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Sample records for green bean plants

  1. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  2. Correlation between caffeine contents of green coffee beans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A moderate negative correlation (R = 0.5463) was found between the caffeine contents of green coffee beans and the altitudes at which the coffee plants were grown. The caffeine contents of 9 of the green coffee bean samples analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) provided comparable results in the ...

  3. Simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa from fava bean, green peas and green beans by high performance liquid gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran S M, Mohseni; B, Golshani

    2013-06-01

    According to many studies, sprouted fava beans are a rich source of levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) the precursor of dopamine, and they are now being investigated for use in the management of Parkinson's disease. The addition of Carbidopa (C-dopa) can reduce the daily use of the L-dopa dosage requirements and it can also reduce the side effects which are associated with the L-dopa administration. The present research was conducted to find the levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) and Carbidopa (C-dopa) in fava beans, green peas and green beans by High Performance Gas Chromatography (HPLC). Carbidopa (C-dopa) is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. As a substitution therapy, it used in combination to treat Parkinson's disease. We obtained L-dopa and C-dopa from fava beans which were in the fresh and dry sprouted form, whose concentrations were 1.4,1.5 and 2.6,2.4 mg/ml respectively. The maximal stimulation of the L-DOPA content was seen on day 8 for the fava beans, which was 100% higher than that of the control level. The results of this study indicate that faba beans are a good source of natural L-dopa and C-dopa. The quantification of this capacity according to the stage and the plant part could be suitable for applications in the food industry and in plant medicine. The consumption of fava beans can increase the levels of L-dopa and C-dopa in the blood, with a marked improvement in the motor performance of the patients with parkinson disease, without any side effects.

  4. Physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarharum, W. B.; Yuwono, S. S.; Pangestu, N. B. S. W.; Nadhiroh, H.

    2018-03-01

    Demand on high quality coffee for consumption is continually increasing not only in the consuming countries (importers) but also in the producing countries (exporters). Coffee quality could be affected by several factors from farm to cup including the post-harvest processing methods. This research aimed to investigate the influence of different post-harvest processing methods on physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans. The two factors being evaluated were three different post-harvest processing methods to produce green coffee beans (natural/dry, semi-washed and fully-washed processing) under sun drying. Physical quality evaluation was based on The Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-2907-2008) while sensory quality was evaluated by five expert judges. The result shows that less defects observed in wet processed coffee as compared to the dry processing. The mechanical drying was also proven to yield a higher quality green coffee beans and minimise losses.

  5. Isoflavones from green vegetable soya beans and their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taoyun; Liu, Yanli; Li, Xiaoran; Xu, Qiongming; Feng, Yulin; Yang, Shilin

    2018-03-01

    Green vegetable soya beans, known as Maodou in China, are supplied as vegetable-type fruits of the soybean plant. Previous study indicated that green vegetable soya beans exhibited antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the material basis and pharmacological activities of green soybean plant were not unravelled clearly. In this study, we investigated the chemical ingredients and their pharmacological activities. Investigation of the chemical ingredients indicated that two new isoflavones, 2'-hydroxyerythrin A (1), and daidzein-7-O-β-d-{6″-[(E)-but-2-enoyl]}glycoside (2), together with seven known ones - 7,4'-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone (3), daidzein (4), daidzin (5), genistein (6), formononetin (7), ononin (8), and isoerythrinin A (9) - were obtained. The structures of compounds 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical analysis. We evaluated the antimicrobial efficacies and free-radical scavenging potential of the isolated compounds (1-9). Compounds 1 and 9 exhibited the most pronounced efficacy against the tested bacterial strains with IC 50 values ranging from 10.6 to 22.6 μg mL -1 . The isolated compounds showed moderate radical scavenging properties with compound 6 being the most active, followed by compounds 3, 1 and 4. This study indicated that the isoflavones from soya beans could be considered as potential antioxidants or antimicrobials in the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Plants as green phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Plants can act as vertical communication channels or `green phones¿ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The

  7. Intercropped red beet and radish with green bean affected microbial communities and nodulation by indigenous rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ugrinovic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of intercropping green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra and radish (Raphanus sativus L., two non-legume plants, on the plants’ yields, as well as the effect on occurrence and enumeration of microorganisms in the rhizosphere was studied. The intercrop efficacy evaluation, using Land equivalent ratio, revealed values above 1.0 for all intercropped treatments. Diversity of rhizobia from green bean nodules under different intercropping and fertilizing conditions was observed. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, 67 out of 158 isolates from green bean roots were selected as rhizobia (42.4%, confirmed by detection of 780 bp nifH gene fragments in nifH-PCR, and then clustered in 27 phenotype patterns. Production of exopolysaccharide succinoglycan was observed in 23 rhizobial isolates, while 6 were detected to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Screening of genetic diversity using (GTG5-PCR fingerprinting showed presence of six different patterns on the 92% similarity level.

  8. Fate of nitrogen (15N) from velvet bean in the soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivittaro, Walkyria Bueno; Muraoka, Takashi; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2004-01-01

    Because of their potential for N 2 biological fixation, legumes are an alternative source of nitrogen to crops, and can even replace or supplement mineral fertilization. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate temporal patterns of velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) green manure release of nitrogen to rice plants, and to study the fate of nitrogen from velvet bean in rice cultivation. The isotopic dilution methodology was used. Treatments consisted of a control and 10 incubation periods of soil fertilized with 15 N-labeled velvet bean (0, 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 days). The plant material was previously chopped, sifted (10 mm mesh sieve) and oven-dried (65 deg C). Incubation of the plant material (2.2 g kg -1 soil) was initiated by the longest period, in order to synchronize the planting of the test crop, rice (Oryza sativa), at time zero for all treatments. Green manure incorporation promoted increases in rice dry matter yield and nitrogen uptake. These variables showed maximum values at incubation periods of 38 and 169 days, respectively. Green manure nitrogen utilization by rice plants was highest at an incubation period corresponding to 151 days. More than 60% of the green manure nitrogen remained in the soil after rice cultivation. The highest green manure nitrogen recovery from the soil-plant system occurred at an incubation period equivalent to 77 days. (author)

  9. Quality of wholemeal wheat bread enriched with green coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies have revealed that bioactive components of coffee play a preventive role against various degenerative diseases. Green coffee, in particular, is characterized by its unique composition and properties. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of green coffee (Coffea arabica beans (GCB addition on the quality and antioxidant properties (AA of the wholemeal bread. For bread preparation, flour form GCB, and wholemeal wheat flour, type 2000 were used. Wholemeal wheat flour was replaced with GCB flour at 1 to 5% levels. Loaf volume, texture, color and sensory properties of bread were determined. Furthermore, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were evaluated. The results showed that bread supplementation with GCB had little influence on the bread volume. The highest volume of bread was obtained with 3 and 4% of GCB flour. The texture properties of bread crumb (hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness and chewiness were slightly changed as a result of the GCB addition. The lightness of bread crumb decreased with the GCB addition (average from 46.3 to 42.6. Besides, the addition of GCB significantly enriched wheat bread with hydrophilic phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Moreover, the GCB addition enhanced antiradical activity of bread.

  10. Cooking processes increase bioactive compounds in organic and conventional green beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Costa, Sergio Marques; Monaco, Kamila de Almeida; Uliana, Maira Rodrigues; Fernandez, Roberto Morato; Correa, Camila Renata; Vianello, Fabio; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Minatel, Igor Otavio

    2017-12-01

    The influence of cooking methods on chlorophyl, carotenoids, polyamines, polyphenols contents and antioxidant capacity were analyzed in organic and conventional green beans. The initial raw material had a higher content of chlorophyl and total phenolics in conventional green beans, whereas organic cultive favored flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity. Polyamines and carotenoids were similar for the two crop systems. After the cooking process, carotenoids (β-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) increased. Microwave heating favored the enhancement of some polar compounds, whereas pressure cooking favored carotenoids. When we used the estimation of the radical scavenging activity by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, a reduction of the DPPH radical signal in the presence of green bean extracts was observed, regardless of the mode of cultivation. The highest reduction of the ESR signal ocurred for microwave cooking in organic and conventional green beans, indicating a higher availability of antioxidants with this type of heat treatment.

  11. Effect of 60Co-γ ray irradiation on green coffee beans, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoda, Goro; Matsuyama, Jun; Hiramoto, Keiko; Izu, Kumie

    1977-01-01

    Green coffee beans were irradiated with 60 Co-γ rays at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.5, 5.0 and 10.0 Mrad and the changes of general components in green and roast coffee beans were investigated together with those of the organoleptic properties of roast beans during storage according to the cup testing. In case of Brazil santos beans, irradiation of some 0.05 Mrad 60 Co-γ ray gave rather favourable mild flavour and no harmful influence on the quality of coffee, and moreover, would tend to extend the shelf life of roast beans. But influence of irradiation on the quality of coffee differed somewhat between two cultivars, Brazil santos and Colombia. (auth.)

  12. The Research on the Impact of Green Beans Sports Drinks on Relieving Fatigue in Sports Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Ying, Liu

    2015-01-01

    For researching the function of relieving fatigue of green beans sports drinks, this paper selected 60 mice as subjects. They were randomly divided into four groups (low dose group, middle dose group, high dose group and physiological saline group). Each time they were respectively feed 10g 20g/L, 40g/L, 80 g/L green beans sports drinks and 15ml/(kg.d) physiological saline. The experiment lasted for a month. We recorded weight of mice, swimming time and blood urea nitrogen indicators. The results show that green beans sports drinks can significantly prolong swimming time of mice (p beans sports drinks have a certain function of relieving physical fatigue.

  13. Action spectrum of peroxyacetyl nitrate damage to bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugger, W M; Taylor, O C; Klein, W H; Shropshire, W

    1963-04-06

    For plant damage from peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) there is absolute requirement for light prior to, during, and after fumigation of plants with the oxidant. Pinto beans were fumigated with PAN and exposed to a variety of light intensities and wavelengths. Maximum damage to plants was found when PAN fumigation was contemporaneous with incident light of 370, 419, 480, and 641 m..mu...

  14. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Satoh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  15. Prediction of specialty coffee cup quality based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolessa, Kassaye; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e.g. chlorogenic acid) in coffee beans. The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict coffee cup quality based on NIR spectra of green coffee beans. NIR spectra of 86 samples of green Arabica beans of varying quality were analysed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to develop a model correlating spectral data to cupping score data (cup quality). The selected PLS model had a good predictive power for total specialty cup quality and its individual quality attributes (overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste) showing a high correlation coefficient with r-values of 90, 90,78, 72 and 72, respectively, between measured and predicted cupping scores for 20 out of 86 samples. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.04, 0.22, 0.27, 0.24 and 0.27 for total specialty cup quality, overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste, respectively. The results obtained suggest that NIR spectra of green coffee beans are a promising tool for fast and accurate prediction of coffee quality and for classifying green coffee beans into different specialty grades. However, the model should be further tested for coffee samples from different regions in Ethiopia and test if one generic or region-specific model should be developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recovery in the soil-plant system of nitrogen from green manure applied on cabbage crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Urquiaga, Segundo; Boddey, Robert Michael; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Martelleto, Luiz Aurelio Peres

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine, in the soil-plant system, the recovery efficiency of N derived from green manure applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) crop. The experiment was divided into two stages: the first one consisted of the straw production of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), velvet bean (Mucuna cinereum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), in substrate enriched with 15 N. The second stage consisted of the application of 15 N-labeled green manure on the cabbage beds. Treatments consisted of: fresh residues of jack bean; fresh residues of velvet bean; fresh residues of sorghum; mixture of residues of jack bean, velvet bean, and sorghum at 1:1:1; and control without green manure addition. The N recovery in the soil plant system was influenced by the green manure species used, and the recovery efficiency of the N derived from the green manure legumes varied from 9 to 16%. The jack bean treatment shows a greater recovery efficiency of nitrogen and, therefore, the best synchrony of N supply, by straw decomposition, with the cabbage crop demand. (author)

  17. Effect of Low Gamma Irradiation Doses on Growth and Productivity of Green Bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.M.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The field experiment was conducted within the two successive growing seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 to study the effect of low gamma irradiation doses (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 Gy) on growth and productivity of green bean cv. Bronco with 3 sowing dates 8, 18 and 28th of October in the first season and 30th of September, 10 and 20th of October in the second season. The results of laboratory determinations showed that gamma irradiation doses did not affect the germination percent but slightly affected germination rate and electrical conductivity. Concerning field experiment, data revealed that green bean plant vegetative growth, i.e., plant height, fresh and dry weight, leaf number and leaf area, at 45 days after planting (DAP) and shoot number at 30, 45 DAP recorded significantly the highest values at the first sowing date in both seasons. With respect of gamma irradiation doses, all the previously mentioned parameters of plant vegetative growth recorded the highest values with 40 Gy at 15, 30, and 45 DAP except number of leaves which recorded the highest value with 30 Gy at 15, 30 and 45 DAP. Concerning shoot number there was no significant difference among several doses at 30 DAP in the first season but in the second season it was 20 Gy and at 45 DAP compared with the control. Also the first sowing date in both seasons gave the highest pod length, fresh and dry weight, plant yield, number of pods per plant, marketable yield per plot and total yield per feddan. Whereas ,the second sowing date led to the lowest pod thickness. In addition, 20 Gy of gamma irradiation doses recorded the highest value of pod length .The 30 Gy dose showed the highest value of pod fresh and dry weight, plant yield and total yield per feddan. In addition ,the 20 and 30 Gy doses led to the highest pod number per plant and marketable yield, concerning pod thickness there was slight difference only in the second season between several doses. The second sowing date in the first season

  18. Estimating water stressed dwarf green bean pigment concentration through hyperspectral indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koksal, E.S.; Ustrun, H.; Ozcan, H.; Gunturk, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between leaf pigment concentration (analyzed in the laboratory) and four spectral indexes (measured in the field) was investigated. For this purpose, field experiments consisting of six different irrigation treatments were conducted with dwarf green beans during 2005 growing season. Based on spectral data, spectral indexes were plotted against pigment concentration. Results showed that under water stress, the chlorophyll and carotene contents of green bean leaves rose. According to linear regression analysis between spectral indexes and pigment contents, the Normalized Difference Pigment Chlorophyll Index (NPCI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) had the highest correlations with the chlorophyll (a, b and total), and carotene content of leaves. (author)

  19. High-throughput metabolic profiling of diverse green Coffea arabica beans identified tryptophan as a universal discrimination factor for immature beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoyama, Daiki; Iwasa, Keiko; Seta, Harumichi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Chifumi; Nakahara, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The maturity of green coffee beans is the most influential determinant of the quality and flavor of the resultant coffee beverage. However, the chemical compounds that can be used to discriminate the maturity of the beans remain uncharacterized. We herein analyzed four distinct stages of maturity (immature, semi-mature, mature and overripe) of nine different varieties of green Coffea arabica beans hand-harvested from a single experimental field in Hawaii. After developing a high-throughput experimental system for sample preparation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurement, we applied metabolic profiling, integrated with chemometric techniques, to explore the relationship between the metabolome and maturity of the sample in a non-biased way. For the multivariate statistical analyses, a partial least square (PLS) regression model was successfully created, which allowed us to accurately predict the maturity of the beans based on the metabolomic information. As a result, tryptophan was identified to be the best contributor to the regression model; the relative MS intensity of tryptophan was higher in immature beans than in those after the semi-mature stages in all arabica varieties investigated, demonstrating a universal discrimination factor for diverse arabica beans. Therefore, typtophan, either alone or together with other metabolites, may be utilized for traders as an assessment standard when purchasing qualified trading green arabica bean products. Furthermore, our results suggest that the tryptophan metabolism may be tightly linked to the development of coffee cherries and/or beans.

  20. Isolation of Indigenous Bacteria of Phosphate Solubilizing from Green Bean Rhizospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Arfarita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB as a biological fertilizer of Agricultural land is one solution to overcome problem of phosphate availability for plants. However, often application of a biological fertilizer is ineffective for certain places. The purpose of this study was to obtain indigenous phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates that can be effective in the area of Malang. Samples were collected from rhizosphereof green bean plants at three locations in Malang, East Java. The study was conducted to determine the total bacterial population of soil samples, to select the best three bacterial isolates in phosphate solubilizing ability, which is not antagonistic and nonpathogenic for plants,along with observing its potential as a bacterial consortium. The highest total population was found in FHR samples of 1.5x1011 CFU / mL. We have selected three bacterial isolates namely SPP1, SPP2 and SPP3. They were not antagonistic to each other and nonpathogenic on mungbean sprouts. They had possibility of producing growth hormone which characterized by an increasing in length of plant and total root length, be compared to controls. Strain SPP2 has shown the highest activity of phosphate solubilization then was selected for 16S rRNA identification. Similarity test of genome sequence of strain SPP2 had 99% similarity with Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PR19

  1. Detoxification Of Ochratoxin AIN Green Coffee Beans By Physical Methods With Studying Genotoxicity Of Treated Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARAG, S.A.; SHAMS EL DIEEN, N.M.M.; EL-SIDEEK, L

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is potently nephrotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic, and the potency was varied markedly between species and sexes. Unfortunately, OTA are present due to mold contamination in different food stuffs such as coffee bean, therefore, the present study was carried out on collected imported coffee samples from super markets in Egypt. The isolation and identification proved presence of Penicilli sp. and Aspergillus sp. whereas the last one was dominant in two samples as A. niger and A. ochoruses. Determination of OTA by using HPLC analysis showed presence of high levels than the allowance levels in green coffee beans (more than 5 μg/kg; ppb). In addition, another group of collected samples as roasted coffee beans indicated the presence of high toxic concentrations of OTA. The study was then conducted on samples contain the highest OTA content by using some physical methods as gamma irradiation (5 and 10 kGy), charcoal (powder, granules), roasting (at 200 0 C for 7-10 min and 20 min). The results showed that proposed physical methods, mainly gamma irradiation and charcoal, could be efficient to decrease OTA in green beans coffee without produce toxic substance as well as non-significant changes in its properties. In addition, safety of resulted coffee beans after treatments were checked by ESR and genotoxicity test, which raise the preferability of gamma irradiation (10 kGy) treatment before using medium roasting to get coffee beans free from OTA

  2. Quality and storage-stability of high-pressure preseved green beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebbers, B.; Matser, A.M.; Koets, M.; Berg, van den R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of high-pressure technology on naturally present microbial flora, texture, color, ascorbic acid content and peroxidase activity of whole green beans were evaluated and compared to conventional preservation techniques. High-pressure processing (HPP) and two-pulse pressure treatment (pHPP)

  3. Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Particles Using Green Beans as Biotemplating Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zobir Hussein; Zulkarnain Zainal; Suzanita Latip

    2011-01-01

    A bio template-heating method using green beans for the synthesize of ZnO particles was developed. The results show that this method is able to synthesize ZnO particles with non uniform granular morphologies with average diameter of 0.4 m as characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  4. Validation of quantitative method for azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelraheem, Ehab M H; Hassan, Sayed M; Arief, Mohamed M H; Mohammad, Somaia G

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a method validation for extraction and quantitative analysis of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas using HPLC-UV and the results confirmed by GC-MS. The employed method involved initial extraction with acetonitrile after the addition of salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride), followed by a cleanup step by activated neutral carbon. Validation parameters; linearity, matrix effect, LOQ, specificity, trueness and repeatability precision were attained. The spiking levels for the trueness and the precision experiments were (0.1, 0.5, 3 mg/kg). For HPLC-UV analysis, mean recoveries ranged between 83.69% to 91.58% and 81.99% to 107.85% for green beans and peas, respectively. For GC-MS analysis, mean recoveries ranged from 76.29% to 94.56% and 80.77% to 100.91% for green beans and peas, respectively. According to these results, the method has been proven to be efficient for extraction and determination of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes of sour taste and the composition of carboxylic acids induced in brewed coffee by γ-irradiation on green beans and storage of roast beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoda, Goro; Matsuyama, Jun; Nagano, Akiko; Namatame, Mitsuko; Morita, Yoshiaki.

    1980-01-01

    Brazil santos green coffee beans were irradiated with 60 Co-γ rays at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 1.5 Mrad respectively and changes of the composition of carboxylic acids in roast beans were analyzed by means of GLC together with those of the organoleptic properties of roast beans during storage by use of the cup testing. The total acid content immediately after roasting was about 6,000 mg/100 g (roast beans) and the composition of carboxylic acids was as follows. Chlorogenic acid: hydroxy-carboxylic acids: mono-carboxylic acid: others = 73 : 18 : 7 : 2. Fresh coffee flavour was influenced markedly especially in acid taste by both irradiation of γ-rays on green beans and storage of roast beans, because of the change of above acids composition. On γ-ray irradiation, the change of the acid composition were more clear than that of stored roast beans. Therefore, the quality of γ-irradiated coffee beans seems to be closely associated with the ratio of hydroxy-carboxylic acids mg/ monocarboxylic acids mg, but little with total acid content. (author)

  6. Effects of Chemical Fertilizer, Algea Compost and Zeolite on Green Bean Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Türkmen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study used chemical fertilizer, brown algae compost and zeolite carried out in the field of Giresun Hazelnut Research Center between May-November 2014 in pots according to randomized blog design as three replicate each. Treatment groups were consist of eight different combinations as follow; G1-Control, G2-Zeolite, G3-Compost, G4-Chemical Fertilizer, G5-Zeolite+Compost, G6-Zeolite+Chemical Fertilizer, G7-Compost+ Chemical Fertilizer, G8-Compost+Zeolite+ Chemical Fertilizer. The brown algae (Cystoseira sp. were used as compost material. These combinations were applied to green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. The green beans were seeded by hand to arrange planting depth of 5-6 cm and 20 seeds/m2. Except control group, each treatment was added fertilizers as 50 g zeolite, 50 g compost, and 25 g chemical according to treatment design. Half of the chemical fertilizers were added at seeding time and the rest after two weeks. Collected soil samples were analyzed right after harvest, the greatest values of treatment groups were determined as; Carbon% G1: 5.08, nitrogen G3: 0.09 ppm, sodium G5: 139 ppm, potassium G6 and G8: 5 ppm, magnesium G2: 1865 ppm, calcium G6: 8.33 ppm, manganese G2: 359 ppm, iron G6 : 16070 ppm, cobalt G6 and G7: 7.91 ppm, copper G2: 17.5 ppm, zinc G8: 28.0 ppm, selenium G7: 4.17 ppm, cadmium G5: 0.08 ppm, lead G4: 5.31 ppm. The greatest harvest value as g/m2 was obtained from zeolite only group G2 with 273 while the lowest was obtained from Compost only group G3 with 113 g/m2, obviously showing the effectiveness of zeolite only application moreover, also thinking that better results may get if the present study run for longer period.

  7. Effect of processing conditions on quality of green beans subjected to reciprocating agitation thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anika; Singh, Anubhav Pratap; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2015-12-01

    The effect of reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) on quality of canned beans was evaluated in a lab-scale reciprocating retort. Green beans were selected due to their soft texture and sensitive color. Green beans (2.5cm length×0.8cm diameter) were filled into 307×409 cans with carboxylmethylcellulose (0-2%) solutions and processed at different temperatures (110-130°C) and reciprocation frequency (1-3Hz) for predetermined heating times to achieve a process lethality (F o ) of 10min. Products processed at higher temperatures and higher reciprocation frequencies resulted in better retention of chlorophyll and antioxidant activity. However, high reciprocation frequency also resulted in texture losses, with higher breakage of beans, increased turbidity and higher leaching. There was total loss of product quality at the highest agitation speed, especially with low viscosity covering solutions. Results suggest that reciprocating agitation frequency needs to be adequately moderated to get the best quality. For getting best quality, particularly for canned liquid particulate foods with soft particulates and those susceptible to high impact agitation, a gentle reciprocating motion (~1Hz) would be a good compromise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oligopolistic differentiation of the Colombian green bean coffee in the US market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Julián Rendón Cardona

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO literature notes that imperfect foreign competition among commodities may be characterized by prices, quantities and product differentiation. This paper shows that the effectiveness of the differentiation strategy of Colombian green bean coffee in the US market has caused Colombia to compete in terms of quantities with its major opponent, Brazil. In order to show it, this paper brings a set of models which allow us to identify the competitive structure followed by Brazil and Colombia in the United States market of green bean coffee imports. These models are evaluated through a likelihood ratio test to determine which of them best explains the data. Stackelberg is the best model showing Brazil’s leadership in terms of quantities.

  9. A Quantitative Method to Screen Common Bean Plants for Resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, C A; Myers, J R; Forster, R L; McClean, P E

    2003-11-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative method to screen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants for resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is described. Four parameters were assessed in developing the quantitative method: symptoms associated with systemic virus movement, plant vigor, virus titer, and plant dry weight. Based on these parameters, two rating systems (V and VV rating) were established. Plants from 21 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a Sierra (susceptible) x Olathe (partially resistant) cross inoculated with the BCMNV-NL-3 K strain were used to evaluate this quantitative approach. In all, 11 RILs exhibited very susceptible reactions and 10 RILs expressed partially resistant reactions, thus fitting a 1:1 susceptible/partially resistant ratio (chi(2) = 0.048, P = 0.827) and suggesting that the response is mediated by a single gene. Using the classical qualitative approach based only on symptom expression, the RILs were difficult to separate into phenotypic groups because of a continuum of responses. By plotting mean percent reduction in either V (based on visual symptoms) or VV (based on visual symptoms and vigor) rating versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) absorbance values, RILs could be separated clearly into different phenotypic groups. The utility of this quantitative approach also was evaluated on plants from 12 cultivars or pure lines inoculated with one of three strains of BCMNV. Using the mean VV rating and ELISA absorbance values, significant differences were established not only in cultivar and pure line comparisons but also in virus strain comparisons. This quantitative system should be particularly useful for the evaluation of the independent action of bc genes, the discovery of new genes associated with partial resistance, and assessing virulence of virus strains.

  10. Response to growth and production of green beans (Vigna radiata L.) in various cropping spots and fertilizer provision of layer chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitinjak, L.; Purba, E.

    2018-02-01

    Agroecology affecting plant growth can be influenced by factors such as plant spacing and growing media. This study aims to determine the effect of plant spacing and chicken manure on the growth and production of green beans. Plants were planted at three spacing plants (20cm x 20cm, 20cm x 30cm, and 20cm x 40cm) while manure was applied at 3.75, 7.50 and 11.25 ton/ha and without manure as a comparison. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The result showed that the highest diameter of stem was resulted from the application of 11.25 ton/ha of manure combined with the planting space of 20cm x 40 cm. Similarly, the highest number of branch of stem we found at the plot where chicken manure of 11.25 ton/ha with planting space of 20cm x 30cm. The highest production (4,944.4 kg/ha) was resulted from 7.50 ton/ha manure with combined with planting space of 20cm x 40cm. There was an interaction between the treatment of manure and the planting space of soybean. The production of green bean was 24% higher in 7.50 ton/ha manure combined with 20cm x 40cm planting space compared to no manure (control).

  11. Effect of different nitrogen sources on plant characteristics and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luqueño, F; Reyes-Varela, V; Martínez-Suárez, C; Salomón-Hernández, G; Yáñez-Meneses, J; Ceballos-Ramírez, J M; Dendooven, L

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater sludge can be used to fertilize crops, especially after vermicomposting (composting with earthworms to reduce pathogens). How wastewater sludge or vermicompost affects bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growth is still largely unknown. In this study the effect of different forms of N fertilizer on common bean plant characteristics and yield were investigated in a Typic Fragiudepts (sandy loam) soil under greenhouse conditions. Beans were fertilized with wastewater sludge, or wastewater sludge vermicompost, or urea, or grown in unamended soil, while plant characteristics and yield were monitored (the unamended soil had no fertilization). Yields of common bean plants cultivated in unamended soil or soil amended with urea were lower than those cultivated in wastewater sludge-amended soil. Application of vermicompost further improved plant development and increased yield compared with beans cultivated in wastewater amended soil. It was found that application of organic waste products improved growth and yield of bean plants compared to those amended with inorganic fertilizer.

  12. Assimilation of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen by bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, R.J.; Chaillou, S.; Morot-Gaudry, J.F.; Mariotti, A.

    1989-01-01

    Enhanced growth is often observed in plants growing on combined ammonium and nitrate nutrition. The physiological basis for such enhancement was examined by exposing non-nodulated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to 15 N-labeled, 1.0 mM N solutions containing 0, 33, 67 or 100% of the N as ammonium, the balance being nitrate. Maximal total N uptake and biomass production were attained by plants receiving 33% ammonium. A higher proportion of incoming ammonium than nitrate was incorporated into root protein. This was accompanied by increased partitioning of plant biomass to roots. It was concluded that as a consequence of greater N metabolism in the root under mixed ammonium and nitrate nutrition, the root became a more active sink for photosynthate. Concurrently, the augmented supply of N to the shoot enhanced net photosynthesis as reflected in increased plant biomass

  13. New fluorescence spectroscopic method for the simultaneous determination of alkaloids in aqueous extract of green coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisak, Hagos; Redi-Abshiro, Mesfin; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2018-05-11

    There is no fluorescence spectroscopic method for the determination of trigonelline and theobromine in green coffee beans. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a new fluorescence spectroscopic method to determine the alkaloids simultaneously in the aqueous extract of green coffee beans. The calibration curves were linear in the range 2-6, 1-6, 1-5 mg/L for caffeine, theobromine and trigonelline, respectively, with R 2  ≥ 0.9987. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 2, 6 and 7 µg/L and 40, 20 and 20 µg/L for caffeine, theobromine and trigonelline, respectively. Caffeine and trigonelline exhibited well separated fluorescence excitation spectra and therefore the two alkaloids were selectively quantified in the aqueous extract of green coffee. While theobromine showed overlapping fluorescence excitation spectra with caffeine and hence theobromine could not be determined in the aqueous extract of green coffee beans. The amount of caffeine and trigonelline in the three samples of green coffee beans were found to be 0.95-1.10 and 1.00-1.10% (w/w), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD ≤ 4%) of the method for the three compounds of interest were of very good. The accuracy of the developed analytical method was evaluated by spiking standard caffeine and trigonelline to green coffee beans and the average recoveries were 99 ± 2% for both the alkaloids. A fast, sensitive and reliable fluorescence method for the simultaneous determination of caffeine and trigonelline in the aqueous extract of green coffee beans was developed and validated. The developed method reflected an effective performance to the direct determination of the two alkaloids in the aqueous extract of green coffee beans.

  14. Use of Irradiation to Ensure Microbial Safety of Fresh-Cut Green Beans Sold In Egyptian Supermarkets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Nour, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty samples of fresh-cut green beans were collected from different local supermarkets. They were tested for their microbiological quality. Total aerobic plate count (TAPC) of these samples ranged from >105 to 108 cfu/g; and total yeasts and moulds ranged from 102 to 105 cfu/g. All tested fresh-cut green beans samples were contaminated with E. coli. Only 6 samples were free from Enterococcus faecalis, the other 24 (80%) samples contained Ent. faecalis in the range of 102 to 104 cfu/g. Staphylococcus aureus was found in 20 samples (66.6 %) at level of 102 to 104 cfu/g. Aeromonas hydrophila was found in 22 (73.3 %) samples in the range of 102 to 103 cfu/g. All tested fresh cut green beans samples were free from Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. The D10-values of the isolated pathogenic bacteria (Ent. faecalis, Staph. aureus, E. coli and A. hydrophila) in fresh-cut green beans were found to be 0.58, 0.42, 0.23 and 0.11, respectively. Fresh-cut green beans samples were irradiated at 1.5 and 3.0 kGy, and then stored at refrigeration temperature (4 degree C ± 1). Generally, these radiation doses greatly reduced all microbial counts of fresh-cut green beans. The percentage of reduction reached 97.07 and 99.88 in TAPC. Irradiation dose of 1.5 kGy was enough for complete elimination of E. coli and A. hydrophila but was not sufficient for elimination of Ent. faecalis, and Staph. aureus. Irradiation dose of 3.0 kGy completely eliminated Ent. faecalis, and Staph. aureus present. This irradiation dose had no effect on sensorial quality attributes of fresh-cut green beans samples and extended the shelf-life to 15 days against only 5 days for unirradiated samples

  15. Development of new analytical methods for the determination of caffeine content in aqueous solution of green coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldegebreal, Blen; Redi-Abshiro, Mesfin; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2017-12-05

    This study was conducted to develop fast and cost effective methods for the determination of caffeine in green coffee beans. In the present work direct determination of caffeine in aqueous solution of green coffee bean was performed using FT-IR-ATR and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Caffeine was also directly determined in dimethylformamide solution using NIR spectroscopy with univariate calibration technique. The percentage of caffeine for the same sample of green coffee beans was determined using the three newly developed methods. The caffeine content of the green coffee beans was found to be 1.52 ± 0.09 (% w/w) using FT-IR-ATR, 1.50 ± 0.14 (% w/w) using NIR and 1.50 ± 0.05 (% w/w) using fluorescence spectroscopy. The means of the three methods were compared by applying one way analysis of variance and at p = 0.05 significance level the means were not significantly different. The percentage of caffeine in the same sample of green coffee bean was also determined by using the literature reported UV/Vis spectrophotometric method for comparison and found to be 1.40 ± 0.02 (% w/w). New simple, rapid and inexpensive methods were developed for direct determination of caffeine content in aqueous solution of green coffee beans using FT-IR-ATR and fluorescence spectrophotometries. NIR spectrophotometry can also be used as alternative choice of caffeine determination using reduced amount of organic solvent (dimethylformamide) and univariate calibration technique. These analytical methods may therefore, be recommended for the rapid, simple, safe and cost effective determination of caffeine in green coffee beans.

  16. Infestation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba) by the Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) Decreases Shoot Abscisic Acid Contents under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, Luisa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro; Colazza, Stefano; Frati, Francesca; Loreto, Francesco; Marino, Giovanni; Salerno, Gianandrea; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The response of broad bean ( Vicia faba ) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug ( Nezara viridula ) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host-plant preference, and nymph growth and survival. Water stress significantly reduced both photosynthesis ( A ) and stomatal conductance ( g s ), while infestation by the green stink bug had no effects on photosynthesis but significantly altered partitioning of ABA between roots and shoots. Leaf ABA was decreased and root ABA increased as a result of herbivore attack, under both well-watered and water-deprived conditions. Water stress significantly impacted on SA content in leaves, but not on H 2 O 2 . However, infestation of N. viridula greatly increased both SA and H 2 O 2 contents in leaves and roots, which suggests that endogenous SA and H 2 O 2 have roles in plant responses to herbivore infestation. No significant differences were seen for green stink bug choice between well-watered and water-stressed plants. However, for green stink bug nymphs, plant water stress promoted significantly lower weight increases and significantly higher mortality, which indicates that highly water-stressed host plants are less suitable for N. viridula infestation. In conclusion two important findings emerged: (i) association of water stress with herbivore infestation largely changes plant response in terms of phytohormone contents; but (ii) water stress does not affect the preference of the infesting insects, although their performance was impaired.

  17. Pesticide residue levels in green beans cultivated in Souss Masa valley (Morocco) after multiple applications of bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouri, M; Salghi, R; Bazzi, Lh; Zarrouk, A; Rios, A; Zougagh, M

    2012-09-01

    Dissipation of bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin pyrethroid insecticides, under environmental conditions, was evaluated on green beans grown in experimental greenhouses (Souss Massa valley, Morocco). Pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detector (GC-μECD) after dichloromethane extraction and cleanup on florisil phase cartridges. In the case of field experiments, a random block scheme was employed. Each block contained 25 plants in a single row and tests were carried out in triplicates applying pesticides at the recommended doses by the manufacturers. Fruit samples were periodically taken until the end of the preharvest interval (p.i.). The results obtained showed that the p.i of bifenthrin in green bean were 4 days in the winter and 3.5 days in the spring, whereas that for λ-cyhalothrin 8 days was found in the winter and 7.5 days in the spring. Consequently, it is possible to consider the European Union maximum residue limit (EU MRL) values compatible with the proper agricultural practices used for growing green bean in the plastic greenhouse of Souss Massa valley in South Morocco. Bifenthrin had a degradation of first-order kinetics, whereas that of levels for λ-cyhalothrin residue can not be interpreted by the use of a first order model.

  18. Application of FTIR Spectroscopy for Assessment of Green Coffee Beans According to Their Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, S. M.; Hammoudeh, A. Y.; Alomary, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Samples of green coffee beans originating from five different countries were ground and analyzed using FTIR spectra in the region of 600-4000 cm-1. Successful discrimination of each coffee type based on their origin was achieved applying a PCA algorithm on the obtained IR spectra for all samples. PCA loading plots show that the IR bands at 2850, 2920, and 1745 cm-1 corresponding to the symmetric, and antisymmetric vibrations of CH2 and the stretching vibration of C=O bond in ester, respectively, are the most significant peaks in distinguishing the origin of the above coffee samples.

  19. Combining parasitoids and plant resistance for the control of the bruchid Acanthoscelides obtectus in stored beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmale, I.; Wäckers, F.L.; Cardona, C.; Dorn, S.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) are the main bruchid pests of stored beans in widespread regions of Latin America and Africa. Host-plant resistance based on the protein arcelin is effective in reducing damage caused by Z. subfasciatus, but beans containing

  20. Fate of labelled allitin in bean plant and mosquito

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerji, A.; Chintalwar, G.J.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    1980-01-01

    Allitin, the insecticidal principle of garlic (Allium sativum L) is a mixture of diallyl di- and tri-sulfides. 35 S-labelled allitin has been synthesised using different methods and used for the evaluation of its persistence in water. Results of these experiments showed that allitin has low persistence; more than 80% of the initial radioactivity was lost in 24 hr. when an aqueous emulsion of labelled allitin was exposed under the laboratory conditions. Fate of labelled allitin was studied in larvae and pupae of mosquitoes, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say. Assimilation of allitin was found to be faster in larva compared to pupa. Intake of allitin by bean plant was also studied. Implications of the results obtained in the above experiments will be discussed. (author)

  1. A Controlled Agitation Process for Improving Quality of Canned Green Beans during Agitation Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anika; Pratap Singh, Anubhav; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-06-01

    This work introduces the concept of a controlled agitation thermal process to reduce quality damage in liquid-particulate products during agitation thermal processing. Reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) was used as the agitation thermal process. In order to reduce the impact of agitation, a new concept of "stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperature" was proposed. Green beans were processed in No. 2 (307×409) cans filled with liquids of various consistency (0% to 2% CMC) at various frequencies (1 to 3 Hz) of RA-TP using a full-factorial design and heat penetration results were collected. Corresponding operator's process time to impart a 10-min process lethality (Fo ) and agitation time (AT) were calculated using heat penetration results. Accordingly, products were processed again by stopping agitations as per 3 agitation regimes, namely; full time agitation, equilibration time agitation, and partial time agitation. Processed products were photographed and tested for visual quality, color, texture, breakage of green beans, turbidity, and percentage of insoluble solids in can liquid. Results showed that stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperatures is an effective way of reducing product damages caused by agitation (for example, breakage of beans and its leaching into liquid). Agitations till one-log temperature difference gave best color, texture and visual product quality for low-viscosity liquid-particulate mixture and extended agitations till equilibration time was best for high-viscosity products. Thus, it was shown that a controlled agitation thermal process is more effective in obtaining high product quality as compared to a regular agitation thermal process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Relative planting times on the production components in sesame/cowpea bean intercropping in organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio César de Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at better land use, small farmers usually plant sesame and cowpea bean intercropped with other crops. The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the influence of four relative planting times of the cowpea bean in intercropping with sesame from the standpoint of their production components, plant productivity and the index of land equivalent ratio (LER. The field experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks with four treatments and four replicates. The treatments were the sesame and the cowpea bean in intercropping with the cowpea bean planted at the same time, 7, 14 and 21days after than the sesame. A greater part of the production components of both the sesame as well the cowpea bean was affected by the intercropping and significant differences were noted among the treatments in a larger part of the parameters. As the planting of the cowpea bean became more distant from that of the sesame, the yield of the Pedaliaceae increased and the yield of the Fabaceae decreased. The results for LER findings on the other hand suggest that in the sesame/cowpea bean intercropping, when the Fabaceae is planted seven days after the sesame, there is better use of the land and a largest possibility to the producer earning a profit.

  3. CORRELATION BETWEEN CAFFEINE CONTENTS OF GREEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Green coffee beans, Caffeine, Correlation between caffeine content and altitude of coffee plant,. UV-Vis .... The extraction of caffeine from green coffee bean samples in to water was carried out by the reported method ..... caffeine in proposed green tea standard reference materials by liquid chromatography.

  4. YIELD CAPACITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GREEN BEANS IN CULTIVARS OF KIDNEY BEAN BRED AT OMSK AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY IN THE SOUTH FOREST-STEPPE OF WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kazydub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In  2014-2016  the  assessment of  kidney bean  cultivars bred at Omsk State Agrarian University on yield capacity, quality, and biochemical  chemical compounds  in green beans, such as proteins, zinc, iodine, iron and sucrose was carried  out  in  the  south  forest-steppe  of  Western Siberia. The technological  parameters of  green  beans: the  shape  of  cross-section  area; pulpiness,  fibrous  or non-fibrous,  and bean thickness were estimated. Threeyear study showed that all tested cultivars bred at Omsk State  Agrarian  University  surpassed  control  cultivar  in yield capacity,  chemical composition  and technological parameters of green beans. The cultivar ‘Pamiyaty Rizhovoy’ gave a highest yield: 563.4 g/m2  in 2014; 622.8 g/m2 in 2015; and 620.4 g/m2  in 2016. It is worth noticing that this cultivar is also distinguished by contents of micro and macroelements: 21.20-28.68  mg/kg  of zinc; 0.012-0.018 mg/kg of iodine; and 1.8-3.2 mg/kg of iron. In the course of the study, it was noticed the dependence of  yield  capacity  on  hydrothermal  coefficient  (HC. In 2014-2015 the yield capacity was a lowest when the moisturization was insufficient at 0.7 HC. With increase of HC the yield was higher. With sufficient moisturization at 1.0 HC the highest yield of green beans was observed in 2016.  The estimation  of  kidney  bean  cultivars  bred  at Omsk State  Agrarian University showed  that  all beans were  distinguished  by  high  quality  parameters  in  the phase  of  technical  maturity,  such  as  pulpiness,  nonfibrous, thickness 0.5 to  1.0 cm, and green and yellow colors.  The  highest  protein  content  comparing  to  the control  cultivar  ‘Zolushka’  was  detected  in  ‘Marusya’ 23.60%  in  2014,  20.94%  in  2015;  and  ‘Zoloto  Sibiry’ 19.79%  in  2016.  The  observed  results  confirmed  that contents  change of

  5. Effects of hydrogen fluoride fumigation of bean plants on the growth, development, and reproduction of the Mexican bean beetle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, L H; McCune, D C; Mancini, J F; van Leuken, P

    1973-01-01

    The growth and behavior of Mexican bean beetle populations on control and hydrogen fluoride-fumigated bean plants (P. vulgaris L.) were investigated to assess the effects of such fumigation on beetle growth, development and reproduction. Beetles that were cultured on HF-fumigated plants were generally lighter than controls, although the occurrence and magnitude of this effect depended upon stage of development, age, and sex of the adult beetle and the number of generations of culture on HF-fumigated plants. A consistently decreased mass of larvae cultured on HF-fumigated tissue pupated and enclosed three to six days later than controls, and the adults commenced reproductive activity with the same lag in time. Beetles cultured on the fumigated plants also contained greater amounts of fluoride than the controls, and the fluoride content of females was greater than that of males on both HF-fumigated and control plants. Beetles raised on fumigated plants laid fewer egg masses and fewer eggs per mass, although when the first generation was repeated at a later date there was no significant effect. Feeding activity was reduced in both larval and adult stages in beetles cultured on the fumigated plants, and adults showed less flight activity than controls. A difference in color of the elytra was also noted; beetles on HF-fumigated plants were paler than controls.

  6. Removal of Malachite Green from aqueous solution using degreased coffee bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Mi-Hwa; Ijagbemi, Christianah Olakitan; O, Se-Jin; Kim, Dong-Su

    2010-04-15

    This study reports on the feasibility of employing degreased coffee beans (DCB) as adsorbent for Malachite Green (MG) removal in dyeing wastewater. The iodine value (IV), specific surface area (SSA) and porosity of the raw coffee beans (RCB) used in the study increased after the degreasing process, resulting in significant increase in the adsorption of MG onto DCB. Employing a batch experimental set-up, optimum conditions for complete color removal and adsorption of MG by DCB was studied considering parameters such as effect of degreasing process, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, reaction temperature and pH. Adsorbed amount of MG by DCB increased with increasing DCB dosage and initial MG concentration. The rate of the adsorption reaction followed the pseudo second-order kinetics with the sorption isotherm well fitted to the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption processes is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. DCB has potentials for application as adsorbent for the removal of MG from dyeing process wastewater. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of Malachite Green from aqueous solution using degreased coffee bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Mi-Hwa; Ijagbemi, Christianah Olakitan; O, Se-Jin [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Daehyundong 11-1, Seodaemungu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Su, E-mail: dongsu@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Daehyundong 11-1, Seodaemungu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study reports on the feasibility of employing degreased coffee beans (DCB) as adsorbent for Malachite Green (MG) removal in dyeing wastewater. The iodine value (IV), specific surface area (SSA) and porosity of the raw coffee beans (RCB) used in the study increased after the degreasing process, resulting in significant increase in the adsorption of MG onto DCB. Employing a batch experimental set-up, optimum conditions for complete color removal and adsorption of MG by DCB was studied considering parameters such as effect of degreasing process, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, reaction temperature and pH. Adsorbed amount of MG by DCB increased with increasing DCB dosage and initial MG concentration. The rate of the adsorption reaction followed the pseudo second-order kinetics with the sorption isotherm well fitted to the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption processes is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. DCB has potentials for application as adsorbent for the removal of MG from dyeing process wastewater.

  8. Removal of Malachite Green from aqueous solution using degreased coffee bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Mi-Hwa; Ijagbemi, Christianah Olakitan; O, Se-Jin; Kim, Dong-Su

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the feasibility of employing degreased coffee beans (DCB) as adsorbent for Malachite Green (MG) removal in dyeing wastewater. The iodine value (IV), specific surface area (SSA) and porosity of the raw coffee beans (RCB) used in the study increased after the degreasing process, resulting in significant increase in the adsorption of MG onto DCB. Employing a batch experimental set-up, optimum conditions for complete color removal and adsorption of MG by DCB was studied considering parameters such as effect of degreasing process, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, reaction temperature and pH. Adsorbed amount of MG by DCB increased with increasing DCB dosage and initial MG concentration. The rate of the adsorption reaction followed the pseudo second-order kinetics with the sorption isotherm well fitted to the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption processes is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. DCB has potentials for application as adsorbent for the removal of MG from dyeing process wastewater.

  9. Long-distance transport of natrium in bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschner, H.; Ossenberg-Neuhaus, H.

    1976-01-01

    After Na + -application to a certain zone of the root or after application to the tip or to the base of a primary leaf or along the stem of bean plants, the long-distance transport of Na + was studied. The age of the plants was 8 d when root application took place, 10 d at the time of leaf application. After application to the root zone, the long-distance transport of Na + in the direction of the shoot was strongly prevented, and the transport in the direction of the root point could be neglected. Presence of K + in the ambient nutritive solution led to a strong increase of Na + efflux from the roots. Within 48 hrs., 30-40% of the Na + applied to a primary leaf were transported towards the roots. The Na + efflux to the ambient nutritive solution came from the basal regions; it was mostly more than 10% of the amount recepted through the leaf and was only slightly increased by the presence of K + in the external solution. In the case of Na + application through the hypokotyl, this Na + -efflux from the roots was even more than 25% within 12 hrs. Both with leaf and with stem application, only 1% of the Na + taken up was transported in the direction of the shoot point. The separation of the hypocotyl tissue in the bark and in the central cylinder showed the extremely high Na + storage capacity of the central cylinder. The transfer of Na + from the central cylinder into the bark seems to be fast in the hypocotyl, while the escape of Na + from the phloem of the bark into the central cylinder is rather limited. Long-distance transport of Na + in the phloem of the bark is highly basispetal and of high efficiency. Low Na + -contents in bean leaves are thus due to several regulation mechanisms: K + -stimulated Na + -efflux in the root, restricted long-distance transport in the xylemadue to high storage capacity of the xylemparenchyma, Na + influx pumps at the phloem in stem and leaf and strictly basipetal phloem-retransport of Na + in the root and efflux into the surrounding

  10. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  11. Plants growth, water relations and photosynthesis of two bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... almost all physiological activities were suppressed. The superiority of the genotype Tema against Djadida genotype was attributed to quantitative rather than qualitative physiological response differences. Keywords: Salinity, fluridone, bean, growth, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  12. Effects of bean dregs and crab shell powder additives on the composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2018-07-01

    Composting is an effective and economic technology for the recycling of organic waste. In this study, bean dregs (BD) (at 0, 35, and 45%) and crab shell powder (CSP) (at 0, 15, and 25%) were evaluated as additives during the two-stage composting of green waste (GW). The GW used in this experiment mainly consisted of branch cuttings collected during the maintenance of the urban green landscape. Combined additions of BD and CSP improved composting conditions and compost quality in terms of composting temperature, specific surface area, average pore diameter, pH and EC values, carbon dioxide release, ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions, E 4 /E 6 ratio, elemental composition and atomic ratios, organic matter degradation, microbial numbers, enzyme activities, compost phytotoxicity, and environmental and economic benefits. The combined addition of 35% BD and 25% CSP to the two-stage composting of GW resulted in the highest quality compost product in only 22 days. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-destructive analysis of sucrose, caffeine and trigonelline on single green coffee beans by hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, Nicola; Whitworth, Martin B; Grebby, Stephen; Fisk, Ian D

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a novel technology for the food sector that enables rapid non-contact analysis of food materials. HSI was applied for the first time to whole green coffee beans, at a single seed level, for quantitative prediction of sucrose, caffeine and trigonelline content. In addition, the intra-bean distribution of coffee constituents was analysed in Arabica and Robusta coffees on a large sample set from 12 countries, using a total of 260 samples. Individual green coffee beans were scanned by reflectance HSI (980-2500nm) and then the concentration of sucrose, caffeine and trigonelline analysed with a reference method (HPLC-MS). Quantitative prediction models were subsequently built using Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. Large variations in sucrose, caffeine and trigonelline were found between different species and origin, but also within beans from the same batch. It was shown that estimation of sucrose content is possible for screening purposes (R 2 =0.65; prediction error of ~0.7% w/w coffee, with observed range of ~6.5%), while the performance of the PLS model was better for caffeine and trigonelline prediction (R 2 =0.85 and R 2 =0.82, respectively; prediction errors of 0.2 and 0.1%, on a range of 2.3 and 1.1% w/w coffee, respectively). The prediction error is acceptable mainly for laboratory applications, with the potential application to breeding programmes and for screening purposes for the food industry. The spatial distribution of coffee constituents was also successfully visualised for single beans and this enabled mapping of the analytes across the bean structure at single pixel level. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. A technique developed for labeling the green manures (sunnhemp and velvet bean) with 15 N for nitrogen dynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose

    1997-01-01

    A technique was developed for labeling the leguminous plant tissue with nitrogen ( 15 N) to obtain labelled material for nitrogen dynamic studies. Sunnhemp (crotalaria juncea L.) and velvet beans (Mucuna aterrima, sinonimia Stizolobium aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were grown in pots containing 10 kg of a Red Yellow Podzolic soil, under greenhouse conditions. The rate of 1.2 of nitrogen (ammonium sulphate with 11.37 atom % 15 N) per pot was applied three times. The labelled dried plant material showed 3.177 and 4.337 of atom % 15 N, respectively for velvet beans and sunnhemp. (author)

  15. Effect of endogenous and exogenous enzymatic treatment of green vanilla beans on extraction of vanillin and main aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardío, Violeta T; Flores, Argel; López, Karla M; Martínez, David I; Márquez, Ofelia; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N

    2018-06-01

    Endogenous and exogenous enzymatic hydrolysis carried out to obtain vanilla extracts with higher concentrations of vanillin using green vanilla beans. Sequences initiated with freezing of green vanilla beans at - 1 °C for 24 h, followed by endogenous hydrolysis under optimal β-glucosidase activity at 4.2 and 35 °C for 96 h, exogenous hydrolysis with Crystalzyme PML-MX at pH 5.0 and 40 °C for 72 h, and ethanol extraction at 40% (v v -1 ) for 30 days. In the proposed method, 200 g of fresh green vanilla beans with 84% moisture (32 g dry base) were used to obtain a liter of single fold vanilla extract. This method allowed the release of 82.57% of the theoretically available vanillin from its precursor glucovanillin with 5.78 g 100 g -1 green vanilla beans (dry base). Vanillic acid, p -hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillyl alcohol were also released and found in commercial and enzymatic extracts. Glucovanillin was detected in commercial and traditional extracts but was absent in enzymatic extracts, indicating incomplete hydrolysis during the curing process. An in vitro assay was conducted to determine if the presence of peroxidase during hydrolysis might affect overall vanillin concentration. Results showed that POD can use vanillin as a substrate under conditions similar to those in which hydrolysis was conducted (pH 5.0 and 50 °C), possibly explaining why vanillin concentration was not complete at the end of the process.

