at selecting a suitable stationary phase and an organic solvent in accordance with green chemistry principles, quality risk assessment tools were applied to determine the critical process parameters (CPPs). The effects of the CPPs on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e., resolutions, efficiencies, and solvent consumption were further evaluated by means of a screening design. A response surface methodology was then carried out to model CQAs as function of the selected CPPs and the optimal separation conditions were determined through a desirability analysis. Resulting contour plots enabled to establish the design space (DS) (method operable design region) where all CQAs fulfilled the requirements. An experimental validation of the DS proved that quality within the DS was guaranteed; therefore no more robustness study was required before the validation. Finally, this UHPLC method was validated using the concept of total error and was used to analyze a pharmaceutical drug product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Green Chemistry Challenge: 2017 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Chemistry Challenge 2017 award winner, UniEnergy,improved a vanadium redox flow battery to double the energy density, have a broader operating temperature range, a smaller footprint, reduced chemical usage, and very little capacity degradation.

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1999 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Professor Terry Collins, developed a series of TAML oxidant activators that work with hydrogen peroxide to replace chlorine bleaches for paper making and laundry.

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1997 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Professor Joseph M. DeSimone, developed surfactants that allow carbon dioxide to be a solvent for chemical manufacturing, replacing hazardous chemical solvents.

  11. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2007 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winner, Professor Michael J. Krische, developed selective C-C bond-forming hydrogenation without organometallic reagents, eliminating hazardous reagents and hazardous waste.

  12. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Professor Bruce H. Lipshutz, designed a novel, second-generation surfactant called TPGS-750-M. It is a designer surfactant composed of safe, inexpensive ingredients.

  13. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2006 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winner, Professor Galen J. Suppes, developed a process to convert waste glycerin from biodiesel production into propylene glycol to replace ethylene glycol in antifreeze.

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2004 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2004 award winners, Professors Charles A. Eckert and Charles L. Liotta, use supercritical CO2 as a solvent to combine reactions and separations, improve efficiency, and reduce waste.

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2005 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, Professor Robin D. Rogers, used ionic liquids to dissolve and process cellulose from wood, cloth, or paper to make new biorenewable or biocompatible materials.

  16. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1996 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Professor Mark Holtzapple, developed methods to convert waste biomass (e.g., sewage sludge, agricultural wastes), into animal feed, industrial chemicals, or fuels.

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2008 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winners, Professors Robert E. Maleczka, Jr. and Milton R. Smith, III, developed halogen-free, catalytic C-H activation/borylation to make aryl and heteroaryl boronic esters.

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Professor Chirik, discovered a class of catalysts used to produce silicones for consumer goods without using hard-to-mine platinum (less mining, reduces costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste).

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2003 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, Professor Richard A. Gross, developed a transesterification to make polyol-containing polyesters using lipase, replacing heavy metal catalysts and hazardous solvents.

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2001 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winner, Professor Chao-Jun Li, uses metal catalysts in water to carry out chemical reactions that used to need both an oxygen-free atmosphere and hazardous organic solvents.

  1. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2000 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winner, Professor Chi-Huey Wong, developed reactions with enzymes and safer solvents that can replace traditional reactions done with toxic metals and hazardous solvents.

  2. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Prof Richard P. Wool of the University of Delaware, created high-performance materials using vegetable oils, feathers, and flax. Can be used as adhesives, composites, foams, and circuit boards.

  3. Green chemistry by nano-catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Varma, Rajender S.

    2010-01-01

    the homogeneous catalysts. This review focuses on the use of nano-catalysis for green chemistry development including the strategy of using microwave heating with nano-catalysis in benign aqueous reaction media which offers an extraordinary synergistic effect

  4. Green chemistry using radiotracers at SINP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Susanta

    2006-01-01

    Green chemistry is utilization of set of principles, which restricts the use, or generation of hazardous substances. In this aim, it is necessary to develop alternative methods, or to find greener reagents for minimum utilization of environmentally hostile substances. Radiotracers can be effectively utilized for development of such methods. This article describes the current status of Green Chemistry research using accelerator/reactor produced radionuclides at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India. (author)

  5. How sonochemistry contributes to green chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatel, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Based on the analyses of papers from the literature, and especially those published in Ultrasonics Sonochemistry journal, the contribution of sonochemistry to green chemistry area has been discussed here. Important reminders and insights on the good practices and considerations have been made to understand and demonstrate how sonochemistry can continue to efficiently contribute to green chemistry area in the further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A green chemistry lab course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rank, J.; Lenoir, D.; Bahadir, M.; Koning, B.

    2006-01-01

    The traditional course content of chemistry classes must change to achieve better awareness of the important issues of sustainability in chemistry within the next generation of professional chemists. To provide the necessary material for the organic chemistry teaching lab course, which is part of almost all study programs in chemistry, material was developed and collected (http://www.oc-praktikum.de/en) that allows students and teachers to assess reactions beyond the experimental set up, reaction mechanism and chemical yield. Additional parameters like atom economy of chemical transformations, energy efficiency, and questions of waste, renewable feed stocks, toxicity and ecotoxicity, as well as the safety measures for the chemicals used are discussed. (author)

  7. On the Applicability of the Green Chemistry Principles to Sustainability of Organic Matter on Asteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Vera M. Kolb

    2010-01-01

    The connection between astrobiology and green chemistry represents a new approach to sustainability of organic matter on asteroids or similar bodies. Green chemistry is chemistry which is environmentally friendly. One obvious way for chemistry to be green is to use water as a solvent, instead of more toxic organic solvents. Many astrobiological reactions occur in the aqueous medium, for example in the prebiotic soup or during the aqueous alteration period on asteroids. Thus any advances in th...

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION GREEN CHEMISTRY VOLUMETRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ... part of pharmaceutical chemistry, cosmetics, drug formulations, soaps, ... apparatus is safe for both the liquid state and precipitation titrations and even heating of ... The cost incurred with use of 50 mL burette, for a class of 40 students for the ...

  9. Green chemistry principles in organic compound synthesis and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review focus on various green chemistry approaches which could be utilized in the organic compounds in practical classes for undergraduate level in comparison of conventional methods. These methods avoid the usage of hazardous substances and are environmental friendly.

  10. Ultrasound and green chemistry--Further comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In the light of recent discussions regarding the association of sonochemistry and sustainable methods, as well as the controversial misuse and abuse of the "green" concept through the scientific literature, this manuscript provides further thoughts hoping to be of benefit to the broad readership of this journal and practitioners of sustainable chemistry in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Green polymer chemistry: biocatalysis and biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    This overview briefly surveys the practice of green chemistry in polymer science. Eight related themes can be discerned from the current research activities: 1) biocatalysis, 2) bio-based building blocks and agricultural products, 3) degradable polymers, 4) recycling of polymer products and catalys...

  12. Teaching Green Chemistry with Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena, Homar; Tuachi, Abraham; Zhang, Yuanzhuo

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) provides students a vantage point on the application of green chemistry principles in a series of experiments. Qualitative tests review the reactions of alkenes, whereas spectroscopic analyses provide insight in monitoring functional group transformations.

  13. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Academic Award (Trost)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner Professor Barry M. Trost, developed the concept of atom economy: chemical reactions that do not waste atoms. This is a fundamental cornerstone of green chemistry.

  14. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  15. Design of a Dynamic Undergraduate Green Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    The green chemistry course taught at Westminster College (PA) incorporates nontraditional teaching techniques and texts to educate future chemists about the importance of using green chemistry principles. The course is designed to introduce green chemistry concepts and demonstrate their inherent necessity by discussing historical missteps by the…

  16. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, G; Sadulla, S; Sehgal, P K; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-05-15

    In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (T(s)) and denaturation temperature (T(d)) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the T(s) of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Green analytical chemistry - the use of surfactants as a replacement of organic solvents in spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, Daniel Y.

    2017-07-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to the many practical uses of surfactants in analytical chemistry in replacing organic solvents to achieve greener chemistry. Taking a holistic approach, it covers some background of surfactants as chemical solvents, their properties and as green chemicals, including their environmental effects. The achievements of green analytical chemistry with micellar systems are reviewed in all the major areas of analytical chemistry where these reagents have been found to be useful.

  18. System approach to chemistry course

    OpenAIRE

    Lorina E. Kruglova; Valentina G. Derendyaeva

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the raise of chemistry profile for engineers and constructors training, discloses the system approach to chemistry course and singles out the most important modules from the course of general chemistry for construction industry.

  19. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamoorthy, G.; Sadulla, S.; Sehgal, P.K. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai 600 020 (India); Mandal, Asit Baran, E-mail: abmandal@hotmail.com [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai 600 020 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unnatural D-AA assisted tanned leathers found soft and full possessing tight grain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased hydrothermal stability of collagen via intra and inter molecular crosslink. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-Ly+Ald tanned leathers revealed a properly oriented with well aligned structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-AA in collagen creates new topologies inaccessible to homo chiral molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improves conventional tanning process, and reduce the total solid and liquid wastes. - Abstract: In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (T{sub s}) and denaturation temperature (T{sub d}) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the T{sub s} of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning.

  20. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, G.; Sadulla, S.; Sehgal, P.K.; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Unnatural D-AA assisted tanned leathers found soft and full possessing tight grain. ► Increased hydrothermal stability of collagen via intra and inter molecular crosslink. ► D-Ly+Ald tanned leathers revealed a properly oriented with well aligned structure. ► D-AA in collagen creates new topologies inaccessible to homo chiral molecules. ► Improves conventional tanning process, and reduce the total solid and liquid wastes. - Abstract: In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (T s ) and denaturation temperature (T d ) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the T s of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning.

  1. Green Chemistry at the present in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Park, Hyeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country's government homepage search. Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the "Alternative Chemical Search program," has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances and the Chemical Control act

  2. Fostering green chemistry through a collaborative business model: A chemical leasing case study from Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, R.; Carpenter, A.; Satric, V.

    2013-01-01

    Green and sustainable chemistry have been developed to help reduce the production and use of harmful chemicals. The two main approaches that have been used in fostering green and sustainable chemistry have been through policy initiatives and science/technology. This paper focuses on a complementary

  3. Research for the advancement of green chemistry practice: Studies in atmospheric and educational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullipher, Steven Gene

    Green chemistry is a philosophy of chemistry that emphasizes a decreasing dependence on limited non-renewable resources and an increasing focus on preventing pollution byproducts of the chemical industry. In short, it is the discipline of chemistry practiced through the lens of environmental stewardship. In an effort to advance the practice of green chemistry, three studies will be described that have ramifications for the practice. The first study examines the atmospheric oxidation of a hydrofluorinated ether, a third-generation CFC replacement compound with primarily unknown atmospheric degradation products. Determination of these products has the potential to impact decisions on refrigerant usage in the future. The second study examines chemistry students' development of understanding benefits-costs-risks analysis when presented with two real-world scenarios: refrigerant choice and fuel choice. By studying how benefits-costs-risks thinking develops, curricular materials and instructional approaches can be designed to better foster the development of an ability that is both necessary for green chemists and important in daily decision-making for non-chemists. The final study uses eye tracking technology to examine students' abilities to interpret molecular properties from structural information in the context of global warming. Such abilities are fundamental if chemists are to appropriately assess risks and hazards of chemistry practice.

  4. Environment-friendly green chemistry approaches for an efficient synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols catalyzed by tannic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, facile, cost-effective and environment-friendly protocol is reported for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols exploring tannic acid as a novel, cheap and biodegradable catalyst. β-naphthol is condensed with substituted aromatic aldehydes and various amides using catalytic amount of tannic acid in the absence of solvent under thermal (hot plate and oil bath and microwave irradiation techniques. This green protocol offers many advantages such as short reaction time, use of environment-friendly and cheap catalyst and good to excellent yields.

  5. Virtually going green: The role of quantum computational chemistry in reducing pollution and toxicity in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Continuing advances in computational chemistry has permitted quantum mechanical calculation to assist in research in green chemistry and to contribute to the greening of chemical practice. Presented here are recent examples illustrating the contribution of computational quantum chemistry to green chemistry, including the possibility of using computation as a green alternative to experiments, but also illustrating contributions to greener catalysis and the search for greener solvents. Examples of applications of computation to ambitious projects for green synthetic chemistry using carbon dioxide are also presented.

  6. EVALUATING METRICS FOR GREEN CHEMISTRIES: INFORMATION AND CALCULATION NEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research within the U.S. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing a methodology for the evaluation of green chemistries. This methodology called GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for the ENvironmental Sustainability of Chemistries with a multi-Ob...

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2008 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, SiGNa Chemistry, stabilized highly reactive sodium and lithium by encapsulating them in porous, sand-like powder, maintaining their usefulness in synthetic reactions.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2005 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, Metabolix, used biotechnology to develop microorganisms that produce polyhydroxyalkanoates: natural, biodegradable plastics with a range of environmental benefits.

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2004 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2004 award winner, Buckman Laboratories International, developed Optimyze technology, which uses an esterase enzyme to remove sticky contaminants from paper products prior to recycling.

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2001 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winner, EDEN Bioscience, discovered and commercialized harpins: nontoxic, naturally occurring, biodegradable proteins that activate a plant's defense and growth mechanisms.

  11. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2007 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winner, Headwaters Technology Innovation, developed a metal nanocatalyst to synthesize hydrogen peroxide directly from hydrogen and oxygen, eliminating hazardous chemicals.

  12. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2014 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, The Solberg Company, replaced fluorinated surfactants in its firefighting foam concentrates with a blend of non-fluorinated surfactants and sugars.

  13. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2005 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, Archer Daniels Midland, developed Archer RC, a nonvolatile, biobased, reactive coalescent that replaces volatile organic coalescents in architectural latex paints.

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2010 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winner, Clarke, developed Natular, a plaster matrix that encapsulates the pesticide spinosad, slowly releasing it into water and effectively controlling mosquito larvae.

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2014 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, Solazyme, engineered microalgae to produce oils tailored to customers’ needs that can mimic or enhance properties of traditional vegetable oils.

  16. An overview: origins and development of green chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the origins and development of green chemistry. Aiming to contribute to the understanding of green chemistry, basically from a historical point of view, this overview argues that contextual influences and the user friendliness of the term are drivers for the

  17. Green chemistry applied to corrosion and scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, D.; Rakshpal, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Numerous breakthroughs in environmental protection and pollution prevention have been realized in recent years by both industry and academia through the application of green chemistry principles. Green chemistry, or pollution prevention at the molecular level, is chemistry designed to reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous materials associated with the manufacture and application of chemicals. The application of the green chemistry principles to the areas of corrosion and scale inhibitors has resulted in the reduction/elimination of many of the more toxic inhibitors and the development of newer, more environmentally friendly ones.

  18. Infrared Irradiation: Toward Green Chemistry, a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, René; Miranda, René; Martínez, Joel

    2016-03-26

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of where infrared irradiation has been employed, mainly as regards activating green mode for natural products extractions, as well as to favor a reaction, highlighting its actual importance. It is also underlined that infrared irradiation heating has been around for a long time; however, only in the last eighteen years have many of its advantages been applied to satisfy a wide range of chemical processes, natural products extractions, and for the promotion of many kinds of reactions. In addition, it is brought to light that near infrared irradiation is more efficient than middle and far infrared irradiations, being easily controllable and with the quality of a fast responding heat source. Thus, the main objective of this review is to offer infrared irradiation as an alternative clean energy source to activate reactions, in addition to favor the selective extraction of natural products, all of which is within the Green Chemistry protocol. Some recent results from our laboratory are also included.

  19. Infrared Irradiation: Toward Green Chemistry, a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Escobedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a comprehensive overview of where infrared irradiation has been employed, mainly as regards activating green mode for natural products extractions, as well as to favor a reaction, highlighting its actual importance. It is also underlined that infrared irradiation heating has been around for a long time; however, only in the last eighteen years have many of its advantages been applied to satisfy a wide range of chemical processes, natural products extractions, and for the promotion of many kinds of reactions. In addition, it is brought to light that near infrared irradiation is more efficient than middle and far infrared irradiations, being easily controllable and with the quality of a fast responding heat source. Thus, the main objective of this review is to offer infrared irradiation as an alternative clean energy source to activate reactions, in addition to favor the selective extraction of natural products, all of which is within the Green Chemistry protocol. Some recent results from our laboratory are also included.

  20. Energy and carbon for green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquelin, Louis-Marie; Bucy, Jacques de; Caujolle, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Since 2006, massive shale gas exploration and development in the United States has enabled the country to reduce the price of gas by a factor of 3. Taking instantaneously advantage of this unique situation, the chemical sector has planned more than 100 billion dollars of investment in new industrial capacity, creating a tremendous environment for its domestic chemical industry. In Europe, despite a high capacity for innovation, the chemical industry is suffering from ageing facilities and high production costs. It must contend with ferocious competition from the United States but also from Asia, which currently represents 46% of the global market, and the Middle East that is benefiting from the 50 billion dollars invested in the chemical sector since the early 2000's. Lower energy prices and labor costs in the United States are negatively impacting the competitiveness of European industrial companies but their capacity to innovate can help them to re-bounce. By reducing the environmental impact of their products, they can generate added value that is important to their direct customers, end users and also governments. In this article, to assist industrial companies, ENEA, a consulting firm specialized in energy and sustainable development, examines two strategic principles of green chemistry: energy efficiency and the use of renewable feedstock. It addresses all of the topics linked to energy and carbon in chemistry, from supply (bio-feedstocks, CO 2 reuse) to the end products (life-cycle analysis, recyclability) while also covering the processes (energy sobriety, bio-refineries, use of microalgae)

  1. Catalysis as an important tool of green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beletskaya, Irina P; Kustov, Leonid M

    2010-01-01

    Published data of the last decade demonstrating the significant achievements in the catalytic synthesis of organic compounds are analyzed from the green chemistry standpoint. It is demonstrated that the use of new catalysts (including nano-sized ones) and solvents (water, ionic liquids, fluorinated derivatives), microwave processes, superctitical and two-phase media, and heterogenized metal complex catalytic systems should be distinguished among the most promising approaches to such processes. The main applications of metal complex systems are considered, in particular, hydrogenation, partial oxidation and cross-coupling reactions, in particular, enantioselective reactions.

  2. Catalysis as an important tool of green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beletskaya, Irina P [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kustov, Leonid M [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-12

    Published data of the last decade demonstrating the significant achievements in the catalytic synthesis of organic compounds are analyzed from the green chemistry standpoint. It is demonstrated that the use of new catalysts (including nano-sized ones) and solvents (water, ionic liquids, fluorinated derivatives), microwave processes, superctitical and two-phase media, and heterogenized metal complex catalytic systems should be distinguished among the most promising approaches to such processes. The main applications of metal complex systems are considered, in particular, hydrogenation, partial oxidation and cross-coupling reactions, in particular, enantioselective reactions.

  3. Enzim Papain: Aspek Green Chemistry pada Reaksi Knoevenagel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentius Haryanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry aspect is the chemical approach that has been studied in the past two decades. One of the principles is the development of green synthesis process that is friendly for the environment. This research showed that papain can be used as catalyst for Knoevenagel reaction with 3 kinds of substituted-benzaldehyde and malononitrile as substrates in aqueous medium. The best reaction condition with 80% yield was reached by utilizing of 25 mg papain/mmol substrate. Reaction was conducted at ambient temperature and pressure for 30 min. Products were yellowish to yellow needle crystals and successfully characterized by melting point, UV-Vis, IR, mass spectra, and 13C & 1H-NMR, named as 2-(4-hydroxybenzylidene-malononitrile; 2-(3-hydroxybenzylidene-malononitrile; and 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene-malononitrile.

  4. Biogenesis of Selenium Nanoparticles Using Green Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeibi, Sara; Mozdziak, Paul; Golkar-Narenji, Afsaneh

    2017-11-09

    Selenium binds some enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase, which may be activated in biological infections and oxidative stress. Chemical and physical methods for synthesizing nanoparticles, apart from being expensive, have their own particular risks. However, nanoparticle synthesis through green chemistry is a safe procedure that different biological sources such as bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae and plants can be the catalyst bed for processing. Synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) by macro/microorganisms causes variation in morphology and shape of the particles is due to diversity of reduction enzymes in organisms. Reducing enzymes of microorganisms by changing the status of redox convert metal ions (Se 2- ) to SeNPs without charge (Se 0 ). Biological activity of SeNPs includes their protective role against DNA oxidation. Because of the biological and industrial properties, SeNPs have wide applications in the fields of medicine, microelectronic, agriculture and animal husbandry. SeNPs can show strong antimicrobial effects on the growth and proliferation of microorganisms in a dose-dependent manner. The objective of this review is to consider SeNPs applications to various organisms.

  5. Environmental Green Chemistry Applications of Nanoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, J.; Garcia, A; Poon, P

    2010-01-01

    Influence of surface properties of nanoporous carbons on activity and selectivity during the photooxidation of 4-chlorophenol on UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} was performed. Characterization by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy confirm the presence of a contact interface between both solids and suggest the coordination of some functional organic groups of the carbon surface, mainly ethers and carboxylic acids, to metallic centre Ti{sup +4} in TiO{sub 2}. Changes in surface pH of carbons from basic to neutral or acid remarkably increase the production of 4-chlorocathecol by a factor of 22 on TiO{sub 2}-Carbon in comparison of TiO{sub 2} alone. A scheme of interaction between TiO{sub 2} and carbon is proposed to the increased photoactivity of TiO{sub 2} and a reaction mechanism for the different intermediate products detected is also proposed. Results showed that TiO{sub 2}-Carbon can be used as an alternative photocatalyst for environmental green chemistry and selective organic synthesis applications.

  6. The quadruple bottom line: the advantages of incorporating Green Chemistry into the undergraduate chemistry major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    2017-08-01

    When the author first became involved with the Green Chemistry movement, he noted that his colleagues in industry who were involved in one of the ACS Green Chemistry Institute® industrial roundtables emphasized the take-home message they described as the "triple bottom line." They noted that introducing Green Chemistry in industrial settings had economic, social, and environmental benefits. As someone who first went to school at age 5, and has been "going to school" most days for 65 years, it was easy for the author to see why introducing Green Chemistry into academics had similar beneficial effects within the context of economic, social and environmental domains at the college/university level. He was prepared to understand why faculty who had taught traditional courses often saw the advantage of incorporating Green Chemistry into the courses they teach. What was not as obvious is why students who were encountering chemistry for the first time were often equally passionate about the Green Chemistry movement. Recent attention has been paid, however, to a model that brings clarity to the hitherto vague term of "relevance" that might explain why integrating Green Chemistry into the undergraduate chemistry classroom can achieve a "quadruple bottom-line" for students because of potentially positive effects of adding a domain of "relevance" to the existing economic, social, and environmental domains.

  7. On the Applicability of the Green Chemistry Principles to Sustainability of Organic Matter on Asteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. Kolb

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The connection between astrobiology and green chemistry represents a new approach to sustainability of organic matter on asteroids or similar bodies. Green chemistry is chemistry which is environmentally friendly. One obvious way for chemistry to be green is to use water as a solvent, instead of more toxic organic solvents. Many astrobiological reactions occur in the aqueous medium, for example in the prebiotic soup or during the aqueous alteration period on asteroids. Thus any advances in the green organic reactions in water are directly applicable to astrobiology. Another green chemistry approach is to abolish use of toxic solvents. This can be accomplished by carrying out the reactions without a solvent in the solventless or solid-state reactions. The advances in these green reactions are directly applicable to the chemistry on asteroids during the periods when water was not available. Many reactions on asteroids may have been done in the solid mixtures. These reactions may be responsible for a myriad of organic compounds that have been isolated from the meteorites.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Faraday Technology, Inc., process high-performance chrome coatings to be made from the less toxic, trivalent chromium. Reduce millions of pounds hexavalent chromium without comprising performance.

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2006 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winners, Arkon Consultants and NuPro Technologies, developed a safer processing system for flexographic printing that includes washout solvents and reclamation/recycling.

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2003 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, Shaw Industries, developed EcoWorx carpet tiles with a backing that uses less toxic materials. The carpet tile fiber and backing are readily separated for recycling.

  11. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Sherwin-Williams, developed water-based acrylic alkyd paints with VOCs that can be made from recycled soda bottle (PET), acrylics, and soybean oil.

  12. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2008 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, Battelle, developed a biobased soy toner for laser printers and copiers. The technology saves energy and improves de-inking, allowing more paper fiber to be recycled.

  13. GREEN REACTION CHEMISTRIES PERFORMED IN THE SST REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Kreido Laboratories have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) collaboration, to develop and commercialize green and sustainable chemistries in the area of industrial chemical synthesis. Uti...

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2005 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, BASF, invented a one-component, urethane acrylate oligomer primer system for automobile refinishing that is UV-curable, has VOCs, and is free of diisocyanates.

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1999 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Nalco Chemical Co., developed homogeneous dispersion polymerization with water as the solvent to make polymers to treat water in industrial and municipal operations.

  16. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner, Argonne National Laboratory, developed an efficient, membrane-based process to synthesize lactate esters from sugars. These esters can replace toxic solvents.

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2000 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winners, Bayer and Bayer AG, Covestro, developed high-performance, water-based, two-component polyurethane (PU) coatings that eliminate most or all VOCs and HAPs in other PU coatings.

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1996 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Dow Chemical Company, developed a process to manufacture polystyrene foam sheet packaging that uses carbon dioxide (CO2) as a blowing agent, eliminating CFC-12 and HCFC-22.

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2006 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winner, S.C. Johnson & Son, developed Greenlist, a rating system for environmental and health effects of ingredients. SC Johnson uses it to reformulate many of its products.

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2010 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winners, Merck & Co. and Codexis, developed an enzymatic synthesis for sitagliptin (Januvia) that reduces waste, improves yield and safety, and eliminates a metal catalyst.

  1. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner, Flexsys America, developed nucleophilic aromatic substitution for hydrogen to eliminate waste from a common reaction and to produce 4-ADPA, a high-volume chemical.

  2. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2008 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, used an artificial neural network to discover spinetoram, an improved spinosad biopesticide to replace organophosphates for key pests of fruit trees.

  3. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2001 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winners, Bayer Corporation and Bayer AG, developed a waste-free manufacturing process for sodium iminodisuccinate (Baypure CX), a biodegradable, nontoxic chelating agent.

  4. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2010 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winners, Dow and BASF, jointly developed a route to make propylene oxide from hydrogen peroxide that eliminates almost all waste and greatly reduces water and energy use.

  5. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1997 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Legacy Systems, developed the Coldstrip process, which uses only water and oxygen to remove photoresist from silicon semiconductors. It replaces corrosive acids.

  6. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1997 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, BHC Company, developed a highly atom-efficient method to make ibuprofen, a common painkiller, using three catalytic steps instead of six stoichiometric ones.

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2002 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, SC Fluids, with Los Alamos National Laboratory, developed supercritical CO2 resist remover technology to clean residues from semiconductor wafers during manufacture.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winner, Elevance Renewable Sciences, used Nobel-prize-winning metathesis catalysis to produce high-value difunctional chemicals from renewable feedstocks including natural oils.

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2007 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winners, Professor Kaichang Li, Columbia Forest Products, and Hercules, developed an adhesive for wood composites based on soy flour instead of resins with formaldehyde.

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1999 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Lilly Research Laboratories, developed a low-waste drug synthesis using yeast for a stereospecific reduction, reducing solvent amounts, and replacing chromium oxide.

  11. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Verdezyne, developed a yeast to produce USDA Certified Biobased dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) used to make high performance nylon 6,12. Lower greenhouse gas emissions, no high temperature or nitric acid

  12. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, BioAmber, developed an integrated technology to produce large, commercial quantities of succinic acid by bacterial fermentation, replacing petroleum-based feedstocks.

  13. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2009 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winner, Eastman Chemical Co., makes esters for emollients and emulsifiers in cosmetics with immobilized enzymes, saving energy and avoiding strong acids and organic solvents.

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Life Technologies, developed a one-pot synthesis for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is a much more efficient process that prevents about 1.5 million pounds of hazardous waste a year.

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2002 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Pfizer, improved its synthesis of sertraline, the active ingredient in its drug, Zoloft, to double the yield and reduce the use of raw materials, energy, and water.

  16. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1996 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Donlar, developed thermal polyaspartate, a nontoxic, biodegradable, biobased polymer made in a highly efficient process for use in agriculture, water treatment, etc.

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1996 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Monsanto Company, developed a safer synthesis for DSIDA, a key building block for the herbicide RoundUp. The synthesis uses no ammonia, cyanide, or formaldehyde.

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Academic Award (Waymouth and Hedrick)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winners, Professor Robert M. Waymouth and Dr. James L. Hedrick, developed a broad class of highly active, environmentally benign, metal-free catalysts for synthesizing plastics.

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2003 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 winner, Sud-Chemie, developed a synthesis for solid oxide catalysts used to make hydrogen and clean fuels. The process creates little wastewater, no nitrates, and no or little NOx.

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2007 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winner, NovaSterilis, invented a way to sterilize delicate biological materials such as graft tissue without harming them, using supercritical carbon dioxide and a peroxide.

  1. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2004 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2004 award winner, Bristol-Myers Squibb, manufactures paclitaxel, the active ingredient in the anticancer drug, Taxol, using plant cell fermentation and extraction to replace synthesis.

  2. Green Chemistry Challenge: 2017 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Chemistry Challenge 2017 award winners, Merck, developed a novel asymmetric aza-Michael cyclization, employing a chemically stable and fully recyclable organocatalyst to make Letermovir, an antiviral drug

  3. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Kraton Performance Polymers, developed halogen-free, high-flow NEXAR polymer membranes using less solvent that save energy during reverse osmosis to desalinate water.

  4. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2000 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winner, RevTech, developed a process to print top-quality labels directly on glass. Their Envirogluv inks have no heavy metals, have little to no VOCs, and are biodegradable.

  5. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2000 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winner, Roche Colorado, developed a greener synthesis for gancyclovir (Cytovene, a potent antiviral drug) that uses a second-generation Guanine Triester (GTE) process.

  6. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2006 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winner, Codexis, directed the evolution of three designer enzymes to produce the key chiral building block for atorvastatin, the active ingredient in the drug Lipitor.

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Dow Agrosciences LLC, developed Instinct®, a technology that reduces fertilizer nitrate leaching to ground and surface waters and atmospheric nitrous oxide emissions. More corn and reduces CO2.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Cargill, Inc., developed a vegetable-oil-based transformer fluid that is much less flammable, provides superior performance, is less toxic, and has a substantially lower carbon footprint.

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winners, Albemarle and CB&I, developed a safer technology to produce alkylate, a clean gasoline component by replacing liquid acid catalysts with a lower environmental impact catalyst

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2015 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2015 award winner, LanzaTech Inc. developed a method to utilize gas streams with a range of CO and H2 compositions to produce fuels such as ethanol and chemicals at high selectivities and yields

  11. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1997 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Albright & Wilson Americas, discovered that tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate, THPS, is an effective, safer biocide for use in industrial water systems.

  12. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1999 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, developed spinosad, a highly selective, low-toxicity, nonpersistant insecticide made by a soil microorganism. It controls many chewing insect pests.

  13. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2001 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winner, Novozymes North America, developed BioPreparation, an enzyme technology to separate natural waxes, oils, and contaminants from cotton before it is made into fabric.

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2002 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Chemical Specialties, developed an alkaline copper quaternary wood preservative to replace chromated copper arsenate preservative phased out due to risk to children.

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2009 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winner, CEM Corporation, developed a fast, automated analytical process using less toxic reagents and less energy to distinguish protein from the food adulterant, melamine.

  16. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1996 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Rohm and Haas, developed Sea-Nine, a marine antifoulant to control plants and animals on ship hulls. Sea-Nine replaces persistent, toxic organotin antifoulants.

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2008 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, Nalco Company, developed 3D TRASAR technology to monitor the condition of cooling water continuously and add chemicals only when needed, saving water and energy.

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2002 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Cargill Dow, developed the NatureWorks process to make biobased, compostable, and recyclable polylactic acid polymers for fibers and plastic packaging.

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1997 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Imation, developed DryView Imaging Systems, which use a special photographic film for medical imaging that replaces hazardous developer chemicals and water with heat.

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winner, Cytec Industries, developed the MAX HT sodalite scale inhibitor for heat exchangers and pipes in the Bayer process, which converts bauxite into alumina.

  1. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2014 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, Amyris, engineered yeast to make a chemical called farnesene, which is a building block hydrocarbon that can be converted into a renewable, drop-in replacement for petroleum diesel.

  2. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2003 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, DuPont, developed a genetically engineered microorganism jointly with Genencor International to manufacture 1,3-propanediol, a building block for Sorona polyester.

  3. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winner, Codexis and Professor Yi Tang, developed a synthesis for the high cholesterol drug, simvastatin, using an engineered acyltransferase enzyme and a low-cost acyl donor as a feedstock.

  4. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2010 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winner, LS9, engineered microorganisms to convert fermentable sugars selectively to alkanes, olefins, fatty alcohols, or fatty esters, each in a single-unit biorefinery.

  5. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Academic Award (Draths and Frost)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winners, Dr. Karen M. Draths and Professor John W. Frost, used benign, genetically engineered microbes and sugars (instead of benzene) to synthesize adipic acid and catechol.

  6. The Integration of Green Chemistry Experiments with Sustainable Development Concepts in Pre-Service Teachers' Curriculum: Experiences from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida Hg; Mohamed, Norita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce green chemistry experiments as laboratory-based pedagogy and to evaluate effectiveness of green chemistry experiments in delivering sustainable development concepts (SDCs) and traditional environmental concepts (TECs). Design/methodology/approach: Repeated measure design was employed to evaluate…

  7. Biopolymer coated gold nanocrystals prepared using the green chemistry approach and their shape-dependent catalytic and surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Wei; Hsieh, Hui-Hsuan; Hseu, You-Cheng; Chen, Ko-Shao; Wang, Gou-Jen; Chang, Hsien-Chang; Pan, Yong-Li; Wei, Yi-Syuan; Chang, Ko Hsin; Harn, Yeu-Wei

    2013-07-21

    This study deals with the preparation of multi-shaped nanoscale gold crystals under synthetically simple, green, and efficient conditions using a seed-mediated growth approach in the presence of hyaluronic acid (HA). These highly biocompatible multi-shaped gold nanocrystals were examined to evaluate their catalytic and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties. The results show that the size and shape of the nanocrystals are mainly correlated to the amount of seed, seed size, HA concentration, and reaction temperature. Gold seeds accelerate the reduction of the gold precursor to form gold nanocrystals using HA. The HA serves as a reducing agent and a growth template for the reduction of Au(III) and nanocrystal stabilization. The multi-shaped gold nanocrystals showed superior catalytic properties and higher SERS performance. The simple, green approach efficiently controls the nanocrystals and creates many opportunities for future applications.

  8. Green chemistry education in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-06-01

    The Middle East once dominated the age of alchemy, and today it is experiencing a resurgence by transforming the age of petroleum chemicals into a greener science through Estidama. This green conversion is taking place through green chemical research and education. This report examines and reviews the understudied subject of green chemical education in the Middle East through the lens of context and history.

  9. Environmental green chemistry as defined by photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, J.-M. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)]. E-mail: jean-marie.herrmann@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr; Duchamp, C. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Karkmaz, M. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, UMR 5256, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Hoai, Bui Thu [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Lachheb, H. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Puzenat, E. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Guillard, C. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2007-07-31

    Photocatalysis is efficient in several fields. Firstly, in selective mild oxidation: oxidation of gas and liquid hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclo-alkanes, aromatics) into aldehydes and ketons. Primary and secondary alcohols are also oxidized into their corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The high selectivity was ascribed to a photoactive neutral, atomic oxygen species. Once platinized (only 0.5 wt.% Pt) titania may catalyze reactions involving hydrogen (deuterium-alkane isotopic exchange and alcohol dehydrogenation). For fine chemicals, high initial selectivities enable titania to address most of the twelve principles of 'green chemistry', such as the synthesis of 4-tert-butyl-benzaldehyde, an important intermediate in perfume industry by direct selective oxidation of 4-tert-butyl-toluene with air. A new field recently appeared: thio-photocatalysis. Oxygen was replaced by sulfur, using H{sub 2}S as a convenient and reactive source. For instance, the conversion of propene in 1-propanthiol was successfully obtained. The reaction was performed using either CdS or TiO{sub 2}. The latter was much more active than CdS. In environmental photocatalysis, titania becomes a total oxidation catalyst once in presence of water because of the photogeneration of OH{center_dot} radicals by neutralization of OH{sup -} surface groups by positive holes. Many toxic inorganic ions are oxidized in their harmless upper oxidized state. The total degradation of organic pollutants (pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, dyes, etc. ...) is the main field of water photocatalytic decontamination. The UVA solar spectrum can de advantageously used as demonstrated by many campaigns performed in the solar pilot plant at the 'Plataforma Solar de Almeria' (Spain)

  10. Environmental green chemistry as defined by photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, J.-M.; Duchamp, C.; Karkmaz, M.; Hoai, Bui Thu; Lachheb, H.; Puzenat, E.; Guillard, C.

    2007-01-01

    Photocatalysis is efficient in several fields. Firstly, in selective mild oxidation: oxidation of gas and liquid hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclo-alkanes, aromatics) into aldehydes and ketons. Primary and secondary alcohols are also oxidized into their corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The high selectivity was ascribed to a photoactive neutral, atomic oxygen species. Once platinized (only 0.5 wt.% Pt) titania may catalyze reactions involving hydrogen (deuterium-alkane isotopic exchange and alcohol dehydrogenation). For fine chemicals, high initial selectivities enable titania to address most of the twelve principles of 'green chemistry', such as the synthesis of 4-tert-butyl-benzaldehyde, an important intermediate in perfume industry by direct selective oxidation of 4-tert-butyl-toluene with air. A new field recently appeared: thio-photocatalysis. Oxygen was replaced by sulfur, using H 2 S as a convenient and reactive source. For instance, the conversion of propene in 1-propanthiol was successfully obtained. The reaction was performed using either CdS or TiO 2 . The latter was much more active than CdS. In environmental photocatalysis, titania becomes a total oxidation catalyst once in presence of water because of the photogeneration of OH· radicals by neutralization of OH - surface groups by positive holes. Many toxic inorganic ions are oxidized in their harmless upper oxidized state. The total degradation of organic pollutants (pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, dyes, etc. ...) is the main field of water photocatalytic decontamination. The UVA solar spectrum can de advantageously used as demonstrated by many campaigns performed in the solar pilot plant at the 'Plataforma Solar de Almeria' (Spain)

  11. Environmental green chemistry as defined by photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, J-M; Duchamp, C; Karkmaz, M; Hoai, Bui Thu; Lachheb, H; Puzenat, E; Guillard, C

    2007-07-31

    Photocatalysis is efficient in several fields. Firstly, in selective mild oxidation: oxidation of gas and liquid hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclo-alkanes, aromatics) into aldehydes and ketons. Primary and secondary alcohols are also oxidized into their corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The high selectivity was ascribed to a photoactive neutral, atomic oxygen species. Once platinized (only 0.5wt.% Pt) titania may catalyze reactions involving hydrogen (deuterium-alkane isotopic exchange and alcohol dehydrogenation). For fine chemicals, high initial selectivities enable titania to address most of the twelve principles of "green chemistry", such as the synthesis of 4-tert-butyl-benzaldehyde, an important intermediate in perfume industry by direct selective oxidation of 4-tert-butyl-toluene with air. A new field recently appeared: thio-photocatalysis. Oxygen was replaced by sulfur, using H(2)S as a convenient and reactive source. For instance, the conversion of propene in 1-propanthiol was successfully obtained. The reaction was performed using either CdS or TiO(2). The latter was much more active than CdS. In environmental photocatalysis, titania becomes a total oxidation catalyst once in presence of water because of the photogeneration of OH radicals by neutralization of OH(-) surface groups by positive holes. Many toxic inorganic ions are oxidized in their harmless upper oxidized state. The total degradation of organic pollutants (pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, dyes, etc. ...) is the main field of water photocatalytic decontamination. The UVA solar spectrum can de advantageously used as demonstrated by many campaigns performed in the solar pilot plant at the "Plataforma Solar de Almeria" (Spain).

  12. Handbook of green chemistry and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J.; MacQuarrie, D. (eds.)

    2002-05-15

    Sustainable development is now accepted as a necessary goal for achieving societal, economic and environmental objectives. Within this chemistry has a vital role to play. The chemical industry is successful but traditionally success has come at a heavy cost to the environment. The challenge for chemists and others is to develop new products, processes and services that achieve societal, economic and environmental benefits. This requires an approach that reduces the materials and energy intensity of chemical processes and products; minimises the dispersion of harmful chemicals in the environment; maximises the use of renewable resources and extends the durability and recyclability of products in a way that increases industrial competitiveness as well as improve its tarnished image. (author)

  13. Green chemistry measures for process research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constable, D.J.C.; Curzons, A.D.; Freitas dos Santos, L.M. (and others)

    2001-07-01

    A set of metrics has been developed which enables a simple assessment to be made of batch processes in terms of waste, energy usage, and chemistry efficiency. It is intended to raise awareness of green chemistry by providing a tool to assist chemists in monitoring progress in the reduction of environmental impact as they design new routes and modify processes. (author)

  14. Polymeric Medical Sutures: An Exploration of Polymers and Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Cassandra M.; Schneiderman, Deborah K.; Yu, Ming; Javner, Cassidy H.; Distefano, Mark D.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2017-01-01

    With new K-12 national science standards emerging, there is an increased need for experiments that integrate engineering into the context of society. Here we describe a chemistry experiment that combines science and engineering principles while introducing basic polymer and green chemistry concepts. Using medical sutures as a platform for…

  15. The slow birth of green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, I.

    1993-03-12

    Mainstream chemistry is beginning to look at environmental chemistry as an important solution to environmental problems. This can include research into developing cleaner-burning liquid fuels, cleaning up oil spills, or developing better process methods which engender less pollution, as opposed to previous practices of detecting pollutants without preventing their release to begin with. This article discusses the progress of this chemistry discipline, describes some of the ongoing research, and describes the future for environmental chemistry. An impetus for future growth will be generational change, as young scientists in training are beginning to push faculities into creating programs for environmental chemistry.

  16. Diversity-Oriented Approaches to Polycyclics and Bioinspired Molecules via the Diels-Alder Strategy: Green Chemistry, Synthetic Economy, and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotha, Sambasivarao; Chavan, Arjun S; Goyal, Deepti

    2015-05-11

    We describe diverse approaches to various dienes and their utilization in the Diels-Alder reaction to produce a variety of polycycles. The dienes covered here are prepared by simple alkylation reaction or via the Claisen rearrangement or by enyne metathesis of alkyne or enyne building blocks. Here, we have also included the Diels-Alder chemistry of dendralenes, a higher analog of cross-conjugated dienes. The present article is inclusive of o-xylylene derivatives that are generated in situ starting with benzosultine or benzosulfone derivatives. The Diels-Alder reaction of these dienes with various dienophiles gave diverse polycyclic systems and biologically important targets.

  17. Moving Green Chemistry Forward: Networks as a Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, T.; Lough, G.

    2014-12-01

    Green chemistry is a growing discipline, but for a variety of reasons, it has not yet become integrated into science curriculum and the greater societal conscience. With its increasing economic benefits to many sectors including business, industry, and academia and its potential to make science more accessible not only to science students but also to the general citizenry, we suggested answers to the questions: Why has greater success not been realized? What are the particular barriers to wider implementation? And what are incentives and ways to move green chemistry forward? We suggest some strategies and options to both increase the use of green chemistry principles and to also increase stakeholders' understanding of the importance and utility of green chemistry in their daily lives. For example, our main suggestions are that an inclusive, multidisciplinary network would aid in coordinating data and in translating the science into user friendly tools, and that an educational component embedded in this greater effort would also serve to move green chemistry forward.

  18. Alternative Solvents through Green Chemistry Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop state-of-the-art, green precision cleaning technologies for NASA’s 21st Century Launch Complex thus eliminating...

  19. Green chemistry: to rethink chemistry for tomorrow's world. Press briefing of 20 January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Francois

    2015-01-01

    This document discusses various issues related to the development of the green chemistry sector, and mentions and presents activities performed by the CEA in this respect. A first part outlines how green chemistry is an answer to stakes for a sustainable development. The second part addresses metal recycling: recovery of silver from photovoltaic cells, avoiding tensions related to rare earth supply. The third part discusses how to replace dangerous or costly compounds (chromium in aircraft paintings, platinum in fuel cells, ruthenium in photovoltaic cells, rare earth in magnetic wire). The fourth part addresses how to transform wastes into useful products (production of formamides, of aromatic compounds, and of methanol, respectively from waste recycling, natural lignin, and CO_2). The fifth part presents new concepts for chemical synthesis: chemistry under ultrasounds, production of hydrogen from water. The sixth part presents contributions of life sciences to green chemistry: reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, bioremediation (biology for soil rehabilitation), production of molecules of interest by using micro algae, enzymes or bacteria. The last part discusses issues which outline that chemistry is at the heart of challenges for a sustainable nuclear in terms of materials, for a closed fuel cycle, in terms of fuel cycle processes, of installation sanitation and dismantling. Appendices formulate 5 societal challenges for green chemistry, and 12 background principles of green chemistry

  20. Ethanolic carbon-11 chemistry: The introduction of green radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Xia; Fawaz, Maria V.; Jang, Keunsam; Scott, Peter J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinical use. - Highlights: • We report application of the principles of green chemistry to a radiochemistry setting. • Radiopharmaceuticals are prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent. • Green radiochemistry simplifies production and QC in busy clinical production laboratories. • Residual solvent analysis can be relegated to a quarterly or annual QC test

  1. Introduction to the Thematic Minireview Series: Green biological chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Joseph M

    2018-04-06

    Plants and their green cousins cyanobacteria and algae use sunlight to drive the chemistry that lets them grow, survive, and perform an amazing range of biochemical reactions. The ability of these organisms to use a freely available energy source makes them attractive as sustainable and renewable platforms for more than just food production. They are also a source of metabolic tools for engineering microbes for "green" chemistry. This Thematic Minireview Series discusses how green organisms capture light and protect their photosynthetic machinery from too much light; new structural snapshots of the clock complex that orchestrates signaling during the light/dark cycle; challenges for improving stress responses in crops; harnessing cyanobacteria as biofactories; and efforts to engineer microbes for "green" biopolymer production. © 2018 Jez.

  2. A review of drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology and green chemistry: green nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangirian, Hossein; Lemraski, Ensieh Ghasemian; Webster, Thomas J; Rafiee-Moghaddam, Roshanak; Abdollahi, Yadollah

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the impact of green and environmentally safe chemistry on the field of nanotechnology-driven drug delivery in a new field termed "green nanomedicine". Studies have shown that among many examples of green nanotechnology-driven drug delivery systems, those receiving the greatest amount of attention include nanometal particles, polymers, and biological materials. Furthermore, green nanodrug delivery systems based on environmentally safe chemical reactions or using natural biomaterials (such as plant extracts and microorganisms) are now producing innovative materials revolutionizing the field. In this review, the use of green chemistry design, synthesis, and application principles and eco-friendly synthesis techniques with low side effects are discussed. The review ends with a description of key future efforts that must ensue for this field to continue to grow.

  3. Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry: A Lab Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Annegret; Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Kreisel, Guenter; Ondruschka, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Although ionic liquids have been investigated as solvents for many applications and are starting to be used in industrial processes, only a few lab experiments are available to introduce students to these materials. Ionic liquids have been discussed in the context of green chemistry, but few investigations have actually assessed the degree of…

  4. Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Using Tea: A Green Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. K.; Gulati, Shikha; Mehta, Shilpa

    2012-01-01

    Assimilating green chemistry principles in nanotechnology is a developing area of nanoscience research nowadays. Thus, there is a growing demand to develop environmentally friendly and sustainable methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles that utilize nontoxic chemicals, environmentally benign solvents, and renewable materials to avoid their…

  5. Opportunities in Government for Students of Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation focuses on opportunities for students in green chemistry to apply their skills and knowledge in a government setting. Several examples of on-going work as well as opportunities for employment in local, state and federal positions will be discussed.

  6. Ionic liquids and green chemistry : a lab experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, A.; Ott-Reinhardt, D.; Kralisch, D.; Kreisel, G.; Ondruschka, B.

    2010-01-01

    Although ionic liquids have been investigated as solvents for many applications and are starting to be used in industrial processes, only a few lab experiments are available to introduce students to these materials. Ionic liquids have been discussed in the context of green chemistry, but few

  7. A review of drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology and green chemistry: green nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangirian H

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hossein Jahangirian,1 Ensieh Ghasemian Lemraski,2 Thomas J Webster,1 Roshanak Rafiee-Moghaddam,3 Yadollah Abdollahi4 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran; 3School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, 4Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: This review discusses the impact of green and environmentally safe chemistry on the field of nanotechnology-driven drug delivery in a new field termed “green nanomedicine”. Studies have shown that among many examples of green nanotechnology-driven drug delivery systems, those receiving the greatest amount of attention include nanometal particles, polymers, and biological materials. Furthermore, green nanodrug delivery systems based on environmentally safe chemical reactions or using natural biomaterials (such as plant extracts and microorganisms are now producing innovative materials revolutionizing the field. In this review, the use of green chemistry design, synthesis, and application principles and eco-friendly synthesis techniques with low side effects are discussed. The review ends with a description of key future efforts that must ensue for this field to continue to grow. Keywords: green chemistry, cancer, drug delivery, nanoparticle

  8. Using Green Chemistry and Engineering Principles to Design ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concepts of green chemistry and engineering (GC&E) have been promoted as an effective qualitative framework for developing more sustainable chemical syntheses, processes, and material management techniques. This has been demonstrated by many theoretical and practical cases. In addition, there are several approaches and frameworks focused on demonstrating that improvements were achieved through GC&E technologies. However, the application of these principles is not always straightforward. We propose using systematic frameworks and tools that help practitioners when deciding which principles can be applied, the levels of implementation, prospective of obtaining simultaneous improvements in all sustainability aspects, and ways to deal with multiobjective problems. Therefore, this contribution aims to provide a systematic combination of three different and complementary design tools for assisting designers in evaluating, developing, and improving chemical manufacturing and material management systems under GC&E perspectives. The WAR Algorithm, GREENSCOPE, and SustainPro were employed for this synergistic approach of incorporating sustainability at early stages of process development. In this demonstration, simulated ammonia production is used as a case study to illustrate this advancement. Results show how to identify process design areas for improvements, key factors, multi-criteria decision-making solutions, and optimal tradeoffs. Finally, conclusions were pre

  9. Green Chemistry Techniques for Gold Nanoparticles Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavino, Sarah A.; King, Christy A.; Ferrara, Davon W.

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are often utilized in many technological and research applications ranging from the detection of tumors, molecular and biological sensors, and as nanoantennas to probe physical processes. As these applications move from the research laboratory to industrial settings, there is a need to develop efficient and sustainable synthesis techniques. Recent research has shown that several food products and beverages containing polyphenols, a common antioxidant, can be used as reducing agents in the synthesis of AuNPs in solution. In this study, we explore a variety of products to determine which allow for the most reproducible solution of nanoparticles based on the size and shapes of particles present. We analyzed the AuNPs solutions using extinction spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We also develop a laboratory activity to introduce introductory chemistry and physics students to AuNP synthesis techniques and analysis.

  10. Teaching Green and Sustainable Chemistry: A Revised One-Semester Course Based on Inspirations and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteel-Parrish, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    An elective course, "Toward the Greening of Our Minds": Green and Sustainable Chemistry, has been offered at Washington College since 2005. This new course without laboratory is designed for chemistry and biology majors and minors who have previously taken two semesters of general chemistry and organic chemistry. Due to the popularity of…

  11. Green chemistry synthesis of nano-cuprous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceja-Romero, L R; Ortega-Arroyo, L; Ortega Rueda de León, J M; López-Andrade, X; Narayanan, J; Aguilar-Méndez, M A; Castaño, V M

    2016-04-01

    Green chemistry and a central composite design, to evaluate the effect of reducing agent, temperature and pH of the reaction, were employed to produce controlled cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles. Response surface method of the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy is allowed to determine the most relevant factors for the size distribution of the nanoCu2O. X-ray diffraction reflections correspond to a cubic structure, with sizes from 31.9 to 104.3 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the different shapes depend strongly on the conditions of the green synthesis.

  12. Discussion on the Development of Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshen

    2017-11-01

    Chemical industry plays a vital role in the development process of national economy. However, in view of the special nature of the chemical industry, a large number of poisonous and harmful substances pose a great threat to the ecological environment and human health in the entire process of raw material acquisition, production, transportation, product manufacturing, and the final practical application. Therefore, it is a general trend to promote the development of chemistry and chemical engineering towards a greener environment. This article will focus on some basic problems occurred in the development process of green chemistry and chemical engineering.

  13. Applying green chemistry to the photochemical route to artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Zacharias; Bellamy, Jessica F B; Horvath, Raphael; Miller, Samuel J; Beeby, Andrew; Burgard, Andreas; Rossen, Kai; Poliakoff, Martyn; George, Michael W

    2015-06-01

    Artemisinin is an important antimalarial drug, but, at present, the environmental and economic costs of its semi-synthetic production are relatively high. Most of these costs lie in the final chemical steps, which follow a complex acid- and photo-catalysed route with oxygenation by both singlet and triplet oxygen. We demonstrate that applying the principles of green chemistry can lead to innovative strategies that avoid many of the problems in current photochemical processes. The first strategy combines the use of liquid CO2 as solvent and a dual-function solid acid/photocatalyst. The second strategy is an ambient-temperature reaction in aqueous mixtures of organic solvents, where the only inputs are dihydroartemisinic acid, O2 and light, and the output is pure, crystalline artemisinin. Everything else-solvents, photocatalyst and aqueous acid-can be recycled. Some aspects developed here through green chemistry are likely to have wider application in photochemistry and other reactions.

  14. Applying green chemistry to the photochemical route to artemisinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Zacharias; Bellamy, Jessica F. B.; Horvath, Raphael; Miller, Samuel J.; Beeby, Andrew; Burgard, Andreas; Rossen, Kai; Poliakoff, Martyn; George, Michael W.

    2015-06-01

    Artemisinin is an important antimalarial drug, but, at present, the environmental and economic costs of its semi-synthetic production are relatively high. Most of these costs lie in the final chemical steps, which follow a complex acid- and photo-catalysed route with oxygenation by both singlet and triplet oxygen. We demonstrate that applying the principles of green chemistry can lead to innovative strategies that avoid many of the problems in current photochemical processes. The first strategy combines the use of liquid CO2 as solvent and a dual-function solid acid/photocatalyst. The second strategy is an ambient-temperature reaction in aqueous mixtures of organic solvents, where the only inputs are dihydroartemisinic acid, O2 and light, and the output is pure, crystalline artemisinin. Everything else—solvents, photocatalyst and aqueous acid—can be recycled. Some aspects developed here through green chemistry are likely to have wider application in photochemistry and other reactions.

  15. The application of green chemistry methods in organophosphorus synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odinets, Irina L; Matveeva, E V

    2012-01-01

    Data concerning the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds in ionic liquids, in water and under solvent-free conditions are considered and summarized. It is shown that this strategy, which complies with the definition of green chemistry, has advantages in terms of the rate of the process and the yields of target products as compared with syntheses in common organic solvents. The Wittig, Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons, Kabachnik–Fields, Arbuzov and Michaelis reactions are considered as examples. The bibliography includes 178 references.

  16. KEEFEKTIFAN INKUIRI TERBIMBING BERORIENTASI GREEN CHEMISTRY TERHADAP KETERAMPILAN PROSES SAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Amalia Afiyanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the effectiveness of guided inquiry oriented green chemistry for science process skills at XI school grade of SMA in Semarang on 2012/2013 period. The population is normal and homogeneous, so to take two groups of samples using cluster random sampling techniques. Design of this research is posttest only control design. The succes of this research seen from cognitive aspect of student achievement reach KKM. At the final stage of the analysis, the t test used was left-test with t count > t table (1.696. The student achievement for experimental classes obtained t count of 3.860 while the control class 0,914. This suggests that the experimental class has achieved mastery learning, while the control class not yet. The average value of the psychomotor aspects of students in the experimental class was 82.6 which is included in the excellent category and control class was 74 included in good category. In the aspect of Students environmental concern, the average value of the experimental class was 88.65 included in the excellent category and class control was 81.7 included in good category. The conclusion was that the research-oriented guided inquiry of green chemistry proved effectively increase the science process skills.Keywords: Green Chemistry, Guided Inquiry, Science Process Skills

  17. Phytoremediation of Nitrogen as Green Chemistry for Wastewater Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennevey Kinidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is noteworthy that ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater has reportedly posed a great threat to the environment. Although there are several conventional technologies being employed to remediate ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater, they are not sustainable and cost-effective. Along this line, the present study aims to highlight the significance of green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen for wastewater treatment. Notably, ammoniacal nitrogen can be found in many types of sources and it brings harmful effects to the environment. Hence, the present study also reviews the phytoremediation of nitrogen and describes its green chemistry characteristics. Additionally, the different types of wastewater contaminants and their effects on phytoremediation and the phytoremediation consideration in wastewater treatment application and sustainable waste management of harvested aquatic macrophytes were reviewed. Finally, the present study explicates the future perspectives of phytoremediation. Based on the reviews, it can be concluded that green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen have proved that it is sustainable and cost-effective in relation to other existing ammoniacal nitrogen remediation technologies. Therefore, it can be deduced that a cheaper and more environmental friendly ammoniacal nitrogen technology can be achieved with the utilization of phytoremediation in wastewater treatment.

  18. systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    2National Core Group in Chemistry, H.E.J Research Institute of Chemistry,. University of ... innovative way of teaching and learning through systemic approach (SATL) has been .... available to do useful work in a thermodynamic process.

  19. Development of Radioreagents using Green Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Eung Woo; Jang, Seung Ho; Kwon, Hee Jung

    2006-01-01

    The interest for radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of serious illness such as cancer and rheumatism, has increased during the last decade. Radioisotopes of 89Sr, 186Re, 153Sm, 90Y and 166Ho are currently used in the routine practice of medical clinics. Many methods for radioisotope extraction separation have been proposed with growth of nuclear medicine. Crown ethers have an important advantage for metal ion separations, but on the other hand it has difficulties in synthesis and expensive. In recent years, ionic liquids have been developed to save specific synthetic problems. They are considered as green solvents since they are non-volatile, non-flammable, non-toxic, thermally stable and recyclable. Ionic liquid-type crown ether(IL-CE) has been found to behave like a multifunctional compound which is cheep, easy to extraction separation, possibility of recycle and discriminates metal cation according to its size. Dichloro-poly(oxyethylene) was synthesized by chlorination of polyethylene glycol. And it was treated with imidazole and sodium ethoxide to give the 1N,1N'- poly(oxyethyl)- diimidazole, which was then converted to IL-CE with the reaction of dichloro-poly(oxyethylene). Further, anion of IL-CE was exchanged by anion exchange method. Ultimately, we developed very efficient synthetic pathway for IL-CE have various physical and chemical characteristics by the modification of polyethylene glycol chain length and anions. 85/89/90Sr was successfully extracted into cyclo-bis-{1N,1N'-[(3,6,9-Trioxa)-1,11-undecyl]}-diimidazolium chloride {[(3,2)OEtIm][Cl]} phases, but no extracting into [(3,3)OEtIm][Cl] and [(4,3)OEtIm][Cl] are observed. The extraction of 99mTc and 188Re are highly detected at four IL-CEs 99mTc-Labeled N-(3-bromo-2,4,6-trimethylacetanilido)iminodiacetic acid (99mTc-meb- rofenin) has been used to assess the functional integrity of the hepatobiliary system. A fast and convenient procedure was established for the synthesis of mebrofenin and

  20. Development of Radioreagents using Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Eung Woo; Jang, Seung Ho; Kwon, Hee Jung

    2006-01-15

    The interest for radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of serious illness such as cancer and rheumatism, has increased during the last decade. Radioisotopes of 89Sr, 186Re, 153Sm, 90Y and 166Ho are currently used in the routine practice of medical clinics. Many methods for radioisotope extraction separation have been proposed with growth of nuclear medicine. Crown ethers have an important advantage for metal ion separations, but on the other hand it has difficulties in synthesis and expensive. In recent years, ionic liquids have been developed to save specific synthetic problems. They are considered as green solvents since they are non-volatile, non-flammable, non-toxic, thermally stable and recyclable. Ionic liquid-type crown ether(IL-CE) has been found to behave like a multifunctional compound which is cheep, easy to extraction separation, possibility of recycle and discriminates metal cation according to its size. Dichloro-poly(oxyethylene) was synthesized by chlorination of polyethylene glycol. And it was treated with imidazole and sodium ethoxide to give the 1N,1N'- poly(oxyethyl)- diimidazole, which was then converted to IL-CE with the reaction of dichloro-poly(oxyethylene). Further, anion of IL-CE was exchanged by anion exchange method. Ultimately, we developed very efficient synthetic pathway for IL-CE have various physical and chemical characteristics by the modification of polyethylene glycol chain length and anions. 85/89/90Sr was successfully extracted into cyclo-bis-{l_brace}1N,1N'-[(3,6,9-Trioxa)-1,11-undecyl]{r_brace}-diimidazolium chloride {l_brace}[(3,2)OEtIm][Cl]{r_brace} phases, but no extracting into [(3,3)OEtIm][Cl] and [(4,3)OEtIm][Cl] are observed. The extraction of 99mTc and 188Re are highly detected at four IL-CEs 99mTc-Labeled N-(3-bromo-2,4,6-trimethylacetanilido)iminodiacetic acid (99mTc-meb- rofenin) has been used to assess the functional integrity of the hepatobiliary system. A fast and convenient procedure was established

  1. Step-by-Step Simulation of Radiation Chemistry Using Green Functions for Diffusion-Influenced Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiolytic species are formed approximately 1 ps after the passage of ionizing radiation through matter. After their formation, they diffuse and chemically react with other radiolytic species and neighboring biological molecules, leading to various oxidative damage. Therefore, the simulation of radiation chemistry is of considerable importance to understand how radiolytic species damage biological molecules [1]. The step-by-step simulation of chemical reactions is difficult, because the radiolytic species are distributed non-homogeneously in the medium. Consequently, computational approaches based on Green functions for diffusion-influenced reactions should be used [2]. Recently, Green functions for more complex type of reactions have been published [3-4]. We have developed exact random variate generators of these Green functions [5], which will allow us to use them in radiation chemistry codes. Moreover, simulating chemistry using the Green functions is which is computationally very demanding, because the probabilities of reactions between each pair of particles should be evaluated at each timestep [2]. This kind of problem is well adapted for General Purpose Graphic Processing Units (GPGPU), which can handle a large number of similar calculations simultaneously. These new developments will allow us to include more complex reactions in chemistry codes, and to improve the calculation time. This code should be of importance to link radiation track structure simulations and DNA damage models.

  2. Reaction Scale and Green Chemistry: Microscale or Macroscale, Which is Greener?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rita C. C.; Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adelio A. S. C.

    2017-01-01

    The different ways microscale and green chemistry allow reducing the deleterious impacts of chemistry on human health and the environment are discussed in terms of their different basic paradigms: green chemistry follows the ecologic paradigm and microscale the risk paradigm. A study of the synthesis of 1-bromobutane at macro- ? microscale (109.3…

  3. Environmental Chemistry and Chemical Ecology of "Green Tide" Seaweed Blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Nelson, Timothy A; Ridgway, Richard L

    2015-09-01

    Green tides are large growths or accumulations of green seaweeds that have been increasing in magnitude and frequency around the world. Because green tides consist of vast biomasses of algae in a limited area and are often seasonal or episodic, they go through periods of rapid growth in which they take up large amounts of nutrients and dissolved gases and generate bioactive natural products that may be stored in the plants, released into the environment, or broken down during decomposition. As a result of the use and production of inorganic and organic compounds, the algae in these blooms can have detrimental impacts on other organisms. Here, we review some of the effects that green tides have on the chemistry of seawater and the effects of the natural products that they produce. As blooms are developing and expanding, algae in green tides take up inorganic nutrients, such as nitrate and ortho-phosphate, which can limit their availability to other photosynthetic organisms. Their uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon for use in photosynthesis can cause localized spikes in the pH of seawater during the day with concomitant drops in the pH at night when the algae are respiring. Many of the algae that form green-tide blooms produce allelopathic compounds, which are metabolites that affect other species. The best documented allelopathic compounds include dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), dopamine, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their breakdown products. DMSP and dopamine are involved in defenses against herbivores. Dopamine and ROS are released into seawater where they can be allelopathic or toxic to other organisms. Thus, these macroalgal blooms can have harmful effects on nearby organisms by altering concentrations of nutrients and dissolved gas in seawater and by producing and releasing allelopathic or toxic compounds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved

  4. Sense and sustainability: the role of chemistry, green or otherwise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterton, Neil [Leverhulme Centre for Innovative Catalysis, Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, L69 7ZD (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-01

    If their contributions to securing sustainable development are to be effective, then chemists will need to set their work in wider scientific, technical and social contexts. Whether such chemistry should be called ''green'', ''clean'', ''cleaner'' or ''sustainable'' or simply continue to be called chemistry is less important than the fact that chemists should, consciously and continually, apply their knowledge, skill, creativity and intuition to help to anticipate and minimise humanity's impact on the environment we inhabit. In so doing, chemists (and scientists in general) should clearly distinguish between their science and any political activity associated with it. (orig.)

  5. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2015 Specific Environmental Benefit: Climate Change Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2015 award winner, Algenol, blue-green algae to produce ethanol and other fuels, uses CO2 from air or industrial emitters, reduces the carbon footprint, costs and water usage, no reliance on food crops

  6. Chasing molecules: poisonous products, human health, and the promise of green chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grossman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In Chasing Molecules, investigative journalist Elizabeth Grossman opens the door on a new world of chemistry-green chemistry - and the scientists who are unearthing the field's potential to transform...

  7. Contribution of microreactor technology and flow chemistry to the development of green and sustainable synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Fanelli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microreactor technology and flow chemistry could play an important role in the development of green and sustainable synthetic processes. In this review, some recent relevant examples in the field of flash chemistry, catalysis, hazardous chemistry and continuous flow processing are described. Selected examples highlight the role that flow chemistry could play in the near future for a sustainable development.

  8. Contribution of microreactor technology and flow chemistry to the development of green and sustainable synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Flavio; Parisi, Giovanna; Degennaro, Leonardo; Luisi, Renzo

    2017-01-01

    Microreactor technology and flow chemistry could play an important role in the development of green and sustainable synthetic processes. In this review, some recent relevant examples in the field of flash chemistry, catalysis, hazardous chemistry and continuous flow processing are described. Selected examples highlight the role that flow chemistry could play in the near future for a sustainable development.

  9. Designing and Incorporating Green Chemistry Courses at a Liberal Arts College to Increase Students' Awareness and Interdisciplinary Collaborative Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanayakage, Renuka

    2013-01-01

    Two green chemistry courses have been introduced into the liberal arts curriculum at Susquehanna University. Green chemistry was integrated into an existing course, Chemical Concepts, and offered as Green Chemical Concepts for nonscience majors. This course is designed to instill an appreciation for green chemistry in a large and diverse group of…

  10. Chemistry of Stable Carbenes and «Green» Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh, N.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brief analysis of fundamental research in the chemistry of stable carbenes and applications in the field of «green» chemistry on their basis carried out at the L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical Organic & Coal Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine over the last decade is given. Carbene versions of ester Claisen condensation to form zwitterionic compounds, the Leuckart-Wallach reaction with the autoreduction of carbenoid azolium salts, Hofmann cleavage of aminocarbene insertion products, an induced tandem autotransformation of 1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidenes into 5-amidino-1,2,4-triazoles were found. New carbene reactions of ad dition, deesterification, oxidation and complexation were revealed. Effective methods of obtaining stable carbenes and carbenoids were suggested. New types of carbenes, namely benzimidazolylidenes, superstable conjugated biscarbenes and new types of carbenoids were synthesized. The existence of hypernucleophilic carbenes was theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed. The prospects of the use of carbenes and their derivatives, in particular, carbene complexes of transition metals in catalysis of organic reactions and the search of biologically active compounds were shown.

  11. Green Chemistry Teaching in Higher Education: A Review of Effective Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraos, John; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    This account reviews published green chemistry teaching resources in print and online literature and our experiences in teaching the subject to undergraduate students. Effective practices in lecture and laboratory are highlighted and ongoing challenges are addressed, including areas in cutting edge green chemistry research that impact its teaching…

  12. Greening a Chemistry Teaching Methods Course at the School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Hj Ismail, Zurida; Mohamed, Norita

    2011-01-01

    Green chemistry is the design, development and implementation of chemical products and processes to reduce or eliminate the use of sub-stances hazardous to human health and the environment. This article reports on the integration of green chemistry and sustainable development concepts (SDCs) into an existing teaching methods course for chemistry…

  13. Green Chemistry and Sustainability: An Undergraduate Course for Science and Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate lecture course in Green Chemistry and Sustainability has been developed and taught to a "multidisciplinary" group of science and nonscience majors. The course introduced students to the topics of green chemistry and sustainability and also immersed them in usage of the scientific literature. Through literature…

  14. Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga): A Bioorganic Chemistry Practice Using Thin-layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J.; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R.; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together…

  15. Research on the development of green chemistry technology assessment techniques: a material reutilization case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Kim, Sungjune; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a methodology that enables a quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. The study carries out a quantitative evaluation of a particular case of material reutilization by calculating the level of "greenness" i.e., the level of compliance with the principles of green chemistry that was achieved by implementing a green chemistry technology. The results indicate that the greenness level was enhanced by 42% compared to the pre-improvement level, thus demonstrating the economic feasibility of green chemistry. The assessment technique established in this study will serve as a useful reference for setting the direction of industry-level and government-level technological R&D and for evaluating newly developed technologies, which can greatly contribute toward gaining a competitive advantage in the global market.

  16. Green's functions in quantum chemistry - I. The Σ perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, K.L.

    1978-01-01

    As an improvement over the Hartree-Fock approximation, a Green's Function method - the Σ perturbation method - is investigated for molecular calculations. The method is applied to the hydrogen molecule and to the π-electron system of ethylene under PPP approximation. It is found that when the algebraic approximation is used, the energy obtained is better than that of the HF approach, but is not as good as that of the configuration-interaction method. The main advantage of this procedure is that it is devoid of the most serious defect of HF method, viz. incorrect dissociation limits. (K.B.)

  17. Green polymer chemistry: enzyme catalysis for polymer functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sanghamitra; Puskas, Judit E

    2015-05-21

    Enzyme catalyzed reactions are green alternative approaches to functionalize polymers compared to conventional methods. This technique is especially advantageous due to the high selectivity, high efficiency, milder reaction conditions, and recyclability of enzymes. Selected reactions can be conducted under solventless conditions without the application of metal catalysts. Hence this process is becoming more recognized in the arena of biomedical applications, as the toxicity created by solvents and metal catalyst residues can be completely avoided. In this review we will discuss fundamental aspects of chemical reactions biocatalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B, and their application to create new functionalized polymers, including the regio- and chemoselectivity of the reactions.

  18. Green Polymer Chemistry: Enzyme Catalysis for Polymer Functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Sen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme catalyzed reactions are green alternative approaches to functionalize polymers compared to conventional methods. This technique is especially advantageous due to the high selectivity, high efficiency, milder reaction conditions, and recyclability of enzymes. Selected reactions can be conducted under solventless conditions without the application of metal catalysts. Hence this process is becoming more recognized in the arena of biomedical applications, as the toxicity created by solvents and metal catalyst residues can be completely avoided. In this review we will discuss fundamental aspects of chemical reactions biocatalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B, and their application to create new functionalized polymers, including the regio- and chemoselectivity of the reactions.

  19. Second quantized approach to quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surjan, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The subject of this book is the application of the second quantized approach to quantum chemistry. Second quantization is an alternative tool for dealing with many-electron theory. The vast majority of quantum chemical problems are more easily treated using second quantization as a language. This book offers a simple and pedagogical presentation of the theory and some applications. The reader is not supposed to be trained in higher mathematics, though familiarity with elementary quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry is assumed. Besides the basic formalism and standard illustrative applications, some recent topics of quantum chemistry are reviewed in some detail. This book bridges the gap between sophisticated quantum theory and practical quantum chemistry. (orig.)

  20. Second-Guessing Scientists and Engineers: Post Hoc Criticism and the Reform of Practice in Green Chemistry and Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, William T

    2015-10-01

    The article examines and extends work bringing together engineering ethics and Science and Technology Studies, which had built upon Diane Vaughan's analysis of the Challenger shuttle accident as a test case. Reconsidering the use of her term "normalization of deviance," the article argues for a middle path between moralizing against and excusing away engineering practices contributing to engineering disaster. To explore an illustrative pedagogical case and to suggest avenues for constructive research developing this middle path, it examines the emergence of green chemistry and green engineering. Green chemistry began when Paul Anastas and John Warner developed a set of new rules for chemical synthesis that sought to learn from missed opportunities to avoid environmental damage in the twentieth century, an approach that was soon extended to engineering as well. Examination of tacit assumptions about historical counterfactuals in recent, interdisciplinary discussions of green chemistry illuminate competing views about the field's prospects. An integrated perspective is sought, addressing how both technical practice within chemistry and engineering and the influence of a wider "social movement" can play a role in remedying environmental problems.

  1. Using Green Chemistry and Engineering Principles to Design, Assess, and Retrofit Chemical Processes for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concepts of green chemistry and engineering (GC&E) have been promoted as an effective qualitative framework for developing more sustainable chemical syntheses, processes, and material management techniques. This has been demonstrated by many theoretical and practical cases. I...

  2. Notification: Evaluation of EPA's Green Chemistry Challenge Awards and Use of Data from the Award Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY18-0003, January 9, 2018. The OIG plans to begin preliminary research to evaluate the agency's Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards and how the agency uses the data from the award nominations.

  3. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Designing Greener Chemicals and Specific Environmental Benefit: Climate Change Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Newlight Technologies, developed a net carbon negative plastic made from methane-based GHG. It is cheaper than petroleum-based plastic; used to make cell phone cases, furniture, and other products.

  4. GREEN REACTION CHEMISTRIES PERFORMED IN THE SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE (STT) REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Kreido Laboratories have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) collaboration, to develop and commercialize green and sustainable chemistries in the area of industrial chemical synthesis. Utilizi...