  16. Plant neurobiology and green plant intelligence : science, metaphors and nonsense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Meinke, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent debates on the emerging science of plant neurobiology, which claims that the individual green plant should be considered as an intelligent organism. Plant neurobiology tries to use elements from animal physiology as elegant metaphors to trigger the imagination in

  17. Energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll in blue-green, red and green algae and greening bean leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1969-01-01

    From fluorescence action spectra, fluorescence spectra and absorption spectra measured at room temperature and at 77 °K of light petroleum (b.p. 40–60°)-treated and normal chloroplasts, it is concluded that: 1. 1. In blue-green and red algae energy transfer from β-carotene to chlorophyll occurs

  18. The Response Strategy of Maize, Pea and Broad Bean Plants to Different Osmotic Potential Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differential responses to salinity, in a manner that the inhibitory effect of salinity on seed germination ran in the order, maize higher than broad bean and the later was higher than pea plant. Treatment with proline or phenylalanine (100 ppm significantly increased these seed germination and seedlings growth characteristics even at lowest salinity level tested.

  19. Radiation budget in green beans crop with and without polyethylene cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.L. de; Escobedo, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    The radiation budget in agricultural crops is very important on the microclimate characterization, on the water losses determination and on dry matter accumulation of vegetation. This work describes the radiation budget determination in a green beans crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), in Botucatu, SP, Brazil (22° 54′S; 48° 27′W; 850 m), under two different conditions: the normal field culture and in a polyethylene greenhouse. The densities of fluxes of radiation were used to construct diurnal curves of the components of global radiation (Rg), reflected radiation (Rr), net radiation (Rn).The arithmetic's relations allowed to obtain the components net short-waves (Rc) and net long-waves (Rl). The analysis of these components related to the leaf area index (LAI) in many phenological phases of the culture showed Rg distributed in 68%, 85%, 17% and 66%, 76%, 10% to Rn, Rc and Rl in the internal and external ambients in a polyethylene greenhouse, respectively [pt

  20. Albedo and estimates of net radiation for green beans under polyethylene cover and field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.L. de; Escobedo, J.F.; Tornero, M.T.T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the albedo (r) and estimates of net radiation and global solar irradiance for green beans crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cultivated in greenhouse with cover of polyethylene and field conditions, in Botucatu, SP, Brazil (22° 54' S; 48° 27' W; 850 m). The solar global irradiance (R g ) and solar reflected radiation (R r ) were used to estimate the albedo through the ratio between R r and R g . The diurnal curves of albedo were obtained for days with clear sky and partially cloudy conditions, for different phenological stages of the crop. The albedo ranged with the solar elevation, the environment and the phenological stages. The cloudiness range have almost no influence on the albedo diurnal amount. The estimation of radiation were made by linear regression, using the global solar irradiance (R g ) and net short-waves radiation (R c ) as independent variables. All estimates of radiation showed better adjustment for specific phenological periods compared to the entire crop growing cycle. The net radiation in the greenhouse has been estimated by the global solar irradiance measured at field conditions. (author) [pt

  1. Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés J Cortés

    Full Text Available Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

  2. Green County Nuclear Power Plant. License application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The Green County reactor, a PWR to be supplied by Babcock and Wilcox, will be a baseload generating facility planned to provide for mass transit and other public agency electrical needs. The plant is scheduled for completion by 1983 and will have a generating capacity of about 1200 MW(e). (FS)

  3. Effect of nitrogen supply on some indices of plant-water relations of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimshi, D

    1970-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen supply on some indices of plant-water relations was studied on potted bean plants. When soil moisture was relatively high, the leaves of N-deficient plants transpired less than those of N-supplied plants, the transpiration rate being closely associated with the chlorophyll content of the leaves of various ages. In detached leaves which were saturated by floating over distilled water, stomatal width was markedly wider in N-supplied than in N-deficient plants. Throughout the available moisture range, the water saturation deficit was higher in N-supplied leaves. In the dry range of soil moisture, chlorotic leaves transpired more than normal green leaves; N-deficient plants failed to exhibit a sharp rise in the content of soluble metabolites in the sap, when approaching the wilting range. The content of cell wall materials was higher in N-deficient plants. The relationships between these indices is discussed; it is tentatively concluded that nitrogen deficiency impairs the ability of the plants to adjust their water status to changes in soil moisture by regulation of stomatal transpiration and of sap solute concentration. 21 references, 2 tables.

  4. Uniformity of liquid distribution in the canopy of the bean plant, using the spectrophotometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Mesquita Baesso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diseases are important factors limiting common bean yield. White mold is one of the main diseases caused by soil pathogens. The objective of this study was to quantify the distribution of a fungicide solution sprayed into the canopy of bean plants by spectrophotometry, using a boom sprayer with and without air assistance. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial (two types of nozzles, two application rates, and air assistance on and off randomized block design with four replications. Air assistance influenced the deposition of solution on the bean plant and yield increased significantly with the increased rate of application and air assistance in the boom sprayer.

  5. Effect of pre-sowing gamma irradiation on the ion uptake of bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeroesi, F.

    1979-01-01

    The electrolyte levels, pH and K + activity values of a modified Knopp solution with different ion strengths were studied in order to analyse the probable stimulating effect of gamma irradiation (750, 1000, 1500 rad) on bean plants. The results of this experiment are as follows. The conductivity of the modified Knopp solution, at the 2-3 leaf age of the bean plant (Seaway), was reduced most by 1000 rad combinations; this phenomenon is caused by the vigorous ion uptake. In the previously mentioned development stage the stimulation of the ion absorption can be observed in every combination. At the 3-4 leaf age of the bean the stimulation effect of the radiation levels used was altered by ion ratios. One of the possible explanations is that, parallel with the progress of the ontogenesis, the claim in individual ions is changing, thus the ion of the favoured role may bring about a stimulating effect by different irradiation doses. (author)

  6. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro

    2002-01-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a 60 Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  7. Effect Of Plant Population On Yield Of Maize And Climbing Beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted at Kachwekano near Kabale town for two seasons: second rains of 1996 (1996b) and first rains of 1997 (1997a), to determine the appropriate plant population density (PPD) of maize that would maximize bean yield in an intercrop system. The treatments were: (a) maize PPD ranging from ...

  8. BRSMG Uai: common bean cultivar with carioca grain type and upright plant architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The common bean cultivar with carioca grain type, BRSMG Uai, is recommended for cultivation in Minas Gerais and stands out for its upright plant architecture, which facilitates cultivation and mechanical harvesting. This cultivar has high yield potential and is resistant to the major races of anthracnose that occur in region.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of a Genomovirus Associated with Common Bean Plant Leaves in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Natalia Silva; Fontenele, Rafaela Salgado; Melo, Fernando Lucas; Costa, Antonio Felix; Varsani, Arvind; Ribeiro, Simone Graça

    2016-11-10

    A new genomovirus has been identified in three common bean plants in Brazil. This virus has a circular genome of 2,220 nucleotides and 3 major open reading frames. It shares 80.7% genome-wide pairwise identity with a genomovirus recovered from Tongan fruit bat guano. Copyright © 2016 Lamas et al.

  10. New Triterpenoid Saponins from Green Vegetable Soya Beans and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiuhua; Deng, Kejun; Zhao, Jianping; Chen, Yiyi; Xin, Xuhui; Liu, Yanli; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Shilin; Wang, Taoyun; Xu, Qiongming

    2017-12-20

    Ten compounds were isolated and identified from green vegetable soya beans, of which five are new triterpenoid saponins (1-5) and five are known compounds (6-10). The chemical structures of the five triterpenoid saponins (1-5) were elucidated to be 3β,24-dihydroxy-22β,30-epoxy-30-oxoolean-12-en 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 1; 3β,24-dihydroxy-22β,30-epoxy-30-oxoolean-12-en 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-(3″-O-formyl)-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 2; 22-keto-3β,24-dihydroxy oleanane-12-ene 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-(3″-O-formyl)-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 3; 3β,22β,24-trihydroxy oxyolean-18(19)-ene-29-acid 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 4; and punicanolic acid 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 5 from the spectroscopic data (IR, GTC/FID, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR). The nitric oxide release inhibitions of compounds 1-10 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were evaluated, and the data suggested that compounds 1, 2, and 5 might possess moderate anti-inflammatory activities, with IC 50 values of 18.8, 16.1, and 13.2 μM, respectively.

  11. Study on proteins of bean plants originating from gamma-treated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsonev, D.; Chalykova, M.

    1975-01-01

    Dry seeds of bean variety Stella were radiated with gamma rays using 60 C as a source of radiation. The dose applied was 30 kR at an intensity 9.6 R/s. Irradiation caused disturbances at synthesis and properties of proteins of bean plants originating from gamma treated seeds. Some protein components showed changes in relative content and electrophoretic mobility. New more mobile protein components appeared. Protein complex of overground parts were more radioresistant than protein complex of the roots. (M.Ts.)

  12. CHRONIC Cd TOXICITY OF BEAN PLANTS CAN BE PARTIALLY REDUCED BY SUPPLY OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon VASSILEV

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ammonium sulphate supply on plant Cd uptake, growth and photosynthesis of bean plants (cv. Limburgse vroege grown in Cd-contaminated artifi cial soil was studied. The experiments were performed at controlled conditions in absence or presence of Cd (0 or 50 mg Cd kg-1 soil and with or without supply of ammonium sulphate [0 or 0.687 g (NH42SO4 kg-1]. Cadmium inhibited both growth and photosynthetic activity of bean plants. The supply of ammonium sulphate had no signifi cant effect on plant Cd uptake and growth inhibition, but to some extend, reduced Cd-induced stress and its negative impact on the photosynthetic performance.

  13. Gamma radiation effects on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in flowering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Matsumoto, K.; Marchezoni, S.A.; Ando, A.; Menten, J.O.M.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of utilizing the 60 Co source in the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Sao Paulo University, for gamma-irradiation of plants in flower was shown by an experiment with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Pots with two bean plants in flower, variety Carioca, line 6E 1 , were put individually in the center of the source. Doses used were 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kR. The development of these plants after irradiation till harvest and seedling emergence of their progeny were observed. The effects of gamma-rays and the advantages of irradiation of plants in flower were discussed, and recommendable procedures for research workers who need to use the 60 Co source of the CENA are suggested. (Author) [pt

  14. Interaction Effects of Planting Date and Weed Competition on Yield and Yield Components of Three white Bean Cultivars in Semirom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yadavi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable planting and weed competition are the most important factors that greatly reduce the yield of bean. In order to study the effect of planting date on yield and yield components of three white bean cultivars in weed infest and weed free condition a factorial experiment with randomized complete block design and three replications was carried out at Semirom in 2009. The treatments were planting date (May10, May 25 and June 9 and white bean cultivars (Shekofa, Pak and Daneshkade and two levels of weed infestation (weedy and weed free. Results showed that planting date, weed competition and cultivars had significant effects on yield and yield components of white bean. The 30-day delay in planting date reduced the number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and biological yield of white bean cultivars, 22.5, 18, 20.1 and 22.5 percent respectively. Also weed competition, reduced the number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and biological yield respectively by 13.5, 5.7 and 27.1 percent. Result of planting date and weed competition interaction effects indicated that the weed competition decreased grain yield (53% in third planting date more than others and delay in planting date was companion with increasing weed density and dry weight in flowering stage of bean. Also Shekofa cultivar had highest grain yield (3379 kg/ha at the first planting date and weed free condition.

  15. Minor crops for export: a case study of boscalid, pyraclostrobin, lufenuron and lambda-cyhalothrin residue levels on green beans and spring onions in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Ahmad; Garau, Vincenzo L; Caboni, Pierluigi; Sarais, Giorgia; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Dissipation rates of boscalid [2-chloro-N-(4' -chlorobiphenyl-2-yl)nicotinamide], pyraclostrobin [methyl 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl) pyrazol-3-yloxymethyl]-N-methoxycarbanilate], lufenuron [(RS)-1-[2,5-dichloro-4-(1,1,2,3,3,3-hexafluoropropoxy)phenyl]-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea] and lambda-cyhalothrin [(R)-cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl (1S,3S)-rel-3-[(1Z)-2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl]-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate] in green beans and spring onions under Egyptian field conditions were studied. Field trials were carried out in 2008 in a Blue Nile farm, located at 70 kilometer (km) from Cairo (Egypt). The pesticides were sprayed at the recommended rate and samples were collected at pre-determined intervals. After treatment (T(0)) the pesticide residues in green beans were 7 times lower than in spring onions. This is due to a different structure of vegetable plant in the two crops. In spring onions, half-life (t(1/2)) of pyraclostrobin and lufenuron was 3.1 days and 9.8 days respectively. At day 14th (T(14)) after treatment boscalid residues were below the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) (0.34 versus 0.5 mg/kg), pyraclostrobin and lambda -cyhalothrin residues were not detectable (ND), while lufenuron residues were above the MRL (0.06 versus 0.02 mg/kg). In green beans, at T(0), levels of boscalid, lufenuron and lambda -cyhalothrin were below the MRL (0.28 versus 2 mg/kg; ND versus 0.02 mg/kg; 0.06 versus 0.2 mg/kg, respectively) while, after 7 days treatment (T(7)) pyraclostrobin residues were above the MRL (0.03 versus 0.02 mg/kg). However, after 14 days the residue level could go below the MRL (0.02 mg/kg), as observed in spring onions.

  16. Effect of Steaming and Boiling on the Antioxidant Properties and Biogenic Amines Content in Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Varieties of Different Colours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Preti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of boiling and steaming cooking methods were studied on total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and biogenic amines of three green bean varieties, purple, yellow, and green. The vegetables gave good values both for antioxidant capacity and for phenolics content, with the purple variety being the richest in healthful components. Both the heat treatments affected the antioxidant properties of these vegetables, with boiling that reduced the initial antioxidant capacity till 30% in the yellow variety, having the same trend for total polyphenols, with the major decrement of 43% in the green variety. On the contrary, biogenic amines significantly increased only after boiling in green and yellow variety, while purple variety did not show any changes in biogenic amines after cooking. The steaming method showed being better cooking approach in order to preserve the antioxidant properties of green beans varieties and to maintain the biogenic amines content at the lowest level.

  17. Characterization of Glomerella strains recovered from anthracnose lesions on common bean plants in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Quélen L; Pinto, Joyce M A; Vaillancourt, Lisa J; Souza, Elaine A

    2014-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is an important disease of common bean, resulting in major economic losses worldwide. Genetic diversity of the C. lindemuthianum population contributes to its ability to adapt rapidly to new sources of host resistance. The origin of this diversity is unknown, but sexual recombination, via the Glomerella teleomorph, is one possibility. This study tested the hypothesis that Glomerella strains that are frequently recovered from bean anthracnose lesions represent the teleomorph of C. lindemuthianum. A large collection of Glomerella isolates could be separated into two groups based on phylogenetic analysis, morphology, and pathogenicity to beans. Both groups were unrelated to C. lindemuthianum. One group clustered with the C. gloeosporioides species complex and produced mild symptoms on bean tissues. The other group, which belonged to a clade that included the cucurbit anthracnose pathogen C. magna, caused no symptoms. Individual ascospores recovered from Glomerella perithecia gave rise to either fertile (perithecial) or infertile (conidial) colonies. Some pairings of perithecial and conidial strains resulted in induced homothallism in the conidial partner, while others led to apparent heterothallic matings. Pairings involving two perithecial, or two conidial, colonies produced neither outcome. Conidia efficiently formed conidial anastomosis tubes (CATs), but ascospores never formed CATs. The Glomerella strains formed appressoria and hyphae on the plant surface, but did not penetrate or form infection structures within the tissues. Their behavior was similar whether the beans were susceptible or resistant to anthracnose. These same Glomerella strains produced thick intracellular hyphae, and eventually acervuli, if host cell death was induced. When Glomerella was co-inoculated with C. lindemuthianum, it readily invaded anthracnose lesions. Thus, the hypothesis was not supported: Glomerella strains from anthracnose

  18. The bean rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 strongly reduces Fusarium culmorum growth and infectiveness of plant roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddoudi, I.; Sendi, Y.; Batnini, M.; Romdhane, S.B.; Mhadhbi, H.; Mrabet, M.

    2017-07-01

    A faba bean rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate RZ9 was used for studying its antifungal activity and protecting effects of faba bean and common bean against the root pathogen Fusarium culmorum strain MZB47. The dual culture tests showed that RZ9 inhibits MZB47 in vitro growth by 56%. When mixing RZ9 cell suspension with MZB47 macroconidia at equal proportion, the macroconidia viability was reduced with 70%. Pathogenicity tests conducted in sterile conditions showed that MZB47 caused an intense root rotting in faba bean ‘Aquadulce’ plantlets and a slight level in common bean ‘Coco blanc’. This was associated to significant decreases in plant growth only in ‘Aquadulce’, reducing shoot dry weight (DW) by 82% and root DW by 70%. In soil samples, MZB47 caused severe root rotting and induced significant decreases in shoot DW (up to 51%) and root DW (up to 60%) for both beans. It was associated to a decrease in nodule number by 73% and 52% for faba bean and common bean, respectively. Biocontrol assays revealed that the inoculation of RZ9 to MZB47-treated plantlets enhanced shoot DWs (25% and 110%) and root DWs (29% and 67%), in faba bean and common bean, respectively. Moreover, root rotting levels decreased and nodule number increased in treated compared to untreated plantlets. Collected data highlighted the disease severity of F. culmorum and demonstrated the potential of using RZ9 in controlling Fusaria root diseases in beans. Thereby, the current study represents the first report on the biocontrol effectiveness of P. aeruginosa against F. culmorum in beans.

  19. The bean rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 strongly reduces Fusarium culmorum growth and infectiveness of plant roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Haddoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A faba bean rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate RZ9 was used for studying its antifungal activity and protecting effects of faba bean and common bean against the root pathogen Fusarium culmorum strain MZB47. The dual culture tests showed that RZ9 inhibits MZB47 in vitro growth by 56%. When mixing RZ9 cell suspension with MZB47 macroconidia at equal proportion, the macroconidia viability was reduced with 70%. Pathogenicity tests conducted in sterile conditions showed that MZB47 caused an intense root rotting in faba bean ‘Aquadulce’ plantlets and a slight level in common bean ‘Coco blanc’. This was associated to significant decreases in plant growth only in ‘Aquadulce’, reducing shoot dry weight (DW by 82% and root DW by 70%. In soil samples, MZB47 caused severe root rotting and induced significant decreases in shoot DW (up to 51% and root DW (up to 60% for both beans. It was associated to a decrease in nodule number by 73% and 52% for faba bean and common bean, respectively. Biocontrol assays revealed that the inoculation of RZ9 to MZB47-treated plantlets enhanced shoot DWs (25% and 110% and root DWs (29% and 67%, in faba bean and common bean, respectively. Moreover, root rotting levels decreased and nodule number increased in treated compared to untreated plantlets. Collected data highlighted the disease severity of F. culmorum and demonstrated the potential of using RZ9 in controlling Fusaria root diseases in beans. Thereby, the current study represents the first report on the biocontrol effectiveness of P. aeruginosa against F. culmorum in beans.

  20. Nutritional and histopathological studies on Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUFN.) fed on irradiated Canola and bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, S.A.; Mansour, W.; Abdel-Hamid, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    The black cutworm (fifth instar) were fed on leaves of canola and bean plants irradiated as seeds at the dose levels 10, 20 and 30 Gy. Their effects on food utilization, consumption, digestion and on the mid gut were detected. It was noticed that using irradiated bean and canola plants leads to decrease in values of consumption index and growth rate than control. Also, approximate digest ability (A.D), efficiency of conversion of digested food (E.C.D) and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I) were also less than control in most treatments. A. ipsilon larvae fed on bean and canola plants gamma irradiated at the dose levels 10 and 30 Gy in both bean and canola plants, respectively, caused some histopathological changes such as separation of muscle layers, breakdown of epithelium with the appearance of some gaps as well as disintegration of epithelial cells and appearance of vacuoles

  1. Effect of altitude on biochemical composition and quality of green arabica coffee beans can be affected by shade and postharvest processing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Mohammed; de Meulenaer, Bruno; Duchateau, Luc; Boeckx, Pascal

    2018-03-01

    Although various studies have assessed altitude, shade and postharvest processing effects on biochemical content and quality of coffee beans, data on their interactions are scarce. The individual and interactive effects of these factors on the caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGA) and sucrose contents as well as physical and sensory qualities of green coffee beans from large plantations in southwestern Ethiopia were evaluated. Caffeine and CGA contents decreased with increasing altitude; they respectively declined 0.12 and 1.23gkg -1 100m -1 . Sucrose content increased with altitude; however, the altitude effect was significant for wet-processed beans (3.02gkg -1 100m -1 ), but not for dry-processed beans (0.36g kg -1 100m -1 ). Similarly, sucrose content increased with altitude with much stronger effect for coffee grown without shade (2.11gkg -1 100m -1 ) compared to coffee grown under shade (0.93gkg -1 100m -1 ). Acidity increased with altitude when coffee was grown under shade (0.22 points 100m -1 ), but no significant altitude effect was observed on coffee grown without shade. Beans grown without shade showed a higher physical quality score for dry (37.2) than for wet processing (29.1). These results generally underline the complex interaction effects between altitude and shade or postharvest processing on biochemical composition and quality of green arabica coffee beans. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Whiteflies interfere with indirect plant defense against spider mites in Lima bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zheng, Si-Jun; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Boland, Wilhelm; David, Anja; Mumm, Roland; Dicke, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Plants under herbivore attack are able to initiate indirect defense by synthesizing and releasing complex blends of volatiles that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. However, little is known about how plants respond to infestation by multiple herbivores, particularly if these belong to different feeding guilds. Here, we report the interference by a phloem-feeding insect, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, with indirect plant defenses induced by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) in Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants. Additional whitefly infestation of spider-mite infested plants resulted in a reduced attraction of predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis) compared to attraction to plants infested by spider mites only. This interference is shown to result from the reduction in (E)-β-ocimene emission from plants infested by both spider mites and whiteflies. When using exogenous salicylic acid (SA) application to mimic B. tabaci infestation, we observed similar results in behavioral and chemical analyses. Phytohormone and gene-expression analyses revealed that B. tabaci infestation, as well as SA application, inhibited spider mite-induced jasmonic acid (JA) production and reduced the expression of two JA-regulated genes, one of which encodes for the P. lunatus enzyme β-ocimene synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of (E)-β-ocimene. Remarkably, B. tabaci infestation concurrently inhibited SA production induced by spider mites. We therefore conclude that in dual-infested Lima bean plants the suppression of the JA signaling pathway by whitefly feeding is not due to enhanced SA levels. PMID:19965373

  3. On-plant movement and feeding of western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) early instars on corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Moraes, S V; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Hein, G L; Blankenship, E E

    2012-12-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith), has undergone a recent eastward expansion from the western U.S. Corn Belt to Pennsylvania and parts of Canada. Little is known about its ecology and behavior, particularly during the early instars, on corn (Zea mays L.). There is a narrow treatment window for larvae, and early detection of the pest in the field is essential. An understanding of western bean cutworm larval feeding and early-instar dispersal is essential to understand larval survival and establishment in corn. Studies were conducted in 2009 through 2011 in Nebraska to determine the feeding and dispersal of early-instar western bean cutworm on corn. The treatment design was a factorial with three corn stages (pretassel, tassel, and posttassel) and five corn plant zones (tassel, above ear, primary ear, secondary ear, and below ear) in a randomized complete block design. The effects of different corn tissues on larval survival and development were investigated in laboratory studies in a randomized complete block design during 2009 and 2011. Treatments were different corn tissues (leaf alone, leaf with developing tassel, pollen, pollen plus silk, and silk alone). Results demonstrated that neonate larvae move to the upper part of the plant, independent of corn stage. Larval growth was optimal when fed on tassel tissue. Overall results indicated a selective benefit for movement of the early instar to upper part of the plant.

  4. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid; Daur, Ihsanullah; Al-Solaimani, Samir G.; Ahmad, Shakeel; Madkour, Mohamed H.; Yasir, Muhammad; Hirt, Heribert; Ali, Shawkat; Ali, Zahir

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  5. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid

    2016-06-17

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  6. Effect of pesticides on the uptake and transport of radiophosphorus in horse-bean and cucumber plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanker, I; Taimr, L; Kudelova, A [Vyzkumne Ustavy Rostlinne Vyroby, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Ochrany Rostlin

    1977-01-01

    During the treatment of the roots of intact bean and cucumber plants with the preparation Pirimor (pirimicarb) and on the second day after application of the insecticides Bi 58 (dimethoate), Pirimor and Lannate (methomyl) to roots diminished /sup 32/P uptake was also noted after treatment of overground parts of bean plants with the preparation Pirimor. On the other hand, on the second day after application of the fungicide Folcidin (cypendazole) to the roots of cucumber plants /sup 32/P uptake was significantly stimulated, radioactivity being accumulated in the overground parts of plants.

  7. Climatic factors directly impact the volatile organic compound fingerprint in green Arabica coffee bean as well as coffee beverage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, B; Boulanger, R; Dussert, S; Ribeyre, F; Berthiot, L; Descroix, F; Joët, T

    2012-12-15

    Coffee grown at high elevations fetches a better price than that grown in lowland regions. This study was aimed at determining whether climatic conditions during bean development affected sensory perception of the coffee beverage and combinations of volatile compounds in green coffee. Green coffee samples from 16 plots representative of the broad range of climatic variations in Réunion Island were compared by sensory analysis. Volatiles were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction and the volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS. The results revealed that, among the climatic factors, the mean air temperature during seed development greatly influenced the sensory profile. Positive quality attributes such as acidity, fruity character and flavour quality were correlated and typical of coffees produced at cool climates. Two volatile compounds (ethanal and acetone) were identified as indicators of these cool temperatures. Among detected volatiles, most of the alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons and ketones appeared to be positively linked to elevated temperatures and high solar radiation, while the sensory profiles displayed major defects (i.e. green, earthy flavour). Two alcohols (butan-1,3-diol and butan-2,3-diol) were closely correlated with a reduction in aromatic quality, acidity and an increase in earthy and green flavours. We assumed that high temperatures induce accumulation of these compounds in green coffee, and would be detected as off-flavours, even after roasting. Climate change, which generally involves a substantial increase in average temperatures in mountainous tropical regions, could be expected to have a negative impact on coffee quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastenes, Claudio; Porter, Victor; Baginsky, Cecilia; Horton, Peter; González, Javiera

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants.

  9. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  10. Accelerating Planted Green Ash Establishment on an Abandoned Soybean Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Groninger; Didier A. Babassana

    2002-01-01

    Planted green ash seedlings exhibit high survival rates on most bottomland sites that have recently come out of row crop production, making this species a popular choice for afforestation. Sub-optimal growth of planted hardwood tree species, including green ash, often delays the realization of many of the economic and environmental benefits that are used to justify the...

  11. Economic analysis of nitrogen fertilization in winter bean plant under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Traete Sabundjian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion and diversity of the no-tillage system, it is necessary to evaluate the economic benefits generated throughout the production cycle, especially those related to remnants of previous crops and nitrogen fertilizer management of succeeding crops. This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of four cover nitrogen doses on winter bean grain yield grown under no-tillage system after different crops. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications, in a 8x4 factorial scheme, with 32 treatments consisting of a combination of crop remnants (mayze; mayze - Azospirillum brasilense; Urochloa ruziziensis; Urochloa ruziziensis - Azospirillum brasilense; mayze + U. ruziziensis; mayze -A. brasilense + U. ruziziensis; mayze + U. ruziziensis - A. brasilense; mayze -A. brasilense + U. ruziziensis - A. brasilense and cover nitrogen doses (0 kg ha-1, 30 kg ha-1, 60 kg ha-1 and 90 kg ha-1. It was possible to conclude that the highest grain yield of winter bean plants irrigated by aspersion was obtained with the use of 90 kg ha-1 of cover nitrogen in succession to Urochloa ruziziensis without the inoculation of Azospirillum brasilense. In order to improve profits, it is recommended to apply 90 kg ha-1 of cover nitrogen to bean crops succeeding the other crops, except for inoculated Urochloa ruziziensis.

  12. EFFECTS OF GREEN COFFEE BEAN EXTRACT IN SOME BIOMARKERS OF ADULT BRAZILIAN SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Adriana de Assis JÁCOME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the acute effects of the green coffee extracts consumption in some biomarkers of adult Brazilian subjects. Twenty healthy adult subjects between 18 and 35 years old of different sex and ethnic groups took part in the present study. All participants were submitted a 12 hours overnight fast before experiments. Plasma and serum biochemical parameters were measured in distinct intervals after a breakfast standard ingestion and 0.6 L of green coffee been extract consumption. No statistically differences (Wilcoxon test on serum lipid profi le and plasmatic homocysteine concentration were noted after green coffee beverage intake. Caffeine has been associated with increase of the glycaemia in roasted coffee consumers. In the present study, a signifi cant increase (p= 0.03 in glycaemia was observed thirty minutes after the green coffee beverage ingestion and, then, there was a tendency of glycaemia maintenance. The low amount of free caffeine found in green coffee matrix could explain the quick stabilization of the glycaemia. The ingestion of green coffee beverage also signifi cantly reduced uricaemia (p= 0.03 (Wilcoxon test. It is possible that the polyphenols, present in high amounts in this beverage, could act inhibiting the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Therefore, the consumption of green coffee has to stabilize blood glucose 30 minutes after ingestion of test meal, and reduction of uricaemia.

  13. Effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth of beans plants (phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, M.; Mazon, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth and photosynthesis of three moisture levels (20,30 and 40 %) was studied.The first moisture level was near field capacity while the others exceeded. Weekly dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll content, net CO 2 exchange rate in light and darkness, 14 C O 2 assimilated rate and stomatal aperture were determined. Results show a positive effect of soil moisture over field capacity on growth, photosynthate and transpiration of beans during the first growing month. (Author) 76 refs

  14. Green thermoelectrics: Observation and analysis of plant thermoelectric response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goupil Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sensitive to thermal and electrical effects; yet the coupling of both, known as thermoelectricity, and its quantitative measurement in vegetal systems never were reported. We recorded the thermoelectric response of bean sprouts under various thermal conditions and stress. The obtained experimental data unambiguously demonstrate that a temperature difference between the roots and the leaves of a bean sprout induces a thermoelectric voltage between these two points. Basing our analysis of the data on the force-flux formalism of linear response theory, we found that the strength of the vegetal equivalent to the thermoelectric coupling is one order of magnitude larger than that in the best thermoelectric materials. Experimental data also show the importance of the thermal stress variation rate in the plant’s electrophysiological response. therefore, thermoelectric effects are sufficiently important to partake in the complex and intertwined processes of energy and matter transport within plants.

  15. Canopy reflectance indices and its relationship with yield in common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with phosphorus supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.G.; Escalante-Estrada, J.A.; Gonzalez, M.T.R.; Reynolds, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were grown under three phosphorous levels (0,100 & 200 kg ha-1) and under rain fed conditions with the objective to examine the association between vegetative indices (NDVI, normalized difference vegetation index; and GNDVI, green normalized difference vegetation index) and intercepted radiation, leaf area index, biomass and yield during the growing season. The maximum intercepted radiation, leaf area index (LAI) and biomass were reached during the pod filling stage {80 days after sowing (DAS)}, and the P treatment of 200 kg ha-1 showed the highest values. The high intercepted radiation was derived from an increase in LAI inducing a major biomass accumulation. Near to physiological maturity LAI decreased as a result of leaf abscission. NDVI and GNDVI were higher with P supply than without P at anthesis and pod filling stage (50 - 80 DAS). Near to physiological maturity, NDVI and GNDVI decreased in all the treatments . When the maximum intercepted radiation, LAI, and biomass production were reached during anthesis and pod filling stage, NDVI and GNDVI also had the highest values. The association between the vegetative indices and seed yield during the pod filling stage showed a linear relationship by the P supply. The relationship between GNDVI and seed yield was higher (r2 = 0.77) than the relationship between NDVI and seed yield (r2 = 0.61)

  16. Influence of sulfur dioxide and ozone on vegetation of bean and barley plants under different soil moisture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowski, A; Grzesiak, S

    1974-01-01

    The effects of toxic gases on extent of injuries to assimilating surface, dry weight yields, and generative development in bean and barley were studied in three successive phases of vegetation under conditions of optimum soil moisture and of drought just above the wilting point. Experiments with ozone and sulfur dioxide on bean and SO/sub 2/ on barley demonstrate that the susceptibility of plants to toxic gases decrease under drought conditions that cause a temporary dehydration of tissues. Determinations of sulfate sulfur contents in different plant organs show that a lower hydration of tissues is accompanied by lower adsorption of sulfur dioxide.

  17. Incorporation of 14CO2 by illuminated intact leaves of bean (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, A.G. de

    1980-01-01

    Bean plants were grown in hydroponic nutrient solution, maintained in controlled environment. Measurements of the photosynthetic activity using the method of 14 CO 2 incorporation in intact leaves with portable equipment were made on the central leaflet of the first trifoliate leaf except when the effect of leaf age was studied in which case all central leaflets of the same branch were used. The data obtained indicated differences in the photosynthetic efficiency of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars. Relative differences in RuDP carboxylase activity in the crude extracts of leaves, leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content were also observed. Rates of 14 CO 2 incorporation at saturating light varied from 14.94 to 22.96 mg CO 2 .dm -2 .h and the 6 studied cultivars could be divided into two classes: Classe 1 (above 20 mg CO 2 .dm -2 .h): Pirata-1, Rosinha G-2, and Pintadinho Precoce; Classe 2 (below 20 mg CO 2 .dm - 2 .h): Carioca, Rosinha Precoce and Pintado. Plants of the same cultivar showed a relatively high variability and a strong dependence in relation to environmental conditions. Differences among cultivars in relation to RuDP carboxylase activity, leaf area and leaf age were correlated to photosynthetic rate. (Author) [pt

  18. Leather Industry Solid Waste as Nitrogen Source for Growth of Common Bean Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.Q.; Oliveira, L.C.A.; Bastos, A.R.R.; Carvalho, G.S.; Marques, J.G.S.M.; Carvalho, J.G.; De Souza, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    The leather industry generates large amounts of a Cr-containing solid waste (wet blue leather). This material is classified by the Brazilian Environmental Council as a category-one waste, requiring a special disposal. The patented process Br n. PI 001538 is a technique to remove chromium from wet blue leather, with the recovery of a solid collagenic material (collagen), containing high nitrogen levels. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of soil application of collagen on the production of dry matter, content and accumulation of N in common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), after the previous growth of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) cv. Napier, as well as to quantify the mineralization rate of N in the soil. The application of collagen, at rates equivalent to 16 and 32 tha-1, provided greater N contents in the common bean plants, indicating residual effect of these rates of application; the same was observed for the rates of 4 and 8tha-1, though in smaller proportions. Higher mineralization rates of N collagen occurred next to 16 days after soil incubation. During the 216 days of incubation, the treatments with collagen showed higher amounts of mineralized nitrogen.

  19. Early planting and hand sorting effectively controls seed-borne fungi in farm-retained bean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Home-saved bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed can be hand-sorted to remove discoloured seed, thereby reducing the level of contamination by certain seed-borne fungi and improving seed germination. In this study, the effect of planting date on the infection and discolouration of bean seed by seed-borne fungi was investigated in order to improve the quality of hand-sorted, farm-retained bean seeds used by resource poor smallholder farmers. The germination quality and level of seed-borne fungi in hand-sorted first-generation bean seed harvested from an early-, mid- and late-summer season planted crop was therefore assessed. The highest percentage of discoloured seed (68% was obtained from the mid-summer season planting. Non-discoloured seed from early- and late-season plantings had significantly (p"less than"0.001 higher normal germination (82% and 77%, respectively than that from the mid-season planting date (58%. Irrespective of planting date, unsorted seed and discoloured seed had higher levels of infection by Fusarium spp. and Phaeoisariopsis spp. than the non-discoloured seed. Removal of discoloured seed by hand sorting eliminated Rhizoctonia spp. from all seed lots. Farmers can eliminate this pathogen by simply removing discoloured seed. Non-discoloured seed from the early-planted crop had the lowest level of infection by Fusarium spp. and Phaeoisariopsis spp. The results indicate that planting date is an important consideration in improving the quality of hand-sorted farm-retained bean seed.

  20. Dissipation rate study and pre-harvest intervals calculation of imidacloprid and oxamyl in exported Egyptian green beans and chili peppers after pestigation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Ahmad; Dasenaki, Marilena; Bletsou, Anna; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2018-02-01

    Two QuEChERS-based methods were developed and validated, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection, in order to accurately determine residues of imidacloprid and oxamyl in green beans and chili peppers after treatment via irrigation system under field conditions in Egyptian farms. The validation included experiments for specificity, linearity, trueness, precision, matrix effect and limits of detection and quantification according to European Commission standards. The dissipation rates of both pesticides in green beans and chili peppers were studied and the pre-harvest intervals (PHIs) were calculated. The LOQ values of imidacloprid were 0.47 and 2.6μg/kg in green beans and chili peppers, respectively, while for oxamyl the LOQs were 2.9 and 0.67μg/kg, respectively. No PHI of imidacloprid is required, while for oxamyl it was found that still after 21days, its residues' concentration on both crops was significantly higher than the maximum residue limit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant functional traits predict green roof ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Tran, Stephanie; Gebert, Luke

    2015-02-17

    Plants make important contributions to the services provided by engineered ecosystems such as green roofs. Ecologists use plant species traits as generic predictors of geographical distribution, interactions with other species, and ecosystem functioning, but this approach has been little used to optimize engineered ecosystems. Four plant species traits (height, individual leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content) were evaluated as predictors of ecosystem properties and services in a modular green roof system planted with 21 species. Six indicators of ecosystem services, incorporating thermal, hydrological, water quality, and carbon sequestration functions, were predicted by the four plant traits directly or indirectly via their effects on aggregate ecosystem properties, including canopy density and albedo. Species average height and specific leaf area were the most useful traits, predicting several services via effects on canopy density or growth rate. This study demonstrates that easily measured plant traits can be used to select species to optimize green roof performance across multiple key services.

  2. Effect of phytohormones on absorption and distribution of ions in salt-stressed bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Starck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean plant seedlings grown in water culture were treated for 5 days either with NaCl or with 7-times concentrated nutrient solution (diminished water potential by 3-103 hPa in both cases. Control and stressed plants were treated for 24 hrs with zeatin and GA,. NaCl-stress reduced distinctly ion absorption rate (K, Ca and P. Zeatin and GA3 promoted potassium uptake, but only in NaCI-treated plants. These hormones diminished Na accumulation in metabolically active organs but increased P- and Ca-content. In plants grown under both kind of stresses zeatin and GA3 partially reestablished the ratio of the main mono- to divalent cations, which increased in the leaves and apical part of the stressed plants. ABA introduced into the nutrient solution caused inhibition of the ion uptake (K, Ca, Mg and P. similar to that caused by NaCl-stress. The above reported results seem to confirm the supposition, that hormones act as an important factor contributing to regulation of both uptake and distribution of ions. In this way growth substances may also participate in the regulation of transport of various substances (among others - assimilates in the whole plant.

  3. Green synthesis of soya bean sprouts-mediated superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yan; Shen Yuhua; Xie Anjian; Li Shikuo; Wang Xiufang

    2010-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were first synthesized via soya bean sprouts (SBS) templates under ambient temperature and normal atmosphere. The reaction process was simple, eco-friendly, and convenient to handle. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The effect of SBS template on the formation of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that spherical Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm simultaneously formed on the epidermal surface and the interior stem wall of SBS. The SBS are responsible for size and morphology control during the whole formation of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. In addition, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) results indicate the products are superparamagnetic at room temperature, with blocking temperature (T B ) of 150 K and saturation magnetization of 37.1 emu/g.

  4. Green synthesis of soya bean sprouts-mediated superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Wang, Xiufang

    2010-10-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were first synthesized via soya bean sprouts (SBS) templates under ambient temperature and normal atmosphere. The reaction process was simple, eco-friendly, and convenient to handle. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The effect of SBS template on the formation of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that spherical Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm simultaneously formed on the epidermal surface and the interior stem wall of SBS. The SBS are responsible for size and morphology control during the whole formation of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles. In addition, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) results indicate the products are superparamagnetic at room temperature, with blocking temperature ( TB) of 150 K and saturation magnetization of 37.1 emu/g.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on germination and Vitamin-C content of green gram and moth beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Priya; Marathe, S.A.; Rao, V.S.; Bongirwar, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Insect disinfestation of prepacked legumes by using low dose gamma irradiation is well known. Changes in sprout length, water uptake and Vitamin C contents of radiation processed legumes were studied. Gamma irradiation (0.25 kGy) of green gram (Phaseolus aureus) and moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius) reduced the sprout length on germination by 6-18% at 0.25 kGy and 20-32% at 0.75 kGy, compared to control. Water uptake was not affected in both the legumes by radiation treatment. Vitamin C content increased significantly on germination in both the legumes for 24 and 48 hrs. Further on cooking of the seeds, Vitamin C contents were decreased in both the legumes significantly, more so in pressure cooked and shallow fried samples, compared to boiled (simple cooking). As such radiation treatment did not show any significant change in Vitamin C content of both the legumes either on germination and/or on cooking compared to control. (author)

  6. Interactions of green coffee bean phenolics with wheat bread matrix in a model of simulated in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Sęczyk, Łukasz; Dziki, Dariusz; Sikora, Małgorzata

    2018-08-30

    Interactions of phenolics from green coffee bean flour (GCS) with the matrix of wheat bread have been studied employing direct (electrophoretic and chromatographic techniques) and indirect tests (nutrient digestibility). According to the chromatograms of digests, the antiradical activity of enriched bread was exhibited by free phenolics. An increase the area of chromatograms and some additional peaks observed for enriched bread may confirm some interactions of proteins with phenolics. The electrophoretic profile of these extracts showed that the band corresponding to a protein with molecular mass of 38 kDA had much higher intensity in enriched bread. Electrophoretic analysis of pellets remaining after digestion revealed GCS dose-dependent differences in bands corresponding to proteins with molecular masses of 52 kDa and 23 kDa. The relative digestibility of both starch and proteins was slightly decreased by addition of GCS; however, these changes did not exceed 10%, which justifies the use of this functional material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome Sequencing of a Mung Bean Plant Growth Promoting Strain of P. aeruginosa with Biocontrol Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaraj Illakkiam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 is a mung bean rhizosphere strain that produces secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes contributing to excellent antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, one of the prevalent fungal pathogens of mung bean. Genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine generating 1,354,732 reads (6,772,433 sequenced bases achieving ~25-fold coverage of the genome. Reference genome assembly using MIRA 3.4.0 yielded 198 contigs. The draft genome of PGPR2 encoded 6803 open reading frames, of which 5314 were genes with predicted functions, 1489 were genes of known functions, and 80 were RNA-coding genes. Strain specific and core genes of P. aeruginosa PGPR2 that are relevant to rhizospheric habitat were identified by pangenome analysis. Genes involved in plant growth promoting function such as synthesis of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, trehalose, mineral scavenging siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, chitinases, acyl homoserine lactones, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and phytases were identified. In addition, niche-specific genes such as phosphate solubilising 3-phytase, adhesins, pathway-specific transcriptional regulators, a diguanylate cyclase involved in cellulose synthesis, a receptor for ferrienterochelin, a DEAD/DEAH-box helicase involved in stress tolerance, chemotaxis/motility determinants, an HtpX protease, and enzymes involved in the production of a chromanone derivative with potent antifungal activity were identified.

  8. Enrichment of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in Bean Sprouts: Exploring Biosynthesis of Plant Metabolite Using Common Household Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanarata, Theerasak; Plianwong, Samarwadee; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2018-01-01

    The enrichment of plant foods with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is currently an interesting issue in the field of nutraceuticals and can be used as an experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Here, an interdisciplinary hands-on experiment to produce GABA-enriched mung bean sprouts using common household reagents is described. Based…

  9. Lima bean leaves exposed to herbivore-induced conspecific plant volatiles attract herbivores in addition to carnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horiuchi, J.I.; Arimura, G.I.; Ozawa, R.; Shimoda, T.; Dicke, M.; Takabayashi, J.; Nishioka, T.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the response of the herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae to uninfested lima bean leaves exposed to herbivore-induced conspecific plant volatiles by using a Y-tube olfactometer. First, we confirmed that exposed uninfested leaves next to infested leaves were more attractive to carnivorous

  10. Exposure of cerium oxide nanoparticles to kidney bean shows disturbance in the plant defense mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Peralta-Videa, Jose R. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Bandyopadhyay, Susmita [Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Castillo-Michel, Hiram [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220-38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose-Angel [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Sahi, Shivendra [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L., E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Kidney bean roots uptake nCeO{sub 2} primarily without biotransformation. • Cerium reached the root vascular tissues through gaps in the Casparian strip. • On longer exposure to high concentration, roots demonstrate stress response. • In leaves, guaiacol peroxidase plays a major role in ROS scavenging. - Abstract: Overwhelming use of engineered nanoparticles demands rapid assessment of their environmental impacts. The transport of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO{sub 2}) in plants and their impact on cellular homeostasis as a function of exposure duration is not well understood. In this study, kidney bean plants were exposed to suspensions of ∼8 ± 1 nm nCeO{sub 2} (62.5 to 500 mg/L) for 15 days in hydroponic conditions. Plant parts were analyzed for cerium accumulation after one, seven, and 15 days of nCeO{sub 2} exposure. The primary indicators of stress like lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble protein and chlorophyll contents were studied. Cerium in tissues was localized using scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron μ-XRF mapping, and the chemical forms were identified using μ-XANES. In the root epidermis, cerium was primarily shown to exist as nCeO{sub 2}, although a small fraction (12%) was biotransformed to Ce(III) compound. Cerium was found to reach the root vascular tissues and translocate to aerial parts with time. Upon prolonged exposure to 500 mg nCeO{sub 2}/L, the root antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly reduced, simultaneously increasing the root soluble protein by 204%. In addition, leaf's guaiacol peroxidase activity was enhanced with nCeO{sub 2} exposure in order to maintain cellular homeostasis.

  11. Characterization of Effective Rhizobacteria Isolated from Velvet Bean (Mucuna Pruriens) to Enhance Plant Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A. R.; Mahmood, T.; Batool, A.; Khalid, A.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobacteria with plant growth promoting ability exist in association with plant roots and ameliorate over all plant development and yield. Numerous species of rhizobacteria have been identified with plant growth promoting ability, which can be attributed to multiple microbial characteristics. In the current study rhizobacterial isolates with best plant growth promotion traits were subjected to screening for plant growth promotion under axenic condition. The results of lab assays revealed that out of five rhizobacterial isolates three of bacterial isolate were Gram -ve and two of them were Gram +ve bacterial group. All isolates found positive for the auxin production and ACC-demainase activity. The isolate HS9 showed highest ACC activity (331 ketobutyrate nmol mg-1 biomass hr-1) and auxin production (3.85 without L-TRP). PGPR increase plant growth by reducing the ethylene release and its inhibitory effects, the role of isolates to decrease ethylene effects was affirmed via classical triple response assay on velvet bean. Furthermore, isolate were assessed for resistance test, three efficient strains (G9, HS9 and H38) exhibited antibiotic resistance for streptomycin, kanamycin and rifampicin at 100 mg L-1in TSB medium. For the purpose of co-inoculation, all three isolates showed positive relation to grow together. The results concluded that rhizobacteria selected from rain fed areas were found effective to improve plant growth with their multiple growth enhancing traits. Therefore, PGPR with various characteristics could be a better option for inoculation and co-inoculation to improve plant growth in well watered and water stressed environment. (author)

  12. Interactive effects of salinity stress and nicotinamide on physiological and biochemical parameters of Faba bean plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, Magdi T; Sadak, Mervat Sh; Schmidhalter, Urs; El Saady, Abdel Kareem M.

    2013-01-01

    A possible survival strategy for plants under saline conditions is to use some compounds that could alleviate the salt stress effect. One of these compounds is nicotinamide (vitamin B3/niacin). The effect of exogenous application of nicotinamide with different concentrations (0,200 or 400 mg l-1) on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plant grown at different NaCl levels (0,50 or 100 mM) was investigated in the wire house of the National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. Salinity stress significantly reduced the photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot, plant height, leaves number, fresh and dry weights of shoot, seed yield, total carbohydrates and total crude protein of the yielded seeds compared with those of the control plants. In contrast, salinity induced marked increases in sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, proline, lipid peroxidation product (MDA) and some oxidative enzymes (polyphenol-oxidase and peroxidase). Also, salinity stress increased Na+ contents with the decreases of other macro and micro elements contents (P, K+, Mg_2+, Ca_2+, Fe_2+, Mn_2+, Zn_2+ and Cu_2+) of shoots and the yielded seeds of faba bean. Foliar spraying of nicotinamide alleviated the adverse effects of salinity stress through increased the photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total N concentration of shoot, plant height, leaves number, fresh and dry weights of shoot, and seed yield as well as, sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids and proline, compared with those of the corresponding salinity levels, while decreased lipid peroxidation product as malondialdehyde (MDA) and the oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes). Nicotinamide inhibited the uptake of Na+ and accelerated the accumulation of P, K+, Mg_2+, Ca_2+, Fe_2+, Mn_2+, Zn_2+ and Cu_2+ concentrations in the shoots of salt stressed plants and enhanced total carbohydrate and total crude protein percentage and

  13. Green Team Readies for Spring with Plant Swap | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer Those looking for a cost-effective way to spruce up their yards this spring can stop by the National Cancer Institute at Frederick Green Team’s booth during the Spring Research Festival (SRF) on May 7 and 8. Pick up a free plant, donate overgrown plants from your yard, or swap for a new plant. Everyone is invited to participate in the swap, whether you have plants to donate or not.

  14. Green Team Hosts Plant Swap to Encourage Gardening | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer What started out as a way for Howard Young, Ph.D., to thin out his garden last fall turned into the NCI at Frederick Green Team’s Plant Swap. The group held its Fall Plant Swap on October 24, encouraging all members of the Fort Detrick community to pick up a free plant or swap a plant of theirs for another. “Those who love to garden

  15. Plant species richness enhances nitrogen retention in green roof plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Schweinhart, Shelbye; Buffam, Ishi

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events. We found that (1) total plant biomass increased with increasing species richness, (2) green roof plots were effective at reducing storm runoff, with vegetation increasing water retention more than soil-like substrate alone, but there was no significant effect of plant species identity or richness on runoff volume, (3) green roof substrate was a significant source of phosphate, regardless of presence/absence of plants, and (4) dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = nitrate + ammonium) runoff fluxes were different among plant species and decreased significantly with increasing plant species richness. The variation in N retention was positively related to variation in plant biomass. Notably, the increased biomass and N retention with species richness in this engineered ecosystem are similar to patterns observed in published studies from grasslands and other well-studied ecosystems. We suggest that more diverse plantings on vegetated roofs may enhance the retention capacity for reactive nitrogen. This is of importance for the sustained health of vegetated roof ecosystems, which over time often experience nitrogen limitation, and is also relevant for water quality in receiving waters

  16. Chlorogenic acid complex (CGA7, standardized extract from green coffee beans exerts anticancer effects against cultured human colon cancer HCT-116 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gouthamchandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is commonly consumed beverage in the world and it has been suggested to have beneficial effect. Chlorogenic acids (CGAs are main ingredient of coffee beans which has been extensively used in nutraceuticals and medicine. Recently, various therapeutic effects of chlorogenic acids have been investigated. However, there are limited studies to investigate its anticancer properties. In the present study, we have used chlorogenic acid complex (CGA7 a decaffeinated water soluble green coffee bean extract to evaluate its cytotoxic effect on human and mouse cancer cell lines by using different approaches. From our results we found CGA7 treatment induces cell death in a dose and time dependent manner in different cancer cell lines. Further, CGA7 induced apoptosis was characterized by DNA fragmentation, PARP-1 cleavage, caspase-9 activation, and down regulation of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein and up regulation of pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Overall findings indicated that CGA7 complex a potent anticancer molecule found in green coffee beans could be a safe bioactive ingredient for prevention of cancer.