  5. A green chemistry-based classification model for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment of implementation of green chemistry principles in the synthesis of nanomaterials is a complex decision-making problem that necessitates integration of several evaluation criteria. Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding (MCDA) provides support for such a challenge. One ...

  6. Carbohydrate Green Chemistry: C-Glycoside Ketones as Potential Chiral Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Green chemistry" methods to produce new chemicals from renewable agricultural feedstocks will decrease our dependence on imported petroleum feedstocks and lower the environmental impact of consumer products. Our current research focuses on development of new carbohydrate-based derivatives, "locked...

  7. Understanding `green chemistry' and `sustainability': an example of problem-based learning (PBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Tuğçe; Akkuzu, Nalan; Alpat, Şenol

    2017-10-01

    Background: This study uses problem-based learning (PBL) to ensure that students comprehend the significance of green chemistry better by experiencing the stages of identifying the problem, developing hypotheses, and providing solutions within the problem-solving process.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2005 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award (Merck & Co., Inc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, Merck, designed an atom-economical, energy- and water-saving, convergent synthesis for aprepitant, the active ingredient in Emend, a drug for nausea and vomiting.

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2010 Academic Award - James C. Liao and Easel Biotechnologies, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winner, Dr. James C. Liao, genetically engineered microorganisms to make higher alcohols (with 3 to 8 carbon atoms) from glucose or directly from carbon dioxide (CO2).

  10. A probabilistic approach to controlling crevice chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millett, P.J.; Brobst, G.E.; Riddle, J.

    1995-01-01

    It has been generally accepted that the corrosion of steam generator tubing could be reduced if the local pH in regions where impurities concentrate could be controlled. The practice of molar ratio control is based on this assumption. Unfortunately, due to the complexity of the crevice concentration process, efforts to model the crevice chemistry based on bulk water conditions are quite uncertain. In-situ monitoring of the crevice chemistry is desirable, but may not be achievable in the near future. The current methodology for assessing the crevice chemistry is to monitor the hideout return chemistry when the plant shuts down. This approach also has its shortcomings, but may provide sufficient data to evaluate whether the crevice pH is in a desirable range. In this paper, an approach to controlling the crevice chemistry based on a target molar ratio indicator is introduced. The molar ratio indicator is based on what is believed to be the most reliable hideout return data. Probabilistic arguments are then used to show that the crevice pH will most likely be in a desirable range when the target molar ratio is achieved

  11. Prospective Symbiosis of Green Chemistry and Energetic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchurov, Ilya V; Zharkov, Mikhail N; Fershtat, Leonid L; Makhova, Nina N; Zlotin, Sergey G

    2017-10-23

    A global increase in environmental pollution demands the development of new "cleaner" chemical processes. Among urgent improvements, the replacement of traditional hydrocarbon-derived toxic organic solvents with neoteric solvents less harmful for the environment is one of the most vital issues. As a result of the favorable combination of their unique properties, ionic liquids (ILs), dense gases, and supercritical fluids (SCFs) have gained considerable attention as suitable green chemistry media for the preparation and modification of important chemical compounds and materials. In particular, they have a significant potential in a specific and very important area of research associated with the manufacture and processing of high-energy materials (HEMs). These large-scale manufacturing processes, in which hazardous chemicals and extreme conditions are used, produce a huge amount of hard-to-dispose-of waste. Furthermore, they are risky to staff, and any improvements that would reduce the fire and explosion risks of the corresponding processes are highly desirable. In this Review, useful applications of almost nonflammable ILs, dense gases, and SCFs (first of all, CO 2 ) for nitration and other reactions used for manufacturing HEMs are considered. Recent advances in the field of energetic (oxygen-balanced and hypergolic) ILs are summarized. Significant attention is paid to the SCF-based micronization techniques, which improve the energetic performance of HEMs through an efficient control of the morphology and particle size distribution of the HEM fine particles, and to useful applications of SCFs in HEM processing that makes them less hazardous. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Sustainable Practices in Medicinal Chemistry Part 2: Green by Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliagas, Ignacio; Berger, Raphaëlle; Goldberg, Kristin; Nishimura, Rachel T; Reilly, John; Richardson, Paul; Richter, Daniel; Sherer, Edward C; Sparling, Brian A; Bryan, Marian C

    2017-07-27

    With the development of ever-expanding synthetic methodologies, a medicinal chemist's toolkit continues to swell. However, with finite time and resources as well as a growing understanding of our field's environment impact, it is critical to refine what can be made to what should be made. This review seeks to highlight multiple cheminformatic approaches in drug discovery that can influence and triage design and execution impacting the likelihood of rapidly generating high-value molecules in a more sustainable manner. This strategy gives chemists the tools to design and refine vast libraries, stress "druglikeness", and rapidly identify SAR trends. Project success, i.e., identification of a clinical candidate, is then reached faster with fewer molecules with the farther-reaching ramification of using fewer resources and generating less waste, thereby helping "green" our field.

  13. USING GREEN CHEMISTRY FROM THE ONSET TO IMPROVE AND AID PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twelve principles of green chemistry provide a foundation and pathway which allows researchers to incorporate greenness into existing reactions or when developing new technologies. Research from our laboratory has adopted many of these principles and utilizes them as a majo...

  14. Extraction and Antibacterial Properties of Thyme Leaf Extracts: Authentic Practice of Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Sean C.; Pande, Prithvi; Lin, Yingxin; Rivera, Ernesto J.; Paw U, Latisha; Smallwood, Luisa M.; Kerstiens, Geri A.; Armstrong, Laura B.; Robak, MaryAnn T.; Baranger, Anne M.; Douskey, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    In this undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment, students quantitatively assess the antibacterial activity of essential oils found in thyme leaves ("Thymus vulgaris") in an authentic, research-like environment. This multi-week experiment aims to instill green chemistry principles as intrinsic to chemical problem solving. Students…

  15. Comparing Amide-Forming Reactions Using Green Chemistry Metrics in an Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennie, Michael W.; Roth, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, upper-division undergraduate chemistry and biochemistry majors investigate amide-bond-forming reactions from a green chemistry perspective. Using hydrocinnamic acid and benzylamine as reactants, students perform three types of amide-forming reactions: an acid chloride derivative route; a coupling reagent promoted…

  16. Step-by-Step Simulation of Radiation of Radiation Chemistry Using Green Functions for Diffusion-Influenced Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The irradiation of biological systems leads to the formation of radiolytic species such as H(raised dot), (raised dot)OH, H2, H2O2, e(sup -)(sub aq), etc.[1]. These species react with neighboring molecules, which result in damage in biological molecules such as DNA. Radiation chemistry is there for every important to understand the radiobiological consequences of radiation[2]. In this work, we discuss an approach based on the exact Green Functions for diffusion-influenced reactions which may be used to simulate radiation chemistry and eventually extended to study more complex systems, including DNA.

  17. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  18. Priority survey between indicators and analytic hierarchy process analysis for green chemistry technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjune; Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the indicators and proxy variables for the quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies and evaluates the relative importance of each assessment element by consulting experts from the fields of ecology, chemistry, safety, and public health. The results collected were subjected to an analytic hierarchy process to obtain the weights of the indicators and the proxy variables. These weights may prove useful in avoiding having to resort to qualitative means in absence of weights between indicators when integrating the results of quantitative assessment by indicator. This study points to the limitations of current quantitative assessment techniques for green chemistry technologies and seeks to present the future direction for quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies.

  19. Environmental literacy with green chemistry oriented in 21st century learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarlis, Ibnu, Suhadi; Rahayu, Sri; Sutrisno

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the design of chemistry subject with green chemistry oriented to improve students' environmental literacy as one of the important requirements of 21st century learning. This research used R&D design which consisted of four stages, i.e. preliminary study, the study of literature, development of materials, and expert and empirical validation. This article presents the results of preliminary study and the study of literature. It can be concluded from the results of an analysis that environmental literacy is one of the important components of learning outcomes which should be pursued in 21st century teaching. Philosophy of green chemistry plays an important role to reduce and prevent pollution of environment. Principles of green chemistry can be integrated into learning environment as learning outcomes or nurturant effects of learning.

  20. Green Chemistry for Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Future Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preeti Nigam, Joshi, E-mail: ph.joshi@ncl.res.in [Combichem Bioresource Center, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India)

    2016-01-26

    Nanotechnology is a paradigm for emerging technologies and much talked about area of science. It is the technology of future and has revolutionized all fields of medicine, agriculture, environmental and electronics by providing abilities that would never have previously dreamt of. It is a unique platform of multidisciplinary approaches integrating diverse fields of engineering, biology, physics and chemistry. In recent years, nanotechnology has seen the fastest pace in its all aspects of synthesis methodologies and wide applications in all areas of medicine, agricultural, environmental, and electronics. It is the impact of nanotechnology approaches that new fields of nanomedicine, cancer nanotechnology, nanorobotics and nanoelectronics have been emerged and are flourishing with the advances in this expanding field. Nanotechnology holds the potential for pervasive and promising applications and getting significant attention and financial aids also. Although there are different definitions of nanotechnology, in broad prospective, nanotechnology can be described as designing or exploiting materials at nanometer dimensions (i.e., one dimension less than 100 nanometers). At nanoscale, substances have a larger surface area to volume ratio than conventional materials which is the prime reason behind their increased level of reactivity, improved and size tunable magnetic, optical and electrical properties and more toxicity also.

  1. Green Chemistry for Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Future Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preeti Nigam, Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a paradigm for emerging technologies and much talked about area of science. It is the technology of future and has revolutionized all fields of medicine, agriculture, environmental and electronics by providing abilities that would never have previously dreamt of. It is a unique platform of multidisciplinary approaches integrating diverse fields of engineering, biology, physics and chemistry. In recent years, nanotechnology has seen the fastest pace in its all aspects of synthesis methodologies and wide applications in all areas of medicine, agricultural, environmental, and electronics. It is the impact of nanotechnology approaches that new fields of nanomedicine, cancer nanotechnology, nanorobotics and nanoelectronics have been emerged and are flourishing with the advances in this expanding field. Nanotechnology holds the potential for pervasive and promising applications and getting significant attention and financial aids also. Although there are different definitions of nanotechnology, in broad prospective, nanotechnology can be described as designing or exploiting materials at nanometer dimensions (i.e., one dimension less than 100 nanometers). At nanoscale, substances have a larger surface area to volume ratio than conventional materials which is the prime reason behind their increased level of reactivity, improved and size tunable magnetic, optical and electrical properties and more toxicity also

  2. Towards Eco-reflexive Science Education. A Critical Reflection About Educational Implications of Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper; Eilks, Ingo; Zuin, Vânia G.

    2016-05-01

    The modern world can be described as a globalized risk society. It is characterized by increasing complexity, unpredictable consequences of techno-scientific innovations and production, and its environmental consequences. Therefore, chemistry, just like many other knowledge areas, is in an ongoing process of environmentalization. For example, green chemistry has emerged as a new chemical metadiscipline and movement. The philosophy of green chemistry was originally based on a suggestion of twelve principles for environment-friendly chemistry research and production. The present article problematizes limitations in green chemistry when it comes to education. It argues that the philosophy of green chemistry in the context of education needs to be extended with socio-critical perspectives to form educated professionals and citizens who are able to understand the complexity of the world, to make value-based decisions, and to become able to engage more thoroughly in democratic decision-making on sustainability issues. Different versions of sustainability-oriented science/chemistry education are discussed to sharpen a focus on the most complex type, which is Bildung-oriented, focusing emancipation and leading to eco-reflexive education. The term eco- reflexive is used for a problematizing stance towards the modern risk society, an understanding of the complexity of life and society and their interactions, and a responsibility for individual and collective actions towards socio-ecojustice and global sustainability. The philosophical foundation and characteristics of eco-reflexive science education are sketched on in the article.

  3. Choosing the Greenest Synthesis: A Multivariate Metric Green Chemistry Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sean M.; Andraos, John; Jessop, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to correctly identify the greenest of several syntheses is a particularly useful asset for young chemists in the growing green economy. The famous univariate metrics atom economy and environmental factor provide insufficient information to allow for a proper selection of a green process. Multivariate metrics, such as those used in…

  4. Formation of ZnO-Cd(OH){sub 2} core-shell nanoparticles by sol-gel method: An approach to modify surface chemistry for stable and enhanced green emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Rupali, E-mail: rupalimishra@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Nanophosphor Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Yadav, Raghvendra S.; Pandey, Avinash C. [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Nanophosphor Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Sanjay, Sharda. S. [Department of Chemistry, Ewing Christian College, Allahabad (India); Dar, Chitra [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India)

    2010-03-15

    We report the formation of highly stable and luminescent ZnO-Cd(OH){sub 2} core-shell nanoparticles by simple introduction of cadmium salt in the initial precursor solution, used to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles by sol-gel route. The cadmium to zinc salt concentration ratio has been also varied to control the growth of ZnO nanoparticles at the smaller particle size. Formation of ZnO-Cd(OH){sub 2} core-shell nanostructure has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). UV-vis absorption spectroscopy exhibits blue-shift in absorption edge on increasing cadmium concentrations. The photoluminescence emission spectra showed the remarkably stable and enhanced visible (green) emission from suspended ZnO-Cd(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles in comparison to bare ZnO nanoparticles. It is postulated that Cd(OH){sub 2} layer at the surface of ZnO nanoparticles prevents the agglomeration of nanoparticles and efficiently assists the trapping of hole at the surface site, a first step necessary for visible emission. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) also supports our assumption about surface chemistry.

  5. Making Students Eat Their Greens: Information Skills for Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sarah; Munshi, Tasnim

    2016-01-01

    Employers are increasingly requiring a range of "soft" skills from chemistry graduates, including the ability to search for and critically evaluate information. This paper discusses the issues around encouraging chemistry students to engage with information skills and suggests curricular changes which may help to "drip-feed"…

  6. Making Students Eat Their Greens: Information Skills for Chemistry Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah George

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Employers are increasingly requiring a range of "soft" skills from chemistry graduates, including the ability to search for and critically evaluate information. This paper discusses the issues around encouraging chemistry students to engage with information skills and suggests curricular changes which may help to "drip-feed" information skills into degree programs.

  7. Study of photocatalytic asset of the ZnSnO3 synthesized by green chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok V. Borhade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a simple one-step mechanochemical synthesis method with a green chemistry approach for a light-induced heterogeneous oxide photocatalyst, ZnSnO3. The catalyst was characterized by various investigative techniques, like Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, Diffused Reflectance UV–visible Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Tunnelling Electron Microscopy, and Thermogravimetric analysis to carry out structural and spectroscopic properties of the photocatalyst. The synthesized ZnSnO3 particles had an average size of 105 nm with a band gap of 3.34 eV. The photocatalyst was thermally stable over a wide range of temperatures. The sunlight mediated degradation of Methyl blue, Indigo carmine and Acid violet dyes were achieved by using ZnSnO3.

  8. Occupational safety and health, green chemistry, and sustainability: a review of areas of convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul A; McKernan, Lauralynn T; Heidel, Donna S; Okun, Andrea H; Dotson, Gary Scott; Lentz, Thomas J; Geraci, Charles L; Heckel, Pamela E; Branche, Christine M

    2013-04-15

    With increasing numbers and quantities of chemicals in commerce and use, scientific attention continues to focus on the environmental and public health consequences of chemical production processes and exposures. Concerns about environmental stewardship have been gaining broader traction through emphases on sustainability and "green chemistry" principles. Occupational safety and health has not been fully promoted as a component of environmental sustainability. However, there is a natural convergence of green chemistry/sustainability and occupational safety and health efforts. Addressing both together can have a synergistic effect. Failure to promote this convergence could lead to increasing worker hazards and lack of support for sustainability efforts. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has made a concerted effort involving multiple stakeholders to anticipate and identify potential hazards associated with sustainable practices and green jobs for workers. Examples of potential hazards are presented in case studies with suggested solutions such as implementing the hierarchy of controls and prevention through design principles in green chemistry and green building practices. Practical considerations and strategies for green chemistry, and environmental stewardship could benefit from the incorporation of occupational safety and health concepts which in turn protect affected workers.

  9. Development of solvent-free ambient mass spectrometry for green chemistry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengyuan; Forni, Amanda; Chen, Hao

    2014-04-15

    Green chemistry minimizes chemical process hazards in many ways, including eliminating traditional solvents or using alternative recyclable solvents such as ionic liquids. This concept is now adopted in this study for monitoring solvent-free reactions and analysis of ionic liquids, solids, and catalysts by mass spectrometry (MS), without using any solvent. In our approach, probe electrospray ionization (PESI), an ambient ionization method, was employed for this purpose. Neat viscous room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in trace amounts (e.g., 25 nL) could be directly analyzed without sample carryover effect, thereby enabling high-throughput analysis. With the probe being heated, it can also ionize ionic solid compounds such as organometallic complexes as well as a variety of neat neutral solid chemicals (e.g., amines). More importantly, moisture-sensitive samples (e.g., [bmim][AlCl4]) can be successfully ionized. Furthermore, detection of organometallic catalysts (including air-sensitive [Rh-MeDuPHOS][OTf]) in ionic liquids, a traditionally challenging task due to strong ion suppression effect from ionic liquids, can be enabled using PESI. In addition, PESI can be an ideal approach for monitoring solvent-free reactions. Using PESI-MS, we successfully examined the alkylation of amines by alcohols, the conversion of pyrylium into pyridinium, and the condensation of aldehydes with indoles as well as air- and moisture-sensitive reactions such as the oxidation of ferrocene and the condensation of pyrazoles with borohydride. Interestingly, besides the expected reaction products, the reaction intermediates such as the monopyrazolylborate ion were also observed, providing insightful information for reaction mechanisms. We believe that the presented solvent-free PESI-MS method would impact the green chemistry field.

  10. Interface of nanocatalysis and microfluidic reactors for green chemistry methods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makgwane, PR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of green catalytic methods for chemical synthesis and energy generation based on nanocoated catalyst microfluidic systems is a growing area of innovative research. The interface between heterogeneous catalysis and microchannel...

  11. How green is green chemistry? Chlorophylls as a bioresource from biorefineries and their commercial potential in medicine and photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Aoife A; Senge, Mathias O

    2015-04-01

    As the world strives to create a more sustainable environment, green chemistry has come to the fore in attempts to minimize the use of hazardous materials and shift the focus towards renewable sources. Chlorophylls, being the definitive "green" chemical are rarely used for such purposes and this article focuses on the exploitation of this natural resource, the current applications of chlorophylls and their derivatives whilst also providing a perspective on the commercial potential of large-scale isolation of these pigments from biomass for energy and medicinal applications.

  12. A strategic approach to a green economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumka, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    The crash has happened and we face dual market failures: climate change and the greatest economic crisis of our lifetimes. American labor believes that we must have a strategic approach to greening the economy centered on domestic investment in new technologies, the creation of good jobs, and leading a shared international response to both these issues. The nay-sayers are the same financial and industrial interests that advised the world economy into chaos. Their advice to us is more of the same: no rules, no regulations, free markets, and free trade. But now is the time for real change.

  13. Barriers to the implementation of green chemistry in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, Kira J M; Clark, William C; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2012-10-16

    This paper investigates the conditions under which firms are able to develop and implement innovations with sustainable development benefits. In particular, we examine "green chemistry" innovations in the United States. Via interviews with green chemistry leaders from industry, academia, nongovernmental institutions (NGOs), and government, we identified six major categories of challenges commonly confronted by innovators: (1) economic and financial, (2) regulatory, (3) technical, (4) organizational, (5) cultural, and (6) definition and metrics. Further analysis of these barriers shows that in the United States, two elements of these that are particular to the implementation of green chemistry innovations are the absence of clear definitions and metrics for use by researchers and decision makers, as well as the interdisciplinary demands of these innovations on researchers and management. Finally, we conclude with some of the strategies that have been successful thus far in overcoming these barriers, and the types of policies which could have positive impacts moving forward.

  14. Sulfanyl Radical Addition to Alkynes: Revisiting an Old Reaction to Enter the Novel Realms of Green Chemistry, Bioconjugation, and Material Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Monesi, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade considerable attention has been devoted to the rewarding use of Green Chemistry in various synthetic processes and applications. Green Chemistry is of special interest in the synthesis of expensive pharmaceutical products, where suitable adoption of “green” reagents and conditions is highly desirable. Our project especially focused in a search for new green radical processes which might also find useful applications in the industry. In particular, we have explored the po...

  15. Green Chemistry; Sviluppo sostenibile. L'industria ha bisogno del contributo di tutti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingallina, P. [EniTecnologie SpA, San Donato Milanese, MI (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    Everyone acknowledges that chemistry is a key science in order to study and solve the problems of the environment: a successful arranging technological progress with environment protection is one of the main challenge of the next millennium. The Green Chemistry (or Sustainable Chemistry) represents the specific contribution that chemists can supply for an environmentally compatible development. [Italian] Fabrizio d'Adda, attualmente Presidente di EniChem e membro di Cefic (European Chemical Industry Council), ha aperto il seminario {sup T}he Greening of Chemistry{sup (}EniTecnologie - 31 Ottobre 2000) con un breve discorso. Ha espresso parole di fiducia riguardo al futuro dell'industria chimica, l'unica a suo giudizio, in grado di avviare un nuovo modello di sviluppo nel rispetto delle implicazioni ambientali, sociali ed economiche.

  16. Desenvolvimento sustentável e química verde Sustainable development and green chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Martins da Silva

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The world is in a process of awakening with respect to the environment. Our society has started to recognize that the environment is one of our largest resources and has begun legally enforce its protection. In Brazil, the environmental law is constitutionally guaranteed. International treaties have been signed, amongst them the Agenda 21 which is a commitment to sustainable development. Green Chemistry is a strategy that helps make this commitment. The literature presents many examples of studies of the application of Green Chemistry philosophy. In this paper we will present some points that we believe to be important and promising.

  17. Biogenic synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and prospects toward green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Syed Farooq; Assal, Mohamed E; Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2015-06-07

    The immense importance of nanoparticles and their applications is a strong motivation for exploring new synthetic techniques. However, due to strict regulations that manage the potential environmental impacts greener alternatives for conventional synthesis are the focus of intense research. In the scope of this perspective, a concise discussion about the use of green reducing and stabilizing agents toward the preparation of metal nanoparticles is presented. Reports on the synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using plant extracts, ascorbic acid and sodium citrate as green reagents are summarized and discussed, pointing toward an urgent need of understanding the mechanistic aspects of the involved reactions.

  18. Developing green supply chain management strategies: A taxonomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mutingi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this research is to explore the empirical green supply chain activities found in literature, and to develop a taxonomic framework that can be used for formulating appropriate strategies for green supply chains, based on characteristic dimensions for the green supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: The taxonomic framework is developed through (i analysis of green supply chain activities found in existing empirical work or case studies recorded in literature, (ii identification of key dimensions that influence green supply chain management strategies, and (iii development of a taxonomic scheme for selecting or developing green strategies. Findings: The paper finds that this study yielded: a set of three characteristic dimensions that influence strategic green supply chain management, and a guided structured approach selecting appropriate green strategies, providing managerial insights. Research limitations/implications: This paper shows that future work includes development of specific performance management indices according to the taxonomy of green strategies developed in this study. Practical implications: This research provided a practical guided approach that enhances appropriate formulation of green strategies for green supply chain management, while providing sound managerial insights for the supply chain decision maker. The choice of supply chain strategy directly impacts the overall environmental, economic and operations performance of the supply chain. Originality/value: This study presents to supply chain decision makers a new taxonomic framework that simplifies and enhances the formulation of green strategies, and to researchers a comparative understanding of various strategies applicable to green supply chains.

  19. A materials informatics approach for crystal chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chang Sun

    This thesis addresses one of the fundamental questions in materials crystal chemistry, namely why do atoms arrange themselves in the way they do? The ability to broadly design and predict new phases [i.e. crystal structures] can be partly met using concepts that employ phase homologies. Homologous series of compounds are those that seem chemically diverse but can be expressed in terms of a mathematical formula that is capable of producing each chemical member in that crystal structure. A well-established strategy to help discover new compounds -- or at least to try to develop chemical design strategies for discovery -- is to search, organize and classify homologous compounds from known data. These classification schemes are developed with the hope that they can provide sufficient insight to help us forecast with some certainty, specific new phases or compounds. Yet, while the classification schemes (over a dozen have been reported in the last 50 years) have proved to be instructive, mostly in hindsight, but they have had limited impact, if at all, on the a priori design of materials chemistry. The aim of this research project is to develop a totally new approach to the study of chemical complexity in materials science using the tools of information theory and data science, which link diverse and high dimensional data derived from physical modeling and experiments. A very large scale binary AB2 crystallographic database is used as a data platform to develop a new data mining/informatics protocol based on high dimensional recursive partitioning schemes coupled to information theoretic measures to: (1) Identify which type of structure prototype is preferred over another for a given chemistry of compound; (2) discover new classification schemes of structure/chemistry/property relationships that classical homologies do not detect and finally we; (3) Extract and organize the underlying design rules for the formation of a given structure by quantitatively assessing the

  20. Green chemistry and nanofabrication in a levitated Leidenfrost drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ramzy; Disci-Zayed, Duygu; Hedayati, Mehdi Keshavarz; Pöhls, Jan-Hendrik; Zillohu, Ahnaf Usman; Erkartal, Burak; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Duppel, Viola; Kienle, Lorenz; Elbahri, Mady

    2013-10-01

    Green nanotechnology focuses on the development of new and sustainable methods of creating nanoparticles, their localized assembly and integration into useful systems and devices in a cost-effective, simple and eco-friendly manner. Here we present our experimental findings on the use of the Leidenfrost drop as an overheated and charged green chemical reactor. Employing a droplet of aqueous solution on hot substrates, this method is capable of fabricating nanoparticles, creating nanoscale coatings on complex objects and designing porous metal in suspension and foam form, all in a levitated Leidenfrost drop. As examples of the potential applications of the Leidenfrost drop, fabrication of nanoporous black gold as a plasmonic wideband superabsorber, and synthesis of superhydrophilic and thermal resistive metal-polymer hybrid foams are demonstrated. We believe that the presented nanofabrication method may be a promising strategy towards the sustainable production of functional nanomaterials.

  1. A New Way to Produce Cellobiose Carbonates Using Green Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiari, R; Brochier-Salon, M-C; Mhenni, M F; Mauret, E; Belgacem, M N

    2016-08-23

    The preparation of cellulose derivatives using green (i.e., environmentally friendly) reagents would improve sustainability and reduce concerns arising from the use of non-green reagents. The objective of this work was to prepare cellobiose carbonate using a green reagent, dimethyl carbonate. The carbonation reaction was carried out in the presence of ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution and dimethyl carbonate for 6 h at a range of temperatures (25-70 °C). A cellobiose derivative was successfully prepared with a recovered yield of more than 70 % and characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy techniques. The presence of a grafted disaccharide with a degree of substitution higher than 2 was determined by (13) C NMR analysis. The spectra of the prepared cellobiose carbonate exhibited peaks that were associated with cellulose molecules (C1 -C6 ) and corresponded to carbonate functions at around 159.4 ppm. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Determination of Mercury in Milk by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence: A Green Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Green analytical chemistry principles were introduced to undergraduate students in a laboratory experiment focused on determining the mercury concentration in cow and goat milk. In addition to traditional goals, such as accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and limits of detection in method selection and development, attention was paid to the…

  3. Solventless and One-Pot Synthesis of Cu(II) Phthalocyanine Complex: A Green Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. K.; Sharma, Chetna; Sidhwani, Indu Tucker

    2011-01-01

    With the growing awareness of green chemistry, it is increasingly important for students to understand this concept in the context of laboratory experiments. Although microwave-assisted organic synthesis has become a common and invaluable technique in recent years, there have been few procedures published for microwave-assisted inorganic synthesis…

  4. PENGGUNAAN PENDEKATAN CHEMO-ENTREPRENEURSHIP BERORIENTASI GREEN CHEMISTRY UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN LIFE SKILL SISWA SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersanghono Kusuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan life skill siswa dengan hasilbelajar termasuk di dalamnya, dengan menerapkan pendekatan chemo-entrepreneurship(CEP berorientasi green chemistry. Fokus yang diteliti adalah untuk meningkatkankemampuan life skill dan hasil belajar siswa dengan menggunakan pendekatan CEPberorientasi green chemistry. Berdasarkan analisis data hasil penelitian pada siklus Idiperoleh rata-rata nilai dan ketuntasan life skill siswa masing-masing adalah 53,55 dan65% dengan kriteria sedang, pada siklus II meningkat dibandingkan siklus I dengan kriteriabaik, serta rata-rata nilai dan ketuntasan life skill siswa menjadi 60,025 dan 92,5%. Padasiklus III meningkat dibandingkan siklus II, yaitu kemampuan life skill siswa tergolong baikyaitu diperoleh nilai rata-rata dan ketuntasan life skill masing-masing sebesar 63,64 dan100%. Rata-rata nilai kognitif siswa pada siklus I adalah 65,49 dengan ketuntasan 70%, padasiklus II ketuntasan klasikal hasil belajar kognitif meningkat sebesar 12,5% yaitu dari 70%menjadi 82,5% sedangkan nilai rata-rata kelas menjadi 70,99. Pada siklus III ketuntasanklasikal hasil belajar kognitif meningkat 17,5% dari siklus II yaitu dari 82,5% menjadi100% serta nilai rata-rata kelas menjadi 75. Dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwadengan menggunakan pendekatan CEP berorientasi green chemistry dapat meningkatkankemampuan life skill siswa dan hasil belajar siswa. Kata Kunci : chemo-entrepreneurship, life skill, green chemistry

  5. Understanding "Green Chemistry" and "Sustainability": An Example of Problem-Based Learning (PBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Tugçe; Akkuzu, Nalan; Alpat, Senol

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study uses problem-based learning (PBL) to ensure that students comprehend the significance of green chemistry better by experiencing the stages of identifying the problem, developing hypotheses, and providing solutions within the problem-solving process. Purpose: The aim of this study is to research the effect of PBL implemented…

  6. Nitration of Phenols Using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2]: Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Urvashi; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-complete, microwave-assisted, green chemistry, electrophilic nitration method for phenol using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2] in acetic acid is discussed. With this experiment, students clearly understand the mechanism underlying the nitration reaction in one laboratory session. (Contains 4 schemes.)

  7. Green Oxidation of Menthol Enantiomers and Analysis by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, H. Cristina; Donohoe, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry addresses environmental concerns associated with chemical processes and increases awareness of possible harmful effects of chemical reagents. Efficient reactions that eliminate or reduce the use of organic solvents or toxic reagents are increasingly available. A two-week experiment is reported that entails the calcium hypochlorite…

  8. "Green chemistry": os 12 princípios da química verde e sua inserção nas atividades de ensino e pesquisa Green chemistry: the 12 principles of green chemistry and it insertion in the teach and research activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder João Lenardão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry ¾ defined as the design, development, and application of chemical processes and products to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human health and the environment. This article summarizes the 12 principles of green chemistry, describing how they have been applied to the academic, industrial and research activities around the world.

  9. A Fuzzy MCDM Approach to Evaluate Green Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Cifci

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the effect of industrial production on the environment brought out the importance of the green concept in supply chains. Particularly for supplier firms, greening is essential in a supply chain because with growing worldwide awareness of environmental protection, green production has become an important theme for almost every manufacturer. While literature related to supplier evaluation is plentiful, the works on green supplier evaluation are rather limited. Therefore, a green supplier evaluation model is proposed in this study. Due to its multi-criteria nature, the green supplier evaluation process requires an appropriate multi criteria analysis and solution approach. Selecting a proper method involves an insight analysis among available multi-criteria decision making (MCDM techniques. Among numerous methods of MCDM, this paper presents a decision framework based on group decision making (GDM and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP for evaluating and selecting green suppliers. The applicability of the proposed approach is verified through a case study.

  10. ``Green's function'' approach & low-mode asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Laurent; Clark, Dan; Salmonson, Jay; MacLaren, Steve; Ma, Tammy; Khan, Shahab; Pino, Jesse; Ralph, Jo; Czajka, C.; Tipton, Robert; Landen, Otto; Kyrala, Georges; 2 Team; 1 Team

    2017-10-01

    Long wavelength, low mode asymmetries are believed to play a leading role in limiting the performance of current ICF implosions on NIF. These long wavelength modes are initiated and driven by asymmetries in the x-ray flux from the hohlraum; however, the underlying hydrodynamics of the implosion also act to amplify these asymmetries. The work presented here aim to deepen our understanding of the interplay of the drive asymmetries and the underlying implosion hydrodynamics in determining the final imploded configuration. This is accomplished through a synthesis of numerical modeling, analytic theory, and experimental data. In detail, we use a Green's function approach to connect the drive asymmetry seen by the capsule to the measured inflight and hot spot symmetries. The approach has been validated against a suite of numerical simulations. Ultimately, we hope this work will identify additional measurements to further constrain the asymmetries and increase hohlraum illumination design flexibility on the NIF. The technique and derivation of associated error bars will be presented. LLC, (LLNS) Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Engineering a more sustainable world through catalysis and green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Roger A

    2016-03-01

    The grand challenge facing the chemical and allied industries in the twenty-first century is the transition to greener, more sustainable manufacturing processes that efficiently use raw materials, eliminate waste and avoid the use of toxic and hazardous materials. It requires a paradigm shift from traditional concepts of process efficiency, focusing on chemical yield, to one that assigns economic value to replacing fossil resources with renewable raw materials, eliminating waste and avoiding the use of toxic and/or hazardous substances. The need for a greening of chemicals manufacture is readily apparent from a consideration of the amounts of waste generated per kilogram of product (the E factors) in various segments of the chemical industry. A primary source of this waste is the use of antiquated 'stoichiometric' technologies and a major challenge is to develop green, catalytic alternatives. Another grand challenge for the twenty-first century, driven by the pressing need for climate change mitigation, is the transition from an unsustainable economy based on fossil resources--oil, coal and natural gas--to a sustainable one based on renewable biomass. In this context, the valorization of waste biomass, which is currently incinerated or goes to landfill, is particularly attractive. The bio-based economy involves cross-disciplinary research at the interface of biotechnology and chemical engineering, focusing on the development of green, chemo- and biocatalytic technologies for waste biomass conversion to biofuels, chemicals and bio-based materials. Biocatalysis has many benefits to offer in this respect. The catalyst is derived from renewable biomass and is biodegradable. Processes are performed under mild conditions and generally produce less waste and are more energy efficient than conventional ones. Thanks to modern advances in biotechnology 'tailor-made' enzymes can be economically produced on a large scale. However, for economic viability it is generally

  12. Enabling technologies and green processes in cyclodextrin chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Cravotto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of efficient synthetic green strategies for the selective modification of cyclodextrins (CDs is still a challenging task. Outstanding results have been achieved in recent years by means of so-called enabling technologies, such as microwaves, ultrasound and ball mills, that have become irreplaceable tools in the synthesis of CD derivatives. Several examples of sonochemical selective modification of native α-, β- and γ-CDs have been reported including heterogeneous phase Pd- and Cu-catalysed hydrogenations and couplings. Microwave irradiation has emerged as the technique of choice for the production of highly substituted CD derivatives, CD grafted materials and polymers. Mechanochemical methods have successfully furnished greener, solvent-free syntheses and efficient complexation, while flow microreactors may well improve the repeatability and optimization of critical synthetic protocols.

  13. Green Chemistry Glucose Biosensor Development using Etlingera elatior Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoni, A.; Anggraeni, M. D.; Zusfahair; Iqlima, H.

    2018-01-01

    Glucose biosensor development is one of the important strategies for early detection of diabetes mellitus disease. This study was aimed to explore the flower extract of Etlingera elatior for a green-analysis method of glucose biosensor. Flowers were extracted using ethanol: HCl and tested its performances as an indicator of glucose biosensor using glucose oxidase enzyme. The glucose oxidase react with glucose resulted hydrogen peroxide that would change the color of the flower extract. Furthermore, the extract was also studied including their stability to pH, oxidizing and reducing, temperature, and storage. The results showed that the Etlingera elatior extract had high correlation between color change and glucose concentration with regression equation of y = -0.0005x + 0.4724 and R2 of 0.9965. The studied biosensor showed a wide linear range to detect glucose sample of 0 to 500 mM. The extract characterization showed a more stable in low pH (acid), reducing agent addition, heating treatment and storage.

  14. The chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lake's lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which

  15. Chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which precipitated dawsonite and crystallized nahcolite in the sediment as a result of CO/sub 2/ production from organic matter. (JMT)

  16. Green Infrastructure and German Landscape Planning: A Comparison of Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina VIEIRA MEJÍA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A variety of similarities between green infrastructure and the German landscape planning can be found in comparing the approaches of the two planning instruments. Principles of green infrastructure such as multifunctionality, the multi-scale approach and connectivity show correspondences with landscape planning elements. However, some differences are apparent. The objective of this paper is to determine whether the main aims of these two frameworks overlap. It also seeks to deduce what benefits from ecosystem services could be provided by integrating the green infrastructure approach into the German landscape planning system. The results show that the green infrastructure concept is not well-known in German planning practice, although its principles are generally implemented through traditional landscape planning. Nevertheless, green infrastructure could act as a supplementary approach to current landscape planning practices by improving public acceptance and strengthening the social focus of the current landscape planning system.

  17. Implementing a Student-Designed Green Chemistry Laboratory Project in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; Schaller, Chris P.; McIntee, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    A multiweek organic chemistry laboratory project is described that emphasizes sustainable practices in experimental design. An emphasis on student-driven development of the project is meant to mirror the independent nature of research. Students propose environmentally friendly modifications of several reactions. With instructor feedback, students…

  18. Ensuring Sustainability of Tomorrow through Green Chemistry Integrated with Sustainable Development Concepts (SDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a best practice: an approach to teaching chemistry that our quantitative research has shown to produce large differences between experimental and control groups in terms of achievement, pro-environmental attitudes, values, and motivation. Our interest in teaching chemistry by focusing on sustainable…

  19. Fostering Pre-service Teachers' Self-Determined Environmental Motivation Through Green Chemistry Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-10-01

    The global environmental crisis intensifies particularly in developing nations. Environmental educators have begun to understand that changing the environmental impact requires not only changes in pro-environmental knowledge and attitudes but also in associated, self-determined motivation. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a green chemistry curriculum changes Malaysian pre-service teachers' environmental motivation. Two comparable groups of pre-service teachers participated in this study. The students in the experimental group ( N = 140) did green chemistry experiments whereas the control group ( N = 123) did equivalent experiments in a traditional manner. Posttest results indicate that there is significant difference between both the groups for intrinsic motivation, integration, identification, and introjections scales and no differences for external regulation and amotivation scales. The qualitative analysis of interview data suggests that the changes are predominantly due to the personal satisfaction that participants derived from engaging in pro-environmental behavior.

  20. Green analytical chemistry introduction to chloropropanols determination at no economic and analytical performance costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrkiewicz, Renata; Orłowski, Aleksander; Namieśnik, Jacek; Tobiszewski, Marek

    2016-01-15

    In this study we perform ranking of analytical procedures for 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol determination in soy sauces by PROMETHEE method. Multicriteria decision analysis was performed for three different scenarios - metrological, economic and environmental, by application of different weights to decision making criteria. All three scenarios indicate capillary electrophoresis-based procedure as the most preferable. Apart from that the details of ranking results differ for these three scenarios. The second run of rankings was done for scenarios that include metrological, economic and environmental criteria only, neglecting others. These results show that green analytical chemistry-based selection correlates with economic, while there is no correlation with metrological ones. This is an implication that green analytical chemistry can be brought into laboratories without analytical performance costs and it is even supported by economic reasons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed

  2. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezey, Paul G., E-mail: paul.mezey@gmail.com [Canada Research Chair in Scientific Modeling and Simulation, Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 283 Prince Philip Drive, St. John' s, NL A1B 3X7 (Canada)

    2015-01-22

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  3. The Impact of Novel Assessment Methodologies in Toxicology on Green Chemistry and Chemical Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Greene, Nigel

    2018-02-01

    The field of experimental toxicology is rapidly advancing by incorporating novel techniques and methods that provide a much more granular view into the mechanisms of potential adverse effects of chemical exposures on human health. The data from various in vitro assays and computational models are useful not only for increasing confidence in hazard and risk decisions, but also are enabling better, faster and cheaper assessment of a greater number of compounds, mixtures, and complex products. This is of special value to the field of green chemistry where design of new materials or alternative uses of existing ones is driven, at least in part, by considerations of safety. This article reviews the state of the science and decision-making in scenarios when little to no data may be available to draw conclusions about which choice in green chemistry is "safer." It is clear that there is no "one size fits all" solution and multiple data streams need to be weighed in making a decision. Moreover, the overall level of familiarity of the decision-makers and scientists alike with new assessment methodologies, their validity, value and limitations is evolving. Thus, while the "impact" of the new developments in toxicology on the field of green chemistry is great already, it is premature to conclude that the data from new assessment methodologies have been widely accepted yet. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Metformin: A Review of Characteristics, Properties, Analytical Methods and Impact in the Green Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Trindade, Mariana Teixeira; Kogawa, Ana Carolina; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2018-01-02

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a public health problem. The initial treatment consists of improving the lifestyle and making changes in the diet. When these changes are not enough, the use of medication becomes necessary. The metformin aims to reduce the hepatic production of glucose and is the preferred treatment for type 2. The objective is to survey the characteristics and properties of metformin, as well as hold a discussion on the existing analytical methods to green chemistry and their impacts for both the operator and the environment. For the survey, data searches were conducted by scientific papers in the literature as well as in official compendium. The characteristics and properties are shown, also, methods using liquid chromatography techniques, titration, absorption spectrophotometry in the ultraviolet and the infrared region. Most of the methods presented are not green chemistry oriented. It is necessary the awareness of everyone involved in the optimization of the methods applied through the implementation of green chemistry to determine the metformin.

  5. An efficient protocol for the synthesis of highly sensitive indole imines utilizing green chemistry: optimization of reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Bushra; Rubab, Syeda Laila; Raza, Abdul Rauf; Tariq, Sobia; Sultan, Ayesha; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2018-04-11

    Novel and highly sensitive indole-based imines have been synthesized. Their synthesis has been compared employing a variety of protocols. Ultimately, a convenient, economical and high yielding set of conditions employing green chemistry have been designed for their synthesis.

  6. Chemistry of green encapsulating molding compounds at interfaces with other materials in electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scandurra, A.; Zafarana, R.; Tenya, Y.; Pignataro, S

    2004-07-31

    The interface chemistry between encapsulating epoxy phenolic molding compound (EMC) containing phosphorous based organic flame retardant (the so called 'green materials') and copper oxide-hydroxide and aluminum oxide-hydroxide surfaces have been studied in comparison with 'conventional' EMC containing bromine and antimony as flame retardant. These green materials are designed to reduce the presence of toxic elements in the electronic packages and, consequently, in the environment. For the study were used a Scanning Acoustic Microscopy for delamination measurements, a dynamometer for the pull strength measurements and an ESCA spectrometer for chemical analysis of the interface. The general behavior of the green compound in terms of delamination, adhesion, and corrosion is found better or at least comparable than that of the conventional EMC.

  7. Approaching value added planning in the green environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to link economic value to urban green spaces to enhance the value of green urban spaces, along with the added benefit it can offer to the urban environment. Design/methodology/approach – As part of the VALUE project (Valuing Attractive Landscapes in the Urban

  8. DEVELOPING CREATIVE THINKING SKILLS AND CREATIVE ATTITUDE THROUGH PROBLEM BASED GREEN VISION CHEMISTRY ENVIRONMENT LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nuswowati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to build creative thinking skills and creative attitude of students through a model of problem-based lectures Environmental Chemistry (PBL Green Chemistry visionary. Mixed methods research design experimental models embedded with pretest-posttest control group were used in this study, and the differences between assumed initial end-tests as the effects of the treatment. Creative thinking skills measured by the essay tests, non test while the creative attitude is measured from the completed questionnaires consisting of positive and negative statements of markers creative attitude. Data measurement N-gain of creative thinking skills for the control and experimental group were 0.40 and 0.71, while the creative attitude were 0.08 and 0.34. Improved tests of creative thinking skills or creative attitudes were analyzed by t-test. Implementation of research findings indicate environmental chemistry lecture- problems based Green Chemistry vision can improve thinking skills and of creative student.

  9. Relational Analysis of College Chemistry-Major Students' Conceptions of and Approaches to Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ting; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between conceptions of learning and approaches to learning in chemistry. Two questionnaires, conceptions of learning chemistry (COLC) and approaches to learning chemistry (ALC), were developed to identify 369 college chemistry-major students' (220 males and 149 females) conceptions of…

  10. The Role of Green Chemistry Activities in Fostering Secondary School Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts and Argumentation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff Michael; Sinniah, Devananthini

    2016-01-01

    In a world where environmental degradation is taking on alarming levels, understanding, and acting to minimize, the individual environmental impact is an important goal for many science educators. In this study, a green chemistry curriculum--combining chemistry experiments with everyday, environmentally friendly substances with a student-centered…

  11. Fitting It All In: Adapting a Green Chemistry Extraction Experiment for Inclusion in an Undergraduate Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Heather L.; Beck, Annelise R.; Mulvihill, Martin J.; Douskey, Michelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Several principles of green chemistry are introduced through this experiment designed for use in the undergraduate analytical chemistry laboratory. An established experiment of liquid CO2 extraction of D-limonene has been adapted to include a quantitative analysis by gas chromatography. This facilitates drop-in incorporation of an exciting…

  12. Green chemistry perspectives of methane conversion via oxidative methylation of aromatics over zeolite catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebajo, M.O. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This paper provides a general overview of the recent work that we and other researchers have done on the utilisation of methane for catalytic methylation of aromatic compounds and for direct coal liquefaction for the production of liquid hydrocarbons. In particular, the paper presents a detailed description of more recent substantial experimental evidence that we have provided for the requirement of oxygen as a stoichiometry reactant for benzene methylation with methane over moderately acidic zeolite catalysts. The reaction, which has been termed 'oxidative methylation', was thus postulated to involve a two-step mechanism involving intermediate methanol formation by methane partial oxidation, followed by benzene methylation with methanol in the second step. However, strongly acidic zeolites can cause cracking of benzene to yield methylated products in the absence of oxygen. The participation of methane and oxygen, and the effective use of zeolite catalysts in this methylation reaction definitely have some positive green chemistry implications. Thus, the results of these previous studies are also discussed in this review in light of the principles and tools of green chemistry. Various metrics were used to evaluate the greenness, cost-effectiveness, and material and energy efficiency of the oxidative methylation reaction.

  13. Green's function approach to neutron flux discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, E.A.; El-Wakil, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the presentation of analytical method for the calculation of elastically and inelastically slowed down neutrons in an infinite non-absorbing medium. On the basis of the central limit theory (CLT) and the integral transform technique the slowing down equation including inelastic scattering, in terms of the Green function of elastic scattering, is solved. The Green function is decomposed according to the number of collisions. Placzec discontinuity associated with elastic scattering in addition to two discontinuities due to inelastic scattering are investigated. Numerical calculations for Fe 56 show that the elastic discontinuity produces about 41.8% change in the collision density whilst the ratio of the inelastic collision density discontinuity at qsub(o)sup(+) to the Placzec discontinuity at usub(o) + 1n 1/oc gives 55.7 percent change. (author)

  14. Quantum thermodynamics: a nonequilibrium Green's function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Ochoa, Maicol A; Galperin, Michael

    2015-02-27

    We establish the foundations of a nonequilibrium theory of quantum thermodynamics for noninteracting open quantum systems strongly coupled to their reservoirs within the framework of the nonequilibrium Green's functions. The energy of the system and its coupling to the reservoirs are controlled by a slow external time-dependent force treated to first order beyond the quasistatic limit. We derive the four basic laws of thermodynamics and characterize reversible transformations. Stochastic thermodynamics is recovered in the weak coupling limit.

  15. The systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry [SATLC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry [SATLC]: a 20-years review. ... in activities such as tourism, commerce, economy, security, education etc.., ... that we live in and survive with its positive and negative impacts on our life.

  16. The impact of green building approach to office property value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitanggang, Yosephine; Susanto, Dalhar

    2017-12-01

    A real estate development often produces negative impacts towards the environment such as the reduction of the ecological capacity in the site and its surroundings, energy exploitation, and excessive pollutant emission. To overcome these issues, the green building concept or approach has been adapted by several real estate businesses in Indonesia especially in the office sector. According to the data provided by GBCI in 2017, there are 17 buildings listed as a certified green building office in various levels. As what has been known, the green building approach results in the increase of price in the planning, construction and the building's maintenance. This paper will discuss about the research results regarding the effect of the green building approach towards the property value of office buildings especially in Jakarta. The research will be executed through the comparison method, which is the process of comparing office building that have already adapted the green building concept with the one that have not, or in other words, the conventional office buildings. Data gathering is done through observation and interviews with developers and building managers. The research results show that by adapting the green building approach for office buildings in Jakarta, the property value regarding the utility, scarcity, effective demands, and transferability aspect can increase.

  17. Possible Role of Green Chemistry in Addressing Environmenal Plastic Debris: Scientific, Economic and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayha, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Plastics have revolutionized modern life, replacing other raw materials in a vast array of products, due to their ease in molding and shaping, as well as superior recalcitrance to wearing and aging. However, this functional benefit makes plastic one of the most problematic pollutants, since they accumulate as environmental debris for decades and possibly for centuries. Rightfully so, programs addressing plastic debris typically involve efforts to reduce consumption, reuse plastic products and recycle them when usefulness is complete. However, some of these options can be problematic for certain applications, as well as in countries that lack efficient municipal solid waste or recycling facilities. The principles of Green Chemistry were developed to help scientists design chemical products that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. These principles have also been applied to developing sustainable or greener polymers for use in consumer plastics. For instance, the EPA's Green Chemistry Program awards the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards each year, with a large percentage of awards having gone to developments in greener polymers. Many of these advancements involve the development of sustainable bio-based, more degradable or more recyclable polymers that deliver significant environmental benefits. This presentation is meant to address what role the development of truly greener polymers might have in addressing environmental plastic debris in parallel with efforts to reduce, reuse and recycle. The intention is to evaluate the issues posed by traditional polymer types, address the ultimate goals of alternative polymer development and evaluate research on current alternative polymer technologies, in order to objectively assess their usefulness in addressing environmental plastic debris accumulation. In addition, the scientific, policy and market issues that may be impeding accurate development, evaluation and implementation of

  18. RP-HPLC×HILIC chromatography for quantifying ertapenem sodium with a look at green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Tahisa M; Medeiros, Ana C D; Salgado, Herida R N

    2016-11-01

    Ertapenem sodium is a polar and ionizable compound; therefore, it has little retention on traditional C18 columns in reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, even using a highly-aqueous mobile phase that can result in dewetting in the stationary phase. Thus, the most coherent process for ERTM is to develop a method for Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography. However, for the traditional methods in HILIC, the use of a highly organic mobile phase is necessary; usually an amount exceeding 80% acetonitrile is necessary. On the other hand, the RP-HPLC mode is considered for the analysis technique, which is more often used for quantification of substances, and new columns are often introduced to analyze different groups of compounds. Two new analytical methods have been developed for routine analysis. The proposed chromatographic method was adequate and advantageous by presenting simplicity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, detection limits, and satisfactory quantification. Analytical methods are constantly undergoing changes and improvements. Researchers worldwide are rapidly adopting Green Chemistry. The development of new pharmaceutical methods based in Green chemistry has been encouraged by universities and the pharmaceutical industry. Issues related to green chemistry are in evidence and they have been featured in international journals of high impact. The methods described here have economic advantages and they feature an eco-friendly focus, which is discussed in this work. This work was developed with an environmental conscience, always looking to minimize the possible generated organic waste. Therefore, discussion on this aspect is included. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Portable microwave assisted extraction: An original concept for green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; de la Guardia, Miguel; Chemat, Farid

    2013-11-08

    This paper describes a portable microwave assisted extraction apparatus (PMAE) for extraction of bioactive compounds especially essential oils and aromas directly in a crop or in a forest. The developed procedure, based on the concept of green analytical chemistry, is appropriate to obtain direct in-field information about the level of essential oils in natural samples and to illustrate green chemical lesson and research. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for the extraction of essential oil of rosemary directly in a crop and allows obtaining a quantitative information on the content of essential oil, which was similar to that obtained by conventional methods in the laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemistry: A contemporary approach. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.T.; Lygre, D.; Smith, W.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides a basic introduction to the principles of chemistry (in Chapters 1-9) and to the three major applied areas: Resources and Environment (four chapters); consumer issues (five chapters); and health (four chapters). The broad coverage of applications appeals to widely varied interests and provides variety for assignments. Following changes are made in the new edition: Completely rewritten to simplify the overall structure and presentation. Core section now includes chapters on acid/base and oxidation/reduction reactions, biochemistry, and a section on stoichiometry. Environmental section updated. New chapter on metal and mineral resources. Consumer chemistry expanded considerably. Health section expanded to include new material on genetic engineering, prosthetic engineering, and new drugs

  1. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Weinstein Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed.

  2. Large-scale photochemical reactions of nanocrystalline suspensions: a promising green chemistry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, Marcel; Resendiz, Marino J E; Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A

    2006-06-08

    Photochemical reactions in the solid state can be scaled up from a few milligrams to 10 grams by using colloidal suspensions of a photoactive molecular crystal prepared by the solvent shift method. Pure products are recovered by filtration, and the use of H(2)O as a suspension medium makes this method a very attractive one from a green chemistry perspective. Using the photodecarbonylation of dicumyl ketone (DCK) as a test system, we show that reaction efficiencies in colloidal suspensions rival those observed in solution. [reaction: see text

  3. A hands-on approach to teaching environmental awareness and pollutant remediation to undergraduate chemistry students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Ashraf, S.; Rauf, M. A.; Abdullah, Fatema H.

    2012-07-01

    Background : One of the unfortunate side effects of the industrial revolution has been the constant assault of the environment with various forms of pollution. Lately, this issue has taken a more critical dimension as prospects of global climate change and irreversible ecosystem damage are becoming a reality. Purpose : College graduates (especially chemists), should therefore not only be aware of these issues but also be taught how chemistry can help reduce environmental pollution. Furthermore, the role and importance of chemistry in sustainable development and solving environmental problems needs to be highlighted. Programme/intervention description : To this effect, we have designed a simple undergraduate experiment that is based on the green chemistry approach of using photolytic oxidation to degrade a model organic pollutant. This approach used UV light and hydrogen peroxide to produce reactive hydroxyl radicals, which subsequently break down and degrade Acridine Orange (model pollutant). The dye degradation was monitored spectrophotometrically and the apparent rate of decolouration was found to be first order. Possible radical initiated mechanisms that may be involved in this remediation experiment have been used to explain the observed dye decolouration. Sample : To test the usefulness of this newly developed experiment, we incorporated it as a module into a second year 'Professional skills' chemistry course with an enrollment of six female students. Anonymous survey of the students after the completion of the module was very positive and indicated that objectives of the experiment were satisfactorily achieved. Results : We believe this experiment not only raises students' awareness about green chemistry and environmental issues, but also teaches them valuable experimental skills such as experimental design, data manipulation and basic kinetics. Survey of students who were taught this unit in a second year course was very positive and supported the usefulness

  4. Crops: a green approach toward self-assembled soft materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Praveen Kumar; John, George

    2008-06-01

    . Importantly, an enzyme triggered drug-delivery model for hydrophobic drugs was demonstrated by using these supramolecularly assembled hydrogels. Following a similar biocatalytic approach, vitamin C amphiphiles were synthesized with different hydrocarbon chain lengths, and their ability to self-assemble into molecular gels and liquid crystals has been studied in detail. Such biobased soft materials were successfully used to develop novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials by in situ synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The self-assembled soft materials were characterized by several spectroscopic techniques, UV-visible, infrared, and fluorescence spectrophotometers, as well as microscopic methods including polarized optical, confocal, scanning, and transmission electron microscopes, and thermal analysis. The molecular packing of the hierarchically assembled bilayer membranes was fully elucidated by X-ray analysis. We envision that the results summarized in this Account will encourage interdisciplinary collaboration between scientists in the fields of organic synthesis, soft materials research, and green chemistry to develop functional materials from underutilized crop-based renewable feedstock, with innovation driven both by material needs and environmentally benign design principles.

  5. Chemistry explained by topology: an alternative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Jorge; Villar, Vincent M; Galvez-Llompart, Maria; Amigó, José M

    2011-05-01

    Molecular topology can be considered an application of graph theory in which the molecular structure is characterized through a set of graph-theoretical descriptors called topological indices. Molecular topology has found applications in many different fields, particularly in biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. The first topological index was introduced by H. Wiener in 1947 [1]. Although its very first application was the prediction of the boiling points of the alkanes, the Wiener index has demonstrated since then a predictive capability far beyond that. Along with the Wiener index, in this paper we focus on a few pioneering topological indices, just to illustrate the connection between physicochemical properties and molecular connectivity.

  6. Green functions of graphene: An analytic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, James A., E-mail: jalawlor@tcd.ie [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Ferreira, Mauro S. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2015-04-15

    In this article we derive the lattice Green Functions (GFs) of graphene using a Tight Binding Hamiltonian incorporating both first and second nearest neighbour hoppings and allowing for a non-orthogonal electron wavefunction overlap. It is shown how the resulting GFs can be simplified from a double to a single integral form to aid computation, and that when considering off-diagonal GFs in the high symmetry directions of the lattice this single integral can be approximated very accurately by an algebraic expression. By comparing our results to the conventional first nearest neighbour model commonly found in the literature, it is apparent that the extended model leads to a sizeable change in the electronic structure away from the linear regime. As such, this article serves as a blueprint for researchers who wish to examine quantities where these considerations are important.

  7. Evaluation of Green IT services with Fuzzy Screening approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Shokouhyar‎

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Regarding development of Information Technology, the world of industry has inordinately benefited, albeit that has some losses. Unless the losses are considered, advanced losses will be seen after progress with which is more difficult to cope. Neglecting the future and the risk involved in the industry, not to mention the lack of knowledge in dealing with sudden alterations, compel irrecoverable loss. In this context, information technology services in organizations are aimed to be cost-effective and have minimum environmental impact, according to green information technology strategies. Concerning significance of the issue, purpose of this research is assessment of information technology services with respect to greenness level in a general contractor organization by combination of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Screening Procedure to enhance the greenness level of IT services. The effectiveness of using this approach is including qualitative, quantitative, and uncertainty nature of the problem. In this paper, to consider the Green IT services criteria, literatures have been studied by meta-synthesis method, then the importance of the criteria has been determined by questionnaires so as to rank Green IT criteria. Eventually, the organization level has been concluded in terms of the greenness level of IT services. As a case study, IT experts and managers of KAYSON Inc. organization are considered as statistical population of this research. The reduction had the highest weight among other criteria- recycling and reusing - in KAYSON Inc. organization. Finally, the organization greenness level was determined moderate in terms of IT services.

  8. Aqueous Dispersions of Silica Stabilized with Oleic Acid Obtained by Green Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Cristina Lavinia; Ianchis, Raluca; Ghiurea, Marius; Nicolae, Cristian-Andi; Spataru, Catalin-Ilie; Culita, Daniela Cristina; Pandele Cusu, Jeanina; Fruth, Victor; Oancea, Florin; Donescu, Dan

    2016-01-05

    The present study describes for the first time the synthesis of silica nanoparticles starting from sodium silicate and oleic acid (OLA). The interactions between OLA and sodium silicate require an optimal OLA/OLANa molar ratio able to generate vesicles that can stabilize silica particles obtained by the sol-gel process of sodium silicate. The optimal molar ratio of OLA/OLANa can be ensured by a proper selection of OLA and respectively of sodium silicate concentration. The titration of sodium silicate with OLA revealed a stabilization phenomenon of silica/OLA vesicles and the dependence between their average size and reagent's molar ratio. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements emphasized the successful synthesis of silica nanoparticles starting from renewable materials, in mild condition of green chemistry. By grafting octadecyltrimethoxysilane on the initial silica particles, an increased interaction between silica particles and the OLA/OLANa complex was achieved. This interaction between the oleyl and octadecyl chains resulted in the formation of stable gel-like aqueous systems. Subsequently, olive oil and an oleophylic red dye were solubilized in these stable aqueous systems. This great dispersing capacity of oleosoluble compounds opens new perspectives for future green chemistry applications. After the removal of water and of the organic chains by thermal treatment, mesoporous silica was obtained.

  9. Aqueous Dispersions of Silica Stabilized with Oleic Acid Obtained by Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lavinia Nistor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes for the first time the synthesis of silica nanoparticles starting from sodium silicate and oleic acid (OLA. The interactions between OLA and sodium silicate require an optimal OLA/OLANa molar ratio able to generate vesicles that can stabilize silica particles obtained by the sol-gel process of sodium silicate. The optimal molar ratio of OLA/OLANa can be ensured by a proper selection of OLA and respectively of sodium silicate concentration. The titration of sodium silicate with OLA revealed a stabilization phenomenon of silica/OLA vesicles and the dependence between their average size and reagent’s molar ratio. Dynamic light scattering (DLS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM measurements emphasized the successful synthesis of silica nanoparticles starting from renewable materials, in mild condition of green chemistry. By grafting octadecyltrimethoxysilane on the initial silica particles, an increased interaction between silica particles and the OLA/OLANa complex was achieved. This interaction between the oleyl and octadecyl chains resulted in the formation of stable gel-like aqueous systems. Subsequently, olive oil and an oleophylic red dye were solubilized in these stable aqueous systems. This great dispersing capacity of oleosoluble compounds opens new perspectives for future green chemistry applications. After the removal of water and of the organic chains by thermal treatment, mesoporous silica was obtained.

  10. Practical approaches to biological inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Louro, Ricardo O

    2012-01-01

    The book reviews the use of spectroscopic and related methods to investigate the complex structures and mechanisms of biological inorganic systems that contain metals. Each chapter presents an overview of the technique including relevant theory, clearly explains what it is and how it works and then presents how the technique is actually used to evaluate biological structures. Practical examples and problems are included to illustrate each technique and to aid understanding. Designed for students and researchers who want to learn both the basics, and more advanced aspects of bioinorganic chemistry. It includes many colour illustrations enable easier visualization of molecular mechanisms and structures. It provides worked examples and problems that are included to illustrate and test the reader's understanding of each technique. It is written by a multi-author team who use and teach the most important techniques used today to analyse complex biological structures.

  11. From green chemistry to nature: The versatile role of low transition temperature mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Erwann; Lecomte, Jérôme; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In 1998, the concept of "green chemistry" was established through twelve principles with the aim of improving the eco-efficiency of chemical processes and to judge, whether or not, a chemical process is sustainable. Currently, numerous processes do not obey to most of these principles (large energy usage, formation of waste, usage of hazardous solvents and reagents, etc …), which have forced the scientists to develop and implement new strategies for upcoming researches. One of the most attractive challenges is finding, creating and developing new and green media. Over the last decades, the scientific community has mainly focused on two different classes of solvents (namely, Ionic liquids and Eutectic Solvents). These solvents share advantageous characteristics (low vapor pressure, thermally stable, non-flammable, etc …) making them an attractive option to implement sustainable chemistry and engineering. Mainly due to its environmental and economic features, DES are now growing much more interest. Indeed, although their ecotoxicological profile is still poorly known, DES are classified as "green" solvents because they are composed of molecules which are considered to be eco-friendly. The fast, numerous and broad scope of studies on these new liquids make the literature rather complex to understand. Here, we attempted to establish a succinct history and a presentation of these liquids with emphasis on their role, classification, importance and application in biological systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  12. PES Surface Modification Using Green Chemistry: New Generation of Antifouling Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhan Nady

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A major limitation in using membrane-based separation processes is the loss of performance due to membrane fouling. This drawback can be addressed thanks to surface modification treatments. A new and promising surface modification using green chemistry has been recently investigated. This modification is carried out at room temperature and in aqueous medium using green catalyst (enzyme and nontoxic modifier, which can be safely labelled “green surface modification”. This modification can be considered as a nucleus of new generation of antifouling membranes and surfaces. In the current research, ferulic acid modifier and laccase bio-catalyst were used to make poly(ethersulfone (PES membrane less vulnerable to protein adsorption. The blank and modified PES membranes are evaluated based on e.g., their flux and protein repellence. Both the blank and the modified PES membranes (or laminated PES on silicon dioxide surface are characterized using many techniques e.g., SEM, EDX, XPS and SPM, etc. The pure water flux of the most modified membranes was reduced by 10% on average relative to the blank membrane, and around a 94% reduction in protein adsorption was determined. In the conclusions section, a comparison between three modifiers—ferulic acid, and two other previously used modifiers (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid—is presented.

  13. PES Surface Modification Using Green Chemistry: New Generation of Antifouling Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nady, Norhan

    2016-04-18

    A major limitation in using membrane-based separation processes is the loss of performance due to membrane fouling. This drawback can be addressed thanks to surface modification treatments. A new and promising surface modification using green chemistry has been recently investigated. This modification is carried out at room temperature and in aqueous medium using green catalyst (enzyme) and nontoxic modifier, which can be safely labelled "green surface modification". This modification can be considered as a nucleus of new generation of antifouling membranes and surfaces. In the current research, ferulic acid modifier and laccase bio-catalyst were used to make poly(ethersulfone) (PES) membrane less vulnerable to protein adsorption. The blank and modified PES membranes are evaluated based on e.g., their flux and protein repellence. Both the blank and the modified PES membranes (or laminated PES on silicon dioxide surface) are characterized using many techniques e.g., SEM, EDX, XPS and SPM, etc. The pure water flux of the most modified membranes was reduced by 10% on average relative to the blank membrane, and around a 94% reduction in protein adsorption was determined. In the conclusions section, a comparison between three modifiers-ferulic acid, and two other previously used modifiers (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid)-is presented.

  14. Using Green Chemistry Principles as a Framework to Incorporate Research into the Organic Laboratory Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy E.; Gurney, Rich; Soltzberg, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Despite the accepted pedagogical value of integrating research into the laboratory curriculum, this approach has not been widely adopted. The activation barrier to this change is high, especially in organic chemistry, where a large number of students are required to take this course, special glassware or setups may be needed, and dangerous…

  15. A Click Chemistry Approach towards Flavin-Cyclodextrin Conjugates-Bioinspired Sulfoxidation Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomanová, P.; Šturala, J.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Cibulka, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 11 (2015), s. 19837-19848 ISSN 1420-3049 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : click chemistry * cyclodextrin * flavin * monooxygenase * oxidation * sulfoxides * green chemistry Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015 http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/11/19667/htm

  16. PENGEMBANGAN METODE SINTESIS FURFURAL BERBAHAN DASAR CAMPURAN LIMBAH PERTANIAN DALAM RANGKA MEWUJUDKAN PRINSIP GREEN CHEMISTRY (Development Of Synthesis Method Of Furfural From Compost Heap Mixture To Reach Out Green Chemistry Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitarlis Mitarlis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian pengembangan metode sintesis furfural dengan bahan dasar campuran limbah pertanian dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk menentukan waktu pemanasan dan konsentrasi asam optimum serta mewujudkan prinsip green chemistry. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan campuran limbah pertanian ampas tebu, limbah daun nanas dan limbah tanaman jagung dengan perbandingan 1:1:1. Proses sintesis melalui tahap hidrolisis pentosan, dehidrasi, dan siklodehidrasi untuk membentuk furfural dengan menggunakan alat refluks termodifkasi. Identifikasi furfural menggunakan uji warna dengan anilin asetat, uji indeks bias, spektrofotometer UV-Vis, dan IR, serta GC. Analisis pemenuhan prinsip green chemistry menggunakan daftar ceck 12 prinsip green chemstry. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: Waktu pemanasan dan konsentrasi asam sulfat optimum pada pembuatan furfural dari campuran limbah pertanian adalah 5 jam dan konsentrasi asam sulfat 10% (1,876 M dengan rendemen sebesar 5,58%. Metode sintesis furfural yang dikembangkan dapat memenuhi 11 dari 12 prinsip green chemistry yang telah ditetapkan. ABSTRACT The study of developing furfural synthesis method  from  compost heap mixture had been done to determine  optimum condition for this process and  to reach out the green chemistry principles. In this research, the compost heap mixture is from three kinds of compost heap (bagasse, pineapple leaf, waste of corn plant with same amount (1:1:1. The steps of furfural production process are hydrolysis of pentose by sulfuric acid, dehydration, and cyclodehydration to form furfural. It was produced by using a modification reflux apparatus. Identify of furfural product by  using qualitative analysis color test with aniline acetate, refractive index test, UV-Vis,  IR spectrophotometer, and GC. Green chemistry principles are analyzed by using check list of 12 principles of green chemistry.  Based on this research was obtained that the optimum concentration of sulfuric acid is

  17. Sustainability, Innovation, and Green Chemistry in the Production and Valorization of Phenolic Extracts from Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Romani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a circular economy process based on environmentally and economically sustainable procedures which was applied to the sector of olive oil processing on an industrial scale. Olea europaea L. tissues and by-products represent a renewable and low-cost source of polyphenols, in particular hydroxytyrosol (HTyr, a naturally occurring compound well known for its biological properties. Specifically, green leaves (GL, dried leaves (DL, and pitted olive pulp were treated with water in a pneumatic extractor to obtain the corresponding polyphenolic extracts. Three standardized fractions, named Soft Extract Olea GL, Soft Extract Olea DL, and Soft Extract Olea HTyr resulted after the following two steps: a separation process carried out by membrane technology, and a concentration step performed under reduced pressure and low temperature. The polyphenolic fractions showed antiradical activity and have potential industrial applications in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, feed, and agronomic fields. Novel functionalized extracts containing hydroxytyrosol methyl carbonate (HTyr-MC were obtained from Soft Extract Olea HTyr through an innovative approach based on green chemistry procedures, which appear to be a promising tool to increase the applications of the polyphenolic extracts.

  18. Multi-criteria decision making approaches for green supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banasik, Aleksander; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Claassen, G.D.H.; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Designing Green Supply Chains (GSCs) requires complex decision-support models that can deal with multiple dimensions of sustainability while taking into account specific characteristics of products and their supply chain. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approaches can be used to quantify

  19. Saccharide-based Approach to Green Metallic Nanostructure Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Sørensen, Karsten Holm; Jensen, Palle Skovhus

    A green approach to solution synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been developed using harmless and bioapplicable chemicals as well as moderate temperatures. Metal precursors are reduced by glucose/buffers and sterically stabilized by starch. The saccharide based procedure is highly diverse pr...... producing specifically a wide range of spherical, anisotropic, metallic, semi - conductor and core-shell nanostructures....

  20. An eco-sustainable green approach for the synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sustainable green approach for the synthesis of propargylamines using LiOTf as a reusable catalyst under solvent-free condition. Someshwar D Dindulkar Baek Kwan Kwon Taek Lim Yeon Tae Jeong. Volume 125 Issue 1 January 2013 pp 101- ...

  1. A Radiation Chemistry Code Based on the Greens Functions of the Diffusion Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation produces several radiolytic species such as.OH, e-aq, and H. when interacting with biological matter. Following their creation, radiolytic species diffuse and chemically react with biological molecules such as DNA. Despite years of research, many questions on the DNA damage by ionizing radiation remains, notably on the indirect effect, i.e. the damage resulting from the reactions of the radiolytic species with DNA. To simulate DNA damage by ionizing radiation, we are developing a step-by-step radiation chemistry code that is based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE), which is able to follow the trajectories of all particles and their reactions with time. In the recent years, simulations based on the GFDE have been used extensively in biochemistry, notably to simulate biochemical networks in time and space and are often used as the "gold standard" to validate diffusion-reaction theories. The exact GFDE for partially diffusion-controlled reactions is difficult to use because of its complex form. Therefore, the radial Green's function, which is much simpler, is often used. Hence, much effort has been devoted to the sampling of the radial Green's functions, for which we have developed a sampling algorithm This algorithm only yields the inter-particle distance vector length after a time step; the sampling of the deviation angle of the inter-particle vector is not taken into consideration. In this work, we show that the radial distribution is predicted by the exact radial Green's function. We also use a technique developed by Clifford et al. to generate the inter-particle vector deviation angles, knowing the inter-particle vector length before and after a time step. The results are compared with those predicted by the exact GFDE and by the analytical angular functions for free diffusion. This first step in the creation of the radiation chemistry code should help the understanding of the contribution of the indirect effect in the

  2. Photogalvanic cell: A new approach for green and sustainable chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genwa, K.R. [Department of Chemistry, JNV University, Jodhpur 342 001 (India); Genwa, Mahaveer [Department of Chemistry, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College (Delhi University), Shivaji Marg, Karam Pura, New Delhi 110015 (India)

    2008-05-15

    A comparative study of anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactants on photogalvanic effect was studied in a photogalvanic cell containing dioctyl sulfosuccinate (DSS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and TritonX-100 as surfactants, rhodamine 6G as photosensitizer, and oxalic acid as reductant. Observed values of photopotential, photocurrent, fill factor, conversion efficiency, and storage capacity for DSS-rhodamine 6G-oxalic acid system was, respectively, 880.0 mV, 200 {mu}A, 0.41, 0.86%, and 131.0 min, for CTAB-rhodamine 6G-oxalic acid system, 414.0 mV, 90.0 {mu}A, 0.45, 0.24%, and 68.0 min, and for TritonX-100-rhodamine 6G-oxalic acid system, 672.0 mV, 165.0 {mu}A, 0.38, 0.55%, and 96.0 min. The effects of different parameters on electrical output of the cell were observed and a tentative mechanism has also been proposed for the generation of photocurrent in photogalvanic cell. (author)

  3. Green Chemistry Technology and Product Development. Final Report for Intermediary Biochemicals, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeikus, J. Gregory [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics

    2010-08-28

    The DOE funds in this award were applied to developing systems to cost effectively produce intermediate (1 dollar$-$1,000 dollars per kg) and fine ($1,000 per kg) chemicals from renewable feedstocks using environmentally responsible processes via collaboration with academic research laboratories to provide targeted technology and early product development. Specifically, development of a thermostable alkaline phosphatase overexpression system to provide supplies and reagents for improved biological test kits, creation of a microbial strain for the efficient production of aspartate from glucose (replacing oil-derived fumarate in aspartate production), and early development research for an electrochemical bioreactor for the conversion of glucose to mannitol were targeted by this research. Also, establishing this positive academic/industrial collaboration with Michigan State University Laboratories and fostering greater inter-laboratory collaboration would also support the strategy of efficiently transitioning academic green chemistry research into the commercial sector and open an avenue to low cost early product development coupled with scientific training.