  17. [Study on spectral detection of green plant target].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Zhao, Chun-jiang; He, Xiong-kui; Chen, Li-ping; Zhang, Lu-da; Wu, Guang-wei; Mueller, J; Zhai, Chang-yuan

    2010-08-01

    Weeds grow scatteredly in fields, where many insentient objects exist, for example, withered grasses, dry twig and barriers. In order to improve the precision level of spraying, it is important to study green plant detecting technology. The present paper discussed detecting method of green plant by using spectral recognizing technology, because of the real-time feature of spectral recognition. By analyzing the reflectivity difference between each of the two sides of the "red edge" of the spectrum from plants and surrounding environment, green plant discriminat index (GPDI) is defined as the value which equals the reflectivity ratio at the wavelength of 850 nm divided by the reflectivity ratio at the wavelength of 650 nm. The original spectral data of green plants and the background were measured by using the handhold FieldSpec 3 Spectroradiometer manufactured by ASD Inc. in USA. The spectral data were processed to get the reflectivity of each measured objects and to work out the GPDI thereof as well. The classification model of green plant and its background was built up using decision tree method in order to obtain the threshold of GPDI to distinguish green plants and the background. The threshold of GPDI was chosen as 5.54. The detected object was recognized as green plant when it is GPDI>GPDITH, and vice versa. Through another test, the accuracy rate was verified which was 100% by using the threshold. The authors designed and developed the green plant detector based on single chip microcomputer (SCM) "AT89S51" and photodiode "OPT101" to realize detecting green plants from the background. After passing through two optical filters, the center wavelengths of which are 650 and 850 nm respectively, the reflected light from measured targets was detected by two photodiodes and converted into electrical signals. These analog signals were then converted to digital signals via an analog-to-digital converter (ADS7813) after being amplified by a signal amplifier (OP400

  18. The use of C-14 as tracer in the carbon flow assimilated by the plants (maize, sugar cane, bean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula Eduardo, B. de; Cerri, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    The flow of carbon in three different crops (maize, beans and sugar cane) was studied by use of C-14. The plants were exposed to an atmosphere with a constant concentration of the tracer for 12 hours in a biosynthesis chamber. The detection of the isotope permitted the distribution and concentration of the photosynthetates in the various organs of the plants to be followed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. Green plantings in boulevards of Ufa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konashova S. I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available in the article the features of planning and landscaping Ufa boulevards, in a large part impacting on aesthetic level of the urban development are considered. Species composition and quality of green spaces, features of landscape planning are explored in the new sector of the city. It allowed to develop more acceptable options for changing its development pattern and species composition.

  20. Effects of near ultraviolet and green radiations on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R.M.; Edsall, P.C.; Gentile, A.C.

    1965-01-01

    Selective removal of near ultraviolet and green wavelengths from white light permitted enhanced growth of marigold, tomato, corn, and Impatiens plants, Chlamydomonas cells and the mycelium of Sordaria. Additions of near ultraviolet and green radiations caused repressions in the growth of marigold and Sordaria. These wavelengths do not alter the oxidative mechanisms of mitochondria, intact algal cells or marigold leaf tissues. The capacity for chlorophyll and carotenoid synthesis by Euglena cells was unaffected by these wavelengths. 23 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  1. INTELLIGENCE, COGNITION AND LANGUAGE OF GREEN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony eTrewavas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A summary definition of some 70 descriptions of intelligence provides a definition for all other organisms including plants that stresses fitness. Barbara McClintock, a plant biologist, posed the notion of the ‘ thoughtful cell’ in her Nobel prize address. The systems structure necessary for a thoughtful cell is revealed by comparison of the interactome and connectome. The plant root cap, a group of some 200 cells that act holistically in responding to numerous signals, likely possesses a similar systems structure agreeing with Darwin’s description of acting like the brain of a lower organism. Intelligent behaviour requires assessment of different choices and taking the beneficial one. Decisions are constantly required to optimise the plant phenotype to a dynamic environment and the cambium is the assessing tissue diverting more or removing resources from different shoot and root branches through manipulation of vascular elements. Environmental awareness likely indicates consciousness. Spontaneity in plant behaviour, ability to count to five and error correction indicate intention. Volatile organic compounds are used as signals in plant interactions and being complex in composition may be the equivalent of language accounting for self and alien recognition by individual plants. Game theory describes competitive interactions. Interactive and intelligent outcomes emerge from application of various games between plants themselves and interactions with microbes. Behaviour profiting from experience, another simple definition of intelligence, requires both learning and memory and is indicated in the priming of herbivory, disease and abiotic stresses.

  2. Intelligence, Cognition, and Language of Green Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    A summary definition of some 70 descriptions of intelligence provides a definition for all other organisms including plants that stresses fitness. Barbara McClintock, a plant biologist, posed the notion of the 'thoughtful cell' in her Nobel prize address. The systems structure necessary for a thoughtful cell is revealed by comparison of the interactome and connectome. The plant root cap, a group of some 200 cells that act holistically in responding to numerous signals, likely possesses a similar systems structure agreeing with Darwin's description of acting like the brain of a lower organism. Intelligent behavior requires assessment of different choices and taking the beneficial one. Decisions are constantly required to optimize the plant phenotype to a dynamic environment and the cambium is the assessing tissue diverting more or removing resources from different shoot and root branches through manipulation of vascular elements. Environmental awareness likely indicates consciousness. Spontaneity in plant behavior, ability to count to five and error correction indicate intention. Volatile organic compounds are used as signals in plant interactions and being complex in composition may be the equivalent of language accounting for self and alien recognition by individual plants. Game theory describes competitive interactions. Interactive and intelligent outcomes emerge from application of various games between plants themselves and interactions with microbes. Behavior profiting from experience, another simple definition of intelligence, requires both learning and memory and is indicated in the priming of herbivory, disease and abiotic stresses.

  3. From beef to beans: Eating motives and the replacement of animal proteins with plant proteins among Finnish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Annukka; Niva, Mari; Jallinoja, Piia; Latvala, Terhi

    2016-11-01

    A better understanding of the motives underlying the adoption of sustainable and healthy diets is needed for designing more effective policies. The aim of the study was to examine how eating motives were associated with self-reported changes in the consumption of beef, beans, and soy products, i.e., changes related to reducing animal and increasing plant proteins. The study analysed a survey of an adult population living in Finland (N = 1048). The eating motives were measured with the Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS), which distinguishes between 15 eating motives. Six clusters of consumers based on self-reported changes in food choices were identified with latent class analysis (LCA). Four clusters had established food consumption patterns ("Beef only", "Beef and beans", "Beef, beans, and soy products", and "No beef"), one was undergoing a change, and one had attempted a change earlier. ANOVA with planned contrasts revealed that the motives relating to natural concerns, health, and weight control were higher, and convenience and price lower, among those who had an established diet including beans and soy products, as compared to those who consumed only beef. Those undergoing a dietary change expressed a higher endorsement of natural concerns as well as health, sociability, social image, and price motives than those with an established diet including beans and soy products. The results suggest that eating motives play an important role in changing towards more sustainable food consumption patterns in which meat/beef is replaced with plant proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Comigration of root nodule bacteria and bean plants to new habitats: coevolution mechanisms and practical importance (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provorov, N A; Zhukov, V A; Kurchak, O N; Onishchuk, O P; Andronov, E E; Borisov, A Iu; Chizhevskaia, E P; Naumkina, T S; Ovtsyna, A O; Vorob'ev, N I; Simarov, B V; Tikhonovich, I A

    2013-01-01

    The review summarizes the results of studies on the comigration of tubercular bacteria and bean plants to new habitats, which is often accompanied by a decrease in the symbiosis efficiency due to a loss of the diversity of genes responsible for the interaction. This migration may lead to a rise in new symbionts as a result of gene transfers from initial symbionts to local bacteria. It was demonstrated that typically new symbionts lack an ability for N2 fixation but are highly competitive, blocking the inoculation of bean cultures by industrial strains. The design of coadapted systems of recognition and signal interaction of partners is a perspective approach to ensure competitive advantages of efficient rhizobia strains introduced into agrocenoses, together with host plants, over inactive local strains.

  5. Adaptive Potential for the Invasion of Novel Host Plants in the Bean Weevil: Patterns of the Reproductive Behavior in Populations That Used Different Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine interpopulation patterns in the reproductive behavior of populations of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say; Coleoptera: Bruchidae that had different levels of specialization on their native host plant – the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., as well as on a novel host plant – the chickpea (Cicer arietinum Thorn. The obtained pattern of interpopulation mating behavior seemed exactly as if the males on chickpea had evolved a specific odor and/or a courtship ritual that females of populationson bean found repulsive. Unlike females, the males of bean populations seemed to be willing to mate with females from the population on chickpea equally as with their own females. Such an asymmetric pattern of reproductive isolation between populations ofa species has been often considered an initial phase of a process of speciation. Thus, our results could be a good starting point for further, thorough examination of both the role of the level of host specialization in females and the role of biochemical characteristics of male pheromone (and/or their cuticular hydrocarbones in the evolution of pre-reproductive isolation between insect populations.As the results of this study, together those of previous studies on A. obtectus, suggest great evolutionary potential for invasions of and fast specialization on novel host plants, they could provide valuable information for the development of long-term strategiesunder the programmes of Integrated Pest Management.

  6. Evaluation of vegetable-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping under Latvian agro-ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepse, Līga; Dane, Sandra; Zeipiņa, Solvita; Domínguez-Perles, Raul; Rosa, Eduardo As

    2017-10-01

    Monoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12 months. In an organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions and, as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015). Data obtained showed that the most efficient intercropping variants were cabbage/faba bean (cabbage yield 1.27-2.91 kg m -2 , immature faba bean pods 0.20-0.43 kg m -2 ) and carrot/faba bean (carrot yield 1.67-2.28 kg m -2 , immature faba bean pods 0.10-0.52 kg m -2 ), whilst onion and faba bean intercrop is not recommended for vegetable growing since it induces a very low onion yield (0.66-1.09 kg m -2 ), although the highest immature faba bean pod yield was found in the onion/faba bean intercropping scheme (up to 0.56 kg m -2 ). Vegetable/faba bean intercropping can be used in practical horticulture for carrot and cabbage growing in order to ensure sustainable farming and environmentally friendly horticultural production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The effect of different crop plant densities on radiation absorption and use efficiency by corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. intercropped canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to determinate the effects of plant densities in intercropped corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on radiation absorption and use efficiency, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2007-2008. This experiment was conducted in low input system. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments were included bean intercropping with corn in normal density of bean plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess bean C (B+10%, C (B+20%, C (B+30%, increasing in density bean intercropping with corn in normal density of corn plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess corn B (C+10%, B (C+20%, B (C+30% and sole crops of corn (C and bean (B. Results indicated that leaf area index, radiation absorption, total dry matter and radiation use efficiency of corn increased in all intercropped treatments compared to sole cropping, but it reversed for bean. It seems that complementary and facilitative effects of intercropping were more for corn. Range of corn and bean radiation use efficiency was from 1.92 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping and 0.72 g.MJ-1 {in (C+30% (B+30%} to 2.30 g.MJ-1 {in C (B+30%} and 1.45 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping, respectively.

  8. Levels of Antioxidant Activity and Fluoride Content in Coffee Infusions of Arabica, Robusta and Green Coffee Beans in According to their Brewing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, J; Janda, Katarzyna; Jakubczyk, K; Szymkowiak, M; Chlubek, D; Gutowska, I

    2017-10-01

    Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants, and this property links with the fact that coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages. Moreover, it is a source of macro- and microelements, including fluoride. The aim of this work was to determine antioxidant activity of coffee beverages and fluoride content depending on different coffee species and conditions of brewing. Three species of coffee, arabica, robusta and green coffee beans obtained from retail stores in Szczecin (Poland) were analyzed. Five different techniques of preparing drink were used: simple infusion, french press, espresso maker, overflow espresso and Turkish coffee. Antioxidant potential of coffee beverages was investigated spectrophotometrically by DPPH method. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Statistical analysis was performed using Stat Soft Statistica 12.5. Antioxidant activity of infusions was high (71.97-83.21% inhibition of DPPH) depending on coffee species and beverage preparing method. It has been shown that the method of brewing arabica coffee and green coffee significantly affects the antioxidant potential of infusions. The fluoride concentration in the coffee infusions changed depending, both, on the species and conditions of brewing, too (0.013-0.502 mg/L). Methods of brewing didn't make a difference to the antioxidant potential of robusta coffee, which had also the lowest level of fluoride among studied species. Except overflow espresso, the fluoride content was the highest in beverages from green coffee. The highest fluoride content was found in Turkish coffee from green coffee beans.

  9. Prevalence of Clostridium botulinum and thermophilic heat-resistant spores in raw carrots and green beans used in French canning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevenier, V; Delannoy, S; André, S; Fach, P; Remize, F

    2012-04-16

    Two categories of vegetables (carrots and green beans) that are widely used in the manufacture of canned food were surveyed for their spore contamination. Samples were recovered from 10 manufactures spread over all producing areas in France. Two samples over 316 raw vegetables collected were found positive for botulinum neurotoxin producing Clostridia spores as tested by PCR-based GeneDisc assay. Both positive samplestested positive for the type B neurotoxin gene (bont/B). In parallel, heat-resistant spores of thermophilic bacteria that are likely to be associated with canned food spoilage after prolonged incubation at 55 °C were surveyed after specific enrichment. Prevalence varied between 1.6% for Moorella thermoacetica/thermoautotrophica in green bean samples and 8.6% for either Geobacillus stearothermophilus or Thermoanaerobacterium spp. in carrot samples. Vegetable preparation, e.g. washing and edge cutting, considerably reduced spore contamination levels. These data constitute the first wide examination of vegetables specifically cultivated for industrialpurposes for their contamination by spores of thermophilic bacterial species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative assessment of the risk of microbial spoilage in foods. Prediction of non-stability at 55 °C caused by Geobacillus stearothermophilus in canned green beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaux, Clémence; André, Stéphane; Albert, Isabelle; Carlin, Frédéric

    2014-02-03

    Microbial spoilage of canned foods by thermophilic and highly heat-resistant spore-forming bacteria, such as Geobacillus stearothermophilus, is a persistent problem in the food industry. An incubation test at 55 °C for 7 days, then validation of biological stability, is used as an indicator of compliance with good manufacturing practices. We propose a microbial risk assessment model predicting the percentage of non-stability due to G. stearothermophilus in canned green beans manufactured by a French company. The model accounts for initial microbial contaminations of fresh unprocessed green beans with G. stearothermophilus, cross-contaminations in the processing chain, inactivation processes and probability of survival and growth. The sterilization process is modeled by an equivalent heating time depending on sterilization value F₀ and on G. stearothermophilus resistance parameter z(T). Following the recommendations of international organizations, second order Monte-Carlo simulations are used, separately propagating uncertainty and variability on parameters. As a result of the model, the mean predicted non-stability rate is of 0.5%, with a 95% uncertainty interval of [0.1%; 1.2%], which is highly similar to data communicated by the French industry. A sensitivity analysis based on Sobol indices and some scenario tests underline the importance of cross-contamination at the blanching step, in addition to inactivation due to the sterilization process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transfer Factor of Co-60 and Cs-137 from Agricultural Soil to Agricultural Plant of Rice and Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzie, D; Cerdas, T; Susilah, S; Umbara, H

    1996-01-01

    A study to estimate transfer factor of Co-60 and Cs-137 radionuclides from agricultural soil to agricultural plant of beans and rice in Serpong Nuclear Research Center Complex has been carried out. The soil used was that from off site Serpong Nuclear Research Center Complex, the agricultural plant samples were rice with variety of Cisadane, Situgintung, Seratus Malam, and Atomita 4, and for beans were peanut with variety of AH 1781 SI (parent) and A 20 psj (daughter), soybean with variety of Kerinci (parent) and Camar (daughter), and greenbean with variety of Manyar (parent) and Camar (daughter), which obtained from PAIR-BATAN Pasar Jumat. 10 kg of soil was put on the container which layered with plastic. The soil was contaminated with Co-60 and Cs-137 with activity concentration of 10 Bq/kg. Samples were counted with gamma spectrometer. The value of transfer factor was obtained by comparing activity concentration of agricultural plant with that of agricultural soil. The results of transfer factor of Co-60 for rice and beans were 0.12 x 10-2 and 1.05 x 10-2, respectively and the transfer factor of Cs-137 for rice and beans were 0.83 x 10-2 and 2.09 x 10-2, respectively. The gamma emmitter radionuclides counted from the soil of Serpong Nuclear Research Center Complex were Th-228, U-235, Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40, with activities concentration as background were 35.39 - 101.60; 32.14 - 74.50; 23.37 - 28.57; 20.90 - 31.28 and 5.97 - 8.13 Bq/kg, respectively

  12. Natural selection and family X location interaction in the common (dry bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Pirola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection takes place while advancing generations of segregant populations of self pollinating species by the population (bulk method. There is evidence that it maintains the individuals with greater grain yield. The question arises whether natural selection preserves the individuals which are more adapted only to the environment where the generation advance occurred, that is, if it contributes to increasing the genotype x environment interaction in the family assessment. This study was carried out to check this hypothesis in the common bean plant using families derived from a segregating population from a cross between the Carioca MG x ESAL 686 cultivars. The segregating populations increase in homozygosity was obtained by the population (bulk method until the F14 generation, in three distinct locations in Minas Gerais state: Lavras, Lambari and Patos de Minas. Forty-seven F14:15 families were randomly taken from the population in each location and later multiplied to obtain F14:16 families. These families were jointly assessed with three controls using a triple 12 x 12 lattice design in the three locations of generation advance in the wet season of 1998/1999. All the estimated parameters showed that while advancing segregant populations by the population (bulk method, natural selection acted to preserve the individuals which are more adapted to the environment in which they were advanced.

  13. Influence of insecticidal plant materials used during storage on sensory attributes and instrumental hardness of dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, F V; Serugendo, A; Breene, W M; Sriharan, S

    1995-07-01

    Three plant products with known insecticidal properties, a dry extract of flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium (Trevir.) Vis. produced in Rwanda, an ethanol extract of seeds of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, and crushed leaves of Tetradenia riparia Hochst Codd, a traditional Rwandan medicine, were mixed with beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., for storage protection. These plant-protected beans were compared with "off the shelf' beans that were being sold to consumers by the Rwandan National Agricultural Products Marketing Organization (OPROVIA). A trained sensory panel determined that beans treated with neem and C. cinerariaefolium were as acceptable after 8 months storage as those being sold throughout Rwanda by the marketing organization. Beans marketed by this organization were all treated with the standard insecticide application in Rwanda, 0.01% weight/weight pirimiphos methyl in a powder formulation. Instrumental hardness (% hard-to-cook/mean gram force) after 20 months of storage was acceptable for beans stored with neem or with C. cinerariaefolium or with the conventional government application of pirimiphos methyl. Use of either neem or C. cinerariaefolium for storage protection should not affect consumer acceptance of dry beans.

  14. Comparison of the adaptability to heavy metals among crop plants. I. Adaptability to manganese-studies on comparative plant nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, A; Tadano, T; Fujita, H

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to compare the tolerance of a variety of crop plants to the uptake of manganese. Three different concentrations of manganese were used for growing test plants, which included the following: rice, sugar beets, azuki beans, radishes, broad beans, peas, rutabaga, turnips, Arctinum tappa, Brassica japonica, green pepper, maize, spinach, cucumbers, tomatoes, mustard, and millet.

  15. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzer H. Siddiqui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853 under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i normal irrigation (ii mild stress (iii moderate stress, and (iv severe stress on plant height (PH plant−1, fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW plant−1, area leaf−1, leaf relative water content (RWC, proline (Pro content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl content, electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content, and activities of catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes “C5” and “Zafar 1” were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD, and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype “C5” and “Zafar 1” were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes “G853” and “C4” were sensitive to drought stress.

  16. Genetically engineered plants get a green light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Colin

    1983-10-07

    The National Institutes of Health's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee has given conditional approval to a proposal by the Cetus Madison Corporation to field test plants that have been genetically manipulated to resist some diseases. The committee made no recommendation, however, on another field test proposed by BioTechnica International Inc. Both proposals had been challenged by a coalition of environmental groups led by Jeremy Rifkin, who has now filed a freedom of information request to NIH asking for documents pertaining to their health and safety aspects.

  17. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for 60Co, 90Sr and 137Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-01

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for 60 Co and 137 Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of 90 Y was used for 90 Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for 60 Co and 137 Cs. For the 90 Sr, the translocation was below 2,5 mBq kg -1 /Bq

  18. Are Wave and Tidal Energy Plants New Green Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douziech, Mélanie; Hellweg, Stefanie; Verones, Francesca

    2016-07-19

    Wave and tidal energy plants are upcoming, potentially green technologies. This study aims at quantifying their various potential environmental impacts. Three tidal stream devices, one tidal range plant and one wave energy harnessing device are analyzed over their entire life cycles, using the ReCiPe 2008 methodology at midpoint level. The impacts of the tidal range plant were on average 1.6 times higher than the ones of hydro-power plants (without considering natural land transformation). A similar ratio was found when comparing the results of the three tidal stream devices to offshore wind power plants (without considering water depletion). The wave energy harnessing device had on average 3.5 times higher impacts than offshore wind power. On the contrary, the considered plants have on average 8 (wave energy) to 20 (tidal stream), or even 115 times (tidal range) lower impact than electricity generated from coal power. Further, testing the sensitivity of the results highlighted the advantage of long lifetimes and small material requirements. Overall, this study supports the potential of wave and tidal energy plants as alternative green technologies. However, potential unknown effects, such as the impact of turbulence or noise on marine ecosystems, should be further explored in future research.

  19. Plant Communities Suitable for Green Roofs in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gioannini

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In extensive green roof settings, plant communities can be more robust than monocultures. In addition, native plants might be hardier and more ecologically sound choices than non-native plants in green roof systems. The objectives of this research were to (1 compare the performance of plant communities with that of monocultures and (2 compare the growth of natives to non-natives in a simulated green roof setting. We conducted a two-year experiment at an outdoor site in a desert environment using four plant morphological types (groundcover, forb, succulent and grass. Native plants selected were Chrysactinia mexicana, Melampodium leucanthum, Euphorbia antisyphilitica, and Nassella tenuissima, and non-natives were Delosperma nubigenum, Stachys byzantina, Sedum kamtschiaticum and Festuca glauca. Plants were assigned randomly to either monoculture or community and grown in 1 m × 1 m custom-built trays filled with 15 cm of a proprietary blend of 50/20/30 lightweight aggregate/sand/compost (by volume. Native forb, Melampodium, in community had greater coverage for four of the five measurements in the first year over native forb in monoculture and non-native forb regardless of setting. Native forb coverage was also greater than non-native forb for three of the four measurements in year 2, regardless of setting. Coverage of native grass was significantly greater than non-native grasses throughout the experiment. Coverage was also greater for eight of nine measurements for native succulent over non-natives succulent. However, non-native groundcover coverage was significantly greater than native groundcover for seven of nine measurements. On 1 November 2016, relative water content (RWC for succulents (p = 0.0424 was greatest for native Euphorbia in monoculture at 88%. Native Euphorbia also had greater RWC than non-native Sedum on 4 April 2017 (78% and 4 July 2017 (80%. However, non-native Sedum had greater root length (6548 cm, root dry weight (12.1 g

  20. Water deficit imposed by partial irrigation at different plant growth stages of common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, M.; Reichardt, K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify specific growth stages of common bean crop, at which the plant is less sensitive to water stress so that irrigation can be omitted without significant decrease in biological nitrogen fixation and yield. Two field experiments were conducted at a University experiments station, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Ecuador, on a sandy loam soil ( Typic durustoll ). The climate is warm and dry ( mean air temperature 16 degree Celcius and mean relative humidity 74% ) during the cropping season and rainfall of 123 mm was recorded during the cropping period. The treatments consisted of combinations of 7 irrigation regimes ( I1 = all normal watering; I2 = all stres; I3 = traditional practice; I4 = single stress at vegetation; I5 flowering; I6 = yield formation and I7 = ripening stages ) and 2 levels of applied N ( 20 and 80 kg/ ha ). Differential irrigation was started after 3 uniform irrigations for germination and crop establishment. Soil moisture was monitored with a neutron probe down to 0.60 m depth, before and 24 h after each irrigation. Biological Nitrogen Fixation was calculated using the N- 15 metodology in the 20 kg N/ ha treatment. From the yield data, it can be concluded that treatments which had irrigation deficit had lower yield than those that had suplementary irrigation. The flowering stage was the most sensitive to number of pods and grain yield. Biological Nitrogen Fixation was significantly affected by water stress at flowering and formation stages. The crop water use efficiency ( kg/ m 3 ) was the lowest at flowering period and the yield response factor ( Ky ) was higher in treatments I2 ( all stress ) and I5 (stress at flowering ). Comparing with traditional practice by farmers of the region, only treatments I1 and I7 had 13 and 10 % higher crop water use effeciency. 15 tabs., 7 refs. ( Author )

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal stimulant affect dry matter and nutrient accumulation in bean and soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Henrique Moreira Salgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of biological resources in agriculture may allow less dependence and better use of finite resources. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native to the Brazilian Savannah associated with the application of mycorrhizal stimulant (7-hydroxy, 4'-methoxy-isoflavone, in the early growth of common bean and soybean. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design, with a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of five arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species, joint inoculation (junction of all species in equal proportions and native fungi (without inoculation, in the presence and absence of stimulant. The following traits were evaluated: shoot dry matter, root dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, nodules dry matter and accumulation of calcium, zinc and phosphorus in the shoot dry matter. The increase provided by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the use of stimulant reached over 200 % in bean and over 80 % in soybean plants. The fungi Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita and Rhizophagus clarus, for bean, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Dentiscutata heterogama, Rhizophagus clarus and the joint inoculation, for soybean, increased the dry matter and nutrients accumulation.

  2. Diversity and abundance of Beauveria bassiana in soils, stink bugs and plant tissues of common bean from organic and conventional fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Yordanys; Portal, Orelvis; Lysøe, Erik; Meyling, Nicolai V; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural occurrence of Beauveria spp. in soil, from infections in the stink bug Piezodorus guildinii, an important pest of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and as endophytes in bean plant tissue. Twelve conventional and 12 organic common bean fields in the Villa Clara province, Cuba were sampled from September 2014 to April 2015. One hundred and fifty Beauveria isolates were obtained from soil samples, bean plant parts and stink bugs. The overall frequency of occurrence of Beauveria isolates in conventional fields (8.4%) was significantly lower than that in organic fields (23.6%). Beauveria were also obtained significantly more frequently from bean roots in organic fields (15.0%) compared to bean roots in conventional fields (3.3%). DNA sequencing of the intergenic Bloc region was performed for Beauveria species identification. All isolates where characterized as Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin, and clustered with isolates of neotropical origin previously described as AFNEO_1. The Cuban B. bassiana isolates formed five clusters in the phylogeny. Isolates of two clusters originated from all four locations, organic and conventional fields, as well as soil, plants and stink bugs. Organic fields contained isolates of all five clusters while conventional fields only harbored isolates of the two most frequent ones. Mating type PCR assays revealed that mating type distribution was skewed, with MAT1/MAT2 proportion of 146/4, indicating limited potential for recombination. The present study is the first to report of B. bassiana as a naturally occurring endophyte in common bean. Further, it shows that B. bassiana occurs naturally in diverse environments of common bean fields, and constitutes a potential reservoir of natural enemies against pest insects particularly in organic fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Global models for the biomechanics of green plants: 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1990-12-01

    The paper considers the biomechanics of green plants for Reynolds number flow in the stem. In particular, it is assumed that the stem is cylindrical and the flow fully-developed. So that if the aspect ratio is defined as the ratio of the stem radius to its length, then when the aspect ratio is small analytical solutions have been developed for the concentration, temperature and the axial velocity. The process of translocation and transpiration are discussed quantitatively. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  4. A dynamic growth model of vegetative soya bean plants: model structure and behaviour under varying root temperature and nitrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. T.; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Gold, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    A differential equation model of vegetative growth of the soya bean plant (Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom') was developed to account for plant growth in a phytotron system under variation of root temperature and nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution. The model was tested by comparing model outputs with data from four different experiments. Model predictions agreed fairly well with measured plant performance over a wide range of root temperatures and over a range of nitrogen concentrations in nutrient solution between 0.5 and 10.0 mmol NO3- in the phytotron environment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to changes in parameters relating to carbohydrate concentration in the plant and nitrogen uptake rate.

  5. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani disease and biostimulant effect by microbial products on bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial products containing a mixture of fungi and bacteria (EM Bokashi® 2-fi and EM-5 Sutociu® characterised by plant biostimulant activity, Trichoderma harzianum T22 (biofungicide and the antagonist fungus Trichoderma sp. TJ40 were tested for efficacy against R. solani disease and for their biostimulant effects on bean plants, in growth chamber experiments, and for their direct effect on the pathogen growth, through in vitro experiments. In growth chamber experiments, EM-5 Sutociu was applied to seed (Sut/Se, substrate (Sut/S and leaf (Sut/L many times, EM Bokashi 2-fi to substrare (Bok/S once and combined with Sut, T22 and TJ40 were applied once to substrate. The pathogen was inoculated to substrate at seeding time (first experiment or at seedling phase (second experiment. Under our experimental conditions, Bok/S+Sut/S+Sut/L, Sut/S+Sut/L, Sut/Se+Sut/S+Sut/L and T22, in the first experiment, and all treatments, with the exception of Bok/S applied alone in the second experiment, gave significantly disease severity reduction and increase of dry weight and leaf area with respect to the infected control. The TJ40 treatment reduced both disease incidence and disease severity only in the second experiment. In the experiment on the biostimulant effect, T22, Bok/S+Sut/S+Sut/L, Sut/S+Sut/L and Sut/Se+Sut/S+Sut/L showed significantly increases of both dry weight and leaf area. The direct effect of the treatment with T22, TJ40, Bok and Sut on R. solani growth in vitro was studied with two methods, submerged colony (SC and well diffusion (WD assays. The pathogen growth was completely inhibited by Trichoderma T22 in both assays, by Trichoderma TJ40 in a range of 80-50 % in SD assay, and 50-30 % in WD assay and slightly inhibited or not inhibited by Bok and Sut.

  6. Effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth of beans plants (phaseolus vulgaris L.) during the first growing month

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon, M.P.; Ballesteros, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth and photosynthesis of three moisture levels (20, 30 and 40%) was studied. The first moisture level was near field capacity while the others exceeded. Weekly dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll content, net CO 2 exchange rate in light and darkness, 14 CO 2 assimilated rate and stomatal aperture were determined. Results show a positive effect of soil moisture over field capacity on growth, photosynthesis and transpiration of beans during the first growing month. (author)

  7. Effect of saline water on growth, yield and N2 fixation by faba bean and lentil plants using nitrogen-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, A.M.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Elakel, E.A.; Ismail, H.; Hamdy, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work had been carried out under greenhouse conditions through joint research project between international agronomic mediterranean (IAM, Bari), italy and soils and water dept., Egyptian atomic energy authority. The aim of this dy was to assess the effect of saline water irrigation on growth, yield and nitrogen fixation (% Ndfa) by faba bean and lentil plants inoculated with selected rhizobium strains. Four saline irrigation water levels (fresh water, 3.6 and ds/m) were used. 20 kg N/ha as ammonium sulfate contained 10% N-15 atom excess was applied for quantification of biological N-fixation N-portions derived from fertilizer (Ndff). Results showed that high levels of salinity negatively affected seed yield and N accumulated in tissue of faba bean. Similar trend was noticed with dry matter of lentil while shoot-N was increased at 6 and 9 ds/m. Both leguminous crops were mainly dependent on N 2 fixation as an important source of nitrogen nutrition. Under adverse conditions salinity, the plants gained some of their N requirements from the other two N sources (Ndff and Ndfs). Application of the suitable Rhizobium bacteria strains could be beneficial for both the plant growth and soil fertility via N 2 fixation

  8. Bean Yellow Dwarf Virus replicons for high-level transgene expression in transgenic plants and cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuren; Mason, Hugh

    2006-02-05

    A novel stable transgenic plant expression system was developed using elements of the replication machinery of Bean Yellow Dwarf Virus (BeYDV). The system contains two transgenes: 1) The BeYDV replicon vector with an expression cassette flanked by cis-acting DNA elements of BeYDV, and 2) The viral replication initiator protein (Rep) controlled by an alcohol-inducible promoter. When Rep expression was triggered by treatment with ethanol, it induced release of the BeYDV replicon from stably integrated T-DNA and episomal replication to high copy number. Replicon amplification resulted in substantially increased transgene mRNA levels (up to 80-fold) and translation products (up to 10-fold) after induction of Rep expression by ethanol treatment in tobacco NT1 cells and leaves of whole potato plants. Thus, the BeYDV stable transformant replicon system is a powerful tool for plant-based production of recombinant proteins. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Principal Component Analysis of Chlorophyll Content in Tobacco, Bean and Petunia Plants Exposed to Different Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiak, Klaudia; Zbierska, Janina; Budka, Anna; Kayzer, Dariusz

    2014-06-01

    Three plant species were assessed in this study - ozone-sensitive and -resistant tobacco, ozone-sensitive petunia and bean. Plants were exposed to ambient air conditions for several weeks in two sites differing in tropospheric ozone concentrations in the growing season of 2009. Every week chlorophyll contents were analysed. Cumulative ozone effects on the chlorophyll content in relation to other meteorological parameters were evaluated using principal component analysis, while the relation between certain days of measurements of the plants were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed variability between plant species response. However, some similarities were noted. Positive relations of all chlorophyll forms to cumulative ozone concentration (AOT 40) were found for all the plant species that were examined. The chlorophyll b/a ratio revealed an opposite position to ozone concentration only in the ozone-resistant tobacco cultivar. In all the plant species the highest average chlorophyll content was noted after the 7th day of the experiment. Afterwards, the plants usually revealed various responses. Ozone-sensitive tobacco revealed decrease of chlorophyll content, and after few weeks of decline again an increase was observed. Probably, due to the accommodation for the stress factor. While during first three weeks relatively high levels of chlorophyll contents were noted in ozone-resistant tobacco. Petunia revealed a slow decrease of chlorophyll content and the lowest values at the end of the experiment. A comparison between the plant species revealed the highest level of chlorophyll contents in ozone-resistant tobacco.

  10. Can the critical temperature for photochemical damage in common bean plants be changed after a drought event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Low water availability and high temperatures occur under field conditions and we hypothesize that the critical temperature for photochemical damage (TC in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants is increased by the occurrence of previous water deficit in a genotype-dependent manner. Five common bean cultivars A320, A222, Carioca, BAT477 and Ouro Negro were evaluated. Thirty days after seedlings emergence, one group of plants was exposed to water deficit for ten days and rehydrated and another one was maintained well hydrated during the experimental period. The minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (FO was monitored in leaf discs exposed to temperatures ranging from 25 to 45 oC and the TC values estimated. The previous water deficit did not affect TC, which varied between 38.8 and 43.8 oC when considering all cultivars and water regimes. Under well-watered conditions, BAT477 (41.9 oC and Carioca (43.8 oC presented higher TCthan Ouro Negro (38.8 oC. Our findings indicate a significant genotypic variation in thermal tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris, an important crop trait to be considered in breeding programs.

  11. Genetic improvement of the shoot architecture and yield in soya bean plants via the manipulation of GmmiR156b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhengxi; Su, Chao; Yun, Jinxia; Jiang, Qiong; Wang, Lixiang; Wang, Youning; Cao, Dong; Zhao, Fang; Zhao, Qingsong; Zhang, Mengchen; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Kong, Fanjiang; Liu, Baohui; Tong, Yiping; Li, Xia

    2018-05-05

    The optimization of plant architecture in order to breed high-yielding soya bean cultivars is a goal of researchers. Tall plants bearing many long branches are desired, but only modest success in reaching these goals has been achieved. MicroRNA156 (miR156)-SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) gene modules play pivotal roles in controlling shoot architecture and other traits in crops like rice and wheat. However, the effects of miR156-SPL modules on soya bean architecture and yield, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects, remain largely unknown. In this study, we achieved substantial improvements in soya bean architecture and yield by overexpressing GmmiR156b. Transgenic plants produced significantly increased numbers of long branches, nodes and pods, and they exhibited an increased 100-seed weight, resulting in a 46%-63% increase in yield per plant. Intriguingly, GmmiR156b overexpression had no significant impact on plant height in a growth room or under field conditions; however, it increased stem thickness significantly. Our data indicate that GmmiR156b modulates these traits mainly via the direct cleavage of SPL transcripts. Moreover, we found that GmSPL9d is expressed in the shoot apical meristem and axillary meristems (AMs) of soya bean, and that GmSPL9d may regulate axillary bud formation and branching by physically interacting with the homeobox gene WUSCHEL (WUS), a central regulator of AM formation. Together, our results identify GmmiR156b as a promising target for the improvement of soya bean plant architecture and yields, and they reveal a new and conserved regulatory cascade involving miR156-SPL-WUS that will help researchers decipher the genetic basis of plant architecture. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Optimization of mutant recovery from plants obtained from gamma-radiated seeds of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L) DC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klu, J. Y. P.; Harten, A. M. van

    2000-01-01

    Dry seeds of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC) cvs UPS 122 and Kade 6/16 were treated with acute radiation doses of 150 Gy and 250 Gy at a dose rate of 737.32 Gy/hr from a Cobalt-60 gamma source for studies in optimisation of mutant selection in M 2 and M 3 populations. Mature dry pods were harvested at four different locations on each M 1 plant viz. 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 metres from the ground. M 2 seedlings were screened for different groups of chlorophyll deficiencies and their frequencies. Reduction in chlorophyll mutation frequency from the first formed seeds to the latest ones within the M 1 pods has been observed for both cultivars studied. The high degree of chimerism recorded in the M 2 seedlings present in the first-formed seeds in the M 1 pods provides a clear indication that these seeds constitute a zone from which seeds for the M 2 generation have to be harvested in order to give the highest probability for obtaining different types of mutants. On the other hand, significant differences in mutation frequency were not obtained in M 2 seedlings from pods harvested at the various positions on the M 1 plants. M 1 pods can be harvested at any height on the M 1 plants but is preferable to use the earliest mature ones to save time and labour. The zones identified on M 1 plants in this investigation coupled with the use of the 'spare' or 'remnant' seed selection method, should provide an improved method for mutation breeding in a viny legume like the winged bean. (au)

  13. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea; Gama radiossensitividade em feijoeiro comum e caupi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a {sup 60} Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  14. Development of a qPCR strategy to select bean genes involved in plant defence response and regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum - Rhizoctonia solani interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mayo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defence response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defence-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from From the 48 bean genes initially analysed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34 or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected.As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defence, which respond to the presence of a biocontrol agent or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defence genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani.

  15. Green plant bug from South Texas gets a common name - the "verde plant" bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some cotton producers from south Texas and the Gulf Coast regions have been unfortunate over the last few years because they have had to deal with a green plant bug, Creontiades signatus, that will feed on cotton fruit. The insect was initially, and erroneously, thought to be Creontiades dilutus, an...

  16. Resistance or tolerance to the golden mosaic virus of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), obtained by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.

    1979-09-01

    Experiments were carried out with the objective of selecting, evaluation and using induced mutants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. resistant or tolerant to golden mosaic - a virus disease of beans. Seeds from three bean cultivars were treated with gamma-ray or the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). After golden mosaic inoculation of 50,000 M 2 seedlings, in a insectary, screening was made and a tolerant mutant (TMD-1) was selected. Evaluation of TMD-1 was carried out by comparing it with the parent cultivar Carioca, indicating that, although showing lower productivity than the original material, (what prevented it from being used directly on a commercial basis), it maintained the same reaction to rust, bacterial blight, and common mosaic. Studies on the genetic basis of the mutation were also done. The possibility of using this mutant in a plant breeding programme aimed at obtaining resistance to golden mosaic was demonstrated in crosses between TMD-1 and two cultivars, to which transference of tolerance was possible. (Author) [pt

  17. Difference planted season and creeper-pole on both growth and yield of the two cultivars of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPRIYONO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to know the effect of different cultivars, planted seasons and creeper poles at velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. growth, yield and their interactions. This research was conducted on litosol soil in Tancep, Ngawen, Gunungkidul on 170 m up sea level and 9-10° elevation. The depth of soil tillage was 5-17 cm. Design utilization was Randomized Completed Block Design (RCBD with factorial 3 factors. The treatment was (i cultivars: rase and putih Gunungkidul (ii planted seasons: dry and rainy seasons and (iii creeper-poles: control, corn 0 weeks old, corn 2 weeks old, corn 4 weeks old and bambu. There is replicated 3 times. The result of this research was the 1st velvet bean growth on rainy season was rapidly but they have long time planted. The 2nd, by splited rase cultivars, rainy season and creeper-pole utilization was yield increased. The 3rd, on the rainy season, the high yield was come by rase cultivar and creeper-pole utilization. The 4th, with the 2 times velvet bean density and without calculated corn yield, rase cultivar planted on rainy season and bamboo creeper-pole coused the highest velvet bean yield but no significant different with 4 weeks corn creeper-pole.

  18. Morphological, Phenological And Agronomical Characterisation Of Variability Among Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Local Populations From The National Centre For Plant Genetic Resources: Polish Genebank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boros Lech

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was to analyse the morphological, phenological and agronomical variability among common bean local populations from The National Centre for Plant Genetic Resources, Polish Genebank, in order to know the relation among them, and to identify potentially useful accessions for future production and breeding. A considerable genotypic variation for number of seeds per plant, number of pods per plant and weight of seeds per plant were found. Studied bean accessions differed significantly in terms of thousand seeds weight (TSW as well as severity of bacterial halo blight and anthracnose, the major bean diseases. The lowest genotypic diversity was found for the percentage of protein in the seeds, the length of the vegetation period and lodging. The cluster analysis allowed identification of five groups of bean accessions. Genotypes from the first cluster (POLPOD 98-77, KOS 002 and Raba cv. and from the second cluster (WUKR 06-573a, KRA 4, WUKR 06-0534 together with Prosna cv. are of the highest usefulness for breeding purposes. There was no grouping of local populations depending on region of origin.

  19. Growth of bean and tomato plants as affected by root absorbed growth substances and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognoni, F; Halevy, A H; Wittwer, S H

    1967-01-01

    Bean and tomato plants were grown in solution culture root media containing pre-determined concentrations of gibberellin A/sub 3/ (GA), 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA), N/sup 6/-benzyladenine (BA), (2-chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (CCC), and at atmospheric levels of 300 and 1000 ppm of CO/sub 2/. Net assimilation rates (NAR), relative growth rates (RGR), leaf area ratios (LAR), root to top dry weight ratios (R/T) and changes in dry weight, size, and form of each organ were recorded. Gibberellin had no effect on RGR of either plant species but increased the NAR of tomatoes at 1000 ppm CO/sub 2/. Total dry weight was only slightly affected by GA but root growth and R/T were markedly depressed. CCC had no effect on NAR, but decreased RGR and LAR. Root growth of beans and R/T in both plants were promoted by CCC. NAR and RGR were strongly inhibited by BA and NAA. Inhibition of stem and leaf growth by CCC and NAA was greater than that for roots; thus, R/T ratios were increased. Root branching was promoted by NAA. High (1000 ppm), compared to the low (300 ppm), atmospheric levels of CO/sub 2/ generally promoted root growth and produced an increase in the R/T, both in the absence and presence of chemical treatment. The multiplicity of effects of the root-absorbed chemical growth substances and CO/sub 2/ on growth and photosynthesis is discussed.

  20. Influence of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Sara; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Malmierca, Monica G.; Lorenzana, Alicia; Campelo, M. Piedad; Hermosa, Rosa; Casquero, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. We study how the interaction of bean plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize R. solani. Bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. The effect of Trichoderma treatment and/or R. solani infection on the expression of bean defense-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR and the production of ergosterol and squalene was quantified. In vitro growth inhibition of R. solani was between 86 and 58%. In in vivo assays, the bean plants treated with Trichoderma harzianum T019 always had an increased size respect to control and the plants treated with this isolate did not decrease their size in presence of R. solani. The interaction of plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affects the level of expression of seven defense-related genes. Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds. T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani. This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen. PMID:26442006

  1. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.

  2. Aktivitas Antivirus Beberapa Ekstrak Tanaman terhadap Bean Common Mosaic Virus strain Black Eye Cowpea (BCMV-BIC pada Kacang Panjang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Asmira Damayanti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Antivirus actitivity of several plant extracts against Bean common mosaic virus strain Black eye cowpea (BCMV-BlC on Yard long beanBean common mosaic virus (BCMV is an important virus on yard long bean and it is difficult to control. One of control effort way by utilizing antiviral substances of plant origin. The research was done to select and test the effectiveness of plant extracts in suppressing BCMV infection on yard long bean. Twenty two plant extracts were selected by (1 spraying the crude extract to Chenopodium amaranticolor leaves, then plant inoculated by BCMV 1 hour after spraying, and (2 mixturing the crude extract with sap containing BCMV, then inoculated mechanically to C. amaranticolor.  Local necrotic lesion  number and inhibition percentage are measured. All plant extract treatments were able to reduce Necrotic lokal lesion  formation significantly  compared to untreatment control. Further, fifteen plant extracts were selected to test their effectiveness in controlling BCMV on yard long bean in green house trial. The results showed that except geranium and red ginger treatment, other extract treatments were able to reduce significantly the disease incidence and severity, symptoms, and  BCMV titer, respectively. Among tested extracts, Bougainvillea spectabilis, Mirabilis jalapa, and Celosia cristata are the most effective crude extracts in suppressing BCMV infection.

  3. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinson JA

    2012-01-01

    .Keywords: green coffee bean extract, chlorogenic acid, body mass index, weight loss, body fat mass, blood pressure, heart rate

  4. Green synthesis of soya bean sprouts-mediated superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Shen Yuhua, E-mail: s_yuhua@163.co [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xie Anjian, E-mail: anjx@163.co [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li Shikuo; Wang Xiufang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were first synthesized via soya bean sprouts (SBS) templates under ambient temperature and normal atmosphere. The reaction process was simple, eco-friendly, and convenient to handle. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The effect of SBS template on the formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that spherical Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm simultaneously formed on the epidermal surface and the interior stem wall of SBS. The SBS are responsible for size and morphology control during the whole formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. In addition, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) results indicate the products are superparamagnetic at room temperature, with blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of 150 K and saturation magnetization of 37.1 emu/g.

  5. Optimization of Steamed Meals Based on Composite Flour (Taro, Banana, Green Bean) and Its Predicted Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarmani; Setyadjit; Ermi, S.

    2018-05-01

    Ongol-ongol is for food diversification by mixing composite flour of taro, banana and mung bean, then was steamed by hot air. The purpose of this study was to find out the optimum way to produce ‘ongol-ongol’ from composite flour and to know the storage life by prediction method. The research consisted of two stages, namely the determination of the optimum formula of ‘ongol-ongol’ with Design Expert DX 8.1.6 software and the estimation of product shelf life of the optimum formula by ASLT (Accelerated Shelf Life Test) method. The optimum formula of the steamed meal was produced from composite flour and arenga flour with ratio of 50: 50 and flour to water ratio of 1: 1. The proximate content of steamed meal of optimum formula is 36.53% moisture content, ash content of 1,36%, fat content of 14.48%, protein level of 28.5%, and carbohydrate of 44.77% (w/w). Energy Value obtained from 100 g of ‘ongol-ongol’ was 320.8 Kcal. Recommended for steamed meal storage life is 12.54 days at ambient temperature.

  6. The Green Roof Microbiome: Improving Plant Survival for Ecosystem Service Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fulthorpe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are key contributors to ecosystem services delivered by green roofs in cities including stormwater capture, temperature regulation, and wildlife habitat. As a result, current research has primarily focused on their growth in relationship to extensive green roof (e.g., substrates <15 cm depth ecosystem services. Green roofs are exposed to a variety of harsh abiotic factors such as intense solar radiation, wind, and isolation from ground-level habitats, making survival exceedingly difficult. Plants in natural habitats benefit from a variety of interactions with fungi and bacteria. These plant-microbial interactions improve mechanisms of survival and productivity; however, many green roof substrates are sterilized prior to installation and lack microbial communities with unstudied consequences for green roof plant health and subsequent survival and performance. In this paper, we present six hypotheses on the positive role of microbes in green roof applications. In natural and experimental systems, microbial interactions have been linked to plant (1 drought tolerance, (2 pathogen protection, (3 nutrient availability, (4 salt tolerance, (5 phytohormone production, and (6 substrate stabilization, all of which are desirable properties of green roof ecosystems. As few studies exist that directly examine these relationships on green roofs, we explore the existing ecological literature on these topics to unravel the mechanisms that could support more complex green roof ecosystem and lead to new insight into the design, performance, and broader applications in green infrastructure.

  7. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Weinstein Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed.

  8. Industrial processing of canned beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderleia Schoeninger

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Beans are popular as a protein-filled legume of high nutritional value, being one of the most planted species in the world. However, recent years have seen a decrease in the consumption of beans, owing to the time necessary to cook it domestically. Thus, it is being replaced in people’s diets by other foods. An alternative preparation that supplies modern consumers’ demands is industrially processed beans. This article aimed to provide a literature review on the processing of canned beans. Few recent studies have been performed in Brazil on this subject, as most studies have focused instead on the technological quality of dry bean grains processing. In this article industrial processing concepts and features, production unit operations, and canned beans quality standards will be discussed. These efforts are expected to contribute to the Brazilian beans production chain, and consequently to increase consumption of canned beans and the demand for industrial processing of beans in both the domestic market and future product exports.

  9. Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR for inducing salinity tolerance in mung bean under field condition of semi arid climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress severely affects the growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.. However, its growth can be improved under salinity stress by inoculation/co-inoculation with rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase enzyme. ACC-deaminase containing bacteria regulate the stress induced ethylene production by hydrolyzing the ACC (immediate precursor of ethylene into ammonia and ketobutyric acid, thus improve plant growth by lowering the ethylene level. A study was conducted under salt affected field conditions where pre-isolated strains of Rhizobium and PGPR were used alone as well as in combination for mitigating the salinity stress on growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean by following the randomized complete block design (RCBD. The data were recorded and analyzed statistically to see the difference among treatments.

  10. Within-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasina, M.; Nderitu, J.; Nyamasyo, G.; Waturu, C.; Olubayo, F.; Obudho, E.; Yobera, D.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study spatial distribution of flower thrips on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Their build up and seasonal population dynamics was monitored using sticky blue colour traps and sampling of leaves and flowers in two seasons in 2002. Thrips infested French beans from the second week after crop emergence. Their population peaked at peak flowering. The sticky trap catches were linearly related to the actual presence of thrips on the crop and could estimate population build up of adult thrips on leaves and flowers. On the plants, most adults were on flowers. Larvae mainly inhabited leaves, buds and pods. The two thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were spatially separated. The former colonized lower-canopy leaves and early flowers while the latter inhabited middle-canopy leaves and mature flowers. Overall, M. sjostedti was less than 5% of the total thrips population, implying that F. occidentalis was the main thrips pest of French beans. This study suggests that French bean growers should monitor thrips population before initiating any control measure. In addition, they should commence thrips control early, at pre-flowering, using larvicides to reduce the thrips pool and their migration to flowers. A combination of monitoring with sticky traps and proper sampling would contribute to sustainable thrips management. (Author) 36 refs.

  11. Shift in performance of food safety management systems in supply chains: case of green bean chain in Kenya versus hot pepper chain in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, Jessica; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Kirezieva, Klementina; Kaaya, Archileo N; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Luning, Pieternel A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the level of design and operation of food safety management systems (FSMS) of farmers and export traders in Kenya and Uganda. FSMS diagnostic tools developed for the fresh produce chain were used to assess the levels of context riskiness, FSMS activities and system output in primary production (n = 60) and trade (n = 60). High-risk context characteristics combined with basic FSMS are expected to increase the risk on unsafe produce. In Uganda both farmers and export traders of hot peppers operate in a high- to moderate-risk context but have basic FSMS and low systems output. In Kenya, both farmers and export traders of green beans operate in a low- to moderate-risk context. The farmers have average performing FSMS, whereas export trade companies showed more advanced FSMS and system output scores ranging from satisfactory to good. Large retailers supplying the EU premium market play a crucial role in demanding compliance with strict voluntary food safety standards, which was reflected in the more advanced FSMS and good system output in Kenya, especially traders. In Kenya, a clear shift in more fit-for-purpose FSMS and higher system output was noticed between farms and trade companies. In the case of Uganda, traders commonly supply to the less demanding EU wholesale markets such as ethnic specialty shops. They only have to comply with the legal phytosanitary and pesticide residue requirements for export activities, which apparently resulted in basic FSMS and low system output present with both farmers and traders. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effects of sulfur nutrition on phytotoxicity and growth responses of bean plants to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedipe, N O; Hofstra, G; Ormrod, D P

    1972-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Blue Lake plants were grown in sand culture at three temperatures, and fed with nutrient solution containing 1.3 or 32 mg/liter sulfur (S). Plants were fumigated twice with ozone at 50 parts per hundred million (pphm) for 2 h. Intensity of phytotoxicity was markedly lower in plants grown at the high S rate. Ozone reduced chlorophyll content of plants grown in low S at 25/20 and 30/25/sup 0/. With the high S treatment, however, ozone had no significant effect on chlorophyll content particularly at the lower temperatures. Irrespective of S nutrition, ozone had no effect on total soluble carbohydrate content. Ozone effects on plant growth depended on plant part, growth temperature, and S nutrition.