  4. Green Chemistry: Effect of Microwave Irradiationon Synthesis of Chitosan for Biomedical Grade Applications of Biodegradable Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amri Setyawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave assisted chitosan synthesis as biodegradable material for biomedical application has been done. The purpose of this research is to synthesis of chitosan with high DD and low molecular weight using microwave energy, the study of reaction conditions include parameters of power and reaction time. Chitosan was prepared by deacetylation of chitin with 60% NaOH solution. Conventional method has been done by reflux for 90minutes, resulting chitosan with DD of 79.5%, 72.6% yields and molecular weight 6051 g/mol. Green chemistry method using microwave radiation at 800 Watts for 5 minutes has produced chitosan with highest DD, yield and molecular weight of 86%, 75% and 3797 g/mole respectively. Synthesis of Chitosan by microwave radiation method can save 10x electrical energy for the reaction, also rapidly and effectively to produce chitosan with low molecular weight compared to conventional methods

  5. Antibodies, synthetic peptides and related constructs for planetary health based on green chemistry in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Caoili, Salvador Eugenio

    2018-03-01

    The contemporary Anthropocene is characterized by rapidly evolving complex global challenges to planetary health vis-a-vis sustainable development, yet innovation is constrained under the prevailing precautionary regime that regulates technological change. Small-molecule xenobiotic drugs are amenable to efficient large-scale industrial synthesis; but their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, interactions and ultimate ecological impact are difficult to predict, raising concerns over initial testing and environmental contamination. Antibodies and similar agents can serve as antidotes and drug buffers or vehicles to address patient safety and decrease dosing requirements. More generally, peptidic agents including synthetic peptide-based constructs exemplified by vaccines can be used together with or instead of nonpeptidic xenobiotics, thus enabling advances in planetary health based on principles of green chemistry from manufacturing through final disposition.

  6. Fuzzy Axiomatic Design approach based green supplier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannan, Devika; Govindan, Kannan; Rajendran, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    proposes a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach called Fuzzy Axiomatic Design (FAD) to select the best green supplier for Singapore-based plastic manufacturing company. At first, the environmental criteria was developed along with the traditional criteria based on the literature review......Abstract Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) is a developing concept recently utilized by manufacturing firms of all sizes. All industries, small or large, seek improvements in the purchasing of raw materials, manufacturing, allocation, transportation efficiency, in curbing storage time, importing...... responsible in addition to being efficiently managed. A significant way to implement responsible GSCM is to reconsider, in innovative ways, the purchase and supply cycle, and a preliminary step would be to ensure that the supplier of goods successfully incorporates green criteria. Therefore, this paper...

  7. Photopolymerization Reactions: On the Way to a Green and Sustainable Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Fouassier; Mohamad Ali Tehfe; Jacques Lalevée; Fanny Louradour

    2013-01-01

    The present paper reviews some aspects concerned with the development of green technologies in the photopolymerization area: use of visible light sources (Xe and Hg-Xe lamps, diode lasers), soft irradiation conditions (household lamps: halogen lamp, fluorescence bulbs, LED bulbs), sunlight exposure, development of very efficient photoinitiating systems and use of renewable monomers. The drawbacks/breakthroughs encountered when going on the way of a greener approach are discussed. Examples of ...

  8. Photopolymerization Reactions: On the Way to a Green and Sustainable Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Fouassier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews some aspects concerned with the development of green technologies in the photopolymerization area: use of visible light sources (Xe and Hg-Xe lamps, diode lasers, soft irradiation conditions (household lamps: halogen lamp, fluorescence bulbs, LED bulbs, sunlight exposure, development of very efficient photoinitiating systems and use of renewable monomers. The drawbacks/breakthroughs encountered when going on the way of a greener approach are discussed. Examples of recent achievements are presented.

  9. A Supramolecular Approach to Medicinal Chemistry: Medicine Beyond the Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David K.

    2005-03-01

    This article focuses on the essential roles played by intermolecular forces in mediating the interactions between chemical molecules and biological systems. Intermolecular forces constitute a key topic in chemistry programs, yet can sometimes seem disconnected from real-life applications. However, by taking a "supramolecular" view of medicinal chemistry and focusing on interactions between molecules, it is possible to come to a deeper understanding of recent developments in medicine. This allows us to gain a real insight into the interface between biology and chemistry—an interdisciplinary area that is crucial for the development of modern medicinal products. This article emphasizes a conceptual view of medicinal chemistry, which has important implications for the future, as the supramolecular approach to medicinal-chemistry products outlined here is rapidly allowing nanotechnology to converge with medicine. In particular, this article discusses recent developments including the rational design of drugs such as Relenza and Tamiflu, the mode of action of vancomycin, and the mechanism by which bacteria develop resistance, drug delivery using cyclodextrins, and the importance of supramolecular chemistry in understanding protein aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer's and Creutzfield Jacob. The article also indicates how taking a supramolecular approach will enable the development of new nanoscale medicines.

  10. Robustness analysis of a green chemistry-based model for the classification of silver nanoparticles synthesis processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper proposes a robustness analysis based on Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding (MCDA). The ensuing model was used to assess the implementation of green chemistry principles in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Its recommendations were also compared to an earlier develo...

  11. The Cyclohexanol Cycle and Synthesis of Nylon 6,6: Green Chemistry in the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintzner, Matthew R.; Kinzie, Charles R.; Pulkrabek, Kimberly; Arena, Anthony F.

    2012-01-01

    A one-term synthesis project that incorporates many of the principles of green chemistry is presented for the undergraduate organic laboratory. In this multistep scheme of reactions, students react, recycle, and ultimately convert cyclohexanol to nylon 6,6. The individual reactions in the project employ environmentally friendly methodologies, and…

  12. Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling in a Green Alcohol Solvent for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hie, Liana; Chang, Jonah J.; Garg, Neil K.

    2015-01-01

    A modern undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling is reported. Although Suzuki-Miyaura couplings typically employ palladium catalysts in environmentally harmful solvents, this experiment features the use of inexpensive nickel catalysis, in addition to a "green" alcohol solvent. The…

  13. Combinatorial chemistry approach to development of molecular plastic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godovsky, Dmitri; Inganäs, Olle; Brabec, Christoph J.; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.; Janssen, Rene A.J.; Prato, M.; Maggini, M.; Segura, Jose; Martin, Nazario

    1999-01-01

    We used a combinatorial chemistry approach to develop the molecular plastic solar cells based on soluble fullerene derivatives or solubilized TCNQ molecules in combination with conjugated polymers. Profiles, formed by the diffusion of low molecular weight component in the spin-cast polymer host were

  14. The Protagonism of Biocatalysis in Green Chemistry and Its Environmental Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Santana Ferreira-Leitão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a bioeconomy era requires not only a change of production pattern, but also a deep modernization of the production processes through the implementation of novel methodologies in current industrial units, where waste materials and byproducts can be utilized as starting materials in the production of commodities such as biofuels and other high added value chemicals. The utilization of renewable raw resources and residues from the agro-industries, and their exploitation through various uses and applications through technologies, particularly solid-state fermentation (SSF, are the main focus of this review. The advocacy for biocatalysis in green chemistry and the environmental benefits of bioproduction are very clear, although this kind of industrial process is still an exception and not the rule. Potential and industrial products, such as biocatalysts, animal feed, fermentation medium, biofuels (biodiesel, lignocelulose ethanol, CH4, and H2, pharmaceuticals and chemicals are dealt with in this paper. The focus is the utilization of renewable resources and the important role of enzymatic process to support a sustainable green chemical industry.

  15. Application of Green Chemistry Principle in Synthesis of Phenytoin and Its Biogical Evaluation as Anticonvulsant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Kadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin (5,5'-dipenylimidazolidine-2,4-dione is the prime example of anticonvulsant agent. According to reported procedure, it is synthesized by condensation of benzil and urea in presence of base (30% w/v NaOH using ethanol as solvent which itself acts as CNS stimulant. Removal of solvent after synthesis is most difficult and non-assured process. In case of phenytoin transformation in polymorphism plays an important role when solvent other than water is used. About 30% extra cost is calculated if solvent other than water is used. Therefore by application of green chemistry principle phenytoin was synthesized by condensation of benzil and urea in presence of base (30% NaOH and water as green solvent. This compound was characterized on the basis of its spectral (IR, 1H NMR data and evaluated for anticonvulsant activity using MES induced and PTZ induced seizure models in Swiss albino mice. Significant anticonvulsant activity was found by using 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg of phenytoin compared with standard phenytoin at 25 mg/kg dose.

  16. A coordination chemistry approach for modeling trace element adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, A.C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The traditional distribution coefficient, Kd, is highly dependent on the water chemistry and the surface properties of the geological system being studied and is therefore quite inappropriate for use in predictive models. Adsorption, one of the many processes included in Kd values, is described here using a coordination chemistry approach. The concept of adsorption of cationic trace elements by solid hydrous oxides can be applied to natural solids. The adsorption process is thus understood in terms of a classical complexation leading to the formation of surface (heterogeneous) ligands. Applications of this concept to some freshwater, estuarine and marine environments are discussed. (author)

  17. Design of Organic Transformations at Ambient Conditions: Our Sincere Efforts to the Cause of Green Chemistry Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam

    2016-02-01

    This account summarizes our recent efforts in designing a good number of important organic transformations leading to the synthesis of biologically relevant compounds at room temperature and pressure. Currently, the concept of green chemistry is globally acclaimed and has already advanced quite significantly to emerge as a distinct branch of chemical sciences. Among the principles of green chemistry, one principle is dedicated to the "design of energy efficiency" - that is, to develop synthetic strategies that require less or the minimum amount of energy to carry out a specific reaction with optimum productivity - and the most effective way to save energy is to develop strategies/protocols that are capable enough to carry out the transformations at ambient temperature! As part of on-going developments in green synthetic strategies, the design of reactions under ambient conditions coupled with other green aspects is, thus, an area of current interest. The concept of developing reaction strategies at room temperature and pressure is now an emerging field of research in organic chemistry and is progressing steadily. This account is aimed to offer an overview of our recent research works directly related to this particular field of interest, and highlights the green chemistry practice leading to carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond-forming reactions of topical significance. Green synthetic routes to a variety of biologically relevant organic molecules (heterocyclic, heteroaromatic, alicyclic, acyclic, etc.) at room temperature and pressure are discussed. © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Discrete mathematical data analysis approach: a valuable assessment method for sustainable chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristina; Scherb, Hagen; Bruggemann, Rainer; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable/Green Chemistry is a chemical philosophy encouraging the design of products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. In this respect, metrical scientific disciplines like Chemometrics are important, because they indicate criteria for chemicals being hazardous or not. We demonstrated that sustainable principles in the disciplines Green Chemistry, Green Engineering, and Sustainability in Information Technology have main aspects in common. The use of non-hazardous chemicals or the more efficient use of chemical substances is one of these aspects. We take a closer look on the topic of the hazards of chemical substances. Our research focuses on data analyses concerning environmental chemicals named Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), which are found all over the world and pose a large risk to environment as well as to humans. The evaluation of the data is a major step in the elucidation of the danger of these chemicals. The data analysis method demonstrated here, is based on the theory of partially ordered sets and provides a generalized ranking. In our approach we investigate data sets of breast milk samples of women in Denmark, Finland, and Turkey which contained measurable levels of 20 POPs. The goal is twofold: On the one side the hazardous chemicals are to be identified and on the other side possible differences among the three nations should be detected, because in that case possible different uptake mechanisms may be supposed. The data analysis is performed by the free available software package PyHasse, written by the third author. We conclude that the data analysis method can well be applied for distinguishing between more or less dangerous existing chemicals. Furthermore, it should be used in sustainable chemistry in the same manner for detecting more and less sustainable chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of CuGeO3 photocatalyst using Green Chemistry and its application for the degradation of direct black dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok. V. Borhade

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report synthesis of CuGeO3 photocatalyst by mechanochemical, solid state synthesis, method with green chemistry approach. The product obtained was characterized by various investigative techniques like UV-Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, and BET Surface area. The study confirm orthorhombic pervoskite crystal structure of photocatalyst with band gap 3.7 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the catalysts CuGeO3 was evaluated by photochemical bleaching of Direct black dye, under sun light.

  20. Green IT in Practice How One Company is Approaching the Greening of Its IT

    CERN Document Server

    Hird, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Green IT in Practice, Second edition provides guidance on how to implement a Green IT programme. It will help you to formulate a Green IT policy, curb demand for data storage capacity, and lower the electricity consumption of the datacentre.

  1. Petrology and chemistry of the Green Acres gabbro complex near Winchester, Riverside County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Morton, Douglas M.; Miller, Fred K.

    2014-01-01

    The Cretaceous Green Acres layered igneous complex, northeast of Winchester, California, is composed of a suite of olivine- and hornblende-bearing gabbros in the Peninsular Ranges batholith within the Perris tectonic block. A consistent mineral assemblage is observed throughout the complex, but there is considerable textural and modal heterogeneity. Both preclude a consistent set of principles based on appearance and mineralogy on which to delineate map units. Distinct changes in the chemistry of olivine, pyroxene, and hornblende, however, serve to define discrete mappable units, and the complex has been divided into five geochemical map units on this basis.Limited whole-rock data show the Green Acres complex is chemically comparable to other Peninsular Ranges batholith gabbroic rocks, and rare earth element (REE) concentrations and patterns are typical of magmas generated in convergent margin settings. For the complex as a whole, olivine is Fo80–35, plagioclase is An100–64, clinopyroxene is Wo49–41En48–38Fs18–6 and Wo36–26En65–42Fs30–8, and orthopyroxene is Wo5–0En78–42Fs50–21, where Fo is forsterite, An is anorthite, Wo is wollastonite, En is enstatite, and Fs is ferrosilite. The Mg/(Mg + ΣFe) atomic ratio in hornblende ranges from 0.84 to 0.50.Magmatic lineations and modal and textural layering are prevalent throughout the complex. Mineral chemistry does not change in any systematic way within and between layers in any map unit. Although the strike of layering varies, in any map unit at any given location it is the same in all units irrespective of intrusive order. Thin dikes, typically late-stage hornblende gabbro, commonly intrude parallel to layering. The strikes of magmatic lineations and modal layers are consistent with the populations of strikes of fabrics in the metamorphic basement as well as tectonic features in surrounding, postgabbro granitic rocks. These relations imply that the regional state of stress at the time of gabbro

  2. Synthetic Approach to biomolecular science by cyborg supramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Kensuke; Matsuo, Muneyuki; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Sato, Sota

    2018-02-01

    To imitate the essence of living systems via synthetic chemistry approaches has been attempted. With the progress in supramolecular chemistry, it has become possible to synthesize molecules of a size and complexity close to those of biomacromolecules. Recently, the combination of precisely designed supramolecules with biomolecules has generated structural platforms for designing and creating unique molecular systems. Bridging between synthetic chemistry and biomolecular science is also developing methodologies for the creation of artificial cellular systems. This paper provides an overview of the recently expanding interdisciplinary research to fuse artificial molecules with biomolecules, that can deepen our understanding of the dynamical ordering of biomolecules. Using bottom-up approaches based on the precise chemical design, synthesis and hybridization of artificial molecules with biological materials have been realizing the construction of sophisticated platforms having the fundamental functions of living systems. The effective hybrid, molecular cyborg, approaches enable not only the establishment of dynamic systems mimicking nature and thus well-defined models for biophysical understanding, but also the creation of those with highly advanced, integrated functions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biophysical Exploration of Dynamical Ordering of Biomolecular Systems" edited by Dr. Koichi Kato. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Curriculum as a support to investigative approach in learning chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main reasons for low achievement of our students in international tests is the lack of functional, applicable knowledge. Formation of such knowledge demands changing the usual way of implementation of instruction (transfer of ready-made knowledge to learning through performing simple research and practical work. Considering the fact that instruction, as an organised process, takes place in frameworks determined in advance, which are arranged and regulated on the national level by curricula, it is assumed that this kind of approach must originate precisely from curricula, which is not the case in our educational practice. The goal of this paper was to determine the way in which this kind of approach in instruction and learning of chemistry can be supported by the curriculum, in order for it to become a part of regular teaching practice on the national level. The paper presents how different structural components of curricula from eight different educational systems (four European countries, one Asian country, two American federal states and one Canadian province are used to promote and support the importance of research work in instruction and learning of chemistry. The curricula from Slovenia, England, Denmark, Malta, Singapore, North Carolina, Utah and Ontario were analyzed in order to determine the kind of information they offer within structural components and accordingly, the way in which each component promotes research approach to learning chemistry, how it guides the teacher in planning such activities in the classroom, organization and performing instruction, monitoring and evaluating students' achievements.

  4. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Part 2. Research study on restraint of carbon dioxide generation by green chemistry; 1999 nendo green chemistry ni yoru CO{sub 2} hassei yokusei ni kakawaru chosa kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In connection with green chemistry, a concept of bringing paradigm shift to chemical technologies as something that makes reduction in environmental load compatible with economic activities; surveys were made this year on the developments of fine chemicals from renewable resources such as cellulose among the cases of developing chemical substances/products to be called 'green chemicals' reducing environmental load; developments of surfactants produced by certain microorganism, plastic additives with reduced pollutant loads, particularly fire retardants and environmentally benign reactant solvents; concept of green chemistry in the development of chlorofluorocarbon-alternatives; and up-to-date technological level concerning a design method of chemical materials and an estimation method for chemical safety using quantum chemistry calculation. In regard to the chemical materials and products intrinsically containing a certain level of risk, R and D should be reinforced and accelerated in the future on the alternative materials/products reducing their toxicity. In this case, along with the importance of discussing compatibility of technological possibility with economical adaptability, sociological study seems to be necessary in incorporating environmental load reduction into economic evaluation. (NEDO)

  5. Green chemistry focus on optimization of silver nanoparticles using response surface methodology (RSM) and mosquitocidal activity: Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondari Nyakundi, Erick; Padmanabhan, M Nalini

    2015-01-01

    There is an exigent necessity for development of environmental friendly bio-control agent(s) for elimination of mosquito due to increased resistance resurgence against synthetic control agents. Mosquito control strategy will lay a strong foundation to malaria exclusion or it can be curbed to certain level especially in the developing nations. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using Tridax procumbens leaf extract as a reducing agent. The reaction medium involved in the synthesis process was optimized by statistical experimental design using response surface methodology to obtain better yield, uniform size, shape and stability. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed through UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, PSA and SEM Subsequently, the bioefficacy of these particles were investigated on Anopheles stephensi for larvicidal and pupicidal activity. Interestingly, time period of 90 min, temperature of 76±2 °C, pH 7.2±2, 2 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3), 3mM PEG and 2mM PVP showed excellent parameters for bioprocess design for large scale production of stabilized nanoparticles. A concentration of 5 ppm of PVP stabilized nanoparticles exhibited 100% mortality. Thus, the obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles stabilized by PEG and PVP may have important function as stabilizers, dispersants as well as larvicides for mosquito control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Recent developments and future trends in solid phase microextraction techniques towards green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spietelun, Agata; Marcinkowski, Łukasz; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-12-20

    Solid phase microextraction find increasing applications in the sample preparation step before chromatographic determination of analytes in samples with a complex composition. These techniques allow for integrating several operations, such as sample collection, extraction, analyte enrichment above the detection limit of a given measuring instrument and the isolation of analytes from sample matrix. In this work the information about novel methodological and instrumental solutions in relation to different variants of solid phase extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) is presented, including practical applications of these techniques and a critical discussion about their advantages and disadvantages. The proposed solutions fulfill the requirements resulting from the concept of sustainable development, and specifically from the implementation of green chemistry principles in analytical laboratories. Therefore, particular attention was paid to the description of possible uses of novel, selective stationary phases in extraction techniques, inter alia, polymeric ionic liquids, carbon nanotubes, and silica- and carbon-based sorbents. The methodological solutions, together with properly matched sampling devices for collecting analytes from samples with varying matrix composition, enable us to reduce the number of errors during the sample preparation prior to chromatographic analysis as well as to limit the negative impact of this analytical step on the natural environment and the health of laboratory employees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Green Chemistry: Strategy in Essential Oils Sustainability by Development of Insecticide Using Docking Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsito; Utomo, EP; Ulfa, SM; Kholila, BN; Nindyasiwi, P.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural applications in green chemistry was associated with the development of insecticide production based on secondary metabolites, such as essential oils. This research used In Silico modeling for insecticide formulation based on essential oils. The insecticidal formula was made on the basis of the Ki value of multiple docking results between the major components of essential oils as ligand with Spodotera litura receptor (2DJC) studied using Autodock Tools software. Insecticide formula activity test was done by contact method of toxic and leaf contact with essential oils concentration at level 0% - 1%. The results of the in silico study showed that the inhibition constants (Ki) of citronellal and anethol ligands combination were 1.6 mM however of citronellal and eugenol as ligands were 1.75 mM and formulated rasio (v/v), respectively 5 : 1 and 4 : 1. In addition, in vitro activity of insecticide formula with the ratio of 5: 1 possess LC50 value 0.10% (toxic contact) and 0.35% (leaf contact). While the formula with a ratio of 4: 1 possess LC50 value 0.05% (toxic contacts) and 0.31% (leaf contact).

  8. Lipases in green chemistry: acylation and alcoholysis on steroids and nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldessari, Alicia; Iglesias, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we describe the application of lipases in acylation and alcoholysis reactions on steroids and nucleosides. In the field of steroids, a variety of acetyl and fatty acid derivatives of androstanes, pregnanes, and cholestanes have been prepared through lipase-catalyzed acylation and alcoholysis reactions taking advantage of the high regio- and stereoselectivity of these enzymes. The substrates as well as the products show a high degree of biological activity as neurosteroids, hormones, and glucocorticoids. The regioselective preparation of diacylated nucleosides by means of an enzymatic alcoholysis allowed the synthesis of nucleosides prodrugs or modified nucleosides. The quantitative full deacylation and dealkoxycarbonylation of nucleosides and steroids is a mild synthetic method for the deprotection of these labile compounds. Some of the reported steroid and nucleoside products are novel, and it is not possible to obtain them satisfactorily by following traditional synthetic procedures. The advantages presented by this methodology, such as selectivity, mild reaction conditions, and low environmental impact, make the lipases an important tool in the application of the principles of Green Chemistry, offering a convenient way to prepare derivatives of natural compounds with a great potential in the pharmaceutical industry.

  9. STM-electroluminescence from clustered C3N4 nanodomains synthesized via green chemistry process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E P; Costa, B B A; Chaves, C R; de Paula, A M; Cury, L A; Malachias, A; Safar, G A M

    2018-01-01

    A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy (STM/STS) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction study on clustered C 3 N 4 nanoparticles (nanoflakes) is conducted on green-chemistry synthesized samples obtained from chitosan through high power sonication. Morphological aspects and the electronic characteristics are investigated. The observed bandgap of the nanoflakes reveals the presence of different phases in the material. Combining STM morphology, STS spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results one finds that the most abundant phase is graphitic C 3 N 4 . A high density of defects is inferred from the XRD measurements. Additionally, STM-electroluminescence (STMEL) is detected in C 3 N 4 nanoflakes deposited on a gold substrate. The tunneling current creates photons that are three times more energetic than the tunneling electrons of the STM sample. We ponder about the two most probable models to explain the observed photon emission energy: either a nonlinear optical phenomenon or a localized state emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Designing nanomaterials to maximize performance and minimize undesirable implications guided by the Principles of Green Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Leanne M; Zimmerman, Julie B; Plata, Desiree L; Hutchison, James E; Anastas, Paul T

    2015-08-21

    The Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry were first published in 1998 and provide a framework that has been adopted not only by chemists, but also by design practitioners and decision-makers (e.g., materials scientists and regulators). The development of the Principles was initially motivated by the need to address decades of unintended environmental pollution and human health impacts from the production and use of hazardous chemicals. Yet, for over a decade now, the Principles have been applied to the synthesis and production of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and the products they enable. While the combined efforts of the global scientific community have led to promising advances in the field of nanotechnology, there remain significant research gaps and the opportunity to leverage the potential global economic, societal and environmental benefits of ENMs safely and sustainably. As such, this tutorial review benchmarks the successes to date and identifies critical research gaps to be considered as future opportunities for the community to address. A sustainable material design framework is proposed that emphasizes the importance of establishing structure-property-function (SPF) and structure-property-hazard (SPH) relationships to guide the rational design of ENMs. The goal is to achieve or exceed the functional performance of current materials and the technologies they enable, while minimizing inherent hazard to avoid risk to human health and the environment at all stages of the life cycle.

  11. GREEN CHEMISTRY APPLICATION FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF (1-N-4’-METHOXYBENZYL-1,10-PHENANTHROLINIUM BROMIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulidan Firdaus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, energy-efficient, and relatively quick synthetic procedure for the synthesis of (1-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide, based on green chemistry principles has been carried out. The synthesis was started by solvent-free reduction of p-anisaldehyde with NaBH4 to give 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol in 98% yield to be followed by solvent-free treatment of the resulted alcohol with PBr3 to yield 4-methoxybenzyl bromide (86%. Furthermore, the obtained bromide was reacted with 1,10-phenanthroline in acetone at reflux for 12 h to give the phenanthrolinium salt target in 68% yield.   Keywords: green chemistry, p-anisaldehyde, (1-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide

  12. Productivity improvement with green approach to palm oil factory productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matondang, N.

    2018-02-01

    The palm oil factory (POF) processes fresh fruit bunches into crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) by products in the form of liquid and solid waste. One of the solid wastes produced in POF Tanjung Kasau is empty fruit bunches of palm oil (FBPO) which have been burned completely on incinerator tubes so that potentially produces pollutants that pollute the environment. If FBPO waste is managed properly, it will improve the productivity of the company. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to find out how far the increased productivity of the company can reduce their impact on the environment, if FBPO is used as raw material of liquid smoke. The productivity improvement approach is done by Green Productivity concept, by looking at three aspects: environmental, social and economical. Green Productivity aims to protect the environment simultaneously by increasing the productivity of the company. One way is to turn FBPO waste into liquid smoke product is by pyrolysis process. The results showed that turning FBPO solid waste into liquid smoke will increase productivity by 18.18%. Implementation of Green Productivity can improve productivity through the improvement of FBPO waste treatment process which has been done by perfect combustion by pyrolysis process so that waste can be minimized to create environment industry POF clean and friendly environment.

  13. Urban green spaces assessment approach to health, safety and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akbari Neisiani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The city is alive with dynamic systems, where parks and urban green spaces have high strategic importance which help to improve living conditions. Urban parks are used as visual landscape with so many benefits such as reducing stress, reducing air pollution and producing oxygen, creating opportunities for people to participate in physical activities, optimal environment for children and decreasing noise pollution. The importance of parks is such extent that are discussed as an indicator of urban development. Hereupon the design and maintenance of urban green spaces requires integrated management system based on international standards of health, safety and the environment. In this study, Nezami Ganjavi Park (District 6 of Tehran with the approach to integrated management systems have been analyzed. In order to identify the status of the park in terms of the requirements of the management system based on previous studies and all Tehran Municipality’s considerations, a check list has been prepared and completed by park survey and interview with green space experts. The results showed that the utility of health indicators were 92.33 % (the highest and environmental and safety indicators were 72 %, 84 % respectively. According to SWOT analysis in Nezami Ganjavi Park some of strength points are fire extinguishers, first aid box, annual testing of drinking water and important weakness is using unseparated trash bins also as an opportunities, there are some interesting factors for children and parents to spend free times. Finally, the most important threat is unsuitable park facilities for disabled.

  14. Metal nanoparticles via the atom-economy green approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalidindi, Suresh Babu; Sanyal, Udishnu; Jagirdar, Balaji R

    2010-05-03

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) of Cu (air-stable), Ag, and Au have been prepared using an atom-economy green approach. Simple mechanical stirring of solid mixtures (no solvent) of a metal salt and ammonia borane at 60 degrees C resulted in the formation of metal NPs. In this reaction, ammonia borane is transformed into a BNH(x) polymer, which protects the NPs formed and halts their growth. This results in the formation of the BNH(x) polymer protected monodisperse NPs. Thus, ammonia borane used in these reactions plays a dual role (reducing agent and precursor for the stabilizing agent).

  15. Antibacterial activity of biochemically capped iron oxide nanoparticles: A view towards green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Rabia; Tahir, Kamran; Li, Baoshan; Ahmad, Aftab; R Siddiqui, Azka; Nazir, Sadia

    2017-05-01

    A green approach to fabricate nanoparticles has been evolved as a revolutionary discipline. Eco-compatible reaction set ups, use of non-toxic materials and production of highly active biological and photocatalytic products are few benefits of this greener approach. Here, we introduce a green method to synthesize Fe oxide NPs using Punica granatum peel extract. The formation of Fe oxide NPs was optimized using different concentrations of peel extract (20mL, 40mL and 60mL) to achieve small size and better morphology. The results indicate that the FeNPs, obtained using 40mL concentration of peel extract possess the smallest size. The morphology, size and crystallinity of NPs was confirmed by implementing various techniques i.e. UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction Spectroscopy. The bio-chemicals responsible for reduction and stabilization of FeNPs were confirmed by FT-IR analysis. The biogenic FeNPs were tested for their size dependent antibacterial activity. The biogenic FeNPs prepared in 40mL extract concentrations exhibited strongest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa i.e. 22 (±0.5) mm than FeNPs with 20mL and 60mL extract concentrations i.e. 18 (±0.4) mm and 14 (±0.3) mm respectively. The optimized FeNPs with 40mL peel extract are not only highly active for ROS generation but also show no hemolytic activity. Thus, FeNPs synthesized using the greener approach are found to have high antibacterial activity along with biocompatibility. This high antibacterial activity can be referred to small size and large surface area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Outline of investigation on restraint of carbon dioxide generation by green chemistry. 1999.1-1999.3; 1998 nendo green chemistry ni yoru CO2 hassei yokusei ni kakawaru chosa kenkyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Investigations were conducted into the above in some leading OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) member states. Green chemistry is a new concept in which clean technology, environment-friendly chemistry, and the like are combined, and is a chemical solution for reducing or stopping the use or generation of materials, products, by-products, solvents, reagents, etc., which are dangerous to health and environments, throughout the whole life cycle of chemicals covering the processes of their designing, manufacturing, dumping, and recycling. In this fiscal year, the actual state of the generation of biomass, regarded as representative of reproducible materials, and its feasibility as chemical resources were investigated. In an effort at finding out chemical reactions safer to health and causing less environmental impact, investigations were also conducted into the recent trends of catalysts, novel reactions for organic syntheses, use of supercritical fluids, photocatalysts, biomimetic processes, etc. The development of substitutes for plastic additives was also studied. Since acceptance by the citizenry is quite important for green chemistry to take effect, educating and enlightening activities in the U.S., Britain, France, and Germany were inquired into. (NEDO)

  17. COMPARISON OF WHOLE BLOOD AND PLASMA GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN GREEN TURTLES ( CHELONIA MYDAS) DETERMINED USING A GLUCOMETER AND A DRY CHEMISTRY ANALYZER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Justin R; Bresette, Michael J; Mott, Cody R; Stacy, Nicole I

    2018-01-01

    :  We compared glucose concentrations in whole blood and plasma from green turtles ( Chelonia mydas) using a glucometer with plasma glucose analyzed by dry chemistry analyzer. Whole blood glucose (glucometer) and plasma glucose (dry chemistry) had the best agreement ( r s =0.85) and a small negative bias (-0.08 mmol/L).

  18. XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry. Summaries of reports in five volumes. Volume 5. IV Russian-French symposium Supramolecular systems in chemistry and biology. II Russian-Indian symposium on organic chemistry. International symposium on present-day radiochemistry Radiochemistry: progress and prospects. International symposium Green chemistry, stable evolution and social responsibility of chemists. Symposium Nucleophilic hydrogen substitution in aromatic systems and related reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The 5 volume of the XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry includes summaries of reports on the subjects of sypramolecular systems in chemistry and biology, organic chemistry, modern radiochemistry, green chemistry - development and social responsibility of chemists, nucleophilic hydrogen substitution in aromatic systems and related chemical reactions [ru

  19. External Audit Green Deal Approach. Final report; Externe Audit Green Deal Aanpak. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Mil, B.P.A.; Gooskens, B.J.F.; Van Schelven, R.M.; Stutje, A.

    2013-10-15

    External audit of the effectiveness of the Green Deals, based on the question how the Green Deal contributes to green growth. The central idea of this new tool is that the Dutch government facilitates initiatives of businesses, societal organisations, local governments and citizens by removing bottlenecks as much as possible [Dutch] Externe audit over (de effectiviteit van) de Green Deal aanpak, op basis van de volgende onderzoeksvraag: 'Hoe draagt de Green Deal aanpak bij aan het bevorderen van groene groei?' De centrale gedachte van dit nieuwe instrument is dat de overheid initiatieven van bedrijven, maatschappelijke organisaties, decentrale overheden en burgers faciliteert door het wegnemen van knelpunten.

  20. True Green and Sustainable University Campuses? Toward a Clusters Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Sonetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Campus greening is often the first step universities take towards sustainability. However, the diffusion of sustainability reporting methodologies and rankings is still at an early stage, and is biased in mainly measuring energy efficiency indicators while omitting basic features enabling meaningful comparisons among centers or addressing social (users aspects related to long term sustainability transitions. This paper aims to introduce a critical perspective on sustainability university frameworks through: (i a review of current Campus Sustainability Assessments (CSAs; (ii performing and comparing the results obtained from the application of two internationally recognized CSAs (namely, Green Metric and ISCN to two case studies (the Politecnico di Torino, in Italy, and the Hokkaido University, In Japan and, finally, (iii proposing a new CSA approach that encompasses clusters of homogeneous campus typologies for meaningful comparisons and university rankings. The proposed clusters regard universities’ morphological structures (campuses nested within city centers versus outside of a city compact ones, climatic zones and functions. At the micro scale, the paper introduces the need for indicators beyond measuring pure energy efficiency, but which are attentive to local and societal constraints and provide long-term tracking of outcomes. This, better than a sheer record of sustainability priority actions, can help in building homogenous university case studies to find similar and scalable success strategies and practices, and also in self-monitoring progress toward achieving truly sustainable university campuses.

  1. PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN PROBLEM BASED LEARNING BERORIENTASI GREEN CHEMISTRY MATERI HIDROLISIS GARAM UNTUK MENGEMBANGKAN SOFT SKILL KONSERVASI SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rosita

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan perangkat pembelajaran problem based learning berorientasi green chemistry pada materi hidrolisis garam untuk mengembangkan soft skill konservasi siswa SMA. Metode penelitian ini adalah research and development (R&D. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan LKS yang dikembangkan sangat layak untuk digunakan dalam pembelajaran kimia. Perangkat pembelajaran dapat meningkatkan pemahaman konsep siswa materi hidrolisis garam dengan N-gain sebesar 0,63 (sedang. Peningkatan soft skill konservasi siswa yang berkriteria tinggi sebanyak 35,48 % sedangkan yang berkriteria sedang 64,52 %. This research has aim to developt teaching and learning instrument application on problem based learning which oriented on green chemistry on salt hydrolisys for developing conservation soft skill for student. The method of this research is research and development (R&D. The results showed a very worthy worksheets developed for use in teaching chemistry. Teaching instrument can improve the understanding of student concept of salt hydrolysis matery can get N-gain 0,63 (medium. The improving soft skill of student conservation has high criteria 35,48%. For medium has 64,52%.

  2. Green Approaches to Extract Astaxanthin from Shrimp Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of comme......Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility...

  3. Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Several puzzles are designed to be used by chemistry students as learning tools and teach them basic chemical concepts. The topics of the puzzles are based on the chapters from Chemistry, The Central Science used in general chemistry course and the puzzles are in various forms like crosswords, word searches, number searches, puzzles based on…

  4. Promoting Chemistry Learning through Undergraduate Work Experience in the Chemistry Lab: A Practical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Hiring undergraduate lab assistants in chemistry departments is common in college. However, few studies have focused on promoting undergraduate chemistry learning and thinking skills through this work experience in chemistry teaching laboratories. This article discusses the strategy we implemented in the lab assistant program. The…

  5. An integrated MCDM approach to green supplier selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Yazdani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection management has been considered as an important subject for industrial organizations. In order to remain on the market, to gain profitability and to retain competitive advantage, business units need to establish an integrated and structured supplier selection system. In addition, environmental protection problems have been big solicitudes for organizations to consider green approach in supplier selection problem. However, finding proper suppliers involves several variables and it is critically a complex process. In this paper, the main attention is focused on finding the right supplier based on fuzzy multi criteria decision making (MCDM process. The weights of criteria are calculated by analytical hierarchical process (AHP and the final ranking is achieved by fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS. TOPSIS advantage among the other similar methods is to obtain the best solution close to ideal solution. The paper attempts to express better understanding by an example of an automobile manufacturing supply chain.

  6. Green's function approach to the anisotropic Kondo-necklace lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezania, H.; Langari, A.; Thalmeier, P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: We have studied the effect of anisotropy on the quantum phase transition of the 2D anisotropic Kondo necklace lattice [1] within a Green's function approach [2]. In the disordered phase the ground state is the product of all singlet bonds between itinerant and localized spins. It is separated by a finite energy gap from the triplet excited states. The quantum phase transition to the antiferromagnetically ordered phase takes place where the gap vanishes. In this approach we use the bond operator formalism introduced in Ref.[3] where each bond is represented by the singlet and triplet operators. The Kondo necklace Hamiltonian in the bond operator representation is composed of the kinetic energy and pairing part (H2), the two particle interaction (H4) of the boson gas and a term which includes three boson operators (H3). In order to ensure that the physical states are either singlets or triplets we impose the hard-core condition by introducing an infinite on-site repulsion between triplet bosons (H U ). The scattering vertex in the ladder approximation satisfies the Bethe-Salpeter equation [4]. By calculating the scattering vertex function we obtain the self energy contribution of the Hamiltonian H U . We have added the second order contribution of the self energy of H3 to the self energy of H U . It should be noted that the non conservation of triplet boson numbers requires the inclusion of the anomalous Green's functions. We treat H 4 in mean-field theory, by splitting the quartic operator into all possible pairs. Finally we obtain the renormalization of coefficients in the H 2 Hamiltonian and calculate the energy gap. Indeed at the critical point a condensation of triplet bosons occurs. We have numerically found the critical point of this model and compared our results with the corresponding mean field values [5]. Moreover, the critical exponent of the energy gap can be obtained more accurately than the mean field results. (authors)

  7. Marine Natural Product Chemistry and the Interim: A Novel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Jeffrey S.; Medcalf, Darrell G.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a course designed to strengthen a student's background in organic chemistry, demonstrate the interfacing of chemistry and biology, expose undergraduates to graduate research, provide familiarity with instrumentation, and provide a novel field experience. (Author/GS)

  8. Cellulose fibers: bio- and nano-polymer composites ; green chemistry and technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalia, Susheel; Kaith, B. S; Inderjeet Kaur

    2011-01-01

    ... on eco-friendly materials, and the steps taken in this direction will lead toward GreenScience and Green-Technology. Cellulosics account for about half of the dry weight of plant biomass and approximately half of the dry weight of secondary sources of waste biomass. At this crucial moment, cellulose fibers are pushed due to their "gr...

  9. Synthesis of carbon nanoparticles using one step green approach and their application as mercuric ion sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshni, V.; Ottoor, Divya, E-mail: divya@chem.unipune.ac.in

    2015-05-15

    Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) have been evolved as a promising candidate for the metal sensing applications due to their synthesis from naturally occurring and easily available non-toxic molecular precursors by green chemistry. A simple and one step procedure is reported here for the synthesis of CNPs from coconut milk by thermal pyrolysis at a temperature of 120–150 °C for 2–5 min without using any carbonizing or passivating agent. On pyrolysis the coconut oil is separated from the carbon rich residue and the residue when dissolved in water showed blue fluorescence under UV light. The CNPs produced are found to show an emission maximum at 440 nm when excited at 360 nm. Synthesis by green approach makes CNPs a promising substitute for the metal sensing applications. Series of metal ions which have a hazardous impact on the ecological system have been taken for the analysis and it is observed that the fluorescence of CNPs gets remarkably quenched by mercuric ions. Fluorescence quenching was studied using standard Stern–Volmer quenching model. Limit of detection was found to be 16.5 nM Hg{sup 2+} concentration. - Highlights: • Green and economical synthesis of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) from naturally abundant material. • Coconut milk is used as molecular precursor, which on thermal pyrolysis at 120 °C yielded CNPs. • Highly fluorescent CNPs show an emission maxima of 440 nm when excited at 360 nm. • Application of CNPs for metal ion sensing using fluorescence quenching phenomena. • Hg{sup 2+} is most effectively sensed with a detection limit of 16.5 nM.

  10. Synthesis of carbon nanoparticles using one step green approach and their application as mercuric ion sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshni, V.; Ottoor, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) have been evolved as a promising candidate for the metal sensing applications due to their synthesis from naturally occurring and easily available non-toxic molecular precursors by green chemistry. A simple and one step procedure is reported here for the synthesis of CNPs from coconut milk by thermal pyrolysis at a temperature of 120–150 °C for 2–5 min without using any carbonizing or passivating agent. On pyrolysis the coconut oil is separated from the carbon rich residue and the residue when dissolved in water showed blue fluorescence under UV light. The CNPs produced are found to show an emission maximum at 440 nm when excited at 360 nm. Synthesis by green approach makes CNPs a promising substitute for the metal sensing applications. Series of metal ions which have a hazardous impact on the ecological system have been taken for the analysis and it is observed that the fluorescence of CNPs gets remarkably quenched by mercuric ions. Fluorescence quenching was studied using standard Stern–Volmer quenching model. Limit of detection was found to be 16.5 nM Hg 2+ concentration. - Highlights: • Green and economical synthesis of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) from naturally abundant material. • Coconut milk is used as molecular precursor, which on thermal pyrolysis at 120 °C yielded CNPs. • Highly fluorescent CNPs show an emission maxima of 440 nm when excited at 360 nm. • Application of CNPs for metal ion sensing using fluorescence quenching phenomena. • Hg 2+ is most effectively sensed with a detection limit of 16.5 nM

  11. The evolution of green jobs in Scotland: A hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Kevin; Allan, Grant J; McIntyre, Stuart G

    2016-01-01

    In support of its ambitious target to reduce CO_2 emissions the Scottish Government is aiming to have the equivalent of 100% of Scottish electricity consumption generated from renewable sources by 2020. This is, at least in part, motivated by an expectation of subsequent employment growth in low carbon and renewable energy technologies; however there is no official data source to track employment in these areas. This has led to a variety of definitions, methodologies and alternative estimates being produced. Building on a recent study (Bishop and Brand, 2013) we develop a “hybrid” approach which combines the detail of “bottom-up” surveys with “top-down” trend data to produce estimates on employment in Low Carbon Environmental Goods and Services (LCEGS). We demonstrate this methodology to produce estimates for such employment in Scotland between 2004 and 2012. Our approach shows how survey and official sources can combine to produce a more timely measure of employment in LCEGS activities, assisting policymakers in tracking, consistently, developments. Applying our approach, we find that over this period employment in LCEGS in Scotland grew, but that this was more volatile than aggregate employment, and in particular that employment in this sector was particularly badly hit during the great recession. - Highlights: • A “hybrid” approach estimates green jobs from bottom-up detail and top-down data. • Illustrative results show the evolution of such jobs in Scotland from 2004 to 2012. • Method provides policymakers a timely measure of the jobs success of energy policy.

  12. Green Logistic Practices: A Theoretical Approach of the Theme

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuele Engelage; Altair Borgert; Marcos Antonio De Souza

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the main practices of green logistic considered in national and international academic literature. Using standard techniques for selection of previous studies, this study firts presents the definition of green logistic term in order to differentiate it from other concepts commonly treated similarly, as circular economy, the green chain management (GSCM), the reverse logistics and the environmental certifications (ISO 14001), to obtain clarity about their delimitati...

  13. Chemistry, Poetry, and Artistic Illustration: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching and Promoting Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Ping Y.; Kitson, Herbert; Andes, Cynthia

    2007-10-01

    This article describes a successful interdisciplinary collaboration among chemistry, humanities and English faculty members, who utilized poetry and artistic illustration to help students learn, appreciate, and enjoy chemistry. Students taking general chemistry classes were introduced to poetry writing and museum-type poster preparation during one class period. They were then encouraged to use their imagination and creativity to brainstorm and write chemistry poems or humors on the concepts and principles covered in the chemistry classes and artistically illustrate their original work on posters. The project, 2 3 months in length, was perceived by students as effective at helping them learn chemistry and express their understanding in a fun, personal, and creative way. The instructors found students listened to the directives because many posters were witty, clever, and eye-catching. They showed fresh use of language and revealed a good understanding of chemistry. The top posters were created by a mix of A-, B-, and C-level students. The fine art work, coupled with poetry, helped chemistry come alive on campus, providing an aesthetic presentation of materials that engaged the general viewer.

  14. Bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry an engineering and molecular approach

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amore, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The field of bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry stands at the intersection of the power and generality of classical and quantum physics with the minute molecular complexity of chemistry and biology. This book provides an application of physical principles in explaining and rationalizing chemical and biological phenomena. It does not stick to the classical topics that are conventionally considered as part of physical chemistry; instead it presents principles deciphered from a modern point of view, which is the strength of this book.

  15. An Ocean Acidification Acclimatised Green Tide Alga Is Robust to Changes of Seawater Carbon Chemistry but Vulnerable to Light Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Gao

    Full Text Available Ulva is the dominant genus in the green tide events and is considered to have efficient CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs. However, little is understood regarding the impacts of ocean acidification on the CCMs of Ulva and the consequences of thalli's acclimation to ocean acidification in terms of responding to environmental factors. Here, we grew a cosmopolitan green alga, Ulva linza at ambient (LC and elevated (HC CO2 levels and investigated the alteration of CCMs in U. linza grown at HC and its responses to the changed seawater carbon chemistry and light intensity. The inhibitors experiment for photosynthetic inorganic carbon utilization demonstrated that acidic compartments, extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA and intracellular CA worked together in the thalli grown at LC and the acquisition of exogenous carbon source in the thalli could be attributed to the collaboration of acidic compartments and extracellular CA. Contrastingly, when U. linza was grown at HC, extracellular CA was completely inhibited, acidic compartments and intracellular CA were also down-regulated to different extents and thus the acquisition of exogenous carbon source solely relied on acidic compartments. The down-regulated CCMs in U. linza did not affect its responses to changes of seawater carbon chemistry but led to a decrease of net photosynthetic rate when thalli were exposed to increased light intensity. This decrease could be attributed to photodamage caused by the combination of the saved energy due to the down-regulated CCMs and high light intensity. Our findings suggest future ocean acidification might impose depressing effects on green tide events when combined with increased light exposure.

  16. A disruptive approach for a green field smart grid installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishnoi, Peeush [Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore (India); Klein, Wolfram; Kuntschke, Richard; Speh, Rainer; Waszak, Michal-Wolfgang [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The current trend towards increasingly decentralized power generation including renewable generation such as photovoltaic or wind power calls for a new concept for future power supply systems. The future power grid has to incorporate numerous distributed and comparatively small-sized generation facilities in addition to the larger centralized power plants currently in operation. Consumers will turn into prosumers that consume as well as produce electrical power. Thus, power will no longer flow exclusively from power plants to consumers such as households and industrial plants, but also between consumers, requiring new solutions, e.g., for protection within the power grid. In this paper, we propose a disruptive approach for a green field smart grid installation solving the issues arising from the increasing use of decentralized power generation. The new power supply system proposed can handle up to 100 % of volatile renewable generation and allows dynamic growth of the power grid with little effort. It is therefore suitable for building up new power supply systems in previously non-electrified regions, e.g., in rural areas in developing countries. At the same time, the system also offers solutions for the issues arising from the advent of the new energy age in developed countries. (orig.)

  17. Green Logistic Practices: A Theoretical Approach of the Theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Engelage

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the main practices of green logistic considered in national and international academic literature. Using standard techniques for selection of previous studies, this study firts presents the definition of green logistic term in order to differentiate it from other concepts commonly treated similarly, as circular economy, the green chain management (GSCM, the reverse logistics and the environmental certifications (ISO 14001, to obtain clarity about their delimitations, scopes and depth. The study also organizes a taxonomy that involves different functional areas of the company, giving direction to the sustainable conduct, resulting in nine components of green logistic that serve as subsidy for the classification of the identified practices. Based on this conceptual definition and taxonomy, lists 112 practices of green logistic, among which 85 are enterprise ambit, 24 governmental and 3 towards consumers. Regarding the quantity of identified practices and the number of citations, both in business sphere as well as in governmental, the most representative part is related to green  Among the most cited practices are the search by more efficient deliveries, using intermodal and multimodal transport that are less polluting and the programming and optimization of flows deliveries. The survey also revealed that although the concept of green logistics is consolidated in the literature, the majority of studies, especially the empirical, concentrates on some of its components, in particular transport and reverse logistic.

  18. Economising subsidies for green housing features: A stated preference approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Yau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of the enormous amounts of energy and resources consumed by housing development and operations, many governments have started recognising the urgent need to promote green or eco-friendly housing with the aim of achieving sustainable development. Apart from regulations, governments can offer incentives to developers to provide green features in their developments by offering subsidies in various forms. However, such subsidisation is often uneconomical. In theory, market forces can lead to green housing provision without any government intervention if the market players are willing to pay extra for the green features of housing. Against this background, this article presents the findings of a study that compared potential homebuyers’ willingness to pay (WTP for various green housing features based on findings from a structured questionnaire survey in Macau. The housing attributes under investigation included uses of green materials (e.g., sustainable forest products and construction methods (e.g., prefabrication, energy-efficient technologies (e.g., LED lighting and water-saving devices (e.g., grey-water recycling systems. Results indicate that the respondents’ WTP was mainly motivated by economic incentives. Green housing attributes that can offer direct financial benefits corresponded to greater WTP. The policy implications of the research findings then follow.

  19. Multi criteria decision making approaches for green supplier evaluation and selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Rajendran, S.; Sarkis, J.

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing body of literature to supplier evaluation and selection exists. Literature on green supplier evaluation that considers environmental factors are relatively limited. Recently, in supply chain management decision making, approaches for evaluating green supplier performance have ...... us to identify improvements for green supplier selection process and possible future directions.......A large and growing body of literature to supplier evaluation and selection exists. Literature on green supplier evaluation that considers environmental factors are relatively limited. Recently, in supply chain management decision making, approaches for evaluating green supplier performance have...... used both qualitative and quantitative environmental data. Given this evolving research field, the goal and purpose of this paper is to analyze research in international scientific journals and international conference proceedings that focus on green supplier selection. We propose the following...

  20. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  1. From Astrochemistry to prebiotic chemistry? An hypothetical approach toward Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, L.; Danger, G.

    2012-12-01

    We present in this paper a general perspective about the evolution of molecular complexity, as observed from an astrophysicist point of view and its possible relation to the problem of the origin of life on Earth. Based on the cosmic abundances of the elements and the molecular composition of our life, we propose that life cannot really be based on other elements. We discuss where the necessary molecular complexity is built-up in astrophysical environments, actually within inter/circumstellar solid state materials known as ``grains''. Considerations based on non-directed laboratory experiments, that must be further extended in the prebiotic domain, lead to the hypothesis that if the chemistry at the origin of life may indeed be a rather universal and deterministic phenomenon, once molecular complexity is installed, the chemical evolution that generated the first prebiotic reactions that involve autoreplication must be treated in a systemic approach because of the strong contingency imposed by the complex local environment(s) and associated processes in which these chemical systems have evolved.

  2. Green Energy for a Green City—A Multi-Perspective Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wątróbski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The basis for implementing demands for a green city is the use of, among other things, innovative “clean” technologies. However, it is mostly and directly connected to the increased use of electric energy. Green transport is an appropriate example of this. By contrast, conventional sources of energy (e.g., based on coal have a very negative impact on people and the environment. Therefore, this article mentions an attempt to solve a complex problem of employing renewable energy sources (RES as an element of the “green city” system. The research was carried out on the basis of a feasibility study (decision game for the location of a wind farm in the vicinity of the city of Szczecin, Poland. When constructing the decision models, multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA methods were applied, especially analytic hierarchy process (AHP and preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE.

  3. A Green Multicomponent Reaction for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: The Aqueous Passerini Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Matthew M.; DeBoef, Brenton

    2009-01-01

    Water is the ideal green solvent for organic reactions. However, most organic molecules are insoluble in it. Herein, we report a laboratory module that takes advantage of this property. The Passerini reaction, a three-component coupling involving an isocyanide, aldehyde, and carboxylic acid, typically requires [similar to] 24 h reaction times in…

  4. Tangential Flow Filtration of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles: A "Green" Laboratory Experiment for Chemistry and Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Kevin M.; Baker, Joshua D.; Edwards, Michelle L.; Kanel, Sushil R.; O'Malley, Matthew; Pavel Sizemore, Ioana E.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous nanoparticle (NP) fabrication methodologies employ "bottom-up" syntheses, which may result in heterogeneous mixtures of NPs or may require toxic capping agents to reduce NP polydispersity. Tangential flow filtration (TFF) is an alternative "green" technique for the purification, concentration, and size-selection of…

  5. Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…

  6. Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    Some Wittig reactions can be carried out by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle for about 20 minutes, as per investigation. A laboratory experiment involving a solvent-free Wittig reaction that can be completed in a three-hour sophomore organic chemistry laboratory class period, are developed.

  7. Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

  8. Towards Eco-Reflexive Science Education: A Critical Reflection about Educational Implications of Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper; Eilks, Ingo; Zuin, Vânia G.

    2016-01-01

    The modern world can be described as a globalized risk society. It is characterized by increasing complexity, unpredictable consequences of techno-scientific innovations and production, and its environmental consequences. Therefore, chemistry, just like many other knowledge areas, is in an ongoing process of "environmentalization." For…

  9. the systemic approach to teaching and learning heterocyclic chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    After the wide spread use of systematization in various activities including, tourism, ... Fahmy and Lagowski (3) suggested an educational process based on the ... we believe that they will doubly benefit by learning chemistry and learning to ...

  10. Green tribology: principles, research areas and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosonovsky, Michael; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-10-28

    In this introductory paper for the Theme Issue on green tribology, we discuss the concept of green tribology and its relation to other areas of tribology as well as other 'green' disciplines, namely, green engineering and green chemistry. We formulate the 12 principles of green tribology: the minimization of (i) friction and (ii) wear, (iii) the reduction or complete elimination of lubrication, including self-lubrication, (iv) natural and (v) biodegradable lubrication, (vi) using sustainable chemistry and engineering principles, (vii) biomimetic approaches, (viii) surface texturing, (ix) environmental implications of coatings, (x) real-time monitoring, (xi) design for degradation, and (xii) sustainable energy applications. We further define three areas of green tribology: (i) biomimetics for tribological applications, (ii) environment-friendly lubrication, and (iii) the tribology of renewable-energy application. The integration of these areas remains a primary challenge for this novel area of research. We also discuss the challenges of green tribology and future directions of research.

  11. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  12. O-methylation of natural phenolic compounds based on green chemistry using dimethyl carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoso, N. I.; Pangestu, P. H.; Wahyuningsih, T. D.

    2016-02-01

    The alkyl aryl ether compounds, of which methyl eugenol and veratraldehyde are the simplest intermediates can be synthesized by reacting eugenol and vanillin with the green reagent dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The reaction was carried out under mild of temperature and pressure. Excellent yields and selective products were obtained (95-96%) after a few hours. In the end of the reaction, the catalysts (base and Phase Transfer Catalyst) can be recovered and regenerated.

  13. Microscale Syntheses, Reactions, and 1H NMR Spectroscopic Investigations of Square Planar Macrocyclic Tetraamido-N Cu(III) Complexes Relevant to Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffelman, Erich S.; Doherty, Jonathan R.; Schulze, Carl; Burke, Amy L.; Bonnema, Kristen R.; Watson, Tanya T.; Lee, Daniel W., III

    2004-01-01

    Microscale fusions, description, and spectroscopic analysis of the reactivity of a square planar Cu(III) complex significant to green chemistry, are presented. The experiment also includes nine focal points on which pre-lab and post-lab questions are based, and the final exams reflect the students' comprehension of these and other features of…

  14. Microscale Synthesis, Reactions, and (Super 1)H NMR Spectroscopic Investigations of Square Planar Macrocyclic, Tetramido-N Co(III) Complexes Relevant to Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tanya T.; Uffelman, Erich S.; Lee, Daniel W., III; Doherty, Jonathan R.; Schulze, Carl; Burke, Amy L.; Bonnema, Kristen, R.

    2004-01-01

    The microscale preparation, characterization, and reactivity of a square planar Co(III) complex that has grown out of a program to introduce experiments of relevance to green chemistry into the undergraduate curriculum is presented. The given experiments illustrate the remarkable redox and aqueous acid-base stability that make the macrocycles very…

  15. Green's function approach to calculate spin injection in quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, S.G.; Jalil, M.B.A.; Liew, Thomas; Teo, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical model to study spin injection (η) through a quantum dot system sandwiched by two ferromagnetic contacts. The effect of contact magnetization on η was studied using Green's function descriptions of the density of states. Green's function models have the advantages that coherent effects of temperature, electron occupation in the QD, and lead perturbation on the state wave function and hence the current can be formally included in the calculations. In addition, self-consistent treatment of current with applied electrochemical potential or lead conductivity, a necessary step which has not been considered in previous works, has also been implemented in our model

  16. Green chemistry: solvent- and metal-free Prins cyclization. Application to sequential reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarisse, Damien; Pelotier, Béatrice; Piva, Olivier; Fache, Fabienne

    2012-01-04

    Prins cyclization between a homoallylic alcohol and an aldehyde, promoted by trimethylsilyl halide, afforded 4-halo-tetrahydropyrans with good to excellent yields. Thanks to the absence of the solvent and metal, the THP thus obtained have been implicated without purification in several other reactions, in a sequential way, affording in particular new indole derivatives. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  17. Optimised synthesis of ZnO-nano-fertiliser through green chemistry: boosted growth dynamics of economically important L. esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Nyla; Maqbool, Qaisar; Bibi, Tahira; Nazar, Mudassar; Hussain, Syed Z; Hussain, Talib; Jan, Tariq; Ahmad, Ishaq; Maaza, Malik; Anwaar, Sadaf

    2018-06-01

    Mounting-up economic losses to annual crops yield due to micronutrient deficiency, fertiliser inefficiency and increasing microbial invasions (e.g. Xanthomonas cempestri attack on tomatoes) are needed to be solved via nano-biotechnology. So keeping this in view, the authors' current study presents the new horizon in the field of nano-fertiliser with highly nutritive and preservative effect of green fabricated zinc oxide-nanostructures (ZnO-NSs) during Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) growth dynamics. ZnO-NS prepared via green chemistry possesses highly homogenous crystalline structures well-characterised through ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The ZnO-NS average size was found as small as 18 nm having a crystallite size of 5 nm. L. esculentum were grown in different concentrations of ZnO-NS to examine the different morphological parameters includes time of seed germination, germination percentage, the number of plant leaves, the height of the plant, average number of branches, days count for flowering and fruiting time period along with fruit quantity. Promising results clearly predict that bio-fabricated ZnO-NS at optimum concentration resulted as growth booster and dramatically triggered the plant yield.

  18. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  19. Islam - Science Integration Approach in Developing Chemistry Individualized Education Program (IEP for Students with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Suprihatiningrum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a research which tries to explore, explain and describe Islam - science integration approach to develop an Individualized Education Program (IEP for students with disabilities in chemistry lesson. As a qualitative case study, this paper is aimed at investigating how Islam - science integration approach can be underpinned for developing the IEP for Chemistry. Participants were recruited purposively and data were collected by interviews; documents’ analysis; and experts’ assessment (i.e. material experts, inclusive education experts, media experts, chemistry teachers and support teachers, then analyzed using content-analysis. The result shows Islam - science integration approach can be a foundation to develop the chemistry IEP by seeking support for the verses of the Qur'an and corresponding hadiths. Even although almost all the subject matter in chemistry can be integrated with Islamic values, this study only developed two contents, namely Periodic System of Elements and Reaction Rate.

  20. small-scale chemistry for a hands-on approach to chemistry practical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, ..... kits were acquired from South Africa (Mylab project, Northwest University). .... solve/handle the lab problems, and, even less, to explore innovative ways ..... lessons at their own pace, they were good at managing and saving time for activities like.

  1. Development of Green Business as an Approach to Financing the Greening of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal’ya Nikolaevna Yashalova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues of green economy development are in the focus of attention of Russian and foreign scientists. Its formation was influenced by environmental activities financing sources. The article presents the description of budgetary and extra-budgetary environmental protection financing. Special attention is paid to the need to strengthen private financial support of environmentally determined activities, which can be implemented as part of development of ecopreneurship. The purpose of this article is to identify the trends in budgetary and extra-budgetary environmental protection financing and resource conservation in the Russian Federation and to rationalize theoretically the necessity of business participation in financing of environment-related business ideas, which is aimed at supporting the greening of economic activity at the regional level. The methods of empirical and statistical research, systematization and generalization of information have been used. SWOT analysis has identified the strengths and weaknesses of green business, as well as the opportunities for and threats to its development. The study systematizes the information on the sources of financing of environment-related activities, identifies their strengths and weaknesses, and analyzes statistical data on financial aspects of environmental protection. It has been established that the financing of environmental activities in the regions is carried out according to the residual principle; most of the sources of environment financing are unavailable to economic entities; indirect assistance in the implementation of environment-related management finds absolutely no application. The material presented in this paper can be used by public authorities in the development of measures to facilitate the transition to green economy and may also be applicable in the educational process. The authors conclude that the successful transition of Russian regions to the path of sustainable

  2. Stepwise Approach to Writing Journal-Style Lab Reports in the Organic Chemistry Course Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerly, Jay Wm.

    2018-01-01

    An approach is described that gradually transitions second-year organic chemistry students to writing full "The Journal of Organic Chemistry" ("JOC") style lab reports. The primary goal was to introduce students to and build rhetorical skills in scientific and technical writing. This was accomplished by focusing on four main…

  3. Determining the effects of green chemistry synthesized Ag-nisin nanoparticle on macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Masood; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh

    2018-01-01

    Bacteriocins are low molecular weight substances produced through post transcriptional changes. These molecules are easily degraded in mammalian gut by proteolytic enzymes especially protease. Nisin is a peptide with 34 aa and its structure contains a pentacyclic lanthionine and 4 beta metyllanthionine residues. Different formulations have been designed for nisin. Since "green synthesis" is a progressive method to prepare anti-microbial and anti-cancer compounds, this study aimed at green synthesis of nisin metal compounds to be used lower concentration still exerting nisin effects. For this purpose, a 1 mg/ml nisin solution was added to a 1 mM silver nitrate solution and incubated to synthesis nano Ag-nisin, then the optical density of new solution was detected using UV spectroscopy. To determine biomolecules in the Ag-nisin solution, the FTIR method was employed. The size and morphology of Ag-nisin was measured by TEM. The toxicity, inflammatory cytokines production, and intracellular ROS quantity was evaluated using MTT, ELISA and flow-cytometry. XRD pattern indicated the silver crystals in Ag-nisin solution. In addition, FTRI findings showed that the carbonyl groups of amino acid are potently able to bind to metal nanoparticles, cover, and prevent them from particle agglomeration. Treating macrophage cells with 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml of Ag-nisin had no significant effect on the cell viability and intracellular ROS quantity compared to the control group. In addition, different concentrations of Ag-nisin had no effect on the IL-10 and TNF-α levels but caused an increased level of IL-12 in comparison with the control group. In the current study, for the first time, green synthesize was used to prepare Ag-nisin particles. The synthesized nanoparticle is able to induce inflammatory activity via increasing IL-12 without any change in the TNF-α level in macrophage cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Gas-grain chemistry in cold interstellar cloud cores with a microscopic Monte Carlo approach to surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Q.; Cuppen, H. M.; Herbst, E.

    2007-07-01

    Aims:We have recently developed a microscopic Monte Carlo approach to study surface chemistry on interstellar grains and the morphology of ice mantles. The method is designed to eliminate the problems inherent in the rate-equation formalism to surface chemistry. Here we report the first use of this method in a chemical model of cold interstellar cloud cores that includes both gas-phase and surface chemistry. The surface chemical network consists of a small number of diffusive reactions that can produce molecular oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, methanol and assorted radicals. Methods: The simulation is started by running a gas-phase model including accretion onto grains but no surface chemistry or evaporation. The starting surface consists of either flat or rough olivine. We introduce the surface chemistry of the three species H, O and CO in an iterative manner using our stochastic technique. Under the conditions of the simulation, only atomic hydrogen can evaporate to a significant extent. Although it has little effect on other gas-phase species, the evaporation of atomic hydrogen changes its gas-phase abundance, which in turn changes the flux of atomic hydrogen onto grains. The effect on the surface chemistry is treated until convergence occurs. We neglect all non-thermal desorptive processes. Results: We determine the mantle abundances of assorted molecules as a function of time through 2 × 105 yr. Our method also allows determination of the abundance of each molecule in specific monolayers. The mantle results can be compared with observations of water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methanol ices in the sources W33A and Elias 16. Other than a slight underproduction of mantle CO, our results are in very good agreement with observations.

  5. Ultrasonic and mechanical behavior of green and partially sintered alumina: Effects of slurry consolidation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, C.H.; Garcia, V.J.; Smith, R.M. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Roberts, R.A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Green and partially sintered compacts of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder were made by filtration of aqueous suspensions under three conditions: (i) electrostatic stabilization without any organic additive, (ii) strong flocculation near the isoelectric point without any organic additive, and (iii) weak flocculation by the use of maltodextrin or oxalic acid additives. The authors evaluated relationships between the macroscopic and interparticle mechanical behavior of these compacts using model correlations with measurements of diametral compression, ultrasonic velocity, and ultrasonic attenuation. Although type iii green specimens were less dense than type i, type iii exhibited significant increases in velocity, macroscopic Young`s modulus, interparticle-contact stiffness, and diametral compressive strength, suggesting that the mechanism of stiffening/strengthening entailed interparticle bridging of maltodextrin or oxalic acid. These properties were significantly reduced upon heating type iii specimens to 500 C, suggesting that pyrolysis of surface-adsorbed maltodextrin and oxalic acid may have reduced the interparticle stiffness and strength. In contrast, negligible changes in these properties occurred upon heating type i specimens to the same temperature. Despite small increases in packing density, significant decreases in attenuation and significant increases in velocity, interparticle-contact stiffness, and Young`s modulus occurred upon heating all specimens to {ge}700 C, suggesting the formation of interparticle necks by solid-state sintering.

  6. Applying green analytical chemistry for rapid analysis of drugs: Adding health to pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazrul Haq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Green RP-HPLC method for a rapid analysis of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM in bulk drugs, self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS and marketed tablets was developed and validated in the present investigation. The chromatographic identification was achieved on Lichrosphere 250 × 4.0 mm RP C8 column having a 5 μm packing as a stationary phase using a combination of green solvents ethyl acetate:ethanol (50:50% v/v as a mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 250 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, robustness, sensitivity and specificity. The utility of the proposed method was verified by an assay of OLM in SMEDDS and commercial tablets. The proposed method was found to be selective, precise, reproducible, accurate, robust, sensitive and specific. The amount of OLM in SMEDDS and commercial tablets was found to be 101.25% and 98.67% respectively. The proposed method successfully resolved OLM peak in the presence of its degradation products which indicated stability-indicating property of the proposed method. These results indicated that the proposed method can be successfully employed for a routine analysis of OLM in bulk drugs and commercial formulations.

  7. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science*,†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. PMID:21445902

  8. An approach to teaching general chemistry II that highlights the interdisciplinary nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Chemistry of natural products: A veritable approach to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even with the advent of newer technologies such as combinatorial chemistry, robotics, high throughput screening (HTS), bioinformatics, and in silico molecular modelling, natural products still play a crucial role in drug discovery. This is because they provide an unparalleled range of chemical diversity on which the newer ...

  10. Fostering the Development of Chemistry Teacher Candidates: A Bioecological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2012-01-01

    This ongoing research inquiry investigates through the analysis of teacher candidate experiences the factors influencing two groups of chemistry teacher candidates' development during their extended practica in their second and final year of an after-degree bachelor of education at a university in central Canada. The tenets of Bronfenbrenner's…

  11. Materials chemistry approach to anion-sensor design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anzenbacher Jr., P.; Jursiková, K.; Aldakov, D.; Marquez, M.; Pohl, Radek

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 49 (2004), s. 11163-11168 ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : conductive polymer * anion sensing * polythiophene Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.643, year: 2004

  12. Positron emission tomography - a new approach to brain chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    Positron emission tomography permits examination of the chemistry of the brain in living beings. Until recently, positron emission tomography had been considered a research tool, but it is rapidly moving into clinical practice. This report describes the uses and applications of positron emission tomography in examinations of patients with strokes, epilepsy, malignancies, dementias, and schizophrenia and in basic studies of synaptic neurotransmission

  13. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF 4 --H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF 4 for Te

  14. Life cycle assessment in green chemistry: overview of key parameters and methodological concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Linda M.; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John

    2013-01-01

    assessment (LCA) is a valuable methodology. However, on the planning stage, a full-scale LCA is considered to be too time consuming and complicated. Two reasons for this have been recognised, the method is too comprehensive and it is hard to find inventory data. In this review, key parameters are presented...... with the purpose to reduce the time-consuming steps in LCA.In this review, several LCAs of so-called ‘green chemicals’ are analysed and key parameters and methodological concerns are identified. Further, some conclusions on the environmental performance of chemicals were drawn.For fossil-based platform chemicals...... chemicals was identified. The environmental performance of bulk chemicals are closely connected to the production of the raw material and thereby different land use aspects. Here, a lot can be learnt from biofuel LCAs. In many of the reviewed articles focusing on bulk chemicals a comparison regarding fossil...

  15. Models of gas-grain chemistry in interstellar cloud cores with a stochastic approach to surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantcheva, T.; Herbst, E.

    2004-08-01

    We present a gas-grain model of homogeneous cold cloud cores with time-independent physical conditions. In the model, the gas-phase chemistry is treated via rate equations while the diffusive granular chemistry is treated stochastically. The two phases are coupled through accretion and evaporation. A small network of surface reactions accounts for the surface production of the stable molecules water, formaldehyde, methanol, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and methane. The calculations are run for a time of 107 years at three different temperatures: 10 K, 15 K, and 20 K. The results are compared with those produced in a totally deterministic gas-grain model that utilizes the rate equation method for both the gas-phase and surface chemistry. The results of the different models are in agreement for the abundances of the gaseous species except for later times when the surface chemistry begins to affect the gas. The agreement for the surface species, however, is somewhat mixed. The average abundances of highly reactive surface species can be orders of magnitude larger in the stochastic-deterministic model than in the purely deterministic one. For non-reactive species, the results of the models can disagree strongly at early times, but agree to well within an order of magnitude at later times for most molecules. Strong exceptions occur for CO and H2CO at 10 K, and for CO2 at 20 K. The agreement seems to be best at a temperature of 15 K. As opposed to the use of the normal rate equation method of surface chemistry, the modified rate method is in significantly better agreement with the stochastic-deterministic approach. Comparison with observations of molecular ices in dense clouds shows mixed agreement.

  16. Promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia: A green educational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Ahmad Anas; Zaili, Zarin Syukri; Hassan, Siti Nor Habibah; Tuan, Tee Boon; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Ibrahim, Mohd Qadafie

    2014-10-01

    In promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia, this paper presents research development of water hydraulics educational training system for secondary and tertiary levels in Malaysia. Water hydraulics trainer with robotic attachment has been studied in order to promote the usefulness of such educational tools in promoting sustainability and green technology in the country. The trainer is being developed in order to allow constructive curriculum development and continuous marketing research for the effectiveness and usefulness of using water in hydraulic power trainer. The research on water-based hydraulic trainer is now possible with the current development in water hydraulics technology.

  17. Repeat Purchase Intention of Starbucks Consumers in Indonesia: A Green Brand Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Naili Farida; Elia Ardyan

    2015-01-01

    This study develops and tests the repeat purchase intention model (with a green brand approach). The model considers four determinants; perceived image, satisfaction, trust, and attitude. The model is tested using data and a survey of 203 Starbucks customers in Indonesia. The analysis was carried out by employing Structural Equation Modeling. The data was processed with AMOS 21. The results confirm that the company’s green brand image is positively and significantly related to consumer satisf...

  18. Accessibility of green space in urban areas: an examination of various approaches to measure it

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin

    2007-01-01

    In the present research, we attempt to improve the methods used for measuring accessibility of green spaces by combining two components of accessibility-distance and demand relative to supply. Three modified approaches (Joseph and Bantock gravity model measure, the two-step floating catchment area measure and a measure based on kernel densities) will be applied for measuring accessibility to green spaces. We select parks and public open spaces (metropolitan open land) of south London as a cas...

  19. Application of green chemistry techniques to prepare electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kenichi; Wang, Joanna S; Wai, Chien M

    2010-03-25

    A series of green techniques for synthesizing carbon nanotube-supported platinum nanoparticles and their high electrocatalytic activity toward methanol fuel cell applications are reported. The techniques utilize either the supercritical fluid carbon dioxide or water as a medium for depositing platinum nanoparticles on surfaces of multiwalled or single-walled carbon nanotubes. The catalytic properties of the carbon nanotubes-supported Pt nanoparticle catalysts prepared by four different techniques are compared for anodic oxidation of methanol and cathodic reduction of oxygen using cyclic voltammetry. One technique using galvanic exchange of Pt(2+) in water with zerovalent iron present on the surfaces of as-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes produces a Pt catalyst that shows an unusually high catalytic activity for reduction of oxygen but a negligible activity for oxidation of methanol. This fuel-selective catalyst may have a unique application as a cathode catalyst in methanol fuel cells to alleviate the problems caused by crossover of methanol through the polymer electrolyte membrane.

  20. A Radiation Chemistry Code Based on the Green's Function of the Diffusion Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic radiation track structure codes are of great interest for space radiation studies and hadron therapy in medicine. These codes are used for a many purposes, notably for microdosimetry and DNA damage studies. In the last two decades, they were also used with the Independent Reaction Times (IRT) method in the simulation of chemical reactions, to calculate the yield of various radiolytic species produced during the radiolysis of water and in chemical dosimeters. Recently, we have developed a Green's function based code to simulate reversible chemical reactions with an intermediate state, which yielded results in excellent agreement with those obtained by using the IRT method. This code was also used to simulate and the interaction of particles with membrane receptors. We are in the process of including this program for use with the Monte-Carlo track structure code Relativistic Ion Tracks (RITRACKS). This recent addition should greatly expand the capabilities of RITRACKS, notably to simulate DNA damage by both the direct and indirect effect.