  13. The response of bean plants to UV-B radiation under different irradiances of background visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, Y.P.; Bornman, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Stella) were grown in controlled conditions under three different irradiances of visible light with or without UV-B (280–320nm) radiation. The biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-BBE) was 6.17 kJ m −2 d −1 , and simulated a c. 5% decrease in stratospheric ozone at 55.7°N, 13.4°E. The photon flux densities of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm) were either 700 μmol m −2−1 (HL), 500, μmol m −2 s −1 (ML) or 230 μmol m −2 s −1 PAR (LL). Under high light (HL) conditions plus UV-B radiation, bean plants appeared most resistant to the enhanced levels of UV-B radiation, and responded only by increasing leaf thickness by c. 18%. A small increase in UV screening pigments was also observed. Both the lower irradiances (ML and LL) increased the sensitivity of the plants to UV-B radiation. Changes in leaf structure were also observed. Photosystem II was inhibited under ML and LL together with UV-B radiation, as determined by Chi fluorescence induction and calculation of the fluorescence half-rise times. Leaf reflectivity measurements showed that the amount of PAR able to penetrate leaves of UV-B treated plants was reduced, and that a possible correlation may exist between the reduced PAR levels, loss of Chi and lowered photosynthetic activity, especially for LL +UV-B grown plants, where surface reflection from leaves was highest. Changes in leaf chlorophyll content were mostly confined to plants grown under LL + UV-B, where a decrease of c. 20% was found. With regard to protective pigments (the carotenoids and UV screening pigments) plants subjected to different visible light conditions responded differently. Among the growth parameters measured, there was a substantial decrease in leaf area, particularly under LL + UV-B (c. 47% relative to controls), where leaf dry weight was also reduced by c. 25%. (author)

  14. Soil organic matter influences cerium translocation and physiological processes in kidney bean plants exposed to cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), El Paso, TX (United States); Peralta-Videa, Jose R. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), El Paso, TX (United States); Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Sun, Youping [Texas AgriLife Research Center at El Paso, Texas A& M University System, 1380 A & M Circle, El Paso, TX 79927 (United States); Barrios, Ana C. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Niu, Genhua [Texas AgriLife Research Center at El Paso, Texas A& M University System, 1380 A & M Circle, El Paso, TX 79927 (United States); Margez, Juan P. Flores- [Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez, Departamento de Química y Biología, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Anillo envolvente PRONAF y Estocolmo, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua 32310, México (Mexico); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L., E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter plays a major role in determining the fate of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the soil matrix and effects on the residing plants. In this study, kidney bean plants were grown in soils varying in organic matter content and amended with 0–500 mg/kg cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO{sub 2}) under greenhouse condition. After 52 days of exposure, cerium accumulation in tissues, plant growth and physiological parameters including photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance were recorded. Additionally, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were measured to evaluate oxidative stress in the tissues. The translocation factor of cerium in the nano-CeO{sub 2} exposed plants grown in organic matter enriched soil (OMES) was twice as the plants grown in low organic matter soil (LOMS). Although the leaf cover area increased by 65–111% with increasing nano-CeO{sub 2} concentration in LOMS, the effect on the physiological processes were inconsequential. In OMES leaves, exposure to 62.5–250 mg/kg nano-CeO{sub 2} led to an enhancement in the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, but to a simultaneous decrease in carotenoid contents by 25–28%. Chlorophyll a in the OMES leaves also decreased by 27 and 18% on exposure to 125 and 250 mg/kg nano-CeO{sub 2}. In addition, catalase activity increased in LOMS stems, and ascorbate peroxidase increased in OMES leaves of nano-CeO{sub 2} exposed plants, with respect to control. Thus, this study provides clear evidence that the properties of the complex soil matrix play decisive roles in determining the fate, bioavailability, and biological transport of ENMs in the environment. - Highlights: • Ce translocation to leaves was facilitated by higher organic matter (OM) in soil. • Lower soil OM increased leaf cover area in nano-CeO{sub 2} exposed plants. • Nano-CeO{sub 2} effects on metabolic processes were more

  15. Expression analysis and biochemical characterization of beans plants biofortificated with zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pérez Álvarez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in greenhouse conditions at the Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo AC in Delicias, Chihuahua, México. Four different concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100 μM L−1 of Zn chelate and sulfate were used to study the antioxidant system of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes related with antioxidant activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and catalase (CAT] were selected for expression study. Results showed that when Zn chelate at 50 and 100 μM L−1 were applied SOD was repressed and GSH-Px expression was low at 0, 25 and 100 μM L−1 while with sulfate form SOD expression was low and GSH-Px expression was strong in all treatment. CAT was highly expressed in all form and treatments. For a biochemical study the same enzymes were spectrophotometrically measured. SOD activity shows differences in both forms of Zn, chelate form was different at 25, 50 and 100 μM L−1 with less activity at 100 μM L−1 and sulfate treatment shows differences in all concentrations used. GSH-Px activity shows significant differences with sulfate form at 25, 50 μM L−1 where at 50 μM the activity was higher and low at 100 μM L−1, CAT does not exhibit significant differences but with chelate treatment at 50–100 μM L−1 the activity was higher compared to sulfate. Finally, to raise the Zn concentration in bean under biofortification program is a promising strategy in cropping systems in order to increase the ingestion of zinc and antioxidant capacity in the general population and provided the benefits that this element offered in human health.

  16. The effect of different type of vermicompost organic fertilizer litter on quantitive, qualitative and biochemical characteristics of green mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) in drought stress conditions in Varamin

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Vahid Reza Mahmoudi; Mohammad Nasri; Peyman Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Vermicompost in sustainable agriculture is very useful for improving soil porosity and thereby providing more nutrients to plants; accordingly, a split plot experiment was performed on mung bean in a randomized complete block design from with three replications in research farm of Islamic Azad University, Varamin – Pishva. The first factor was drought stress including lack of drought stress, irrigation cut in podding stage and irrigation cut in grain filling stage as the main plot and the sec...

  17. Analysis, method and techniques for the studying of Cesium-137 transfer from soil to plants (maize and beans) (continuation of the technical report GSR-91-20)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes N, M.L.

    1992-12-01

    In this report the complete results of transfer of corn and bean whose objective is to determine the transfer of Cs-137 via: soil → root → plant, which is determined by the transfer factors or concentration factors (FC), which indicates the incorporation from Cs-137 to soil and plant starting from two models of compartments which were already described in the technical report GSR-91-20-1 that precedes to this are presented. These results correspond to that carried out during the agricultural cycle of 1991, as well as the first results corresponding to 1992 in the radioactive wastes storage center (CADER) in Mexico. (Author)

  18. Development of green belt for Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru) (Paper No. 4.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.N.; Wagh, K.S.; Ranade, G.N.; Mulgund, D.T.

    1992-01-01

    There has been an awakening worldwide regarding environmental degradation. So there is an urgent need of a policy on conservation of ecology while planning projects. Provision for suitable tree plantation as a green belt around a chemical industrial plant is a proven remedy to minimise the impact of gaseous effluents in addition to retain a green cover in the area. This paper describes the steps taken at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru for providing green belt from a very early stage of execution of the project. (author)

  19. Performance of dryland and wetland plant species on extensive green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIvor, J Scott; Ranalli, Melissa A; Lundholm, Jeremy T

    2011-04-01

    Green roofs are constructed ecosystems where plants perform valuable services, ameliorating the urban environment through roof temperature reductions and stormwater interception. Plant species differ in functional characteristics that alter ecosystem properties. Plant performance research on extensive green roofs has so far indicated that species adapted to dry conditions perform optimally. However, in moist, humid climates, species typical of wetter soils might have advantages over dryland species. In this study, survival, growth and the performance of thermal and stormwater capture functions of three pairs of dryland and wetland plant species were quantified using an extensive modular green roof system. Seedlings of all six species were germinated in a greenhouse and planted into green roof modules with 6 cm of growing medium. There were 34 treatments consisting of each species in monoculture and all combinations of wet- and dryland species in a randomized block design. Performance measures were survival, vegetation cover and roof surface temperature recorded for each module over two growing seasons, water loss (an estimate of evapotranspiration) in 2007, and albedo and water capture in 2008. Over two seasons, dryland plants performed better than wetland plants, and increasing the number of dryland species in mixtures tended to improve functioning, although there was no clear effect of species or habitat group diversity. All species had survival rates >75 % after the first winter; however, dryland species had much greater cover, an important indicator of green roof performance. Sibbaldiopsis tridentata was the top performing species in monoculture, and was included in the best treatments. Although dryland species outperformed wetland species, planting extensive green roofs with both groups decreased performance only slightly, while increasing diversity and possibly habitat value. This study provides further evidence that plant composition and diversity can

  20. Kinetic Stability of Proteins in Beans and Peas: Implications for Protein Digestibility, Seed Germination, and Plant Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke; Pittelli, Sandy; Church, Jennifer; Colón, Wilfredo

    2016-10-12

    Kinetically stable proteins (KSPs) are resistant to the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Such resilience makes KSPs resistant to proteolytic degradation and may have arisen in nature as a mechanism for organismal adaptation and survival against harsh conditions. Legumes are well-known for possessing degradation-resistant proteins that often diminish their nutritional value. Here we applied diagonal two-dimensional (D2D) SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), a method that allows for the proteomics-level identification of KSPs, to a group of 12 legumes (mostly beans and peas) of agricultural and nutritional importance. Our proteomics results show beans that are more difficult to digest, such as soybean, lima beans, and various common beans, have high contents of KSPs. In contrast, mung bean, red lentil, and various peas that are highly digestible contain low amounts of KSPs. Identified proteins with high kinetic stability are associated with warm-season beans, which germinate at higher temperatures. In contrast, peas and red lentil, which are cool-season legumes, contain low levels of KSPs. Thus, our results show protein kinetic stability is an important factor in the digestibility of legume proteins and may relate to nutrition efficiency, timing of seed germination, and legume resistance to biotic stressors. Furthermore, we show D2D SDS-PAGE is a powerful method that could be applied for determining the abundance and identity of KSPs in engineered and wild legumes and for advancing basic research and associated applications.

  1. Phytotoxicity of thallium (Tl) in culture solution. Pt. 1. Effects of Tl(I) on the growth and heavy metal contents of pea and field bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetsch, U; Austenfeld, F A

    1985-01-01

    The effects of TlNO/sub 3/ and Tl(I)EDTA on growth and heavy metal contents of pea plants and field bean plants were compared in hydroponic culture experiments. In the presence of TlNO/sub 3/, the essential heavy metals were available to the plants in their ionic forms. When Tl(I)EDTA was present the essential heavy metals were available as chelated complexes. With increasing concentration of TlNO/sub 3/ dry matter production of pea plants was lowered and the Tl content of each organ was increased. The highest Tl content was found within the stems. The increased Tl contents were accompanied by depressed Mn, Zn, and Cu contents of the roots and depressed Mn contents of the stems, but increased Fe contents of the stems. Substitution of TlNO/sub 3/ by Tl(I)EDTA resulted in a stronger growth inhibition of the pea plants, and higher Tl contents of each organ. The highest Tl content was found within the stems. Tl(I)EDTA depressed Mn in the roots, but increased Fe and Mn in the stems, and Fe, Zn and Cu in the leaves. The increases may due to concentration by growth inhibition. The growth of the field bean was not effected by TlNO/sub 3/ nor by Tl(I)EDTA. The field bean contained most of the Tl within the roots and translocated only relatively small amounts to the shoots. This pattern was independent of the Tl compound. Increasing concentrations of TlNO/sub 3/ resulted in depressed Mn and Zn contents of the roots, and Mn contents of the stems. Chelation of Tl(I) resulted in a decrease of the Tl content of each organ. Tl(I)EDTA depressed only the Mn content of the roots.

  2. Irrigation of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L. and Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. Plant Species with Municipal Wastewater Effluent: Impacts on Soil Properties and Seed Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant species (castor bean (Ricinus communis L. versus sunflower (Helianthus annus L. and irrigation regime (freshwater versus secondary treated municipal wastewater on soil properties and on seed and biodiesel yield were studied in a three year pot trial. Plant species were irrigated at rates according to their water requirements with either freshwater or wastewater effluent. Pots irrigated with freshwater received commercial fertilizer, containing N, P, and K, applied at the beginning of each irrigation period. The results obtained in this study showed that irrigation with effluent did not result in significant changes in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and dehydrogenase activity, whereas soil available P was found to increase in the upper soil layer. Soil salinity varied slightly throughout the experiment in effluent irrigated pots but no change was detected at the end of the experiment compared to the initial value, suggesting sufficient salt leaching. Pots irrigated with effluent had higher soil salinity, P, and dehydrogenase activity but lower SOM and TKN than freshwater irrigated pots. Sunflower showed greater SOM and TKN values than castor bean suggesting differences between plant species in the microorganisms carrying out C and N mineralization in the soil. Plant species irrigated with freshwater achieved higher seed yield compared to those irrigated with effluent probably reflecting the lower level of soil salinity in freshwater irrigated pots. Castor bean achieved greater seed yield than sunflower. Biodiesel production followed the pattern of seed yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastewater effluent can constitute an important source of irrigation water and nutrients for bioenergy crop cultivations with minor adverse impacts on soil properties and seed yield. Plant species play an important role with regard to the changes in soil properties and to the related factors of

  3. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  4. Inventory of Green Spaces and Woody Plants in the Urban Landscape in Ariogala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Straigytė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Regulation of urban greenery design, management and protection was approved in 2008 in Lithuania after the Green Space Law was passed, allowing protection of public green spaces and woody plants. Protection of these resources first requires an inventory, and we have created a digital database that will help in management of urban green spaces. Material and Methods: An inventory of green spaces and woody plants was conducted in the public urban territory of Ariogala, using GIS technology. A digital cartographic database was created using ArcGis 9.1 software. Results and Conclusion: Most of the woody plants in the survey area are deciduous trees, and the survey results highlighted the major green space management problems. Often, planted trees grow under power lines, and their crowns touch the power cables. Near blocks of flats, trees are often in the wrong place-planted too close to buildings, trees shade windows and their roots heave pavers and penetrate building foundations. According to the inventory, street trees sustain the most damage, most commonly showing injuries on their trunks and roots. Leaves of Aesculus hipocastanum L. show massive damage from Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić, and Tilia cordata Mill. are damaged by Cercospora microsora Sacc. T. cordata is a favourite city tree, but is susceptible to infestation and when damaged appears unsightly, ending its vegetation period very early. The inventory of green spaces also showed that there are sufficient public parks.

  5. A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blind, Two-Period Crossover Pharmacokinetic Trial Comparing Green Coffee Bean Extract-A Botanically Sourced Caffeine-With a Synthetic USP Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kayce; Knight, Katelin; Kalman, Douglas; Hewlings, Susan

    2018-04-16

    Coffee is a primary dietary source of the chlorogenic acids (CGAs) of phenolic compounds. Coffee contains caffeine and other phytonutrients, including CGAs. Caffeine on its own has been well characterized and descried pharmacokinetically in the literature, less so for CGAs. The purpose of this double-blind crossover study was to determine the comparative pharmacokinetics of CGAs with caffeine (natural extract) with synthetic caffeine (US Pharmacopeia [USP] standard). Sixteen healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to take 1 dose of product 1, 60 mg of botanically sourced caffeine from 480 mg of green coffee bean extract, or product 2, 60 mg of synthetic USP caffeine, with 5 days between. Blood analysis was done to determine the levels of CGA compounds, more specifically 3-, 4-, and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), and serum caffeine. The natural caffeine extract exhibited mean peak concentrations (C max ) of 3-CQA (11.4 ng/mL), 4-CQA (6.84 ng/mL), and 5-CQA (7.20 ng/mL). The mean systemic 4-hour exposure (AUC 0-4 h ) was 3-CQA (27.3 ng·h/mL), 4-CQA (16.1 ng·h/mL), and 5-CQA (15.7 ng·h/mL). The median t max was 3-CQA (1.00 hour), 4-CQA (1.00 hour), and 5-CQA (1.50 hours). The t max of caffeine was 0.75 hours (natural extract) and 0.63 hours (synthetic caffeine). C max and AUC 0-4 h of serum caffeine were statistically equivalent between products. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (GMRs) of C max and AUC 0-4 h of caffeine were 97.77% (natural extract) and 98.33% (synthetic caffeine). It would appear that CGA compounds from the natural caffeine extract are bioavailable, and 3-CGA may be the compound most absorbed. In addition, caffeine sourced from natural extract versus synthetic were statistically similar for pharmacokinetic parameters. There were no adverse events or safety concerns. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  6. Studies on luciferin-luciferase ATP assay in plants (etiolated wheat germs, and bean leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barbaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For ATP determination by the method of bioluminescence apparatus of home production was adapted from the equipment available in any isotope laboratory. The measurement error did not exceed 1.5 per cent. Methodical experiments concerned the choice of the extraction, fixation and storage methods of plant material for determination at the given moment of the amount of ATP in the tissues, unchanged by the analytical procedure. The highest ATP amounts were recovered by extraction with perchloric acid at high (25% concentrations of the tissue in the homogenate. The best way of fixation of the material for later analyses was found to be freezing of ready extracts. Lyophilization and freezing of the plant material caused a several-fold decrease of the ATP level in the tissues. These results suggest the necessity of working in conditions of low temperature during the entire analytical procedure and strict observation of time limitation.

  7. Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    had significant (P≤ 0.05) effect on bean plant girth, number of leaves, number of branches, mean number of flowers, total fresh ... Beans (Phaseolus spp) belong to one of several genera .... Meng (2016), that found that applying coffee pulp.

  8. The potentiality of Trichoderma harzianum in alleviation the adverse effects of salinity in faba bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Baki, G K; Mostafa, Doaa

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between sodium chloride and Trichoderma harzianum (T24) on growth parameters, ion contents, MDA content, proline, soluble proteins as well as SDS page protein profile were studied in Vicia faba Giza 429. A sharp reduction was found in fresh and dry mass of shoots and roots with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments promoted the growth criteria as compared with corresponding salinized plants. The water content and leaf area exhibited a marked decrease with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments induced a progressive increase in both parameters. Both proline and MDA contents were increased progressively as the salinity rose in the soil. Trichoderma treatments considerably retarded the accumulation of both parameters in shoots and roots. Both Na+ and K+ concentration increased in both organs by enhancing salinity levels. The treatment with Trichoderma harzianum enhanced the accumulation of both ions. Exposure of plants to different concentrations of salinity, or others treated with Trichoderma harzianum produced marked changes in their protein pattern. Three types of alterations were observed: the synthesis of certain proteins declined significantly, specific synthesis of certain other proteins were markedly observed and synthesis of a set specific protein was induced de novo in plant treated with Trichoderma harzianum.

  9. Soil persistence, plant and non-target insect uptake of endosulfan and lindane applied to soya bean and maize in field trials in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaranyika, M.F.; Mugari, P.

    1997-01-01

    The persistence of lindane and endosulfan in the soil, uptake by, and distribution in plants, and effects on and absorption by non-target insects, following application of the insecticides for the control of maize pests and soya bean respectively were determined under Zimbabwean weather conditions. No large scale effects on the non-target insects were observed though some small effects on the populations of semiloopers and orthoptera in the endosulfan treated soya bean plot were noted. Concentrations of the insecticides in spiders declined during the trial though those in grasshoppers and crickets appeared to increase. Concentrations of both insecticides in soil fell rapidly during the first 7 weeks after application but, after that, the rates of loss were much slower possibly owing to the drier conditions prevailing during this later period, reducing both physicochemical and microbial loss processes. Initial concentrations of both insecticides in all the vegetative parts of plants examined after spray application declined systematically to low levels during the 10 weeks of observations, probably owing to both metabolism within the plants and to crop volume dilution effects and will have declined to even lower levels by harvest time. Surprisingly, low concentrations of lindane and endosulfan were found in the harvested maize and soya bean seeds. At early stages after application, there were also traces of both insecticides in the vegetative parts of the plants from the untreated, control plots probably arising from uptake of soil residues from the previous year and/or spray drift but these became undetectable at later stages of growth. (author). 31 refs, 7 tabs

  10. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Lundholm

    Full Text Available Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that

  11. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Heim, Amy; Tran, Stephanie; Smith, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth) to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies) for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that favor less

  12. Evolution of green plants as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, H; Lim, B L; Osawa, S

    1985-02-01

    We have constructed a phylogenic tree for green plants by comparing 5S rRNA sequences. The tree suggests that the emergence of most of the uni- and multicellular green algae such as Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulva, and Chlorella occurred in the early stage of green plant evolution. The branching point of Nitella is a little earlier than that of land plants and much later than that of the above green algae, supporting the view that Nitella-like green algae may be the direct precursor to land plants. The Bryophyta and the Pteridophyta separated from each other after emergence of the Spermatophyta. The result is consistent with the view that the Bryophyta evolved from ferns by degeneration. In the Pteridophyta, Psilotum (whisk fern) separated first, and a little later Lycopodium (club moss) separated from the ancestor common to Equisetum (horsetail) and Dryopteris (fern). This order is in accordance with the classical view. During the Spermatophyta evolution, the gymnosperms (Cycas, Ginkgo, and Metasequoia have been studied here) and the angiosperms (flowering plants) separated, and this was followed by the separation of Metasequoia and Cycas (cycad)/Ginkgo (maidenhair tree) on one branch and various flowering plants on the other.

  13. How does Phytoseiulus Persimilis find its prey when foraging within a bean plant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zemek, R.; Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Ru°z¿ic¿kova´, S

    The role of herbivore-induced volatile substances in prey-finding by phytoseiid mites has been repeatedly documented using an olfactometer. The objective of the present paper is to test the hypothesis that movement by Phytoseiulus persimilis is affected by these volatiles even on plants. Two series...... was on the leaf surface since it was attracted to the spider mite patch, at least over a distance of 1 cm. These results thus demonstrate that herbivore-induced volatiles can be utilized by P. persimilis during search for prey also under conditions that mimic natural situations better than an olfactometer does....

  14. Leading effect of visual plant characteristics for functional uses of green spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyza Şat Güngör

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials have the ability to lead the people’s functional use purposes with their visual characteristics. In this study, we examined whether the functional use follows the plant materials’ visual characteristics like a big size tree’s shade use. As visual characteristics of the plants; size, texture, color, and planting design basics are considered. Six urban green spaces determined for this experimental field study in the center of Kırklareli Province, and then a site survey implemented to determine apparent visual characteristics of the plants and matched functional uses with their visual characteristics. Five functional use types determined according to the visual plant characteristics (sitting and resting, pedestrian transition, meeting point, walking and recreational uses. Best representing four photos of each green space’s plant materials are used in photo questionnaires. 89 photo questionnaires were conducted. Five functional use type options indicated in the questionnaire for each green space and one of the options were coinciding with the visual plant characteristics of that green space according to the site survey results. For the analyses of questionnaires; SPSS 17 statistical packages were used. As result; the hypothesis was confirmed by coinciding statistical analyses results with the site survey results.

  15. Decoupling factors affecting plant diversity and cover on extensive green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIvor, J Scott; Margolis, Liat; Puncher, Curtis L; Carver Matthews, Benjamin J

    2013-11-30

    Supplemental irrigation systems are often specified on green roofs to ensure plant cover and growth, both important components of green roof performance and aesthetics. Properties of the growing media environment too can alter the assemblage of plant species able to thrive. In this study we determine how plant cover, above ground biomass and species diversity are influenced by irrigation and growing media. Grass and forb vegetative cover and biomass were significantly greater in organic based growing media but there was no effect of supplemental irrigation, with two warm season grasses dominating in those treatments receiving no supplemental irrigation. On the other hand, plant diversity declined without irrigation in organic media, and having no irrigation in inorganic growing media resulted in almost a complete loss of cover. Sedum biomass was less in inorganic growing media treatments and species dominance shifted when growing media organic content increased. Our results demonstrate that supplemental irrigation is required to maintain plant diversity on an extensive green roof, but not necessarily plant cover or biomass. These results provide evidence that planting extensive green roofs with a mix of plant species can ensure the survival of some species; maintaining cover and biomass when supplemental irrigation is turned off to conserve water, or during extreme drought. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Habitat template approach for green roofs using a native rocky sea coast plant community in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Ayako; Tashiro-Ishii, Yurika

    2018-01-15

    The present study examined whether it is possible to simulate a local herbaceous coastal plant community on a roof, by studying the natural habitats of rocky sea coast plants and their propagation and performance on a green roof. After studying the natural habitat of coastal areas in Izu peninsula, a germination and cutting transplant study was carried out using herbaceous plants from the Jogasaki sea coast. Many plant species did not germinate at all and the use of cuttings was a better method than direct seeding. The green roof was installed in the spring of 2012 in Chiba city. Thirteen plant species from the Jogasaki sea coast, which were successfully propagated, were planted in three kinds of substrate (15 cm depth): pumice, roof tile and commercial green roof substrate. The water drainage was restricted and a reservoir with 5 cm depth of water underlaid the substrate to simulate a similar growing environment to the sea coast. Volcanic rocks were placed as mulch to create a landscape similar to that on the Jogasaki sea coast. Plant coverage on the green roof was measured every month from June 2012 to October 2014. All plants were harvested and their dry shoot weight was measured in December 2014. The type of substrate did not cause significant differences in plant survival and dry shoot weight. Sea coast plant species were divided into four categories: vigorous growth; seasonal change; disappearing after a few years; limited growth. Understanding the ecology of natural habitats was important to simulating a local landscape using native plant communities on the green roof. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tobacco plants transformed with the bean. alpha. ai gene express an inhibitor of insect. alpha. -amylase in their seeds. [Nicotiana tabacum; Tenebrio molitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds contain a putative plant defense protein that inhibits insect and mammalian but not plant {alpha}-amylases. We recently presented strong circumstantial evidence that this {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is encoded by an already-identified lectin gene whose product is referred to as lectin-like-protein (LLP). We have now made a chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence of the lectin gene that encodes LLP and the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences of the lectin gene that encodes phytohemagglutinin-L. When this chimeric gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we observed in the seeds a series of polypeptides (M{sub r} 10,000-18,000) that cross-react with antibodies to the bean {alpha}-amylase inhibitor. Most of these polypeptides bind to a pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase affinity column. An extract of the seeds of the transformed tobacco plants inhibits pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase activity as well as the {alpha}-amylase present in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. We suggest that introduction of this lectin gene (to be called {alpha}ai) into other leguminous plants may be a strategy to protect the seeds from the seed-eating larvae of Coleoptera.

  18. Drought versus heat: What's the major constraint on Mediterranean green roof plants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savi, Tadeja, E-mail: tsavi@units.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 10, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Dal Borgo, Anna, E-mail: dalborgo.anna@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 10, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Love, Veronica L., E-mail: vllove1@sheffield.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 10, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Department of Landscape, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, South Yorkshire S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Andri, Sergio, E-mail: s.andri@seic.it [Harpo seic verdepensile, Via Torino 34, 34123 Trieste (Italy); Tretiach, Mauro, E-mail: tretiach@units.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 10, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Nardini, Andrea, E-mail: nardini@units.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 10, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    Green roofs are gaining momentum in the arid and semi-arid regions due to their multiple benefits as compared with conventional roofs. One of the most critical steps in green roof installation is the selection of drought and heat tolerant species that can thrive under extreme microclimate conditions. We monitored the water status, growth and survival of 11 drought-adapted shrub species grown on shallow green roof modules (10 and 13 cm deep substrate) and analyzed traits enabling plants to cope with drought (symplastic and apoplastic resistance) and heat stress (root membrane stability). The physiological traits conferring efficiency/safety to the water transport system under severe drought influenced plant water status and represent good predictors of both plant water use and growth rates over green roofs. Moreover, our data suggest that high substrate temperature represents a stress factor affecting plant survival to a larger extent than drought per se. In fact, the major cause influencing seedling survival on shallow substrates was the species-specific root resistance to heat, a single and easy measurable trait that should be integrated into the methodological framework for screening and selection of suitable shrub species for roof greening in the Mediterranean. - Highlights: • The use of hardy shrub species for roof greening should be increased. • We monitored water status of 11 shrub species growing on shallow green roofs. • Species heat and drought tolerance, growth, and survival were studied. • High substrate temperature significantly affected plant survival. • Root resistance to heat could be used as trait for species selection for green roofs.

  19. Drought versus heat: What's the major constraint on Mediterranean green roof plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savi, Tadeja; Dal Borgo, Anna; Love, Veronica L.; Andri, Sergio; Tretiach, Mauro; Nardini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Green roofs are gaining momentum in the arid and semi-arid regions due to their multiple benefits as compared with conventional roofs. One of the most critical steps in green roof installation is the selection of drought and heat tolerant species that can thrive under extreme microclimate conditions. We monitored the water status, growth and survival of 11 drought-adapted shrub species grown on shallow green roof modules (10 and 13 cm deep substrate) and analyzed traits enabling plants to cope with drought (symplastic and apoplastic resistance) and heat stress (root membrane stability). The physiological traits conferring efficiency/safety to the water transport system under severe drought influenced plant water status and represent good predictors of both plant water use and growth rates over green roofs. Moreover, our data suggest that high substrate temperature represents a stress factor affecting plant survival to a larger extent than drought per se. In fact, the major cause influencing seedling survival on shallow substrates was the species-specific root resistance to heat, a single and easy measurable trait that should be integrated into the methodological framework for screening and selection of suitable shrub species for roof greening in the Mediterranean. - Highlights: • The use of hardy shrub species for roof greening should be increased. • We monitored water status of 11 shrub species growing on shallow green roofs. • Species heat and drought tolerance, growth, and survival were studied. • High substrate temperature significantly affected plant survival. • Root resistance to heat could be used as trait for species selection for green roofs.

  20. Physicochemical characteristics of seeds from wild and cultivated castor bean plants (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Mosquera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The castor (Ricinus communis L. is an oilseed plant whose main features are its drought resistance, and its adaptation to eroded, polluted, and low fertility soils. Its oil has a great demand in the industrial sector and it has recently attracted considerable interest for its use in the production of biodiesel and jet fuel. In this study, morphological, physical and chemical characterizations were performed to ascertain the quality of wild (VQ-1 and under cultivation (VQ-7 oil castor seeds. The results showed that there are differences in the morphological and physicochemical characteristics regarding oil content (44,95 vs 33,84%, ash (3,20 vs 2,42%, and 100-seed-weight (45,87 vs 54,23g; similar behavior was recorded when characterizing the oil: kinematic viscosity (269,67 vs 266,44mm2 /s, density (0,9389 vs 0,9465g/cm3 , and acidity index (0,9918 vs 0,5440mg KOH/g for VQ-1 and VQ-7, respectively. Growing conditions to which castor plants were subjected may influence both the final quality of seeds and chemical properties of the oil.

  1. Salinity-induced modulation of plant growth and photosynthetic parameters in faba bean (vicia faba) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.; Embiale, A.; Husen, A.; Eref, I.E.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most severe environmental factors limiting the productivity of agricultural crops. The present study assesses salt-tolerant cultivars of Vicia faba L.on the basis of their growth, biomass and foliar characteristics. Four levels of salt stress (0, 50, 100 and 150mM) were applied to three selected cultivars, viz. Degaga, Dosha and Hachalu. Results revealed significant differences among the cultivars, salt-stress treatments, and their interaction, indicating the cultivars' variability and differential response to salt stress. Salinity stress adversely affected plant growth, plant water status and biomass production. Salt treatments decreased the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, but cultivar Dosha, which was ahead of others in height, leaf number, relative water content, total biomass and leaf-dry-mass ratio, was least affected. Functional leaf characters, such as photochemical efficiency of PSII (maximum quantum yield = Fv/Fm), stomatal conductance (gs), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate (E) were also reduced under salt-stress, and againDosha cultivar did better than others except in gs. The relatively less decline in growth, water status, biomass, photosynthetic pigments and functional leaf characters of Dosha exhibits a reasonable tolerance ability of this cultivar, while the other two varieties viz., Degaga and Hachalu proved to be sensitive to salt stress. (author)

  2. Green roofs for a drier world: effects of hydrogel amendment on substrate and plant water status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Tadeja; Marin, Maria; Boldrin, David; Incerti, Guido; Andri, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-08-15

    Climate features of the Mediterranean area make plant survival over green roofs challenging, thus calling for research work to improve water holding capacities of green roof systems. We assessed the effects of polymer hydrogel amendment on the water holding capacity of a green roof substrate, as well as on water status and growth of Salvia officinalis. Plants were grown in green roof experimental modules containing 8 cm or 12 cm deep substrate (control) or substrate mixed with hydrogel at two different concentrations: 0.3 or 0.6%. Hydrogel significantly increased the substrate's water content at saturation, as well as water available to vegetation. Plants grown in 8 cm deep substrate mixed with 0.6% of hydrogel showed the best performance in terms of water status and membrane integrity under drought stress, associated to the lowest above-ground biomass. Our results provide experimental evidence that polymer hydrogel amendments enhance water supply to vegetation at the establishment phase of a green roof. In particular, the water status of plants is most effectively improved when reduced substrate depths are used to limit the biomass accumulation during early growth stages. A significant loss of water holding capacity of substrate-hydrogel blends was observed after 5 months from establishment of the experimental modules. We suggest that cross-optimization of physical-chemical characteristics of hydrogels and green roof substrates is needed to improve long term effectiveness of polymer-hydrogel blends. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The 14C as tracer in the carbon flow assimilated by the plants (maize, sugar cane, bean) and it liberation to the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula Eduardo, B.J.F. de.

    1987-01-01

    The flow of carbon in three different crops, maize, beans and sugar cane was studied by use of 14 V. The plants were exposed to an atmosphere with a constant concentration of the tracer for 12 hours in a biosynthesis chamber. The detection of the isotope permitted the distribution and concentration of the photosynthetates in the various organs of the plants and the losses by liberation to the soil whether by root respiration or rhizodeposition to be followed. The technique of marking metabolites through photosynthesis and their detection in the various plant organs is well known and is employed despite the requirement for hight sophisticated apparatus. On the other hand the quantification of the plant-soil-microorganism interchanges presents great difficulties being dynamic processes, showing the necessity of more detailed studies. (author) [pt

  4. Minimal watering regime impacts on desert adapted green roof plant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachich, S.; Pavao-Zuckerman, M.; Templer, S.; Livingston, M.; Stoltz, R.; Smith, S.

    2011-12-01

    Roof tops can cover one-fifth of urban areas and can greatly alter the movement of matter and energy in cities. With traditional roofing methods and materials, roof tops readily absorb heat and as a result, buildings and the surrounding urban area heat to unnaturally high temperatures. It is hypothesized that extensive green roofs would have wide-ranging benefits for arid environments. However, little is known about the cost of water use associated with green roof installations and how to balance energy reduction needs with water costs in this water limited environment. We are conducting a pilot study to test whether a) green roofs with native plants and environmentally-responsible watering regimes will prove successful in arid environments and if b) green roofs provide ecosystem services with responsible water application. Three species of Sonoran Desert natives, Dyssodia pentachaeta (groundcover), Calliandra eriophylla (shrub), and Hesperaloe parviflora (succulent) have been planted in experimental plots [1 m2 model houses and roofs, replicated in triplicate] with two sandy, rocky desert soil mixtures (light mix: 60% expanded shale and heavy mix: organic and sandy mix with 50% shale) at the Biosphere 2 campus near Oracle, Az. The green roofs are watered by two different techniques. The first technique provides "smart watering", the minimal amount of water needed by green roof plants based on precipitation and historical data. The second watering technique is considered heavy and does not take into account environmental conditions. Preliminary data from the experimental plots shows a 30% decrease in daytime roof top temperatures on green roofs and a 10% decrease in interior temperatures in buildings with green roofs. This trend occurs with both watering regimes (heavy and light). This finding suggests that additional irrigation yields no extra heat reduction and energy savings. In order to explain this phenomenon more clearly, we use co-located temperature and

  5. 75 FR 67551 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Rayed Bean and Snuffbox as Endangered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ..., yellowish- green, or brown in color, with numerous wavy, dark-green rays of various widths (sometimes... or yellowish-green in young individuals, becoming darker with age. Green squarish, triangular, or...) required to maintain genetic heterogeneity and population viability (Soul[eacute] 1980, p. 162). Isolated...

  6. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  7. Phytotoxicity of thallium (Tl) in culture solution. Pt. 2. Effects of Tl(III) on the growth and heavy metal contents of pea and field bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, B; Austenfeld, F A

    1985-01-01

    The effects of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ and Tl(III)EDTA on growth and heavy metal contents of pea plants and field bean plants were compared in hydroponic culture experiments. In the presence of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, the essential heavy metals were available to the plants in their ionic forms. When Tl(III)EDTA was present the essential heavy metals were available as chelated complexes. Dry matter production of the pea plants was inhibited to a greater extent by Tl(III)EDTA than by Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. The distribution of Tl within the plant was unaffected by the accompanying anion, however an increase of the Tl content of the stems and the leaves was observed in the presence of Tl(III)EDTA. The micronutrients exhibited different interactions with Tl(III). In the presence of increasing concentrations of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ the Mn content of each organ and the Zn content of the roots were lowered, but the Zn content of the stems was increased. Increasing concentrations of Tl(III)EDTA resulted only in a decrease of the Mn content of the roots, but in an increase of the contents of Fe and Mn within the stems, and Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu within the leaves. The increases may be due to concentration by growth inhibition. In contrast to pea plants, growth of field bean plants was inhibited only by Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. The field bean plants retained most of the Tl within the roots independent of the Tl compound in the solution. Chelation of Tl(III) resulted in higher Tl contents of both the roots and the stems, but equal or reduced Tl contents of the leaves. Whereas increasing concentrations of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ reduced the Mn content of each organ as well as the Zn content of the roots and the leaves, Tl(III)EDTA only reduced the Mn content of the roots.

  8. Industrial wastes of the cities of Baku and Sumgait and their effect on green plantings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirov, R O; Ismaylov, A R

    1969-01-01

    Baku and Sumgait had large oil production and chemical industries. Investigations showed that injury in green planting depended essentially on the nature of the waste products. Air polluted with SO/sub 2/, chlorine, and fluorine compounds produced dark brown bumps on the leaves. As the distance from the industries increased, the frequency and the intensity of the injuries decreased. Some of the ornamental species were beter adjusted and had a greater resistance. The establishment and development of green plantings were important for combating air pollution and for the sanitary well-being of the industrial area. Plans of landscaping of industrial enterprises included green plantings directly on the territory of the enterprises as well as in areas surrounding them in a radius of 150-500 m. Green shelter belts were needed for protection of the strong northern winds. The selection of plants was made considering their gas resistance, their drought resistance, as well as the plants' ability to grow in solonchak-solonets, clayey, and clayey loam soils characteristic for the Apsheron Peninsula. Trees and bushes were planted by the trench method. Irrigation with waste water was avoided.

  9. Effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in the conservation of seeds and on the productivity of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos Filho, Julio

    1971-01-01

    Seeds of the field bean variety 'Goiano Precoce' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to various radiation doses ( 60 Co) ( Co) were used in a series of experiments with the objective of studying the different aspects of seed behavior thus treated. The radiation doses, comprising six treatments, varied from 0,0 to 6,4 krad of gamma radiation. Effect on seed germination and seedling dry weight was studied by means of a factorial experiment conducted under laboratory controlled conditions. The factors used were the radiation doses and nine increasing lengths of time from date of seed irradiation. Seed vigor was determined by the rate of seedling emergence when planted in small field plots. A factorial design was used. The variables were the radiation dosages and six lengths of time elapsed since date of seed irradiation. The effect of seed irradiation on yield was evaluated by means of two randomized block design field experiments. After the seed vigor experiment was conducted infestation by the bean weevil, Acanthoscelidcs obtectus Say , was observed in irradiated seeds stored under normal conditions, indicating a relationship between radiation dosage and insect damage. An analysis was made of this effect at fourteen increasing time intervals. The analysis was made according to a factorial scheme considering as factors radiation dosage and time interval. The following conclusions could be drawn from the analysis and discussion of the results obtained: a) Seed germination was adversely affected by all radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. This effect however decreased significantly with storing time. b) Seed vigor was higher for those treated with 0,4 , 0,8 and 1,6 krad when compared with those that were not irradiated. c) Pod and seed weight were lowered by the 1,6 and 6,4 krad radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. d) Infestation by the bean weevil was significantly checked by all radiation treatments in relation to the check treatment. e

  10. The growth and survival of plants in urban green roofs in a dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S; Kazemi, F

    2014-04-01

    Green roofs as one of the components of water-sensitive urban design have become widely used in recent years. This paper describes performance monitoring of four prototype-scale experimental green roofs in a northern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia, undertaken over a 1-year period. Four species of indigenous Australian ground cover and grass species comprising Carpobrotus rossii, Lomandra longifolia 'Tanika,' Dianella caerula 'Breeze' and Myoporum parvifolium were planted in extensive and intensive green roof configurations using two different growing media. The first medium consisted of crushed brick, scoria, coir fibre and composted organics while the second comprised scoria, composted pine bark and hydro-cell flakes. Plant growth indices including vertical and horizontal growth rate, leaf succulence, shoot and root biomasses, water use efficiency and irrigation regimes were studied during a 12-month period. The results showed that the succulent species, C. rossii, can best tolerate the hot, dry summer conditions of South Australia, and this species showed a 100% survival rate and had the maximum horizontal growth rate, leaf succulence, shoot biomass and water use efficiency. All of the plants in the intensive green roofs with the crushed brick mix media survived during the term of this study. It was shown that stormwater can be used as a source of irrigation water for green roofs during 8 months of the year in Adelaide. However, supplementary irrigation is required for some of the plants over a full annual cycle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating the energy independence of a municipal wastewater treatment plant incorporating green energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kang, Jihoon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We estimated green energy production in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. • Engineered approaches in mining multiple green energy resources were presented. • The estimated green energy production accounted for 6.5% of energy independence in the plant. • We presented practical information regarding green energy projects in water infrastructures. - Abstract: Increasing energy prices and concerns about global climate change highlight the need to improve energy independence in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper presents methodologies for estimating the energy independence of a municipal WWTP with a design capacity of 30,000 m 3 /d incorporating various green energy resources into the existing facilities, including different types of 100 kW photovoltaics, 10 kW small hydropower, and an effluent heat recovery system with a 25 refrigeration ton heat pump. It also provides guidance for the selection of appropriate renewable technologies or their combinations for specific WWTP applications to reach energy self-sufficiency goals. The results showed that annual energy production equal to 107 tons of oil equivalent could be expected when the proposed green energy resources are implemented in the WWTP. The energy independence, which was defined as the percent ratio of green energy production to energy consumption, was estimated to be a maximum of 6.5% and to vary with on-site energy consumption in the WWTP. Implementing green energy resources tailored to specific site conditions is necessary to improve the energy independence in WWTPs. Most of the applied technologies were economically viable primarily because of the financial support under the mandatory renewable portfolio standard in Korea

  12. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy, E-mail: jlundholm@smu.ca

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%–26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21 °C–36 °C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  13. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%–26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21 °C–36 °C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  14. Transgenic plants as green factories for vaccine production | Vinod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible vaccine technology represents an alternative to fermentation based vaccine production system. Transgenic plants are used for the production of plant derived specific vaccines with native immunogenic properties stimulating both humoral and mucosal immune responses. Keeping in view the practical need of new ...

  15. Plants as green as phones: Novel insights into plant-mediated communication between below- and above-ground insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler Gamborena, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    can act as vertical communication channels or ‘green phones’ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The protection

  16. Performance of irrigated green corn cultivars in different plant populations at sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Soares Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the yield of green corn hybrids grown under irrigation in different plant populations at sowing. The assay was carried out in the experimental area located in the city of Arapiraca, Alagoas State, Brazil, from November 2015 to January 2016. A randomized complete block design (RCBD was used, in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme with four replicates. A double- and a single-cross hybrid (AG 1051 and BM 3061, which are suitable for green corn production, were cultivated in five spacings between plants at sowing (15.0, 17.5, 20.0, 22.5 and 25.0 cm. The characteristics photosynthetic rate (PR, ear length with rusk (HEL and without husk (UEL, husked ear weight (HEW, unhusked ear weight (UEW, percentage of marketable ears (%ME and weight of husk (HW were evaluated. The double- and single-cross hybrids AG 1051 and BM 3061 showed green ears with commercial standard. The cultivar BM 3061 showed the best results for most of the characteristics related to the performance of green corn (PR, HEL, UEL, UEW, HEW, %ME. The spacing of 17.5 cm between plants at sowing was the most indicated for irrigated green corn cultivation.

  17. The Effects of Cropping Regimes on Fungal and Bacterial Communities of Wheat and Faba Bean in a Greenhouse Pot Experiment Differ between Plant Species and Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Granzow

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria and fungi in the plant rhizosphere and endosphere are beneficial to plant nutrient acquisition, health, and growth. Although playing essential roles in ecosystem functioning, our knowledge about the effects of multiple cropping regimes on the plant microbiome and their interactions is still limited. Here, we designed a pot experiment simulating different cropping regimes. For this purpose, wheat and faba bean plants were grown under controlled greenhouse conditions in monocultures and in two intercropping regimes: row and mixed intercropping. Bacterial and fungal communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils as well as in the roots and aerial plant parts were analyzed using large-scale metabarcoding. We detected differences in microbial richness and diversity between the cropping regimes. Generally, observed effects were attributed to differences between mixed and row intercropping or mixed intercropping and monoculture. Bacterial and fungal diversity were significantly higher in bulk soil samples of wheat and faba bean grown in mixed compared to row intercropping. Moreover, microbial communities varied between crop species and plant compartments resulting in different responses of these communities toward cropping regimes. Leaf endophytes were not affected by cropping regime but bacterial and fungal community structures in bulk and rhizosphere soil as well as fungal community structures in roots. We further recorded highly complex changes in microbial interactions. The number of negative inter-domain correlations between fungi and bacteria decreased in bulk and rhizosphere soil in intercropping regimes compared to monocultures due to beneficial effects. In addition, we observed plant species-dependent differences indicating that intra- and interspecific competition between plants had different effects on the plant species and thus on their associated microbial communities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating

  18. Growth and yield of broccoli fertilized with doses of velvet bean in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Rúbia Diniz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dose effects of green manure in vegetable crops production are still poorly understood. There are few scientific studies indicate that increasing the dose may influence plants characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of doses of velvet bean green manure on growth and yield, the partitioning of dry matter and nitrogen (N in plants of broccoli, as well as determine the apparent recovery and physiological efficiency of use N. We established four treatments plus a control. The treatments consisted of four levels of green manure: 0, 3, 6, 9 t ha-1 on a dry matter basis, with the addition of 12 t ha-1 of compost. Doses of green manure applied influenced the growth and yield of broccoli. The distribution of dry matter between plant parts of broccoli is not influenced by the doses of green manure. Doses of green manure influenced the amount of N accumulated in the inflorescence and whole plant of broccoli. The apparent recovery of N from green manure and efficiency of N use by plants of broccoli are positively associated with the applied doses.

  19. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  20. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  1. Plant establishment on unirrigated green roof modules in a subtropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Bruce D.; Volder, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The application of green roof technology has become more common in the central, northwestern and eastern USA, and is now being employed across the southern USA as well. However, there is little research in the literature that evaluated plant survival on unirrigated green roofs in subtropical climates that experience frequent drought and heat stress. Here, we summarize the results of a study of plant establishment on a modular green roof in south-central Texas. Methodology Fifteen plant species were field tested in 11.4-cm-deep green roof modules on a four-storey building in College Station, Texas, with irrigation limited to the first several weeks of establishment. Climate data, plant growth and species survival were measured over three growing seasons. Principal results Four species survived growing seasons without any losses: Graptopetalum paraguayense, Malephora lutea, Manfreda maculosa and Phemeranthus calycinus. Six species experienced varying levels of mortality: Bulbine frutescens, Delosperma cooperi, Lampranthus spectabilis, Sedum kamtschaticum, Sedum mexicanum and Nassella tenuissima. Five species had no survivors: Dichondra argentea, Stemodia lanata, Myoporum parvifolium, Sedum moranense and Sedum tetractinum. Conclusions The establishment and survival of several plant species without any mortality suggests that irrigation limited to the first few weeks after planting may be an effective approach on green roofs in spite of the more challenging climatic conditions in the southern USA. Since the climate in south-central Texas had been consistently drier and warmer than normal during the study period, longer-term research on these species is recommended to expand knowledge of establishment requirements for these species under a wider range of conditions, including wetter than normal years.

  2. Bio evaluation of the nutritional status of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. IAC-165) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) plants using 15 N and 32 P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, A.M.; Bernardi, A.C.C.; Oliveira, F.C.; Prada Neto, E.; Silva, J.A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Rice and bean plants were grown in nutrient solution in the presence of three levels of N, P and K. The method of the bio evaluation of the nutritional status, in which excised roots are allowed to take up tagged elements, in this case 15 N and 3 '2 P, was compared with foliar analysis. Two main conclusions were drawn: the bio evaluation proved to be an useful and rapid procedure for the diagnosis of the nutritional status of both species, since there was a significant negative correlation between absorption of N and P and dry matter yield; the uptake of the tagged ions with either elements by the roots of plants grown under deficient levels of N and P in the nutrient solution was inversely proportional to the leak concentration of both nutrients. (author). 1 ref., 4 tabs

  3. Assessing aesthetic impacts in siting a nuclear power plant: the case of Greene County, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrich, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    In the aesthetic impact analysis of the Greene County Nuclear Power Plant, vivid symbols of modern technology - a domed reactor containment structure and a monolithic natural-draft cooling tower - played the dominant roles in the conflict with a remnant landscape of America's romantic past. The analysis revealed, and the NRC affirmed, that the proposed plant would entail an unacceptable aesthetic impact, beyond mitigation, on certain important local, regional, and national historic, scenic, and cultural resources

  4. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from several NTFP Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath BHOWMIK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology. In this study, rapid, simple approach was applied for synthesis of silver nanoparticles using , Clerodendrum infortunatum, Mucuna interrupta, Phlogancanthus thyrsiflorus and Sansevieria trifasciata aqueous leaf extract. The plant extract acts both as reducing agent as well as capping agent. To identify the compounds responsible for reduction of silver ions, the functional groups present in plant extract were investigated by FTIR. Various techniques used to characterize synthesized nanoparticles are Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and UV–Visible spectrophotometer. Results confirmed that this protocol was simple, rapid, one step, eco-friendly, non-toxic and might be an alternative conventional physical/chemical methods. Conversion of silver nanoparticles takes place at room temperature without the involvement of any hazardous chemicals.

  5. Medicinal plants combating against cancer--a green anticancer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Sabira; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Nazar, Hafiz Muhammad Irfan; Akhtar, Naveed; Rehman, Jalil Ur; Rehman, Riaz Ur

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the most deadly disease that causes the serious health problems, physical disabilities, mortalities, and morbidities around the world. It is the second leading cause of death all over the world. Although great advancement have been made in the treatment of cancer progression, still significant deficiencies and room for improvement remain. Chemotherapy produced a number of undesired and toxic side effects. Natural therapies, such as the use of plant-derived products in the treatment of cancer, may reduce adverse and toxic side effects. However, many plants exist that have shown very promising anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo but their active anticancer principle have yet to be evaluated. Combined efforts of botanist, pharmacologist and chemists are required to find new lead anticancer constituent to fight disease. This review will help researchers in the finding of new bioactive molecules as it will focus on various plants evaluated for anticancer properties in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Stade. Decommissioning and dismantling of the nuclear power plant - from the nuclear power plant to the green lawn. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear power plant Stade (KKS) was shutdown in 2003 and is being dismantled since 2005. The contribution covers the following issues: What means decommissioning and dismantling? What was the reason for decommissioning? What experiences on the dismantling of nuclear power plants are available? What is the dismantling procedure? What challenges for the power plant personal result from dismantling? What happens with the deconstruction material? What happens with the resulting free area (the ''green lawn'')? What is the legal frame work for dismantling?