  1. REFLECTIVE APPROACH IN TEACHING PRE-DEGREE CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Venkateswara RAO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is a component of a larger investigation that focuses on exemplary practice in chemistry education. This case study involves an investigation of a chemistry teacher in two years intermediate education in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study utilized an interpretive methodology in which the questions emerged from intensive observations of chemistry lessons in classes taught by a teacher. The principal finding was that a teacher focused on teaching for understanding. Once teacher tended to emphasize whole-class activities while the other times he utilized more small-group and individualized activities. The teacher was successful in his goal of teaching for understanding because he was effective classroom manager and he had strong science content knowledge that enabled him to focus on instructional strategies that facilitated student understanding. He asked appropriate questions, responded to student questions, and used effective cognitive monitoring strategies. The teacher was able to teach effectively because he had adequate content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. Researcher adopted the method of action research to class room teaching where a classroom event triggers the process of reflection followed by critical analysis of the event which leads to change and subsequent reflection to observe that change and so on. He has taken two different texts to teach students. Out of two texts, one is explaining the metallurgy of Magnesium. In that case, he was successful as a teacher when he adopted comparative method of teaching metallurgy of Magnesium rather than the traditional method of teaching. The other one is explaining the properties of Hydrogen peroxide. In this case he was successful as a teacher by adopting discussion, interaction and discussion method.

  2. On the Green's function of the partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction for radiation chemistry codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Several computer codes simulating chemical reactions in particles systems are based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). Indeed, many types of chemical systems have been simulated using the exact GFDE, which has also become the gold standard for validating other theoretical models. In this work, a simulation algorithm is presented to sample the interparticle distance for partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction. This algorithm is considered exact for 2-particles systems, is faster than conventional look-up tables and uses only a few kilobytes of memory. The simulation results obtained with this method are compared with those obtained with the independent reaction times (IRT) method. This work is part of our effort in developing models to understand the role of chemical reactions in the radiation effects on cells and tissues and may eventually be included in event-based models of space radiation risks. However, as many reactions are of this type in biological systems, this algorithm might play a pivotal role in future simulation programs not only in radiation chemistry, but also in the simulation of biochemical networks in time and space as well

  3. On the Green's function of the partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction for radiation chemistry codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plante, Ianik, E-mail: ianik.plante-1@nasa.gov [Wyle Science, Technology & Engineering, 1290 Hercules, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Devroye, Luc, E-mail: lucdevroye@gmail.com [School of Computer Science, McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E9 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Several computer codes simulating chemical reactions in particles systems are based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). Indeed, many types of chemical systems have been simulated using the exact GFDE, which has also become the gold standard for validating other theoretical models. In this work, a simulation algorithm is presented to sample the interparticle distance for partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction. This algorithm is considered exact for 2-particles systems, is faster than conventional look-up tables and uses only a few kilobytes of memory. The simulation results obtained with this method are compared with those obtained with the independent reaction times (IRT) method. This work is part of our effort in developing models to understand the role of chemical reactions in the radiation effects on cells and tissues and may eventually be included in event-based models of space radiation risks. However, as many reactions are of this type in biological systems, this algorithm might play a pivotal role in future simulation programs not only in radiation chemistry, but also in the simulation of biochemical networks in time and space as well.

  4. A green synthetic approach to graphene nanosheets for hydrogen adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenhui; Li Baoqing; Li Li

    2011-01-01

    A green and facile strategy of preparing graphene by reducing exfoliated graphite oxide (GO) with glucose was developed in this study. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterization results indicated that the graphene sheets (GS) were of high quality with smooth surface, rich pore structure and few layer graphene. The samples have a BET specific surface area of 1205.8 m 2 g -1 measured by N 2 adsorption at 77 K. The hydrogen storage capacity of 2.7 wt.% at 298 K and 25 bar demonstrated that the as-prepared graphene employing glucose as reductant is supposed to be a promising material with outstanding property for hydrogen storage.

  5. Green Walls as an Approach in Grey Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysulova, Martina; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Vranayova, Zuzana

    2017-10-01

    Grey water contributes significantly to waste water parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (Ptotal), total nitrogen (Ntotal), ammonium, boron, metals, salts, surfactants, synthetic chemicals, oils and greases, xenobiotic substances and microorganisms. Concentration of these pollutants and the water quality highlights the importance of treatment process in grey water systems. Treatment technologies operating under low energy and maintenance are usually preferred, since they are more cost effective for users. Treatment technologies based on natural processes represent an example of such technology including vegetated wall. Main aim of this paper is to introduce the proposal of vegetated wall managing grey water and brief characteristic of proposed system. Is expected that prepared experiment will establish the purifying ability and the potential of green wall application as an efficient treatment technology.

  6. Green approach for fabrication and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in everyday applications. This study aims to fabricate ZnO-NPs using grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel extract with particle size ranging from 12 to 72 nm. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, TEM, DLS, and FTIR analysis. They show the significant photocatalytic degradation efficiency (>56%, 10 mg/L, 6 h) against methylene blue and antioxidant efficacy (≥80% for 1.2 mM) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green ZnO-NPs could be used effectively in environmental safety applications and also can address future medical concerns.

  7. A New Approach to the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieron, Joseph F.; McCarthy, Paul J.; Kermis, Thomas W.

    1996-11-01

    Background Canisius College is a medium-sized liberal arts college with a longstanding tradition of maintaining an excellent chemistry program. We realized a few years ago, however, that this tradition was not being sustained by our General Chemistry laboratory course, which had not changed significantly in years. With the help of a grant from the National Science Foundation, our department has been able to design a new laboratory course built around several guiding principles. The design called for experiments to be grouped in units or clusters. Each cluster has a unifying theme or common thread, which gives some coherence to the experiments. The clusters and experiments are listed in the appendix and briefly explained below. Course Design Cluster A's topic is organic and polymer chemistry, and its main objective is to show that chemistry can be enjoyable and relevant to common experiences. Data collection is minimal and hands-on manipulation with observable products is emphasized. Cluster B is a case study of the chemistry of maintaining a swimming pool. The common theme is solution chemistry, and the experiments are designed to promote critical thinking. Cluster C encompasses both oxidation - reduction reactions and electrochemistry, and attempts to show the commonality of these important topics. Cluster D is a series of experiments on methods and techniques of analytical chemistry; in this group the analysis of unknown materials is undertaken. Cluster E is covered last in the second semester, and it stresses important concepts in chemistry at a slightly more advanced level. The emphasis is on the relationship of experiment to theory, and the cluster involves experiments in kinetics, equilibrium, and synthesis. Other guidelines that we considered important in our design were the use of computers (when appropriate), the introduction of microscale chemistry, and the use of instrumentation whenever possible. A separate cluster, labeled Mac, was developed to provide

  8. Combinatorial computational chemistry approach to the design of metal catalysts for deNOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endou, Akira; Jung, Changho; Kusagaya, Tomonori; Kubo, Momoji; Selvam, Parasuraman; Miyamoto, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Combinatorial chemistry is an efficient technique for the synthesis and screening of a large number of compounds. Recently, we introduced the combinatorial approach to computational chemistry for catalyst design and proposed a new method called ''combinatorial computational chemistry''. In the present study, we have applied this combinatorial computational chemistry approach to the design of precious metal catalysts for deNO x . As the first step of the screening of the metal catalysts, we studied Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, and Au clusters regarding the adsorption properties towards NO molecule. It was demonstrated that the energetically most stable adsorption state of NO on Ir model cluster, which was irrespective of both the shape and number of atoms including the model clusters

  9. In vivo antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles produced via a green chemistry synthesis using Acacia rigidula as a reducing and capping agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escárcega-González, Carlos Enrique; Garza-Cervantes, J A; Vázquez-Rodríguez, A; Montelongo-Peralta, Liliana Zulem; Treviño-González, M T; Díaz Barriga Castro, E; Saucedo-Salazar, E M; Chávez Morales, R M; Regalado Soto, D I; Treviño González, F M; Carrazco Rosales, J L; Cruz, Rocío Villalobos; Morones-Ramírez, José Rubén

    2018-01-01

    One of the main issues in the medical field and clinical practice is the development of novel and effective treatments against infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One avenue that has been approached to develop effective antimicrobials is the use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), since they have been found to exhibit an efficient and wide spectrum of antimicrobial properties. Among the main drawbacks of using Ag-NPs are their potential cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells and the latent environmental toxicity of their synthesis methods. Therefore, diverse green synthesis methods, which involve the use of environmentally friendly plant extracts as reductive and capping agents, have become attractive to synthesize Ag-NPs that exhibit antimicrobial effects against resistant bacteria at concentrations below toxicity thresholds for eukaryotic cells. In this study, we report a green one-pot synthesis method that uses Acacia rigidula extract as a reducing and capping agent, to produce Ag-NPs with applications as therapeutic agents to treat infections in vivo. The Ag-NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible, and Fourier transform infrared. We show that Ag-NPs are spherical with a narrow size distribution. The Ag-NPs show antimicrobial activities in vitro against Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and a clinical multidrug-resistant strain of P. aeruginosa ) and Gram-positive ( Bacillus subtilis ) bacteria. Moreover, antimicrobial effects of the Ag-NPs, against a resistant P. aeruginosa clinical strain, were tested in a murine skin infection model. The results demonstrate that the Ag-NPs reported in this work are capable of eradicating pathogenic resistant bacteria in an infection in vivo. In addition, skin, liver, and kidney damage profiles were monitored in the murine infection model, and the

  10. Cytotoxicity of magnetic nanoparticles derived from green chemistry against human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumandla, Pranitha

    The core-shelled Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been extensively investigated by the researchers due to their diversified applications. Recently, the study on the toxicity of nanomaterials has been drawn increasing attention to reduce or mitigate the environmental hazards and health risk. The objectives of this thesis are three fold: 1) prepare series functionalized Fe3O4 MNPs and optimize the synthesis variables of; 2) characterize their nanostructures using the state-of-the-art instrumental techniques; and 3) evaluate their cytotoxicity by measurement of nitrogen monoxide (NO) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and single oxygen species (SOS) generation. In order to prepare the crystalline Fe3O4 MNPs, a cost-effective and user-friendly wet chemistry (Sol-Gel) method was used. Two Indian medicinal plants were extracted to derive the active chemicals, which were used to functionalize the Fe3O 4 MNPs. The results indicated that the Fe3O4 MNPs were well-indexed with the standard inverse spinel structure (PDF 65-3107, a=8.3905A, α = 90°). The particle's sizes varied from 6-10 nm with the Fe3O 4 MNPs acting as cores and medicinal extracts as shell. The active chemical components extracted from two Hygrophila auriculata/ Chlorophytum borivilianum are fatty acid, Saponins, sterols, carbohydrates and amino acids, which are in agreement with the reported data. Toxicological evaluations of MNPs indicated that the Fe3O4 MNPs functionalized with Hygrophila auriculata/ Chlorophytum borivilianum extract prepared at room temperature were toxic to the cells when compared to the control, and act in a mechanism similar to the actions of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These functionalized MNPs, which were prepared at 100 ° C, displayed similar mechanism of action to the anticancer drug (SN-38). It was also found that the MNPs prepared at lower temperatures are less toxic and showed similar mechanism of action as the sodium nitrite (NaNO 2).

  11. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te 2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF 4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na 3 CrF 6 and Na 5 Cr 3 F 14 , were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li 2 BeF 4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe 2+ and Cr 3+ and the determination of the U 3+ /U 4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF 4 --NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF 4 --NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  12. Green Supplier Evaluation by Using an Integrated Fuzzy AHP- VIKOR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi HakimiAsl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the previous decade, fossil energy resources shortage and environmental challenges such as air and water pollution, global warming, and greenhouse-gas emissions, etc. have increased environmental concerns considerably. Since, one of the most practical and useful solutions to decrease environmental pollutants is to deploy green purchasing and clean energies by organizations or even governments. Thus, the construction of renewable-energy power plants and, consequently, the green supplier selection for these plants’ equipment has become more important. With this respect, this article presents a novel approach to assess and select green suppliers of a solar power plant. The proposed approach integrates Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and VIKOR (Vise Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje methodologies. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach as a practical tool to assist managers and CEOs (Chief Executive Officers of electric power industry in assessing suppliers of solar power plant’s equipment.

  13. Green Buildings in Denmark – From radical ecology to consumer oriented market approaches?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    Gram-Hanssen and Jensen explore the development of green buildings in Denmark over the last three decades, identifying differences in design philosophies and techniques. They look at four approaches to green buildings: as energy-saving devices, as ecological grassroots alternatives, as subsidised...... large-scale urban projects, and as consumer products in a market approach. Using detailed case descriptions, the chapter asks to what extent it is possible to define some buildings or some approaches as more 'green' than others. The authors suggest that in order to more fully understand sustainable...... buildings we must account for the social structuring of both the identification of environmental problems and their resulting embodiment in built form....

  14. "In situ" extraction of essential oils by use of Dean-Stark glassware and a Vigreux column inside a microwave oven: a procedure for teaching green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Perino-Issartier, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Fernandez, Xavier

    2012-08-01

    One of the principal objectives of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry in colleges, high schools, and academic laboratories. This paper describes simple glassware that illustrates the phenomenon of extraction in a conventional microwave oven as energy source and a process for green analytical chemistry. Simple glassware comprising a Dean-Stark apparatus (for extraction of aromatic plant material and recovery of essential oils and distilled water) and a Vigreux column (as an air-cooled condenser inside the microwave oven) was designed as an in-situ extraction vessel inside a microwave oven. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for extraction of essential oils from 30 g fresh orange peel, a by-product in the production of orange juice. Every laboratory throughout the world can use this equipment. The microwave power is 100 W and the irradiation time 15 min. The method is performed at atmospheric pressure without added solvent or water and furnishes essential oils similar to those obtained by conventional hydro or steam distillation. By use of GC-MS, 22 compounds in orange peel were separated and identified; the main compounds were limonene (72.1%), β-pinene (8.4%), and γ-terpinene (6.9%). This procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, does not require any special microwave equipment, and enables the students to learn the skills of extraction, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. They are also exposed to a dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable, and green extraction of an essential oil, and are introduced to successful sustainable and green analytical chemistry.

  15. Green approaches in sample preparation of bioanalytical samples prior to chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippou, Olga; Bitas, Dimitrios; Samanidou, Victoria

    2017-02-01

    Sample preparation is considered to be the most challenging step of the analytical procedure, since it has an effect on the whole analytical methodology, therefore it contributes significantly to the greenness or lack of it of the entire process. The elimination of the sample treatment steps, pursuing at the same time the reduction of the amount of the sample, strong reductions in consumption of hazardous reagents and energy also maximizing safety for operators and environment, the avoidance of the use of big amount of organic solvents, form the basis for greening sample preparation and analytical methods. In the last decade, the development and utilization of greener and sustainable microextraction techniques is an alternative to classical sample preparation procedures. In this review, the main green microextraction techniques (solid phase microextraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, hollow-fiber liquid phase microextraction, dispersive liquid - liquid microextraction, etc.) will be presented, with special attention to bioanalytical applications of these environment-friendly sample preparation techniques which comply with the green analytical chemistry principles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Designing Green Stormwater Infrastructure for Hydrologic and Human Benefits: An Image Based Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A.; Minsker, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization over the last century has degraded our natural water resources by increasing storm-water runoff, reducing nutrient retention, and creating poor ecosystem health downstream. The loss of tree canopy and expansion of impervious area and storm sewer systems have significantly decreased infiltration and evapotranspiration, increased stream-flow velocities, and increased flood risk. These problems have brought increasing attention to catchment-wide implementation of green infrastructure (e.g., decentralized green storm water management practices such as bioswales, rain gardens, permeable pavements, tree box filters, cisterns, urban wetlands, urban forests, stream buffers, and green roofs) to replace or supplement conventional storm water management practices and create more sustainable urban water systems. Current green infrastructure (GI) practice aims at mitigating the negative effects of urbanization by restoring pre-development hydrology and ultimately addressing water quality issues at an urban catchment scale. The benefits of green infrastructure extend well beyond local storm water management, as urban green spaces are also major contributors to human health. Considerable research in the psychological sciences have shown significant human health benefits from appropriately designed green spaces, yet impacts on human wellbeing have not yet been formally considered in GI design frameworks. This research is developing a novel computational green infrastructure (GI) design framework that integrates hydrologic requirements with criteria for human wellbeing. A supervised machine learning model is created to identify specific patterns in urban green spaces that promote human wellbeing; the model is linked to RHESSYS model to evaluate GI designs in terms of both hydrologic and human health benefits. An application of the models to Dead Run Watershed in Baltimore showed that image mining methods were able to capture key elements of human preferences that could

  17. Green technology meets ecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Radošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying concept and principles of green chemistry into different technological processes, green technologies are developed. The environmental and economic benefits of “green” approach is achieved through several directions, such as the use of renewable raw materials, creation of economic efficiency, the use of alternative reaction conditions, as well as the application of non-conventional solvents. From the point view of green chemistry, alternative solvents, in order to be a “green“ substitution to hazardous organic solvents, should be: non-volatile, non-flammable, stabile, synthesized by an environmentally friendly procedure, nontoxic and biodegradable. The toxic impact of all newly synthesized chemicals, such as alternative solvents, could be determined by methods and techniques of ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology, an interdisciplinary scientific field, can serve as a way of monitoring the greenness of the processes. In vivo and in vitro experiments are used to study the effects of chemicals on different levels of organizations, from molecules to communities and ecosystem. The usage of in vitro methods is encouraged by a scientific community and regulatory agencies as an alternative to in vivo studies in order to reduce the number of laboratory animals used in the toxicological studies. Therefore, in this paper we gave a brief overview on the usage of animal cell cultures within the field of green chemistry and technology.

  18. Data First: Building Scientific Reasoning in AP Chemistry via the Concept Development Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Carolyn A.; Szymczyk, Amber J.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the "Data First" approach and shows how the observation and analysis of scientific data can be used as a scaffold to build conceptual understanding in chemistry through inductive reasoning. The "Data First" approach emulates the scientific process by changing the order by which we introduce data. Rather…

  19. Relationships of Approaches to Studying, Metacognition, and Intellectual Development of General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenti, Henrietta N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated approaches to studying, intellectual developments, and metacognitive skills of general chemistry students enrolled for the spring 2011 semester at a single campus of a multi-campus community college. The three instruments used were the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST), the Learning Environment…

  20. A Resilience Engineering Approach for Sustainable Safety in Green Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio V. Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is a complex endeavour, involving various stakeholders and resulting in situations that are incompletely described or underspecified. Traditional risk assessment methods require a detailed description of the system and safety, focusing on undesirable outcomes, losses, incidents and accidents. Developing this principle, this research describes a new way to deal with risk assessment in the green construction industry using a resilience engineering method based on the functional resonanceanalysis method and analytic hierarchy process methodologies. The functional resonance analysis method defines a systemic framework to model complex systems based on combinations of function variabilities during normal work. Therefore, to quantify the outcomes for risk assessment, this method was used together with the analytic hierarchy process in a case study during the modernisation work on the Maracanã stadium in Rio de Janeiro. The results of this case study demonstrate that the combined utilisation of the functional resonance analysis method and analytic hierarchy process can be utilised to recognise situations where developments could potentially be without control, which enables this to be used as a basis for performing indicators or a monitoring system. Furthermore, this combined technique can be used to assess and quantify the performance variabilities that may lead to occupational or environmental accidents, and provide new recommendations about how work processes should function, minimising production losses, incidents and accidents.

  1. A Green function approach to superconductivity in nanofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saniz, Rolando; Partoens, Bart; Peeters, Francois [Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2012-07-01

    We reformulate the BCS theory of superconductivity in the Green function framework in such a way that it is readily applied to inhomogeneous systems. We study here nanofilms and go beyond previous models in that we take into account the effects of confinement on electron-phonon coupling, as well as on the electron and phonon fields. We show that, contrary to what has been advanced in recent years, the increases of the density of states as the film thickness increases will tend to suppress the critical temperature, and not enhance it. Instead, it is the increase of the phonon modes with increasing film thickness that can lead to increases of the critical temperature above the bulk value. Further, we show that the multigap character of superconductivity in nanofilms will result in general in a condensate composed of subcondensates with different coherence lengths. This is in analogy with the very recent suggestion that different coherence lengths exist in two-gap superconductors such as MgB{sub 2}.

  2. Systematic Analysis of the Multiple Bioactivities of Green Tea through a Network Pharmacology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoude Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, a number of studies have demonstrated multiple beneficial health effects of green tea. Polyphenolics are the most biologically active components of green tea. Many targets can be targeted or affected by polyphenolics. In this study, we excavated all of the targets of green tea polyphenolics (GTPs though literature mining and target calculation and analyzed the multiple pharmacology actions of green tea comprehensively through a network pharmacology approach. In the end, a total of 200 Homo sapiens targets were identified for fifteen GTPs. These targets were classified into six groups according to their related disease, which included cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, cardiovascular disease, muscular disease, and inflammation. Moreover, these targets mapped into 143 KEGG pathways, 26 of which were more enriched, as determined though pathway enrichment analysis and target-pathway network analysis. Among the identified pathways, 20 pathways were selected for analyzing the mechanisms of green tea in these diseases. Overall, this study systematically illustrated the mechanisms of the pleiotropic activity of green tea by analyzing the corresponding “drug-target-pathway-disease” interaction network.

  3. New approaches for description of nitrogen chemistry in combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Kilpinen, P.; Nordstroem, T. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The aim of the project is to assist in development of more efficient in-furnace control methods for nitrogen oxide emission from energy conversion technologies based on combustion and/or gasification. Main emphasis in put on technologies such as fluidized bed combustion (CFBC, BFBC) and combined cycle processes (PFBC, IGCC). The project consists of two parts: (a) detailed kinetic elementary reaction modelling and (b) prediction of NO{sub x} emission from full scale combustors. The following topics have been studied during 1996: (a) Detailed kinetic modelling Effect of HCl on CO burn-out under FBC freeboard conditions. Effect of pressure on the Thermal DeNO{sub x} process under PFBC conditions. Mechanism of NH{sub 3} destruction to N{sub 2} by selective oxidation (SO): -the importance of formation of NO{sub 2} from NO and O{sub 2} at low temperatures. (b) Prediction of NO{sub x} emission from full scale combustors Prediction of NO{sub x} emission from BFBC freeboard: a case study using flow tubes and detailed chemistry. The work has been made partly in collaboration with VTT Energy (projects 213 and 214) and Tampere University of Technology (project 210). (orig.)

  4. Double-Track Electrochemical Green Approach for Simultaneous Dissolution Profiling of Naproxen Sodium and Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Mostafa A; Fawaz, Esraa M; El-Rahman, Mohamed K Abd; Abdel-Moety, Ezzat M

    2017-11-30

    Acquisition of the dissolution profiles of more than single active ingredient in a multi-analyte pharmaceutical formulation is a mandatory manufacturing practice that is dominated by utilization of the off-line separation-based chromatographic methods. This contribution adopts a new "Double-Track" approach with the ultimate goal of advancing the in-line potentiometric sensors to their most effective applicability for simultaneous acquisition of the dissolution profiles of two active ingredients in a binary pharmaceutical formulation. The unique abilities of these sensors for real-time measurements is the key driver for adoption of "green analytical chemistry" (GAC) principles aiming to expand the application of eco-friendly analytical methods With the aim of performing a side-by-side comparison, this work investigates the degree of adherence of ISEs to the 12 principles of GAC in multicomponent dissolution profiling with respect to the HPLC. For the proof of concept, a binary mixture of naproxen sodium (NAPR) and diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DIPH) marketed as Aleve pm ® tablets was selected as a model for which dissolution profiles were attained by two techniques. The first "Double-Track" in-line strategy depends on dipping two highly integrated membrane sensors for continuous monitoring of the dissolution of each active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) by tracing the e.m.f change over the time scale. For the determination of NAPR, sensor I was developed using tridodecyl methyl ammonium chloride as an anion exchanger, while sensor II was developed for the determination of DIPH using potassium tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate as a cation exchanger. The second off-line strategy utilizes a separation-based HPLC method via off-line tracking the increase of peak area by UV detection at 220nm over time using a mobile phase of acetonitrile: water (90:10) pH 3. The advantages of the newly introduced "Double-Track" approach regarding GAC principles are highlighted, and

  5. Analyzing the drivers of green manufacturing with fuzzy approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Diabat, Ali; Madan Shankar, K.

    2015-01-01

    India, and aided by their replies; a pair-wise comparison was made among the drivers. The pair-wise comparison is used as an input data and the drivers were analyzed on its basis. The analysis resorted to the use of a fuzzy Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approach. The obtained results...

  6. Factor analytical approaches for evaluating groundwater trace element chemistry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, I.M.; Johannesson, K.H.; Singh, A.K.; Hodge, V.F.; Stetzenbach, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques principal component analysis (PCA), Q-mode factor analysis (QFA), and correspondence analysis (CA) were applied to a dataset containing trace element concentrations in groundwater samples collected from a number of wells located downgradient from the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. PCA results reflect the similarities in the concentrations of trace elements in the water samples resulting from different geochemical processes. QFA results reflect similarities in the trace element compositions, whereas CA reflects similarities in the trace elements that are dominant in the waters relative to all other groundwater samples included in the dataset. These differences are mainly due to the ways in which data are preprocessed by each of the three methods. The highly concentrated, and thus possibly more mature (i.e. older), groundwaters are separated from the more dilute waters using principal component 1 (PC 1). PC 2, as well as dimension 1 of the CA results, describe differences in the trace element chemistry of the groundwaters resulting from the different aquifer materials through which they have flowed. Groundwaters thought to be representative of those flowing through an aquifer composed dominantly of volcanic rocks are characterized by elevated concentrations of Li, Be, Ge, Rb, Cs, and Ba, whereas those associated with an aquifer dominated by carbonate rocks exhibit greater concentrations of Ti, Ni, Sr, Rh, and Bi. PC 3, and to a lesser extent dimension 2 of the CA results, show a strong monotonic relationship with the percentage of As(III) in the groundwater suggesting that these multivariate statistical results reflect, in a qualitative sense, the oxidizing/reducing conditions within the groundwater. Groundwaters that are relatively more reducing exhibit greater concentrations of Mn, Cs, Co, Ba, Rb, and Be, and those that are more oxidizing are characterized by greater concentrations of V, Cr, Ga

  7. Green infrastructure: a natural systems approach to stormwater in the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel S. Cormier

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents diverse typologies of urban open space designed as green infrastructure in the american cities of Seattle and Portland. In these cities of the Pacific Northwest, landscape design is viewed as much more than mere beautification of the urban environment, but as pieces of a high-performance infrastructure that protects and even improves urban hydrology, climate, and ecology. Green infrastructure is a landscape approach that creates a distinctive local landscape identity and a more sustainable urban environment.

  8. Repeat Purchase Intention of Starbucks Consumers in Indonesia: A Green Brand Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naili Farida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study develops and tests the repeat purchase intention model (with a green brand approach. The model considers four determinants; perceived image, satisfaction, trust, and attitude. The model is tested using data and a survey of 203 Starbucks customers in Indonesia. The analysis was carried out by employing Structural Equation Modeling. The data was processed with AMOS 21. The results confirm that the company’s green brand image is positively and significantly related to consumer satisfaction, trust, and attitude. On the other hand, consumer satisfaction and trust are shown to have insignificant influence on repeat purchase intention.

  9. Green roof rainfall-runoff modelling: is the comparison between conceptual and physically based approaches relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Green roofs are commonly considered as efficient tools to mitigate urban runoff as they can store precipitation, and consequently provide retention and detention performances. Designed as a compromise between water holding capacity, weight and hydraulic conductivity, their substrate is usually an artificial media differentiating significantly from a traditional soil. In order to assess green roofs hydrological performances, many models have been developed. Classified into two categories (conceptual and physically based), they are usually applied to reproduce the discharge of a particular monitored green roof considered as homogeneous. Although the resulted simulations could be satisfactory, the question of robustness and consistency of the calibrated parameters is often not addressed. Here, a modeling framework has been developed to assess the efficiency and the robustness of both modelling approaches (conceptual and physically based) in reproducing green roof hydrological behaviour. SWMM and VS2DT models have been used for this purpose. This work also benefits from an experimental setup where several green roofs differentiated by their substrate thickness and vegetation cover are monitored. Based on the data collected for several rainfall events, it has been studied how the calibrated parameters are effectively linked to their physical properties and how they can vary from one green roof configuration to another. Although both models reproduce correctly the observed discharges in most of the cases, their calibrated parameters exhibit a high inconsistency. For a same green roof configuration, these parameters can vary significantly from one rainfall event to another, even if they are supposed to be linked to the green roof characteristics (roughness, residual moisture content for instance). They can also be different from one green roof configuration to another although the implemented substrate is the same. Finally, it appears very difficult to find any

  10. A multitemporal and non-parametric approach for assessing the impacts of drought on vegetation greenness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrao, Hugo; Sepulcre, Guadalupe; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between the frequency and duration of meteorological droughts and the subsequent temporal changes on the quantity of actively photosynthesizing biomass (greenness) estimated from satellite imagery on rainfed croplands in Latin America. An innovative non-parametric...... and non-supervised approach, based on the Fisher-Jenks optimal classification algorithm, is used to identify multi-scale meteorological droughts on the basis of empirical cumulative distributions of 1, 3, 6, and 12-monthly precipitation totals. As input data for the classifier, we use the gridded GPCC...... for the period between 1998 and 2010. The time-series analysis of vegetation greenness is performed during the growing season with a non-parametric method, namely the seasonal Relative Greenness (RG) of spatially accumulated fAPAR. The Global Land Cover map of 2000 and the GlobCover maps of 2005/2006 and 2009...

  11. Concept of Green Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    water or supercritical water and also solvent-free systems that utilize the surfaces or ... extent by the renewable and nontoxic glucose and the reaction is carried out in water. ... chemically modified penicillins, amino acids, vitamins, fructose syrup and many biopharmaceuticals are obtained by this method. A milestone in this ...

  12. A Study of Faculty Approaches to Teaching Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Michael Ryan

    Chemistry education researchers have not adequately studied teaching and learning experiences at all levels in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum leaving gaps in discipline-based STEM education communities understanding about how the upper- division curricula works (National Research Council, 2012b; Towns, 2013). This study explored faculty approaches to teaching in upper-division physical chemistry course settings using an interview-based methodology. Two conceptualizations of approaches to teaching emerged from a phenomenographic analysis of interview transcripts: (1) faculty beliefs about the purposes for teaching physical chemistry and (2) their conceptions of their role as an instructor in these course settings. Faculty who reported beliefs predominantly centered on helping students develop conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills in physical chemistry often worked with didactic models of teaching, which emphasized the transfer of expert knowledge to students. When faculty expressed beliefs that were more inclusive of conceptual, epistemic, and social learning goals in science education they often described more student-centered models of teaching and learning, which put more responsibilities on them to facilitate students' interactive engagement with the material and peers during regularly scheduled class time. Knowledge of faculty thinking, as evinced in a rich description of their accounts of their experience, provides researchers and professional developers with useful information about the potential opportunities or barriers that exist for helping faculty align their beliefs and goals for teaching with research-based instructional strategies.

  13. Structurally Based Therapeutic Evaluation: A Therapeutic and Practical Approach to Teaching Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Naser Z.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Explains structurally based therapeutic evaluation of drugs, which uses seven therapeutic criteria in translating chemical and structural knowledge into therapeutic decision making in pharmaceutical care. In a Creighton University (Nebraska) medicinal chemistry course, students apply the approach to solve patient-related therapeutic problems in…

  14. A Game-Based Approach to an Entire Physical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenfeld, Thorsten; Zenker, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    We designed, implemented, and evaluated a game-based learning approach to increase student motivation and achievement for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. By focusing only on the most important game aspects, the implementation was realized with a production ratio of 1:8 (study load in hours divided by production effort in hours).…

  15. Evaluating green infrastructure in urban environments using a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Pedro; Correia, Otília; Lecoq, Miguel; Munzi, Silvana; Vasconcelos, Sasha; Gonçalves, Paula; Rebelo, Rui; Antunes, Cristina; Silva, Patrícia; Freitas, Catarina; Lopes, Nuno; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Forested areas within cities host a large number of species, responsible for many ecosystem services in urban areas. The biodiversity in these areas is influenced by human disturbances such as atmospheric pollution and urban heat island effect. To ameliorate the effects of these factors, an increase in urban green areas is often considered sufficient. However, this approach assumes that all types of green cover have the same importance for species. Our aim was to show that not all forested green areas are equal in importance for species, but that based on a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach it is possible to value green infrastructure in urban environments. After evaluating the diversity of lichens, butterflies and other-arthropods, birds and mammals in 31 Mediterranean urban forests in south-west Europe (Almada, Portugal), bird and lichen functional groups responsive to urbanization were found. A community shift (tolerant species replacing sensitive ones) along the urbanization gradient was found, and this must be considered when using these groups as indicators of the effect of urbanization. Bird and lichen functional groups were then analyzed together with the characteristics of the forests and their surroundings. Our results showed that, contrary to previous assumptions, vegetation density and more importantly the amount of urban areas around the forest (matrix), are more important for biodiversity than forest quantity alone. This indicated that not all types of forested green areas have the same importance for biodiversity. An index of forest functional diversity was then calculated for all sampled forests of the area. This could help decision-makers to improve the management of urban green infrastructures with the goal of increasing functionality and ultimately ecosystem services in urban areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating an ensemble classification approach for crop diversityverification in Danish greening subsidy control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferre, Ty; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2015, Danish farmers are obliged to meet specific crop diversification rules based on total land area and number of crops cultivated to be eligible for new greening subsidies. Hence, there is a need for the Danish government to extend their subsidy control system to verify farmers......’ declarations to war-rant greening payments under the new crop diversification rules. Remote Sensing (RS) technology has been used since 1992 to control farmers’ subsidies in Denmark. However, a proper RS-based approach is yet to be finalised to validate new crop diversity requirements designed for assessing...... compliance under the recent subsidy scheme (2014–2020); This study uses an ensemble classification approach(proposed by the authors in previous studies) for validating the crop diversity requirements of the new rules. The approach uses a neural network ensemble classification system with bi-temporal (spring...

  17. Click chemistry approach to functionalize two-dimensional macromolecules of graphene oxide nanosheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Kou; Hongkun He; Chao Gao

    2010-01-01

    A facile 'click chemistry' approach to functionalize 2D macromolecules of graphene oxide nanosheets with poly(ethylene glycol) of different molecular weights,polystyrene,palmitic acid and various amino acids was presented.FTIR,TGA,Raman spectroscopy,XPS,XRD,TEM,AFM and SEM were utilized to characterize the products.High degree of functionalization was achieved on the flat surfaces of graphene oxide,affording polymer-grafted 2D brushes and amino acids-immobilized nanosheets,which show improved solubility in organic solvents.The click chemistry strategy reported herein provides a facile and general method for functionalization of graphene oxide with macromolecules and desired biomolecules.

  18. Thermo-chemistry of nuclear waste glasses: a new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linard, Y.; Neuville, D.R.; Richet, P.

    1997-01-01

    Understanding of the stability and weathering of glasses used for storing fission products is hampered by a general lack of basic thermochemical information. Models have been setup to predict Gibbs free energies of dissolution of glasses, but ascertaining their accuracy is made difficult by the very lack of reliable experimental data with which model results should be compared. As enthalpies of formation can in principle be determined from usual solution calorimetry experiments, the lack of Gibbs-free energy data for glasses mainly stems from the fact that, as disordered substances, glasses do not obey the third principle and have indeed large configurational entropies. These entropies can be determined from thermochemical measurements only when there exist a congruently melting crystalline compound with the same composition. Using available data, we have calculated the Gibbs-free energies of formation of a series of silicate glasses for which such a calorimetric determination is possible. With these results, we assess the predictions of Paul's model (1977) for calculating Gibbs-free energies of dissolution. As the complex compositions of the borosilicate glasses used for nuclear waste storage prevent determining configurational entropies by calorimetric methods, we point out how these can be determined instead from viscosity measurements. We finally discuss the implications of this approach for modeling of water-glass interactions. (authors)

  19. Focus 2012. Awakening into a new age - Elements of a sustainable energy supply. Ressource efficiency - key competency of sustainable societies, Sustainable chemistry - fundamental building blocks of a green economy. Annual report; Schwerpunkte 2012. Aufbruch ins neue Zeitalter - Elemente einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung, Ressourceneffizienz - Schluesselkompetenz zukunftsfaehiger Gesellschaften, Nachhaltige Chemie - elementarer Baustein einer Green Economy. Jahrespublikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromati, Fotini; Ittershagen, Martin [comps.

    2012-05-30

    The Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) sees excellent opportunities to move the economic regeneration forward by means of environmental protection. Under this aspect, the annual report ''Focus 2012'' under consideration presents the following contributions: (1) Green Economy as a new model for economic development; (2) Elements of a sustainable energy supply; (3) Resource efficiency as a key competence for sustainable societies; (4) Green Chemistry as a fundamental building block of Green Economy.