  7. Structure and membrane organization of photosystem II in green plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankamer, B; Barber, J; Boekema, EJ

    1997-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is the pigment protein complex embedded in the thylakoid membrane of higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria that uses solar energy to drive the photosynthetic water-splitting reaction. This chapter reviews the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of PSII as

  8. Effect of countermeasures on radionuclide uptake by green plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper results will be discussed in the field of countermeasures effectiveness on the radiocaesium and radiostrontium transfer to plants in relation to soil characteristics at the different sites investigated, as well as their influence on the crop yield. Refs. 4 (author)

  9. Green light for quantitative live-cell imaging in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossmann, Guido; Krebs, Melanie; Maizel, Alexis; Stahl, Yvonne; Vermeer, Joop E.M.; Ott, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Plants exhibit an intriguing morphological and physiological plasticity that enables them to thrive in a wide range of environments. To understand the cell biological basis of this unparalleled competence, a number ofmethodologies have been adapted or developed over the last decades that allow

  10. Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, M.A.R.; Metzger, J.O.; Schubert, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of plant oil renewable resources as raw materials for monomers and polymers is discussed and reviewed. In an age of increasing oil prices, global warming and other environmental problems (e.g. waste) the change from fossil feedstock to renewable resources can considerably contribute

  11. Plant biostimulant associated with a resistance inducer in the production components of the common bean = Bioestimulante vegetal associado a indutor de resistência nos componentes da produção de feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João William Bossolani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the search for increased productivity in the common bean and in various other crops of economic interest, much research has been carried out using growth regulators, hormones and nutrients, especially in foliar application, with the aim of accelerating plant development, improving agronomic characteristics, and ensuring better plant health and performance in the field. The application of biostimulant plant regulators with the purpose of increasing crop productivity is a still not a common practice in agriculture. The aim of this study therefore, was to evaluate the effect of the application of plant biostimulants together with a resistance inducer on the production components of the common bean. Five doses of a biostimulant (indolebutyric acid, kinetin and gibberellic acid were used (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 L ha-1, combined with four doses of a resistance inducer (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 L ha-1 in the common bean “IAC Formoso” under a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in Selvíria, in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, during the 2013/14 agricultural year. The experimental design was of randomised blocks, in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with four replications. Production components and seed productivity were evaluated in the crop. The resistance inducer gave higher values for green matter (52.08 g plant-1 and dry matter (17.29 g plant-1 in the common bean at a dose of 2.04 L ha-1 and 2.15 L ha-1 respectively. The greatest productivity (3,756 kg ha-1 was obtained with a dose of 0.78 L ha-1 of biostimulant. The use of vegetable biostimulant can be a viable alternative for increasing productivity in the common bean. Em busca do aumento da produtividade do feijoeiro e de várias outras culturas de interesse econômico, foram realizadas inúmeras pesquisas utilizando reguladores de crescimento, hormônios e nutrientes, principalmente em aplicações foliares com a finalidade de acelerar o desenvolvimento da planta, melhorar suas

  12. Plants as green phones: Novel insights into plant-mediated communication between below- and above-ground insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Roxina; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Bezemer, T Martijn; Stuefer, Josef F

    2008-08-01

    Plants can act as vertical communication channels or 'green phones' linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The protection of the plant shoot elicited by root damage can impair the survival, growth and development of aboveground insect herbivores, thereby creating plant-based functional links between soil-dwelling insects and insects that develop in the aboveground ecosystem. The interactions between spatially separated insects below- and aboveground are not restricted to root and foliar plant-feeding insects, but can be extended to higher trophic levels such as insect parasitoids. Here we discuss some implications of plants acting as communication channels or 'green phones' between root and foliar-feeding insects and their parasitoids, focusing on recent findings that plants attacked by root-feeding insects are significantly less attractive for the parasitoids of foliar-feeding insects.

  13. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  14. The effects of total mass of seed on distribution of lead in different tissues of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Experimentally treated by lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish distribution of lead in different tissues of bean seed (seed coat, endo­sperm, embryo depending on seed mass, treated samples (seed by different concentration of Pb-acetate: 1O-5 M, 10-3M i 2x 10-2M. Depending on seed weight the samples derived in three groups: large (715g, middle (465g and small (280g. Each sample contained the same number of seeds. Concentration was determined by atomic absorber (Unicam 929. At highest Pb-acetate concentration (2x10-2M in seed with small total mass content of Pb was 1139μg/g, white in seed of 1052μg/g; in endosperm 580,6μg/g, middle 290,2μg/g and in second group 79,4μg/g. Similar pattern shows embryo but at die lower level of accumulation. On die basis of above presented results it could be concluded that concentration of Pb-acetate solution. Largest mass seed accumulate respectively less content of Pb in endosperm and embryo. Seed coat accumulated significant die larger amount of land probably embryo, in that way protects embryo. Therefore, larger bean seed are more convenient for planting in cases of potentially contamination by 1, but probably by other metals. .

  15. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  16. Multifunctionality is affected by interactions between green roof plant species, substrate depth, and substrate type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusza, Yann; Barot, Sébastien; Kraepiel, Yvan; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Abbadie, Luc; Raynaud, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services through evapotranspiration and nutrient cycling that depend, among others, on plant species, substrate type, and substrate depth. However, no study has assessed thoroughly how interactions between these factors alter ecosystem functions and multifunctionality of green roofs. We simulated some green roof conditions in a pot experiment. We planted 20 plant species from 10 genera and five families (Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) on two substrate types (natural vs. artificial) and two substrate depths (10 cm vs. 30 cm). As indicators of major ecosystem functions, we measured aboveground and belowground biomasses, foliar nitrogen and carbon content, foliar transpiration, substrate water retention, and dissolved organic carbon and nitrates in leachates. Interactions between substrate type and depth strongly affected ecosystem functions. Biomass production was increased in the artificial substrate and deeper substrates, as was water retention in most cases. In contrast, dissolved organic carbon leaching was higher in the artificial substrates. Except for the Fabaceae species, nitrate leaching was reduced in deep, natural soils. The highest transpiration rates were associated with natural soils. All functions were modulated by plant families or species. Plant effects differed according to the observed function and the type and depth of the substrate. Fabaceae species grown on natural soils had the most noticeable patterns, allowing high biomass production and high water retention but also high nitrate leaching from deep pots. No single combination of factors enhanced simultaneously all studied ecosystem functions, highlighting that soil-plant interactions induce trade-offs between ecosystem functions. Substrate type and depth interactions are major drivers for green roof multifunctionality.

  17. Phytochrome from Green Plants: Properties and biological Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quail, Peter H.

    2014-07-25

    Plants constantly monitor the light environment for informational light signals used to direct adaptational responses to the prevailing conditions. One major such response, the Shade-Avaoidance Response (SAR), triggered when plants sense the presence of competing neighbors, results in enhanced channeling of photosynthetically-fixed carbon into stem elongation at the expense of deposition in reproductive tissues. This response has been selected against in many modern food crops to ensure maximum edible yield (e.g. seeds). Converse enhancement of the SAR, with consequent increased carbon channeling into vegetative cellulose, could contribute to the generation of crops with improved yield of tissues suitable for cellulosic biofuel production. The signal for this response is light enriched in far-red wavelengths. This signal is produced by sunlight filtered through, or reflected from, neighboring vegetation, as a result of preferential depletion of red photons through chlorophyll absorption. The plant phytochrome (phy) photoreceptor system (predominantly phyB) senses this signal through its capacity to switch reversibly, in milliseconds, between two molecular states: the biologically inactive Pr (red-light-absorbing) and biologically active Pfr (far-red-light-absorbing) conformers. The photoequilibrium established between these two conformers in light-grown plants is determined by the ratio of red-to-far-red wavelengths in the incoming signal. The levels of Pfr then dictate the recipient plant’s growth response: high levels suppress elongation growth; low levels promote elongation growth. Studies on seedling deetiolation have advanced our understanding considerably in recent years, of the mechanism by which the photoactivated phy molecule transduces its signal into cellular growth responses. The data show that a subfamily of phy-interacting bHLH transcription factors (PIFs) promote skotomorphogenic seedling development in post-germinative darkness, but that the phy

  18. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  19. Potential of some aquatic plants for removal of arsenic from wastewater by green technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Barznji Dana A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation or green technology is counted among the successful and effective biological contaminated water treatment techniques. Basically, the concept of this green, cost-effective, simple, environmentally nondisruptive method consists in using plants and microbiological processes to reduce contaminants in the ecosystem. Different species from aquatic plants (emerged, free-floating, and submerged have been studied to mitigate toxic contaminants such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, etc. Arsenic is one of the most severe toxic elements; it is widely distributed in the environment, usually found in combination with chloride, oxygen, sulphur and metal ions as a result of mineral dissolution from sedimentary or volcanic rocks and the dilution of geothermal water. The effluents from both industrial and agricultural sectors are also regarded as sources to contaminate water. From the accumulation point of view, several aquatic plants have been mentioned as good arsenic accumulators and their performance is evaluated using the green technology method. These include Spirodela polyrhiza, Wolffia globosa, Lemna gibba, L. minor, Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, Azolla pinnata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Pistia stratiotes. The up-to-date information illustrated in this review paper generates knowledge about the ability of some common aquatic plants around the globe to remediate arsenic from contaminated water.

  20. greening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utpal

    orange (Citrus Sinensis osbeck) and acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) ... Moreover, these are not practically feasible methods for handling a ... ease by conventional procedures viz., electron microsco- py examination of ultra thin sections, bioassay on indicator plants. Therefore, the present study was attempted with a ...

  1. Methyl and p-Bromobenzyl Esters of Hydrogenated Kaurenoic Acid for Controlling Anthracnose in Common Bean Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Suellen F; Oliveira, Denilson F; Heleno, Vladimir C G; Soares, Ana Carolina F; Midiwo, Jacob O; Souza, Elaine A

    2017-03-01

    Kaurenoic acid derivatives were prepared and submitted to in vitro assays with the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose disease in the common bean. The most active substances were found to be methyl and p-bromobenzylesters, 7 and 9, respectively, of the hydrogenated kaurenoic acid, which presented a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.097 and 0.131 mM, respectively, while the commercial fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) presented a MIC of 0.143 mM. Substances 7 (1.401 mM) and 9 (1.886 mM) reduced the severity of anthracnose in common bean to values statistically comparable to MT (2.044 mM). According to an in silico study, both compounds 7 and 9 are inhibitors of the ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) enzyme produced by other organisms, the amino acid sequence of which could be detected in fungal genomes. These substances appeared to act against C. lindemuthianum by inhibiting its KSI. Therefore, substances 7 and 9 are promising for the development of new fungicides.

  2. Effect of salt-stresses on the hormonal regulation of growth, photosynthesis and distribution of 14C - assimilates in bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starck, Z.; Karwowska, R.

    1978-01-01

    The experiments were carried out to study the effect of salt-stresses and ABA on the growth photosynthesis and translocation of assimilates in bean plants. It was planned to reduce the content of GA 3 and cytokinins and increase ABA content in salinized plants. The results show that salt-stress (NaCl and concentrated nutrient solution), reduces all the investigated processes in a different degree. NaCl-stress retarded most seriously growth of apical part and blades in contrast to 7-times concentrated nutrient solution decreasing mainly the rate of root and blade growth. Photosynthesis and 14 C-translocation of 14 C-assimilates were retarded more seriously by NaCl than by 7-times concentrated nutrient solution. In the case of seriously stressed plants GA 3 and cytokinins (more effectively) reversed the negative effect of stress conditions both on the photosynthesis and on the 14 C-translocation. On the basis of the obtained results, it seems that changes in the rate of investigated processes in salinized plants are due to hormonal disturbances which cause directly or indirectly retardation of photosynthesis and translocation of assimilates. (author)

  3. Effect of salt-stresses on the hormonal regulation of growth, photosynthesis and distribution of 14C-assimilates in bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Starck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out to study the effect of salt-stresses and ABA on the growth, photosynthesis and translocation of assimilates in bean plants. It was planed to reduce the content of GA3 and cytokinins and increase ABA content in salinized plants. The results show that salt-stress (NaCl and concentrated nutrient solution, reduce all the investigated processes in a different degree. NaCl-stress retarded most seriously growth of apical part and blades in contrast to 7-times concentrated nutrient solution decreasing mainly the rate of root and blade growth. Photosynthesis and 14C-translocation of 14C-assimilates were retarded more seriously by NaCl than by 7-times concentrated nutrient. solution. In the case of seriously stressed plants GA3 and cytokinins (more effectively reversed the ,negative effect of stress conditions both on the photosynthesis and on the 14C-tramslocation. On the basis of the obtained results, it seemes that changes in the rate of investigated processes in salinized plants are due to hormonal disturbances which cause directly or indirectly retardation of photosynthesis and trans-location of assimilates.

  4. Determination of trace elements in various kinds of bean by X-ray spectrometric techniques (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U Tin Maung Kyi; U Wai Zin Oo

    2001-01-01

    Various kinds of bean such as Peanut, Gram Whole, Black Eye Bean, Small Red Bean, Lab Lab Bean, Green Mung Bean, Filed Pea, Seasame Seed, Sultani, Maize, Butter Bean, Dolichos Lab Lab, Toor Whole, Small Yellow Bean, Cow Pea have been collected and analysed by EDXRF analysis for trace elements. The measurement system consists of a Cd-109 annual excitation source, a Si (Li) detector, H V power supply, a spectrometry amplifier, a multichannel analyser and a personal computer. The samples were prepared as pressed pellets and measured by Emission Transmission Technique. The accuracy was determined by analysing standard reference material, SOIL-7 form IAEA. (author)

  5. Plant species and functional group combinations affect green roof ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Macivor, J Scott; Macdougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-03-12

    Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms governing biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in green

  6. The Glaucophyta: the blue-green plants in a nutshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Jackson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Glaucophyta is one of the three major lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes, together with viridiplants and red algae, united in the presumed monophyletic supergroup Archaeplastida. Glaucophytes constitute a key algal lineage to investigate both the origin of primary plastids and the evolution of algae and plants. Glaucophyte plastids possess exceptional characteristics retained from their cyanobacterial ancestor: phycobilisome antennas, a vestigial peptidoglycan wall, and carboxysome-like bodies. These latter two traits are unique among the Archaeplastida and have been suggested as evidence that the glaucophytes diverged earliest during the diversification of this supergroup. Our knowledge of glaucophytes is limited compared to viridiplants and red algae, and this has restricted our capacity to untangle the early evolution of the Archaeplastida. However, in recent years novel genomic and functional data are increasing our understanding of glaucophyte biology. Diverse comparative studies using information from the nuclear genome of Cyanophora paradoxa and recent transcriptomic data from other glaucophyte species provide support for the common origin of Archaeplastida. Molecular and ultrastructural studies have revealed previously unrecognized diversity in the genera Cyanophora and Glaucocystis. Overall, a series of recent findings are modifying our perspective of glaucophyte diversity and providing fresh approaches to investigate the basic biology of this rare algal group in detail.

  7. Differences in the availabilities of cesium-134,137 and ruthenium-106 from a Chernobyl-contaminated soil to a water plant, duckweed, and to the terrestrial plants, bean and lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polar, E.; Bayuelgen, N.

    1991-01-01

    The aqueous solubilities of some radionuclides present in a Chernobyl-contaminated soil and their subsequent availabilities to an aquatic plant, duckweed (Lemnaceae), were compared to those obtained for bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). During this investigation carried out in laboratory conditions, it was observed that, although around 0.06% of 134 Cs or 137 Cs present in the soil was detected in the aqueous phase, duckweed concentrated 1000-5500 times this amount, depending on plant species. By contrast, 106 Ru in the soil was leached more effectively into solution than was cesium but its accumulation into duckweed was less. The effects on the availabilities of ruthenium and cesium of depletion of soil organic matter and of amendment of the aqueous phase with nutrients were also investigated. The transfer factors of 134,137 Cs into bean and lettuce cultivated in the same soil were 0.02 and 0.06, respectively, while that for 106 Ru was around 0.2. The difference between aquatic and terrestrial plants in cycling radionuclides is briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Differences in the availabilities of cesium-134,137 and ruthenium-106 from a Chernobyl-contaminated soil to a water plant, duckweed, and to the terrestrial plants, bean and lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polar, E.; Bayuelgen, N. (Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey))

    1991-01-01

    The aqueous solubilities of some radionuclides present in a Chernobyl-contaminated soil and their subsequent availabilities to an aquatic plant, duckweed (Lemnaceae), were compared to levels found in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). During this investigation carried out in laboratory conditions, it was observed that, although around 0.06% of {sup 134}Cs or {sup 137}Cs present in the soil was detected in the aqueous phase, duckweed concentrated 1000-5500 times this amount, depending on plant species. By contrast, {sup 106}Ru in the soil was leached more effectively into solution than was cesium but its accumulation into duckweed was less. The effects on the availabilities of ruthenium and cesium of depletion of soil organic matter and of amendment of the aqueous phase with nutrients were also investigated. The transfer factors of {sup 134,137}Cs into bean and lettuce cultivated in the same soil were 0.02 and 0.06, respectively, while that for {sup 106}Ru was around 0.2. The difference between aquatic and terrestrial plants in cycling radionuclides is briefly discussed. (author).

  9. A technique developed for labeling the green manures (sunnhemp and velvet bean) with {sup 15} N for nitrogen dynamic studies; Tecnica para marcacao dos adubos verdes crotalaria juncea e mucuna-preta com {sup 15} N para estudos de dinamica do nitrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao de Leguminosas; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Muruoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    A technique was developed for labeling the leguminous plant tissue with nitrogen ({sup 15} N) to obtain labelled material for nitrogen dynamic studies. Sunnhemp (crotalaria juncea L.) and velvet beans (Mucuna aterrima, sinonimia Stizolobium aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were grown in pots containing 10 kg of a Red Yellow Podzolic soil, under greenhouse conditions. The rate of 1.2 of nitrogen (ammonium sulphate with 11.37 atom % {sup 15} N) per pot was applied three times. The labelled dried plant material showed 3.177 and 4.337 of atom % {sup 15} N, respectively for velvet beans and sunnhemp. (author)

  10. Green Algae and the Origins of Multicellularity in the Plant Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umen, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The green lineage of chlorophyte algae and streptophytes form a large and diverse clade with multiple independent transitions to produce multicellular and/or macroscopically complex organization. In this review, I focus on two of the best-studied multicellular groups of green algae: charophytes and volvocines. Charophyte algae are the closest relatives of land plants and encompass the transition from unicellularity to simple multicellularity. Many of the innovations present in land plants have their roots in the cell and developmental biology of charophyte algae. Volvocine algae evolved an independent route to multicellularity that is captured by a graded series of increasing cell-type specialization and developmental complexity. The study of volvocine algae has provided unprecedented insights into the innovations required to achieve multicellularity. PMID:25324214

  11. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  12. Stimulation effects of γ-irradiation combined with colchicine on callus formation and green plant regeneration in rice anther culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wei; Chen Qiufang; Wang Cailian; Lu Yimei

    1999-09-01

    The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for various rice types and varieties in rice anther culture. It was quite effective that rice anthers were irradiated with 10-40 Gy of γ-rays after 30 d incubation on induction medium and calli were treated on differentiation medium contained 10-75 mg/L of colchicine for increase of callus formation and green plant regeneration. Among these treatments, 10 Gy of γ-rats was the best for callus formation, and 20 Gy of γ-rays or 30 mg/L of colchicine was the most favourable for green plant regeneration. The simulation effect of 20 Gy of γ-irradiation combined with 30 mg/L of colchicine on green plant regeneration was much better than that of their separate use in rice anther culture

  13. Plant Extract Synthesized PLA Nanoparticles for Controlled and Sustained Release of Quercetin: A Green Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has been extensively carried out by using plant extracts (PEs) which have property of stabilizers/ emulsifiers. To our knowledge, there is no comprehensive study on applying a green approach using PEs for fabrication of biodegradable PLA NPs. Conventional methods rely on molecules like polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, D-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol 1000) succinate as stabilizers/emulsifiers for the synthesis of such biodegradable NPs which are known to be toxic. So, there is urgent need to look for stabilizers which are biogenic and non-toxic. The present study investigated use of PEs as stabilizers/emulsifiers for the fabrication of stable PLA NPs. Synthesized PLA NPs through this green process were explored for controlled release of the well known antioxidant molecule quercetin. Methodology/Principal Findings Stable PLA NPs were synthesized using leaf extracts of medicinally important plants like Syzygium cumini (1), Bauhinia variegata (2), Cedrus deodara (3), Lonicera japonica (4) and Eleaocarpus sphaericus (5). Small and uniformly distributed NPs in the size range 70±30 nm to 143±36 nm were formed with these PEs. To explore such NPs for drugs/ small molecules delivery, we have successfully encapsulated quercetin a lipophilic molecule on a most uniformly distributed PLA-4 NPs synthesized using Lonicera japonica leaf extract. Quercetin loaded PLA-4 NPs were observed for slow and sustained release of quercetin molecule. Conclusions This green approach based on PEs mediated synthesis of stable PLA NPs pave the way for encapsulating drug/small molecules, nutraceuticals and other bioactive ingredients for safer cellular uptake, biodistribution and targeted delivery. Hence, such PEs synthesized PLA NPs would be useful to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated small molecules/drugs. Furthermore, different types of plants can be explored for the synthesis of PLA as well as other

  14. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. EST analysis of the scaly green flagellate Mesostigma viride (Streptophyta: Implications for the evolution of green plants (Viridiplantae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkonian Michael

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Viridiplantae (land plants and green algae consist of two monophyletic lineages, the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta. The Streptophyta include all embryophytes and a small but diverse group of freshwater algae traditionally known as the Charophyceae (e.g. Charales, Coleochaete and the Zygnematales. The only flagellate currently included in the Streptophyta is Mesostigma viride Lauterborn. To gain insight into the genome evolution in streptophytes, we have sequenced 10,395 ESTs from Mesostigma representing 3,300 independent contigs and compared the ESTs of Mesostigma with available plant genomes (Arabidopsis, Oryza, Chlamydomonas, with ESTs from the bryophyte Physcomitrella, the genome of the rhodophyte Cyanidioschyzon, the ESTs from the rhodophyte Porphyra, and the genome of the diatom Thalassiosira. Results The number of expressed genes shared by Mesostigma with the embryophytes (90.3 % of the expressed genes showing similarity to known proteins is higher than with Chlamydomonas (76.1 %. In general, cytosolic metabolic pathways, and proteins involved in vesicular transport, transcription, regulation, DNA-structure and replication, cell cycle control, and RNA-metabolism are more conserved between Mesostigma and the embryophytes than between Mesostigma and Chlamydomonas. However, plastidic and mitochondrial metabolic pathways, cytoskeletal proteins and proteins involved in protein folding are more conserved between Mesostigma and Chlamydomonas than between Mesostigma and the embryophytes. Conclusion Our EST-analysis of Mesostigma supports the notion that this organism should be a suitable unicellular model for the last flagellate common ancestor of the streptophytes. Mesostigma shares more genes with the embryophytes than with the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, although both organisms are flagellate unicells. Thus, it seems likely that several major physiological changes (e.g. in the regulation of photosynthesis

  16. Biopesticide effect of green compost against fusarium wilt on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, M; Hernandez, M T; Garcia, C; Bernal, A; Pascual, J A

    2005-01-01

    The biopesticide effect of four green composts against fusarium wilt in melon plants and the effect of soil quality in soils amended with composts were assayed. The composts consisted of pruning wastes, with or without addition of coffee wastes (3/1 and 4/1, dry wt/dry wt) or urea (1000/1, dry wt/dry wt). In vitro experiments suggested the biopesticide effect of the composts against Fusarium oxysporum, while only the compost of pine bark and urea (1000/1dry wt/dry wt) had an abiotic effect. Melon plant growth with composts and F. oxysporum was one to four times greater than in the non-amended soil, although there was no significant decrease in the level of the F. oxysporum in the soil. The addition of composts to the soil also improved its biological quality, as assessed by microbiological and biochemical parameters: ATP and hydrolases involved in the P (phosphatase), C (beta-glucosidase) and N (urease) cycles. Green composts had greater beneficial characteristics, improved plant growth and controlled fusarium wilt in melon plants. These composts improve the soil quality of semi-arid agricultural soils. Biotic and abiotic factors from composts have been tested as responsible of their biopesticide activity against fusarium wilt.

  17. A New Method for Sensing Soil Water Content in Green Roofs Using Plant Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Natalia F; Rojas, Claudia; Bonilla, Carlos A; Vargas, Ignacio T

    2017-12-28

    Green roofs have many benefits, but in countries with semiarid climates the amount of water needed for irrigation is a limiting factor for their maintenance. The use of drought-tolerant plants such as Sedum species, reduces the water requirements in the dry season, but, even so, in semiarid environments these can reach up to 60 L m -2 per day. Continuous substrate/soil water content monitoring would facilitate the efficient use of this critical resource. In this context, the use of plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) emerges as a suitable and more sustainable alternative for monitoring water content in green roofs in semiarid climates. In this study, bench and pilot-scale experiments using seven Sedum species showed a positive relationship between current generation and water content in the substrate. PMFC reactors with higher water content (around 27% vs. 17.5% v / v ) showed larger power density (114.6 and 82.3 μW m -2 vs. 32.5 μW m -2 ). Moreover, a correlation coefficient of 0.95 (±0.01) between current density and water content was observed. The results of this research represent the first effort of using PMFCs as low-cost water content biosensors for green roofs.

  18. A lignite-geothermal hybrid power and hydrogen production plant for green cities and sustainable buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkis, B. [Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Turkey is rich in both geothermal energy and lignite reserves, which in many cases, are co-located. This condition makes it feasible to utilize both lignite and geothermal energy in a hybrid form for combined power heat, and cold generation, which may lead to optimally energy and exergy efficient, environmentally benign, and economically sound applications. This paper presents a novel concept of hybrid lignite-geothermal plant for a district energy system and hydrogen production facility in Aydin with special emphasis on high performance, green buildings and green districts. In this concept, lignite is first introduced to a partially fluidized-bed gasifier and then to a fluidized-bed gas cleaning unit, which produces synthetic gas and finally hydrogen. The by-products, namely char and ash are used in a fluidized-bed combustor to produce power. Waste heat from all these steps are utilized in a district heating system along with heat received from geothermal production wells after power is generated there. H{sub 2}S gas obtained from the separator system is coupled with hydrogen production process at the lignite plant. Absorption cooling systems and thermal storage tanks complement the hybrid system for the tri-generation district energy system. On the demand side, the new, green OSTIM OSB administration building in Ankara is exemplified for greener, low-exergy buildings that will compound the environmental benefits.

  19. THE STRUCTURE OF THE SEED YIELD OF BROAD BEANS IN THE SOUTH CENTRAL ZONE OF THE SOUTH OF THE CENTRAL BLACK EARTH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Kurkina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rich in high quality protein, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids and trace elements seeds, green fruits and young leaves broad beans (Vicia faba L. var. major Harz has long been used in the food, and the culture of beans are promising in biological agriculture and horticulture. The aim of this work was to study the structure of seed production of different varieties of broad beans in the South Central zone of the region. At the Botanical garden BelSU (Belgorod to study the structure of seed production of different varieties of broad beans (Belarusiskie, Velena, Russkie chernie, Aquadul and determined the biochemical composition of seeds. Optimal height of attachment of the first fruit for mechanical harvesting (20-25 cm characteristic of plants of all studied varieties. Weight of the fetus, according to the coefficient of variability, equal to 45%, distinguished by a strong variability on grades with a maximum grade of Velena. The length of fruit ranged from 9 to 13 cm and were characterized by moderate variability (V=20%. Seeds production is determinened not only by size of fruits of beans, but and its important components such as 1000 seed weight. Protein content in the seeds at 30% different varieties of broad beans domestic breeding. Contents of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and iron is higher in the cotyledons than in the skin. Dark purple color of the seed varieties of Russian black is due to the biosynthesis useful for human organism anthocyanins in seed peel.

  20. Effect of vermicast generated from an allelopathic weed lantana (Lantana camara) on seed germination, plant growth, and yield of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, M; Hussain, N; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2014-11-01

    In perhaps the first-ever study of its kind, the effect of vermicompost, derived solely from an allelopathic weed, on the germination, growth, and yield of a botanical species, has been carried out. In test plots, the soil was treated with the vermicompost of lantana (Lantana camara) at the rates of 5, 7.5, and 10 t ha(-1), and cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) was grown on it. The performance of these systems was compared with the systems in which the soil was fortified with inorganic fertilizers (IFs) in concentrations equivalent to those present in the respective vermicompost (VC) treatments. Additionally, a set of control was studied in which the soil was used without fortification by either VC or IF. It was seen that up to 51.5 % greater germination success occurred in the VC treatments compared to controls. VC also supported better plant growth in terms of stem diameter, shoot length, shoot mass, number of leaves, and leaf pigments. The positive impact extended up to fruit yield. In addition, vermicast application enhanced root nodule formation, reduced disease incidence, and allowed for a smaller number of stunted plants. The results indicate that allelopathic ingredients of lantana seem to have been totally eliminated during the course of its vermicomposting and that lantana vermicompost has the potential to support germination, growth, and fruit yield better than equivalent quantities of IFs.

  1. Eficácia de extratos de nim para o controle do oídio do feijoeiro Effectiveness of neem extracts in controlling the powdery mildew of bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Monteiro de Toledo Piza Gomes Carneiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O nim, Azadirachta indica, vem sendo estudado nos últimos anos para o controle de fitopatógenos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do óleo, do extrato de sementes e do extrato de folhas de nim no controle do oídio do feijoeiro, em casa de vegetação. Uma formulação comercial de óleo emulsionável de nim foi testada em concentrações entre 0,25 e 2,0%, em aplicações antes ou após o surgimento dos sintomas da doença. O extrato de sementes foi produzido em laboratório por meio da trituração das sementes em água destilada, sendo pulverizado 48 horas antes ou 24 horas após a inoculação do patógeno. Avaliou-se, após o surgimento dos sintomas, a eficiência de uma formulação comercial de extrato de folhas, nas concentrações de 0,25 e 0,5%. Verificou-se que o óleo de nim foi eficiente para o controle da doença quando aplicado antes ou depois do surgimento dos sintomas. O extrato de sementes controlou a doença nas três concentrações testadas. Por outro lado, o extrato de folhas não foi eficiente no controle do oídio do feijoeiro.The neem, Azadirachta indica, has been studied in the last years for the use in controlling plant pathogens. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the neem oil, seed kernel extract and leaf extract on the control of the powdery mildew of the bean plant under green house conditions. The emulsified neem oil was tested for concentrations between 0.25 and 2.0% and sprayed before or after the appearance of the symptoms of the disease. The seed kernel extract was produced under laboratory conditions by grinding the kernels in distilled water, which was sprayed 48 hours before or 24 hours after the inoculation of the pathogen. It was also evaluated the efficiency of a commercial leaf extract at the concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5% which was sprayed after the appearance of the symptoms. The results of this work showed that the neem oil was efficient in the control of the

  2. Common bean growth, N uptake and seed production in sandy loam soil as affected by application of plant residues, nitrogen and irrigation level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, A.A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm, Inshas, atomic energy authority, egypt. Common bean seeds e.v. Nebrasks were cultivated in sandy loan soil using drip irrigation system prepared for this purpose. Two water regimes, i.e., 100% (793.0 m 3 /fed.) and 65% (513.0 m 3 /fed.) of maximum available water were used in main plots. Where in sub plots two fertilizers types were applied i.e., soybean plant residues which contains N 15 labelled as an organic matter without any addition of any fertilizer and nitrogen as chemical fertilizer without using organic matter. The obtained results indicated that, application of plant residues was superior for total seed yield comparing to nitrogen fertilization treatments. This N source with irrigation level of 793.33 m 3 /fed. had a slight increase in total seed yield comparing with (513.0 m 3 /fed.). Irrigation level of 513.0 m 3 /fed. (65% MAW) as well as application of soybean plant residues showed the highest value of water use efficiency. The highest value of N seed percentage was obtained irrigation level with (513.0 m 3 /fed.). Soybean plant residues improved and increased seeds N content, and total seeds protein content. Both N chemical and irrigation level (65% Maw) recorded highest values with N 15 % atom excess. This result has been obtained at two growth stages and seed yield. The same trend of N 15 % atom excess reflected N utilized with both growth stages and seed yield

  3. Biochar increases plant growth and alters microbial communities via regulating the moisture and temperature of green roof substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haoming; Ma, Jinyi; Wei, Jiaxing; Gong, Xin; Yu, Xichen; Guo, Hui; Zhao, Yanwen

    2018-09-01

    Green roofs have increasingly been designed and applied to relieve environmental problems, such as water loss, air pollution as well as heat island effect. Substrate and vegetation are important components of green roofs providing ecosystem services and benefiting the urban development. Biochar made from sewage sludge could be potentially used as the substrate amendment for green roofs, however, the effects of biochar on substrate quality and plant performance in green roofs are still unclear. We evaluated the effects of adding sludge biochar (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, v/v) to natural soil planted with three types of plant species (ryegrass, Sedum lineare and cucumber) on soil properties, plant growth and microbial communities in both green roof and ground ecosystems. Our results showed that sludge biochar addition significantly increased substrate moisture, adjusted substrate temperature, altered microbial community structure and increased plant growth. The application rate of 10-15% sludge biochar on the green roof exerted the most significant effects on both microbial and plant biomass by 63.9-89.6% and 54.0-54.2% respectively. Path analysis showed that biochar addition had a strong effect on microbial biomass via changing the soil air-filled porosity, soil moisture and temperature, and promoted plant growth through the positive effects on microbial biomass. These results suggest that the applications of biochar at an appropriate rate can significantly alter plant growth and microbial community structure, and increase the ecological benefits of green roofs via exerting effects on the moisture, temperature and nutrients of roof substrates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sulfur mineralization of different plant materials labelled with 35 S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu Junior, Cassio H.

    1993-01-01

    This study was carried out, in green house conditions, with the objective of evaluating the effect of incorporation in soil of different plant materials labelled with 35 S and of incubation periods on the availability of sulfur to the bean test plants and on the dynamic of this element in the soil. The bean test plants dry matter yield ranged from 2.00 to 3.79 g/plant, the S content and absorption ranged from 118.20 to 194.04 mg/100 g and 2.61 to 6.34 mg/plant respectively. The 35 S derived from the incorporated bean plant material contributed with 12 to 256% of total S absorbed by bean test plant; rice plant material contributed with 12 to 22%; soybean plant material contributed 11 to 18%; corn plant material at rate of 7 g with, 11 to 19% and corn at rate of 3.5 g; with 7 to 1%. Plant material incorporation showed 35 S using efficiency by bean test plant of 21.41 to 9.94% by incorporated rice plant material, of 16.12 to 7.79% by rice material, of 13.11 to 6.49% by soybean material, of 10.24 to 6.21% by corn at rate of 3.5 g and of 7.41 to 3.81% by corn at rate of 7 g.Incorporated plant material with C/S relationship near 120, such as bean and rice, promoted desirable and favorable alteration in soil, while materials with C/S higher than 250, such as soybean and corn, led to unsatisfactory and undesirable alteration. The characteristic of incorporated plant materials which more affected its behavior was the C/S relationship, which depended on its physiological stage on collect timing. (author)

  5. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extract: Mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Teimuri-mofrad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we examine the greenest nanoparticles of zero-valent metals, metal oxides and metal salts, with emphasis on recent developments routes. Products from nature or those derived from natural products, such as extracts of several plants or parts of plants, tea, coffee, banana, simple amino acids, as well as wine, table sugar and glucose, have been used as reductants and as capping agents during the present synthesis method. Polyphenols found in plant material often play a key role in the processes mentioned here. The techniques involved are generally one-pot processes, environmentally friendly and simple. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using several extracts and spices extracts was conducted, in which aqueous extracts HAuCl4.3H2O reduce to Au° has establishing themselves in specific crystal phase. Synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by the color change of auric chloride which is yellow. The growth of nanoparticles was monitored by the behavior of surface Plasmon using UV-Vis spectroscopy; also the pH was determined meanwhile. Moreover, this approach is not only of a green rapid synthesis kind and considered as a better alternative to chemical synthesis, but also found to be effective for large scale synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

  6. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Ahmad, Mudasir; Swami, Babu Lal; Ikram, Saiqa

    2015-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are being utilized in every phase of science along with engineering including medical fields and are still charming the scientists to explore new dimensions for their respective worth which is generally attributed to their corresponding small sizes. The up-and-coming researches have proven their antimicrobial significance. Among several noble metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have attained a special focus. Conventionally silver nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical method using chemicals as reducing agents which later on become accountable for various biological risks due to their general toxicity; engendering the serious concern to develop environment friendly processes. Thus, to solve the objective; biological approaches are coming up to fill the void; for instance green syntheses using biological molecules derived from plant sources in the form of extracts exhibiting superiority over chemical and/or biological methods. These plant based biological molecules undergo highly controlled assembly for making them suitable for the metal nanoparticle syntheses. The present review explores the huge plant diversity to be utilized towards rapid and single step protocol preparatory method with green principles over the conventional ones and describes the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles. PMID:26843966

  7. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanoparticles are being utilized in every phase of science along with engineering including medical fields and are still charming the scientists to explore new dimensions for their respective worth which is generally attributed to their corresponding small sizes. The up-and-coming researches have proven their antimicrobial significance. Among several noble metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have attained a special focus. Conventionally silver nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical method using chemicals as reducing agents which later on become accountable for various biological risks due to their general toxicity; engendering the serious concern to develop environment friendly processes. Thus, to solve the objective; biological approaches are coming up to fill the void; for instance green syntheses using biological molecules derived from plant sources in the form of extracts exhibiting superiority over chemical and/or biological methods. These plant based biological molecules undergo highly controlled assembly for making them suitable for the metal nanoparticle syntheses. The present review explores the huge plant diversity to be utilized towards rapid and single step protocol preparatory method with green principles over the conventional ones and describes the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles.

  8. 78 FR 25623 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    .... APHIS-2012-0042] RIN 0579-AD69 Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the... commercial shipments of fresh beans, shelled or in pods (French, green, snap, and string), from Jordan into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, the beans would have to be produced in...

  9. 78 FR 69285 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    .... APHIS-2012-0042] RIN 0579-AD69 Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the... shipments of fresh beans, shelled or in pods (French, green, snap, and string), from Jordan into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, the beans must be produced in accordance with a systems...

  10. Identification of biochemical features of defective Coffea arabica L. beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-05-01

    Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Origin of land plants: Do conjugating green algae hold the key?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkonian Michael

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The terrestrial habitat was colonized by the ancestors of modern land plants about 500 to 470 million years ago. Today it is widely accepted that land plants (embryophytes evolved from streptophyte algae, also referred to as charophycean algae. The streptophyte algae are a paraphyletic group of green algae, ranging from unicellular flagellates to morphologically complex forms such as the stoneworts (Charales. For a better understanding of the evolution of land plants, it is of prime importance to identify the streptophyte algae that are the sister-group to the embryophytes. The Charales, the Coleochaetales or more recently the Zygnematales have been considered to be the sister group of the embryophytes However, despite many years of phylogenetic studies, this question has not been resolved and remains controversial. Results Here, we use a large data set of nuclear-encoded genes (129 proteins from 40 green plant taxa (Viridiplantae including 21 embryophytes and six streptophyte algae, representing all major streptophyte algal lineages, to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of streptophyte algae and embryophytes. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that either the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of the Zygnematales and the Coleochaetales are the sister group to embryophytes. Conclusions Our analyses support the notion that the Charales are not the closest living relatives of embryophytes. Instead, the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of Zygnematales and Coleochaetales are most likely the sister group of embryophytes. Although this result is in agreement with a previously published phylogenetic study of chloroplast genomes, additional data are needed to confirm this conclusion. A Zygnematales/embryophyte sister group relationship has important implications for early land plant evolution. If substantiated, it should allow us to address important questions regarding the primary adaptations of viridiplants during the

  12. Detection of metabolites in Flor de Mayo common beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    katia

    2012-07-10

    Jul 10, 2012 ... beans involves beneficial effects of inoculation on plant growth and development parameters and can be taken ..... deficit as a driver of the mutualistic relationship between the fungus ... Utilization of the plant hormone indole-.

  13. Global genetic differentiation in a cosmopolitan pest of stored beans: effects of geography, host-plant usage and anthropogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuda, Midori; Kagoshima, Kumiko; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Genetic differentiation can be promoted allopatrically by geographic isolation of populations due to limited dispersal ability and diversification over time or sympatrically through, for example, host-race formation. In crop pests, the trading of crops across the world can lead to intermixing of genetically distinct pest populations. However, our understanding of the importance of allopatric and sympatric genetic differentiation in the face of anthropogenic genetic intermixing is limited. Here, we examined global sequence variation in two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that uses different legumes as hosts. We analyzed 180 samples from 42 populations of this stored bean pest from tropical and subtropical continents and archipelagos: Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and South America. For the mitochondrial genes, there was weak but significant genetic differentiation across continents/archipelagos. Further, we found pronounced differentiation among subregions within continents/archipelagos both globally and within Africa but not within Asia. We suggest that multiple introductions into Asia and subsequent intermixing within Asia have generated this pattern. The isolation by distance hypothesis was supported globally (with or without continents controlled) but not when host species was restricted to cowpeas Vigna unguiculata, the ancestral host of C. maculatus. We also document significant among-host differentiation both globally and within Asia, but not within Africa. We failed to reject a scenario of a constant population size in the recent past combined with selective neutrality for the mitochondrial genes. We conclude that mitochondrial DNA differentiation is primarily due to geographic isolation within Africa and to multiple invasions by different alleles, followed by host shifts, within Asia. The weak inter-continental differentiation is most likely due to frequent inter-continental gene

  14. Comparison of High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detector and with Tandem Mass Spectrometry methods for detection and quantification of Ochratoxin A in green and roasted coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Duarte da Costa Cunha Bandeira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two analytical methods for the determination and confirmation of ochratoxin A (OTA in green and roasted coffee samples were compared. Sample extraction and clean-up were based on liquid-liquid phase extraction and immunoaffinity column. The detection of OTA was carried out with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined either with fluorescence detection (FLD, or positive electrospray ionization (ESI+ coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS. The results obtained with the LC-ESI-MS/MS were specific and more sensitive, with the advantages in terms of unambiguous analyte identification, when compared with the HPLC-FLD.

  15. Plant performance on Mediterranean green roofs: interaction of species-specific hydraulic strategies and substrate water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Fabio; Trifilò, Patrizia; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Andri, Sergio; Savi, Tadeja; Nardini, Andrea

    2015-01-20

    Recent studies have highlighted the ecological, economic and social benefits assured by green roof technology to urban areas. However, green roofs are very hostile environments for plant growth because of shallow substrate depths, high temperatures and irradiance and wind exposure. This study provides experimental evidence for the importance of accurate selection of plant species and substrates for implementing green roofs in hot and arid regions, like the Mediterranean area. Experiments were performed on two shrub species (Arbutus unedo L. and Salvia officinalis L.) grown in green roof experimental modules with two substrates slightly differing in their water retention properties, as derived from moisture release curves. Physiological measurements were performed on both well-watered and drought-stressed plants. Gas exchange, leaf and xylem water potential and also plant hydraulic conductance were measured at different time intervals following the last irrigation. The substrate type significantly affected water status. Arbutus unedo and S. officinalis showed different hydraulic responses to drought stress, with the former species being substantially isohydric and the latter one anisohydric. Both A. unedo and S. officinalis were found to be suitable species for green roofs in the Mediterranean area. However, our data suggest that appropriate choice of substrate is key to the success of green roof installations in arid environments, especially if anisohydric species are employed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  16. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm 2 of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  17. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation.

  18. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  20. Dismantling and removal of the Niederaichbach nuclear power plant (KKN) to the 'Green Field'. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, L.; Prechtl, E.

    1998-04-01

    The major objective of the present project consisted in the complete dismantling and removal of the Niederaichbach nuclear power plant (KKN), ranging from the state of safe enclosure to re-establishing the original state of vegetation of the site (so-called 'green field'). By reaching this objective, principle feasibility of the complete removal of a power reactor was demonstrated. In addition, considerable experience has been gained with regard to the execution of all phases of such a complex project and project optimization. The following phases of the project can be distinguished: - Licensing procedure - dismantling of the inactive, contaminated and activated plant sections - disassembly of the activated building structures and decontamination of the buildings - demolition (conventional) of the buildings and recultivation of the site. Moreover, the project included the work performed under the direct supervision of the licensing authority, comprehensive radiation protection activities, the solution of waste management problems and the respective public relations work. (orig./MM) [de

  1. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  2. Drought-avoiding plants with low water use can achieve high rainfall retention without jeopardising survival on green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szota, Christopher; Farrell, Claire; Williams, Nicholas S G; Arndt, Stefan K; Fletcher, Tim D

    2017-12-15

    Green roofs are increasingly being used among the suite of tools designed to reduce the volume of surface water runoff generated by cities. Plants provide the primary mechanism for restoring the rainfall retention capacity of green roofs, but selecting plants with high water use is likely to increase drought stress. Using empirically-derived plant physiological parameters, we used a water balance model to assess the trade-off between rainfall retention and plant drought stress under a 30-year climate scenario. We compared high and low water users with either drought avoidance or drought tolerance strategies. Green roofs with low water-using, drought-avoiding species achieved high rainfall retention (66-81%) without experiencing significant drought stress. Roofs planted with other strategies showed high retention (72-90%), but they also experienced >50days of drought stress per year. However, not all species with the same strategy behaved similarly, therefore selecting plants based on water use and drought strategy alone does not guarantee survival in shallow substrates where drought stress can develop quickly. Despite this, it is more likely that green roofs will achieve high rainfall retention with minimal supplementary irrigation if planted with low water users with drought avoidance strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The lean ergonomics in green design of crude palm oil plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, L. N.; Matondang, R.

    2018-02-01

    Ergonomics can help manufacturing and industrial engineersmaximum work output without physical harm to workers.Physiology, biomechanics, anthropometrics, and allocation are the areas of ergonomics most useful to manufacturing in apllying the concept of Lean and Green in manufacturing. These systems require efficient production and low use of resources such as energy and material. Its philosophy encourage worker to look at waste. This concept is applied in one of national plant of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) that located in North Sumatera. The problem found in the company are the working posture and excessive workload of the workers. These conditions are affects to the their job performance. The study was carried out by evaluated the worker body position using the Work Posture Assesment (WPA) and Biomechanics method. The WPA results shows the operator’s working position was mostly bent more than 30 degrees. This indicates that almost all workers are felt musculoskeletal disorders during work hours. While the biomechanics analysis found the significant relation between the values of Recommended Weight Limit (RWL) and Lifting Index (LI) which the increase of RWL value will decrease the LI value. This indicated that the recommended load for a worker under certain circumstances affects the appointment made so as not to contain the risk of spinal injury. In fact these condition are due to in-efficiency in production which can be maintaned the green design of CPO plant by improving the existing work.

  4. The lipoxygenase metabolic pathway in plants: potential for industrial production of natural green leaf volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigot, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase enzymatic pathway is a widely studied mechanism in the plant kingdom. Combined actions of three enzymes: lipase, lipoxygenase (LOX and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL convert lipidic substrates such as C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids into short chain volatiles. These reactions, triggered by cell membrane disruptions, produce compounds known as Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs which are C6 or C9-aldehydes and alcohols. These GLVs are commonly used as flavors to confer a fresh green odor of vegetable to food products. Therefore, competitive biocatalytic productions have been developed to meet the high demand in these natural flavors. Vegetable oils, chosen for their lipidic acid profile, are converted by soybean LOX and plant HPL into natural GLVs. However this second step of the bioconversion presents low yield due to the HPL instability and the inhibition by its substrate. This paper will shortly describe the different enzymes involved in this bioconversion with regards to their chemical and enzymatic properties. Biotechnological techniques to enhance their production potentialities will be discussed along with their implication in a complete bioprocess, from the lipid substrate to the corresponding aldehydic or alcoholic flavors.

  5. Design and fabrication of adjustable red-green-blue LED light arrays for plant research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenitz J Dustin

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although specific light attributes, such as color and fluence rate, influence plant growth and development, researchers generally cannot control the fine spectral conditions of artificial plant-growth environments. Plant growth chambers are typically outfitted with fluorescent and/or incandescent fixtures that provide a general spectrum that is accommodating to the human eye and not necessarily supportive to plant development. Many studies over the last several decades, primarily in Arabidopsis thaliana, have clearly shown that variation in light quantity, quality and photoperiod can be manipulated to affect growth and control developmental transitions. Light emitting diodes (LEDs has been used for decades to test plant responses to narrow-bandwidth light. LEDs are particularly well suited for plant growth chambers, as they have an extraordinary life (about 100,000 hours, require little maintenance, and use negligible energy. These factors render LED-based light strategies particularly appropriate for space-biology as well as terrestrial applications. However, there is a need for a versatile and inexpensive LED array platform where individual wavebands can be specifically tuned to produce a series of light combinations consisting of various quantities and qualities of individual wavelengths. Two plans are presented in this report. Results In this technical report we describe the practical construction of tunable red-green-blue LED arrays to support research in plant growth and development. Two light fixture designs and corresponding circuitry are presented. The first is well suited for a laboratory environment for use in a finite area with small plants, such as Arabidopsis. The second is expandable and appropriate for growth chambers. The application of these arrays to early plant developmental studies has been validated with assays of hypocotyl growth inhibition/promotion and phototropic curvature in Arabidopsis seedlings

  6. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagoez, Vahram; Han, Susan S.; Manning, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O 3 -sensitive)/'R123' (O 3 -tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O 3 -sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O 3 -tolerant) were used to study the effects of O 3 on stomatal conductance (g s ), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O 3 and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O 3 . Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O 3 sensitivity and g s : while 'S156' had higher g s rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G s rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O 3 -tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O 3 in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O 3 -sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O 3 concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O 3 concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O 3 eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O 3 and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O 3 has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This appeared to be more evident in O 3 -sensitive cultivars. - O 3 has the potential to affect stomatal development and the presence of different control mechanisms on each leaf surface is confirmed

  7. Boron affects the growth and ultrastructure of castor bean plants Boro afeta o crescimento e a ultra-estrutura da mamoneira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Herisson da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of oleaginous plants like the castor bean guarantees employment for agricultural families and can contribute in energy and chemical sectors, especially in the northeastern semi-arid regions of Brazil. Boron (B deficiency is a widespread nutritional disorder despite the fact that various anthropogenic sources with high B content may increase soil B to toxic levels for plants. The present study was designed to investigate the ultrastructural effects of boron deficiency and toxicity on castor bean plants which were grown under greenhouse condition using plastic containers with 10 L of nutrient solution. Boron treatments comprised: control (no B; 0.27 mg L-1, 5.40 mg L-1 B pots (one plant per pot, tested in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The dry matter of all plant parts and B concentration were determined. Cellular ultrastructure was evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy on samples of leaves and petioles. Dry matter yield was affected by the B absence treatment but there was no difference for the 5.4 mg L-1 B (toxic conditions treatment. A marginal leaf burn at edge and tips of oldest leaves and absence of starch granules in chloroplasts were noted for the B toxicity treatment. The deformation of the youngest leaves, the death of the apical meristem as well as the swelling of the middle lamella, absence of starch granules in chloroplasts and petiole vessels untidily were observed in the B absent treatment. It is concluded that the production and development of castor bean plants is affected by boron deficiency, but not for boron toxicity conditions.A mamoneira é uma oleaginosa com grande potencial para a geração de renda na agricultura familiar e para produção de matéria prima para a indústria química e setor energético brasileiro, especialmente em regiões do semi-árido nordestino. A deficiência de boro (B ocorre de forma generalizada no Brasil e a aplicação excessiva deste

  8. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  9. Formas de fósforo em solos de várzea e biodisponibilidade para o feijoeiro Phosphorus forms in lowland soils and bioavailability to bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Arnaldo Fernandes

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras, com o objetivo de verificar a influência da aplicação de calcário e de P em algumas formas de P em quatro solos de várzea cultivados com feijoeiro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 5 x 2, com quatro repetições, a saber: quatro solos [Glei Húmico (GH, Glei Pouco Húmico (GP, Aluvial (A e Orgânico (O], cinco doses de P (75, 150, 300, 500 e 800 mg dm-3 de P e dois níveis de calagem (sem e com. Os solos foram incubados em vasos, por 30 dias, com as respectivas doses de calcário, e por mais 150 dias, com as doses de P. No final desse período, foram coletadas amostras de solo para o fracionamento de P, e o restante foi cultivado com feijoeiro. Cada parcela foi constituída por um vaso com 3 dm³, em que foram cultivadas duas plantas até o final do ciclo. A calagem e a adubação fosfatada influenciaram as formas de P de maneira distinta nos solos de várzea estudados; exceto no solo Glei Pouco Húmico, as formas de P lábil, tanto na ausência quanto na presença de calagem, tiveram pouca participação no P total dos solos. Na presença da calagem, o P lábil foi a forma de P preferencialmente absorvida pelas plantas de feijoeiro.An experiment was carried out in greenhouse of the Soil Science Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with the objective of verifying the influence of application of limestone and phosphorus on some forms of soil P in four lowland soils cultivated with bean plants. The experimental design utilized was a completely randomized in 4 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications, that means: four soils [Gley Humic (GH, Bog Soil (O, Alluvial (A and Low Humic Gley (GP], five doses of P (75, 150, 300, 500 and 800 mg dm-3 of P and two levels of liming (without and with. The soils were incubated

  10. Registration of ‘Long’s Peak’ Pinto Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to harvest dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have changed dramatically in the past 20 years to accommodate direct harvest systems that eliminate the need to undercut and windrow the crop before it can be threshed. Direct harvest systems cut the bean plant with a sickle bar on the comb...

  11. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... ... (physical and mechanical) properties, white kidney beans, moisture content, thousand grain mass, static coefficient of friction. INTRODUCTION. White kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a culti- vated plant grown for fresh and dry consumption and a common raw material in the canned food industry.

  12. RESPOSTA DO FEIJOEIRO A DOSES DE BORO EM CULTIVO DE INVERNO E DE PRIMAVERA DRY BEAN RESPONSE TO DOSES OF BORON IN WINTER AND SPRING PLANTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HIPÓLITO ASSUNÇÃO ANTONIO MASCARENHAS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento em vasos foi instalado em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de estudar a resposta do feijoeiro à aplicação de boro (B em solo com baixa disponibilidade desse nutriente. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de doses correspondentes a 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 kg.ha-1 de B, na forma de bórax. Dois ensaios foram desenvolvidos, sendo o primeiro no inverno (junho a julho e o outro na primavera (setembro a outubro. No ensaio do inverno, foi observada a deficiência de B, apenas na testemunha, fato comprovado pela análise de tecidos. Nos demais tratamentos não apareceram sintomas de deficiência e os teores do elemento na parte aérea das plantas foram considerados adequados. No ensaio de primavera, não foi observada deficiência visual de B, mesmo na testemunha. Em ambos os ensaios, aplicações superiores a 2 kg.ha-1 de B proporcionaram teores muito elevados do elemento nas plantas (138 a 710 mg.kg-1. Os dados sugerem que a deficiência é mais relevante no inverno e que o excesso é prejudicial, em qualquer época, ocasionando toxicidade.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of boron in dry bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grown in pots. The treatments consisted of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 kg.ha-1 of boron in the form of borax. Two identical experiments were carried out during the winter (June/July and the spring (September/October seasons. In the winter experiment, the boron deficiency symptoms were shown only by the control plants. In those conditions, the high concentrations of Ca and Mg and the low temperatures affected the boron absorption of the plants. The application of 1 kg.ha-1 of boron was sufficient to reduce the visible symptoms of B deficiency, and increased the dry weight of the shoots. At the rate of the 2 kg.ha-1 B or above there was excess of boron in the dry matter of the shoots. In the spring experiment there was no deficiency symptoms in the plants and the boron concentration was adequate

  13. Monochromatic green light induces an aberrant accumulation of geranylgeranyled chlorophylls in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materová, Zuzana; Sobotka, Roman; Zdvihalová, Barbora; Oravec, Michal; Nezval, Jakub; Karlický, Václav; Vrábl, Daniel; Štroch, Michal; Špunda, Vladimír

    2017-07-01

    Light quality is an important environmental factor affecting the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments whose production seems to be affected not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. In this work, we set out to identify unusual pigment detected in leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and explain its presence in plants grown under monochromatic green light (GL; 500-590 nm). The chromatographic analysis (HPLC-DAD) revealed that a peak belonging to this unknown pigment is eluted between chlorophyll (Chl) a and b. This pigment exhibited the same absorption spectrum and fluorescence excitation and emission spectra as Chl a. It was negligible in control plants cultivated under white light of the same irradiance (photosynthetic photon flux density of 240 μmol m -2  s -1 ). Mass spectrometry analysis of this pigment (ions m/z = 889 [M-H] - ; m/z = 949 [M+acetic acid-H] - ) indicates that it is Chl a with a tetrahydrogengeranylgeraniol side chain (containing two double bonds in a phytyl side chain; Chl a THGG ), which is an intermediate in Chl a synthesis. In plants grown under GL, the proportion of Chl a THGG to total Chl content rose to approximately 8% and 16% after 7 and 14 days of cultivation, respectively. Surprisingly, plants cultivated under GL exhibited drastically increased concentration of the enzyme geranylgeranyl reductase, which is responsible for the reduction of phytyl chain double bonds in the Chl synthesis pathway. This indicates impaired activity of this enzyme in GL-grown plants. A similar effect of GL on Chl synthesis was observed for distinct higher plant species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of inclusion of hydroxycinnamic and chlorogenic acids from green coffee bean in β-cyclodextrin on their interactions with whey, egg white and soy protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budryn, Grażyna; Pałecz, Bartłomiej; Rachwał-Rosiak, Danuta; Oracz, Joanna; Zaczyńska, Donata; Belica, Sylwia; Navarro-González, Inmaculada; Meseguer, Josefina María Vegara; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to characterise the interactions of hydroxycinnamic and chlorogenic acids (CHAs) from green coffee, with isolates of proteins from egg white (EWP), whey (WPC) and soy (SPI), depending on pH and temperature. The binding degree was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and an ultrahigh resolution hybrid quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometer with ESI source (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). As a result of binding, the concentration of CHAs in proteins ranged from 9.44-12.2, 11.8-13.1 and 12.1-14.4g/100g for SPI, WPC and EWP, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters of protein-ligand interactions were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and energetics of interactions at the atomic level by molecular modelling. The amount of CHAs released during proteolytic digestion was in the range 0.33-2.67g/100g. Inclusion of CHAs with β-cyclodextrin strongly limited these interactions to a level of 0.03-0.06g/100g. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of bean plants in soil contaminated with trifloxysulfuron-sodium after Stizolobium aterrimum and Canavalia ensiformis cultivation Desenvolvimento de plantas de feijão em solo contaminado com trifloxysulfuron-sodium, após o cultivo de Stizolobium aterrimum e Canavalia ensiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Procópio

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation, the use of plants to decontaminate soils and water resources from organic pollutants such as herbicides, is economically and environmentally a promising technique applied in many areas, including agriculture. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development of bean plants cultivated in the field, in soil with different levels of trifloxysulfuron-sodium contamination, following cultivation of two green manure species, as well as to evaluate the possibility of recontamination of the area by such herbicide with the straw permanence on the soil. The experiment was carried out in Coimbra, MG, Brazil, on a sandy clayey Red - Yellow Argisol from March to November 2003. Four levels of soil contamination with trifloxysulfuron-sodium (0.00; 3.75; 7.50; and 15.00 g ha-1 were used as well as the following five types of cultivation prior to bean sowing in the area after herbicide application: black velvet beans (Stizolobium aterrimum followed by removal of straw; S. aterrimum, followed by permanence of straw; jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, followed by removal of straw; C. ensiformis followed by permanence of straw; and without prior cultivation, weed-free (weeded control. The leguminous plants were kept in the area for 65 days, cut close to the soil, and with its aerial part left or not on the surface of the experimental plot, depending on the treatment. Fifteen days after the species were cut, bean was sown in the area. At 45 days after emergence (DAE of the bean plants, plant height and dry mass of the aerial part were evaluated. Grain productivity was determined during harvest. Height, dry matter of the aerial part and grain productivity of the bean plants, cultivated in an area previously contaminated with trifloxysulfuron-sodium at any of the levels tested, were higher with prior cultivation of S. aterrimum or C. ensiformis. At the lowest level of herbicide contamination, prior cultivation of C. ensiformis was found to be

  16. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Wu, Sasa; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2017-01-01

    Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm), violet (420 nm), blue (470 nm), or green (515 nm). We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates), and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants) over control plants. PMID:29190278

  17. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Rechner

    Full Text Available Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm, violet (420 nm, blue (470 nm, or green (515 nm. We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates, and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants over control plants.

  18. Lewis acid catalysis and Green oxidations: sequential tandem oxidation processes induced by Mn-hyperaccumulating plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, Vincent; Renard, Brice-Loïc; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Among the phytotechnologies used for the reclamation of degraded mining sites, phytoextraction aims to diminish the concentration of polluting elements in contaminated soils. However, the biomass resulting from the phytoextraction processes (highly enriched in polluting elements) is too often considered as a problematic waste. The manganese-enriched biomass derived from native Mn-hyperaccumulating plants of New Caledonia was presented here as a valuable source of metallic elements of high interest in chemical catalysis. The preparation of the catalyst Eco-Mn1 and reagent Eco-Mn2 derived from Grevillea exul exul and Grevillea exul rubiginosa was investigated. Their unusual polymetallic compositions allowed to explore new reactivity of low oxidative state of manganese-Mn(II) for Eco-Mn1 and Mn(IV) for Eco-Mn2. Eco-Mn1 was used as a Lewis acid to catalyze the acetalization/elimination of aldehydes into enol ethers with high yields; a new green and stereoselective synthesis of (-)-isopulegol via the carbonyl-ene cyclization of (+)-citronellal was also performed with Eco-Mn1. Eco-Mn2 was used as a mild oxidative reagent and controlled the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols into aldehydes with quantitative yields. Oxidative cleavage was interestingly noticed when Eco-Mn2 was used in the presence of a polyol. Eco-Mn2 allowed direct oxidative iodination of ketones without using iodine, which is strongly discouraged by new environmental legislations. Finally, the combination of the properties in the Eco-Mn catalysts and reagents gave them an unprecedented potential to perform sequential tandem oxidation processes through new green syntheses of p-cymene from (-)-isopulegol and (+)-citronellal; and a new green synthesis of functionalized pyridines by in situ oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridines.

  19. Arsenic mobility in brownfield soils amended with green waste compost or biochar and planted with Miscanthus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, William; Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Riby, Philip; Lepp, Nicholas W.

    2009-01-01

    Degraded land that is historically contaminated from different sources of industrial waste provides an opportunity for conversion to bioenergy fuel production and also to increase sequestration of carbon in soil through organic amendments. In pot experiments, As mobility was investigated in three different brownfield soils amended with green waste compost (GWC, 30% v/v) or biochar (BC, 20% v/v), planted with Miscanthus. Using GWC improved crop yield but had little effect on foliar As uptake, although the proportion of As transferred from roots to foliage differed considerably between the three soils. It also increased dissolved carbon concentrations in soil pore water that influenced Fe and As mobility. Effects of BC were less pronounced, but the impacts of both amendments on SOC, Fe, P and pH are likely to be critical in the context of As leaching to ground water. Growing Miscanthus had no measurable effect on As mobility. - Green waste compost enhances water-soluble iron, phosphorus and carbon, increasing arsenic mobility in soil pore water.

  20. Response of different genotypes of wheat, rice and black beans to anther, embryo and other tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, E.; Amador, D.; Calderon, J.; Alvarez, G.; Alvarado, J.; Ramazzini, H.; Ramos, S.; Acuna, G.; Zuniga, B.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the basic studies we have been conducting in our laboratory is to establish callus induction and in vitro plant regeneration protocols starting with several tissues of Guatemalan varieties of wheat (Triticum aesticum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and especially black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in order to obtain disease resistance, earliness, and dwarf plants. Wheat anthers and immature embryos of varieties Patzun, Comalapa, Chocoyo, and Xequijel cultured in N 6 , Potato II, and MS basal media supplemented with auxin and cytokinin gave the best responses in callus induction and plant regeneration. Anthers and mature embryos of indica rice varieties Precozicta and Virginai, when cultured in MS, B 5 , N 6 , and Potato II basal media with different hormonal combinations gave a good response in callus induction. However, a satisfactory response in plant regeneration was not obtained. With black beans, when hypocotyls and mature embryos of black bean varieties Quinack Che and Parramos were cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA and kinetin, more than 60% callus induction was produced. When Quinack Che calli were transferred to MS basal medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA plus 0.5 mg/l BAP, green points of regeneration were visible in these calli. (author). 34 refs, 28 tabs

  1. A contemplation on the secondary origin of green algal and plant plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsoo Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A single origin of plastids and the monophyly of three “primary” plastid-containing groups – the Chloroplastida (or Viridiplantae; green algae+land plants, Rhodophyta, and Glaucophyta – are widely accepted, mainstream hypotheses that form the basis for many comparative evolutionary studies. This “Archaeplastida” hypothesis, however, thus far has not been unambiguously confirmed by phylogenetic studies based on nucleocytoplasmic markers. In view of this as well as other lines of evidence, we suggest the testing of an alternate hypothesis that plastids of the Chloroplastida are of secondary origin. The new hypothesis is in agreement with, or perhaps better explains, existing data, including both the plastidal and nucleocytoplasmic characteristics of the Chloroplastida in comparison to those of other groups.

  2. Feasibility study of a Green Power Plant. Final report. [Offshore pumped hydro storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This project is a technical evaluation and a feasibility study of a concept called the Green Power Plant (GPP), developed by Seahorn Energy Aps. The Green Power Plant is an offshore pumped hydro storage facility constructed from prefabricated elements and with integrated renewable energy production. Pumped hydro storage is a known technology with a proven roundtrip energy storage efficiency of 80%. The focus of the GPP project is on simplifying and industrializing the construction of the reservoir wall, thereby achieving a cost efficient solution. The reservoir structure is dependent on the site on which the reservoir is established, thus Kriegers Flak in the Baltic Sea has been chosen as basis for the technical evaluation. As soil conditions vary, the technical evaluations have been based on a general soil profile. A water depth of 25m has been chosen as basis for the evaluation. A reservoir with a diameter of 2 km has been evaluated as baseline scenario. Feasibility of the GPP was evaluated based on the cost and income estimates. For the baseline scenario an internal rate of return of 6.6% was found for a period of 35 years. A sensitivity analysis reveals internal rates of return over 35 years varying from 4.9% to 10.9%. Especially larger reservoir diameters increase profitability of the GPP. The results from this project will be utilized in raising funds for further development of the GPP concept. Seahorn Energy Aps aims at optimizing the wind turbine integration, the steel pile wall structure and the pump-turbine integration in a future project towards construction of a demonstration facility. (LN)

  3. Comparing grey water versus tap water and coal ash versus perlite on growth of two plant species on green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, Har'el; Solodar, Ariel; Bawab, Omar; Levy, Shay; Kadas, Gyongyver J; Blaustein, Leon; Greenbaum, Noam

    2018-08-15

    Green roofs provide important ecosystem services in urban areas. In Mediterranean and other semi-arid climate regions, most perennial plants on green roofs need to be irrigated during the dry season. However, the use of freshwater in such regions is scarce. Therefore, the possibility of using grey water should be examined. Coal ash, produced primarily from the burning of coal in power plants, constitutes an environmental contaminant that should be disposed. One option is to use ash as a growing substrate for plants. Here, we compare the effects of irrigating with grey- versus tap-water and using ash versus perlite as growing substrates in green roofs. The study was conducted in northern Israel in a Mediterranean climate. The design was full factorial with three factors: water-type (grey or tap-water)×substrate-type (coal ash vs perlite)×plant species (Phyla nodiflora, Convolvulus mauritanicus or no-plant). The development of plants and the quality of drainage water along the season, as well as quality of the used substrates were monitored. Both plant species developed well under all the experimental conditions with no effect of water type or substrate type. Under all treatments, both plant species enhanced electrical conductivity (EC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the drainage water. In the summer, EC and COD reached levels that are unacceptable in water and are intended to be reused for irrigation. We conclude that irrigating with grey water and using coal ash as a growth substrate can both be implemented in green roofs. The drainage from tap water as well as from grey water can be further used for irrigating the roof, but for that, COD and EC levels must be lowered by adding a sufficient amount of tap water before reusing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Use of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) as Green and Red/Far-Red Light Sources in Plant Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The use of green, red, and far-red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources for plant physiological studies is outlined and evaluated. Indicates that LED lamps have the advantage over conventional light sources in that they are lightweight, low-cost, portable, easily constructed, and do not require color filters. (Author/DH)

  5. USO DE REGULADOR DE CRESCIMENTO EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO DE INVERNO PLANT GROWTH STIMULANT APPLICATION ON WINTER COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salatiér Buzetti

    2011-04-01

    contradictory. For that reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant growth stimulant application on components and grains yield of two winter common bean cultivars under Brazilian savannah conditions. The experiment was conducted during the 2007 fall-winter season, at the Unesp experimental farm, Ilha Solteira campus, in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a strips scheme, with four replications. The treatments consisted of a combination of five plant growth stimulant doses (0 L ha-1; 0.5 L ha-1; 1.0 L ha-1; 1.5 L ha-1; and 2.0 L ha-1, composed of three vegetable hormones (kinetin, gibberellic acid, and indolbutyric acid, in two application periods: at the vegetative stage (V4 and at the reproductive stage (R5. Vegetative characteristics such as plant height, first pod insertion height, number of grains per pod, and weight of 100 grains were not affected by the product application. However, its application at the reproductive stage (R5 increased the number of grains per plant and grain yield of the Carioca Precoce and IAC Apuã bean cultivars. For that increase, 2 L ha-1 was the best plant growth stimulant dose.

    KEY-WORDS: Phaseolus vulgaris; yield components; application period.

  6. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Han, Susan S. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O{sub 3} on stomatal conductance (g {sub s}), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O{sub 3} and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O{sub 3}. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O{sub 3} sensitivity and g {sub s}: while 'S156' had higher g {sub s} rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G {sub s} rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O{sub 3}-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O{sub 3} in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O{sub 3} concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O{sub 3} concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O{sub 3} eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O{sub 3} and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O{sub 3} has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This

  7. Response of bean (Vicia faba L.) plants to low sink demand by measuring the gas exchange rates and chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo-Fang; Duan, Wei; Liu, Guo-Tian; Xu, Hong-Guo; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Shao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The decline of photosynthesis in plants under low sink demand is well known. Previous studies focused on the relationship between stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthetic rate (Pn). These studies investigated the effect of changes in Photosystem II (PSII) function on the Pn decline under low sink demand. However, little is known about its effects on different limiting steps of electron transport chain in PSII under this condition. Two-month-old bean plants were processed by removing pods and flowers (low sink demand). On the 1(st) day after low sink demand treatment, a decline of Pn was accompanied by a decrease in gs and internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration ratio (Ci/Ca). From the 3(rd) to 9(th) day, Pn and gs declined continuously while Ci/Ca ratio remained stable in the treatment. Moreover, these values were lower than that of control. Wk (a parameter reflecting the damage to oxygen evolving complex of the donor side of PSII) values in the treatment were significantly higher than their corresponding control values. However, RCQA (a parameter reflecting the number of active RCs per excited cross-section of PSII) values in the treatment were significantly lower than control from the 5(th) day. From the 11(th) to 21(st) day, Pn and gs of the treatment continued to decline and were lower than control. This was accompanied by a decrease of RCQA, and an increase of Wk. Furthermore, the quantum yield parameters φPo, φEo and ψEo in the treatment were lower than in control; however, Ci/Ca values in the treatment gradually increased and were significantly higher than control on the 21(st) day. Stomatal limitation during the early stage, whereas a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal limitation during the middle stage might be responsible for the reduction of Pn under low sink demand. Non-stomatal limitation during the late stages after the removal of the sink of roots and pods may also cause Pn reduction. The non-stomatal limitation was associated with the

  8. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES, MORPHOLOGIC, PROTEINIC AND CULINARY DESCRIPTION OF THE GRAIN OF BEAN CULTIVARS SOWED IN THE REGION OF TLATZALA, GUERRERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Solano Cervantes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The research had for object describe the productive process of the of bean culture in the community of Tlatzala, Guerrero and the species diversity by means of the morphologic characteristics of the grain, protein content and the culinary quality. 30 questionnaires were applied to bean producers and 20 varieties of bean were collected from which the morphologic characters of the grain, protein content and the culinary characters were obtained. The production cycle of bean initiates in May and finishes in October. The technology used is traditional, characterized by the use of the yoke in the labors of the culture that demands workforce to realize the activities of manual form. The biological cycle of the varieties begins in June, the variation at time is determinated for the cultivated genotype. The determinate or indeterminate bush beans are predominant (65 %. The sowing systems are intercalated (50 % and associated with maize (30 % and monoculture (20 %. The varieties Rojito and Blanco have special uses, the first one has the attribute of being consumed as green-bean all the year around and the second one is used to prepare the dish called Chile-ajo. The Black beans were the most frequent (45 % followed by the Red beans (35 % and the least frequent were the Striped one (5 % and Muddy-like (5 %. The kidney shape of grain was the most abundant (85 % and the oval one was the least frequent (5 %. The grain weight changed from 14.4 up to 38.5 g. The sizes of grains founded were medium (50 % and small (50 %. The protein content registered was: White beans 24.68 %, Red bean 24.64 %, Black beans 23.5 % and Striped beans of guide 22.27 %. The Rojito Enano had the major protein content (27.6 %. The cooking times were: Red beans 73 minutes, Striped of guide bean 65.5, Blacks bean 64.6 and Whites bean 59. The Black bean Enano-1 used less time (54 minutes. The Striped of guide bean registered the major amount of solid (0.32 %, followed by the Black beans

  9. Yield and Quality of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata (l. R. Wilczek Seeds Produced in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil MISIAK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to do field and laboratory assessments of yield and quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek seeds cultivated in Western Poland. Mean yield of seeds per plant was higher for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. than for mung one: 13.1 g and 2.58 g, respectively. The mean 1000 mung seeds weight was 50.9 g and their germination – 78 %. Germination capacities of seeds of both beans in the field were similar. Mung beans, compared to common bean, had much smaller seeds, started to bloom later and produced mature seeds later than the latter. Mung bean seeds had more total proteins and Magnesium and Copper than common bean seeds. In Western Poland, production of high quality mung bean seeds was possible.

  10. GreenVMAS: Virtual Organization Based Platform for Heating Greenhouses Using Waste Energy from Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Briones, Alfonso; Chamoso, Pablo; Yoe, Hyun; Corchado, Juan M

    2018-03-14

    The gradual depletion of energy resources makes it necessary to optimize their use and to reuse them. Although great advances have already been made in optimizing energy generation processes, many of these processes generate energy that inevitably gets wasted. A clear example of this are nuclear, thermal and carbon power plants, which lose a large amount of energy that could otherwise be used for different purposes, such as heating greenhouses. The role of GreenVMAS is to maintain the required temperature level in greenhouses by using the waste energy generated by power plants. It incorporates a case-based reasoning system, virtual organizations and algorithms for data analysis and for efficient interaction with sensors and actuators. The system is context aware and scalable as it incorporates an artificial neural network, this means that it can operate correctly even if the number and characteristics of the greenhouses participating in the case study change. The architecture was evaluated empirically and the results show that the user's energy bill is greatly reduced with the implemented system.

  11. GreenVMAS: Virtual Organization Based Platform for Heating Greenhouses Using Waste Energy from Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso González-Briones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The gradual depletion of energy resources makes it necessary to optimize their use and to reuse them. Although great advances have already been made in optimizing energy generation processes, many of these processes generate energy that inevitably gets wasted. A clear example of this are nuclear, thermal and carbon power plants, which lose a large amount of energy that could otherwise be used for different purposes, such as heating greenhouses. The role of GreenVMAS is to maintain the required temperature level in greenhouses by using the waste energy generated by power plants. It incorporates a case-based reasoning system, virtual organizations and algorithms for data analysis and for efficient interaction with sensors and actuators. The system is context aware and scalable as it incorporates an artificial neural network, this means that it can operate correctly even if the number and characteristics of the greenhouses participating in the case study change. The architecture was evaluated empirically and the results show that the user’s energy bill is greatly reduced with the implemented system.

  12. A comparative study on larvicidal potential of selected medicinal plants over green synthesized silver nano particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zameer Ahmed Khader

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Larvicidal activity was assessed for alcoholic extracts of Phyllanthus amarus, Annona squamosa, Coccinia grandis and Eclipta prostrata extracted using solvents of various polarity. Third instar stage larvae of Dengue-vector, Aedes aegypti and Japanese encephalitis (JE causing mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus were subjected to larvicidal bioassay at various concentrations (1000, 500, 250 ppm. The results explored that the phytoconstituents and secondary metabolites present in all the plants elucidated potent larvicidal activity. Among the tested extract ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and hexane extract expressed significant larvicidal activity. Similarly, these plants were subjected to green synthesis of silver nanoparticles, characterized and subjected for its larvicidal activity against Anopheles stephensi causing malaria. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–VIS spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy respectively. The FTIR analysis strongly supported the capping behaviour of bio-reduced synthesized silver nanoparticles which in turn imparted the high stability of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The average size of synthesized nanoparticles was less than 1 µm, most spherical in shape with SEM analysis. The findings revealed that Eclipta prostrata and Annona squamosa has effective larvicidal activity, whereas all the synthesised nanoparticles demonstrated dose dependent activity even at very low concentration and the findings reveals that these extracts and nanoparticles can be a better remedy against these mosquitoes.

  13. Evaluation of seed yield and competition indices of corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with different bean (Phaseolus spp. types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakime Ziaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the intercropping of corn (Zea mays L. and bean cultivars (Phaseolus spp. an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replicaties at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2010. The experimental treatments consisted of sole cropping of corn, white bean, bush bean, red bean, pinto bean and sword bean and 50:50 ratio of corn and bean types. In this experiment, the corn-bush bean and corn-pinto bean intercropping had the highest seed yield (5734.4 and 5674.3 kg/ha-1, respectively and land equivalent ratio (LER=1.13 and 1.21, respectively. Evaluated intercropping indices indicated that red bean (k= 1.85, pinto bean (k= 2.41 and sword bean (k= 2.80 had the highest crowding coefficient whereas the maximum aggressivity value was belonged to pinto bean intercropped with corn (A= -0.02. Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.

  14. reaction of selected common bean genotypes to physiological races

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Department of Biological Sciences, Egerton University, P. O. Box 536, Egerton, Kenya. 1Department of Plant ... order to identify potential sources of resistance to angular leaf spot. Selected bean ...... phaseolicola (Burk, 1926) Young, Dye and.

  15. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  16. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  17. Computational Identification Raises a Riddle for Distribution of Putative NACHT NTPases in the Genome of Early Green Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Preeti; Acharya, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    NACHT NTPases and AP-ATPases belongs to STAND (signal transduction ATPases with numerous domain) P-loop NTPase class, which are known to be involved in defense signaling pathways and apoptosis regulation. The AP-ATPases (also known as NB-ARC) and NACHT NTPases are widely spread throughout all kingdoms of life except in plants, where only AP-ATPases have been extensively studied in the scenario of plant defense response against pathogen invasion and in hypersensitive response (HR). In the present study, we have employed a genome-wide survey (using stringent computational analysis) of 67 diverse organisms viz., archaebacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, animalia and plantae to revisit the evolutionary history of these two STAND P-loop NTPases. This analysis divulged the presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants (green algae and the lycophyte) which had not been previously reported. These NACHT NTPases were known to be involved in diverse functional activities such as transcription regulation in addition to the defense signaling cascades depending on the domain association. In Chalmydomonas reinhardtii, a green algae, WD40 repeats found to be at the carboxyl-terminus of NACHT NTPases suggest probable role in apoptosis regulation. Moreover, the genome of Selaginella moellendorffii, an extant lycophyte, intriguingly shows the considerable number of both AP-ATPases and NACHT NTPases in contrast to a large repertoire of AP-ATPases in plants and emerge as an important node in the evolutionary tree of life. The large complement of AP-ATPases overtakes the function of NACHT NTPases and plausible reason behind the absence of the later in the plant lineages. The presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants and phyletic patterns results from this study raises a quandary for the distribution of this STAND P-loop NTPase with the apparent horizontal gene transfer from cyanobacteria.

  18. Accelerating the degradation of green plant waste with chemical decomposition agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejun, Sun; Juntao, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Zongwen, Liao; Lin, Ruan; Cong, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm(-1)) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH(3)- and -CH(2)-) (1450-1460 cm(-1)); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm(-1)); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm(-1))] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Na

  19. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available , beetles and spiders); and the number of birds that nest in vegetated roofs (including kestrels, swallows, and wagtails). Objective The primary objective of a green roof is to create a living habitat in an otherwise barren environment, hence the use... the negative environmental impacts including plant and insect specie loss. Thus at a philosophical level green roofs support the notion “replace what you displace”. Key ecological issues that can be addressed through green roofs include: Negative effects...

  20. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  1. Composição volátil dos defeitos intrínsecos do café por CG/EM-headspace Volatile composition of intrinsic defective coffee beans by GC/MS-headspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel D. C. C. Bandeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available About 20% of Brazilian raw coffee production is considered inappropriate for exportation. Consequently, these beans are incorporated to good quality beans in the Brazilian market. This by-product of coffee industry is called PVA due to the presence of black (P, green (V and sour (A defective beans which are known to contribute considerably for cup quality decrease. Data on the volatile composition of Brazilian defective coffee beans are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the volatile composition of immature, black-immature, black defective beans and PVA compared to good quality beans. Potential defective beans markers were identified.

  2. Multi-layer planting as a strategy of greening the transitional space in high-rise buildings: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihatmanti, Rani; Taib, Nooriati

    2018-03-01

    The issues regarding the rapid development in the urban have resulted in the increasing number of infrastructure built, including the high-rise buildings to accommodate the urban dwellers. Lack of greeneries due to the land limitation in the urban area has increased the surface radiation as well as the air temperature that leads to the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomena. Where urban land is limited, growing plants vertically could be a solution. Plants, which are widely known as one of the sustainability elements in the built environment could be integrated in building as a part of urban faming by growing edible plant species. This is also to address the food security issue in the urban as well as high-density cities. Since space is limited, the function of transitional space could be optimized for the green space. This paper explores the strategy of greening transitional space in the high-rise setting. To give a maximum impact in a limited space, multi-layer planting concept could be introduced. This concept is believed that multiple layers of plants could modify the microclimate, as well as the radiation to the building, compare to single layer plant. In addition to that, the method selected also determines the efficacy of the vertical greeneries. However, there are many other limitations related to the multi-layer planting method if installed in a transitional space that needs to be further studied. Despite its limitations, the application of vertical greeneries with multi-layer planting concept could be a promising solution for greening the limited space as well as improving the thermal comfort in the high-rise building.

  3. Visual identification of alkaloids in some medicinal plants: common alkaloid reagents versus bromocresol green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa F, Esfahani HR, Gamooshi RA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Background: Alkaloids are a group of nitrogenous compounds with potential effects on the physiological behavior of human and animals. Some of these compounds are considered important drugs in modern medicine, such as atropine and morphine. Plants are considered the most important source of alkaloids. Therefore, investigating the presence of alkaloids in different plants is very important. Usually, alkaloids in plants are identified by methods such as those of Dragendorf, Wagner and Meyer, among others, which require milligrams of alkaloids for identification. In the present study, a fast and sensitive procedure for detecting of alkaloids in plants is presented.   "n"nMethods: Twelve dried plants samples were investigated for the presence alkaloids. After extracting the total alkaloid into methanol using a Soxhlet extractor, a few milligrams of the extract was transferred to a separatory funnel, buffered to pH 4.7, the bromocresol green (BCG solution (10-4 M was added, mixed and extracted with CHCl3 until a yellow color was observed in the CHCl3 layer, indicating the presence of the alkaloid. The crude extracts were also investigated by the standard methods of Dragendorf, Wagner and Meyer for the presence of alkaloids.   "n"nResults: Investigation of the 12 plant samples for the presence of alkaloids by the standard reagents of Dragendorf, Wagner, and Meyer showed that only Camelia sinensis (flowers, Echium amoenum Fisch & Mey (flowers, and Stachys (aerial parts are devoid

  4. Growing substrates for aromatic plant species in green roofs and water runoff quality: pilot experiments in a Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cristina M; Calheiros, Cristina S C; Palha, Paulo; Castro, Paula M L

    2017-09-01

    Green roof technology has evolved in recent years as a potential solution to promote vegetation in urban areas. Green roof studies for Mediterranean climates, where extended drought periods in summer contrast with cold and rainy periods in winter, are still scarce. The present research study assesses the use of substrates with different compositions for the growth of six aromatic plant species - Lavandula dentata, Pelargonium odoratissimum, Helichrysum italicum, Satureja montana, Thymus caespititius and T. pseudolanuginosus, during a 2-year period, and the monitoring of water runoff quality. Growing substrates encompassed expanded clay and granulated cork, in combination with organic matter and crushed eggshell. These combinations were adequate for the establishment of all aromatic plants, allowing their propagation in the extensive system located on the 5th storey. The substrate composed of 70% expanded clay and 30% organic matter was the most suitable, and crushed eggshell incorporation improved the initial plant establishment. Water runoff quality parameters - turbidity, pH, conductivity, NH 4 + , NO 3 - , PO 4 3- and chemical oxygen demand - showed that it could be reused for non-potable uses in buildings. The present study shows that selected aromatic plant species could be successfully used in green roofs in a Mediterranean climate.

  5. Disruption of Ethylene Responses by Turnip mosaic virus Mediates Suppression of Plant Defense against the Green Peach Aphid Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Clare L; De Alwis, Manori; Bak, Aurélie; Dong, Haili; Whitham, Steven A; Jander, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Plants employ diverse responses mediated by phytohormones to defend themselves against pathogens and herbivores. Adapted pathogens and herbivores often manipulate these responses to their benefit. Previously, we demonstrated that Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) infection suppresses callose deposition, an important plant defense induced in response to feeding by its aphid vector, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), and increases aphid fecundity compared with uninfected control plants. Further, we determined that production of a single TuMV protein, Nuclear Inclusion a-Protease (NIa-Pro) domain, was responsible for changes in host plant physiology and increased green peach aphid reproduction. To characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we examined the role of three phytohormone signaling pathways, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene (ET), in TuMV-infected Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), with or without aphid herbivory. Experiments with Arabidopsis mutants ethylene insensitive2 and ethylene response1, and chemical inhibitors of ET synthesis and perception (aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine and 1-methylcyclopropene, respectively), show that the ET signaling pathway is required for TuMV-mediated suppression of Arabidopsis resistance to the green peach aphid. Additionally, transgenic expression of NIa-Pro in Arabidopsis alters ET responses and suppresses aphid-induced callose formation in an ET-dependent manner. Thus, disruption of ET responses in plants is an additional function of NIa-Pro, a highly conserved potyvirus protein. Virus-induced changes in ET responses may mediate vector-plant interactions more broadly and thus represent a conserved mechanism for increasing transmission by insect vectors across generations. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Homostachydrine (pipecolic acid betaine) as authentication marker of roasted blends of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora (Robusta) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Cautela, Domenico; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-08-15

    The occurrence of pipecolic acid betaine (homostachydrine) and its biosynthetic precursor N-methylpipecolic acid was detected for the first time in green coffee beans of Robusta and Arabica species. The analyses were conducted by HPLC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry and the metabolites identified by product ion spectra and comparison with authentic standards. N-methylpipecolic acid was found at similar levels in green coffee beans of Robusta and Arabica, whereas a noticeable difference of homostachydrine content was observed between the two green coffee bean species. Interestingly, homostachydrine content was found to be unaffected by coffee bean roasting treatment because of a noticeable heat stability, a feature that makes this compound a candidate marker to determine the content of Robusta and Arabica species in roasted coffee blends. To this end, a number of certified pure Arabica and Robusta green beans were analyzed for their homostachydrine content. Results showed that homostachydrine content was 1.5±0.5mg/kg in Arabica beans and 31.0±10.0mg/kg in Robusta beans. Finally, to further support the suitability of homostachydrine as quality marker of roasted blends of Arabica and Robusta coffee beans, commercial samples of roasted ground coffee blends were analyzed and the correspondence between the derived percentages of Arabica and Robusta beans with those declared on packages by manufacturers was verified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of heavy metal pollution in water wells and soil using common leafy green plant indicators in the Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammad, Bushra Ahmed; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the levels of eight heavy metals in irrigation well water and soil and to assess the suitability of some leafy green plants that are commonly cultivated in the Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia, for human consumption using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean concentrations of metals ranged from 0.0001 to 0.436 mg/L in well water and from 0.248 to 164.52 mg/kg in soil. The heavy metal concentrations showed significant differences among the different leafy green plants studied. Parsley (4.98 mg/kg) exhibited higher levels of Pb than other leafy green plants, whereas mallow (0.097 mg/kg) revealed greater amounts of Cd than other plants. All of the leafy green plants retained essential metals (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) more than the toxic metals (Pb and Cd). The levels of some of the metals in the leafy green plants were found to meet the FAO/WHO-recommended limits. The monitoring of heavy metals in leafy green plants must be continued because these plants are the main source of food for humans in many parts of the world and are considered to be bio-indicators for environmental pollution.

  8. Generation of data base for on-line fatigue life monitoring of Indian nuclear power plant components: Part I - Generation of Green's functions for end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    Green's function technique is the heart of the on- line fatigue monitoring methodology. The plant transients are converted to stress and temperature response using this technique. To implement this methodology in a nuclear power plant, Green's functions are to be generated in advance. For structures of complex geometries, Green's functions are to be stored in a data base to convert on-line, the plant data to temperature/stress response, using a personal computer. End fitting, end shield, pressurizer, steam generator tube sheet are few such components of PHWR where fatigue monitoring is needed. In the present paper, Green's functions are generated for end fitting of a 235 MWe Indian PHWR using finite element method. End fitting has been analysed using both 3-D and 2-D (axisymmetric) finite element models. Temperature and stress Green's functions are generated at few critical locations using the code ABAQUS. (author). 10 refs., 11 figs

  9. Retention and translocation of foliar applied {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, as compared to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr, into bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henner, P. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: pascale.henner@irsn.fr; Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morello, M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Foliar transfer of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr was evaluated after contamination of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) at the flowering development stage, by soaking their first two trifoliate leaves into contaminated solutions. Initial retentions of {sup 241}Am (27%) and {sup 239,240}Pu (37%) were higher than those of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr (10-15%). Mean fraction of retained activity redistributed among bean organs was higher for {sup 137}Cs (20.3%) than for {sup 239,240}Pu (2.2%), {sup 241}Am (1%) or {sup 85}Sr (0.1%). Mean leaf-to-pod translocation factors (Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight pod/Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight contaminated leaves) were 5.0 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 241}Am, 2.7 x 10{sup -6} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 5.4 x 10{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs and 3.6 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 85}Sr. Caesium was mainly recovered in pods (12.8%). Americium and strontium were uniformly redistributed among leaves, stems and pods. Plutonium showed preferential redistribution in oldest bean organs, leaves and stems, and very little redistribution in forming pods. Results for americium and plutonium were compared to those of strontium and caesium to evaluate the consistency of the attribution of behaviour of strontium to transuranium elements towards foliar transfer, based on translocation factors, as stated in two radioecological models, ECOSYS-87 and ASTRAL.

  10. Competitivity of the common-bean plant relative to the weed alexandergrass [Brachiaria plantaginea (link hitch.] Competitividade do feijoeiro-comum com o capim-marmelada [Brachiaria plantaginea (link hitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Passini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies of competitive interaction quantification between weeds and crops are not widely elucidated and compared in the literature. The competitive ability of common-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris relative to alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea was assessed and two approaches of replacement series experiment analysis were compared. The response of the species to the presence of each other at different densities and proportion was evaluated. Replacement series at total densities of 625, 816 and 1,111 plants m-2 were performed at the proportions of common-bean:alexandergrass of 100:0 (pure stand of common-bean, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100% (pure stand of alexandergrass, at four replicates in a randomized block design. Data analyses were performed by the qualitative compared to the quantitative approach. The quantitative approach provided larger number of information than did the qualitative approach, and indicated that there was intraspecific competition among common-bean plants, and a minimum of interspecific competition from alexandergrass. There was no intraspecific competition among alexandergrass plants, being the crop effect on the weed larger than the effect among alexandergrass plants. The ecological niche differentiation was partial, since the crop intraspecific competition was larger than the interspecific, and the last one was negligible, at the same time that the weed interspecific competition was larger than the intraspecific. Common-bean, as a competitor species, is superior to alexandergrass.As metodologias de quantificação das interações competitivas entre plantas cultivadas e daninhas não estão amplamente elucidadas e comparadas na literatura. A competitividade da cultura de feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris em relação ao capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea foi avaliada pela comparação entre o método qualitativo e um método quantitativo de análise de resultados. A resposta de cada espécie à presença da

  11. Cowpea, Common Bean And Mung Bean Radiation Use Efficiency, Light Extinction Coefficient And Radiation Interception In Double Cropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimadadi, A.; Rostamza, M.; Jahansooz, M.R.; Ahmadi, A.; Tavakol Afshari, R.

    2006-01-01

    Crop growth modeling for forecasting various plant's functions and their contribution to yield, is one of the ways to improve field management. This trial was set up to evaluate radiation use efficiency of mung bean, common bean and cowpea cultivars in a double cropping system. Field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj. A 4-replicate group balanced block field experiment was set up. Results showed that the differences among three pulses were significant in terms of biomass (p0.05). Cowpea, producing 5876.8 Kg/ha, had the highest yield among the species used in this study. Comparison of grain yield observed in this experiment with mono crop yield potential, showed that cowpea, common bean and mung bean produced 40%, 37% and 58% of their mono crop grain yield potential, respectively. In the late vegetative growth period, cowpea, mung bean and common bean absorbed 90%, 33% and 36% of photosynthetic active radiation, respectively. There was a significant difference among pulses, in terms of their radiation use efficiency and light extinction coefficient (p0.05 and p0.01, respectively). Cowpea, common bean and mung bean had radiation use efficiencies of 0.84, 0.82 and 0.99, g/MJ and light extinction coefficients of 0.605, 0.344 and 0.458, respectively. Results indicated that in some cultivars, when K decreases and LAI increases, LUE might be increased twice

  12. Induced mutations in beans and peas for resistance to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) were applied in a mutation-induction programme for rust resistance in bean and pea. Bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked 2 hours before irradiation with 9, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical mutagen treatments bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked for 8 hours and treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. M 2 seeds of beans and peas were planted in 1979. Resistant M 2 plants were selected for their rust resistance and other morphological characters. M 3 seeds of selected plants were planted in 1980. In 1980 more seeds of the same varieties of beans and peas were treated with 0.1 and 0.3% EMS with the aim to produce rust-resistant mutants. Seed germination was reduced by gamma rays or EMS. Dwarf, malformed and abnormal plants were noticed. Some resistant M 2 plants selected gave high grain yields. Some were different in morphological characters. In the M 3 of selected plants various other mutant characters appeared, such as different height of plants, early and late flowering, resistance to powdery mildew in peas, altered grain yield, thickness of stem, pod shape and flower colour. (author)

  13. Green manure affects cut flower yield and quality of ‘Vegas’ rose bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Fabiana Aparecida Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rose cultivation requires many inputs for satisfactory production, making the process expensive. Nowadays, alternative practices have been used for sustainable crop production. Green manure is an agricultural practice that aims to maintain or improve soil fertility, increasing its yielding capacity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of green manure with legumes on the yield and quality of ‘Vegas’ roses. Grafted rose seedlings were cultivated in open field for 30 months. Legumes used as green manure and planted intercropped with rose bushes were forage peanut (Arachis pintoi and jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan was grown in a separate area, cut, macerated, and applied in the rows between rose bushes every 3 months. Plants of control group received no green manure, only mineral fertilizer and cattle manure, as in all other treatments. The experimental design was randomized block with four treatments (three green manure species plus the control and seven replications. The highest yield and quality of flower stems in ‘Vegas’ occurred with addition of pigeon pea on the soil surface or chemically treated (control. Forage peanut and jack bean are not suitable for intercropping with ‘Vegas’ rose bushes due to possible nutrient and water competition.

  14. Marker-assisted selection in common beans and cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, M.W.; Fregene, M.A.; Beebe, S.E.; Ceballos, H.

    2007-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) is reviewed in relation to the breeding system of each crop and the breeding goals of International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs) and National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS). The importance of each crop is highlighted and examples of successful use of molecular markers within selection cycles and breeding programmes are given for each. For common beans, examples are given of gene tagging for several traits that are important for bean breeding for tropical environments and aspects considered that contribute to successful application of MAS. Simple traits that are tagged with easy-to-use markers are discussed first as they were the first traits prioritized for breeding at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and with NARS partners in Central America, Colombia and eastern Africa. The specific genes for MAS selection were the bgm-1 gene for bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) resistance and the bc-3 gene for bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) resistance. MAS was efficient for reducing breeding costs under both circumstances as land and labour savings resulted from eliminating susceptible individuals. The use of markers for other simply inherited traits in marker-assisted backcrossing and introgression across Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools is suggested. The possibility of using MAS for quantitative traits such as low soil phosphorus adaptation is also discussed as are the advantages and disadvantages of MAS in a breeding programme. For cassava, the use of multiple flanking markers for selection of a dominant gene, CMD2 for cassava mosaic virus (CMV) resistance at CIAT and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) as well as with NARS partners in the United Republic of Tanzania using a participatory plant breeding scheme are reviewed. MAS for the same gene is important during introgression of cassava green mite

  15. Modularized substrate culture:a new method for green leafy vegetable planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Quanxi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing general situation of green leafy vegetable production and main difficulty,we introduce the characteristics of modularized substrate culture for green leafy vegetable,and point out the important issues of modularized substrate culture which urgently need be solved in the coming future.

  16. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as a reporter gene for the plant pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko Riedel; Gautier Calmin; Lassaad Belbahri; Francois Lefort; Monika Gotz; Stefan Wagner; Sabine. Werres

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic Phytophthora ramorum strains that produce green fluorescent protein (GFP) constitutively were obtained after stable DNA integration using a polyethylene glycol and CaCl2-based transformation protocol. Green fluorescent protein production was studied in developing colonies and in different propagules of the pathogen...

  17. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  18. Improving Tolerance of Faba Bean during Early Growth Stages to Salinity through Micronutrients Foliar Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. EL FOULY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity, either of soil or of irrigation water, causes disturbances in plant growth and nutrient balance. Previous work indicates that applying nutrients by foliar application increases tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment with three replicates was carried out in the green house of NRC, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of micronutrients foliar application on salt tolerance of faba bean. Two concentrations of a micronutrient compound (0.1% and 0.15% were sprayed in two different treatments prior to or after the salinity treatments. Levels of NaCl (0.00-1000-2000-5000 ppm were supplied to irrigation water. Results indicated that 2000 and 5000 ppm NaCl inhibited growth and nutrient uptake. Spraying micronutrients could restore the negative effect of salinity on dry weight and nutrients uptake, when sprayed either before or after the salinity treatments. It is suggested that micronutrient foliar sprays could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity.

  19. Substrate Composition and Depth Affect Soil Moisture Behavior and Plant-Soil Relationship on Mediterranean Extensive Green Roofs

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    Julie Chenot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean basin is extremely vulnerable to climate change, and one of the areas most impacted by human water demand. Yet the green roofs increasingly created both for aesthetic reasons and to limit pollution and urban runoff are themselves very water-demanding. Successful green roof installation depends on the establishment of the vegetation, and the substrate is the key element: it conserves water, and provides the nutrients and physical support indispensable for plant growth. Since typical Mediterranean plant communities require no maintenance, this study seeks to develop techniques for creating maintenance- and watering-free horizontal green roofs for public or private buildings in a Mediterranean context. The innovative aspect of this study lies in creating two soil mixes, fine elements (clay and silt and coarse elements (pebbles of all sizes, in two different thicknesses, to assess vegetation development. Monitoring of substrate moisture was carried out and coupled with local rainfall measurements during summer and autumn. As expected, substrate moisture is mainly influenced by substrate depth (the deeper, the moister and composition (the finer the particles (clays and silts, the higher the moisture content. Vegetation cover impacts moisture to a lesser extent but is itself affected by the composition and depth of the substrates. These results are subsequently discussed with relation to the issue of sustainable green roofs in Mediterranean climates. Considering applications of our results, for an optimal colonization of a Mediterranean vegetation, a substrate thickness of 15 cm composed mainly of fine elements (75% clay-silt and 25% pebble-sand would be recommended in green roofs.

  20. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Y; Lévêque, T; Xiong, T; Schreck, E; Austruy, A; Shahid, M; Dumat, C

    2013-10-01

    Borage, white mustard and phacelia, green manure plants currently used in agriculture to improve soil properties were cultivated for 10 wk on various polluted soils with metal(loid) concentrations representative of urban brownfields or polluted kitchen gardens. Metal(loid) bioavailability and ecotoxicity were measured in relation to soil characteristics before and after treatment. All the plants efficiently grow on the various polluted soils. But borage and mustard only are able to modify the soil characteristics and metal(loid) impact: soil respiration increased while ecotoxicity, bioaccessible lead and total metal(loid) quantities in soils can be decreased respectively by phytostabilization and phytoextraction mechanisms. These two plants could therefore be used for urban polluted soil refunctionalization. However, plant efficiency to improve soil quality strongly depends on soil characteristics. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Green Infrastructure vs. Conventional Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, N.; Walter, T.

    2017-12-01

    The need for resilient infrastructure and cities in the face of climate change has prompted an expansion of green infrastructure (GI) in suburban and urban areas. However, some researchers have begun to question if these engineered and vegetated systems could be contributing excess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. They theorize that the often inundated GI practices may be hot-spots for biogeochemical processes emitting GHGs. However, no studies have compared passive GI to the only available alternative for water treatment: conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study monitored the nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions from two GI detention basins in Ithaca, NY and compared these emissions with reported and modeled on-site emissions from WWTPs. One basin was often saturated ("Wet Basin"), while the other drained quickly and was rarely saturated ("Dry Basin"). The Wet Basin emitted more GHGs than nearby reference turfgrass (92 vs. 5 mg CO2 eq m-2 hr-), while the Dry Basin emitted less than reference turfgrass (0.9 vs 4 mg CO2 eq m-2 hr-). However, both basins emitted far less GHGs than conventional WWTPs. According to EPA calculations, aerobic WWTPs emit approximately 1,079 mg CO2 eq L-1, and the Wet and Dry Basin emitted roughly 117-516 and 0.28-2.56 mg CO2 eq L-1, respectively. Thus, on a per volume of water treated basis, conventional WWTPs are emitting approximately 3 and 750 times more GHGs than GI Wet and Dry Basins, respectively. This study highlights how passive GI provides a valuable ecosystem service (i.e., stormwater treatment) while producing less GHGs than WWTPs.

  3. Biosorption of Cd+2 by green plant biomass, Araucaria heterophylla: characterization, kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarada, B.; Krishna Prasad, M.; Kishore Kumar, K.; Murthy, Ch V. R.

    2017-11-01

    The present study attempted to analyze the biosorption behavior of novel biosorbent, Araucaria heterophylla (green plant) biomass, to remove Cd+2 from solutions against various parameters, i.e., initial metal ion concentration, pH, temperature, sorbent dosage and biomass particle size. The maximum biosorption was found to be 90.02% at pH 5.5 and biosorption capacity ( q e) of Cd+2 is 9.2506 mg g-1. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium adsorption isotherms were studied and it was observed that Freundlich model is the best fit than the Langmuir model with correlation co-efficient of 0.999. Kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption process of Cd+2 well followed the pseudo-second-order model with R 2 0.999. Thermodynamic studies observed that the process is exothermic (Δ H ° negative). Free energy change (Δ G °) with negative sign reflected the feasibility and spontaneous nature of the process. The chemical functional -OH groups, CH2 stretching vibrations, C=O carbonyl group of alcohol, C=O carbonyl group of amide, P=O stretching vibrations and -CH groups were involved in the biosorption process. The XRD pattern of the A. heterophylla was found to be mostly amorphous in nature. The SEM studies showed Cd+2 biosorption on selective grains of the biosorbent. It was concluded that A. heterophylla leaf powder can be used as an effective, low-cost, and environmentally friendly biosorbent for the removal of Cd+2 from aqueous solution.

  4. Selenoamino Acid-Enriched Green Pea as a Value-Added Plant Protein Source for Humans and Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garousi, Farzaneh; Domokos-Szabolcsy, Éva; Jánószky, Mihály; Kovács, Andrea Balláné; Veres, Szilvia; Soós, Áron; Kovács, Béla

    2017-06-01

    Selenium deficiency in various degrees affects around 15% of the world's population, contributing to a variety of health problems. In this study, we examined the accumulation and biotransformation of soil applied Se-supplementation (sodium selenite and sodium selenate forms) at different concentrations, along with growth and yield formation of green pea, in a greenhouse experiment. Biotransformation of inorganic Se was evaluated using HPLC-ICP-MS for Se-species separation in the above ground parts of green pea. Results showed 3 mg kg -1 Se IV increased green pea growth biomarkers and also caused an increase in protein content in leaves by 17%. Selenomethionine represented 65% of the total selenium content in shoots, but was lower in pods and seeds (54 and 38%, respectively). Selenomethionine was the major species in all plant parts and the only organic selenium form in the lower Se IV concentration range. Elevating the dose of Se IV (≥30 mg kg -1 ) triggered detrimental effects on growth and protein content and caused higher accumulation of inorganic Se in forms of Se VI and Se IV . Selenocysteine, another organic form of proteinogenic amino acid, was determined when Se IV (≥10 mg kg -1 ) was applied in higher concentrations. Thus, agronomic biofortification using the appropriate chemical form and concentration of Se will have positive effects on green pea growth and its enriched shoots and seeds provide a value-added protein source for livestock and humans with significant increased selenomethionine.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhiza and kinetic parameters of phosphorus absorption by bean plants Micorriza arbuscular e os parâmetros cinéticos de absorção de fósforo pelo feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Parada Dias da Silveira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that determine greater P absorption by mycorrhizal plants are still not completely clear, and are attributed, in part, to an increase in the number of absorption sites promoted by the hyphae, and/or to a greater affinity of the colonized hypha or root carriers to P. The effect of mycorrhizae formed by Glomus etunicatum on the kinetic parameters of P absorption by the roots and on P influx in bean plants of the IAC-Carioca cultivar was evaluated, in two distinct plant development periods: at the onset of flowering and at the pod-filling stage (35 and 50 days after sowing, respectively. A mixture of sand and silica (9:1 was utilized as substrate and irrigated with nutrient solution. The kinetics assay was performed by the method of 32P depletion from the solution (depletion curve, using intact plants. Mycorrhization promoted greater growth and P absorption by bean plants, which was more conspicuously observed at the pod-filling stage. Mycorrhizal plants showed higher values of maximum ion uptake rate (Vmax and net P influx at the flowering stage. Lower minimum ion concentration (Cmin and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km values were verified in mycorrhizal plants at the pod-filling stage. Mycorrhizal plants also presented higher net P influx per plant, in both stages. Cmin was the kinetic parameter more intimately related to P absorption, and a significant correlation was obtained between this parameter and shoot P content and accumulation in bean plants.Os mecanismos envolvidos na maior absorção de P pela planta micorrizada ainda não estão totalmente esclarecidos, atribuindo-se, em parte, ao aumento no número de sítios de absorção promovido pela hifa e/ou maior afinidade dos carregadores da hifa ou da raiz colonizada ao P. Avaliou-se o efeito da micorriza formada por Glomus etunicatum nos parâmetros cinéticos da absorção radicular de P e no influxo de P em feijoeiro, cultivar IAC-Carioca, em duas épocas do ciclo da planta

  6. Block survey of wall covered with plant in the city of Tokyo [Japan] and evaluation of thermal environment of wall greening system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, K.; Soh, Y.; Satoh, S.

    2007-01-01

    There were 384 (8877 square m) walls which covered with plant on 10 square km in the city of Tokyo, and the green wall rate in the city of Tokyo was 0.88%. Vines, for example Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix, were widely used. The factor of thinking better of the landscape in urban area was one of the easily management of plants. The three wall greening systems, a wall covered with hanging climbers and two types of self-contained living wall, mitigated the thermal environment. However its degree can be depended on the greening method and the greenery occupancy rate of wall

  7. Do French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grown in proximity to Mt Kenya forest- Kenya- experience pollination deficit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Masiga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yields of commercially important crops in Kenya are often far below their potential. Amongst the possible reasons for such low yields may be the ecosystem degradation that can be expected to have negative impacts on pollinator presence in cropland, and the consequent food security issue for smallholder farmers who depend on these crops for their livelihood. Our study was carried out to assess the potential pollination deficit of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major export vegetable crop in Kenya grown by small-scale farmers. Sufficient pollination of French beans likely results in high seed set and uniform heavier green pods. Such pods get the highest grade while malformed pods are unmarketable, reducing family income. We hypothesized that pollination success was linked to the abundance and diversity of large pollinators, itself associated with the proximity to natural habitats. Flower visitors to French beans were sampled in 2011 and 2012 in ten farmer-managed plots, five within 200 m from the edge of Mt. Kenya forest and five farther away, more than 1000 m. Each plot measured 760 m2 and was planted at the same time, with the “Julia” variety. Flowers were observed for 2 h in each plot once weekly for three weeks at peak flowering from 0900-1100 h in the morning and 1200 – 1400 h in the afternoon on alternate days. Honey bees (Apis mellifera were the most abundant visitors of French bean flowers followed by carpenter bees (Xylocopa spp. and leafcutter bees (Megachile spp.. Significantly higher numbers of leafcutter bees were recorded on farms far to the forest. There was no significant difference in honey bee abundance among the study sites, probably because apiaries and wild colonies are located across the landscape. French bean yield was significantly correlated with the mean abundance of carpenter bees in 2011. This suggests the possible occurrence of pollination deficit in French beans where the density of carpenter bees is

  8. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  9. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  10. Green's function method with consideration of temperature dependent material properties for fatigue monitoring of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong-Hoi; Kwon, Jong-Jooh; Kim, Wanjae

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a method to consider temperature dependent material properties when using the Green's function method is proposed by using a numerical weight function approach. This is verified by using detailed finite element analyses for a pressurizer spray nozzle with various assumed thermal transient load cases. From the results, it is found that the temperature dependent material properties can significantly affect the maximum peak stresses and the proposed method can resolve this problem with the weight function approach. Finally, it is concluded that the temperature dependency of the material properties affects the maximum stress ranges for a fatigue evaluation. Therefore, it is necessary to consider this effect to monitor fatigue damage when using a Green's function method for the real operating conditions in a nuclear power plant

  11. Test for Local Insect Traps against some Solanacea Insects Plant under Green House Conditions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayedh, Hassan Ibn Yahiya

    2005-01-01

    Trapping efficiency of seven different colored sticky traps (Green, Fluorescent yellow, Orange, Pink, red, White and Yellow) was evaluated in some solanacea plants, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), eggplant (Solanum Magellan) and sweet pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops, for whitefly (Bemis ia airlifting), leaf miners (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips tabaci) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The traps were placed at four different heights (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 m above the ground). The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with four replications during autumn 2001, spring and autumn 2002. Significantly high insect populations were trapped on Fluorescent yellow, yellow and green colored sticky traps. No significant differences were witnessed between mean numbers of various insects caught on sticky traps placed at different heights but more insects were trapped at 0.5 - 1.5m. (author)

  12. Feasibility study of green wastes composting with digested and dewatering sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi Fard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composting as a waste management technology is becoming more widespread. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and to find the most effective composting process for the ratio of green waste, digested and dewatered sludge from Chonibieh wastewater treatment plant in the west region of Ahvaz. Methods: The composting time was 23 days and the evaluated parameters in this period of the study were organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, moisture content and pH. The C/N ratio was maintained at 30 with weight:weight ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 (digested and dewatered sludge to green waste. Results: It was observed that vessel R3 produced higher quality of compost with final total nitrogen (1.28%, final total phosphorus (0.71%, final total organic carbon (TOC (25.78% and C/N (20.65% within the 23 days of composting. While vessel R1 produced higher final total nitrogen and total phosphorus with lower amount of total coliform indicating suitable quality of composting. Therefore, the results showed that the characteristics of dewatered sludge mixed with green waste proportion of green waste significantly influenced the compost quality and process dynamics. The results also showed that the quality of final products in all the conditions was in agreement with Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS and World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. However, the moisture content ratios were lower than the mentioned guidelines. With regards to microbial quality, all three ratios were in agreement with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Iranian guidelines. Conclusion: It is suggested that the final product of composting can be safely used in farmland and green space.

  13. Effect of single varied doses of UV-C radiation on photosynthesis, traspiration and chlorophyll content in the leaves of two varieties of faba bean and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J.; Pszczolkowska, A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of single, varied (75, 120 and 165 min) UV-C radiation on photosynthesis and transpiration in leaves of two morphotypes of faba bean and pea was determined in a pot experiment. The SPAD leaf greenness index, which characterises the a and b chlorophyll contents (as well as changes in its content caused by radiation) were analysed. The experimental results indicated that the intensity of photosynthesis and transpiration in faba bean leaves was higher in the plants treated with the UV-C radiation. In addition, the intensity of photosynthesis and the chlorophyll content were higher in the Neptun variety than in the self-terminating faba bean variety. The Rola pea variety plants showed a significant decrease in photsynthesis intensity under radiation in the 3rd leaf phase and a slight decrease in later developmental phases. Moreover, transpiration was found to decrease at the beginning of the vegetation. In the case of the Ramrod variety, rather ambiguous results were obtained. The chlorophyll content in both pea varieties was high in the 3rd proper leaf phase and in the Rola plants it increased with increasing radiation doses in the stem extension phase

  14. Sharing Beans with Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  15. Study of growth and development features of ten ground cover plants in Kish Island green space in warm season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shooshtarian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Having special ecological condition, Kish Island has a restricted range of native species of ornamental plants. Expansion of urban green space in this Island is great of importance due to its outstanding touristy position in the South of Iran. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and development of groundcover plants planted in four different regions of Kish Island and to recommend the most suitable and adaptable species for each region. Ten groundcover species included Festuca ovina L., Glaucium flavum Crantz., Frankenia thymifolia Desf., Sedum spurium Bieb., Sedum acre L., .Potentilla verna L., Carpobrotus acinaciformis (L. L. Bolus., Achillea millefolium L., Alternanthera dentata Moench. and Lampranthus spectabilis Haw. Evaluation of growth and development had been made by measurement of morphological characteristics such as height, covering area, leaf number and area, dry and fresh total weights and visual scoring. Physiological traits included proline and chlorophyll contents evaluated. This study was designed in factorial layout based on completely randomized blocks design with six replicates. Results showed that in terms of indices such as covering area, visual quality, height, total weight, and chlorophyll content, Pavioon and Sadaf plants had the most and the worst performances, respectively in comparison to other regions’ plants. Based on evaluated characteristics, C. acinaciformis, L. spectabilis and F. thymifolia had the most expansion and growth in all quadruplet regions and are recommend for planting in Kish Island and similar climates.

  16. Spectral effects of light-emitting diodes on plant growth and development: The importance of green and blue light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, K. R.; Bugbee, B.

    2011-12-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are an emerging technology for plant growth lighting. Due to their narrow spectral output, colored LEDs provide many options for studying the spectral effects of light on plants. Early on, efficient red LEDs were the primary focus of photobiological research; however, subsequent studies have shown that normal plant growth and development cannot be achieved under red light without blue light supplementation. More recent studies have shown that red and blue (RB) LEDs supplemented with green light increase plant dry mass. This is because green light transmits more effectively through the leaf canopy than red and blue light, thus illuminating lower plant leaves and increasing whole-plant photosynthesis. Red, green and blue (RGB) light can be provided by either a conventional white light source (such as fluorescent lights), a combination of RGB LEDs, or from recently developed white LEDs. White LEDs exceed the efficiency of fluorescent lights and have a comparable broad spectrum. As such, they have the potential to replace fluorescent lighting for growth-chamber-based crop production both on Earth and in space. Here we report the results of studies on the effects of three white LED types (warm, neutral and cool) on plant growth and development compared to combinations of RB and RGB LEDs. Plants were grown under two constant light intensities (200 and 500 μmol m-2 s-1). Temperature, environmental conditions and root-zone environment were uniformly maintained across treatments. Phytochrome photoequilbria and red/far-red ratios were similar among treatments and were comparable to conventional fluorescent lights. Blue light had a significant effect on both plant growth (dry mass gain) and development (dry mass partitioning). An increase in the absolute amount (μmol m-2 s-1) of blue light from 0-80 μmol m-2 s-1 resulted in a decrease in stem elongation, independent of the light intensity. However, an increase in the relative amount (%) of blue

  17. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  18. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  19. Particle size, morphology and color tunable ZnO:Eu{sup 3+} nanophosphors via plant latex mediated green combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekhar, M. [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 103 (India); Department of Physics, Acharya Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560 107 (India); Nagabhushana, H., E-mail: bhushanvlc@gmail.com [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 103 (India); Sharma, S.C. [B.S. Narayan Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Sudheer kumar, K.H. [Department of Environmental Science, Kuvempu University, Shankarghatta, Shimoga 577 451 (India); Department of Chemistry, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); B.S. Narayan Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Dhananjaya, N. [Department of Physics, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); B.S. Narayan Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Sunitha, D.V. [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 103 (India); Shivakumara, C. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Nagabhushana, B.M. [Department of Chemistry, M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560 054 (India)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • ZnO:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors were prepared by green synthesis route. • Morphology and particle size was tuned by varying the concentration of plant latex. • The phosphor show excellent chromaticity coordinates in the white region. -- Abstract: Efficient ZnO:Eu{sup 3+} (1–11 mol%) nanophosphors were prepared for the first time by green synthesis route using Euphorbia tirucalli plant latex. The final products were well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), etc. The average particle size of ZnO:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%) was found to be in the range 27–47 nm. With increase of plant latex, the particle size was reduced and porous structure was converted to spherical shaped particles. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicated that the peaks situated at ∼590, 615, 648 and 702 nm were attributed to the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub j(j=1,2,3,4)} transitions of Eu{sup 3+} ions. The highest PL intensity was recorded for 7 mol% with Eu{sup 3+} ions and 26 ml plant latex concentration. The PL intensity increases with increase of plant latex concentration up to 30 ml and there after it decreases. The phosphor prepared by this method show spherical shaped particles, excellent chromaticity co-ordinates in the white light region which was highly useful for WLED’s. Further, present method was reliable, environmentally friendly and alternative to economical routes.

  20. Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A Brummitt

    Full Text Available Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question 'How threatened are plants?' is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world's plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed.

  1. In vitro root induction of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Roba M; Elazab, Heba E M; Hussein, Gihan M H; Metry, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for regeneration of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants is the difficulty of in vitro root induction. In the present study, in vitro rooting and its architecture have been studied. Adventitious root formation was successfully induced from regenerated faba bean shoots of four Egyptian cultivars, i.e., Giza 461, Giza 40, Giza 834 and Giza 716 on hormone free MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l silver nitrate. Among the four cultivars, Giza 461 and Giza 40 were recorded as the highest root formation response (75 % and 65) followed by cultivars Giza716 and Giza843 (20%, and 10%). Anatomical study proved that the produced roots are initiated as the adventitious lateral root (LR) with tri-arch xylem strands as compared with the penta-arch of the primary roots of the intact faba bean seedling. The obtained results overcome the root induction problem in faba bean.

  2. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M 1 was cultivated in 1978

  3. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  4. Tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis, chooses suitable host plants by detecting the emission level of (3Z)-hexenyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Z-J; Li, X-W; Bian, L; Sun, X-L

    2017-02-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) have been reported to play an important role in the host-locating behavior of several folivores that feed on angiosperms. However, next to nothing is known about how the green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis, chooses suitable host plants and whether it detects differing emission levels of GLV components among genetically different tea varieties. Here we found that the constitutive transcript level of the tea hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) gene CsiHPL1, and the amounts of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and of total GLV components are significantly higher in tea varieties that are susceptible to E. vitis (Enbiao (EB) and Banzhuyuan (BZY)) than in varieties that are resistant to E. vitis (Changxingzisun (CX) and Juyan (JY)). Moreover, the results of a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay and an oviposition preference assay suggest that (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (Z)-3-hexenol offer host and oviposition cues for E. vitis female adults. Taken together, the two GLV components, (Z)-3-hexenol and especially (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, provide a plausible mechanism by which tea green leafhoppers distinguish among resistant and susceptible varieties. Future research should be carried out to obtain the threshold of the above indices and then assess their reasonableness. The development of practical detection indices would greatly improve our ability to screen and develop tea varieties that are resistant to E. vitis.

  5. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  6. Metabolic changes associated with ozone injury of bean leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L.E.; Starbuck, J.S.

    1972-07-01

    Metabolic processes in primary leaves of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were altered by ozone stress. Decreases in levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein, and increases in ribonuclease (RNase) and free amine groups were associated with visible oxidant injury to the leaves. It appears that some air pollution injury to plants may result from changes in metabolic processes. 23 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  7. The preferential form of nitrogen absorption (15NH4+ or 15NO3-) by soy beans, beans, rice and corn crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrichs, Reges; Gava, Glauber Jose; Corazza, Edemar Joaquim; Duete, Robson Rui Cotrin; Villanueva, Felipe Carlos Alvarez; Muraoka, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In annual crops, the nitrogen fertilizer application practice can supply the nitrogen needed for maximum yield. However, taking into account the damaging effects on the environment of improperly planned fertilizer use, it is necessary to adjust the amount and the forms of N to be applied according to crop requirement. Viewing to determine the N form which is preferentially absorbed by the plants at their initial growth stage, an experiment was carried out under green house conditions in a Hapludox soil. Ammonium nitrate (AN) in which 2% of the N was labelled N ( 15 N) either as NH 4+ or as NO 3- was used. The AN solution was then applied onto the soil surface of each vase at the rate of 100 mg of N either at sowing or 10 days later. The results showed that the soybean plants, when fertilization was made at sowing, had no preferred form of N. But, if fertilization took place 10 days after sowing, the NH 4+ form was the preferred one. Common bean plants showed no preferred form. Rice plants preferred the NH 4+ form irrespective of fertilization time. Corn plants preferred the ammoniacal form when fertilization was made at sowing. (author)

  8. Insistence on Teaching about Photosynthesis of Plants by Their Green Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeken, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    "Green" has a common use among the public. Both natural and social environment have an important effect on this expression. People tend to explain the scientific concepts using well-known situations which they intensively see around the living area. In this sense, photosynthesis is one of the most important biological concepts including…

  9. Evaluation of Green Roof Plants and Materials for Semi-Arid Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract While green roof systems have proven to be highly effective in the evaporative cooling of buildings, reduction of roof top temperatures, protection of roof membranes from solar radiation degradation, reducing stormwater runoff, as well as beautification of the urban roo...

  10. Portulaca grandiflora as green roof vegetation: Plant growth and phytoremediation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2017-06-03

    Finding appropriate rooftop vegetation may improve the quality of runoff from green roofs. Portulaca grandiflora was examined as possible vegetation for green roofs. Green roof substrate was found to have low bulk density (360.7 kg/m 3 ) and high water-holding capacity (49.4%), air-filled porosity (21.1%), and hydraulic conductivity (5270 mm/hour). The optimal substrate also supported the growth of P. grandiflora with biomass multiplication of 450.3% and relative growth rate of 0.038. Phytoextraction potential of P. grandiflora was evaluated using metal-spiked green roof substrate as a function of time and spiked substrate metal concentration. It was identified that P. grandiflora accumulated all metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from metal-spiked green roof substrate. At the end of 40 days, P. grandiflora accumulated 811 ± 26.7, 87.2 ± 3.59, 416 ± 15.8, 459 ± 15.6, 746 ± 20.9, 357 ± 18.5, 565 ± 6.8, and 596 ± 24.4 mg/kg of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. Results also indicated that spiked substrate metal concentration strongly influenced metal accumulation property of P. grandiflora with metal uptake increased and accumulation factor decreased with increase in substrate metal concentration. P. grandiflora also showed potential to translocate all the examined metals with translocation factor greater than 1 for Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn, indicating hyperaccumulation property.

  11. Phytochrome-mediated responses of cells and protoplasts of green calli obtained from the leaves of a CAM plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mricha, A; Brulfert, J; Pierre, J N; Queiroz, O

    1990-04-01

    Green callus obtained from leaves of the CAM-inducible plant Kalanchoe blossfeldiana cv. Montezuma has previously been shown to perform C3-type photosynthesis under 16-h days and to shift to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) under 9-h days. The utilization of photoperiodic regimes (i.e. night interruptions by 30 min red light) established that CAM induction in the callus was under the control of phytochrome, as shown by measurements of CAM criteria: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity and malic acid pools. Short-term responsiveness of the callus cells to phytochrome modulations by monochromatic radiations was also established by the rapid changes observed in the diameter of the callus-derived protoplasts. These results provide further evidence that whole plant correlations are not necessary for phytochrome operativity.

  12. Biologia comparada de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cebola, mamona, soja e feijão Compared biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in onion, castor oil plant, soybean and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar Bavaresco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. sobre quatro hospedeiros naturais (folhas de cebola, mamona, soja cv. Embrapa 48 e feijão cv. Carioca. Foram avaliados a duração e viabilidade das fases imaturas e do ciclo total, número de ínstares, peso de pupas, razão sexual, porcentagem de deformação de adultos e de adultos não liberados dos invólucros pupais, longevidade de adultos, fecundidade e viabilidade de ovos. Observou-se menor duração e maior viabilidade do período ovo-adulto para mamona e cebola (39,7 dias e 21,7% e 40,5 dias e 21,8%, respectivamente, do que para soja (46,0 dias e 3,9%. O peso pupal foi de 444,6 mg em cebola, 420,0 em feijão, 396,6 em mamona e 298,7 em soja. Constatou-se um predomínio de seis ínstares larvais em folhas de cebola e mamona, ocorrendo também sete para alguns indivíduos, enquanto que em soja predominou a ocorrência de sete, também verificando oito ínstares, indicando uma menor adequação nutricional deste hospedeiro. As fêmeas apresentaram duração da fase pupal significativamente menor do que os machos em todos hospedeiros, fazendo com que a emergência do adulto ocorresse antes dos machos. Em cebola, a longevidade de adultos foi significativamente superior aos demais hospedeiros. A fecundidade foi maior em cebola e mamona (3224 e 3206 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente, enquanto que para soja observou-se 1353 ovos/fêmea. Em folhas de feijão, o desenvolvimento do inseto foi prejudicado por caracteres morfológicos - pilosidade, que promoveram elevada mortalidade na fase larval.The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. was studied on four natural hosts (onion leaves, castor oil plant, soy cv. Embrapa 48 and bean cv. Carioca. The duration and viability of immature phases and total cycle, instar number, pupals weight, sexual ratio, percentage of deformed adults and adults not released of pupal beg, adults' longevity, fecundity and eggs viability were evaluated. It was observed in

  13. Phenotype and seed production among hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) accessions rescued using hydroponic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet) is a legume used as a vegetable, forage, and in home gardens as an ornamental plant. Many accessions do not flower during their juvenile period in Byron, GA. Other hyacinth bean accessions produce few seed when regenerated in the field. This study was condu...

  14. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola isolated from weeds in bean crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sanz, A M; Rodicio, M R; González, A J

    2016-04-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, the causative agent of halo blight in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), was isolated from weeds associated with bean crops in Spain. The bacterium was recovered from Fumaria sp, Mercurialis annua, Solanum nigrum and Sonchus oleraceus. Ps. s. pv. phaseolicola had previously been isolated from leguminous plants and S. nigrum, but to our knowledge, this is the first time it was recovered from the other three species. The isolates were phenotypically and genetically characterized, and they were compared with isolates recovered from common beans. Five different genotypic profiles were detected by PmeI-PFGE, two of them being of new description. Weed isolates were as pathogenic on bean plants as bean isolates, but they were not pathogenic on S. nigrum. Regarding the survival of the pathogen in weeds, Ps. s. pv. phaseolicola was isolated from So. oleraceus 11 weeks after the end of the bean crop. These results strongly support the idea of weeds as a potential source of inoculum for halo blight in bean. It has traditionally been considered that the main source of inoculum of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola causing halo blight disease in Phaseolus vulgaris are the bean seeds, and that the host range of the bacterium is almost restricted to leguminous plants. In this study, the bacterium was recovered from four nonleguminous weed species collected in bean fields, and its permanence in weeds for at least 11 weeks after the harvesting of the beans was demonstrated. We have also proved that the strains isolated from weeds were pathogenic on bean plants. Accordingly, the host range of Ps. s. pv. phaseolicola could be broader than previously thought and weeds appear to be acting as a reservoir of the pathogen until the next crop. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Active optical sensor assessment of spider mite damage on greenhouse beans and cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel E; Latheef, Mohamed A

    2018-02-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pest of cotton in mid-southern USA and causes yield reduction and deprivation in fiber fitness. Cotton and pinto beans grown in the greenhouse were infested with spider mites at the three-leaf and trifoliate stages, respectively. Spider mite damage on cotton and bean canopies expressed as normalized difference vegetation index indicative of changes in plant health was measured for 27 consecutive days. Plant health decreased incrementally for cotton until day 21 when complete destruction occurred. Thereafter, regrowth reversed decline in plant health. On spider mite treated beans, plant vigor plateaued until day 11 when plant health declined incrementally. Results indicate that pinto beans were better suited as a host plant than cotton for rearing T. urticae in the laboratory.

  16. Evaluating the Competitive Ability of Different Common Bean Genotypes Against The Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of weeds interference on yield and yield components of different genotypes of common bean, an experiment was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station of Tabriz University, in 2011. The main plots were eight genotypes of different types of common bean including red bean, (cv. Gholi, Sayad, Derakhshan and Akhtar; pinto bean, (cv. Khomein and Sadri and white bean (cv. Shokufa and Pak and the sub-plots were two levels of weed including weed-free and weed-infested. Results indicated that the effect of bean genotype was significant on yield and yield components. The effect of weed treatment was significant on all traits of common bean, except 100-seeds weight. The pod number per plant of all common bean genotypes reduced significantly under weed-infested treatment. The interaction effect of weed treatment× genotype was significant on bean seed number per pod, grain and biological yield. Among the genotype, the cv. Gholi had the highest pod number per plant and the cultivars Gholi and Shokufa had the highest seed number per pod. The cultivars of Gholi and Khomein produced the highest and lowest seed yield, respectively in both weed-free and weed-infested treatment. The common bean genotype showed different competitive ability as the genotypes Gholi and Pak had the higher competitive ability against the weeds than other genotypes. Therefore by cultivating the bean genotypes with high competitive ability against the weeds, the yield loss of common bean could be reduced as well as the growth of weed species will be suppressed.

  17. Synergism in the effect of prior jasmonic acid application on herbivore-induced volatile emission by Lima bean plants: transcription of a monoterpene synthase gene and volatile emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menzel, T.R.; Weldegergis, B.T.; David, A.; Boland, W.; Gols, R.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in induced plant defence e.g. by regulating the biosynthesis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that mediate the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. Moreover, exogenous application of JA can be used to elicit plant defence responses similar to those

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of the thylakoid ATP/ADP carrier reveals new insights into its function restricted to green plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eSpetea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ATP is the common energy currency of cellular metabolism in all living organisms. Most of them synthesize ATP in the cytosol or on the mitochondrial inner membrane, whereas land plants, algae and cyanobacteria also produce it on the thylakoid membrane during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. From the site of synthesis, ATP is transported to the site of utilization via intracellular membranes transporters. One major type of ATP transporter is represented by the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier family. Here we review a recently characterized member, namely the thylakoid ATP/ADP carrier from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTAAC. Thus far, no orthologues of this carrier have been characterized in other organisms, although similar sequences can be recognized in many sequenced genomes. Protein Sequence database searches and phylogenetic analyses indicate the absence of TAAC in cyanobacteria and its appearance early in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. The TAAC clade is composed of carriers found in land plants and some green algae, but no proteins from other photosynthetic taxa, such as red algae, brown algae and diatoms. This implies that TAAC-like sequences arose only once before the divergence of green algae and land plants. Based on these findings, it is proposed that TAAC may have evolved in response to the need of a new activity in higher photosynthetic eukaryotes. This activity may provide the energy to drive reactions during biogenesis and turnover of photosynthetic complexes, which are heterogenously distributed in a thylakoid membrane system composed of appressed and non-appressed regions.

  19. Short-Term Impacts of the Air Temperature on Greening and Senescence in Alaskan Arctic Plant Tundra Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy L. May

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is warming the temperatures and lengthening the Arctic growing season with potentially important effects on plant phenology. The ability of plant species to acclimate to changing climatic conditions will dictate the level to which their spatial coverage and habitat-type dominance is different in the future. While the effect of changes in temperature on phenology and species composition have been observed at the plot and at the regional scale, a systematic assessment at medium spatial scales using new noninvasive sensor techniques has not been performed yet. At four sites across the North Slope of Alaska, changes in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI signal were observed by Mobile Instrumented Sensor Platforms (MISP that are suspended over 50 m transects spanning local moisture gradients. The rates of greening (measured in June and senescence (measured in August in response to the air temperature was estimated by changes in NDVI measured as the difference between the NDVI on a specific date and three days later. In June, graminoid- and shrub-dominated habitats showed the greatest rates of NDVI increase in response to the high air temperatures, while forb- and lichen-dominated habitats were less responsive. In August, the NDVI was more responsive to variations in the daily average temperature than spring greening at all sites. For graminoid- and shrub-dominated habitats, we observed a delayed decrease of the NDVI, reflecting a prolonged growing season, in response to high August temperatures. Consequently, the annual C assimilation capacity of these habitats is increased, which in turn may be partially responsible for shrub expansion and further increases in net summer CO2 fixation. Strong interannual differences highlight that long-term and noninvasive measurements of such complex feedback mechanisms in arctic ecosystems are critical to fully articulate the net effects of climate variability and climate change on

  20. Substrates with green manure compost and leaf application of biofertilizer on seedlings of yellow passion fruit plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Muniz Barbosa Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Substrates and fertilization are fundamental for seedling production, which well nourished can produce earlier and are more resistant to stresses. Animal manures are often used in non-industrialized substrates with good results, but their costs are increasing. Other residues may be used for plant nutrition, in substrates or in leaf fertilization. The aim of this work was to evaluate substrates prepared with green manure composts and the leaf application of biofertilizer on the formation of yellow passion fruit seedlings. A greenhouse experiment was conducted between December 2009 and February 2010, with a split-plot random block design. Plots received or not leaf application of supermagro biofertilizer. Subplots consisted of different substrates: soil; soil + cattle manure; soil + cattle manure composted with black oats straw; soil + cattle manure composted with ryegrass straw; soil + cattle manure composted with turnip straw; and soil + cattle manure composted with vetch straw. There were three dates of leaf fertilization: 10, 25 and 40 days after emergence (DAE. At 50 DAE plants were collected for evaluation of growth and accumulation of biomass and nutrients: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn and Zn. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test. The substrate soil + cattle manure promoted higher stem diameter, plant height, leaf area, root length and volume and nutrient accumulation. Among substrates with green manure composts, those prepared with black oats and turnip straw outranked the others. The use of leaf biofertilizer showed diverse results on seedling formation, being beneficial when combined to substrates with black oats composted straw, and prejudicial when combined to soil + cattle manure and soil + turnip composted straw substrates. The accumulation of nutrients by the seedlings occurred in the following order: K>Ca>N>Mg>P>Zn>Cu=Mn.

  1. Diversity analysis and establishment of core subsets of hyacinth bean collection of bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    Plant Genetic Resource Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh, maintained 484 hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureusL.) accessions. Distribution of vine colors, flower and pod colors, pod curvature and beak position on pod noticed the presence of substantial variation in the collection. Shannon Diversity Index also revealed high phenotypic diversity in vine and pod characters. High diversities were estimated in quantitative characters of inflorescence and pod characters. Considering a core collection strategy, the accessions were stratified into two groups based on vine colors: green and purple. Maximum genotypes of the collection were of green vine. Each of two subgroups were divided into three groups according to colors of pod i.e., green, white and red. Each group again divided itself into two according to beak position as central and marginal of pod. High diversity was also found regarding pod curvature and beak position on it. Strategically, a core subset consisting of 36 accessions out of 484 accessions was determined. Diversity Indices of different characters of the core accessions were of equal or higher magnitudes to the respective characters of base collection indicating the better representation of core to the original collection. (author)

  2. Study of Plant Cordia Dichotoma as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Different Acid Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khandelwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition of mild steel using extracts of Cordia dichotoma in different acid media was investigated by mass loss and thermometric methods. The experiments were carried out at 299±0.2 K in presence of different concentrations of dry fruit, leaves and stem extracts of Cordia dichotoma. The results reveal that the alcoholic extracts of Cordia dichotoma is a better corrosion inhibitor than that of toxic chemicals. The fruit extract is more potent than leaves and stem extracts to inhibit the corrosion rate. The study seeks to investigate the possibility of using extracts of Cordia dichotoma as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel.

  3. Eficiência da seleção recorrente para redução da estatura de plantas em mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. Recurrent selection efficiency for stature reduction of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inocencio Junior de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se, o presente trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da seleção recorrente para a redução da estatura de plantas de mamona da cultivar Guarani (Ricinus communis L., tornando-a com porte adequado para facilitar a colheita manual e/ou mecânica. Foram realizados quatro ciclos de seleção recorrente com a utilização de progênies autofecundadas na cultivar Guarani para redução da estatura das plantas, nas condições edafoclimáticas dos municípios de São Manuel - SP, Botucatu - SP e Penápolis - SP. As avaliações de estatura das plantas e de produtividade de grãos (kg.ha-1, dos quatro ciclos de seleção e do ciclo original foram realizadas nos municípios de São Manuel - SP, Botucatu - SP e Penápolis - SP na safra 2005/2006, sob um delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e parcela útil de 30 m². A análise de variância para as características avaliadas foi feita separadamente para cada local e conjuntamente para os três locais e, posteriormente, realizada a comparação das médias pelo teste de Tukey, a 5%. Foram estimados, para as três localidades, por análise de regressão, os ganhos genéticos dos quatros ciclos de seleção para estatura de plantas. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que a seleção recorrente foi eficiente para a redução da estatura de plantas e que a cultivar de mamona Guarani apresenta variabilidade genética para essa característica e que a produtividade não foi influenciada pela redução da estatura de plantas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the recurrent selection efficiency for reduction of stature of the castor bean plants of the Guarani cultivar (Ricinus communis L., turning it with appropriate strucuture to facilitate the manual and/or mechanic harvest. Four cycles of recurrent selection were accomplished through the utilization of self-pollinated progenies in the Guarani cultivar for reduction of plants stature, in

  4. The effects of Brassica green manures on plant parasitic and free living nematodes used in combination with reduced rates of synthetic nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Ekaterini

    2011-06-01

    Brassica plants once incorporated into soil as green manures have recently been shown to have biofumigant properties and have the potential of controlling plant-parasitic nematodes. In Washington State, plant-parasitic nematodes are successfully managed with synthetic nematicides. However, some of the synthetic nematicides became unavailable recently or their supply is limited leaving growers with few choices to control plant-parasitic nematodes. The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of Brassica green manures on their own and in combination with reduced rates of synthetic nematicides on plant-parasitic nematodes and free living nematodes. In a greenhouse experiment and field trials in three seasons, Brassica green manures in combination with half the recommended rate of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D, Telone) reduced root knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi to below detection levels, and reduced lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus penetrans and stubby root nematodes, Paratrichodorus allius, to below economic thresholds. The combination treatments did not affect the beneficial free-living nematode populations and the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas. The total cost of growing and soil-incorporating Brassica crops as green manures in combination with reduced rates of 1,3-D was approximately 35% lower than the present commercial costs for application for the full rate of this fumigant. Integrating conventional management practices with novel techniques fosters sustainability of production systems and can increase economic benefit to producers while reducing chemical input.

  5. Effect of sunflower climbing bean intercroping system on insect pest incidence and crop productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuey, R.K.; Koros, I.; Wanyonyi, W.

    2001-01-01

    Intercropping of sunflower and climping beans were evaluated for pest incidence and yield advantages during the main season of 2000/2001 at KARI-NPBRC, Njoro. Three sunflower varieties, Fedha, Record, PAN-7553 and three climbing beans varieties, Puebla, Omukingi and Flora were laid out in a complete randomised block design with four replications. Sunflower was spaced at 75 x 30 cm while the climbing beans were spaced at 50 x 37.5 cm. Assessment of pest damage on various treatments commenced 17 days after planting. Results showed that low plant germination was mainly a result of dry weather and taht cutworm damage was insignificant. There was a sunflower x climbing bean variety interaction, which regulated the aphid infestation of the climbing beans. Sunflower variety PAN-7553 recorded significantly (P<0.01) more pecked heads than the other two varieties. (author)

  6. Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Common Bean Genotypes Assessed by the {sup 32}P Dilution Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzini, V. I. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, EMBRAPA-Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil); Muraoka, T. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Adu-Gyamfi, J. J [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Lynch, J. P. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes on phosphorus (P) utilization, and verify if P from the seed affects the classification of common bean genotypes on P uptake efficiency when the {sup 32}P isotopic dilution technique is used. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, and plants were grown in pots with surface samples of a dystrophic Typic Haplustox. The treatments consisted of 50 common bean genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). Sangue de Boi, Rosinha, Thayu, Grafite, Horizonte, Pioneiro and Jalo Precoce common bean genotypes were the most efficient on P uptake, and Carioca 80, CNF 10, Perola, IAPAR 31, Roxao EEP, Apore, Pioneiro, Pontal, Timbo and Ruda were the most efficient in P utilization. The P derived from seed influences the identification of common bean genotypes for P uptake efficiency. (author)

  7. Green Composites Reinforced with Plant-Based Fabrics: Cost and Eco-Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Koronis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study considers a green composite under a twofold assessment; evaluating its process-based cost and environmental footprint profile. The initial objective was to project the manufacturing cost and allow for an additional material comparison of alternative scenarios in the resin transfer molding processes. The additional aim is to have an intermediate environmental assessment to assist in selecting materials and adjust manufacturing parameters which would minimize the energy spent and the CO2 emissions. As it has been noted in numerous applications, the incorporation of natural fiber fabrics, as opposed to glass fabrics, bring together weight savings and consequently cost savings. However, the economic analysis suggests that a glass reinforced composite is marginally cheaper at the production volume of 300 parts (1.9% lower cost in contrast to a possible green solution (ramie. Considering jute instead of ramie as a reinforcement, the cost gets immediately lower, and further decreases with proposed improvements to the manufacturing process. Additional reduction of up to 10% in the production cost can be achieved by process upgrade. As indicated by the Eco-Audit analysis, 36% less energy and 44% CO2 per kilo will be generated, respectively when swapping from glass to ramie fabrics in the production of the automotive hood.

  8. Large Scale Screening of Southern African Plant Extracts for the Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Microtitre-Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M. Elbagory

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs involves a variety of chemical and physical methods. These methods use toxic and environmentally harmful chemicals. Consequently, the synthesis of AuNPs using green chemistry has been under investigation to develop eco-friendly nanoparticles. One approach to achieve this is the use of plant-derived phytochemicals that are capable of reducing gold ions to produce AuNPs. The aim of this study was to implement a facile microtitre-plate method to screen a large number of aqueous plant extracts to determine the optimum concentration (OC for the bio-synthesis of the AuNPs. Several AuNPs of different sizes and shapes were successfully synthesized and characterized from 17 South African plants. The characterization was done using Ultra Violet-Visible Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. We also studied the effects of temperature on the synthesis of the AuNPs and showed that changes in temperatures affect the size and dispersity of the generated AuNPs. We also evaluated the stability of the synthesized AuNPs and showed that some of them are stable in biological buffer solutions.

  9. Remediation and reclamation of soils heavily contaminated with toxic metals as a substrate for greening with ornamental plants and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelusic, Masa; Lestan, Domen

    2015-11-01

    Soils highly contaminated with toxic metals are currently treated as waste despite their potential inherent fertility. We applied EDTA washing technology featuring chelant and process water recovery for remediation of soil with 4037, 2527, and 26 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively in a pilot scale. A high EDTA dose (120 mmol kg(-1) of soil) removed 70%, 15%, and 58% of Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively, and reduced human oral bioaccessibility of Pb below the limit of quantification and that of Zn and Cd 3.4 and 3.2 times. In a lysimeters experiment, the contaminated and remediated soils were laid into two garden beds (4×1×0.15 m) equipped with lysimeters, and subjected to cultivation of ornamental plants: Impatiens walleriana, Tagetes erecta, Pelargonium×peltatum, and Verbena×hybrida and grasses: Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Festuca pratensis. Plants grown on remediated soil demonstrated the same or greater biomass yield and reduced the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd up to 10, 2.5 and 9.5 times, respectively, compared to plants cultivated on the original soil. The results suggest that EDTA remediation produced soil suitable for greening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fusions between green fluorescent protein and beta-glucuronidase as sensitive and vital bifunctional reporters in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedvlieg, N E; Schlaman, H R; Admiraal, P C; Wijting, S E; Stougaard, J; Spaink, H P

    1998-11-01

    By fusing the genes encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) we have created a set of bifunctional reporter constructs which are optimized for use in transient and stable expression studies in plants. This approach makes it possible to combine the advantage of GUS, its high sensitivity in histochemical staining, with the advantages of GFP as a vital marker. The fusion proteins were functional in transient expression studies in tobacco using either DNA bombardment or potato virus X as a vector, and in stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana and Lotus japonicus plants. The results show that high level of expression does not interfere with efficient stable transformation in A. thaliana and L. japonicus. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy we show that the fusion constructs are very suitable for promoter expression studies in all organs of living plants, including root nodules. The use of these reporter constructs in the model legume L. japonicus offers exciting new possibilities for the study of the root nodulation process.

  11. Seeing Green: The Re-discovery of Plants and Nature’s Wisdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gagliano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I endeavor to recount the odd history of how we have come to perceive plants like we do, and illustrate how plants themselves perceive and sense the world and, most importantly, what they can tell us about Nature. Through examples of the ingenious ways plants have evolved to thrive, I engage the idea that our modern society is afflicted by a severe disorder known as plant blindness, a pervasive condition inherited from our forefather Aristotle and accountable for the current state of vegetal disregard and hence environmental dilapidation. I propose that the solution to this state of affairs rests in a radical change of perspective, one that brings the prevailing, yet defective, Aristotelian paradigm together with its expectations on how Nature should behave to an end. Enacted, such change releases us into a new experience of reality, where the coherent nature of Nature is revealed.

  12. The second green revolution? Production of plant-based biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Biodegradable plastics are those that can be completely degraded in landfills, composters or sewage treatment plants by the action of naturally occurring micro-organisms. Truly biodegradable plastics leave no toxic, visible or distinguishable residues following degradation. Their biodegradability contrasts sharply with most petroleum-based plastics, which are essentially indestructible in a biological context. Because of the ubiquitous use of petroleum-based plastics, their persistence in the environment and their fossil-fuel derivation, alternatives to these traditional plastics are being explored. Issues surrounding waste management of traditional and biodegradable polymers are discussed in the context of reducing environmental pressures and carbon footprints. The main thrust of the present review addresses the development of plant-based biodegradable polymers. Plants naturally produce numerous polymers, including rubber, starch, cellulose and storage proteins, all of which have been exploited for biodegradable plastic production. Bacterial bioreactors fed with renewable resources from plants--so-called 'white biotechnology'--have also been successful in producing biodegradable polymers. In addition to these methods of exploiting plant materials for biodegradable polymer production, the present review also addresses the advances in synthesizing novel polymers within transgenic plants, especially those in the polyhydroxyalkanoate class. Although there is a stigma associated with transgenic plants, especially food crops, plant-based biodegradable polymers, produced as value-added co-products, or, from marginal land (non-food), crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), have the potential to become viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics and an environmentally benign and carbon-neutral source of polymers.

  13. Green synthesis of Pd NPs from Pimpinella tirupatiensis plant extract and their application in photocatalytic activity dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasaiah, Palajonna; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Sarada, N. C.

    2017-11-01

    The present report the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles through the green method route offers few advantages over the common chemical and physical procedures, as it is an easy and fast, eco-friendly and does not involve any costly chemicals as well as hazardous chemicals. In this study, we reported synthesis of Pd NPs by using the Pimpinella tirupatiensis plant Extract (PTPE). The synthesized Pd NPs was characterization using different technique such as UV-Visible for the formation of Pd NPs. FT-IR spectroscopy was performed to detect the bio-active molecules liable for reduction and capping of biogenic Pd NPs. Crystallinity of Pd NPs conformed by powder - XRD. In the present study performed photo catalytic activity of synthesized Pd NPs using organic dye such as Congo red (CR). Hence, this study concludes the PTPE aqueous extract produced Pd NPs can be act as promising material for the degradation of organic pollutants.

  14. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  15. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  16. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  17. Actinobacteria Associated With Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Funneliformis mosseae Spores, Taxonomic Characterization and Their Beneficial Traits to Plants: Evidence Obtained From Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) and Thai Jasmine Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasudee, Krisana; Tokuyama, Shinji; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Pathom-aree, Wasu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we report on the isolation of actinobacteria obtained from spores of Funneliformis mosseae and provide evidence for their potential in agricultural uses as plant growth promoters in vitro and in vivo. Actinobacteria were isolated from spores of F. mosseae using the dilution plate technique and media designed for the selective isolation of members of specific actinobacterial taxa. Six strains namely 48, S1, S3, S4, S4-1 and SP, were isolated and identified based on16S rRNA gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolate SP belonged to the genus Pseudonocardia with P. nantongensis KLBMP 1282T as its closest neighbor. The remaining isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Two isolates, 48 and S3 were most closely related to S. thermocarboxydus DSM 44293T. Isolates S4 and S4-1 shared the highest 16S RNA gene similarity with S. pilosus NBRC 127772T. Isolate S1 showed its closest relationship with the type strain of S. spinoverrucosus NBRC14228T. The ability of these isolates to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and the ability to solubilize phosphate in vitro were examined. All isolates produced siderophores, four isolates produced IAA and two isolates solubilized inorganic phosphate at varying levels. S. thermocarboxydus isolate S3 showed the highest IAA production with high activities of phosphate solubilization and siderophore production. The inoculation of mung beans (Vigna radiata) with this strain resulted in a significant increase in fresh weight, root length and total length as an effect of IAA production. In an experiment with rice (Oryza sativa), S. thermocarboxydus isolate S3 promoted the growth of rice plants grown in low nutritional soil under induced drought stress. This report supports the view that the inoculation of rice with plant growth promoting actinobacteria mitigates some adverse effects of low nutrient and drought stress on rice. PMID:29942292

  18. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  19. Exposure of Lima bean leaves to volatiles from herbivore-induced conspecific plants results in emission of carnivore attractants: active or passive process?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choh, Y.; Shimoda, T.; Ozawa, R.; Dicke, M.; Takabayashi, J.

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that volatiles emitted by herbivore-damaged plants can cause responses in downwind undamaged neighboring plants, such as the attraction of carnivorous enemies of herbivores. One of the open questions is whether this involves an active (production of volatiles) or passive

  20. Species Richness and Functional Trait Diversity for Plants in Southern California's Green Infrastructure along a Climate Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, M. E.; Ibsen, P.; Jenerette, D.

    2016-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) is greenery planted to absorb rainwater into the earth as an alternative to grey infrastructure, like storm drains. Not only does GI prevent flooding, but it also performs a number of ecosystem services, including increasing biodiversity, because it allows water to cycle through the environment naturally. Increased biodiversity in plant communities is said to help purify the air and improve the health and resilience of the plants themselves. I want to investigate these claims about GI's benefits by studying types of GI with slightly different functions. This will answer the questions 1) Are different types of green infrastructure's plant communities equally biodiverse in terms of functional trait diversity and species richness? 2) How does functional trait diversity and species richness differ along a temperature gradient in Southern California? To compare biodiversity, I must survey four different types of GI, urban parks, riparian zones, detention basins, and bioswales, in three cities in distinct climate regions. Detention basins are reservoirs lined with vegetation that collect water until it is absorbed into the soil. Bioswales are vegetated gutters that filter out pollutants in storm water. Unlike retention basins, they also add aesthetic value to an area. Even though parks are mainly for recreation and beatification rather than storm water management, they have plenty of permeable surface to absorb storm water. The types of GI that have high levels of interaction with humans should also have higher levels of maintenance. The results should follow the homogenization hypothesis and demonstrate that, regardless of climate, species richness should not differ much between highly maintained areas, like parks, in different cities. Otherwise, in GI that is not as manicured, species richness should be significantly different between cities and the different types of GI. Because types of GI selected vary in expected levels of human

  1. Influence of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Grown in Elevated CO2 on Apatite Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A. A.; Morra, B.

    2016-12-01

    We ran a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that release of plant nutrients contained in apatite will be accelerated by the growth of Langstrath Stringless green bean in the presence of atmospheric CO2 meant to simulate possible future atmospheric conditions due a higher demand of nutrients and growth rate caused by elevated CO2. We hypothesize that elevated atmospheric CO2 will lead to both increased root growth and organic acid exudation. These two traits will lead to improved acquisition of P derived from apatite. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of these changes on soil mineral weathering using plants grown under two conditions, ambient CO2 (400ppm) and elevated CO2 (1000ppm). Plants were grown in flow-through microcosms consisting of a mixture of quartz and apatite sands. Mini-greenhouses were utilized to control CO2 levels. Plant growth was sustained by a nutrient solution lacking in Ca and P. Calcium and P content of the leachate and plant tissue served as a proxy for apatite dissolution. Plants were harvested biweekly during the eight-week experiment and analyzed for Ca and P to calculate apatite dissolution kinetics. Preliminary results suggest that approximately four times more P and Ca are present in the leachate from experiments containing plants under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels than in abiotic experiments; however, the amounts of both P and Ca released in experiments conducted under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels are similar. Additionally, the amount of P in plant tissue grown under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions is similar. Plants grown in elevated CO2 had a greater root to shoot ratio. The planted microcosms were found to have a lower pH than abiotic controls most likely due to root respiration and exudation of organic acids.

  2. Distributions of imidacloprid, imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea in green plant tissues and roots of rapeseed (Brassica napus) from artificially contaminated potting soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifrtova, Marcela; Halesova, Tatana; Sulcova, Klara; Riddellova, Katerina; Erban, Tomas

    2017-05-01

    Imidacloprid-urea is the primary imidacloprid soil metabolite, whereas imidacloprid-olefin is the main plant-relevant metabolite and is more toxic to insects than imidacloprid. We artificially contaminated potting soil and used quantitative UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS to determine the imidacloprid, imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea distributions in rapeseed green plant tissues and roots after 4 weeks of exposure. In soil, the imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea molar ratios decreased similarly after the 250 and 2500 µg kg -1 imidacloprid treatments. The imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea molar ratios in the root and soil were similar, whereas in the green plant tissue, imidacloprid-urea increased more than twofold compared with the root. Although imidacloprid-olefin was prevalent in the green plant tissues, with imidacloprid/imidacloprid-olefin molar ratios of 2.24 and 1.47 for the 250 and 2500 µg kg -1 treatments respectively, it was not detected in the root. However, imidacloprid-olefin was detected in the soil after the 2500 µg kg -1 imidacloprid treatment. Significant proportions of imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea in green plant tissues were demonstrated. The greater imidacloprid supply increased the imidacloprid-olefin/imidacloprid molar ratio in the green plant tissues. The absence of imidacloprid-olefin in the root excluded its retransport from leaves. The similar imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea ratios in the soil and root indicated that the root serves primarily for transporting these substances. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. IR-FEL-induced green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene transfer into plant cell

    CERN Document Server

    Awazu, K; Tamiya, E

    2002-01-01

    A Free Electron Laser (FEL) holds potential for various biotechnological applications due to its characteristics such as flexible wavelength tunability, short pulse and high peak power. We could successfully introduce the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) gene into tobacco BY2 cells by IR-FEL laser irradiation. The irradiated area of the solution containing BY2 cells and plasmid was about 0.1 mm sup 2. FEL irradiation at a wavelength of 5.75 and 6.1 mu m, targeting absorption by the ester bond of the lipid and the amide I bond of the protein, respectively, was shown to cause the introduction of the fluorescent dye into the cell. On the other hand, transient expression of the GFP fluorescence was only observed after irradiation at 5.75 mu m. The maximum transfer efficiency was about 0.5%.

  4. The contribution of Slovenian biogas plants to the reduction of agricultural sector green house emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana MARINŠEK LOGAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a source of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane into the environment. These emissions can be reduced by appropriate storage of animal slurry and manure, with proper fertilization and processing of organic agricultural waste into biogas, where methane is captured and used as an energy source. Biogas is a renewable source of energy that is produced by microbial anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. As a substrate in biogas plants using different types of organic biomass such as animal manure and slurry, crop residues, spoilt silage, waste from food processing industry and biodegradable industrial and municipal waste. Biogas can be used to produce heat and electricity or purified to biomethane as a fuel for vehicles. Digestate can be used as a high-quality fertilizer. Biogas as a renewable energy source represents a replacement for fossil fuels, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil sources. The system of financial supports for electricity produced from biogas is applied in Slovenia. There were 24 operating biogas plants in Slovenia in year 2014. Slovenian biogas plants currently produce the majority of biogas from energy crops. As only the minority of biogas is produced from animal excrements we will primarily support the development of agricultural microbiogas plants that will use animal excrements and organic waste biomass from agri-food sector as substrates.

  5. Healthy food trends - beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a side dish at breakfast, lunch, or dinner. Mash them up for dips and spreads. Use bean flour to bake them. To reduce the gas caused by eating beans: Always soak dried beans. If you do not eat a lot of beans, gradually add them to ...

  6. Efeito do espaçamento e da cultivar de feijoeiro sobre a intensidade do mofo-branco e a sanidade de sementes Effect of plant spacing and bean cultivar on white mold and seed sanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Napoleão

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dois ensaios de campo foram realizados para avaliar o efeito do espaçamento entre linhas (30, 45 e 60 cm e entre plantas de feijoeiro com hábitos de crescimento diferentes, sobre a intensidade do mofo-branco e a sanidade de sementes. No primeiro, foi mantida a mesma população de plantas por área, 27 plantas/m², reduzindo-se o espaçamento entre plantas. No segundo ensaio, manteve-se o mesmo espaçamento entre plantas, que resultou em populações de 40, 27 e 20 plantas/m². A porcentagem de plantas infectadas e a severidade da doença não diferiram estatisticamente quanto ao hábito de crescimento da cultivar, ao espaçamento ou à interação entre eles, mesmo a incidência tendo atingido valores de 98,4% em 1998 e de 2,7% em 1999. A porcentagem de sementes infectadas não foi afetada pelo espaçamento, mas diferiu erraticamente em relação às cultivares; em 1998, a cultivar Pérola não apresentou sementes infectadas, o mesmo acontecendo com a cultivar Diamante Negro em 1999.The effect of spacing among rows and among bean plants, as well as two plant growth habits were evaluated on the intensity of white mold and seed health in two field trials in Brasilia, DF, Brazil. In the first trial, the same population of 27 plants/m² was maintained in rows of 30, 45 and 60 cm apart. In the second trial, the spacing among rows was maintained, which resulted in different plant populations of 40, 27 and 20 plants/m², respectively. Disease incidence and severity did not differ statistically within plants of different growth habits or different spacing, even with divergent disease incidences of 98.4% and 2.7% observed in 1998 and 1999, respectively. The percentage of infected seeds was not affected by spacing either, however the cultivar effect was erratic; in 1998, 'Perola' had no infected seeds and the same occurred with 'Diamante Negro' in 1999.

  7. Evidence for land plant cell wall biosynthetic mechanisms in charophyte green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Harholt, Jesper; Ulvskov, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in CGA is currently unknown, as no genomes are available, so this study sought to give insight into the evolution of the biosynthetic machinery of CGA through an analysis of available transcriptomes. METHODS: Available CGA transcriptomes were mined for cell wall biosynthesis GTs and compared with GTs...... to colonize land. These cell walls provide support and protection, are a source of signalling molecules, and provide developmental cues for cell differentiation and elongation. The cell wall of land plants is a highly complex fibre composite, characterized by cellulose cross-linked by non......-cellulosic polysaccharides, such as xyloglucan, embedded in a matrix of pectic polysaccharides. How the land plant cell wall evolved is currently unknown: early-divergent chlorophyte and prasinophyte algae genomes contain a low number of glycosyl transferases (GTs), while land plants contain hundreds. The number of GTs...

  8. Navigating the plant cell: intracellular transport logistics in the green kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geitmann, Anja; Nebenführ, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Intracellular transport in plant cells occurs on microtubular and actin arrays. Cytoplasmic streaming, the rapid motion of plant cell organelles, is mostly driven by an actin-myosin mechanism, whereas specialized functions, such as the transport of large cargo or the assembly of a new cell wall during cell division, are performed by the microtubules. Different modes of transport are used, fast and slow, to either haul cargo over long distances or ascertain high-precision targeting, respectively. Various forms of the actin-specific motor protein myosin XI exist in plant cells and might be involved in different cellular functions. © 2015 Geitmann and Nebenführ. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. Intercropping of Green Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Induces Nutrient Concentration Changes in the Soil and Plants in Continuously Cropped Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Plastic Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic. PMID:23637994

  10. Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L.) induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a plastic tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.

  11. The strange case of Laetesia raveni n. sp., a green linyphiid spider from Eastern Australia with a preference for thorny plants (Araneae, Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hormiga, Gustavo; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Laetesia raveni n. sp. (Araneae, Linyphiidae), is described based on specimens collected in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia). This new linyphiid species is of bright green colour, and it seems to have a preference to build its webs almost exclusively on two plant species, namely Calamus...

  12. Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L. induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. in a plastic tunnel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Xiao

    Full Text Available A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and manganese (Mn in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.

  13. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. I. Growth can occur without photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Cell expansion in dicotyledonous leaves is strongly stimulated by bright white light (WL), at least in part as a result of light-induced acidification of the cell walls. It has been proposed that photosynthetic reactions are required for light-stimulated transport processes across plasma membranes of leaf cells, including proton excretion. The involvement of photosynthesis in growth and wall acidification of primary leaves of bean has been tested by inhibiting photosynthesis in two ways: by reducing chlorophyll content of intact plants with tentoxin (TX) and by treating leaf discs with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). Exposure to bright WL stimulated growth of intact leaves of TX-treated plants. Discs excised from green as well as from TX-or DCMU-treated leaves also responded by growing faster in WL, as long as exogenous sucrose was supplied to the photosynthetically inhibited tissues. The WL caused acidification of the epidermal surface of intact TX-leaves, but acidification of the incubation medium by mesophyll cells only occurred when photosynthesis was not inhibited. It is concluded that light-stimulated cell enlargement of bean leaves, and the necessary acidification of epidermal cell walls, are mediated by a pigment other than chlorophyll. Light-induced proton excretion by mesophyll cells, on the other hand, may require both a photosynthetic product (or exogenous sugars) and a non-photosynthetic light effect.

  14. Discovery and Characterization of Novel Signatures from the Ricinus communis L. (Castor Bean) Genome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connell, Kevin P; Skowronski, Evan W; Dretchen, Kenneth L; Leshin, Jonathan A; Weeks, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Given the infamous toxicity of ricin and the industrial usefulness of castor oil, there is a surprising lack of information about the genetic diversity of the species that produces both, the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis L...

  15. Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p meal tests performed on day 1 and day 90 demonstrated an increased postprandial release of GLP-1 and decreased urge for sweet and chocolate on both occasions in individuals supplemented with green-plant membranes compared to control. Waist circumference, body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed increased release of GLP-1. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  16. Genome-wide analysis of tandem repeats in plants and green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhixin Zhao; Cheng Guo; Sreeskandarajan Sutharzan; Pei Li; Craig Echt; Jie Zhang; Chun Liang

    2014-01-01

    Tandem repeats (TRs) extensively exist in the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Based on the sequenced genomes and gene annotations of 31 plant and algal species in Phytozome version 8.0 (http://www.phytozome.net/), we examined TRs in a genome-wide scale, characterized their distributions and motif features, and explored their putative biological functions. Among...

  17. Naturalization of ornamental plant species in public green spaces and private gardens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, K.; Haeuser, E.; Dawson, W.; Essl, F.; Kreft, H.; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Weigelt, P.; Winter, M.; Lenzner, B.; van Kleunen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2017), s. 3613-3627 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DG16P02M041 Keywords : climate change * ornamental plants * invasioins Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  18. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luseko

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... indicating high reliability for markers. In selection, it was ... Generation of breeding lines. Planting was .... the variances from the distribution of the score data for ALS disease. ... were distributed along the scale but it skewed to the left side showing ..... Standard system for the evaluation of bean germplasm.

  19. multiple disease resistance in snap bean genotypes in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 29053- ... Agriculture (CIAT), National Agricultural Research Laboratories Institute, ... Climbing snap bean lines had thick pods that could reduce pod quality. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... were harvested in sterile distilled water and spore.

  20. Bean nodulation patterns in soils of different texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, nodulation success by the inoculum was total in the clay but only dismal in the sandy soil. The unexpected discrepancy between inoculum success on the one hand and nodulation plus plant growth response on the other, is discussed. Keywords: Bean nodulation, ELISA typing of nodules, phaseolus vulgaris

  1. Flow cytometry determination of ploidy level in winged bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ploidy determination and mutation breeding of crop plants are inseparable twins given that mutation breeding is hinged majorly on polyploidization of crop's chromosome number. The present research was aimed at determining the ploidy level of 20 accessions of winged bean (Psophoscarpus tetragonolobus) using known ...

  2. clustering common bean mutants based on heterotic groupings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... Blair, W.M., Porch, T., Cichy, K., Galeano, H. C,. Lariguet, P., Pankhurst, C. and Broughton, W. 2007a. Induced mutants in common bean. (Phaseolus vulgaris) and their potential use in nutrition quality, breeding and gene discovery. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences. 55:191 - 200. Blair, W.M., Fregene, A.M., ...

  3. The Number of Genes Controlling Resistance in Beans to Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten crosses were made between resistant (R), susceptible (S), RxS susceptible and Intermediate (I), SxI and RxR bean lines to common bacterial blight. The F1 were advanced to F2 and in each cross over 250 F2 plants were used to evaluate for the number of genes controlling resistance using Mendelian genetics and ...

  4. The growth promotion of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... HPP16, mung bean, abscisic acid, phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). ... solubilization, PSB may also produce other secondary metabolites to improve the plant productivity. ...... Funding from the Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine. Biology ... biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai1295-22.

  5. Uptake studies of environmentally hazardous 51Cr in Mung beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Anupam; Nayak, Dalia; Chakrabortty, Dipanwita; Lahiri, Susanta

    2008-01-01

    Attempt has been made to study the accumulation behaviour of a common plant, Mung bean (Vigna radiata) towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI) to have an insight on the migration and bio-magnification of Cr. For this purpose healthy germinated Mung bean seeds were sown in the sand in the presence of Hoagland's nutrient solution containing measured amount of K 2 51 Cr 2 O 7 and 51 Cr(NO 3 ) 3 .9H 2 O. Growth rate was also studied in the presence and absence of phosphate salts in the medium. It has been found that the transfer of chromium from soil to plant is significantly low (maximum 5% for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI)). Maximum accumulation of Cr occurs in the root with respect to the total chromium accumulation by the plant. Other parts of the Mung bean plant, e.g. cotyledons, shoot and leaves, show negligible accumulation. Therefore, the chance of direct intake of Cr through food as well as through the grazing animals to human body is less. - The chance of bio-magnification of Cr(III) or Cr(VI) to human body via direct or indirect intake of Mung bean is negligible

  6. Phosphorus use efficiency in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tripartite symbiosis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) 147 with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in sand culture by comparing the effects of three AMF species on the mycorrhizal root colonization, rhizobial nodulation, plant growth and phosphorus use ...

  7. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of fresh leaf castor beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelopathy defines the production of specific biomolecules (allelochemical) by a plant that can induce positive or negative impacts on another culture. The crop of castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) is being economically valued and receiving attention, mainly by the biodiesel production, castor oil and animal feeding.

  8. A sample for biodiversity in Turkey: Common bean ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artvin province located in north-east region of Turkey is small province but has rich plant diversity due to its different geographical and ecological formation. Significant part of this province has been flooded by the dams which have been built. The common bean is a very important crop for Artvin's farmers. This study was ...

  9. Plant Mediated Green Synthesis of CuO Nanoparticles: Comparison of Toxicity of Engineered and Plant Mediated CuO Nanoparticles towards Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Saif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on green production methods for metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs is growing, with the objective to overcome the potential hazards of these chemicals for a safer environment. In this study, facile, ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles was successfully achieved using aqueous extract of Pterospermum acerifolium leaves. P. acerifolium-fabricated CuO nanoparticles were further characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and dynamic light scattering (DLS. Plant-mediated CuO nanoparticles were found to be oval shaped and well dispersed in suspension. XPS confirmed the elemental composition of P. acerifolium-mediated copper nanoparticles as comprised purely of copper and oxygen. DLS measurements and ion release profile showed that P. acerifolium-mediated copper nanoparticles were more stable than the engineered CuO NPs. Copper oxide nanoparticles are used in many applications; therefore, their potential toxicity cannot be ignored. A comparative study was performed to investigate the bio-toxic impacts of plant-synthesized and engineered CuO nanoparticles on water flea Daphnia. Experiments were conducted to investigate the 48-h acute toxicity of engineered CuO NPs and plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Lower EC50 value 0.102 ± 0.019 mg/L was observed for engineered CuO NPs, while 0.69 ± 0.226 mg/L was observed for plant-synthesized CuO NPs. Additionally, ion release from CuO nanoparticles and 48-h accumulation of these nano CuOs in daphnids were also calculated. Our findings thus suggest that the contribution of released ions from nanoparticles and particles/ions accumulation in Daphnia needs to be interpreted with care.

  10. Use of a plant-derived enzyme template for the production of the green-note volatile hexanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Frank; Thompson, John E; Legge, Raymond L

    2003-11-05

    Hexanal is a key organoleptic element of green-note that is found in both fragrances and flavors. We report a novel process for the production of hexanal using immobilized enzyme templates extracted from different plant sources in combination with hollow-fiber ultrafiltration for in situ separation. Enzyme templates, known to be responsible for the synthesis of hexanal from linoleic acid (18:2), were isolated from naturally enriched tissues including carnation petals, strawberry and tomato leaves. These templates were immobilized in an alginate matrix and used as a biocatalyst in a packed-bed bioreactor. Continuous product recovery was achieved using a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration unit. The effects of pH, reaction temperature, and substrate and enzyme concentrations were studied and their effects on hexanal generation identified and optimized. Utilizing optimized conditions, hexanal production 112-fold higher than endogenous steady-state levels in a corresponding amount of plant tissue could be achieved over a 30-minute period. Based on the reactor studies, product inhibition also appears to be an important factor for bioreactor-based hexanal production. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Uptake of 14C-carbofuran from rice plants by brown planthopper (nilaparvata lugens stal) and green leafhopper (Nephotettix virencence)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumatra, M.; Anwar, E.; Kuswadi, A.N.; Soekarna, D.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the amount of 14-C-carbofuran taken up by brown planthopper (BPH) and green leafhopper (GLH) from ride plants containing 14-C-carbofuran. The roots of 30 days old rice plants were immersed in Kimura B solution containing carbofuran (0.6ug/ml) with activity of 18600 pCi/ml. After 3 days, 20 BPH and 20 GLH released onto the rice stems and leaves. The mortalities of BPH and GLH were similar after 24 and 48 hours of the release. The average radioactivity found in living GLH was 3.5 times of those found in living GLH was 3.5 times of those found in living BPH. And in dead GLH was 3.2 times on those in dead BPH. Radioactivity in rice leaves was 3.5 times of those in stems. This layer chromatograph of extracts of Kimura B solution, stems, and leaves showed that small amounts of carbofuran had degraded to substances like 3-OH-carbofuran and 3-keto-carbofuran. The percentage of radioactivity found as carbofuran decreased with time, while the amount of 3-ket-carbofuran increased. (authors). 6 refs, 2 figs, 6 tab

  12. Green Algae from Coal Bed Methane Ponds as a Source of Fertilizer for Economically Important Plants of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsakin, O. R.; Apple, M. E.; Zhou, X.; Peyton, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Tongue River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is the location of natural gas reserves and coal bed methane (CBM) acreage. Although the water that emanates from CBM extraction varies with site, it is generally of higher quality than the waters produced by conventional oil and gas wells, in part because it is low in volatile organic compounds. However, since CBM water contains dissolved solids, including sodium (Na), bicarbonate (HCO3) and chloride (Cl) ions, the water must be treated before it can be discharged into the river or wetlands, or used for stock ponds or irrigation. Several ponds have been constructed to serve as a holding facility for CBM water. Algae from the CBM ponds of the Tongue River Basin have the potential to be utilized as fertilizer on economically important plants of Montana. Two very important crop plants of Montana are wheat, Triticum aestivum, and potatoes, Solanum tuberosum. To explore this potential, isolates of unicellular green algae (Chlorella sp.) from the CBM ponds were cultured in aerated vessels with Bold's Basic Growth Medium and natural and/or supplemental light. Algal biomass was condensed in and collected from a valved funnel, after which cell density was determined via light microscopy and a hemacytometer. Algal/water slurries with known nutrient contents were added to seedlings of hard winter wheat, T.aestivum, grown in a greenhouse for three months before harves. When compared to wheat provided with just water, or with water and a commercially available fertilizer, the wheat fertilized with algae had a higher chlorophyll content, more tillers (side shoots), and a higher ratio of influorescences (groups of flowers) per stem. In a related experiment, Ranger Russet seed potatoes, S. tuberosum were given just water, water and Hoagland's nutrient solution, or water with algae in order to compare aboveground growth and potato production among the treatments. The results of this study suggest that

  13. Effects of Wood Ash Biomass Application on Growth Indices and Chlorophyll Content of Maize and Lima bean Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheedat Ajala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wood ash generated from wood industries have enormous potential which can be utilized due to its properties which influences soil chemistry and fertility status of tropical acidic soils. Field experiments were conducted on an acidic sandy loam alfisol to investigate the effects of wood ash on the growth indices and chlorophyll content of maize and lima beans intercrop during the late and early seasons of 2014 and 2015 at Akure in the rainforest zone of southwestern Nigeria. The treatments were 100% sole maize with ash, 100% sole maize without ash, 75% maize + 25% lima beans with ash, 75% + 25% lima beans without ash, 50% maize + 50% lima beans with ash, 50% maize + 50% lima beans without ash, 25% maize + 75% lima beans with ash and 25% maize + 75% lima beans without ash. Wood ash was applied at 2.4kg/plot. Wood ash increased chlorophyll content in all amended treatments except in amended 25:75% maize-lima beans intercrop and 25:75% maize –lima beans intercrop without ash, however 75:25% maize-lima beans amended with wood ash significantly (P≥0.05 recorded the highest chlorophyll content. Growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf length, stem diameter, number of flowers, number of pods, weight of plant and total biomass of amended maize-lima beans intercrop were significantly (P≥0.05 increased by wood ash application. Based on experimental findings, 25:75% maize-lima beans intercrop and 75%:25% maize-lima beans intercrop amended with wood ash was concluded to be more recommendable in the study area.

  14. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  15. Immunocapture RT-PCR detection of Bean common mosaic virus and strain blackeye cowpea mosaic in common bean and black gram in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udayashankar, A.C.; Nayaka, S. Chandra; Niranjana, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    The strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic (BICM), genus Potyvirus, were detected from 25 common bean and 14 black gram seeds among 142 seed samples collected from different legume-growing regions of India. The samples were subjected to a growing-on test, an indicator...... plant test, an electron microscopic observations, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and an immunocapture RT-PCR. The incidence of the two tested viruses in common bean and black gram seed samples was 1–6% and 0.5–3.5%, respectively in growing-on test evaluations. Electron microscopic observations...

  16. Monochromatic green light induces an aberrant accumulation of geranylgeranyled chlorophylls in plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Materová, Z.; Sobotka, Roman; Zdvihalová, Barbora; Oravec, Michal; Nezval, J.; Karlický, Václav; Vrábl, D.; Štroch, Michal; Špunda, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 116, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 48-56 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : Geranylgeranyl reductase * Chlorophyllide * Phytyl chain Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; BO - Biophysics (UEK-B) OBOR OECD: Microbiology; Plant sciences, botany (UEK-B) Impact factor: 2.724, year: 2016

  17. Analysis, method and techniques for the studying of Cesium-137 transfer from soil to plants (maize and beans) (continuation of the technical report GSR-91-20); Analisis, metodo y tecnicas para estudio de transferencia de Cesio-137 de suelo a plantas (maiz y frijol) (continuacion del informe tecnico GSR-91-20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes N, M L

    1992-12-15

    In this report the complete results of transfer of corn and bean whose objective is to determine the transfer of Cs-137 via: soil {yields} root {yields} plant, which is determined by the transfer factors or concentration factors (FC), which indicates the incorporation from Cs-137 to soil and plant starting from two models of compartments which were already described in the technical report GSR-91-20-1 that precedes to this are presented. These results correspond to that carried out during the agricultural cycle of 1991, as well as the first results corresponding to 1992 in the radioactive wastes storage center (CADER) in Mexico. (Author)

  18. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris); Coeficientes de translocacao folha-fruto de {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr e {sup 137}Cs em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-15

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of {sup 90}Y was used for {sup 90}Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. For the {sup 90

  19. Blueprints for green biotech: development and application of standards for plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic biology aims to apply engineering principles to the design and modification of biological systems and to the construction of biological parts and devices. The ability to programme cells by providing new instructions written in DNA is a foundational technology of the field. Large-scale de novo DNA synthesis has accelerated synthetic biology by offering custom-made molecules at ever decreasing costs. However, for large fragments and for experiments in which libraries of DNA sequences are assembled in different combinations, assembly in the laboratory is still desirable. Biological assembly standards allow DNA parts, even those from multiple laboratories and experiments, to be assembled together using the same reagents and protocols. The adoption of such standards for plant synthetic biology has been cohesive for the plant science community, facilitating the application of genome editing technologies to plant systems and streamlining progress in large-scale, multi-laboratory bioengineering projects. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Avaliação do Lithothamnium como corretivo da acidez do solo e fonte de nutrientes para o feijoeiro Evaluation of lithothamnium as corrective of soil acidity and source of nutrients for bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César de Melo

    2003-06-01

    -se que as menores doses de Lithothamnium, nos três solos, foram as que apresentaram melhores resultados nas características avaliadas e que os melhores resultados foram encontrados no LVd.With the objective of evaluating the efficiency of lithothamnium in the correction of the soil acidity and as source of nutrients for bean plants, an experiment was conducted in vases, in greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a complete randomized one, with nine treatments: control, four doses of lithothamnium (1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2 times the dose for V at 70%, commercial dolomite limestone as reference pattern (dose for V at 70%, lithothamnium (V at 70% without micronutrients, lithothamnium (V at 70% with reduction of 20% of NPK and lithothamnium (V at 70% plus Mg. Three soil classes were evaluated, Quartzarenic (NQ, Yellow Red Latossol (LV and Red Argissol (AV, with four repetitions for each treatment. Four bean plants were cultivated in vases with three dm3. Two of these plants were harvested in the flowering period, with both the macro and micronutrients concentrations being evaluated. The other two plants were harvested at the end of the cycle, when the productions of grain and vegetable dry matter (aerial parts, root, grain and total were evaluated. Lithothamnium showed practically the same effect of the commercial dolomite limestone in the correction of the acidity and in the saturation for bases being used the dose to reach a V at 70%. Lithothamnium promoted in the three soils, the elevation of calcium and magnesium levels, increasing the pH values and saturation for bases, and consequently, reduction in the saturation for aluminum, accrediting the product to be used as corrective and fertilizer. Those effects promoted better nutrition conditions, growth and production of the bean plant. The doses to reach 90% of the maximum production of grains in the NQ and LV soils were 610 and 1.090 kg ha-1, respectively, these doses being lower than those required to reach a V at

  1. Use of Pleurotus sajor-caju in upgrading green jute plants and jute sticks as ruminant feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Mahal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, superfluous jute plants and jute stick were converted into upgraded animal feed by solid state fermentation (SSF using a cellulolytic fungus, Pleurotus sajor-caju. Prior to fermentation, substrates were subjected to several pretreatments such as soaking with water overnight and alkali or lime pretreatment. SSF was carried out with 20 g of substrate in 100 ml conical flask and was incubated at 30C for 8 weeks. In all treatments, the highest amount of reducing sugar, soluble protein as well as the cellulolytic activities of three enzymes viz. cellobiase, carboxymethyl cellulase and avicelase were obtained at 6th week of fermentation. Compared to raw, unsoaked substrates, soaking treatment alone could produce 10% more soluble protein in both substrates whereas reducing sugar increment was 5% and 6% in jute sticks and jute plants, respectively. From all treatments, combination of soaking and lime treatment in green jute plants yielded higher value than jute sticks in terms of reducing sugar, soluble protein and enzymatic activity. The radiation doses at 20, 30 and 40 kGy appeared to have no effect on sugar and protein accretion. During eight weeks of fermentation, relatively higher cellobiase activity was found compared to that of carboxymethyl cellulase and avicelase. The present investigation indicates that fungal conversion with pretreatment can turn these lignocellulosic agro-wastes to a nutritionally enriched animal feed by increasing the crude protein and reducing sugar content. However, further research is necessary to develop strategies for industrial scale production to overcome the crisis of nutritionally improved animal feed.

  2. Evaluation of wheat growth, morphological characteristics, biomass yield and quality in Lunar Palace-1, plant factory, green house and field systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Shao, Lingzhi; Fu, Yuming; Wang, Minjuan; Xie, Beizhen; Yu, Juan; Liu, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important agricultural crops in both space such as Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) and urban agriculture fields, and its cultivation is affected by several environmental factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the influences of different environmental conditions (BLSS, plant factory, green house and field) on the wheat growth, thousand kernel weight (TKW), harvest index (HI), biomass yield and quality during their life cycle. The results showed that plant height partially influenced by the interaction effects with environment, and this influence decreased gradually with the plant development. It was found that there was no significant difference between the BLSS and plant factory treatments on yields per square, but the yield of green house and field treatments were both lower. TKW and HI in BLSS and plant factory were larger than those in the green house and field. However, grain protein concentration can be inversely correlated with grain yield. Grain protein concentrations decreased under elevate CO2 condition and the magnitude of the reductions depended on the prevailing environmental condition. Conditional interaction effects with environment also influenced the components of straw during the mature stage. It indicated that CO2 enriched environment to some extent was better for inedible biomass degradation and had a significant effect on "source-sink flow" at grain filling stage, which was more beneficial to recycle substances in the processes of the environment regeneration.

  3. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-05

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  4. Air-assisted boom sprayer and spray deposition on bean plants Assistência de ar em barra de pulverização e a deposição da calda em feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cesar Bauer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of safe pesticide application techniques with low volume rates, frequency and spray drift, along with the need to obtain better control level of crop pest control levels, justify the air-assistance in boom sprayers. The aim of this research was to evaluate the spray deposition on bean plants with different nozzles and volume rates by air-assisted and non-assisted sprayers. A completely randomized experiment was carried out using copper oxide as a tracer (50% metalic copper for deposit evaluation. The artificial targets were fixed on the upper and under-side of the leaflets, at the top and lower third of the same plants under the spray boom. After application, targets were washed individually with an extracting solution of nitric acid (1.0 mol L-1. The tracer deposition on the artificial targets was quantified by atomic absorption spectrofotometry. The effects of air-assisted spray were not significant in relation to spray deposition 48 days after emergence of the bean plants.A possibilidade do desenvolvimento de técnicas de aplicação de produtos fitossanitários mais seguras, com menores volumes de calda, número de aplicações e deriva, aliados à necessidade de se obter melhores níveis de controle dos agentes nocivos às plantas cultivadas, justificam o uso da assistência de ar junto à barra de pulverização. Com o objetivo de avaliar a deposição da pulverização na cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, em presença e ausência da assistência de ar junto à barra de pulverização, com diferentes pontas de pulverização e volumes de calda, foi conduzido um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando-se como traçador o óxido cuproso. Alvos artificiais (papel filtro com 3 x 3 cm foram afixados nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial de folíolos posicionados nos terços superior e inferior de plantas, selecionadas ao acaso, distribuídas perpendicularmente ao deslocamento do pulverizador. Ap

  5. Mechanical weed control on small-size dry bean and its response to cross-flaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelloni, L.; Frasconi, C.; Fontanelli, M.; Raffaelli, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be a profitable crop for farmers; however controlling weeds effectively without a decrease in yield remains a problem. An example where mechanical weed control is difficult to conduct is dry bean ‘Toscanello’, which is a small sized high-income niche product growing low to the ground. Concerning intra-row weed control, also flame weeding could be an opportunity but the dry bean heat tolerance needs to be studied. The aims of this research were to study the weed control efficacy of a spring-tine harrow and an inter-row cultivator in this bean variety, and to test the tolerance of dry bean cultivated under weed-free conditions to cross-flaming applied with different liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses. Flame weeding was applied at BBCH 13 and BBCH 14 bean growth stages by pairs of burners producing direct double flame acting into the intra-row space, with bean plants placed in the middle. The results suggest that the spring-tine harrow used two times at BBCH 13 and 14, respectively, lead to a yield similar to that of the weedy control. The inter-row cultivator could be an opportunity for small-sized dry bean crops producers, enabling them to obtain a similar yield compared to the hand-weeded control. Concerning the bean tolerance to cross-flaming the results showed that bean flamed at BBCH 13 stage had little tolerance to cross-flaming. Bean flamed at BBCH 14 stage was tolerant until an LPG dose of 39 kg/ha, giving yield responses similar to those observed in the non-flamed control. (Author)

  6. Locomotion of Mexican jumping beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Daniel M; K Lal, Ishan; Leamy, Michael J; Hu, David L

    2012-01-01

    The Mexican jumping bean, Laspeyresia saltitans, consists of a hollow seed housing a moth larva. Heating by the sun induces movements by the larva which appear as rolls, jumps and flips by the bean. In this combined experimental, numerical and robotic study, we investigate this unique means of rolling locomotion. Time-lapse videography is used to record bean trajectories across a series of terrain types, including one-dimensional channels and planar surfaces of varying inclination. We find that the shell encumbers the larva's locomotion, decreasing its speed on flat surfaces by threefold. We also observe that the two-dimensional search algorithm of the bean resembles the run-and-tumble search of bacteria. We test this search algorithm using both an agent-based simulation and a wheeled Scribbler robot. The algorithm succeeds in propelling the robot away from regions of high temperature and may have application in biomimetic micro-scale navigation systems. (paper)

  7. africa bean research alliance (pabra)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    (NARS), public and private sector actors along the varied bean product value chains, and technology end-users. This model .... centralised information and decision-processing is inefficient ... technologies to farmers, as illustrated by the case.

  8. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  9. Response- Surface Analysis for Evaluation of Competition in Different Densities of Sesame (Sesamum indicum and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koocheki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Response surface models predict crop yield based on crop density and this is an important tool for evaluation competition at different density and hence selection of optimum density based on yield. In order to study intra and inter specific competition in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and sesame (Sesamum indicum, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2010. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with 3 replications and 16 treatments based on different densities of sesame and bean intercropping was used. The model predicted the maximum yield of an isolated plant of bean and sesame approximately 33 and 17g per plant respectively. The area associated with the maximum yield per plant in bean and sesame were 0.6 and 0.1 m2, respectively. Bean was the dominant competitor with respect to both grain and biomass, and competition coefficient was 0.35 and 0.3 for bean grain yield and bean biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was more important than inter-specific competition for bean. Competition coefficient was 2.6 and 2.9 for sesame grain yield and biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was much less important than Interspecific competition in sesame. The highest grain yield in bean (300 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 20 plants, and the highest sesame grain yield (195 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 40 plants, the highest land equivalent ratio (1.14 was obtained in intercropping of 20 plants of bean and 10 plants of sesame.

  10. Review: The Potential of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as a Vehicle for Iron Biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Petry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Common beans are a staple food and the major source of iron for populations in Eastern Africa and Latin America. Bean iron concentration is high and can be further increased by biofortification. A major constraint to bean iron biofortification is low iron absorption, attributed to inhibitory compounds such as phytic acid (PA and polyphenol(s (PP. We have evaluated the usefulness of the common bean as a vehicle for iron biofortification. High iron concentrations and wide genetic variability have enabled plant breeders to develop high iron bean varieties (up to 10 mg/100 g. PA concentrations in beans are high and tend to increase with iron biofortification. Short-term human isotope studies indicate that iron absorption from beans is low, PA is the major inhibitor, and bean PP play a minor role. Multiple composite meal studies indicate that decreasing the PA level in the biofortified varieties substantially increases iron absorption. Fractional iron absorption from composite meals was 4%–7% in iron deficient women; thus the consumption of 100 g biofortified beans/day would provide about 30%–50% of their daily iron requirement. Beans are a good vehicle for iron biofortification, and regular high consumption would be expected to help combat iron deficiency (ID.

  11. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  12. Weed Control in White Bean with Various Halosulfuron Tankmixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Soltani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four field trials were conducted over a three-year period (2011–2013 in southwestern Ontario to evaluate the level of weed control provided by various halosulfuron tankmixes applied preplant incorporated (PPI in white bean. Trifluralin, s-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr applied alone or in combination caused 4% or less visible injury 1 and 4 weeks after emergence (WAE in white bean. Trifluralin, s-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr applied PPI provided 80–96%, 84–95%, 83–100%, and 75–92% control of redroot pigweed; 19–28%, 30–40%, 97–99%, and 73–84% control of common ragweed; 94–96%, 63–82%, 96–100%, and 96–100% control of common lambsquarters; 14-15%, 12–35%, 100%, and 96–97% control of wild mustard; and 96–97%, 95–97%, 53–56%, and 80–82% control of green foxtail, respectively. The two- and three-way tankmixes of halosulfuron with trifluralin, s-metolachlor, or imazethapyr provided 85–100% control of redroot pigweed, 90–98% control of common ragweed, 97–100% control of common lambsquarters, 100% control of wild mustard, and 93–98% control of green foxtail. Weed density, weed biomass and white bean seed yields reflected the level of visible weed control.

  13. [Formation and function of the bean-rhizobium symbiosis in soy plants upon introduction of strains of Azotobacter and Bacillus species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, N N; Bulavenko, L V; Kurdish, I K; Titova, L V; Kots', S Ia

    2002-01-01

    The effects of bacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter and Bacillus in a mixed culture with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains on formation and function of the legume-rhizobium symbiosis of soybean plants were studied. The data showed that the bacterial compositions B. japonicum 634b + B. subtilis 5, B. japonicum 634b + A. chroococcum 20, and B. japonicum 10k + A. vinelandii 56 with a cell ratio of 1:0.1 increased the number and weight of root nodules as well as the height and weight of the aboveground plant parts in almost all the cases by 22-105% compared with the control variants. These binary microbial cultures may be used for development of combined bacterial preparations for soybean.

  14. Effect of fungal infection on phenolic compounds during the storage of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This work was undertaken to study the effect of Aspergillus infection on phenolic compounds in beans from four cultivars of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L.. The effects of storage conditions of the coffee beans were also examined. Methodology and results: Beans from four varieties of coffee were artificially infected with three species of Aspergillus: A. niger, A. melleus and A. alliacus, and stored at 0, 8 and 25 ± 2 °C. After 3, 6 and 9 months, the contents of phenolic compounds in the beans were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion, significance and impact study: The results of this study showed that phenolic compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively higher in the inoculated beans as compared with the uninfected control beans, reflecting a possible induced defense mechanism in the infected beans. Increased storage periods resulted in higher levels of phenols, but the average total, bound and free phenols did not differ between the cultivars tested. Effective control of Apergillus infection in coffee beans can prevent such changes in phenolics that may affect their commercial value.

  15. Insecticide susceptibility of the green plant bug, Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür (Homoptera: Miridae and two predatory arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhengqun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The green plant bug (Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür is a key pest of Bt cotton in China. Along with biological control, chemical control is one of the most important strategies in A. lucorum Integrated Pest Management (IPM. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of eight conventional insecticides to A. lucorum and to assess the susceptibility of two generalist predators Chrysopa sinica (Jieder and Propylaea japonica (Thunbery to insecticides that are commonly used in A. lucorum management. Via glass-vial and leaf-dip bioassay, toxicity tests with selected insecticides at two different life-stages of A. lucorum indicated significant differences between the LD50 or LC50 values for these compounds within different insecticidal classes. Phenylpyrazole fipronil had the highest toxicity to 4th-instar nymphs and adults of A. lucorum, whereas neonicotinoid imidacloprid had the lowest toxicity among the insecticides. Females were more tolerant to insecticides than were males, as shown by the higher LD50 values for females. Furthermore, laboratory tests showed that endosulfan had the highest selectivity to C. sinica and P. japonica: the selective toxicity ratios (STRs were superior to other tested insecticides, particularly imidacloprid, and were 5.396 and 4.749-fold higher than baseline STRs, respectively. From this study, we conclude that fipronil can potentially be used to efficiently control A. lucorum. An alternative control agent worth consideration is endosulfan, owing to its relative safety to non-targeted natural enemies.

  16. Green and economical production of propionic acid by Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015 in plant fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaohai; Chen, Fei; Xu, Hong; Wu, Bo; Li, Hui; Li, Sha; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2011-05-01

    Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium freudenreichii from molasses and waste propionibacterium cells was studied in plant fibrous-bed bioreactor (PFB). With non-treated molasses as carbon source, 12.69 ± 0.40 g l(-1) of propionic acid was attained at 120 h in free-cell fermentation, whereas the PFB fermentation yielded 41.22 ± 2.06 g l(-1) at 120 h and faster cells growth was observed. In order to optimize the fermentation outcomes, fed-batch fermentation was performed with hydrolyzed molasses in PFB, giving 91.89 ± 4.59 g l(-1) of propionic acid at 254 h. Further studies were carried out using hydrolyzed waste propionibacterium cells as substitute nitrogen source, resulting in a propionic acid concentration of 79.81 ± 3.99 g l(-1) at 302 h. The present study suggests that the low-cost molasses and waste propionibacterium cells can be utilized for the green and economical production of propionic acid by P. freudenreichii. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of potato (Solanum tuberosum plant wastes for the removal of methylene blue and malachite green dye from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dye pollutants from the textile, paper, and leather industries are important sources of environmental contamination. In the present study an agricultural waste from potato plant (potato stem powder, PSP and potato leaves powder, PLP was used as an adsorbent for removal of the methylene blue (MB and malachite green (MG dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorbent materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effect of physico-chemical parameters, such as pHpzc, ionic strength, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dyes concentration and temperature. The kinetics of adsorption was studied by applying the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo-second order model better represented the adsorption kinetics and the mechanism was controlled by surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. Equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in enthalpy (ΔH°, entropy (ΔS° and Gibb’s free energy (ΔG° of adsorption systems were also determined and evaluated.

  18. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  19. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  20. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)—effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g−1 fresh weight (535–620 μg 100 g−1 dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g−1 DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion. PMID:25650294

  1. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)-effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion.

  2. Effets of Silver Salt Concentrations on Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using the Plant Nigella Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Saeri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bio-inspired silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of a novel method, using leaves of the plant Nigella sativa. After drying the leaves in air, they were first sweltered in boiling distilled water and the liquid was filtered subsequently. The result was the brothused to reduce solutions including various concentrations of silver nitrate in a proper amount of pH. The displayed UV–visible spectra identified formation of silver nanoparticles whenever the colorless initial acclimated mixture turned brown. The centrifuged powder samples were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction analysis (EDX methods. The results clearly revealed that the final particles of precipitated powder are high purity agglomerates of silver nanoparticles. Besides, the effects of various amounts of the silver salt on particle size of nano silver were studied, using a particle size analyzer. FTIR results also indicated the role of different functional groups in the synthetic process.

  3. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  4. A new green chemistry method based on plant extracts to synthesize gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Castillo, Milka Odemariz

    Extraordinary chemical and physical properties exhibited by nanomaterials, as compared to their bulk counterparts, have made the area of nanotechnology a growing realm in the past three decades. It is the nanoscale size (from 1 to 100 nm) and the morphologies of nanomaterials that provide several properties and applications not possible for the same material in the bulk. Magnetic and optical properties, as well as surface reactivity are highly dependent on the size and morphology of the nanomaterial. Diverse nanomaterials are being widely used in molecular diagnostics as well as in medicine, electronic and optical devices. Among the most studied nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles are of special interest due to their multifunctional capabilities. For instance, spherical gold nanoparticles measuring 15-20 nm in diameter have been studied due to their insulin binding properties. Also, thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles between 5 and 30 nm are used in the detection of DNA. Thus, harnessing the shape and size of gold nanoparticles plays an important role in science and technology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles via the reduction of gold salts, using citrate or other reducing agents, has been widely studied. In recent years, algae, fungi, bacteria, and living plants have been used to reduce trivalent gold (Au3+) to its zero oxidation state (Au 0) forming gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. In addition, plant biomasses have also been studied for their gold-reducing power and nanoparticle formation. Although there is information about the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles by biologically based materials; to our knowledge, the study of the use of alfalfa extracts has not been reported. This innovation represents a significant improvement; that is an environmentally friendly method that does not use toxic chemicals. Also, the problem of extracting the formed gold nanoparticles from biomaterials is addressed in this research but still remains to be

  5. Bioprospecção de macroalgas marinhas e plantas aquáticas para o controle da antracnose do feijoeiro Bioprospecting of marine seaweeds and aquatic plants for controlling the bean anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Fernandes de Abreu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar o efeito local, residual e sistêmico, de extratos de 17 espécies de macroalgas marinhas e de duas plantas aquáticas, sobre a antracnose do feijoeiro. Para tanto, os espécimes foram coletados, identificados, secos em estufa (50ºC/ 48 h, moídos e seus compostos extraídos com etanol. Plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru foram cultivadas em vasos, em casa-de-vegetação. Os 19 extratos foram subdivididos e testados em duas etapas de seleção e comparação independentes, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições (vasos com três plantas. As plantas foram pulverizadas com extratos na concentração de 50 mg de peso seco/mL quando apresentavam o primeiro trifólio expandido. Para verificar o efeito local, as plantas foram inoculadas com uma suspensão de 1,2 x 10(6 conídios/mL 4 horas após o tratamento, enquanto que para o estudo do efeito residual e sistêmico, as plantas foram inoculadas 7 dias após o tratamento. A severidade da antracnose foi avaliada 7 dias após a inoculação (dai na planta inteira e no trifólio não tratado (efeito sistêmico, utilizando-se uma escala de 1 a 9. As algas e plantas que reduziram significativamente a severidade da doença foram comparadas em experimento avaliado aos 7 e aos 12 dai. O extrato de Bryothamnion seaforthii apresentou efeito local, reduzindo em 35% a severidade da antracnose, enquanto o extrato de Ulva fasciata demonstrou efeito residual com redução de 22% na doença aos 12 dai. Somente os extratos de Lemna sp. e U. fasciata reduziram sistemicamente a severidade de doença aos 7 dai na ordem de 55 e 44%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. O possível modo de ação desses extratos é discutido.The goal of this work was to test the local, residual as well as systemic effect of extracts from 17 marine seaweeds and two aquatic plant species against the bean anthracnose. For that, specimens were

  6. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF BEAN CULTIVARS WITH HAIRY BEGGARTICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO GALON

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Weed interference is a factor that limits the productivity of beans and, among these, hairy beggarticks is one of the main species competing with the crop for environmental resources. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the competitive ability of black bean cultivars (BRS Campeiro, IPR Uirapuru, SCS204 Predileto and BRS Supremo in the presence of a biotype of hairy beggarticks. The experimental design is a completely randomized block with four replications. Treatments were arranged in a replacement series, consisting of a proportion of the crop and the hairy beggarticks: 100:0; 75:25; 50:50: 24:75, and 0:100, which corresponds to 40:0, 30:10, 20:20, 10:30, and 0:40 plant pots1. We accomplished competitive analysis through diagrams applied to the replacement series, as well as using relative competitive indices. The leaf area and shoot dry mass were evaluated at 40 days after emergence of the species. There was competition between bean cultivars and hairy beggarticks for the same environmental resources, causing negative interference in the growth of the species, independent of the proportion of plants. Bean cultivars had a lower relative loss by reducing the morphological variables of the hairy beggarticks, thereby demonstrating superiority in its competitive ability in relation to the weed. Interspecific competition is less damaging than intraspecific competition for both species.

  7. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States while continuing to...

  8. Characteristics of water absorption of beans

    OpenAIRE

    上中, 登紀子; 森, 孝夫; 豊沢, 功; Tokiko, Uenaka; Takao, Mori; Isao, Toyosawa

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of water absorption of soybean, azuki bean and kidney beans (cv. Toramame and Taishokintoki) were investigated. The way of water absorption of soybean was different from that of other beans, because soybeans absorbed water from whole surface of seed coat immediately after the immersion. Azuki beans absorbed extremely slowly water from only strophiole, and then the water absorption in other tissue was induced by a certain amount of water absorption playing a role of trigger. Th...

  9. Effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth of beans plants (phaseolus vulgaris L.); Efecto de la humedad del suelo, por encima de la capacidad de campo sobre el crecimiento de plantas de judia (phaseolus vulgaris L.) Durante un mes de desarrollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, M; Mazon, M P

    1985-07-01

    The effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth and photosynthesis of three moisture levels (20,30 and 40 %) was studied.The first moisture level was near field capacity while the others exceeded. Weekly dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll content, net CO{sub 2} exchange rate in light and darkness, 14{sup C}O{sub 2} assimilated rate and stomatal aperture were determined. Results show a positive effect of soil moisture over field capacity on growth, photosynthate and transpiration of beans during the first growing month. (Author) 76 refs.

  10. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  11. ChloroSSRdb: a repository of perfect and imperfect chloroplastic simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) of green plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Aditi; Rai, Piyush Kant; Shanker, Asheesh

    2014-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are regions in DNA sequence that contain repeating motifs of length 1-6 nucleotides. These repeats are ubiquitously present and are found in both coding and non-coding regions of genome. A total of 534 complete chloroplast genome sequences (as on 18 September 2014) of Viridiplantae are available at NCBI organelle genome resource. It provides opportunity to mine these genomes for the detection of SSRs and store them in the form of a database. In an attempt to properly manage and retrieve chloroplastic SSRs, we designed ChloroSSRdb which is a relational database developed using SQL server 2008 and accessed through ASP.NET. It provides information of all the three types (perfect, imperfect and compound) of SSRs. At present, ChloroSSRdb contains 124 430 mined SSRs, with majority lying in non-coding region. Out of these, PCR primers were designed for 118 249 SSRs. Tetranucleotide repeats (47 079) were found to be the most frequent repeat type, whereas hexanucleotide repeats (6414) being the least abundant. Additionally, in each species statistical analyses were performed to calculate relative frequency, correlation coefficient and chi-square statistics of perfect and imperfect SSRs. In accordance with the growing interest in SSR studies, ChloroSSRdb will prove to be a useful resource in developing genetic markers, phylogenetic analysis, genetic mapping, etc. Moreover, it will serve as a ready reference for mined SSRs in available chloroplast genomes of green plants. Database URL: www.compubio.in/chlorossrdb/ © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. A field survey on coffee beans drying methods of Indonesian small holder farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, Parulian; Setyawan, Eko Y.; Gultom, Tumiur; Napitupulu, Farel H.; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Drying agricultural product is a post-harvest process that consumes significant energy. It can affect the quality of the product. This paper deals with literature review and field survey of drying methods of coffee beans of Indonesia farmers. The objective is to supply the necessary information on developing continuous solar drier. The results show that intermittent characteristic of sun drying results in a better quality of coffee beans in comparison with constant convective drying. In order to use energy efficiently, the drying process should be divided into several stages. In the first stage when the moist content is high, higher drying air temperature is more effective. After this step, where the moist content is low, lower drying air temperature is better. The field survey of drying coffee beans in Sumatera Utara province reveals that the used drying process is very traditional. It can be divided into two modes and depend on the coffee beans type. The Arabica coffee is firstly fermented and dried to moisture content of 80% using sun drying method, then followed by Green House model of drying up to moisture content about 12%. The latter typically spends 3 days of drying time. On the other hand, The Robusta coffee is dried by exposing to the sun directly without any treatment. After the coffee beans dried follow by peeled process. These findings can be considered to develop a continuous solar drying that suitable for coffee beans drying.

  13. The impact of local extinction on genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: consequences for the conservation of plant genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barrantes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant populations may experience local extinction and at the same time new populations may appear in nearby suitable locations. Species may also colonize the same site on multiple occasions. Here, we examined the impact of local extinction and recolonization on the genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus in the Central valley of Costa Rica. We compared genetic diversity from the samples taken from the populations before and after extinction at 13 locations using microsatellite markers. Locations were classified according to the occurrence of extinction episodes during the previous five years into three groups: 1 populations that experienced extinction for more than one year, and were later recolonized (recolonized, 2 populations that did not experience local extinction (control, and 3 populations that did not experience local extinction during the study, but were cut to experimentally simulate extinction (experimental. Our data did not show a clear tendency in variation in allele frequencies, expected heterozygosity, and effective number of alleles within and between groups of populations. However, we found that the level of genetic differentiation between samples collected at different times at the same location was different in the three groups of populations. Recolonized locations showed the highest level of genetic differentiation (mean Fst= 0.2769, followed by control locations (mean Fst= 0.0576 and experimental locations (mean Fst= 0.0189. Similar findings were observed for Nei’s genetic distance between samples (di,j= 0.1786, 0.0400, and 0.0037, respectively. Our results indicate that genetic change in lima beans depends on the duration and frequency of local extinction episodes. These findings also showed that control populations are not in equilibrium. Implications of these results for the establishment of conservation strategies of genetic resources of lima beans are discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3

  14. Conservation of Genetic Diversity in Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, both on International and European level a series of treaties and laws have been devised in order to save local varieties of crop plants. The most important methods of traditional seed conservation are on farm and ex situ (Maxim et al., 2010; Kontoleonet al., 2009. The identification of local Romanian varieties of bean, their morphological and agronomic description, seed production and its spreading in the purpose of genetic erosion reduction. Their have been taken into study 13 local varieties of bean. For the morphological description descriptors have been used accordingly to the IPGRI (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. For the evaluation of the diseases attack, frequency (F%, intensity (I% and degree of attack (GA% have been calculated.The exchanges of seed between farmers were facilitated through the online catalog edited by the Eco Ruralis Association that promotes traditional seeds. Of the 13 local varieties of beean taken into study, two are with determined growth(15.3%, and 11 are with undetermined growth(84.7%. The most significant production of pods on the plant was documented on local variety MM 1039 (2.736kg, and the most significant production of beans on plant was documented on local variety HD 904 (1.156kg. The most resistant varieties against bacterian attack, anthracnose, aphids and rust were: SJ 890, CJ 909, CV 917 şi HD 1159. The growing phenomenon of genetic erosion implies the indentification and the conservation of crop plants. In the year 2015, 13 local varieties of bean have been taken into study that were used for conservation in seeds’ genbank and for the exchange of seeds between farmers.

  15. Induction of mutants with higher protein content in soy bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, S.; Tanaka, S.; Nakamura, S.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to examine the effects of ionizing radiation on protein content of soy beans and to estimate the potential value of ionizing radiation in soy bean breeding. In the first experiment seeds of three cultivars were acutely irradiated by gamma ray doses of 8 krad and 16 krad. Seeds of M 3 plants were analysed for protein content by the Biuret method. Selection within each variety was made to isolate plants having about 2% higher protein content than the control populations. In the second experiment growing plants of a soy bean cultivar were irradiated with 2.9 krad and 6.1 krad, from germination to maturation, in a 60 Co gamma field. Seeds on individual lines in M 5 , M 6 and M 7 plants were determined for their protein contents by the Kjeldahl method and the upper 10% of the treated lines were selected for progeny testing. From the results of the analysis of variance for each trait, significant differences were observed between the control variety and selected lines for all the traits. Six out of 19 lines showed significant increases in both 100 seed weight and protein content, and four lines promising. The mean protein content of selected lines increased 0.68% compared with the control variety. Genetic gain expected from selection for high protein content was therefore considered at about 1%; however, the likelihood of a large increase in protein content would greatly increase if large populations derived from irradiated seeds were observed

  16. Fertilization management in bean crop under organic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Barradas Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the food production systems tend to include the sustainable management of soil and water. One of the main obstacles to the organic cultivation of common bean is the fertilization management. This study aimed to evaluate doses of organic fertilizer containing slaughterhouse residues (1.0 t ha-1, 1.5 t ha-1, 2.0 t ha-1 and 2.5 t ha-1. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 4x2x2 factorial scheme, with 16 treatments and 4 replications. Plant dry weight; foliar diagnose; initial and final plant population; number of pods per plant, grains per plant and grains per pod; 1000-grain weight; and grain yield were evaluated. It was concluded that the methods and time of organic fertilizer application do not affect the production components and yield in common bean. The dose of 2.5 t ha-1 of organic fertilizer provided the highest common bean yield in 2012, but it did not express its maximum production capacity.

  17. Review of plants to mitigate particulate matter, ozone as well as nitrogen dioxide air pollutants and applicable recommendations for green roofs in Montreal, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdji, Shannon

    2018-05-28

    In urbanized regions with expansive impervious surfaces and often low vegetation cover, air pollution due to motor vehicles and other combustion sources, is a problem. The poor air quality days in Montreal, Quebec are mainly due to fine particulate matter and ozone. Businesses using wood ovens are a source of particulates. Careful vegetation selection and increased green roof usage can improve air quality. This paper reviews different green roofs and the capability of plants in particulate matter (PM), ozone (O 3 ) as well as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) level reductions. Both the recommended green roof category and plants to reduce these pollutants in Montreal's zone 5 hardiness region are provided. Green roofs with larger vegetation including shrubs and trees, or intensive green roofs, remove air pollutants to a greater extent and are advisable to implement on existing, retrofitted or new buildings. PM is most effectively captured by pines. The small Pinus strobus 'Nana', Pinus mugho var. pumilio, Pinus mugho 'Slowmound' and Pinus pumila 'Dwarf Blue' are good candidates for intensive green roofs. Drought tolerant, deciduous broadleaved trees with low biogenic volatile organic compound emissions including Japanese Maple or Acer palmatum 'Shaina' and 'Mikawa-Yatsubusa' are options to reduce O 3 levels. Magnolias are tolerant to NO 2 and it is important in their metabolic pathways. The small cold-tolerant Magnolia 'Genie' is a good option to remove NO 2 in urban settings and to indirectly reduce O 3 formation. Given the emissions by Montreal businesses' wood ovens, calculations performed based on their respective complex roof areas obtained via Google Earth Pro indicates 88% Pinus mugho var. pumilio roof coverage can annually remove 92.37 kg of PM 10 of which 35.10 kg is PM 2.5 . The removal rates are 4.00 g/m 2 and 1.52 g/m 2 for PM 10 and PM 2.5 , respectively. This paper provides insight to addressing air pollution through urban rooftop greening. Copyright

  18. Design and development of green roof substrate to improve runoff water quality: plant growth experiments and adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Raja, Franklin D

    2014-10-15

    Many studies worldwide have investigated the potential benefits achievable by transforming brown roofs of buildings to green roofs. However, little literature examined the runoff quality/sorption ability of green roofs. As the green roof substrate is the main component to alter the quality of runoff, this investigation raises the possibility of using a mixture of low-cost inorganic materials to develop a green roof substrate. The tested materials include exfoliated vermiculite, expanded perlite, crushed brick and sand along with organic component (coco-peat). Detailed physical and chemical analyses revealed that each of these materials possesses different characteristics and hence a mix of these materials was desirable to develop an optimal green roof substrate. Using factorial design, 18 different substrate mixes were prepared and detailed examination indicated that mix-12 exhibited desirable characteristics of green roof substrate with low bulk density (431 kg/m(3)), high water holding capacity (39.4%), air filled porosity (19.5%), and hydraulic conductivity (4570 mm/h). The substrate mix also provided maximum support to Portulaca grandiflora (380% total biomass increment) over one month of growth. To explore the leaching characteristics and sorption capacity of developed green roof substrate, a down-flow packed column arrangement was employed. High conductivity and total dissolved solids along with light metal ions (Na, K, Ca and Mg) were observed in the leachates during initial stages of column operation; however the concentration of ions ceased during the final stages of operation (600 min). Experiments with metal-spiked deionized water revealed that green roof substrate possess high sorption capacity towards various heavy metal ions (Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd). Thus the developed growth substrate possesses desirable characteristics for green roofs along with high sorption capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.<