  20. Focus 2012. Awakening into a new age - Elements of a sustainable energy supply. Ressource efficiency - key competency of sustainable societies, Sustainable chemistry - fundamental building blocks of a green economy. Annual report; Schwerpunkte 2012. Aufbruch ins neue Zeitalter - Elemente einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung, Ressourceneffizienz - Schluesselkompetenz zukunftsfaehiger Gesellschaften, Nachhaltige Chemie - elementarer Baustein einer Green Economy. Jahrespublikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromati, Fotini; Ittershagen, Martin (comps.)

    2012-05-30

    The Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) sees excellent opportunities to move the economic regeneration forward by means of environmental protection. Under this aspect, the annual report ''Focus 2012'' under consideration presents the following contributions: (1) Green Economy as a new model for economic development; (2) Elements of a sustainable energy supply; (3) Resource efficiency as a key competence for sustainable societies; (4) Green Chemistry as a fundamental building block of Green Economy.

  1. Green is the future of chemistry : report of Taminco’s second Green Footsteps Event at the i-SUP 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noël, T.

    2012-01-01

    At the third edition of the international conference "Innovation for Sustainable Production 2012" (i-SUP 2012) in Bruges (Belgium), Taminco’s second Green Footsteps Event was held (May 7, 2012) [1]. The aim of this meeting is to create an open innovation platform in order to stimulate creative

  2. A Green Approach for Allylations of Aldehydes and Ketones: Combining Allylborate, Mechanochemistry and Lanthanide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane P. de Souza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary and tertiary alcohols synthesized via allylation of aldehydes and ketones are important compounds in bioactive natural products and industry, including pharmaceuticals. Development of a mechanochemical method using potassium allyltrifluoroborate salt and water, to successfully perform the allylation of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds is reported for the first time. By controlling the grinding parameters, the methodology can be selective, namely, very efficient for aldehydes and ineffective for ketones, but by employing lanthanide catalysts, the reactions with ketones can become practically quantitative. The catalyzed reactions can also be performed under mild aqueous stirring conditions. Considering the allylation agent and its by-products, aqueous media, energy efficiency and use of catalyst, the methodology meets most of the green chemistry principles.

  3. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    whole range of target substances as well as chemo-taxonomic studies and fingerprinting of complex mixtures, which are present in biological or environmental samples. Due to low consumption of eluent (usually 0.3-1mL/run) mainly composed of water-alcohol binary mixtures, this method can be considered as environmentally friendly and green chemistry focused analytical tool, supplementary to analytical protocols involving column chromatography or planar micro-fluidic devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A COUPLED CHEMISTRY-EMISSION MODEL FOR ATOMIC OXYGEN GREEN AND RED-DOUBLET EMISSIONS IN THE COMET C/1996 B2 HYAKUTAKE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Raghuram, Susarla

    2012-01-01

    The green (5577 Å) and red-doublet (6300, 6364 Å) lines are prompt emissions of metastable oxygen atoms in the 1 S and 1 D states, respectively, that have been observed in several comets. The value of the intensity ratio of green to red-doublet (G/R ratio) of 0.1 has been used as a benchmark to identify the parent molecule of oxygen lines as H 2 O. A coupled chemistry-emission model is developed to study the production and loss mechanisms of the O( 1 S) and O( 1 D) atoms and the generation of red and green lines in the coma of C/1996 B2 Hyakutake. The G/R ratio depends not only on photochemistry, but also on the projected area observed for cometary coma, which is a function of the dimension of the slit used and the geocentric distance of the comet. Calculations show that the contribution of photodissociation of H 2 O to the green (red) line emission is 30%-70% (60%-90%), while CO 2 and CO are the next potential sources contributing 25%-50% ( 1 S) to O( 1 D) would be around 0.03 (±0.01) if H 2 O is the main source of oxygen lines, whereas it is ∼0.6 if the parent is CO 2 . Our calculations suggest that the yield of O( 1 S) production in the photodissociation of H 2 O cannot be larger than 1%. The model-calculated radial brightness profiles of the red and green lines and G/R ratios are in good agreement with the observations made on the comet Hyakutake in 1996 March.

  5. A COUPLED CHEMISTRY-EMISSION MODEL FOR ATOMIC OXYGEN GREEN AND RED-DOUBLET EMISSIONS IN THE COMET C/1996 B2 HYAKUTAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Raghuram, Susarla, E-mail: bhardwaj_spl@yahoo.com, E-mail: anil_bhardwaj@vssc.gov.in, E-mail: raghuramsusarla@gmail.com [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 695022 (India)

    2012-03-20

    The green (5577 Angstrom-Sign ) and red-doublet (6300, 6364 Angstrom-Sign ) lines are prompt emissions of metastable oxygen atoms in the {sup 1}S and {sup 1}D states, respectively, that have been observed in several comets. The value of the intensity ratio of green to red-doublet (G/R ratio) of 0.1 has been used as a benchmark to identify the parent molecule of oxygen lines as H{sub 2}O. A coupled chemistry-emission model is developed to study the production and loss mechanisms of the O({sup 1}S) and O({sup 1}D) atoms and the generation of red and green lines in the coma of C/1996 B2 Hyakutake. The G/R ratio depends not only on photochemistry, but also on the projected area observed for cometary coma, which is a function of the dimension of the slit used and the geocentric distance of the comet. Calculations show that the contribution of photodissociation of H{sub 2}O to the green (red) line emission is 30%-70% (60%-90%), while CO{sub 2} and CO are the next potential sources contributing 25%-50% (<5%). The ratio of the photoproduction rate of O({sup 1} S) to O({sup 1} D) would be around 0.03 ({+-}0.01) if H{sub 2}O is the main source of oxygen lines, whereas it is {approx}0.6 if the parent is CO{sub 2}. Our calculations suggest that the yield of O({sup 1} S) production in the photodissociation of H{sub 2}O cannot be larger than 1%. The model-calculated radial brightness profiles of the red and green lines and G/R ratios are in good agreement with the observations made on the comet Hyakutake in 1996 March.

  6. Synthesis of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite through soft chemistry methods: A green chemistry approach using sesame seed extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingasu, Dana [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Mindru, Ioana, E-mail: imandru@yahoo.com [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Mocioiu, Oana Catalina; Preda, Silviu; Stanica, Nicolae; Patron, Luminita [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Ianculescu, Adelina; Oprea, Ovidiu [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 1-7 Polizu Street, 011061, Bucharest (Romania); Nita, Sultana; Paraschiv, Ileana [National Institute for Chemical Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 112 Calea Vitan, 031299, Bucharest (Romania); Popa, Marcela; Saviuc, Crina [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology, Microbiology Department, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest-ICUB, Life, Environmental and Earth Sciences Division, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania); Bleotu, Coralia [Stefan S. Nicolau Institute of Virology, Cellular and Molecular Pathology Department, 285 Mihai Bravu Avenue, Bucharest (Romania); Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology, Microbiology Department, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest-ICUB, Life, Environmental and Earth Sciences Division, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-10-01

    The nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were obtained through self-combustion and wet ferritization methods using aqueous extracts of sesame (Sesamum indicum L) seeds. The multimetallic complex compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-VIS spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Phase identification, morphological evolution and magnetic properties of the obtained cobalt ferrites were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), FTIR and magnetic measurements. FE-SEM investigations revealed the particle size of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} obtained by wet ferritization method ranged between 3 and 20.45 nm. Their antimicrobial, anti-biofilm and cytotoxic properties were evaluated. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were obtained by two chemical synthesis methods. • Sesame seed extract was used as gelling or chelating agent. • The morphological features of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were evaluated. • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibited good microbicidal and anti-biofilm features.

  7. Chemistry, Life, the Universe, and Everything: A New Approach to General Chemistry, and a Model for Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Melanie; Klymkowsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The history of general chemistry is one of almost constant calls for reform, yet over the past 60 years little of substance has changed. Those reforms that have been implemented are almost entirely concerned with how the course is taught, rather than what is to be learned. Here we briefly discuss the history of the general chemistry curriculum and…

  8. Dynamic integration of residential building design and green energies : the Bireth approach : building integrated renewable energy total harvest approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, K.P. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Luk, C.L.P. [Chu Hai College of Higher Education, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Wong, S.T. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Div. of Arts and Humanities, SPACE; Chung, S.L.; Fung, K.S.; Leung, M.F. [Hong Kong Inst. of Vocational Education, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-07-01

    Renewable energy sources that are commonly used in buildings include solar energy, wind energy and rainwater collection. High quality environmentally responsive residential buildings are designed to provide good insulation in winter and solar shading in summer. However, this study demonstrated that the green energy design in residential buildings is not usually well integrated. For example, windows with clear double or triple glazed glass, allow good penetration of sunlight during the day in winter, but are not further dynamically insulated for when the sun goes down to avoid heat loss from the building. Additionally, good solar static shading devices often block much needed daylight on cloudy winter days. These examples emphasize the lack of an integrated approach to gain the best advantage of green energies and to minimize energy costs in residential buildings. This study addressed issues facing the integrated approach with particular reference to the design of a small residential building in rural Beijing. The design included a new approach for interpreting a traditional Beijing court yard house in the modern Beijing rural context, while integrating multi-responding innovative green energy applications derived from first principles. This paper also presented a proposal for a village house in Hong Kong to harvest as much renewable energies as possible, primarily wind energy and solar energy, that come into contact with the building. The purpose was to work towards a renewable energy approach for buildings, namely the Bireth approach, which will benefit practically all houses by making them zero energy houses. The paper described the feasibility of integrating renewable energies in buildings to fulfill performance requirements such improving ventilation, providing warm interiors, drying clothes, or storing solar and wind energies into power batteries. The challenges facing the development of a proposed micro solar hot air turbine were also presented. 15 refs., 6

  9. Time-Filtered Navier-Stokes Approach and Emulation of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Wey, Thomas; Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the time-filtered Navier-Stokes approach capable of capturing unsteady flow structures important for turbulent mixing and an accompanying subgrid model directly accounting for the major processes in turbulence-chemistry interaction. They have been applied to the computation of two-phase turbulent combustion occurring in a single-element lean-direct-injection combustor. Some of the preliminary results from this computational effort are presented in this paper.

  10. A Fuzzy MCDM Approach for Green Supplier Selection from the Economic and Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu Mei Wang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the challenge of rising public awareness of environmental issues and governmental regulations, green supply chain management (SCM has become an important issue for companies to gain environmental sustainability. Supplier selection is one of the key operational tasks necessary to construct a green SCM. To select the most suitable suppliers, many economic and environmental criteria must be considered in the decision process. Although numerous studies have used economic criteria such as cost, quality, and lead time in the supplier selection process, only some studies have taken into account the environmental issues. This study proposes a comprehensive fuzzy multicriteria decision making (MCDM approach for green supplier selection and evaluation, using both economic and environmental criteria. In the proposed approach, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP is employed to determine the important weights of criteria under vague environment. In addition, a fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is used to evaluate and rank the potential suppliers. Finally, a case study in Luminance Enhancement Film (LEF industry is presented to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  12. Connected Green function approach to symmetry breaking in Φ1+14-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.M.; Cassing, W.; Peter, A.; Thoma, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    Using the cluster expansions for n-point Green functions we derive a closed set of dynamical equations of motion for connected equal-time Green functions by neglecting all connected functions higher than 4 th order for the λΦ 4 -theory in 1+1 dimensions. We apply the equations to the investigation of spontaneous symmetry breaking, i.e. to the evaluation of the effective potential at temperature T=0. Within our momentum space discretization we obtain a second order phase transition (in agreement with the Simon-Griffith theorem) and a critical coupling of λ crit /4m 2 =2.446 ascompared to a first order phase transition and λ crit /4m 2 =2.568 from the Gaussian effective potential approach. (orig.)

  13. State of the Art High-Throughput Approaches to Genotoxicity: Flow Micronucleus, Ames II, GreenScreen and Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    State of the Art High-Throughput Approaches to Genotoxicity: Flow Micronucleus, Ames II, GreenScreen and Comet (Presented by Dr. Marilyn J. Aardema, Chief Scientific Advisor, Toxicology, Dr. Leon Stankowski, et. al. (6/28/2012)

  14. Plant Extract Synthesized PLA Nanoparticles for Controlled and Sustained Release of Quercetin: A Green Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has been extensively carried out by using plant extracts (PEs) which have property of stabilizers/ emulsifiers. To our knowledge, there is no comprehensive study on applying a green approach using PEs for fabrication of biodegradable PLA NPs. Conventional methods rely on molecules like polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, D-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol 1000) succinate as stabilizers/emulsifiers for the synthesis of such biodegradable NPs which are known to be toxic. So, there is urgent need to look for stabilizers which are biogenic and non-toxic. The present study investigated use of PEs as stabilizers/emulsifiers for the fabrication of stable PLA NPs. Synthesized PLA NPs through this green process were explored for controlled release of the well known antioxidant molecule quercetin. Methodology/Principal Findings Stable PLA NPs were synthesized using leaf extracts of medicinally important plants like Syzygium cumini (1), Bauhinia variegata (2), Cedrus deodara (3), Lonicera japonica (4) and Eleaocarpus sphaericus (5). Small and uniformly distributed NPs in the size range 70±30 nm to 143±36 nm were formed with these PEs. To explore such NPs for drugs/ small molecules delivery, we have successfully encapsulated quercetin a lipophilic molecule on a most uniformly distributed PLA-4 NPs synthesized using Lonicera japonica leaf extract. Quercetin loaded PLA-4 NPs were observed for slow and sustained release of quercetin molecule. Conclusions This green approach based on PEs mediated synthesis of stable PLA NPs pave the way for encapsulating drug/small molecules, nutraceuticals and other bioactive ingredients for safer cellular uptake, biodistribution and targeted delivery. Hence, such PEs synthesized PLA NPs would be useful to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated small molecules/drugs. Furthermore, different types of plants can be explored for the synthesis of PLA as well as other

  15. Investigating Student Perceptions of the Chemistry Laboratory and Their Approaches to Learning in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Spencer Granett

    This dissertation explores student perceptions of the instructional chemistry laboratory and the approaches students take when learning in the laboratory environment. To measure student perceptions of the chemistry laboratory, a survey instrument was developed. 413 students responded to the survey during the Fall 2011 semester. Students' perception of the usefulness of the laboratory in helping them learn chemistry in high school was related to several factors regarding their experiences in high school chemistry. Students' perception of the usefulness of the laboratory in helping them learn chemistry in college was also measured. Reasons students provided for the usefulness of the laboratory were categorized. To characterize approaches to learning in the laboratory, students were interviewed midway through semester (N=18). The interviews were used to create a framework describing learning approaches that students use in the laboratory environment. Students were categorized into three levels: students who view the laboratory as a requirement, students who believe that the laboratory augments their understanding, and students who view the laboratory as an important part of science. These categories describe the types of strategies students used when conducting experiments. To further explore the relationship between students' perception of the laboratory and their approaches to learning, two case studies are described. These case studies involve interviews in the beginning and end of the semester. In the interviews, students reflect on what they have learned in the laboratory and describe their perceptions of the laboratory environment. In order to encourage students to adopt higher-level approaches to learning in the laboratory, a metacognitive intervention was created. The intervention involved supplementary questions that students would answer while completing laboratory experiments. The questions were designed to encourage students to think critically about the

  16. Synthesis, physico-chemical and biomedical applications of sulfated Aegle marmelos gum: Green chemistry approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jindal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed at obtaining a sulfated derivative of gum obtained from partially ripe fruits of Aegle marmelos employing the ultrasonication technique. Elemental analysis and FTIR-ATR studies confirmed successful sulfation. The molarity of sulfuric acid exerted maximum influence on the degree of substitution followed by reaction temperature and reaction time. The sulfated derivative showed higher swelling in both acidic and alkaline pH as compared to the unmodified gum. It also possessed higher negative zeta potential, higher viscosity, work of shear, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity as compared to both unmodified gum as well as sodium alginate. Sulfated derivative was superior to unmodified gum and sodium alginate in terms of antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities. The sulfated sample appears to be a potential substitute over the unmodified gum sample and sodium alginate for modulating the physicochemical properties of food and drug release dosage forms.

  17. Latest approaches on green chemistry preconcentration methods for trace metal determination in seawater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Colla, Noelia Soledad; Domini, Claudia Elizabeth; Marcovecchio, Jorge Eduardo; Botté, Sandra Elizabeth

    2015-03-15

    Evaluation of trace metal levels in seawater samples is undertaken regularly by research groups all over the world, leading to a growing demand for techniques involving fewer toxic reagents, less time-consuming protocols and lower limits of detection. This review focuses on providing a brief but concise description of the latest methodologies developed to this end, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of the various protocols, chelating and dispersive agents and instruments used. Conclusions are drawn on the basis of the articles reviewed, highlighting improvements introduced in order to enhance the performance of the protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Green Chemistry Approach for the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using the Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, Naresh Niranjan; Rahul, Ganga Ravindran; Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Raman, Gurusamy; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles has gained tremendous attention owing to their immense applications in the field of biomedical sciences. Although several chemical procedures are used for the synthesis of nanoparticles, the release of toxic and hazardous by-products restricts their use in biomedical applications. In the present investigation, gold nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using the culture filtrate of the filamentous fungus Alternaria sp. The culture filtrate of the fungus was exposed to three different concentrations of chloroaurate ions. In all cases, the gold ions were reduced to Au(0), leading to the formation of stable gold nanoparticles of variable sizes and shapes. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis confirmed the formation of nanoparticles by reduction of Au(3+) to Au(0). TEM analysis revealed the presence of spherical, rod, square, pentagonal, and hexagonal morphologies for 1 mM chloroaurate solution. However, quasi-spherical and spherical nanoparticles/heart-like morphologies with size range of about 7-13 and 15-18 nm were observed for lower molar concentrations of 0.3 and 0.5 mM gold chloride solution, respectively. The XRD spectrum revealed the face-centered cubic crystals of synthesized gold nanoparticles. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of aromatic primary amines, and the additional SPR bands at 290 and 230 nm further suggested that the presence of amino acids such as tryptophan/tyrosine or phenylalanine acts as the capping agent on the synthesized mycogenic gold nanoparticles.

  19. Green chemistry approach to the synthesis of potentially bioactive aminobenzylated Mannich bases through active hydrogen compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. VASOYA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and high yield method for the synthesis of aminobenzylated Mannich bases is described. The synthesis occurs in aqueous medium at 0 ºC. The compounds show moderate antitubercular and antimicrobial activities.

  20. Biologically active perspective synthesis of heteroannulated 8-nitroquinolines with green chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasakumar, Thangaraj; Mathusalini, Sadasivam; Gopalan, Subashini; Shyamsivappan, Selvaraj; Ata, Athar; Mohan, Palathurai Subramaniam

    2017-04-01

    A new class of pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinoline (5a-i, 7a-b) and pyrano[3,2-c]quinoline (9a-i) derivatives were designed and synthesized in moderate to good yields by microwave conditions. To enhance the yield of pyrano[3,2-c]quinoline derivatives, multicomponent one-pot synthesis has been developed. The synthesized compounds were identified by spectral and elemental analyses. Compounds 9a and 9i showed good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. All of the new compounds exhibited weak to moderate antioxidant activity, compound 9d exerted significant antioxidant power. The cytotoxicity of these compounds were also evaluated against MCF-7 (breast) and A549 (Lung) cancer cell lines. Most of the compounds displayed moderate to good cytotoxic activity against these cell lines. Compound 9i was found to be significantly active in this assay and also induced cell death by apoptosis. Molecular docking studies were carried out using EGFR inhibitor in order to determine the molecular interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chelation technology: a promising green approach for resource management and waste minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Garima; Pant, K K; Nigam, K D P

    2015-01-01

    Green chemical engineering recognises the concept of developing innovative environmentally benign technologies to protect human health and ecosystems. In order to explore this concept for minimizing industrial waste and for reducing the environmental impact of hazardous chemicals, new greener approaches need to be adopted for the extraction of heavy metals from industrial waste. In this review, a range of conventional processes and new green approaches employed for metal extraction are discussed in brief. Chelation technology, a modern research trend, has shown its potential to develop sustainable technology for metal extraction from various metal-contaminated sites. However, the interaction mechanism of ligands with metals and the ecotoxicological risk associated with the increased bioavailability of heavy metals due to the formation of metal-chelant complexes is still not sufficiently explicated in the literature. Therefore, a need was felt to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of all aspects associated with chelation technology to promote this process as a green chemical engineering approach. This article elucidates the mechanism and thermodynamics associated with metal-ligand complexation in order to have a better understanding of the metal extraction process. The effects of various process parameters on the formation and stability of complexes have been elaborately discussed with respect to optimizing the chelation efficiency. The non-biodegradable attribute of ligands is another important aspect which is currently of concern. Therefore, biotechnological approaches and computational tools have been assessed in this review to illustrate the possibility of ligand degradation, which will help the readers to look for new environmentally safe mobilizing agents. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of chelation technology have been summarized and the diverse applicability of chelation technology in metal extraction from

  2. A New Dynamic Multicriteria Decision-Making Approach for Green Supplier Selection in Construction Projects under Time Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the lack of natural resources and environment problems which have been appearing increasingly, green building is more and more involved in the construction industry. The evaluation and selection of green supplier are a significant part of the development of green building. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic multicriteria decision-making approach in construction projects under time sequence to deal with these problems. First, the paper establishes 4 main criteria and 17 subcriteria for green supplier selection in construction projects. Then, a method considering interaction between criteria and the influence of constructors subjective preference and objective criteria information is proposed. It uses the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy geometric weighted Heronian means (IVIFGWHM operator and multitarget nonlinear programming model to calculate the comprehensive evaluation results of potential green suppliers. The proposed method is much easier for constructors to select green supplier and make the localization of green supplier more practical and accurate in construction projects. Finally, a case study about a green building project is given to verify practicality and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. Research-Based Development of a Lesson Plan on Shower Gels and Musk Fragrances Following a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    A case is described of the development of a lesson plan for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes on the chemistry of shower gels. The lesson plan follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This means that, aside from learning about the basic chemistry of the components making up modern shower gels in…

  4. Big Data Meets Quantum Chemistry Approximations: The Δ-Machine Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; Dral, Pavlo O; Rupp, Matthias; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2015-05-12

    Chemically accurate and comprehensive studies of the virtual space of all possible molecules are severely limited by the computational cost of quantum chemistry. We introduce a composite strategy that adds machine learning corrections to computationally inexpensive approximate legacy quantum methods. After training, highly accurate predictions of enthalpies, free energies, entropies, and electron correlation energies are possible, for significantly larger molecular sets than used for training. For thermochemical properties of up to 16k isomers of C7H10O2 we present numerical evidence that chemical accuracy can be reached. We also predict electron correlation energy in post Hartree-Fock methods, at the computational cost of Hartree-Fock, and we establish a qualitative relationship between molecular entropy and electron correlation. The transferability of our approach is demonstrated, using semiempirical quantum chemistry and machine learning models trained on 1 and 10% of 134k organic molecules, to reproduce enthalpies of all remaining molecules at density functional theory level of accuracy.

  5. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  6. The Green City Car. A holistic approach for NVH abatement of city cars

    OpenAIRE

    Bein, Thilo; Mayer, Dirk; Elliott, Steve; Ferrali, Leonardo; Casella, Mauro; Saemann, Ernst-Ulrich; Kropp, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Finn Kryger; Meschke, Jens; Pisano, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the different passive and active concepts in a holistic approach, the FP7 project Green City Car demonstrates the feasibility of applying active systems to NVH-related problems light city cars from a system point-of view. During the project, a city car equipped with a small engine has been considered equipped with the latest technology in terms of safety aspects related to pedestrian’s impact and car-to-car compatibility, which are of major importance in an urban environment. The noi...

  7. Synthesis of (3-Methoxycarbonyl)coumarin in an Ionic Liquid: An Advanced Undergraduate Project for Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdía, Pedro; Santamarta, Francisco; Tojo, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    An experiment for an undergraduate organic chemistry class based on the application of an ionic liquid as solvent and catalyst of an organic reaction is reported. The whole experiment requires three 3-h lab sessions. First, students prepare the ionic liquid dimethylimidazolium methylsulfate, which is then used as a recyclable catalyst/reaction…

  8. A comparative study of the effect of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins as stabilizing agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a green chemistry method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suárez-Cerda, Javier [Centro de Graduados e Investigación, Instituto Tecnológico de Tijuana, Apartado Postal 1166, Tijuana, B. C. (Mexico); Nuñez, Gabriel Alonso [Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología de la UNAM, CNyN, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22860 Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas e Ingeniería, UABC, Calzada Universidad 14418 Parque Industrial Internacional, C.P. 22390 Tijuana, B.C. (Mexico); Flores-López, Lucía Z., E-mail: lzflores@hotmail.com [Centro de Graduados e Investigación, Instituto Tecnológico de Tijuana, Apartado Postal 1166, Tijuana, B. C. (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the effect of different types of cyclodextrins (CDs) in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), using an easy green chemistry method. The Ag-NPs were obtained using an aqueous silver nitrate solution (AgNO{sub 3}) with α-, β-, or γ-CDs (aqueous solutions) as stabilizing agents, employing the chemical reduction method with citric acid as a reducing agent. A comparative study was done to determine which cyclodextrin (CD) was the best stabilizing agent, and we found out that β-CD was the best due to the number of glucopyranose units in its structure. The formation of the Ag-NPs was demonstrated by analysis of UV–vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM–EDS showed the formation of a cluster with a significant amount of silver, for β-CD-Ag-NPs, spherical agglomerates can be observed. However, for α-, γ-CD, the agglomerates do not have a specific form, but their appearance is porous. TEM analysis shows spherical nanoparticles in shape and size between ∼ 0.5 to 7 nm. The clear lattice fringes in TEM images and the typical selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, showed that the Ag-NPs obtained were highly crystalline with a face cubic center structure (FCC). - Highlights: • We report a green chemistry method for silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) synthesis. • We study the effect of cyclodextrin type on the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) synthesis. • The silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) characterization were done by UV–vis, AFM, SEM–EDS, and TEM. • The Ag-NPs obtained have a face cubic center structure (FCC). • The nanoparticles obtained are spherical in shape and between ∼ 0.5 and 7 nm in size.

  9. A comparative study of the effect of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins as stabilizing agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a green chemistry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez-Cerda, Javier; Nuñez, Gabriel Alonso; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Flores-López, Lucía Z.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of different types of cyclodextrins (CDs) in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), using an easy green chemistry method. The Ag-NPs were obtained using an aqueous silver nitrate solution (AgNO 3 ) with α-, β-, or γ-CDs (aqueous solutions) as stabilizing agents, employing the chemical reduction method with citric acid as a reducing agent. A comparative study was done to determine which cyclodextrin (CD) was the best stabilizing agent, and we found out that β-CD was the best due to the number of glucopyranose units in its structure. The formation of the Ag-NPs was demonstrated by analysis of UV–vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM–EDS showed the formation of a cluster with a significant amount of silver, for β-CD-Ag-NPs, spherical agglomerates can be observed. However, for α-, γ-CD, the agglomerates do not have a specific form, but their appearance is porous. TEM analysis shows spherical nanoparticles in shape and size between ∼ 0.5 to 7 nm. The clear lattice fringes in TEM images and the typical selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, showed that the Ag-NPs obtained were highly crystalline with a face cubic center structure (FCC). - Highlights: • We report a green chemistry method for silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) synthesis. • We study the effect of cyclodextrin type on the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) synthesis. • The silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) characterization were done by UV–vis, AFM, SEM–EDS, and TEM. • The Ag-NPs obtained have a face cubic center structure (FCC). • The nanoparticles obtained are spherical in shape and between ∼ 0.5 and 7 nm in size

  10. Evaluation of the molecular level visualisation approach for teaching and learning chemistry in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenglengdi, Butsari

    This research evaluates the use of a molecular level visualisation approach in Thai secondary schools. The goal is to obtain insights about the usefulness of this approach, and to examine possible improvements in how the approach might be applied in the future. The methodology used for this research used both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data were collected in the form of pre- and post-intervention multiple choice questions, open-ended-questions, drawing exercises, one-to-one interviews and video recordings of class activity. The research was conducted in two phases, involving a total of 261 students from the 11th Grade in Thailand. The use of VisChem animations in three studies was evaluated in Phase I. Study 1 was a pilot study exploring the benefits of incorporating VisChem animations to portray the molecular level. Study 2 compared test results between students exposed to these animations of molecular level events, and those not. Finally, in Study 3, test results were gathered from different types of schools (a rural school, a city school, and a university school). The results showed that students (and teachers) had misconceptions at the molecular level, and VisChem animations could help students understand chemistry concepts at the molecular level across all three types of schools. While the animation treatment group had a better score on the topic of states of water, the non-animation treatment group had a better score on the topic of dissolving sodium chloride in water than the animation group. The molecular level visualisation approach as a learning design was evaluated in Phase II. This approach involved a combination of VisChem animations, pictures, and diagrams together with the seven-step VisChem learning design. The study involved three classes of students, each with a different treatment, described as Class A - Traditional approach; Class B - VisChem animations with traditional approach; and Class C - Molecular level visualisation approach

  11. Biophysical Approach to Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Green Tea Catechins

    OpenAIRE

    Masami Suganuma; Atsushi Takahashi; Tatsuro Watanabe; Keisuke Iida; Takahisa Matsuzaki; Hiroshi Y. Yoshikawa; Hirota Fujiki

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AF...

  12. Many-electron approaches in physics, chemistry and mathematics a multidisciplinary view

    CERN Document Server

    Site, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad description of the development and (computational) application of many-electron approaches from a multidisciplinary perspective. In the context of studying many-electron systems Computer Science, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics are all intimately interconnected. However, beyond a handful of communities working at the interface between these disciplines, there is still a marked separation of subjects. This book seeks to offer a common platform for possible exchanges between the various fields and to introduce the reader to perspectives for potential further developments across the disciplines. The rapid advances of modern technology will inevitably require substantial improvements in the approaches currently used, which will in turn make exchanges between disciplines indispensable. In essence this book is one of the very first attempts at an interdisciplinary approach to the many-electron problem.

  13. Synthesis of Well-Defined Copper "N"-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes and Their Use as Catalysts for a "Click Reaction": A Multistep Experiment that Emphasizes the Role of Catalysis in Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Elon A.; Ison, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A multistep experiment for an advanced synthesis lab course that incorporates topics in organic-inorganic synthesis and catalysis and highlights green chemistry principles was developed. Students synthesized two "N"-heterocyclic carbene ligands, used them to prepare two well-defined copper(I) complexes and subsequently utilized the complexes as…

  14. Carbon nanospheres derived from Lablab purpureus for high performance supercapacitor electrodes: a green approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Gomaa A M; Divyashree, A; Supriya, S; Chong, Kwok Feng; Ethiraj, Anita S; Reddy, M V; Algarni, H; Hegde, Gurumurthy

    2017-10-17

    Carbon nanospheres derived from a natural source using a green approach were reported. Lablab purpureus seeds were pyrolyzed at different temperatures to produce carbon nanospheres for supercapacitor electrode materials. The synthesized carbon nanospheres were analyzed using SEM, TEM, FTIR, TGA, Raman spectroscopy, BET and XRD. They were later fabricated into electrodes for cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy testing. The specific capacitances were found to be 300, 265 and 175 F g -1 in 5 M KOH electrolyte for carbon nanospheres synthesized at 800, 700 and 500 °C, respectively. These are on a par with those of prior electrodes made of biologically derived carbon nanospheres but the cycle lives were remarkably higher than those of any previous efforts. The electrodes showed 94% capacitance retention even after 5200 charge/discharge cycles entailing excellent recycling durability. In addition, the practical symmetrical supercapacitor showed good electrochemical behaviour under a potential window up to 1.7 V. This brings us one step closer to fabricating a commercial green electrode which exhibits high performance for supercapacitors. This is also a waste to wealth approach based carbon material for cost effective supercapacitors with high performance for power storage devices.

  15. TOWARDS GREEN THROUGH LEAN/LEAN SIX SIGMA APPROACHES: A LITERATURE REVIEW AT SERVICE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO GOYANNES GUSMÃO CAIADO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, sustainable development have increasingly gained importance to service industry and lean/Six Sigma approaches are becoming more and more outstanding in order to improve sustainability performance. In the post-modern era the integration between those approaches are necessary in order to aid organisations to balance the need for operational efficiency in their production and service systems with environmental commitment and social fairness. Because of that, Lean Six Sigma practices are progressively becoming widespread in studies about service, as way to improve quality, efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of services. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the Lean and Lean Six Sigma (L6σ methodologies and highlight their importance to achieve sustainable development in service industry. To do this, a systematic literature review (SLR of the subjects under investigation was conducted. We examine the compatibility and divergences of the green, lean and Six Sigma concepts and implications regarding its sustainable implementation in service industry. The study has two major contributions. First, it is one of the first researches that investigate the potential benefits of integrating green, lean and Six Sigma in service sector. Second, it supports and expands current literature, providing both academicians and practitioners a better panorama to understand the present status of L6σ for achieving sustainability in service sector.

  16. Identifying Green Infrastructure from Social Media and Crowdsourcing- An Image Based Machine-Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A.; Minsker, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we introduce a novel dataset GRID: GReen Infrastructure Detection Dataset and a framework for identifying urban green storm water infrastructure (GI) designs (wetlands/ponds, urban trees, and rain gardens/bioswales) from social media and satellite aerial images using computer vision and machine learning methods. Along with the hydrologic benefits of GI, such as reducing runoff volumes and urban heat islands, GI also provides important socio-economic benefits such as stress recovery and community cohesion. However, GI is installed by many different parties and cities typically do not know where GI is located, making study of its impacts or siting new GI difficult. We use object recognition learning methods (template matching, sliding window approach, and Random Hough Forest method) and supervised machine learning algorithms (e.g., support vector machines) as initial screening approaches to detect potential GI sites, which can then be investigated in more detail using on-site surveys. Training data were collected from GPS locations of Flickr and Instagram image postings and Amazon Mechanical Turk identification of each GI type. Sliding window method outperformed other methods and achieved an average F measure, which is combined metric for precision and recall performance measure of 0.78.

  17. Development of multi-functional streetscape green infrastructure using a performance index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, A.; Williams, I.D.; Heidrich, O.; Namdeo, A.; Bandaru, V.; Calfapietra, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a performance evaluation framework for streetscape vegetation. A performance index (PI) is conceived using the following seven traits, specific to the street environments – Pollution Flux Potential (PFP), Carbon Sequestration Potential (CSP), Thermal Comfort Potential (TCP), Noise Attenuation Potential (NAP), Biomass Energy Potential (BEP), Environmental Stress Tolerance (EST) and Crown Projection Factor (CPF). Its application is demonstrated through a case study using fifteen street vegetation species from the UK, utilising a combination of direct field measurements and inventoried literature data. Our results indicate greater preference to small-to-medium size trees and evergreen shrubs over larger trees for streetscaping. The proposed PI approach can be potentially applied two-fold: one, for evaluation of the performance of the existing street vegetation, facilitating the prospects for further improving them through management strategies and better species selection; two, for planning new streetscapes and multi-functional biomass as part of extending the green urban infrastructure. - Highlights: • A performance evaluation framework for streetscape vegetation is presented. • Seven traits, relevant to street vegetation, are included in a performance index (PI). • The PI approach is applied to quantify and rank fifteen street vegetation species. • Medium size trees and evergreen shrubs are found more favourable for streetscapes. • The PI offers a metric for developing sustainable streetscape green infrastructure. - A performance index is developed and applied to fifteen vegetation species indicating greater preference to medium size trees and evergreen shrubs for streetscaping.

  18. Green chemistry for preparation of oligopyrrole macrocycles precursors: Novel methodology for dipyrromethanes and tripyrromethanes synthesis in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Vladimír; Vašek, P.; Dolenský, B.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 5 (2004), s. 1126-1136 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0933; GA ČR GA203/02/0420; GA ČR GP203/03/D049 Grant - others:QLRT(XE) 2000-02360 Keywords : oligopyrrole macrocycles * porphyrins * calixpyrrols Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.062, year: 2004

  19. Life Cycle Assessment as a tool for green Chemistry: Application to different advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ortiz, I.; Domenech Antunez, X.; Malato Rodriguez, S.

    2006-07-01

    The development of chemistry during the twentieth century has changed our lives. In fact, chemistry and chemicals surrounds US in our daily activities, due to the huge supply of products aimed at improving our quality of life. Chemistry has resulted in the medical revolution of the past century, in which drugs as antibiotics have been used to cure diseases that affected mankind for centuries. These advances have led to the rise in the average life expectancy from 47 in 1900, to 75 years in the 1990s (Breslow 1997). On the other hand, the world's food supply has seen an explosive expansion because of the development of pesticides as well as fertilisers that protect crops and improve their productivity. Other common chemicals are those related to hygiene, such as soaps, detergents, disinfectants, toothpaste, etc. Therefore, there is practically no facet in material life-transportation communication, clothing, shelter, office- in which chemistry does not play an important role, either to supply consumer products or to improve services addressed to society in general (Domenech 2005). In spite of all these clear benefits, the chemical industry is often viewed by the general public as causing more harm than good (Lancaster 2002). A major reason for this is that the industry is perceived as being polluting and causing significant environmental damage. Indeed, the manufacture, use and disposal of chemicals consume large amounts of resources, and originates emissions of pollutants to all environmental compartments, not to mention the numerous accidents and disasters in which the chemical industry has been involved in the recent past. (Author)

  20. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions.