WorldWideScience

Sample records for green area effect

  1. Carbon savings resulting from the cooling effect of green areas: a case study in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenqi; Wu, Tinghai; Zhang, Chengguo; Yu, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Green areas cool the climate of a city, reduce the energy consumption caused by the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and bring along carbon savings. However, the calculation of carbon savings due to the cooling effect of green areas is still not well understood. We have used a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image of Beijing, to identify the cooled areas, compute the possible energy used to maintain the temperature differences between cooled areas and their surrounding heated areas, and calculate the carbon savings owing to the avoidance of energy use. Results show that a total amount of 14315.37 tons carbon savings was achieved in the study area and the amount was related to the biomass, the size and the shape of green areas. These results demonstrate the importance of carbon savings resulting from green areas' cooling effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbon savings resulting from the cooling effect of green areas: A case study in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Wenqi, E-mail: linwq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Urban-rural Ecological Planning and Green Architecture, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wu Tinghai; Zhang Chengguo [Institute of Architectural and Urban Studies, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu Ting [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Urban-rural Ecological Planning and Green Architecture, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Green areas cool the climate of a city, reduce the energy consumption caused by the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and bring along carbon savings. However, the calculation of carbon savings due to the cooling effect of green areas is still not well understood. We have used a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image of Beijing, to identify the cooled areas, compute the possible energy used to maintain the temperature differences between cooled areas and their surrounding heated areas, and calculate the carbon savings owing to the avoidance of energy use. Results show that a total amount of 14315.37 tons carbon savings was achieved in the study area and the amount was related to the biomass, the size and the shape of green areas. These results demonstrate the importance of carbon savings resulting from green areas' cooling effect. - Highlights: > We provide an integral equation for the calculation of energy conservation and carbon savings. > We show that carbon savings is partly influenced by green areas' features. > A strong correlation between biomass, size and shape of green areas and carbon savings. - An integral equation for the calculation of energy conservation and carbon savings; Showing that carbon savings is partly influenced by green areas' features.

  3. Effect of Urban Green Spaces and Flooded Area Type on Flooding Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyomin Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Countermeasures to urban flooding should consider long-term perspectives, because climate change impacts are unpredictable and complex. Urban green spaces have emerged as a potential option to reduce urban flood risks, and their effectiveness has been highlighted in notable urban water management studies. In this study, flooded areas in Seoul, Korea, were divided into four flooded area types by cluster analysis based on topographic and physical characteristics and verified using discriminant analysis. After division by flooded area type, logistic regression analysis was performed to determine how the flooding probability changes with variations in green space area. Type 1 included regions where flooding occurred in a drainage basin that had a flood risk management infrastructure (FRMI. In Type 2, the slope was steep; the TWI (Topographic Wetness Index was relatively low; and soil drainage was favorable. Type 3 represented the gentlest sloping areas, and these were associated with the highest TWI values. In addition, these areas had the worst soil drainage. Type 4 had moderate slopes, imperfect soil drainage and lower than average TWI values. We found that green spaces exerted a considerable influence on urban flooding probabilities in Seoul, and flooding probabilities could be reduced by over 50% depending on the green space area and the locations where green spaces were introduced. Increasing the area of green spaces was the most effective method of decreasing flooding probability in Type 3 areas. In Type 2 areas, the maximum hourly precipitation affected the flooding probability significantly, and the flooding probability in these areas was high despite the extensive green space area. These findings can contribute towards establishing guidelines for urban spatial planning to respond to urban flooding.

  4. Quantifying the effect of waterways and green areas on the surface temperature

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    Elis Dener Lima Alves

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The cooling effects of urban parks and green areas, which form the “Park Cool Island” (PCI can help decrease the surface temperature and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands (UHI. Therefore, the objective of this research was to know the temporal variability of PCI intensity, as well as analyze the factors that determines it and propose an equation to predict the PCI intensity in Iporá, Goiás State, Brazil. To this purpose, the PCI intensity values were obtained using the Landsat-8 satellite (band 10, and then correlated with the NDVI and the LAI, in which proposes equations through multiple linear regression to estimate the PCI intensity. The results indicated that: 1 the greater the distance of the natural area, greater the surface temperature; 2 there is a great seasonality in PCI, in which the intensity of PCI is much higher in the spring (or close to it; 3 the relationship between NDVI and LAI variables, showed good coefficients of determination; 4 the equations for the buffer of 200 and 500 m, had low RMSE with high coefficients of determination (r2 = 0.924 and r2 = 0.957 respectively.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF BUILT-UP AND GREEN AREAS ON THE LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF THE KUALA LUMPUR CITY

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    N. A. Isa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A common consequence of rapid and uncontrollable urbanization is Urban Heat Island (UHI. It occurs due to the negligence on climate behaviour which degrades the quality of urban climate condition. Recently, addressing urban climate in urban planning through mapping has received worldwide attention. Therefore, the need to identify the significant factors is a must. This study aims to analyse the relationships between Land Surface Temperature (LST and two urban parameters namely built-up and green areas. Geographical Information System (GIS and remote sensing techniques were used to prepare the necessary data layers required for this study. The built-up and the green areas were extracted from Landsat 8 satellite images either using the Normalized Difference Built-Up Index (NDBI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI or Modified Normalize Difference Water Index (MNDWI algorithms, while the mono-window algorithm was used to retrieve the Land Surface Temperature (LST. Correlation analysis and Multi-Linear Regression (MLR model were applied to quantitatively analyse the effects of the urban parameters. From the study, it was found that the two urban parameters have significant effects on the LST of Kuala Lumpur City. The built-up areas have greater influence on the LST as compared to the green areas. The built-up areas tend to increase the LST while green areas especially the densely vegetated areas help to reduce the LST within an urban areas. Future studies should focus on improving existing urban climatic model by including other urban parameters.

  6. The Effects of Built-Up and Green Areas on the Land Surface Temperature of the Kuala Lumpur City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, N. A.; Mohd, W. M. N. Wan; Salleh, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    A common consequence of rapid and uncontrollable urbanization is Urban Heat Island (UHI). It occurs due to the negligence on climate behaviour which degrades the quality of urban climate condition. Recently, addressing urban climate in urban planning through mapping has received worldwide attention. Therefore, the need to identify the significant factors is a must. This study aims to analyse the relationships between Land Surface Temperature (LST) and two urban parameters namely built-up and green areas. Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing techniques were used to prepare the necessary data layers required for this study. The built-up and the green areas were extracted from Landsat 8 satellite images either using the Normalized Difference Built-Up Index (NDBI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or Modified Normalize Difference Water Index (MNDWI) algorithms, while the mono-window algorithm was used to retrieve the Land Surface Temperature (LST). Correlation analysis and Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) model were applied to quantitatively analyse the effects of the urban parameters. From the study, it was found that the two urban parameters have significant effects on the LST of Kuala Lumpur City. The built-up areas have greater influence on the LST as compared to the green areas. The built-up areas tend to increase the LST while green areas especially the densely vegetated areas help to reduce the LST within an urban areas. Future studies should focus on improving existing urban climatic model by including other urban parameters.

  7. Effects of urban green areas on air temperature in a medium-sized Argentinian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra S. Coronel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban climate is the result of both atmospheric and geographic factors affecting a region, as well as the morphology, structures and human activities in a city. Urban vegetation in particular affects this climate at a local scale and provides many other social, economic and ecological benefits. Thus, it is important to explore the effects of different green areas used for urban and periurban agriculture and forestry activities (UPAF on daily atmospheric temperature and the required degrees of cooling or refrigerating temperature. Comfort temperatures were defined using a range 18-24°C and analyzed using actual measured as well as forecasted temperatures using a future scenario. Actual temperatures were recorded from September 2013 to August 2014 using digital sensors across eight sites in Rosario, Argentina: three in the central core with no vegetation, one in the central core with street trees, one in an urban agriculture site, one in a public park and two in periurban agricultural areas. Results show that air temperature in the central core with no vegetation were higher than those in other sites with vegetation during day and night, with the exception of the temperatures measured at the central core site with street trees. Findings also show that temperature effects in urban agricultural gardens of approximately 0.2 ha were similar to those of gardens and public parks 2-3 ha in size. Three UPAF types were classified according to cooling degree days, which decreased in order from (1 central core with no trees; (2 central core with street trees and public parks; and (3 urban and periurban agriculture areas. Conversely, the opposite trends for heating degree days were found. Results from this study can be used for integrating UPAF measures into climate change mitigation and urban planning policies in medium-sized cities in the developing world.

  8. The effect of urban green on small-area (healthy) life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Jonker (Marcel); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background Several epidemiological studies have investigated the effect of the quantity of green space on health outcomes such as self-rated health, morbidity and mortality ratios. These studies have consistently found positive associations between the quantity of

  9. Green tribology: principles, research areas and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosonovsky, Michael; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-10-28

    In this introductory paper for the Theme Issue on green tribology, we discuss the concept of green tribology and its relation to other areas of tribology as well as other 'green' disciplines, namely, green engineering and green chemistry. We formulate the 12 principles of green tribology: the minimization of (i) friction and (ii) wear, (iii) the reduction or complete elimination of lubrication, including self-lubrication, (iv) natural and (v) biodegradable lubrication, (vi) using sustainable chemistry and engineering principles, (vii) biomimetic approaches, (viii) surface texturing, (ix) environmental implications of coatings, (x) real-time monitoring, (xi) design for degradation, and (xii) sustainable energy applications. We further define three areas of green tribology: (i) biomimetics for tribological applications, (ii) environment-friendly lubrication, and (iii) the tribology of renewable-energy application. The integration of these areas remains a primary challenge for this novel area of research. We also discuss the challenges of green tribology and future directions of research.

  10. The green areas of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    O.M. Ramos-Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Green areas, also known as green infrastructure or urban vegetation, are vital to urbanites for their critical roles in mitigating urban heat island effects and climate change and for their provision of multiple ecosystem services and aesthetics. Here, I provide a high spatial resolution snapshot of the green cover distribution of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, by...

  11. Greening the Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Golden Gate National Recreation Area was recognized a 2016 Federal Green Challenge Award for making significant strides to reduce its carbon footprint with the goal of becoming a carbon neutral park.

  12. SOLUTIONS FOR INTEGRATED ADMINISTRATION OF URBAN GREEN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide an administrative model for green spaces in any geographical area, especially in urban areas. The organizational proposed model also concerns the possibilities to develop new areas with green spaces for both recreation and leisure. Current structures leave much to be desired and, unfortunately, they do not seek to manage the green spaces on types of activities and these activities are not integrated into a unit structure to ensure coordination of operations for maintenance and expansion of these spaces. In the study, for the administrative plan are proposed those necessary changes to create organizational structures needed to implement a coherent strategy and policy to support the development of green space. Given the necessity of an integrated management for urban space, the model proposes solutions to eliminate functional overlaps of the various decision-making bodies by creating a unit of action, together with arrangements for its effective support. Developing effective solutions to managing green spaces for recreation and leisure becomes an obligation for the next period under conditions of increasing green areas arranged as parks and other types of green spaces and hence an increase for the cost of their administration. On the other hand, the paper addresses the issue of integrated management for both, green areas and recreational and leisure facilities existing within the urban areas, by giving more importance and impact for these spaces within communities. In this framework of integrated administration, it is possible to ensure modern leisure amenities in these urban green areas, and on the other hand it is possible to provide a very important prospect of additional revenues for the general budget of the community and also for future budget of planning for new green areas.

  13. The Bigger, the Better? The Influence of Urban Green Space Design on Cooling Effects for Residential Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganmohan, Madhumitha; Knapp, Sonja; Buchmann, Carsten M; Schwarz, Nina

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the cooling effect of an urban green space extends into its surroundings, cooling the immediate environment and mitigating urban heat problems. However, the effects of size, shape, and type of an urban green space on cooling remain uncertain. The objectives of our study were to quantify and compare the strength of the cooling effects of urban parks and forests, to determine how far the cooling effects extend into the surrounding residential environment, and to better understand how temperature gradients are driven by physical characteristics of the green space and the surroundings. Mobile air temperature measurements were performed in 62 urban parks and forests in the city of Leipzig, Germany, in the summer of 2013. Three indicators of cooling were calculated: the change in temperature (ΔT) at the park-width distance, the maximum ΔT, and the cooling distance. The relationships of these variables to the physical characteristics of the green spaces and their surroundings were examined in multiple regression models. Analyzing all three indicators revealed that cooling effects were greater in urban forests than in parks. Cooling increased with increasing size but in a different manner for forests and parks, whereas the influence of shape was the same for forests and parks. Generally, the characteristics of the green spaces were more important than the characteristics of the residential surroundings. These findings have the potential to assist in better planning and designing of urban green spaces to increase their cooling effects. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. The green areas of San Juan, Puerto Rico

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    Olga M. Ramos-González

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green areas, also known as green infrastructure or urban vegetation, are vital to urbanites for their critical roles in mitigating urban heat island effects and climate change and for their provision of multiple ecosystem services and aesthetics. Here, I provide a high spatial resolution snapshot of the green cover distribution of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, by incorporating the use of morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA as a tool to describe the spatial pattern and connectivity of the city's urban green areas. Analysis of a previously developed IKONOS 4-m spatial resolution classification of the city of San Juan from 2002 revealed a larger area of vegetation (green areas or green infrastructure than previously estimated by moderate spatial resolution imagery. The city as a whole had approximately 42% green cover and 55% impervious surfaces. Although the city appeared greener in its southern upland sector compared to the northern coastal section, where most built-up urban areas occurred (66% impervious surfaces, northern San Juan had 677 ha more green area cover dispersed across the city than the southern component. MSPA revealed that most forest cover occurred as edges and cores, and green areas were most commonly forest cores, with larger predominance in the southern sector of the municipality. In dense, built-up, urban land, most of the green areas occurred in private yards as islets. When compared to other cities across the United States, San Juan was most similar in green cover features to Boston, Massachusetts, and Miami, Florida. Per capita green space for San Juan (122.2 m²/inhabitant was also comparable to these two U.S. cities. This study explores the intra-urban vegetation variation in the city of San Juan, which is generally overlooked by moderate spatial resolution classifications in Puerto Rico. It serves as a starting point for green infrastructure mapping and landscape pattern analysis of the urban green spaces

  15. Green and cool roofs to mitigate urban heat island effects in the Chicago metropolitan area: evaluation with a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Conry, P.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Hellmann, J. J.; Chen, F.

    2016-06-01

    The effects of urban heat islands (UHIs) have a substantial bearing on the sustainability of cities and environs. This paper examines the efficacy of green and cool roofs as potential UHI mitigation strategies to make cities more resilient against UHI. We have employed the urbanized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (uWRF) model at high (1 km) resolution with physically-based rooftop parameterization schemes (conventional, green and cool), a first-time application to the Chicago metropolitan area. We simulated a hot summer period (16-18 August 2013) and assessed (i) UHI reductions for different urban landuse with green/cool roofs, (ii) the interaction of lake breeze and UHI, and (iii) diurnal boundary layer dynamics. The performance of uWRF was evaluated using sensible heat flux and air temperature measurements from an urban mini-field campaign. The simulated roof surface energy balance captured the energy distribution with respective rooftop algorithms. Results showed that daytime roof temperature reduced and varied linearly with increasing green roof fractions, from less than 1 °C for the case of 25% green roof to ˜3 °C during peak daytime for 100% green roof. Diurnal transitions from land to lake breeze and vice versa had a substantial impact on the daytime cycle of roof surface UHI, which had a 3-4 hour lag in comparison to 2 m UHI. Green and cool roofs reduced horizontal and vertical wind speeds and affected lower atmosphere dynamics, including reduced vertical mixing, lower boundary layer depth, and weaker convective rolls. The lowered wind speeds and vertical mixing during daytime led to stagnation of air near the surface, potentially causing air quality issues. The selection of green and cool roofs for UHI mitigation should therefore carefully consider the competing feedbacks. The new results for regional land-lake circulations and boundary layer dynamics from this study may be extended to other urbanized areas, particularly to coastal

  16. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

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    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  17. Harmful organisms in urban green areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousková, Irena; Boháč, Jaroslav; Sedláček, František; Šerá, Božena; Lepšová, A.; Zacharda, Miloslav

    -, č. 23 (2004), s. 58-68 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC C11.001 Grant - others:ÚEK AV ČR(CZ) OC C11.001 Program:OC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : urban green areas, harmful organisms, management, * planning Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning

  18. Green Infrastructure Concept for JABODETABEKJUR Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan; Gates Chang, Bill

    2017-07-01

    Sixty “Mega Cities” would emerge by 2015 catering of 600 million populations, and were threatened by the climate change, because of cyclones, flooding, etc. Jakarta became a metro region covering Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok and Cianjur. Jakarta metropolitan faced the very high population growth, urban sprawling, traffic jams, flooding, green open space reduction, environmental degradation, urban slums and illegal street hawkers. Flooding and traffic congestions were the two most important issues to solve. SWOT analysis and urban design solutions were produced to create a sustainable solution. Related to transportation issues, Singapore Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) concept was evaluated. Meanwhile the Netherlands’ polder concept as well as Singapore’s Integrated Water Management were also analyzed. The development of above ground MRT as well as Busway could be developed to connect Jakarta Metropolitan Region. The networks were developed on the main toll road networks. The MRT and Busway would eventually replace the need of automobile use in the future. The Transit - Oriented - Development (TOD) with high density can be suggested to be concentrated nearby the MRT and Busway interchange stations. The Netherlands’ polder and were adopted for urban’ low-lying lands in Jakarta Metropolitan Region, A polder system was defined as the Integrated Man-made Drainage System consisting Dikes, Drains, Retention Ponds, Outfall Structures or Pumping Stations. The polder system was proposed to be extended to Tangerang and Bekasi area.

  19. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  20. VT Green Mountain National Forest National Recreation Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset includes National Recreation Areas (NRAs) designated by Congress on the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF) as of 2006. There are...

  1. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

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    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  2. Improving the urban green system and green network through the rehabilitation of railway rust areas

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    Hutter Dóra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Industrial Revolution had a negative impact on both the city and the environment. By the second half of the 19th century, the urban erosion of industrial cities cried for direct intervention and curing. The methods developed either along an urban or an anti-urban philosophy: they resulted in the new models of green belt systems aimed at solving all the main urban problems with restructuring the urban fabric, controlling the urban spread into the rural landscape, the lack of green areas and open spaces for recreation and social life, and the lack of green spaces for ventilation. Nowadays, the major cities and capitals around the globe are competing for titles such as healthier, more liveable or even greener city. Given the unfortunate attributes of the urban structure in the historical cities, the development of new transportation sites or green areas is an extremely difficult issue. On the other hand, in the big cities, the brownfield sites are considered as reserve areas for sustainable urban development. Reusing the brownfields and rust areas is already a land saving urban development approach and in case of a complex and ecological urban rehabilitation it can underlie the development of an efficient urban green system and green network.

  3. Estimation and Simulation of Inter-station Green's Functions in the Beppu-Bay Area, Oita Prefecture, Southwest Japan: the Effect of Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, T.; Yoshimi, M.; Komatsu, M.; Takenaka, H.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous long-term observations of ambient noise (microseisms) were performed from August 2014 to February 2017 in the Beppu-Bay area, Oita prefecture, to investigate S-wave velocity structure of deep sedimentary basin (Hayashida et al., 2015SSJ; Yoshimi and Hayashida, 2017WCEE). The observation array consists of 12 broadband stations with an average spacing of 12 km. We applied the seismic interferometry technique to the ambient noise data and derived nine-component ambient noise cross-correlation functions (Z-R, Z-T, Z-Z, R-R, R-T, R-Z, T-R, T-T, and T-Z components) between 66 pairs of stations (distance of 6.4 km to 65.2 km). We assumed the stacked cross-correlation functions as "observed Green's functions" between two stations and estimated group velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in the frequency between 0.2 and 0.5 Hz (Hayashida et al., 2017AGU-JpGU). Theoretical Green's functions for all stations pairs were also calculated using the finite difference method (HOT-FDM, Nakamura et al., 2012BSSA), with an existing three-dimensional basin structure model (J-SHIS V2) with land and seafloor topography and a seawater layer (Okunaka et al., 2016JpGU) and a newly constructed basin structure model of the target area (Yoshimi et al., 2017AGU). The comparisons between observed and simulated Green's functions generally show good agreements in the frequency range between 0.2 and 0.5 Hz. On the other hand, both observed and simulated Green's functions for some station pairs whose traverse lines run across the deeper part of the sedimentary basin (> 2000 m) show prominent later phases that might be generated and propagated inside the basin. This indicates that the understanding of the phase generation and propagation processes can be a key factor to validate the basin structure model and we investigated the characteristics of the later phases, such as its particle motions and arrival times, using observed and simulated Green's functions in detail. Acknowledgements

  4. Effects of long-term organic material applications and green manure crop cultivation on soil organic carbon in rain fed area of Thailand

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    Tomohide Sugino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term field experiment on organic material application and crop rotation with green manure crops has been conducted since 1976 at Lopburi Agricultural Research and Development Center, Department of Agriculture, Lop Buri Province, Thailand, to clarify the effect of organic materials and green manure crop on soil organic carbon changes. The stock change factors that stand for the relative change of soil organic carbon on the carbon stock in a reference condition (native vegetation that is not degraded or improved. Stock change factor for input of organic matter (FI, representing different levels of C input to soil such as organic material application, crop residue treatment and green manure crop cultivation, was computed with the present field experimental results. While the computed FI of "High input with manure" was within the range of IPCC default FI value, some of the computed FI of " High input without manure" was much higher than the IPCC default though it was varied due to the biomass production and nutrient contents of the green manure crops planted as the second crops after corn. Therefore, the FI computed by field experimental results can contribute to more accurate estimation of SOC changes in farm land especially in Southeast Asia because the default FI mostly depends on the experimental data in temperate zones. Moreover, the field experiment has focused the effect of reduced tillage practices on SOC changes and corn yield since 2011. The results of the experiment will be used to compute Stock change factor for management regime (FMG which represents the effects of tillage operations.

  5. Quantitative Study of Green Area for Climate Sensitive Terraced Housing Area Design in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, O T S; Saito, K; Said, I

    2014-01-01

    Neighbourhood plays a significant role in peoples' daily lives. Nowadays, terraced housing is common in Malaysia, and green areas in the neighborhood are not used to their maximum. The aim of the research is to quantify the types of green area that are most efficient for cooling the environment for thermal comfort and mitigation of Urban Heat Island. Spatial and environmental inputs are manipulated for the simulation using Geographic Information System (GIS) integrated with computational microclimate simulation. The outcome of this research is a climate sensitive housing environment model framework on the green area to solve the problem of Urban Heat Island

  6. The Evolution of Urban Green Areas in Romania during 2002-2013

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    Iulian Adrian Şorcaru

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The small size of green areas in Romanian urban settlements remains a problem of current urbanization, having a negative impact on the healthy lifestyle of the population. Nowadays, the green areas from most of the Romanian cities are under the WHO standard of 50 m2/inhabitant, under the E.U. standard of 26 m2/inhabitant, and also under the national standard (94 urban settlements-29.4% have less than 10 m2/inhabitant of green area in 2013. Furthermore, the evolution of green areas after 2002, shows that almost a quarter of Romanian urban settlements (24.5% recorded significant declines, some towns having less than one square meter per inhabitant. This study presents a detailed analysis of Romanian urban green areas, their evolution over the period 2002-2013, based on the latest data provided by INS (National Institute of Statistics, identifying in the same time the causes and effects that led to the current situation. Mapping the results and identifying regional disparities, along with proposing measures to increase urban green areas are also objectives achieved in this study.

  7. Identification of the potential gap areas for the developing green infrastructure in the Urban area using High resolution satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaparthi, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    In India urban population is growing day by day which is causing air pollution less air quality finally leading to climate change and global warming. To mitigate the effect of the climate change we need to plant more trees in the urban area. The objective of this study is develop a plan to improve the urban Green Infrastructure (GI) to fight against the climate change and global warming. Improving GI is a challenging and difficult task in the urban areas because land unavailability of land, to overcome the problem greenways is a good the solution. Greenway is a linear open space developed along the rivers, canals, roads in the urban areas to form a network of green spaces. Roads are the most common structures in the urban area. The idea is to develop the greenways alongside the road to connecting the different green spaces. Tree crowns will act as culverts to connect the green spaces. This will require the spatial structure of the green space, distribution of trees along the roads and the gap areas along the road where more trees can be planted. This can be achieved with help of high resolution Satellite Imagery and the object extraction techniques. This study was carried in the city Bhimavaram which is located in state Andhra Pradesh. The final outcome of this study is potential gap areas for planting trees in the city.

  8. DIVERSITY OF SOIL ARTHROPOD IN GREEN BARRIER AREA PT. PUSRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hidayat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to inventory and identify as well as acknowledge the correlation between vegetation type with soil arthropods in the Green Barrier area of PT Pusri. PT. Pusri green Barrier area is 28 hectares and dominated by 10 types of vegetation, such as, the Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus Wild, Bambu (Bambusa Sp, Beringin (Ficus benyamina, Buah Roda (Hura crepitans L, Jati (Tectona grandis L, Kelampayan (Neolamarckia cadamba , Ketapang (Terminalia catappa L, Mahony (Swietenia macrophylla King, Pulai (Alstonia scholaris, and Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria L. Soil arthropods were collected by using pit fall traps and funnel barlese-tullgren in every type of vegetation, between July-August 2015. Identification of arthropod genera Identification has been done in Entomology Laboratory of the Agriculture Plant Disease Faculty Sriwijaya University, and analysis of soil organic in the Laboratory of Soil Faculty of Agriculture Sriwijaya University. The results were obtained into 3 classes of soil arthropods belonging to the 10 orders, 28 families and 35 genera. The diversity index value of soil arthropods in various types of vegetation is classified moderately (H= 1-3, and no type of soil arthropods were dominant, mean that soil arthropods with different types spread over in the various types of vegetation in the area of Green Barrier PT. Pusri. Light intensity abiotic factors play an important role in the life of the soil arthropod communities in vegetation Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria L with a correlation coefficient 1.00 Keywords: soil arthropods, community structure, a biotic factors, Green Barrier PT. Pusri

  9. Green area loss in San Juan's inner-ring suburban neighborhoods: a multidisciplinary approach to analyzing green/gray area dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Ramos-Santiago

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The loss of green areas and vegetation in suburban neighborhoods poses short- and long-term consequences associated with environmental changes and socioeconomic decline that can propel such developments to an unsustainable state. We summarize an interdisciplinary investigation aimed at identifying the drivers of green area loss, green cover loss, and quantifying the impact on three inner-ring suburban neighborhoods located along the Rio Piedras watershed in San Juan, Puerto Rico. An inductive approach to social-ecological research was undertaken because it provides a flexible platform for interdisciplinary collaboration on this complex and dynamic subject. The three developments selected for the study were constructed in the mid-20th century under paradigms of modernity that included providing conditions for a better and more dignified way of living, among which green areas played a central role. The green area change analysis was undertaken first, by way of using building footprint growth as a proxy, which represents a minimal estimate of change, and transferring the information from aerial photographs, original development plans, construction drawings, and GIS maps to AutoCAD to quantify building footprint change for each neighborhood. The period of analysis started from the time of the construction of each development to the year 2010. The second estimation was performed using orthorectified infrared aerial imagery to quantify green cover in year 2008 and contrast that information with the conditions at the time the developments were constructed. Green-gray area dynamics were thus analyzed together with longitudinal socioeconomic data to help in the assessment of effects. The investigation revealed long-term socioeconomic declining trends in two of the neighborhoods, weak governance of the built environment, substantial increase in automobile ownership, and distinct physical-spatial characteristics as drivers behind the changes observed. The

  10. URBAN GREEN AREAS – ISSUES AND ANSWERS FOR SUISTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (CASE STUDY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current situation of urban areas from Romania shows a natural environment with increased risk for health of residents due to the low level of green growth resulted from lack of integrated management of green spaces in relation to the other components of sustainable development. Urban evolution in the last 40 years has been characterized by an extensive industrial development and intensive residential development paving the way for an unstructured extension and poor urban landscaping. On this poorly planned urban development was felt a progressive green space crisis and landscaped recreational areas. Regarding the management of the green areas in this general context, the urban areas will have to suggest for the future a series of ample projects in order to increase the surfaces, but also the quality of the green spaces, having an effect on the environmental quality but also projects of accomplishing certain areas of pleasure and leisure in frame of certain efficient environment strategies, all of these having a positive role on the health status of the population.

  11. Network of Green Areas within Collective Housing Communities - Case Study from Timişoara, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branea, Ana-Maria; Stelian Găman, Marius; Bădescu, Ştefana

    2017-10-01

    Green areas have always been an essential feature of urban developments, improving the quality of life within a community, both from a social perspective - offering residents a place for relaxation and interaction, as well as from the point of view of disease prevention - improving the overall air quality, but also encouraging inhabitants to spend more time outside. The importance of these areas within a settlement further increases in the present-day context, in which the constant expansion of cities in their surrounding territory, phenomenon known as “urban sprawl”, gradually eliminates the natural green spaces and agricultural terrains from our landscape. This trend has devastating effects on the environment, as well as on the micro-climate of our settlements, characterized, in recent years, by the formation of heat islands within the built tissue. Moreover, the disappearance of natural green areas leads to the constant estrangement of the inhabitants, and especially of young generations, from the natural values and realities. It is thus more important than ever to ensure an adequate percentage of green areas for our cities, uniformly distributed within the urban tissue. Green belts, urban forests, parks, green squares or even urban gardens - all these entities play their parts within the urban green network, having certain radiuses of influence and attraction and thus occupying a specific position within the urban hierarchy. In Romania, the terrains left un-built between the collective housing buildings - or apartment blocks, erected during the communist administration and currently constituting public property, have a huge potential regarding the matter of urban greenery, being easily transformed into active and qualitative green areas. However, the local authorities lack the resources (both financial and in terms of human resources) to efficiently develop and then administrate these areas, which are consequently either abandoned, or used as illegal

  12. Ecological Impacts of Replacing Traditional Roofs with Green Roofs in Two Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Carter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban land cover is dominated by impervious surface that degrades both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems relative to predevelopment conditions. There are significant opportunities for designers of urban landscapes to use alternative land covers that have multiple functions, benefiting both human and nonhuman components of the urban ecosystem. Vegetated (green roofs are one form of alternative land cover that has shown the potential to provide a variety of ecological benefits in urban areas. We evaluated how stormwater retention, building energy and temperature, and rooftop habitat are influenced by the use of green roofs using test plots in Georgia and Massachusetts. Green roofs were shown to recreate part of the predevelopment hydrology through increasing interception, stormwater storage, evaporation, and transpiration on the rooftop and worked extremely well for small storm events. Temperature reductions were found on the green rooftop as compared to an asphalt surface, although other roof technologies that minimize temperatures, such as lighter colored membranes, provide similar benefits. Novel habitat was created on the rooftop, although the extent of this habitat was limited in part by plant survivability and the need for additional water inputs for diverse plant communities to survive. Despite the challenges, the green roof benefits reported here suggest that green roofs can be used effectively as a multifunctional land cover in urban areas.

  13. Planning of Green Space Ecological Network in Urban Areas: An Example of Nanchang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haifeng; Chen, Wenbo; He, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Green space plays an important role in sustainable urban development and ecology by virtue of multiple environmental, recreational, and economic benefits. Constructing an effective and harmonious urban ecological network and maintaining a sustainable living environment in response to rapid urbanization are the key issues required to be resolved by landscape planners. In this paper, Nanchang City, China was selected as a study area. Based on a series of landscape metrics, the landscape pattern analysis of the current (in 2005) and planned (in 2020) green space system were, respectively, conducted by using FRAGSTATS 3.3 software. Considering the actual situation of the Nanchang urban area, a “one river and two banks, north and south twin cities” ecological network was constructed by using network analysis. Moreover, the ecological network was assessed by using corridor structure analysis, and the improvement of an ecological network on the urban landscape was quantitatively assessed through a comparison between the ecological network and green space system planning. The results indicated that: (1) compared to the green space system in 2005, the planned green space system in 2020 of the Nanchang urban area will decline in both districts (Changnan and Changbei districts). Meanwhile, an increase in patch density and a decrease in mean patch size of green space patches at the landscape level implies the fragmentation of the urban green space landscape. In other words, the planned green space system does not necessarily improve the present green space system; (2) the ecological network of two districts has high corridor density, while Changnan’s ecological network has higher connectivity, but Changbei’s ecological network is more viable from an economic point of view, since it has relatively higher cost efficiency; (3) decrease in patch density, Euclidean nearest neighbor distance, and an increase in mean patch size and connectivity implied that the ecological

  14. Planning of Green Space Ecological Network in Urban Areas: An Example of Nanchang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haifeng; Chen, Wenbo; He, Wei

    2015-10-15

    Green space plays an important role in sustainable urban development and ecology by virtue of multiple environmental, recreational, and economic benefits. Constructing an effective and harmonious urban ecological network and maintaining a sustainable living environment in response to rapid urbanization are the key issues required to be resolved by landscape planners. In this paper, Nanchang City, China was selected as a study area. Based on a series of landscape metrics, the landscape pattern analysis of the current (in 2005) and planned (in 2020) green space system were, respectively, conducted by using FRAGSTATS 3.3 software. Considering the actual situation of the Nanchang urban area, a "one river and two banks, north and south twin cities" ecological network was constructed by using network analysis. Moreover, the ecological network was assessed by using corridor structure analysis, and the improvement of an ecological network on the urban landscape was quantitatively assessed through a comparison between the ecological network and green space system planning. The results indicated that: (1) compared to the green space system in 2005, the planned green space system in 2020 of the Nanchang urban area will decline in both districts (Changnan and Changbei districts). Meanwhile, an increase in patch density and a decrease in mean patch size of green space patches at the landscape level implies the fragmentation of the urban green space landscape. In other words, the planned green space system does not necessarily improve the present green space system; (2) the ecological network of two districts has high corridor density, while Changnan's ecological network has higher connectivity, but Changbei's ecological network is more viable from an economic point of view, since it has relatively higher cost efficiency; (3) decrease in patch density, Euclidean nearest neighbor distance, and an increase in mean patch size and connectivity implied that the ecological network

  15. Planning of Green Space Ecological Network in Urban Areas: An Example of Nanchang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Green space plays an important role in sustainable urban development and ecology by virtue of multiple environmental, recreational, and economic benefits. Constructing an effective and harmonious urban ecological network and maintaining a sustainable living environment in response to rapid urbanization are the key issues required to be resolved by landscape planners. In this paper, Nanchang City, China was selected as a study area. Based on a series of landscape metrics, the landscape pattern analysis of the current (in 2005 and planned (in 2020 green space system were, respectively, conducted by using FRAGSTATS 3.3 software. Considering the actual situation of the Nanchang urban area, a “one river and two banks, north and south twin cities” ecological network was constructed by using network analysis. Moreover, the ecological network was assessed by using corridor structure analysis, and the improvement of an ecological network on the urban landscape was quantitatively assessed through a comparison between the ecological network and green space system planning. The results indicated that: (1 compared to the green space system in 2005, the planned green space system in 2020 of the Nanchang urban area will decline in both districts (Changnan and Changbei districts. Meanwhile, an increase in patch density and a decrease in mean patch size of green space patches at the landscape level implies the fragmentation of the urban green space landscape. In other words, the planned green space system does not necessarily improve the present green space system; (2 the ecological network of two districts has high corridor density, while Changnan’s ecological network has higher connectivity, but Changbei’s ecological network is more viable from an economic point of view, since it has relatively higher cost efficiency; (3 decrease in patch density, Euclidean nearest neighbor distance, and an increase in mean patch size and connectivity implied that the

  16. Data Base for the Management of Green Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Parinello

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to studying the reading systems and identify opportunities for the analysis of complex equipment plants that live in urban areas. Analyzing census systems, generally used for the creation of databases and archives on virtual plant health of ornamental species that inhabit urban environments, we propose a system of interaction between the clouds, provided by the laser scanner, and banks virtual data, integrating quantitative understanding of digital archives, with descriptive data, creating useful tools for the management of urban space for the comprehensive interpretation of the various activities of knowledge on the green and the city.

  17. GREEN ROOFS AND GREEN WALLS AS INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS TO IMPROVE THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Małuszyńska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are exposed on those originating in various sources, emissions of pollutants that pose a threat to the health of living organisms. The type of pollutant and its toxicity to organisms and mold exposure as well as the frequency of their occurrence in the environment can have a negative impact on living organisms occurring in the area. Another element negatively affecting the environmental health is a rush of individuals and communities to prosperity, which, combined with a weak nervous resistance to stressful situations contributes to the reduction of resistance to disease becoming the scourge of society as bulimia, diabetes and cancer. The tendency to increase building occurring in urban areas and the increasing number of urban dwellers in Europe as well as increasing awareness of the population about the need to protect environmental health, points to the need to seek alternative and innovative solutions for urban greenery. Investments included in that group, the green roofs and green walls, the implementation of which will increase the biologically active surface in the cities, may be an essential element of urban infrastructure that contributes to improving the quality of life of communities living in the city.

  18. Green Infrastructure Siting and Cost Effectiveness Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Parcel scale green infrastructure siting and cost effectiveness analysis. You can find more details at the project's website.

  19. Climate change in urban areas. Green and water storage in relation to soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirven-van Breemen, E.M.; Claessens, J.W.; Hollander, A.

    2011-08-01

    One of the possible effects of climate change in urban areas is an increased frequency of periods of extreme heat and extreme rainfall events. Public green areas provide shadow and therefore have a cooling effect during periods of extreme heat. Sufficient water storage capacity of the soil may reduce the overburdening of the public water system during extreme rainfall events. Governments do well by taking measures for climate-proofing of their towns. Also citizens may contribute to these climate issues. Governments and citizens should realize that investing in climate-proofing of their towns at this moment will pay off in the future. These are the outcomes of an inventory carried out by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, RIVM, ordered by the ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment. With measures for public green areas and water storage capacity local governments should link with other policy areas like infrastructure, public health, safety and sustainability. An example of more public green is a green infrastructure like parks and public gardens. An other advantage of public green is the unsealed soil; that is the soil not covered by roads, buildings, etc. The presence of unsealed soil increases the possibility for water infiltration. For favorable water storage local governments may construct wadis that prevent public water systems for being overburdened by extreme rainfall events. A wadi is a lowering of the surface level mostly covered with plants. During heavy rainfall the wadi is flooded, due to rainwater from the roofs of the surrounding buildings which drains away to the wadi. Citizens may construct green roofs or city gardens with unsealed soil. To promote this, subsidies for private initiatives are an additional boost. [nl

  20. Estimating the total leaf area of the green dwarf coconut tree (Cocos nucifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Elias Fernandes de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area has significant effect on tree transpiration, and its measurement is important to many study areas. This work aimed at developing a non-destructive, practical, and empirical method to estimate the total leaf area of green dwarf coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L. in plantations located at the northern region of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A mathematical model was developed to estimate total leaf area values (TLA as function of the average lengths of the last three leaf raquis (LR3, and of the number of leaves in the canopy (NL. The model has satisfactory degree of accuracy for agricultural engineering purposes.

  1. GREEN SPACES AND PUBLIC HEALTH IN URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu CICEA; Corina PIRLOGEA

    2011-01-01

    Quality of life in cities depends largely on the availability of attractive and accessible green spaces. It is generally agreed that urban green spaces are essential for the health and well-being of citizens. This paper aims to broach the issue of urban green spaces, emphasizing their importance (embodied in at least three categories of benefits: environmental, economic and social) and focusing on the idea that the existence of green spaces may contribute to obtaining savings or income in a c...

  2. Green areas and health outcomes: a systematic review of the scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Nardo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Growing medical evidence shows that access to the natural environment improves health and wellbeing, prevents disease and helps people recover from illness. Experiencing nature in the outdoors can help tackle obesity and coronary heart disease. Green areas exert their benefits on both physical and mental health, promoting physical activity and strengthening the sense of community thus positively influencing social interaction. Urbanization poses problems through effects such as environmental pollution, accidents, heat island effects, climate change and a consequent demand for urban green areas.

    Material and methods: We performed literature searches of electronic journal databases for studies and reviews that focused on the relationship between green spaces and health. We looked at the effects on physical health, mental health, social health, physical activity and well-being in its broadest sense and then we categorically organized our findings.

    Results: We found many contradictory and unexpected results. However, the reported findings were generally consistent and supported the current view that urban design and the availability of urban green spaces are key elements of prosperity and individual/collective comfort, so as to influence both the perceived health and the objective physical conditions in a measurable way. A weak relationship between physical activity levels and green space availability is observed.

    Conclusions: The occasionally contradictory results that emerged in this study suggest that a opulation’s esponse to urban design interventions is often unpredictable. Further research is needed to quantify the trength of relation between green spaces and urban health, but also to investigate the social and behavioural spects which are more difficult to measure and understand.

  3. Area Green Efficiency (AGE) of Two Tier Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2012-10-03

    Small cell networks are becoming standard part of the future heterogeneous networks. In this paper, we consider a two tier heterogeneous network which promises energy savings by integrating the femto and macro cellular networks and thereby reducing CO2 emissions, operational and capital expenditures (OPEX and CAPEX) whilst enhancing the area spectral efficiency (ASE) of the network. In this context, we define a performance metric which characterize the aggregate energy savings per unit macrocell area and is referred to as area green efficiency (AGE) of the two tier heterogeneous network where the femto base stations are arranged around the edge of the reference macrocell such that the configuration is referred to as femto-on-edge (FOE). The mobile users in macro and femto cellular networks are transmitting with the adaptive power while maintaining the desired link quality such that the energy aware FOE configuration mandates to (i) save energy, and (ii) reduce the co-channel interference. We present a mathematical analysis to incorporate the uplink power control mechanism adopted by the mobile users and calibrate the uplink ASE and AGE of the energy aware FOE configuration. Next, we derive analytical expressions to compute the bounds on the uplink ASE of energy aware FOE configuration and demonstrate that the derived bounds are useful in evaluating the ASE under worst and best case interference scenarios. Simulation results are produced to demonstrate the ASE and AGE improvements in comparison to macro-only and macro-femto configuration with uniformly distributed femtocells.

  4. Green Roofs: A Part of Green Infrastructure Strategy for Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provides insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA rep...

  5. Estimation of leaf area index in cereal crops using red-green images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Kristian; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Thomsen, Anton G

    2009-01-01

    A new method for estimating the leaf area index (LAI) in cereal crops based on red-green images taken from above the crop canopy is introduced. The proposed method labels pixels into vegetation and soil classes using a combination of greenness and intensity derived from the red and green colour...

  6. Effects of Technological Innovation in Relationship between Green Supply Chain Management Practices and Green Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Umar, Mohammed Sangiru; Danjuma, Ibrahim; Hammawa, Dahiru Dauda; Habibu, Sherif Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Although scholars have conceptualised on green supply chain management practices and green performance, evidence to validate the conceptualisation was lacking, albeit in the context of small and medium enterprises. In addition, effect of technological innovation on supply chain practices and green performance was largely unexplored by researchers. Therefore this study validates and provides empirical evidence on the relationship between green supply chain management practices, technological i...

  7. Dependence of compressive strength of green compacts on pressure, density and contact area of powder particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.; Akram, M.; Shahid, K.A.; Javed, M.; Zaidi, S.M.

    1994-08-01

    The relationship between green compressive strength and compacting pressure as well as green density has been investigated for uniaxially pressed aluminium powder compacts in the range 0 - 520 MPa. Two linear relationships occurred between compacting pressure and green compressive strength which corresponded to powder compaction stages II and III respectively, increase in strength being large during stage II and quite small in stage III with increasing pressure. On the basis of both, the experimental results and a previous model on cold compaction of powder particles, relationships between green compressive strength and green density and interparticle contact area of the compacts has been established. (author) 9 figs

  8. An Ecological Study of the Association between Area-Level Green Space and Adult Mortality in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that access to green spaces have positive effects on health, possibly through beneficial effects on exercise, air quality, urban heat islands, and stress. Few previous studies have examined the associations between green space and mortality, and they have given inconsistent results. This ecological study relates green space to mortality in Hong Kong from 2006 to 2011. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, a measure of green space coverage, was measured for 199 small geographic areas in Hong Kong. Negative Binomial Regression Models were fit for mortality outcomes with NDVI, age, gender, population density, and area-level socio-economic variables as predictors, with Generalized Estimating Equations used to control for within-cluster correlation. An interquartile range (0.44 units higher NDVI was significantly associated with lower cardiovascular (relative risk (RR = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.80, 0.98 and diabetes (RR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.60, 0.92 mortality, and non-significantly associated with lower chronic respiratory mortality (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.79, 1.02. Associations were stronger for males and low-income area residents. Lung cancer mortality had no significant association with green space. Better provision of urban green space, particularly in low-income areas, appears to have potential to reduce mortality in densely-populated Asian cities.

  9. The Role of Urban Green Areas in the Education for Sustainable Development: Focus on Krakow, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Aleksandra; Orlewicz-Musial, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Four selected green areas in Krakow (Poland) were compared, including: (1) the historical centre of Krakow with the green belt of Planty; (2) Blonia--grassland situated near the city centre; (3) the Park of Aviators, situated between the old part of Krakow and the industrial district of Nowa Huta and (4) the Nowa Huta Meadows. All these areas have…

  10. Associations between time spent in green areas and physical activity among late middle-aged adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Dewulf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is an important facilitator for health and wellbeing, especially for late middle-aged adults, who are more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases. Physical activity performed in green areas is supposed to be particularly beneficial, so we studied whether late middle- aged adults are more active in green areas than in non-green areas and how this is influenced by individual characteristics and the level of neighbourhood greenness. We tracked 180 late middle-aged (58 to 65 years adults using global positioning system and accelerometer data to know whether and where they were sedentary or active. These data were combined with information on land use to obtain information on the greenness of sedentary and active hotspots. We found that late middle-aged adults are more physically active when spending more time in green areas than in non-green areas. Spending more time at home and in non-green areas was found to be associated with more sedentary behaviour. Time spent in non-green areas was found to be related to more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA for males and to less MVPA for females. The positive association between time spent in green areas and MVPA was the strongest for highly educated people and for those living in a green neighbourhood. This study shows that the combined use of global positioning system and accelerometer data facilitates understanding of where people are sedentary or physically active, which can help policy makers encourage activity in this age cohort.

  11. Peer Effects and Voluntary Green Building Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Qiu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence is provided to show that peer effects have statistically significant and positive impacts on the diffusion of green building certificates. Application and approval records of green certificates by commercial buildings in NY and AZ are used. The challenge of self-selection is addressed by the usage of fixed effects and the challenge of reflection is addressed by the time lag delay between a building’s application and its approval. Empirical results show that an additional approved LEED certificate within a zip code will increase the probability of a commercial building in the same zip code to apply for a LEED certificate by 3–4 percentage points; an additional approved Energy Star certificate within a zip code will increase the probability of a commercial building in the same zip code to apply for an Energy Star certificate by 1–2 percentage points.

  12. Green infrastructure practices – strategies how to sustain life in metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Zaręba Anna; Krzemińska Alicja; Widawski Krzysztof; Oleśniewicz Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Green Infrastructure is ‘an interconnected network of green space that conserves natural ecosystem values and functions and provides associated benefits to human populations’ [1, p. 12]. It contributes to long term strategic development goals for data and information management. The research paper was introduced with the aim to protect green areas in urban environment by improving biodiversity, leisure and recreation, tidal and fluvial flood risk management, grey water treatment and quality o...

  13. Can money buy green? Demographic and socioeconomic predictors of lawn-care expenditures and lawn greenness in urban residential areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiqi Zhou; Austin Troy; J. Morgan Grove; Jennifer C. Jenkins

    2009-01-01

    It is increasingly important to understand how household characteristics influence lawn characteristics, as lawns play an important ecological role in human-dominated landscapes. This article investigates household and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics as predictors of residential lawn-care expenditures and lawn greenness. The study area is the Gwynns Falls...

  14. Rainwater harvesting and green area retention potential detection using commercial unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Grajfoner, Blanka; Butyrin, Andrey; Nekrep Perc, Matjaz

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this work is to use simple photogrammetry to evaluate rainwater harvesting and green area retention potential in Maribor, Slovenia city centre. Several sources of remote sensing data have been described and a field test with semi-professional drone was performed by means of computer evaluation of rainwater harvesting and green area retention potential. Some of the most important design parameters for rainwater harvesting systems as roof area and slope and available green areas were identified and evaluated. The results have shown that even semi-professional low budget drones can be successfully used for mapping areas of interest. The results of six-minute flight over twelve hectares of Maribor city centre were comparable with professional results of plane remote sensing. Image segmentation from orthomosaic together with elevation model has been used to detect roofs and green areas.

  15. Quantifying the City’s Green Area Potential Gain Using Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Information about green spaces available in a city is essential for urban planning. Urban green areas are generally assessed through environmental indicators that reflect the city’s quality of life and urban comfort. A methodology based on 3D measure and analysis of green urban areas at the city scale is presented. Two products are proposed: (1 measuring current vegetation cover at ground level through object-oriented classification of WorldView-2 imagery; and (2 estimating potential green cover at rooftop level using 3D data obtained by LiDAR sensor. The methodology, implemented in Lisbon, Portugal, demonstrates that: (1 remote sensing imagery provides powerful tools for master planning and policy analysis regarding green urban area expansion; and (2 measures of urban sustainability cannot be solely based on indicators obtained from 2D geographical information. In fact, 2D urban indicators should be complemented by 3D modelling of geographic data.

  16. The Effect of Urban Green Spaces on the Urban Thermal Environment and Its Seasonal Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaobin Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces have been shown to decrease land surface temperature (LST significantly. However, few studies have explored the relationships between urban green spaces and LST across different seasons at different spatial scales. In this study, using Changchun, China as a case study, landscape ecology and comparative approaches were employed quantitatively to investigate the effects of the composition and configuration of urban green spaces on the urban thermal environments. LST maps were retrieved from Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS data acquired on four dates that represented four different seasons, and detailed information of urban green spaces was extracted from high resolution imagery GF-1. Normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI and six landscape metrics at patch, class, and landscape level were used to characterize the spatial patterns of urban green spaces. The results showed that urban green spaces did have significant cooling effects in all seasons, except for winter, but the effects varied considerably across the different seasons and green types, and seemed to depend on the NDVI and size of urban green spaces. Compared to shape metrics, the negative relationships between the LST and the area and the NDVI of urban green spaces were more significant. Both the composition and configuration of urban green spaces can affect the distribution of LST. Based on findings with one city, given a fixed area of urban green spaces, the number of green patches can positively or negatively affect the LST, depending on if the number is larger than a threshold or not, and the threshold varies according to the given area. These findings provide new perspectives, and further research is also suggested, to generate a better understanding of how urban green spaces affect the urban thermal environment.

  17. Making Green Stuff?: Effects of Corporate Greenwashing on Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, Menno D. T.; Harkink, Karen M.; Barth, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    The marketing success of green products has spawned the phenomenon of greenwashing, but studies on the effects of greenwashing on consumers are still limited. Using a 4 × 2 randomized experimental design, this study examines such effects by determining whether consumers respond differently to greenwashing, silent brown, vocal green, and silent green organizations selling hedonic products (perfume) or utilitarian products (detergent). The results show that consumers recognized the green claims...

  18. The synergy in green persuasion: Green celebrity endorsers in green advertising: A study of brand-endorser congruence effects in green advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasche, J.; Ketelaar, P.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines celebrity endorser-brand congruence effects in green advertising on the ads' effectiveness. In an experimental survey, Dutch participants (197) saw ads with a congruent or incongruent celebrity endorser. Extending the match-up hypothesis to a novel match-up factor, greenness, the

  19. GREEN ROOFS AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVEMENT THE STORMWATER MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Burszta-Adamiak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The interest in green roof technologies is increasing due to the many tangible benefits that allow to provide. One of them is the ability to improve stormwater management in urban areas, because construction of green roofs can retain and delay in runoff . Due to the fact that the market of green roofs in Poland is relatively young, there is still a need for research to provide detailed information about green roof hydrologic performance in the national climate conditions. The objective of this study is to present the research results on retention capacity of green roofs, carried out at the Wroclaw University of Life Sciences. The results show that the possibility of water retention is considerably improved at green roofs when antecedent dry weather period lasts longer than one day and the rainfall depth does not exceed 10 mm / day.

  20. Green Chemistry Teaching in Higher Education: A Review of Effective Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraos, John; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    This account reviews published green chemistry teaching resources in print and online literature and our experiences in teaching the subject to undergraduate students. Effective practices in lecture and laboratory are highlighted and ongoing challenges are addressed, including areas in cutting edge green chemistry research that impact its teaching…

  1. Green infrastructure practices – strategies how to sustain life in metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaręba Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green Infrastructure is ‘an interconnected network of green space that conserves natural ecosystem values and functions and provides associated benefits to human populations’ [1, p. 12]. It contributes to long term strategic development goals for data and information management. The research paper was introduced with the aim to protect green areas in urban environment by improving biodiversity, leisure and recreation, tidal and fluvial flood risk management, grey water treatment and quality of life. Planning and design of green system should provide appropriate responses to the distinctive local circumstances. Green spaces encourage social interactions, form new places to practise sport and contribute to public health and fitness, as well as have indirect benefits for a range of environmental services. The research hypothesis is that Green Infrastructure is a framework for conservation and development and we need to design Green Infrastructure systems strategically to connect across urban, suburban, rural and wilderness landscapes and incorporate green space elements and functions at the state, regional, community, neighbourhood and site scales [2]. Analysis and design of emerging Green Infrastructure system take a holistic view which links related physical, environmental, economic, social and cultural aspects of local communities.

  2. Investigating the effect of different green marketing on brand loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing plays important role on developing different business plans without harming environment. Green marketing may also help us find more loyal customers since many people do care about taking care of environment and prefer purchasing only green products and services. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find the effect of different green strategies on brand loyalty. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 384 randomly selected people who purchase various brands in city of Tehran, Iran. The gathered data are analyzed using structural equation modeling and the results indicate that different green marketing strategies including green pricing, green promotion, green distribution positively influence brand loyalty.

  3. The Effect of Urban Green Infrastructure on Disaster Mitigation in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Yoon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing precipitation by climate change and the growing number of impervious areas present greater risk of disaster damage in urban areas. Urban green infrastructure can be an effective mitigation alternative in highly developed and concentrated area. This study investigates the effect of various types of urban green infrastructure on mitigating disaster damage in Korea. Tobit model is used to analyze the factors that determine disaster damage. Damage variation is predicted with scenarios of RCP 8.5 and urban green spaces. Seventy-four districts and counties in seven metropolitan areas are defined as the unit and the period from 2005 to 2013 is considered in the analysis. The results indicate that higher urban green ratio, sewer length, financial independence rate, and local government’s budget are relating to lower disaster damage. Based on a precipitation level of RCP 8.5 scenario in 2050, an increase in economic damage is expected to range from 262 to 1086%. However, with an increase in urban green ratio by 10%, increased economic damage is only expected to range from 217 to 1013%. The results suggest that green spaces play important role to mitigate precipitation related disasters. Highly concentrated urban areas need to consider various types of urban green infrastructure to prepare for an increase in precipitation due to climate change.

  4. Effect of ferrate on green algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiňáková, Emília; Híveš, Ján; Gál, Miroslav; Fašková, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Green algae Cladophora aegagropila, present in cooling water of thermal power plants, causes many problems and complications, especially during summer. However, algae and its metabolites are rarely eliminated by common removal methods. In this work, the elimination efficiency of electrochemically prepared potassium ferrate(VI) on algae from cooling water was investigated. The influence of experimental parameters, such as Fe(VI) dosage, application time, pH of the system, temperature and hydrodynamics of the solution on removal efficiency, was optimized. This study demonstrates that algae C. aegagropila can be effectively removed from cooling water by ferrate. Application of ferrate(VI) at the optimized dosage and under the suitable conditions (temperature, pH) leads to 100% removal of green algae Cladophora from the system. Environmentally friendly reduction products (Fe(III)) and coagulation properties favour the application of ferrate for the treatment of water contaminated with studied microorganisms compared to other methods such as chlorination and use of permanganate, where harmful products are produced.

  5. Green Roof for Stormwater Management in a Highly Urbanized Area: The Case of Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafique

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization changes natural pervious surfaces to hard, impervious surfaces such as roads, buildings and roofs. These modifications significantly affect the natural hydrologic cycle by increasing stormwater runoff rates and volume. Under these circumstances, green roofs offer multiple benefits including on-site stormwater management that mimics the natural hydrologic conditions in an urban area. It can retain a large amount of rainwater for a longer time and delay the peak discharge. However, there is very limited research that has been carried out on the retrofitted green roof for stormwater management for South Korean conditions. This study has investigated the performance of retrofitted green roofs for stormwater management in a highly urbanized area of Seoul, the capital city of Korea. In this study, various storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to check the performance of the green roof with controlling the runoff in urban areas. Results also allowed us to conclude that the retention mainly depends on the intensity and duration of the rain events. From the analysis, average runoff retention on the green roof was 10% to 60% in different rain events. The application of an extensive green roof provides promising results for stormwater management in the highly urbanized area of Seoul.

  6. Computing Areas Using Green's Theorem and a Software Planimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul; Raianu, Serban

    2007-01-01

    According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, a planimeter is "an instrument for measuring the area of a plane figure by tracing its boundary line". Even without knowing how a planimeter works, it is clear from the definition that the idea behind it is that one can compute the area of a figure just by "walking" on the boundary. For someone who has…

  7. Analysis of the urban green areas of Nicosia: the case study of Linear Park of Pedieos River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanos, Pavlos; Georgi, Julia

    2017-09-01

    At present, the need for creating outdoor green areas is unquestionable. Their value is shown through their use for recreation, sports, cultural and socioeconomic purposes, the ecology and especially biodiversity, which has always been considered as one of the most important factors in recent years, as well as in the future. With the creation of new parks and open green spaces, the legacy will be continued for the next generations, with designs that will be pleasantly utilized through the years. In the first part of this study, we examined the way the largest urban green spaces in Nicosia affect and contribute to the lifestyle of the inhabitants of the city, as well as the reasons why the citizens of Cyprus embraced urban parks in their everyday life, making them so popular. The present paper, therefore, analyses both the effect and the changes in the urban structure while urban green spaces in the city of Nicosia are being created, as well as which areas are affected, how they are affected and to what extent. We have conducted a field-based survey, providing the urban parks' visitors with questionnaires. This enabled us to draw a wealth of essential conclusions concerning the visitors' preferences. We have also listed both the positive and negative impacts of urban green spaces on both the economic and urban design sectors, as well as on Cypriots' recreation time. The green areas of Nicosia, along with their detailed analysis, are extensively presented in this study. Moreover, in the second part of this study, the G.I.S program was used to create a space presentation of the urban linear park of Pedieos, where the area was mapped and the positive and negative elements of the park were analysed. In this part, ways to address the emerging issues are also proposed.

  8. Accessibility of green space in urban areas: an examination of various approaches to measure it

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin

    2007-01-01

    In the present research, we attempt to improve the methods used for measuring accessibility of green spaces by combining two components of accessibility-distance and demand relative to supply. Three modified approaches (Joseph and Bantock gravity model measure, the two-step floating catchment area measure and a measure based on kernel densities) will be applied for measuring accessibility to green spaces. We select parks and public open spaces (metropolitan open land) of south London as a cas...

  9. Urban area and green space: volume estimation using medium resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    The latest revision of the UN World Urbanization Prospects predicts the world's urban population to increase by 1.4 billion between 2010 and 2030, 60% of the population will live in cities. Consequently, this expansion affects the existence of ecosystem services in the context of sustainability environment. Green space is a focal point of the ecological system and is affected by the urbanization process. The green space has essential functions in cleaning the water, adjusting the microclimate, eliminating noise, and beautifying the surrounding makes the green quantity as well as quality very vital to its existence. The urban expansion leads the growth into vertical development. Therefore, the third dimension using urban volume as an indicator of vertical development is introduced. Therefore, this study estimates the urban and green volume by using medium resolution remote sensing. Surabaya is used as a case study since the city has grown up significantly in both of population and capital investment in this decade. Here, urban and green volume is investigated by ALOS datasets with urban referring built-up. Also, we examine the area with low and high green volume by performing hot and cold spots analysis. The average of built-up volume reaches 173.05 m3/pixel presented by the building for a residential single house with the height less than 7m. The average of green volume is 14.74m3/pixel performed by the vegetation with the height generally 0.6 to 1m which is frequently planted in the backyard of house. However, the ratio of green volume to the built-up volume shows a small portion which is around 8.52%. Therefore, we identify the hot and cold spots, we evaluate 5 areas having cold spot regarding lack of green volume. The two locations of cold spot are located in the northern part and another is in the southern part. Those areas have high number of built-up volume which is in particularly as sub-CBD area. We emphasize that the improvement of green quantity is needed

  10. Identification of nitrous oxide emissions from green areas of Chihuahua City irrigated with treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gómez, Carmen Julia; Herrera-Peraza, Eduardo F; Alcocer-Yamanaka, Victor Hugo; Collins-Martínez, Virginia H; Quiñones-Montenegro, Luisa Y; Trujillo-Navarrete, Balter; Espino-Valdes, Maria Socorro

    2013-03-01

    Since 2000, the city of Chihuahua had a distribution system of treated wastewater for irrigation of green areas and has replaced this water for processes that do not require the consumption of drinking water. This replacement was necessary in order to meet the growing demand for potable water which has exceeded the current supply of 700 L (184,88 gallons) per second. Nowadays it is necessary to identify and assess the risks to public health and the environment due to the substitution of drinking water by treated wastewater in the last 10yr. Treated wastewater contains compounds whose effects have not been evaluated when used for irrigation in public green areas. Therefore, it is not known whether there is a danger to the health of park visitors due to exposure and/or inhalation of the emitted gases, accidental ingestion of water, or impact to the environment. The purpose of the research, using an experimental prototype, is to identify the changes from nitrogen present in the treated wastewater to nitrous oxide. The research objective is the generation of data to simulate a regional scale at this stage, which will be analyzed and statistically validated using Minitab and Origin software. The experiment was performed using three different samples to compare water quality: drinking water treated wastewater, and water with nitrogen-based fertilizer (urea). Prototypes were filled with two types of soil: sand and clay Each type of water was sprinkled on the prototype, grass was planted in it, and the prototype was equipped with samplers to capture the gas in the root zone. The authors found high emissions of nitrous oxide in the clay-filled lysimeters, and climate and growing conditions of vegetation were the most important factors for producing nitrous oxide. Major problems in the ecosystem arise from solutions that are not based on environmental public policy research or experimentation. For example, before application a specific policy or regulation, research should

  11. The Importance of Green Spaces in Minimizing Urban Heat in The Istanbul Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağdaş KUŞÇU ŞİMŞEK

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental and atmospheric pollution due to urbanization, industrialization and global warming is increasing with every passing day. Life in water, air and on land is threatened by environmental problems and disasters caused by this pollution. In addition to global climate change, changes also occur in urban microclimate and regional heat islands are occurring in urban areas. This dual effect and resulting vicious circle increasingly affect human health and natural life negatively. In this context, urban climate studies have come into question in recent years. Results have showed that increasing numbers of built-up areas are linked toincreases in urban temperature and conversely larger areas of vegetation improve the city’s ventilation and climatic comfort. The Istanbul Metropolitan Area is in a period of regeneration as it attempts to prepare for the expected earthquake and as a result of global dynamics. The resulting massive building campaigns and rapid destruction of green areas have a potential to trigger climatic threats. The effects of vegetation on the urban surface temperature in the Istanbul Metropolitan Area have contributed to the improved health construction strategies. Surface Heat Islands (SHI and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI values were determined from remote sensing techniques. The dependent variable is temperature and independent variable is NDVI values and the regression analysis was carried out. Then the heat model for NDVI was established with decision tree. The results of regression analysis were R=0.452; R2= 20%; sig.=0.00 and so the analysis was significant in 95%. As a result of the analysis of the residential area of İstanbul, the difference between the expected temperature of the minimum and maximum vegetation clusters was calculated as 4.24.

  12. Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil properties and rice yield in rice-based cropping systems. ... The effects of treatments on rice yield and its components were also investigated. ... Based on the results, BBRH and PTS are good practices for production of green manure in paddy soil. Chemical ...

  13. Impact of reclaimed water irrigation on soil health in urban green areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiping; Lu, Sidan; Pan, Neng; Wang, Yanchun; Wu, Laosheng

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increase of reclaimed water irrigation in urban green areas requires investigating its impact on soil health conditions. In this research, field study was conducted in 7 parks in Beijing with different histories of reclaimed water irrigation. Twenty soil attributes were analyzed to evaluate the effects of reclaimed water irrigation on the soil health conditions. Results showed that soil nutrient conditions were ameliorated by reclaimed water irrigation, as indicated by the increase of soil organic matter content (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), and available phosphorus (AP). No soil salinization but a slight soil alkalization was observed under reclaimed water irrigation. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil was insignificant. It was also observed that reclaimed water irrigation could significantly improve the soil microorganism activities. Overall, the soil health conditions were improved with reclaimed water irrigation, and the improvement increased when the reclaimed water irrigation period became longer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Building a Green Economy: Employment Effects of Green Energy Investments for Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Pollin; Heidi Garrett-Peltier

    2009-01-01

    In this study of Ontario’s green economy, Robert Pollin and Heidi Garrett-Peltier present an approach to realistically estimate the employment effects of green investments in Ontario. They focus on two alternative investment scenarios for the province: a baseline program of $18.6 billion invested in conservation and demand management; hydroelectric power; on-shore wind power; bioenergy; waste energy recycling; and solar power over 10 years, and a more ambitious $47.1 billion 10-year investmen...

  15. THE GREEN AREAS MANAGEMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The situation that exists at the level of the urban areas from Romania testifies a natural environment with a high risk for the health of the inhabitants as a consequence of the low level of the ecological development resulted from the lack of an integrated management of the green areas and spaces in comparison with the other components of the sustainable development. In the strategic management of the green areas and spaces having as purpose the improvement of the quality of air the priority role is held by the obtainment of necessary information in the view of adopting decision. In this context, monitoring the existent green areas represents a fundamental element that has to provide the necessary information. In correlation with this monitoring it is necessary the realization of the operative informational system for supervising the air quality constituted automatically from fix monitoring points and in a real time of the main air pollutants. The domains of sustainable development at the level of urban areas are considered to be: urban planning, the management of green areas and air quality, the management and the reduction of the sweepings, water quality, energy efficiency, clean and efficient transportation, etc.

  16. Conversion of Blue Water into Green Water for Improving Utilization Ratio of Water Resources in Degraded Karst Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation deterioration and soil loss are the main causes of more precipitation leakages and surface water shortages in degraded karst areas. In order to improve the utilization of water resources in such regions, water storage engineering has been considered; however, site selection and cost associated with the special karstic geological structure have made this difficult. According to the principle of the Soil Plant Atmosphere Continuum, increasing both vegetation cover and soil thickness would change water cycle process, resulting in a transformation from leaked blue water (liquid form into green water (gas or saturated water form for terrestrial plant ecosystems, thereby improving the utilization of water resources. Using the Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer model and the geographical distributed approach, this study simulated the conversion from leaked blue water (leakage into green water in the environs of Guiyang, a typical degraded karst area. The primary results were as follows: (1 Green water in the area accounted for <50% of precipitation, well below the world average of 65%; (2 Vegetation growth played an important role in converting leakage into green water; however, once it increased to 56%, its contribution to reducing leakage decreased sharply; (3 Increasing soil thickness by 20 cm converted the leakage considerably. The order of leakage reduction under different precipitation scenarios was dry year > normal year > rainy year. Thus, increased soil thickness was shown effective in improving the utilization ratio of water resources and in raising the amount of plant ecological water use; (4 The transformation of blue water into green water, which avoids constructions of hydraulic engineering, could provide an alternative solution for the improvement of the utilization of water resources in degraded karst area. Although there are inevitable uncertainties in simulation process, it has important significance for overcoming similar

  17. Effects of Green River Project on Cassava Farmers Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the effects of Green River project on cassava farmers' production in Ogba/Egbema/ Ndoni LGA of Rivers State. Purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select the locations of Green River project, cooperative societies and respondents. Using structured questionnaire, a field ...

  18. Aircrafts Emissions Green House Effects Impact Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penanhoat, O.

    Aircrafts emissions are contributing as many other human activities to the anthropogenic green house effect which has been more specially pointed out since the Kyoto Protocol. Aviation global impact in term of radiative forcing was estimated at 3.5% in 1992 (IPCC report). Reducing this impact is therefore today a major environmental concern for both engine manufacturers and aircrafts manufacturers. This will be achieved mainly by reducing CO2, Nox emissions and aerosols inducing cirrus formation. In this frame, for a given airplane, we'll present here how Nox emissions are estimated during cruise using some results of the European NEPAIR programme, the problem of the evaluation of their indirect impact in term of radiative forcing, and the trade-off which may exist between the technological choice to reduce CO2 emissions and Nox emissions. In particular we'll discuss the sensitivity of the total radiative forcing due to the aero-engine emissions in function of the overall pressure ratio of the engine which is one of the main technological parameters. As we'll see, such a curve is strongly dependent on atmospheric sciences data. In this discussion we refer also to what has been done in the Greener by Design report. Finally we give a short overview of the technological solutions investigated to design Low Nox combustors where Snecma is involved in the frame of European programmes and also to reduce soots emissions.

  19. Assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas: the case of Changzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yumin; Zhu, Xiaodong; Xu, Yingbi; Yang, Haiyan; Wu, Xian; Li, Yangfan; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2012-01-01

    Changzhou is a typical waterside municipality with approximately 2,500 years of history located south of the Yangtze River. It was an agriculturally oriented region but is becoming an industrialized region. Rural green landscaping in this region possesses characteristics of traditional Chinese gardens. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas through public perception-based and expert/design approaches. The former approach enables us to rank green landscaping based on a survey of public preference; the latter weighs the contributions of the attributes contained in a photograph to its overall scenic beauty via correlation, regression, and factor analyses. The photographs used in the survey included road greenways, riparian greenways, residential public gardens and green landscaping around houses, with each type of landscape represented by seven photographs. In total, 141 college students and 41 other participants ranked photographs of each landscaping type from highest to lowest preference. The results indicate that the preferences of students are similar to those of the general public. Examples of green landscaping depicted in the "best" four photographs possessed more attractive qualities regarding the variety of vegetation, richness of colors and a selection of human additions compared to those depicted in the "worst" photographs. The perceived visual quality was positively influenced by, in decreasing order of importance, the variety of vegetation, color contrast, the openness of green spaces, the area of vegetation, and positive man-made elements; conversely, it was negatively influenced by the type of topography. Moreover, some suggestions were offered for future rural greening regarding perceived visual beauty.

  20. Effect of porphobilinogen on the formation of garlic green pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Conghua; Hao, Xiaoran; Xu, Zhixiang; Qiao, Xuguang

    2013-08-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulb is processed into various forms such as crushed garlic, garlic juice, granules, dehydrated garlic pieces and garlic powder. However, greening is often a major problem when garlic is crushed, since it affects the appearance and quality of the resulting product. Therefore study of the formation mechanism of garlic green pigments is very important for garlic processing. The effect of porphobilinogen (PBG) on the formation of garlic green pigments was investigated in this study. As the storage time increased, there was a significant positive correlation between garlic greening and PBG content at low temperature (4 °C). PBG content decreased significantly during the garlic greening process. When treated with respiration inhibitor, both garlic greening strength and PBG content decreased as the concentration of respiration inhibitor increased. The green colour was generated when extracted PBG and allicin mixed thoroughly. There was a clear relationship between PBG content and garlic greening. As a provider of pyrrolyl compounds, PBG plays an important role in the formation of garlic green pigments. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  2. The metropolitan park: searching for a new typology for intermediate green areas in urban fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuijsen, M.; Velde, van der R.; Graaf, de E.; Kruit, E.; Lodder, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing urbanization in metropolitan regions creates a wish for large green areas in the urban peripheries for recreational purposes. Agricultural landscapes are being replaced with woods, nature and water to provide citizens with space for outdoor recreation and other activities. Park-like settings

  3. Timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Paul E. Sendak; William H. McWilliams; Neil Huyler; Thomas Malecek; Worthen Muzzey; Toni Jones

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area using USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis data, production information provided by forest industry, and a stump-to-mill logging cost-prediction model. Nonavailable timberland that includes reserve and steep-terrain lands is...

  4. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  5. [Comparison of green coffee beans volatiles chemical composition of Hainan main area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong-Suo; Chu, Zhong; Gu, Feng-Lin; Lu, Min-Quan; Lu, Shao-Fang; Wu, Gui-Ping; Tan, Le-He

    2013-02-01

    Chemical component of Hainan green coffee beans was analyzed with solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the discrepancy between two green coffee beans was differentiated through the spectrum database retrieval and retention index of compound characterization. The experimental results show that: the chemical composition of Wanning coffee beans and Chengmai coffee beans is basically the same. The quantity of analyzed compound in Wanning area coffee is 91, and in Chengmai area coffee is 106, the quantity of the same compound is 66, and the percent of the same component is 75.52%. The same compounds accounted for 89.86% of the total content of Wanning area coffee, and accounted for 85.70% of the total content of Chengmai area coffee.

  6. Borrowing green. Economic and environmental effects of green fiscal policy in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' (Regeling Groenprojecten) in the Netherlands during 1995-1999. We analyze the effect on tax income, economic growth, employment, as well as on the emission of a number of gases and on solid waste production. We find that the economic effects in general are positive. This policy instrument increases growth, employment, and net tax income. However, the environmental effects are quite mixed. This especially results from the fact that a lot of projects would have been undertaken anyhow. Furthermore, we find that this green fiscal policy instrument is skewed towards energy and building. It appears to neglect environmental problems with consumer households, industry, and transport. 8 refs

  7. Occupational safety and health, green chemistry, and sustainability: a review of areas of convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul A; McKernan, Lauralynn T; Heidel, Donna S; Okun, Andrea H; Dotson, Gary Scott; Lentz, Thomas J; Geraci, Charles L; Heckel, Pamela E; Branche, Christine M

    2013-04-15

    With increasing numbers and quantities of chemicals in commerce and use, scientific attention continues to focus on the environmental and public health consequences of chemical production processes and exposures. Concerns about environmental stewardship have been gaining broader traction through emphases on sustainability and "green chemistry" principles. Occupational safety and health has not been fully promoted as a component of environmental sustainability. However, there is a natural convergence of green chemistry/sustainability and occupational safety and health efforts. Addressing both together can have a synergistic effect. Failure to promote this convergence could lead to increasing worker hazards and lack of support for sustainability efforts. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has made a concerted effort involving multiple stakeholders to anticipate and identify potential hazards associated with sustainable practices and green jobs for workers. Examples of potential hazards are presented in case studies with suggested solutions such as implementing the hierarchy of controls and prevention through design principles in green chemistry and green building practices. Practical considerations and strategies for green chemistry, and environmental stewardship could benefit from the incorporation of occupational safety and health concepts which in turn protect affected workers.

  8. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  9. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. POPULATION AGGLOMERATIONS AND ITS IMPLICATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES:A SURVEY OF GREEN AREAS IN THE TURKISH MEGACITY ISTANBUL*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet SAMSUNLU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries experience high population growth and pronounced agglomerations with extreme population increases in metropolitan centers which lack relevant infrastructure. Frequently, urban development in developing countries can not proceed in an environmentally friendly fashion, urban plans are not implemented correctly, and green areas are lost due to constructions. Occupying 1% of the Turkish land area and accommodating over one sixth of the Turkish population, Istanbul is one of such cities and its population has increased from one million to 13 million in the last 60 years. Urban area including settlements has been increasing continuously throughout those years at the expense of losing the green areas. The amount of green areas had diminished from 27325 to 8908 hectares in the last 60 years with a reduction of 67% as opposed to settlement areas increasing by more than five fold from 3417 to 22178 hectares in the study area. The most significant reason behind that is that Istanbul has to live through a vast population increase. Although green areas kept increasing constantly in the 30 years between 1975 and 2004 from 1695 hectares to 5435, the amount of urban green per capita had dropped from 6.7 m2/person in 1975 to 5.5 m2/person in 2004 even though the total amount of green areas had increased, to show that the enhancement of the green areas could not keep up with the pace of incoming population.

  11. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  12. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  13. THE DETERMINATION OF GREEN AREAS IN CITY FROM THE VIEW POINT OF CITY FURNITURE IN EMINONU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız AKSOY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Eminönü district is selected; for being found in Historical Penninsula, being the most important center in the Metropolitan and for having historical, natural and available to tourists properties. Paper is formed by third chapter. In the first part; concept of urban green areas and its importance was mentioned and urban green areas were classified. In the second part; design of city furnitures, properties of users were determined in Eminönü district. Also problems of the existing city furnitures were found which are deficiency of material and workmanship, functional and ecological usage and problems due to human. In the third part; general evaluation of the subject and recommendations were done.

  14. Balancing Area Coordination: Efficiently Integrating Renewable Energy Into the Grid, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Denholm, Paul; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-06-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. Coordinating balancing area operation can promote more cost and resource efficient integration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, into power systems. This efficiency is achieved by sharing or coordinating balancing resources and operating reserves across larger geographic boundaries.

  15. Green areas and health outcomes: a systematic review of the scientific literature

    OpenAIRE

    Di Nardo, Francesco; Saulle, Rosella; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Background: Growing medical evidence shows that access to the natural environment improves health and wellbeing, prevents disease and helps people recover from illness. Experiencing nature in the outdoors can help tackle obesity and coronary heart disease. Green areas exert their benefits on both physical and mental health, promoting physical activity and strengthening the sense of community thus positively influencing social interaction. Urbanization pos...

  16. How green are the streets? An analysis for central areas of Chinese cities using Tencent Street View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Extensive evidence has revealed that street greenery, as a quality-of-life component, is important for oxygen production, pollutant absorption, and urban heat island effect mitigation. Determining how green our streets are has always been difficult given the time and money consumed using conventional methods. This study proposes an automatic method using an emerging online street-view service to address this issue. This method was used to analyze street greenery in the central areas (28.3 km2 each) of 245 major Chinese cities; this differs from previous studies, which have investigated small areas in a given city. Such a city-system-level study enabled us to detect potential universal laws governing street greenery as well as the impact factors. We collected over one million Tencent Street View pictures and calculated the green view index for each picture. We found the following rules: (1) longer streets in more economically developed and highly administrated cities tended to be greener; (2) cities in western China tend to have greener streets; and (3) the aggregated green view indices at the municipal level match with the approved National Garden Cities of China. These findings can prove useful for drafting more appropriate policies regarding planning and engineering practices for street greenery. PMID:28196071

  17. Green roof stormwater retention: effects of roof surface, slope, and media depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWoert, Nicholaus D; Rowe, D Bradley; Andresen, Jeffrey A; Rugh, Clayton L; Fernandez, R Thomas; Xiao, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Urban areas generate considerably more stormwater runoff than natural areas of the same size due to a greater percentage of impervious surfaces that impede water infiltration. Roof surfaces account for a large portion of this impervious cover. Establishing vegetation on rooftops, known as green roofs, is one method of recovering lost green space that can aid in mitigating stormwater runoff. Two studies were performed using several roof platforms to quantify the effects of various treatments on stormwater retention. The first study used three different roof surface treatments to quantify differences in stormwater retention of a standard commercial roof with gravel ballast, an extensive green roof system without vegetation, and a typical extensive green roof with vegetation. Overall, mean percent rainfall retention ranged from 48.7% (gravel) to 82.8% (vegetated). The second study tested the influence of roof slope (2 and 6.5%) and green roof media depth (2.5, 4.0, and 6.0 cm) on stormwater retention. For all combined rain events, platforms at 2% slope with a 4-cm media depth had the greatest mean retention, 87%, although the difference from the other treatments was minimal. The combination of reduced slope and deeper media clearly reduced the total quantity of runoff. For both studies, vegetated green roof systems not only reduced the amount of stormwater runoff, they also extended its duration over a period of time beyond the actual rain event.

  18. Green tea’s effects in the breast cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pardos-Sevilla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals like catechins from green tea might modify the epigenome and transcirptome of tumoral cells. The objective of the present review is to retrospectively evaluate literature examining the mechanisms throughout the green tea could exert a protective effect on breast cancer risk. In this work, more than 100 articles published during the last 15 years that relate tea consumption and breast cancer prevalence and development have been analysed. Green tea polyphenols can reduce risk of breast cancer throughout the inhibition of estrogenic and chemotoxic activity in liver, stimulation of metabolic pathway of glutathione conjugation, improvement of the metabolic syndrome, as well as control of immune system regulation, oxidative stress and DNA methylation. Although in vitro and animal studies show the potential ability of green tea polyphenols to act against breast cancer, the lack of experiments in humans, are the major factors in limiting us to conduct dietary recommendations based on scientific evidence for the management of patients with breast cancer.

  19. A minireview of effects of green tea on energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türközü, Duygu; Tek, Nilüfer Acar

    2017-01-22

    In recent years, individuals have begun to tend more frequently to some natural and herbal products to be used alone or as a combination with diet and exercise for ensuring the weight loss. Green tea is the leading one of these products. In some studies, it is reported that the green tea causes an increase in thermogenesis and substrate with fat oxidation by affecting on the sympathetic nervous system. It is reported that green tea has two main components that are associated with energy expenditure. One of them is caffeine and the other is catechin content. Each of these two components has an impact on energy mechanism separately. In this minireview article, mechanisms of action and effects of caffeine and catechin, which are found in green tea composition, on energy expenditure are assessed.

  20. Green roofs for a drier world: effects of hydrogel amendment on substrate and plant water status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Tadeja; Marin, Maria; Boldrin, David; Incerti, Guido; Andri, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-08-15

    Climate features of the Mediterranean area make plant survival over green roofs challenging, thus calling for research work to improve water holding capacities of green roof systems. We assessed the effects of polymer hydrogel amendment on the water holding capacity of a green roof substrate, as well as on water status and growth of Salvia officinalis. Plants were grown in green roof experimental modules containing 8 cm or 12 cm deep substrate (control) or substrate mixed with hydrogel at two different concentrations: 0.3 or 0.6%. Hydrogel significantly increased the substrate's water content at saturation, as well as water available to vegetation. Plants grown in 8 cm deep substrate mixed with 0.6% of hydrogel showed the best performance in terms of water status and membrane integrity under drought stress, associated to the lowest above-ground biomass. Our results provide experimental evidence that polymer hydrogel amendments enhance water supply to vegetation at the establishment phase of a green roof. In particular, the water status of plants is most effectively improved when reduced substrate depths are used to limit the biomass accumulation during early growth stages. A significant loss of water holding capacity of substrate-hydrogel blends was observed after 5 months from establishment of the experimental modules. We suggest that cross-optimization of physical-chemical characteristics of hydrogels and green roof substrates is needed to improve long term effectiveness of polymer-hydrogel blends. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Honey and Green Tea Solutions on Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmegid, F; Al-Agamy, M; Alwohaibi, A; Ka'abi, H; Salama, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional in vivo study was to assess the effect of green tea and honey solutions on the level of salivary Streptococcus mutans. A convenient sample of 30 Saudi boys aged 7-10 years were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 15 each. Saliva sample was collected for analysis of level of S. mutans before rinsing. Commercial honey and green tea were prepared for use and each child was asked to rinse for two minutes using 10 mL of the prepared honey or green tea solutions according to their group. Saliva samples were collected again after rinsing. The collected saliva samples were prepared and colony forming unit (CFU) of S. mutans per mL of saliva was calculated. The mean number of S. mutans before and after rinsing with honey and green tea solutions were 2.28* 10(8)(2.622*10(8)), 5.64 *10(7)(1.03*10(8)), 1.17*10(9)(2.012*10(9)) and 2.59*10(8) (3.668*10(8)) respectively. A statistically significant reduction in the average number of S. mutans at baseline and post intervention in the children who were assigned to the honey (P=0.001) and green tea (P=0.001) groups was found. A single time mouth rinsing with honey and green tea solutions for two minutes effectively reduced the number of salivary S. mutans of 7-10 years old boys.

  2. Computation of the area in the discrete plane: Green's theorem revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalifour, Alain; Nouboud, Fathallah; Voisin, Yvon

    2017-11-01

    The detection of the contour of a binary object is a common problem; however, the area of a region, and its moments, can be a significant parameter. In several metrology applications, the area of planar objects must be measured. The area is obtained by counting the pixels inside the contour or using a discrete version of Green's formula. Unfortunately, we obtain the area enclosed by the polygonal line passing through the centers of the pixels along the contour. We present a modified version of Green's theorem in the discrete plane, which allows for the computation of the exact area of a two-dimensional region in the class of polyominoes. Penalties are introduced and associated with each successive pair of Freeman displacements along the contour in an eight-connectivity system. The proposed equation is shown to be true and properties of the equation related to the topology of the regions are presented. The proposed approach is adapted for faster computation than the combinatorial approach proposed in the literature.

  3. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a sustainable urban environment, the increase of green space areas is commonly used as a planning tool and adaptation strategy to combat environmental impacts resulting from global climate change and urbanization. Therefore, it is important to understand the change of green space areas and the derived impacts from the change. This research firstly applied space analysis and landscape ecology metrics to analyze the structure change of the pattern of green space area within the Taipei Metropolitan Area. Then, partial least squares were used to identify the consequences on microclimate and air pollution pattern caused by the changing pattern of green space areas within the districts of the Taipei Metropolitan Area. According to the analytical results, the green space area within Taipei Metropolitan Areas has decreased 1.19% from 1995 to 2007, but 93.19% of the green space areas have been kept for their original purposes. Next, from the landscape ecology metrics analysis, in suburban areas the linkages, pattern parameters, and space aggregation are all improving, and the fragmentation measure is also decreasing, but shape is becoming more complex. However, due to intensive land development in the city core, the pattern has becomes severely fragmented and decentralized causing the measures of the linkages and pattern parameters to decrease. The results from structural equation modeling indicate that the changing pattern of green space areas has great influences on air pollution and microclimate patterns. For instance, less air pollution, smaller rainfall patterns and cooler temperatures are associated with improvement in space aggregation, increasing the larger sized green space patch.

  4. Biological Effects of Green Tea Capsule Supplementation in Pre-Surgery Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Steven S.; Spicer, Darcy V.; Hawes, Debra; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Yang, Chung S.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Wu, Anna H.

    2013-01-01

    Regular green tea intake has been associated with an inverse risk of breast cancer. There are compelling experimental evidence that green tea, particularly, epigallocatechin gallate, the most potent green tea catechin, possesses a range of anti-cancer properties. We conducted a pre-surgical study of green tea capsules vs. no-green tea in women with primary breast cancer to determine the effects of green tea supplementation on markers of biological response. Postmenopausal women with ductal ca...

  5. Biological Effects of Green Tea Capsule Supplementation in Pre-surgery Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Steven S Yu; Darcy V Spicer; Darcy V Spicer; Debra eHawes; Chiu-Chen eTseng; Chung S Yang; Malcolm C Pike; Anna H Wu

    2013-01-01

    Regular green tea intake has been associated with an inverse risk of breast cancer. There is compelling experimental evidence that green tea, particularly, epigallocatechin gallate, the most potent green tea catechin, possesses a range of anti-cancer properties. We conducted a pre-surgical study of green tea capsules versus no green tea in women with primary breast cancer to determine the effects of green tea supplementation on markers of biological response. Postmenopausal women with duct...

  6. Improvement effect of green tea on hepatic dysfunction, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... effects against cancers. The present study was designed to assess the pro- tective effect of green tea infusion by evaluating the free radicals scavenging capacity using the DPPH and NBT / riboflavin in vitro. In vivo, the liver dysfunction paramet- ers rate, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes acti-.

  7. Making Green Stuff? : Effects of Corporate Greenwashing on Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Menno D. T.; Harkink, Karen M.; Barth, Susanne

    The marketing success of green products has spawned the phenomenon of greenwashing, but studies on the effects of greenwashing on consumers are still limited. Using a 4 × 2 randomized experimental design, this study examines such effects by determining whether consumers respond differently to

  8. Effect of landscape pattern on insect species density within urban green spaces in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhimin; Li, Xiaoma; Zhou, Weiqi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Urban green space is an important refuge of biodiversity in urban areas. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the relationship between the landscape pattern of green spaces and biodiversity to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization. In this study, we collected insects from 45 green patches in Beijing during July 2012 using suction sampling. The green patches were dominated by managed lawns, mixed with scattered trees and shrubs. We examined the effects of landscape pattern on insect species density using hierarchical partitioning analysis and partial least squares regression. The results of the hierarchical partitioning analysis indicated that five explanatory variables, i.e., patch area (with 19.9% independent effects), connectivity (13.9%), distance to nearest patch (13.8%), diversity for patch types (11.0%), and patch shape (8.3%), significantly contributed to insect species density. With the partial least squares regression model, we found species density was negatively related to patch area, shape, connectivity, diversity for patch types and proportion of impervious surface at the significance level of p landscape composition did have the expected effect. Therefore, it is recommended that the composition of the surrounding landscape should be considered simultaneously with planned improvements in local habitat quality.

  9. The planning of urban green areas and its protective importance in resort cities (case of Georgian resorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Khoshtaria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of green areas reduction and degradation in Southern Georgia, for three resort cities located in Samtskhe-Javakheti region. These cities are well known balneological and climatic resorts of Georgia - Akhaltsikhe, Borjomi and Abastumani. In the frames of this study, the actual conditions of urban green areas and neighboring to tourism and recreation zones forests are mentioned, by comparing these three resorts. Case study for natural disasters of last time - heavy rainflows case is analyzed. The protective role of green areas planting for this case is estimated. For each city planning concepts of green areas are worked out and recommendations for sustainable development of urban landscapes are concluded.

  10. Planning of Agro-Tourism Development, Specific Location in Green Open Space Sarbagita Area, Bali Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanya, I.; Subadiyasa, N.; Sardiana, K.; Ratna Adi, G. P.

    2018-02-01

    Tourism development has a negative impact on agricultural land in Bali, resulted in the transfer of rice field of 800 ha/year. Subak rice field area as a world cultural heritage, requires conservation strategy, increasing economic and environmental value, through integrated agriculture development with tourism. Tourism destination planning in the form of tourist destination (TD) and tourism object (TO) by raising local genius, at specific location, is expected to preserve nature and culture, as well as the economic value of the region. Research Methods: (1) identification of agrarian cultures, (2) field survey, (3) mapping of site specific TD/TO plans, and (4) compile documents of agro-tourism road map based on local genius. Seven subak areas in the green open space area have the potential to develop new TD/TO, namely: (1) Gedon2Subak in Tanah Lot area, is developed for the preservation of agriculture, the implementation of the zoning plan of the sacred, madya and nista areas, (2) the Kerdung and Penatih Subak areas, developed for urban farming in Denpasar City, (3) Cangi south Subak area, built for agro-tourism plasmanutfah banana and Cemagi Let Subak area developed agro-tourism food crops and horticulture, (4) Erjeruk Subak area, developed tourism plasmanutfah coconut.

  11. Urban green and its relation with air pollution: ecological studies in the Metropolitan area of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Manes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone (O3 and Particulate Matter (PM have become a major concern in most European cities. In particular, in Italy the O3 concentrations exceed the limits established for the protection of both human health and vegetation. More integrative studies are revealing that urban trees could concretely help in improving air quality, not only because of their well known aesthetic and recreational benefit, but also for their capability to reduce air temperature and to remove air pollutants. This reduction takes place both directly, by dry deposition to plant surfaces and uptake through stomata, and indirectly, by mitigation of the urban heat island intensity by canopy transpiration and building shading, that lowers the activity of chemical reactions that led to the formation of photochemical pollutants in air. This is of particular importance especially for those cities located in the Mediterranean Basin, whose urban vegetation is often characterized by VOC-emitting species that can contribute significantly to the O3 formation and destruction dynamics. The aim of this paper is to present a short review of ecological research performed on vegetation of the metropolitan area of Rome, at different spatial and temporal scale, in order to evaluate the functional role of urban green to monitor and improve urban air quality. In the frame of the project HEREPLUS (EU FP7, all of this information, opportunely integrated with climatic and pollutant data, will be implemented in a GIS and, by the use of geo-statistical methods, the ameliorating effect of urban vegetation will be quantified and mapped.

  12. Application of green blue roof to mitigate heat island phenomena and resilient to climate change in urban areas: A case study from Seoul, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Shafique Muhammad; Kim Reeho

    2017-01-01

    Green blue roof has the potential to reduce the surface temperature of the building in the urban areas. Green blue roof is a new innovative low impact development (LID) practice that has exhibited an option to mitigate the heat island phenomena in urban area. This is the modified form of green roof that has ability to store rainwater in vegetation, soil layer and increases the evapotranspiration rate which decreases the temperature of an area. For this purpose, green blue roof is installed at...

  13. The effect of red, green and blue lasers on healing of oral wounds in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Mirmoezzi, Amir; Kalhori, Katayoun Am; Arany, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can improve wound healing in non-diabetic and diabetic animals. We compared the effects of red, green, and blue lasers in terms of accelerating oral wound healing in diabetic rats. Diabetes was successfully induced in 32 male Wistar rats using intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (150 mg/kg). After intraperitoneal injection of the anesthetic agent, a full-thickness oral wound (10 mm × 2 mm) was created aseptically with a scalpel on hard palate of the diabetic rats. The study was performed using red (630 nm), green (532 nm), and blue (425 nm) lasers and a control group. We used an energy density of 2J/cm2 and a treatment schedule of 3 times/week for 10 days. The area of wounds was measured and recorded on a chart for all rats. On the 10th day, the samples were then sacrificed and a full-thickness sample of wound area was prepared for pathological study. We observed a significant difference (plaser and two other lasers - blue and green (plaser and green laser (p=0.777). The results of the present study provide evidence that wound healing is slower in control rats compared to the treatment groups. Moreover, the findings suggest that wound healing occurs faster with red laser compared to blue and green lasers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Is Neighborhood Green Space Protective against Associations between Child Asthma, Neighborhood Traffic Volume and Perceived Lack of Area Safety? Multilevel Analysis of 4447 Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi Feng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy traffic is a source of air pollution and a safety concern with important public health implications. We investigated whether green space lowers child asthma risk by buffering the effects of heavy traffic and a lack of neighborhood safety. Multilevel models were used to analyze affirmative asthma cases in nationally representative cross-sectional data from 4447 children aged 6–7 years old in Australia. Case-finding was based upon a triangulation of affirmative responses to three questions on doctor-diagnosed asthma, asthma-related medications and illness with wheezing lasting for at least 1 week within the 12 months prior. Among children considered to be exposed to high traffic volumes and areas with 0 to 20% green space quantity, the odds ratio of affirmative asthma was 1.87 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.55. However, the association between heavy traffic and asthma was significantly lower for participants living in areas with over 40% green space coverage (odds ratio for interaction 0.32, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.84. No association between affirmative asthma and green space coverage was observed for participants not exposed to heavy traffic, nor for the area safety variable. Protecting existing and investing in new green space may help to promote child respiratory health through the buffering of traffic-related air pollution.

  15. Is Neighborhood Green Space Protective against Associations between Child Asthma, Neighborhood Traffic Volume and Perceived Lack of Area Safety? Multilevel Analysis of 4447 Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2017-05-19

    Heavy traffic is a source of air pollution and a safety concern with important public health implications. We investigated whether green space lowers child asthma risk by buffering the effects of heavy traffic and a lack of neighborhood safety. Multilevel models were used to analyze affirmative asthma cases in nationally representative cross-sectional data from 4447 children aged 6-7 years old in Australia. Case-finding was based upon a triangulation of affirmative responses to three questions on doctor-diagnosed asthma, asthma-related medications and illness with wheezing lasting for at least 1 week within the 12 months prior. Among children considered to be exposed to high traffic volumes and areas with 0 to 20% green space quantity, the odds ratio of affirmative asthma was 1.87 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.55). However, the association between heavy traffic and asthma was significantly lower for participants living in areas with over 40% green space coverage (odds ratio for interaction 0.32, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.84). No association between affirmative asthma and green space coverage was observed for participants not exposed to heavy traffic, nor for the area safety variable. Protecting existing and investing in new green space may help to promote child respiratory health through the buffering of traffic-related air pollution.

  16. Cost-effectiveness in the mitigation of green house gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Francisco Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cost-effectiveness in the mitigation of green house gases from solar, eolic and nuclear energy sources, concluding that nuclear is, not doubt, the mos efficient. On the other hand, nuclear is the unique source that can be installed without limit in magnitude and in the proximity of the demand, and is for all these reasons that several environmental referents in the world have changed their perception on this source and defend it as the unique actual alternative to fight against the emission of green house gases. (author) [es

  17. Effects of green manure crops and mulching technology on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green manure crops are primarily used in environmentally friendly agricultural practices to reduce the application of chemical fertilizer and herbicide. In this study, a two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of paper and plastic mulching with hairy vetch alone or in combination with barley on weed ...

  18. Green manuring and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of these treatments on agronomic trait and yield of upland rice and soil chemical properties were then investigated at UNAAB and Olowo-Papa village (OP). In the first experiment three green manure crops, namely, Mucuna utilis, Canavalia ensiformis and Lablab purpureus were screened for biomass production ...

  19. Improvement effect of green tea on hepatic dysfunction, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have evaluated the antioxidant effect of green tea on cadmium-induced hepatic dysfunction and stress oxidant in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were administered cadmium by injection with 20 μmoles/Kg bw/3 days for six months. Results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) liver dysfunction, lipid peroxidation and a decline in ...

  20. Spatial planning for a green economy: National-level hydrologic ecosystem services priority areas for Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua Howard; Tallis, Heather; Cole, Aaron; Schill, Steven; Martin, Erik; Heiner, Michael; Paiz, Marie-Claire; Aldous, Allison; Apse, Colin; Nickel, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly developing countries contain both the bulk of intact natural areas and biodiversity, and the greatest untapped natural resource stocks, placing them at the forefront of "green" economic development opportunities. However, most lack scientific tools to create development plans that account for biodiversity and ecosystem services, diminishing the real potential to be sustainable. Existing methods focus on biodiversity and carbon priority areas across large geographies (e.g., countries, states/provinces), leaving out essential services associated with water supplies, among others. These hydrologic ecosystem services (HES) are especially absent from methods applied at large geographies and in data-limited contexts. Here, we present a novel, spatially explicit, and relatively simple methodology to identify countrywide HES priority areas. We applied our methodology to the Gabonese Republic, a country undergoing a major economic transformation under a governmental commitment to balance conservation and development goals. We present the first national-scale maps of HES priority areas across Gabon for erosion control, nutrient retention, and groundwater recharge. Priority sub-watersheds covered 44% of the country's extent. Only 3% of the country was identified as a priority area for all HES simultaneously, highlighting the need to conserve different areas for each different hydrologic service. While spatial tradeoffs occur amongst HES, we identified synergies with two other conservation values, given that 66% of HES priority areas intersect regions of above average area-weighted (by sub-watersheds) total forest carbon stocks and 38% intersect with terrestrial national parks. Considering implications for development, we identified HES priority areas overlapping current or proposed major roads, forestry concessions, and active mining concessions, highlighting the need for proactive planning for avoidance areas and compensatory offsets to mitigate potential conflicts

  1. Spatial planning for a green economy: National-level hydrologic ecosystem services priority areas for Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Howard Goldstein

    Full Text Available Rapidly developing countries contain both the bulk of intact natural areas and biodiversity, and the greatest untapped natural resource stocks, placing them at the forefront of "green" economic development opportunities. However, most lack scientific tools to create development plans that account for biodiversity and ecosystem services, diminishing the real potential to be sustainable. Existing methods focus on biodiversity and carbon priority areas across large geographies (e.g., countries, states/provinces, leaving out essential services associated with water supplies, among others. These hydrologic ecosystem services (HES are especially absent from methods applied at large geographies and in data-limited contexts. Here, we present a novel, spatially explicit, and relatively simple methodology to identify countrywide HES priority areas. We applied our methodology to the Gabonese Republic, a country undergoing a major economic transformation under a governmental commitment to balance conservation and development goals. We present the first national-scale maps of HES priority areas across Gabon for erosion control, nutrient retention, and groundwater recharge. Priority sub-watersheds covered 44% of the country's extent. Only 3% of the country was identified as a priority area for all HES simultaneously, highlighting the need to conserve different areas for each different hydrologic service. While spatial tradeoffs occur amongst HES, we identified synergies with two other conservation values, given that 66% of HES priority areas intersect regions of above average area-weighted (by sub-watersheds total forest carbon stocks and 38% intersect with terrestrial national parks. Considering implications for development, we identified HES priority areas overlapping current or proposed major roads, forestry concessions, and active mining concessions, highlighting the need for proactive planning for avoidance areas and compensatory offsets to mitigate

  2. Analysis of Green Space Characteristic Effect to the Comfort Microclimate in the Simple Flats in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminah, Nenah; Sulistyantara, Bambang; Budiarti, Tati

    2017-10-01

    Existence of green spaces on simple flats (Rusunawa), especially trees, greatly affect the ambient temperature outside and inside the building. Density of tree canopy can modify air temperature under trees or buildings by reducing solar radiation on building facade. The aims of this study is to analize the characteristics of green space in Rusunawa and its influence on the microclimate. The experiment was conducted at four Rusunawa building located in Jakarta, i.e. Rusunawa Jatirawasari, Tambora, Pulogebang, and Marunda Cluster A. Species and number of trees were identified, while the ground cover was identified by its species and coverage. Physical characteristics of trees were measured by tree thrunk, tree height, and width crown. Measurement of temperature, relative humidity (RH), and wind velocity was conducted at seven points in each Rusunawa to determine their effects. The results showed the presence of trees can modify the temperature of building outside similar with in the building. The decrease of temperature was influenced by green coverage area, green coverage index, and environmental condition around Simple flats. In this study, the best microclimate was modification by the ability to reduce largest temperature differences. Further more, green space in Rusunawa Marunda Cluster A was considered as the most effective one in reducing temperature.

  3. Optimal implementation of green infrastructure practices to reduce adverse impacts of urban areas on hydrology and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Collingsworth, P.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Engel, B.

    2016-12-01

    Nutrient loading from Maumee River watershed is a significant reason for the harmful algal blooms (HABs) problem in Lake Erie. Although studies have explored strategies to reduce nutrient loading from agricultural areas in the Maumee River watershed, the nutrient loading in urban areas also needs to be reduced. Green infrastructure practices are popular approaches for stormwater management and useful for improving hydrology and water quality. In this study, the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model was used to determine how different strategies for implementing green infrastructure practices can be optimized to reduce impacts on hydrology and water quality in an urban watershed in the upper Maumee River system. Community inputs, such as the types of green infrastructure practices of greatest interest and environmental concerns for the community, were also considered during the study. Based on community input, the following environmental concerns were considered: runoff volume, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Phosphorous (TP), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), and Nitrate+Nitrite (NOx); green infrastructure practices of interest included rain barrel, cistern, green roof, permeable patio, porous pavement, grassed swale, bioretention system, grass strip, wetland channel, detention basin, retention pond, and wetland basin. Spatial optimization of green infrastructure practice implementation was conducted to maximize environmental benefits while minimizing the cost of implementation. The green infrastructure practice optimization results can be used by the community to solve hydrology and water quality problems.

  4. Omah displacement and utilization from rural to urban areas, as green design lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajarwati, Ade Ariyani Sari

    2017-11-01

    Building a house in urban area is very costly and also leaving a bunch amount of construction waste. Many efforts were made to reduce the load of this waste. However, the high demand of residences in metropolitan makes the waste problem needs to be solved together. Based on this problem, author chooses Omah, - a Javanese traditional house, which is built, based on the traditional system of life of Javanese people - displacement from rural to urban area as the alternative solution, as it uses selected materials from nature by considering the sustainability and preservation for future generation. The wooden building is built based on traditional construction system that follows Javanese principles and traditional calculation, based on philosophy and cosmology in the community. This paper will covers utilization of Omah in urban area as an implementation of green design, which refers to the concepts of reuse, reduce, recycle and responsibility. Through expert interviews and field surveys in urban and rural areas, author collected data needed for this paper. Although the functionality of the building is different from rural to urban requirements, the phenomenon of Omah displacement from Javanese habitat to urban living area is well accepted and becomes an interesting trend.

  5. Green wireless body area nanonetworks: energy management and the game of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sudip; Islam, Nabiul; Mahapatro, Judhistir; Rodrigues, Joel Jose P C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we envisage the architecture of Green Wireless Body Area Nanonetwork (GBAN) as a collection of nanodevices, in which each device is capable of communicating in both the molecular and wireless electromagnetic communication modes. The term green refers to the fact that the nanodevices in such a network can harvest energy from their surrounding environment, so that no nanodevice gets old solely due to the reasons attributed to energy depletion. However, the residual energy of a nanodevice can deplete substantially with the lapse of time, if the rate of energy consumption is not comparable with the rate of energy harvesting. It is observed that the rate of energy harvesting is nonlinear and sporadic in nature. So, the management of energy of the nanodevices is fundamentally important. We specifically address this problem in a ubiquitous healthcare monitoring scenario and formulate it as a cooperative Nash Bargaining game. The optimal strategy obtained from the Nash equilibrium solution provides improved network performance in terms of throughput and delay.

  6. Antioxidant effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, E J J; Sathiyaraj, P; Deena, T; Kumar, D S

    2015-01-01

    Extract from Green Tea (GTE) acts as an antioxidant in acrylamide based polymer gel dosimeter. In this work, PAGAT gel was used for investigation of antioxidant effect of GTE.PAGAT was called PAGTEG (Polyacrylamide green tea extract gel dosimeter) after adding GTE. Free radicals in water cause pre polymerization of polymer gel before irradiation. Polyphenols from GTE are highly effective to absorb the free radicals in water. THPC is used as an antioxidant in polymer gel dosimeter but here we were replaced it by GTE and investigated its effect by spectrophotometer. GTE added PAGAT samples response was lower compared to THPC added sample. To increase the sensitivity of the PAGTEG, sugar was added. This study confirmed that THPC was a good antioxidant for polymer gel dosimeter. However, GTE also can be used as an antioxidant in polymer gel if use less quantity (GTE) and add sugar as sensitivity enhancer

  7. Antioxidant effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, E. J. J.; Sathiyaraj, P.; Deena, T.; Kumar, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Extract from Green Tea (GTE) acts as an antioxidant in acrylamide based polymer gel dosimeter. In this work, PAGAT gel was used for investigation of antioxidant effect of GTE.PAGAT was called PAGTEG (Polyacrylamide green tea extract gel dosimeter) after adding GTE. Free radicals in water cause pre polymerization of polymer gel before irradiation. Polyphenols from GTE are highly effective to absorb the free radicals in water. THPC is used as an antioxidant in polymer gel dosimeter but here we were replaced it by GTE and investigated its effect by spectrophotometer. GTE added PAGAT samples response was lower compared to THPC added sample. To increase the sensitivity of the PAGTEG, sugar was added. This study confirmed that THPC was a good antioxidant for polymer gel dosimeter. However, GTE also can be used as an antioxidant in polymer gel if use less quantity (GTE) and add sugar as sensitivity enhancer.

  8. Protective effect of green tea on dentin erosion and abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Thiemi Kato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in situ study evaluated the protective effect of green tea on dentin erosion (ERO and erosion-abrasion (ABR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten volunteers wore intraoral palatal appliances with bovine dentin specimens subjected to ERO or ERO + toothbrushing abrasion performed immediately (ERO+I-ABR or 30 min after erosion (ERO+30-min-ABR. During 2 experimental 5-day crossover phases, the volunteers rinsed with green tea or water (control, 1 min between each erosive (5 min, cola drink and abrasive challenge (30 s, toothbrushing, 4x/day. Dentin wear was measured by profilometry. RESULTS: The green tea reduced the dentin wear significantly for all conditions compared to control. ERO+I-ABR led to significantly higher wear than ERO, but it was not significantly different from ERO+30-min-ABR. ERO+30-min-ABR provoked significant higher wear than ERO, only for the placebo treatment. CONCLUSIONS: From the results of the present study, it may be concluded that green tea reduces the dentin wear under erosive/abrasive conditions.

  9. Utility green pricing programs: a statistical analysis of program effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, W.; Scott, O.; Lori, B.; Blair, S.

    2005-01-01

    Utility green pricing programs represent one way in which consumers can voluntarily support the development of renewable energy. The design features and effectiveness of these programs varies considerably. Based on a survey of utility program managers in the United States, this article provides insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs. We find that program length has a substantial impact on customer participation and purchases; to achieve higher levels of success, utilities will need to remain committed to their product offering for some time. Our findings also suggest that utilities should consider higher renewable energy purchase thresholds for residential customers in order to maximize renewable energy sales. Smaller utilities are found to be more successful than larger utilities, and we find some evidence that providing private benefits to nonresidential participants can enhance success. Interestingly, we find little evidence that the cost of the green pricing product greatly impacts customer participation and renewable energy sales, at least over the narrow range of premiums embedded in our data set, and for the initial set of green power purchasers. (author)

  10. The tourism potential for birdwatching in three green areas in the city of Campo Grande, MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Alibio Oppliger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the tourism potential of birds found in three public green areas (a park, a square and a pond, in the city of Campo Grande. The qualitative survey of avifauna totaled 55 observation hours, by the method of direct observation by points. The species were recorded and the frequency of occurrence (FO of each species by analyzed area was calculated. We recorded 107 species, totaling 12% of the Cerrado biome and blue-and-gold macaws were the species with absolute frequency of occurrence in the three areas. Each of the areas presented exclusive species and the park, the largest number of recorded species, standing out as an appropriate place to hold the birdwatch. However, the tourism potential for observing these birds should be strengthened by other actions such as check for complementarity between supply and demand, planning and building elements themselves to the observation activities, organize and present the practical arrangements for the birds observation in accordance with the supply constraints and the level of involvement and expertise of birdwatchers. Local people should be mobilized and motivated to know about the birds that are part of the landscape; the private sector can use a formatted tourism product and create new products or needs, such as crafts or printed guides; and the participation of the government is essential in promoting the 'birdwatching urban script ' product, as in the maintenance of urban nature reserves.

  11. Nanotechnological Advances in Catalytic Thin Films for Green Large-Area Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Biran Ay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-area catalytic thin films offer great potential for green technology applications in order to save energy, combat pollution, and reduce global warming. These films, either embedded with nanoparticles, shaped with nanostructuring techniques, hybridized with other systems, or functionalized with bionanotechnological methods, can include many different surface properties including photocatalytic, antifouling, abrasion resistant and mechanically resistive, self-cleaning, antibacterial, hydrophobic, and oleophobic features. Thus, surface functionalization with such advanced structuring methods is of significance to increase the performance and wide usage of large-area thin film coatings specifically for environmental remediation. In this review, we focus on methods to increase the efficiency of catalytic reactions in thin film and hence improve the performance in relevant applications while eliminating high cost with the purpose of widespread usage. However, we also include the most recent hybrid architectures, which have potential to make a transformational change in surface applications as soon as high quality and large area production techniques are available. Hence, we present and discuss research studies regarding both organic and inorganic methods that are used to structure thin films that have potential for large-area and eco-friendly coatings.

  12. Heavy metals concentration in soils from parks and green areas in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRJANA D. MARJANOVIĆ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study included the investigation of several metals and their distribution in urban soils from parks and green areas in the city of Belgrade. The soils were sampled in January and February 2008. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn were measured, as well as the pH values and organic matter contents. The obtained results showed that there was a significant level of contamination in some samples, especially with lead, and that it was most probably caused by anthropogenic activities, mostly from traffic. The results were compared with the National legislation and Netherlands standards. Also, the recent results were compared with the data from previous work and it was concluded that there has been a certain increase of the Pb concentration in the past three years. The level of pollution in playground soil was very high and each analyzed sample exceeded the Dutch target value for Cd, Co and Pb.

  13. Effect of Green Tea Phytochemicals on Mood and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on tea constituents caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on mood and cognitive performance. These effects were observed when these phytochemicals were consumed separately and in combination. A review was conducted on 49 human intervention studies to summarize the research on acute psychoactive effects of caffeine, L-theanine, and EGCG on different dimensions of mood and cognitive performance. Caffeine was found to mainly improve performance on demanding long-duration cognitive tasks and self-reported alertness, arousal, and vigor. Significant effects already occurred at low doses of 40 mg. L-theanine alone improved self-reported relaxation, tension, and calmness starting at 200 mg. L-theanine and caffeine combined were found to particularly improve performance in attention-switching tasks and alertness, but to a lesser extent than caffeine alone. No conclusive evidence relating to effects induced by EGCG could be given since the amount of intervention studies was limited. These studies provided reliable evidence showing that L-theanine and caffeine have clear beneficial effects on sustained attention, memory, and suppression of distraction. Moreover, L-theanine was found to lead to relaxation by reducing caffeine induced arousal. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Green tea and its anti-angiogenesis effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Bahman; Malekzadeh, Mehrnoush; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Masoudifar, Aria; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis. Indeed, they are the targets for anti-angiogenic drugs currently approved. Green tea (from the Camellia sinensis plant) is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is able to inhibit angiogenesis by different mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Green tea and its polyphenolic substances (like catechins) show chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic features in various types of cancer and experimental models for human cancers. The tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have multiple effects on the cellular proteome and signalome. Note that the polyphenolic compounds from green tea are able to change the miRNA expression profile associated with angiogenesis in various cancer types. This review focuses on the ability of the green tea constituents to suppress angiogenesis signaling and it summarizes the mechanisms by which EGCG might inhibit the VEGF family. We also highlighted the miRNAs affected by green tea which are involved in anti-angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Urban green land cover changes and their relation to climatic variables in an anthropogenically impacted area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Dida, Adrian I.

    2017-10-01

    Urban green areas are experiencing rapid land cover change caused by human-induced land degradation and extreme climatic events. Vegetation index time series provide a useful way to monitor urban vegetation phenological variations. This study quantitatively describes Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI) /Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Leaf Area Index (LAI) temporal changes for Bucharest metropolitan region land cover in Romania from the perspective of vegetation phenology and its relation with climate changes and extreme climate events. The time series from 2000 to 2016 of the NOAA AVHRR and MODIS Terra/Aqua satellite data were analyzed to extract anomalies. Time series of climatic variables were also analyzed through anomaly detection techniques and the Fourier Transform. Correlations between NDVI/EVI time series and climatic variables were computed. Temperature, rainfall and radiation were significantly correlated with almost all land-cover classes for the harmonic analysis amplitude term. However, vegetation phenology was not correlated with climatic variables for the harmonic analysis phase term suggesting a delay between climatic variations and vegetation response. Training and validation were based on a reference dataset collected from IKONOS high resolution remote sensing data. The mean detection accuracy for period 2000- 2016 was assessed to be of 87%, with a reasonable balance between change commission errors (19.3%), change omission errors (24.7%), and Kappa coefficient of 0.73. This paper demonstrates the potential of moderate - and high resolution, multispectral imagery to map and monitor the evolution of the physical urban green land cover under climate and anthropogenic pressure.

  16. Investigating the effects of green marketing on development of brand fascination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Abbasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of different green marketing on brand fascination for a south Korean electronic producer, Samsung. The proposed study designs two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of green marketing and the other for brand fascination in Likert scale. Cronbach alphas for green marketing and brand fascination are calculated as 0.72 and 0.79, respectively. The study has been implemented among 385 regular customers of Samsung’s electronic devices. Using Spearman correlation ratio as well as stepwise regression analysis, the study has concluded that two components of green marketing including green product and green promotion influence positively on brand fascination, positively.

  17. Greening the CAP. An analysis of the effects of the European Commission's proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy 2014-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westhoek, H.; Van Zeijts, H.; Witmer, M.; Van den Berg, M.; Overmars, K.; Van der Esch, S.; Van der Bilt, W.

    2012-02-15

    The impact of the proposed greening measures of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on the sustainable development of agriculture appears to be relatively small. Member States must assign 30 percent of their Pillar I budget to these measures, a total annual amount of 13 billion euros. Greening measures could be made more effective by tailoring the proposed ecological focus areas to local conditions and by promoting the formation of a green infrastructure.

  18. Effect of irradiation decontamination on the qualities of green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Liu Chunquan; Yu Gang; Zhao Yongfu; Ji Ping; Jin Jie; Gu Guiqiang

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of irradiation on the main chemical components, such as heavy metal elements, pesticide residues as well as sensory qualities of green tea. The results indicated that irradiation had no significant impact on proteins, tea polyphenols, theine and heavy metal elements, slight differences in the contents of soluble sugar and amino acids. The content of cypermethrin reduced with the increase of irradiation dose. The color, liquor color, flavor and aroma of the tea decoction changed slightly when irradiated at the dose lower than 5 kGy. It was concluded that the optimal doses for the purpose of green team decontamination was at the range of 3-5 kGy according to the analysis of various quality factors. (authors)

  19. Protective effects of rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis ), green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the modulation of oxidative stress by an indigenous herbal tea, rooibos, Chinese green tea and commercial rooibos and green tea supplements in rat testicular tissue. Male Wistar rats (n = 60) were fed with either fermented rooibos, “green” rooibos, Chinese green tea, commercial rooibos or green tea ...

  20. Predicting the Impact of Urban Green Areas on Microclimate Changes of Mashhad Residential Areas during the Hottest Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra karimian

    2017-02-01

    represent all conditions which be able to improve thermal comfort. Conclusions: In this study eventually we can conclude that in the simulated sites with about 20 percent vegetation cover,, despite the slight decrease and increase in temperature and relative humidity, respectively compared with the real sites, the thermal comfort range was similar. It is advisable in the future studies to simulate the green area in shape of the vertical and horizontal, changes in species composition in green area like trees, shrubs, and cover plants and also the test of different combinations of type and percentage of vegetation.

  1. Preventive Effect of Residential Green Space on Infantile Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Young; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Lee, Myeongjee; Ye, Shinhee; Kwon, Jung-Hyun; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Yangho; Ha, Mina; Ha, Eunhee

    2018-01-09

    Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD), but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of Health study. Subjects were geocoded to their residential addresses and matched with air pollution data modeled using land-use regression. Information on infantile AD was obtained by using a questionnaire administered to the parents or guardians of the children. The association between infantile AD and exposure to NO₂ and PM 10 was determined using logistic regression models. We assessed the effects of residential green spaces using stratified analyses and by entering product terms into the logistic regression models. The risk of infantile AD significantly increased with an increase in air pollution exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 1.219 (1.023-1.452) per 10 μg/m³ increase in PM 10 and 1.353 (1.027-1.782) per 10 ppb increase in NO₂. An increase in the green space within 200 m of residence was associated with a decreased risk of AD (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-0.999). The stratified analysis of residential green space revealed stronger associations between infantile AD and PM 10 and NO₂ exposure during the first trimester in the areas in the lower tertiles of green space. This study indicated that exposure to TRAP during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with infantile AD. Less residential green space may intensify the association between TRAP exposure and infantile AD.

  2. Impacts of Green Infrastructure on the Water Budget and Other Ecosystem Services in Subhumid Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y.; Burian, S. J.; Pardyjak, E.; Pomeroy, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) measures have been well established as part of low-impact development approaches for stormwater (SW) management. The origin of the concepts, practices and the preponderance of research have taken place in humid climates. Recent work has begun to explore and adapt GI to subhumid and semi-arid climates, which experience warmer and drier periods. But much remains unknown about effects of GI on the water cycle and how to effectively implement to maximize ecosystem benefits. This research synthesizes observation and modeling to address questions related to changes in evapotranspiration (ET), SW runoff volume, and other water cycle processes from GI introduction in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. First, the water budget of green roofs is being studied via weighing lysimeter systems on two rooftop gardens on the University of Utah campus. ET, outflow, and soil moisture have been measured for approximately one year. Up to this early summer, average ET rates for lysimeters of pure medium, Sedums, and Bluegrass are 1.85±1.01, 1.97±0.94, and 2.31±0.91 mm/d respectively; the maximum ET rate could reach 6.11 mm/d from Sedums. Over 2/3 of total rainfall and irrigation were slowly consumed via ET from green roof. Second, the observation studies are leading to new ET modeling techniques that are being incorporated into the U.S. EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The modified SWMM has been used to simulate ET, SW runoff volume, and overall water budget changes from GI implementation. Preliminary result shows that ET could account for 10% of the total inflows into bioretentions, and 25% of the inflows into landscapes; potential ET rates could vary up to 0.95 mm/hr across 53 subcatchments in the 29 acres catchment. The influence of various design factors for GI on SW runoff reduction and the water budget is also to be estimated. The application of the research is to analyze the water budget of the Red Butte Creek Watershed in Salt Lake City and to

  3. Borrowing green : economic and environmental effects of green fiscal policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' (Regeling Groenprojecten) in the Netherlands

  4. Effects of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on local outdoor microclimate during the growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; Bakker, Frank; de Groot, Rudolf; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2015-12-01

    This study analyzed how the variations of plant area index (PAI) and weather conditions alter the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on microclimate. To observe how diverse UGIs affect the ambient microclimate through the seasons, microclimatic data were measured during the growing season at five sites in a local urban area in The Netherlands. Site A was located in an open space; sites B, C, and D were covered by different types and configurations of green infrastructure (grove, a single deciduous tree, and street trees, respectively); and site E was adjacent to buildings to study the effects of their façades on microclimate. Hemispherical photography and globe thermometers were used to quantify PAI and thermal comfort at both shaded and unshaded locations. The results showed that groves with high tree density (site B) have the strongest effect on microclimate conditions. Monthly variations in the differences of mean radiant temperature (∆Tmrt) between shaded and unshaded areas followed the same pattern as the PAI. Linear regression showed a significant positive correlation between PAI and ∆Tmrt. The difference of daily average air temperature (∆T a ) between shaded and unshaded areas was also positively correlated to PAI, but with a slope coefficient below the measurement accuracy (±0.5 °C). This study showed that weather conditions can significantly impact the effectiveness of UGI in regulating microclimate. The results of this study can support the development of appropriate UGI measures to enhance thermal comfort in urban areas.

  5. The Spatial Reproduction in the Urban Green Areas in the Nampula City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Rodrigues Moreno Muacuveia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: the work presents reflective elements on the changes of the space in the green areas of the city of Nampula due to the trade. He argues that urban green areas built for ecological, aesthetic and even psychic functions, socially produced, become places of exacerbated consumption and, at the same time, the medium of formal and informal commerce. The objective is to analyze the (re production of the space of the urban green areas in Nampula city, as well as the practice of informal commerce, in order to perceive its spatial dynamics. In order to do so, an analysis was carried out from a review of the bibliography in order to understand the conceptual meaning and later, to analyze the trade dynamics practiced in these areas, the spatiality that it reproduces. The results indicate that the green areas of the city have turned into places of practice of formal commerce carried out in stalls and fixed stalls subject to the payment of taxes and the informal practice practiced by mobile strollers who evade taxes. A Reprodução do Espaço nas Áreas Verdes Urbanas na Cidade de Nampula, Moçambique Resumo: o trabalho apresenta elementos reflexivos sobre as alterações do espaço nas áreas verdes da cidade de Nampula em função do comércio. Argumenta como as áreas verdes urbanas construídas para funções ecológicas, estéticas e até psíquicas, socialmente produzidas passam a ser locais de consumo exacerbado e ao mesmo tempo o meio onde se realiza o comércio formal e informal. O objetivo é analisar a (re produção do espaço das áreas verdes urbana da cidade de Nampula, bem como a prática comércio informal, de modo a perceber a sua dinâmica espacial. Para tanto, realizou-se uma análise a partir de revisão da bibliografia de modo a compreender a acepção conceitual e a posterior, analisar a dinâmica do comércio praticado nestas áreas e a espacialidade que ela reproduz. Os resultados indicam que as áreas verdes da cidade

  6. Large-area printed supercapacitor technology for low-cost domestic green energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, Z.; Thomas, D.J.; Korochkina, T.; Phillips, C.O.; Lupo, D.; Lehtimäki, S.; O'Mahony, J.; Gethin, D.T.

    2017-01-01

    In this research we demonstrate that a flexible ultra-thin supercapacitor can be fabricated using high volume screen printing process. This has enabled the sequential deposition of current collector, electrode, electrolyte materials and adhesive onto a Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate in order to form flexible electrodes for reliable energy storage applications. The electrodes were based on an activated carbon ink and gel electrolyte each of which were formulated for this application. Supercapacitors that have surface areas from 100 to 1600 mm 2 and an assembled device thickness of 375 μm were demonstrated. The capacitance ranged from 50 to 400 mF. Capacitance of printed carbon electrodes is rarely reported in literature and no references were found. The chemistry developed during this study displayed long-term cycling potential and demonstrated the stability of the capacitor for continued usage. The gel electrolyte developed within this work showed comparable performance to that of a liquid counterpart. This improvement resulted in the reduction in gel resistance from 90Ω to 0.5Ω. Significant reduction was observed for all resistances. The solid-state supercapacitors with the gel electrolyte showed comparable performance to the supercapacitors that used a liquid electrolyte. This large area printed device can be used in future houses for reliable green energy storage. - Highlights: • It has been demonstrated that a flexible supercapacitors with large area storage has been developed. • The simplified architecture has the potential to lead to a new class of printable, thin storage devices. • The specific capacitance of 21 F/g was measured.

  7. Estimating regional winter wheat yield with WOFOST through the assimilation of green area index retrieved from MODIS observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de A.J.W.; Duveiller, G.; Defourny, P.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe and test a method for optimising winter wheat green area index (GAI) simulated with the WOFOST crop model using MODIS estimates of GAI in the Walloon region of Belgium. Detailed crop type maps during the period of 2000–2009 were used to derive time series of crop-specific GAI by

  8. Modeling the Hydrologic Effects of Large-Scale Green Infrastructure Projects with GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado, R. A.; Fekete, B. M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Impervious surfaces in urban areas generate excess runoff, which in turn causes flooding, combined sewer overflows, and degradation of adjacent surface waters. Municipal environmental protection agencies have shown a growing interest in mitigating these effects with 'green' infrastructure practices that partially restore the perviousness and water holding capacity of urban centers. Assessment of the performance of current and future green infrastructure projects is hindered by the lack of adequate hydrological modeling tools; conventional techniques fail to account for the complex flow pathways of urban environments, and detailed analyses are difficult to prepare for the very large domains in which green infrastructure projects are implemented. Currently, no standard toolset exists that can rapidly and conveniently predict runoff, consequent inundations, and sewer overflows at a city-wide scale. We demonstrate how streamlined modeling techniques can be used with open-source GIS software to efficiently model runoff in large urban catchments. Hydraulic parameters and flow paths through city blocks, roadways, and sewer drains are automatically generated from GIS layers, and ultimately urban flow simulations can be executed for a variety of rainfall conditions. With this methodology, users can understand the implications of large-scale land use changes and green/gray storm water retention systems on hydraulic loading, peak flow rates, and runoff volumes.

  9. Selection of hybrid vehicle for green environment using multi-attributive border approximation area comparison method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumar Biswas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The mobility sector including all kinds of transportation systems are facing global challenges in re-spect of green environmental issues. There has been a paradigm shift in the concept of design and manufacturing of automotive vehicles keeping in mind the scarcity of fossil fuel and the impact of emission on environment due to burning of it. The addition of hybrid and electric vehicles in pas-senger car segment has got significant momentum to address the global challenges. This research investigates the performance of a group of hybrid vehicles from customers’ perspective. Among the different brands that are available in the hybrid vehicle market, smart customers have given pri-ority to vehicle cost, mileage, tail pipe emission, comfortness and high tank size volume for long drive. Considering these attributes, selection strategy for hybrid vehicles has been developed using entropy based multi-attributive border approximation area comparison (MABAC method. This research highlights the best hybrid vehicle which reduces air pollution in cities with other significant environmental benefits, reduces dependence on foreign energy imports and minimizes the annual fuel cost.

  10. Electric field effects on fluorescence of the green fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Takakazu; Kinjo, Masataka; Ohta, Nobuhiro

    2008-05-01

    External electric field effects on state energy and photoexcitation dynamics have been examined for a mutant of UV-excited green fluorescent protein (GFPuv5) in a PVA film. The electrofluorescence spectrum of GFPuv5 is reproduced by a linear combination between the fluorescence spectrum and its second derivative spectrum, indicating the field-induced fluorescence quenching and the difference in electric dipole moment between the fluorescent state and the ground state. The direct measurements of the field-induced change in fluorescence decay show that the field-induced quenching results from the field-induced increase in the rate of the non-radiative process from the fluorescent state.

  11. Evaluation and Planning of Urban Green Space Distribution Based on Mobile Phone Data and Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban green space is closely related to the quality of life of residents. However, the traditional approach to its planning often fails to address its actual service capacity and users’ demand. In this study, facilitated by mobile phone location data, more specific features of the spatial distribution of urban residents are identified. Further, population distribution in relation to traffic analysis zones is mapped. On this basis, the two-step floating catchment area method (2SFCA is adopted in combination with urban green space planning to evaluate the per capita area of green space and its accessibility in practice. Subsequently, classification of per capita area and spatial distribution of green spaces within the study area are obtained; thus, urban districts currently with low accessibility to green areas are identified and can be deemed as key areas for the planning of green areas in the future. The study concludes that mobile phone data can be used to more accurately map the spatial distribution of residents; while, the 2SFCA offers a more comprehensive quantitative measuring of the supply and demand of green spaces. The two combined can be used as an important basis for decision-making in the planning of urban green spaces. Since urban green space can be regarded as a kind of public facility, the methodology of the present study is also believed to be applicable in studies of other types of urban facilities.

  12. Effects of landscape-based green infrastructure on stormwater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of impervious surfaces in urban and suburban catchments affects their hydrological behavior by decreasing infiltration, increasing peak hydrograph response following rainfall events, and ultimately increasing the total volume of water and mass of pollutants reaching streams. These changes have deleterious effects on downstream surface waters. Consequently, strategies to mitigate these impacts are now components of contemporary urban development and stormwater management. This study evaluates the effectiveness of landscape green infrastructure (GI) in reducing stormwater runoff volumes and controlling peak flows in four subdivision-scale suburban catchments (1.88 – 12.97 acres) in Montgomery County, MD, USA. Stormwater flow rates during runoff events were measured in five minute intervals at each catchment outlet. One catchment was built with GI vegetated swales on all parcels with the goal of intercepting, conveying, and infiltrating stormwater before it enters the sewer network. The remaining catchments were constructed with traditional gray infrastructure and “end-of-pipe” best management practices (BMPs) that treat stormwater before entering streams. This study compared characteristics of rainfall-runoff events at the green and gray infrastructure sites to understand their effects on suburban hydrology. The landscape GI strategy generally reduced rainfall-runoff ratios compared to gray infrastructure because of increased infiltration, ul

  13. Cultural Ecosystem Services of Urban Green Spaces-Supply and Demand in The Densely Built-Up Areas. Poznan Old Town Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizy, Lidia; Majchrzak, Weronika; Zwierzchowska, Iwona

    2017-12-01

    The quality of life of big city dwellers depends on the use of green infrastructure. The idea of a compact city, opposed to urban sprawl, can lead to reduced access to green areas and increased demand for cultural services provided through urban green infrastructure. Considering the above, the aim of the paper was to identify the supply of and demand for cultural ecosystem services related to the urban green spaces in densely built-up urban areas. To find out how important the ability to use green areas for dwellers of the densely built-up areas is, the questionnaire interviews with the residents of the area of the Old Town of Poznan were conducted. Questions in the survey concerned the amount of green spaces and their availability, the way of use, types of activity, factors limiting the use and factors encouraging to visit green spaces and the motives for using green areas away from inhabitants’ place of residence. Respondents claim that there is not enough greenery, especially associated with housing and street side greenery; the amount of parks (which they use most) is slightly higher, in their opinion. Limitations that influence utilising green spaces concern both greenery itself (e.g. insufficient recreational infrastructure, neglected green areas) as well as respondent’s issues (e.g. lack of free time). Improvements to recreational infrastructure and more well-kept green spaces would encourage respondents to utilise it more often. Active participation of inhabitants in developing and maintaining their closest neighbourhood would allow to enlarge green spaces in housing areas and make them more customized to the residents’ needs and requirements in terms of functionality and aesthetic.

  14. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Renata Attademo, E-mail: luizronaldoa@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa da Santa Casa, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso Brant; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1{sup st} week) and end (18{sup th} week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm 2 , while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Conclusions: Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area. (author)

  15. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raso, Renata Attademo; Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso Brant; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1 st week) and end (18 th week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm 2 , while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Conclusions: Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area. (author)

  16. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Renata Attademo; Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sérgio Veloso Brant; Tavares, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1st week) and end (18th week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm2, while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area.

  17. Approach of the Two-way Influence Between Lean and Green Manufacturing and its Connection to Related Organisational Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Salvador

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Initiatives toward Lean and Green Manufacturing are given mainly due to organisational response to current market’s economic and environmental pressures. This paper, therefore, aims to present a brief discussion based on a literature review of the potential two-way influence between Lean and Green Manufacturing and its role on the main organisational areas with a closer relationship to such approaches, which were observed to be more extensively discussed in the literature. Naturally lean practises seem more likely to deploy into green outcomes, though the other way around can also occur. There is some blur on the factual integration of both themes, as some authors suggest. Notwhithstanding, they certainly present certain synergy. Thereupon, further research is needed to unveil the real ties, overlaps and gaps between these approaches.

  18. Building Effective Green Energy Programs in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozell, Maureen R.; Liston, Cynthia D.

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges across the country are engaged in large-scale federal and state initiatives to train low-income individuals for the nascent field that's become known as "green jobs." Many green economy advocates believe that green jobs training can be part of career pathways that help move unemployed and disconnected individuals--who are often…

  19. How effective is greening policy in reducing GHG emissions from agriculture? Evidence from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzo, Roberto; Donati, Michele; Tomasi, Licia; Arfini, Filippo

    2016-12-15

    Agriculture contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, accounting for more than 10% of total CO 2 emissions in the EU-28 area. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) plays an important role in promoting environmentally and climate friendly practices and needs to respond to the new environmental challenges by better integrating its objectives with other EU policies. In this respect, the recent CAP reform 2014-2020 made a further step, making a large part of direct payments conditional on new agricultural practices beneficial for the climate and the environment, i.e. "greening". In this study we estimate the potential environmental benefits from greening in terms of GHG emissions in four regions of Northern Italy, one of the major European agricultural areas in terms of emissions. The emissions were quantified and broken down into the three main GHGs (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) per production process. This information was subsequently used in a Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP) farm-based model on more than 3,000 farms, to estimate the effects of greening on regional land use and its contribution in reducing the total emissions. The new agri-environmental constraints produce a modest abatement of total emissions of greenhouse gases (-1.5%) in the analyzed area. The model estimates a reduction in CO 2 emissions of about 2%. Emissions from nitrous oxide show a decrease of 2.1% and the reduction in the methane is about 0.4% compared to the observed scenario. The process of "lightening" that affected the greening during the CAP negotiation has inevitably resulted in missing an opportunity to introduce a significant positive change of behaviour into agriculture, in line with the expectations and needs of society for EU agriculture as a provider of public goods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ÁREAS VERDES URBANAS, ESPAÇOS LIVRES PARA O LAZER / Urban green areas, open spaces for leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia MAZZEI Mazzei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The creation and the management of Conservation Units in urban areas, as in the category ofintegral protection as of sustainable use, aims to improve the quality of life of the urban citizenat the same time that it promotes an improvement in the urban environment quality, endowingthe urban space with vegetal covering and fundamental green areas to the reproduction of thenatural cycle and maintenance of the dynamic balance. In the urban environment, the differentcategories of open spaces and the indexes of green area per inhabitant intend to offer optionsto the leisure and recreation activities, besides of characterizing as strategic instruments forthe municipal planning, integrating the characteristics and the limits of the environment to theurban expansion.

  1. Bioavailability of iron and zinc in green leafy vegetables growing in river side and local areas of Allahabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs are the treasure trove of many micronutrients.Objective: The aim of the study is to find out the commonly growing vegetables in river side and local areas of Allahabad district and to access the bioavailability of iron and zinc in selected green leafy vegetables of river side and local areas of Allahabad district.Methods: Five to four commonly grown green leafy vegetables were selected from the Arailghat, Baluaghat, Gaughat, Mahewa, Muirabad, Rajapur, Rasullabad for the study. Total iron and zinc in sample were estimated by AOAC (2005 and bioavailability of zinc and iron from various food samples was determined in vitro method described by Luten (1996. Appropriate statistical technique was adopted for analysis of study.Result: Soya leaves, Radish leaves, Amaranth, Spinach were grown in both the areas except Kulpha and Karamwa, which are commonly grown in river side area. There was a significant difference between the bioavailability of iron and zinc in GLV grown in local and river side area.Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded that there is a contamination of heavy metals which binds with the iron and zinc and make them less bioavailable in the selected GLV.

  2. Variation Trend of Leaf Area Index, Yield and Yield Components of Green Beans (Phaseolous vulgaris L. by Using Zinc Sulfate and Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Lack

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper nutrition of plant is one of the most important factors to improve both quality and quantiy of crop yields. Accordingly, the effect of different levels of zinc and nitrogen on leaf area index, yield and yield components of green beans investigated in the summer of 2012. The experiment used was a split plot in randomized complete block design with three replications in the Dezful. In this study, the main plots consisted of four nitrogen rates of urea (0, 30, 60 and 90 kgha-1, and sub plots of four levels of zinc sulfate (0, 10, 20 and 30 kg.ha-1. The results showed that application of 90 N kg.ha-1 increased leaf area index, plant dry matter, grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and protein content. Use of zinc sulfate at the rate of 20 kg.ha-1 was superior in grain yield and yield components. The highest leaf area index, grain and biological yields harvest index and protein content were achieved by application of 90 kg nitrogen and 20 kg of zinc sulfate per hectare. It seems that the use of zinc with appropriate rates, through its involvement in physiological processes and nitrogen metabolism in plants as an essential element, accelerates green beans growth processes and increases green bean yield.

  3. Time-dependent effect in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darroudi M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Majid Darroudi1,2, Mansor Bin Ahmad3, Reza Zamiri4, AK Zak5, Abdul Halim Abdullah1,3, Nor Azowa Ibrahim31Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran; 3Department of Chemistry, 4Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: The application of “green” chemistry rules to nanoscience and nanotechnology is very important in the preparation of various nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully developed an eco-friendly chemistry method for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs in natural polymeric media. The colloidal Ag-NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, gelatin, and glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag-NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and their size distributions. The prepared samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The use of eco-friendly reagents, such as gelatin and glucose, provides green and economic attributes to this work.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, gelatin, green chemistry, time-dependent effect, ultraviolet-visible spectra

  4. Preventive Effect of Residential Green Space on Infantile Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD, but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 μm (PM10 during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of development of AD in 6-month-old children and also to examine how this association changes with residential green space. This study used prospective data from 659 participants of the Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health study. Subjects were geocoded to their residential addresses and matched with air pollution data modeled using land-use regression. Information on infantile AD was obtained by using a questionnaire administered to the parents or guardians of the children. The association between infantile AD and exposure to NO2 and PM10 was determined using logistic regression models. We assessed the effects of residential green spaces using stratified analyses and by entering product terms into the logistic regression models. The risk of infantile AD significantly increased with an increase in air pollution exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were 1.219 (1.023–1.452 per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 and 1.353 (1.027–1.782 per 10 ppb increase in NO2. An increase in the green space within 200 m of residence was associated with a decreased risk of AD (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993–0.999. The stratified analysis of residential green space revealed stronger associations between infantile AD and PM10 and NO2 exposure during the first trimester in the areas in the lower tertiles of green space. This study indicated that exposure to TRAP during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with infantile AD. Less residential green space may intensify

  5. Quantitative analysis on the urban flood mitigation effect by the extensive green roof system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Moon, H.J.; Kim, T.I.; Kim, H.W.; Han, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive green-roof systems are expected to have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff, decreasing temperature and supplying water to a building. Mitigation of runoff through rainwater retention requires the effective design of a green-roof catchment. This study identified how to improve building runoff mitigation through quantitative analysis of an extensive green-roof system. Quantitative analysis of green-roof runoff characteristics indicated that the extensive green roof has a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. As the rainfall intensity increased, the water-retaining capacity decreased. The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52, indicating reduced runoff comparing with efficiency of 0.9 for a concrete roof. Therefore, extensive green roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to an algorithm for rainwater-harvesting tank design. -- Highlights: •Urban extensive green roof systems have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff. •These systems are improve runoff mitigation and decentralized urban water management. •These systems have a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. •The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52. -- Extensive green-roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to mitigate urban runoff

  6. Mediation pathways and effects of green structures on respiratory mortality via reducing air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Sheng; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown both health and environmental benefits of green spaces, especially in moderating temperature and reducing air pollution. However, the characteristics of green structures have been overlooked in previous investigations. In addition, the mediation effects of green structures on respiratory mortality have not been assessed. This study explores the potential mediation pathways and effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality through temperature, primary and secondary air pollutants separately using partial least squares model with data from Taiwan. The measurable characteristics of green structure include the largest patch percentage, landscape proportion, aggregation, patch distance, and fragmentation. The results showed that mortality of pneumonia and chronic lower respiratory diseases could be reduced by minimizing fragmentation and increasing the largest patch percentage of green structure, and the mediation effects are mostly through reducing air pollutants rather than temperature. Moreover, a high proportion of but fragmented green spaces would increase secondary air pollutants and enhance health risks; demonstrating the deficiency of traditional greening policy with primary focus on coverage ratio. This is the first research focusing on mediation effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality, revealing that appropriate green structure planning can be a useful complementary strategy in environmental health management.

  7. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  8. Remote sensing of climate changes effects on urban green biophysical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Dida, Adrian I.

    2016-10-01

    Urban vegetation land cover change is a direct measure of quantitative increase or decrease in sources of urban pollution and the dimension of extreme climate events and changes that determine environment quality. This study addresses climate changes effects and anthropogenic impacts on urban green biophysical variables based on time series satellite data in synergy with in-situ data and new analytical methods. This paper explored the use of time-series MODIS Terra/Aqua Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI/EVI), Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Leaf Area Index (LAI), land surface albedo data to provide vegetation change detection information for Bucharest test area during 2000- 2015 period. Training and validation are based on a reference dataset collected from Landsat ETM remote sensing data. The mean detection accuracy for investigated period was 89%, with a reasonable balance between change commission errors (19.74%), change omission errors (24.72%), and Kappa coefficient of 0.74. Annual change detection rates across the urban/peri-urban green areas over the study period were estimated at 0.77% per annum in the range of 0.45% (2000) to 0.78% (2015).Vegetation dynamics in urban areas at seasonal and longer timescales reflect large-scale interactions between the terrestrial biosphere and the climate system.

  9. A facile, green and efficient surfactant-free method for synthesis of aluminum nanooxides with an extraordinary high surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein; Akintola, Oluseun; Plass, Winfried; Steiniger, Frank; Westermann, Martin

    2016-04-21

    Nano boehmite with unprecedented high surface area and pore volume (802 m(2) g(-1), 2.35 cm(3) g(-1)) was prepared using a facile, green and efficient surfactant-free synthesis method. The structure of the material is characterized by the presence of plates with varying thicknesses and morphologies. The calcined samples show curved and rolled plates with a nanotube-like appearance.

  10. Effect of green tea on kidney tubules of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, Waleed M; Abdeen, Suad; Alkhalaf, Mousa; Asfar, Sami

    2008-09-01

    It has been documented that green tea (GT) and its catechin components improve renal failure and inhibit the growth of mesangial cells. In the present study we examined the long-term effect of GT extract on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy and on the glycogen accumulation in the kidney tubules. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to normal control groups (2, 6, 8 and 12 weeks) and five diabetic groups (n 10) of comparable age. A GT diabetic group received 16 % concentration of GT for 12 weeks post-diabetes induction as their sole source of drinking water. GT treatment significantly (P kidney tubules. These results indicate that in STZ diabetes, kidney function appears to be improved with GT consumption which also prevents glycogen accumulation in the renal tubules, probably by lowering blood levels of glucose. Therefore, GT could be beneficial additional therapy in the management of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Noodle based analytical devices for cost effective green chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwfo, Kanokwan; Wongwilai, Wasin; Paengnakorn, Pathinan; Boonmapa, Sasithorn; Sateanchok, Suphasinee; Grudpan, Kate

    2018-05-01

    Noodle based analytical devices are proposed for cost effective green chemical analysis. Two noodle based analytical platforms have been examined. Conditions for flow with laminar behaviors could be established. Detection may be via a webcam camera or a flatbed scanner. Acid-base reactions were chosen as a model study. The assays of acetic acid and sodium hydroxide were investigated. Apart from bromothymol blue, simple aqueous extract of butterfly pea flower was used as a natural reagent. Another model was the assay of copper (Cu 2+ ) which was based on the redox reaction of copper (Cu 2+ ) with iodide to produce tri-iodide forming brown/black product with starch which already exists in the noodle platform. Demonstration to apply the noodle platforms for real samples was made. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Green Roof Potential in Arab Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Shady

    2014-01-01

    Urban green roofs have long been promoted as an easy and effective strategy for beautifying the built environment and increasing investment opportunity. The building roof is very important because it has a direct impact on thermal comfort and energy conservation in and around buildings. Urban green roofs can help to address the lack of green space in many urban areas. Urban green roofs provides the city with open spaces that helps reduce urban heat island effect and provides the human populat...

  13. Proposal for the award of two contracts for the maintenance of green areas and roads on the CERN site

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of two contracts for the maintenance of green areas and roads, i) on the CERN site of Meyrin, LHC Point 1 and SPS Points BA5 and BA6 and ii) on the CERN site of Prévessin, all the LHC Points except Point 1 and all the SPS Points except Points BA5 and BA6. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of contracts with: - PAYSAGE CONCEPT (FR), the lowest bidder, for the maintenance of green areas and roads on the CERN's Meyrin site, LHC Point 1 and SPS Points BA5 and BA6 for two years for a total amount of 903 532 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 30 June 2008. - WIESMANN (FR), the lowest bidder, for the maintenance of green areas and roads on the CERN's Prévessin site, all the LHC Points except Point 1 and all the SPS Points except Points BA5 and BA6 for two years for a total amount of 671 529 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 30 June 2008. Both contracts will include options for three one-year extensions beyond the initial two-year period....

  14. Relationships between Characteristics of Urban Green Land Cover and Mental Health in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Tsai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization increases risk for depression and other mental disorders. A growing body of research indicates the natural environment confers numerous psychological benefits including alleviation of mental distress. This study examined land cover types and landscape metrics in relation to mental health for 276 U.S. counties within metropolitan areas having a population of 1 million or more. County Health Rankings and Behavioral Risk and Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS provided a measure of mental health. The 2011 National Land Cover Database (NLCD provided data on green land cover types, from which seven landscape metrics were generated to characterize landscape patterns. Spearman’s rho correlation and stepwise logistic regression models, respectively, were employed to examine bivariate and multivariate relationships. Models were adjusted for county population and housing density, region, race, and income to account for potential confounding. Overall, individual measures of landscape patterns showed stronger associations with mental health than percent total cover alone. Greater edge contrast was associated with 3.81% lower odds of Frequent Mental Distress (FMD (Adjusted Odd’s Ratio (AOR = 0.9619, 95% CI = 0.9371, 0.9860. Shrubland cohesion was associated with greater odds of FMD (AOR = 1.0751, 95% CI = 1.0196, 1.1379. In addition, distance between shrubland cover was associated with greater odds of FMD (AOR = 1.0027, 95% CI = 1.0016, 1.0041. Although effect sizes were small, findings suggest different types of landscape characteristics may have different roles in improving mental health.

  15. An approach towards effective ecological planning: Quantitative analysis of urban green space characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Teimouri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the best practices, planning of urban green spaces is managed in such a way that it follows the key principles such as meeting per capita standards and providing accessible and balanced distribution of these spaces all across the city. In the context of emerging economy, these principles are unfortunately not followed strictly all times. In this study, it is attempted to investigate Tabriz city of Iran is in terms of ecological planning to quantitatively analyse its green space characteristics. The used methodology includes determining the relevant urban green space development indicators (e.g. accessibility, per capita supply, balanced distribution, and continuous development of urban green spaces from the literature and using the secondary data collected from variety of sources to analyse the study area. The study seeks to provide a comprehensive view on status of green spaces in Tabriz in the light of ecological principles and indicators and GIS-based spatial analysis. Results indicate that: a Green space per capita provision in Tabriz is much lower than the national and international standards (some districts offer only 0-1 sq.m. per capita green space; b Districts of Tabriz do not have a balanced distribution of green spaces and access to green spaces on foot (only 18% of the population can access green spaces within a 5 minute walk; c Except for the provided street side green spaces, all other passive or active types of green spaces in Tabriz are not continuously linked (no continuity to form a green corridor or linear greenways. This study also comes up with some recommendations for Tabriz and other cities with similar characteristics.

  16. Experimental Studies on the Effects of Green Space and Evapotranspiration on Urban Heat Island in a Subtropical Megacity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Z.; Qiu, G. Y.; Li, X.; Li, H.; Guo, Q.; Yan, C.; Tan, S.

    2016-12-01

    Urbanization is one of the most important driving forces of global change. With the quick expansion of the urban environment's size and population, its urban heat island intensity (UHII) has rapidly increased. The situation is even worse in megacities. However, very few studies quantitatively revealed the effects of green space and land use/land cover (LULC) on the urban thermal environment because they lack detailed measurements. This study focuses on quantifying the effects of green space and LULC on the urban heat island (UHI) in Shenzhen, a subtropical megacity in China. Extensive measurements of air temperature were taken at 2-hour intervals for 2 years, using a mobile traverse method in a transect 8 km in length, where a variety of LULC types were included. The relationship between evapotranspiration (ET) and UHII was also studied to understand the mechanism of the cooling effect of vegetation. The main conclusions obtained are as follows: (1) There are obvious differences in the air temperature and UHII among the five different urban landscapes. The ranking of temperatures from highest to lowest is commercial area > urban village > urban water body > urban green space > suburb. The difference in the UHII is also obvious, especially from 20:00 PM to 06:00 AM, when the UHII is usually greater than 2ºC. (2) There are significant linear relationships between air temperature, UHII, and green space. Both air temperature and the UHII decrease linearly with an increase in urban green space. (3) Green space and water bodies in the urban environment have obvious effects on reducing the air temperature by evapotranspiration. Compared to commercial areas, urban water bodies can mitigate the UHII up to 0.9 ºC, while urban green spaces can relieve the UHII up to 1.57 ºC. The cooling effect of urban green spaces is better than that of urban water bodies. (4) Obvious correlation between ET and UHII was observed and a good positive linear relationship between ET and the

  17. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  18. Urban green space and vibrant communities: exploring the linkage in the Portland Vancouver area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward A. Stone; JunJie Wu; Ralph Alig

    2015-01-01

    This report investigates the interactions between household location decisions and community characteristics, including green space. Household location decisions are a primary driver of land-use change, and collective location decisions affect community characteristics. At the same time, community characteristics affect location decisions. Neighborhoods or communities...

  19. Effect of green tea phytochemicals on mood and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Background: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea

  20. Antiviral effects of green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) against pathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tea is the second most addictive worldwide after formulations containing caffeine in carbonated beverage. Green tea is made from leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. In the repertoire of traditional Chinese medicine, green tea beverages have played a fundamental role associated with their culture.

  1. Effects of Green Innovation on Environmental and Corporate Performance: A Stakeholder Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hua-Hung (Robin) Weng; Ja-Shen Chen; Pei-Ching Chen

    2015-01-01

    “Going green” has become an important environmental issue in contemporary business practice worldwide. This study examined the influence of a number of factors on green innovation and the consequences in terms of performance. The stakeholder theory was adopted to observe the effects of each stakeholder on the green innovation practices of companies and to determine how green innovation practices influence environmental and business performance. A research model with eight hypotheses was propo...

  2. Antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea and their major contributed antioxidant compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Shuqin; Wang, Kaidi; Lei, Yukun; Yao, Shuting; Lu, Baiyi; Huang, Weisu

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea were evaluated, and their major antioxidant compounds contributed to the total amount of synergy were determined. The antioxidant compounds in O. fragrans flowers with green tea were identified by LC-MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA. The synergistic antioxidant interactions between O. fragrans flowers with green tea and their antioxidant compounds were tested using the Prieto?s model after the simulated digestion. T...

  3. Land use effects on green water fluxes from agricultural production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Donner, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    The blue water/green water paradigm is increasingly used to differentiate between subsequent routing of precipitation once it reaches the soil. “Blue” water is that which infiltrates deep in the soil to become streams and aquifers, while “green” water is that which remains in the soil and is either evaporated (non-productive green water) or transpired by plants (productive green water). This differentiation in the fate of precipitation has provided a new way of thinking about water resources, especially in agriculture for which better use of productive green water may help to relieve stresses from irrigation (blue water). The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, presents a unique case for the study of green water fluxes due to an expanding agricultural land base planted primarily to soybean, maize, sugar cane, and cotton. These products are highly dependent on green water resources in Mato Grosso where crops are almost entirely rain-fed. We estimate the change in green water fluxes from agricultural expansion for the 2000-2008 period in the state of Mato Grosso based on agricultural production data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatísticas and a modified Penman-Monteith equation. Initial results for seven municipalities suggest an increase in agricultural green water fluxes, ranging from 1-10% per year, due primarily to increases in cropped areas. Further research is underway to elucidate the role of green water flux variations from land use practices on the regional water cycle.

  4. Green areas in São Paulo's urban planning: city parks in the Setúbal administration (1976-1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Castilho Barone

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For years, the press and other media reinforced the idea that Olavo Setúbal had been the mayor who had performed the most green works in São Paulo. Nine public parks were created under his administration with budget funding. This article investigates the motivations that led Setúbal to embrace this policy. In the second half of the 1970s, this initiative was part of a discussion about the lack of urban green areas by local authorities that fell under a nationwide drive to protect native forests. The policy implemented by the federal government, with ample international support, was especially intended to preserve vegetation, legitimating the initiative championed by Setúbal. Therefore, it is important for us to understand how environmental stewardship influenced urban policy in Brazil in the 1970s and has remained a trend today.

  5. Irrigation scheduling of green areas based on soil moisture estimation by the active heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing AHFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sobrino, Fernando; Sánchez, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    min were applied uniformly along the fiber optic cable and the thermal response on an adjacent cable was monitored prior, during and after the irrigation event. Data was logged every 0.3 m and every 5 s then, the heating and drying phase integer (called Tcum) was determined following the approach of Sayde et al., (2010). Thus, the infiltration and redistribution of soil water content was fully characterized. The results are promising since the water spatial variability within the soil is known and it can be correlated with the water distribution in the irrigation unit to make better irrigation scheduling in the green area improving water/nutrient/energy efficiency.. Reference Létourneau, G., Caron, J., Anderson, L., & Cormier, J. (2015). Matric potential-based irrigation management of field-grown strawberry: Effects on yield and water use efficiency. Agricultural Water Management, 161, 102-113. Liang, X., Liakos, V., Wendroth, O., & Vellidis, G. (2016). Scheduling irrigation using an approach based on the van Genuchten model. Agricultural Water Management, 176, 170-179. Sayde,C., Gregory, C., Gil-Rodriguez, M., Tufillaro, N., Tyler, S., van de Giesen, N., English, M. Cuenca, R. and Selker, J. S.. 2010. Feasibility of soil moisture monitoring with heated fiber optics. Water Resources Research. Vol.46 (6). DOI: 10.1029/2009WR007846 Stirzaker, R. J., Maeko, T. C., Annandale, J. G., Steyn, J. M., Adhanom, G. T., & Mpuisang, T. (2017). Scheduling irrigation from wetting front depth. Agricultural Water Management, 179, 306-313.

  6. The effects of greening the supplier and innovation on environmental performance and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unine van den Berg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Companies in South Africa should realise the important influence of greening their suppliers and of innovation to achieve environmental goals and competitive advantages. In order to prove this, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 75 companies from 11 industries in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality region, South Africa. A confirmatory factor analysis was done, followed by bivariate correlations to determine the strength of association between the latent constructs. Correlations between greening the supplier, innovation, environmental performance and competitive advantages were done. The research found that a green innovative process had a significant effect on environmental performance. Green managerial innovation further had a significant correlation with competitive advantage. The primary result of the study indicated that all the constructs positively related to each other, meaning that greening suppliers, by means of green innovation, leads to an enhanced environmental performance and to competitive advantages.

  7. The effects of greening the supplier and innovation on environmental performance and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unine van den Berg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies in South Africa should realise the important influence of greening their suppliers and of innovation to achieve environmental goals and competitive advantages. In order to prove this, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 75 companies from 11 industries in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality region, South Africa. A confirmatory factor analysis was done, followed by bivariate correlations to determine the strength of association between the latent constructs. Correlations between greening the supplier, innovation, environmental performance and competitive advantages were done. The research found that a green innovative process had a significant effect on environmental performance. Green managerial innovation further had a significant correlation with competitive advantage. The primary result of the study indicated that all the constructs positively related to each other, meaning that greening suppliers, by means of green innovation, leads to an enhanced environmental performance and to competitive advantages.

  8. Green Process Innovation and Innovation Benefit: The Mediating Effect of Firm Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available By evaluating green process innovation and its innovator’s benefit including short- and long-term dimensions, we first analyzed the relationship between green process innovation and its benefits. Second, we set up a regression model to test the hypotheses using 267 survey data from coal mining firms in China. Finally, we verified the positive relationship between green process innovation and its long-term benefit, and the non-significant relationship between green process innovation and its short-term benefit, and the mediating effect played by firm image in the long run.

  9. Effectiveness of Phenolic Compounds against Citrus Green Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M. Sanzani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stored citrus fruit suffer huge losses because of the development of green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum. Usually synthetic fungicides are employed to control this disease, but their use is facing some obstacles, such public concern about possible adverse effects on human and environmental health and the development of resistant pathogen populations. In the present study quercetin, scopoletin and scoparone—phenolic compounds present in several agricultural commodities and associated with response to stresses—were firstly tested in vitro against P. digitatum and then applied in vivo on oranges cv. Navelina. Fruits were wound-treated (100 µg, pathogen-inoculated, stored and surveyed for disease incidence and severity. Although only a minor (≤13% control effect on P. digitatum growth was recorded in vitro, the in vivo trial results were encouraging. In fact, on phenolic-treated oranges, symptoms appeared at 6 days post-inoculation (DPI, i.e., with a 2 day-delay as compared to the untreated control. Moreover, at 8 DPI, quercetin, scopoletin, and scoparone significantly reduced disease incidence and severity by 69%–40% and 85%–70%, respectively, as compared to the control. At 14 DPI, scoparone was the most active molecule. Based on the results, these compounds might represent an interesting alternative to synthetic fungicides.

  10. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumnoi, Y.; Phaopeng, N. [Office of Atoms for Peace - OAP (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    26.54 μSv/y. Higher dose rates would be obtained when consuming immediately or a couple day after the harvest while the lower would be obtained when the mussels are stored for 90 days prior to ingestion. These dose rates are well below the dose limits for aquatic organisms which are 10 mGy/d and 10 μGy/h and for the general public which is 1 mSv/y. Therefore, it can be concluded here that the green mussels from both areas are radiologically healthy and do not cause any radiation effects to the seafood consumers. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  11. Effect on Green Tea Polyphenols on Breast Cancer Signaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cobrinik, David

    1999-01-01

    .... Using the EGF dependent growth of MCF1OA epithelial cells as a model, we found that the major polyphenol in green tea, EGCG, inhibited progression through the late Gi cell cycle restriction point...

  12. Effect Of Green Leaves And Germination And Boiling Treatments Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trigonella foenum graecum L.) were commercial, Giza 2 and Giza 30 and fenugreek green leaves and raw, boiled and germinated commercial sweet lupin seeds (lupinus termis forssk L.) were analyzed for its chemical composition, alkaloids and ...

  13. Vitamin G: effects of green space on health, well-being, and social safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Berg, van den A.E.; Vries, de S.; Verheij, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Looking out on and being in the green elements of the landscape around us seem to affect health, well-being and feelings of social safety. This article discusses the design of a research program on the effects of green space in the living environment on health, well-being and social

  14. Vitamin G : effects of green space on health, well-being, and social safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Peter P.; Berg, Agnes E. van den; Vries, Sjerp de; Verheij, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Looking out on and being in the green elements of the landscape around us seem to affect health, well-being and feelings of social safety. This article discusses the design of a research program on the effects of green space in the living environment on health, well-being and social

  15. On the Effect of Green Water on Deck on the Wave Bending Moment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Xia, Jinzhu

    1998-01-01

    and a momentum term, using an effective relative motion calibrated with the model tests, model the green water load. The resulting loads are of the same magnitude as the slamming loads. The results show only a marginal influence of the green water load on the maximum wave bending moment, although the time signal...

  16. Effect of cassava leaf harvest on a cassava green mite predator in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cassava leaf harvest on a cassava green mite predator in the Democratic Republic of Congo. K Tata-Hangy, R Hanna, M Toko, M Solo. Abstract. Typhlodromallus aripo, a predatory phytoseiid species of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa was introduced to the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1998.

  17. Green Chemistry Approach for Synthesis of Effective Anticancer Palladium Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, EunSu; Han, Jae Woong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to design and synthesize Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using an environmentally friendly approach and evaluate the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the conversion of Pd(II) ions to Pd(0)NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystallinity of the as-synthesized PdNPs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) further confirmed the role of the leaf extract of Evolvulus alsinoides as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of PdNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the average size of the NPs was 5 nm. After a 24-h exposure to PdNPs, cell viability and light microscopy assays revealed the dose-dependent toxicity of the PdNPs. Furthermore, the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of the PdNPs was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of PdNPs-induced autophagy, impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), enhanced caspase-3 activity, and detection of TUNEL-positive cells. Our study demonstrates a single, simple, dependable and green approach for the synthesis of PdNPs using leaf extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides. Furthermore, the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer cells suggests that it could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer therapy.

  18. Green Chemistry Approach for Synthesis of Effective Anticancer Palladium Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangiliyandi Gurunathan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and synthesize Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs using an environmentally friendly approach and evaluate the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to monitor the conversion of Pd(II ions to Pd(0NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed the crystallinity of the as-synthesized PdNPs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR further confirmed the role of the leaf extract of Evolvulus alsinoides as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of PdNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed that the average size of the NPs was 5 nm. After a 24-h exposure to PdNPs, cell viability and light microscopy assays revealed the dose-dependent toxicity of the PdNPs. Furthermore, the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of the PdNPs was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, activation of PdNPs-induced autophagy, impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and detection of TUNEL-positive cells. Our study demonstrates a single, simple, dependable and green approach for the synthesis of PdNPs using leaf extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides. Furthermore, the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer cells suggests that it could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer therapy.

  19. Toward a Spatial Perspective on Business Sustainability: The Role of Central Urban and Environmentally Sensitive Areas in Energy Corporates’ Green Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng; Liu, Zongrui; Zhou, Li

    2018-02-01

    As one of the most concerned topics in strategic management research, the motivations of energy corporates’ green behaviours are extensively explored by scholars, however, only a few noticed the role of geographic antecedents. To bridge this gap, we argue that energy firms’ green behaviours will be greatly predicted by its location, more specifically, proximity to environmentally sensitive areas and central urban areas. Draw on neo-institutional theory and stakeholder theory, we argue that institutional forces mediate the links between energy corporates’ green behaviours and proximities, while different proximity affects via different institutional logics. The results are discussed along with managerial implications.

  20. The effects assessment of firm environmental strategy and customer environmental conscious on green product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Chuang, Li-Min; Chao, Shu-Tsung; Chang, Hsiao-Ping

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine why both parties (industry and consumer market) have mutual interests in protecting the environment but they still are hesitant to act green. The study used two-stage sampling from consumer market to depict ideal green product characteristics and reliable toy companies, and visit these companies for the second sample collection to examine whether the organizational eco-innovation strategy with customer value has a positive effect on green product development. In other words, the customer's benefit is an important factor for new product development strategy for green toys. This research shows that the willingness to buy green toys increases if most people in society buy green toys. This represents that customers are environmentally conscious and care about protecting the environment, or buying green toys is the result of a new economic trend and childhood education. The willingness to buy green toys increases if customers think that green products implies an enhancement on new product development to toy manufacturers. Further, if manufacturers are able to manage the difficulty of cooperation with all parties in the supply chain and difficulties related to production, they are willing to adopt customers' perceived value on green toys for their new product development strategy. It is rare to find academic research discussing the perspectives of both consumers and manufacturers in the same study because the research topic is very broad and many conditions must be considered. This research aims to find the effect of consumer-perceived value and company eco-innovation on green product development.

  1. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  2. Implementation of experimental CRDS and DOAS systems for determination of gases with direct green house effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotirlan, C.; Negrila, C. C.; Ristici, V.; Balin, I.

    2009-04-01

    The implementation of the experimental spectroscopic systems address stringent problems related to the control of gases emissions with direct green house effect as: CO2, CH4,NOx. CRDS (Cavity Ring - Down Spectroscopy) and DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) are versatile, fast-response techniques and can contribute to the improving of the quality of air, especially in large cities and industrial areas as well as the improving the meteorological prognosis. Firstly, we describe an CRD system for measurements of the optical absorption of water and for determination of the optical properties of gases with direct green house effect from ambient air. Secondly, a DOAS system provides measurements for the detection and characterization of atmospheric pollutants. The data obtained in the two systems: CRDS and DOAS are correlated in the aim of pollutant concentrations monitoring in different humidity conditions. The humidity is a main factor in the concentration and the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants. The analysis of how different compositions of pollutants answer to humidity have a significant impact upon the uncertainties regarding the modeling of pollutants impact on the climate. The potential of CRDS and DOAS techniques in the study of the environmental pollution and in the laboratory fundamental research is proved by their sensitivity better than 1 ppm. In addition to DOAS system, gases standards and calibrated established point monitors for SO2, NOx and O3 are integrated in the measurement approach and tests in order to validate our CRDS first experimental set-up.

  3. Estimating regional wheat yield from the shape of decreasing curves of green area index temporal profiles retrieved from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Louis; Duveiller, Grégory; Djaby, Bakary; El Jarroudi, Moussa; Defourny, Pierre; Tychon, Bernard

    2012-08-01

    Earth observation data, owing to their synoptic, timely and repetitive coverage, have been recognized as a valuable tool for crop monitoring at different levels. At the field level, the close correlation between green leaf area (GLA) during maturation and grain yield in wheat revealed that the onset and rate of senescence appeared to be important factors for determining wheat grain yield. Our study sought to explore a simple approach for wheat yield forecasting at the regional level, based on metrics derived from the senescence phase of the green area index (GAI) retrieved from remote sensing data. This study took advantage of recent methodological improvements in which imagery with high revisit frequency but coarse spatial resolution can be exploited to derive crop-specific GAI time series by selecting pixels whose ground-projected instantaneous field of view is dominated by the target crop: winter wheat. A logistic function was used to characterize the GAI senescence phase and derive the metrics of this phase. Four regression-based models involving these metrics (i.e., the maximum GAI value, the senescence rate and the thermal time taken to reach 50% of the green surface in the senescent phase) were related to official wheat yield data. The performances of such models at this regional scale showed that final yield could be estimated with an RMSE of 0.57 ton ha-1, representing about 7% as relative RMSE. Such an approach may be considered as a first yield estimate that could be performed in order to provide better integrated yield assessments in operational systems.

  4. Effect of chitosan coatings on postharvest green asparagus quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Miao; Jiang, Hengjun; Ren, Gerui; Huang, Jianying; Wang, Xiangyang

    2013-02-15

    Fresh postharvest green asparagus rapidly deteriorate due to its high respiration rate. The main benefits of edible active coatings are their edible characteristics, biodegradability and increase in food safety. In this study, the quality of the edible coatings based on 0.50%, 0.25% high-molecular weight chitosan (H-chitosan), and 0.50%, 0.25% low-molecular weight chitosan (L-chitosan) on postharvest green asparagus was investigated. On the basis of the results obtained, 0.25% H-chitosan and 0.50% L-chitosan treatments ensured lower color variation, less weight loss and less ascorbic acid, decrease presenting better quality of asparagus than other concentrations of chitosan treatments and the control during the cold storage, and prolonging a shelf life of postharvest green asparagus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prey Acceptability and Preference of Oenopia conglobata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, a Candidate for Biological Control in Urban Green Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Lumbierres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oenopia conglobata is one of the most common ladybird species in urban green areas of the Mediterranean region. We have obtained data about its prey acceptability and prey preferences. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated the acceptability of seven aphid and one psyllid species as prey for this coccinellid: the aphids Chaitophorus populeti, Aphis gossypii, Aphis craccivora Monelliopsis caryae, Eucallipterus tiliae, Aphis nerii (on white poplar, pomegranate, false acacia, black walnut, lime, and oleander, respectively, and the psyllid Acizzia jamatonica on Persian silk tree. These species are abundant in urban green areas in the Mediterranean region. In addition, we tested the acceptability of Rhopalosiphum padi on barley, an aphid species easily reared in the laboratory. We also tested preferences of the predator in cafeteria experiments with three aphid species and one aphid and the psyllid. Adults and larvae of the coccinellid accepted all of the preys offered, except A. nerii, with a clear preference for M. caryae. The predator also showed preference for M. caryae when it was offered in a cafeteria experiment with other aphid species or with the psyllid. The aphid R. padi obtained a good acceptability and could be used for rearing O. conglobata in the laboratory.

  6. Prey Acceptability and Preference of Oenopia conglobata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a Candidate for Biological Control in Urban Green Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbierres, Belén; Madeira, Filipe; Pons, Xavier

    2018-01-12

    Oenopia conglobata is one of the most common ladybird species in urban green areas of the Mediterranean region. We have obtained data about its prey acceptability and prey preferences. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated the acceptability of seven aphid and one psyllid species as prey for this coccinellid: the aphids Chaitophorus populeti, Aphis gossypii , Aphis craccivora Monelliopsis caryae , Eucallipterus tiliae , Aphis nerii (on white poplar, pomegranate, false acacia, black walnut, lime, and oleander, respectively), and the psyllid Acizzia jamatonica on Persian silk tree. These species are abundant in urban green areas in the Mediterranean region. In addition, we tested the acceptability of Rhopalosiphum padi on barley, an aphid species easily reared in the laboratory. We also tested preferences of the predator in cafeteria experiments with three aphid species and one aphid and the psyllid. Adults and larvae of the coccinellid accepted all of the preys offered, except A. nerii , with a clear preference for M. caryae . The predator also showed preference for M. caryae when it was offered in a cafeteria experiment with other aphid species or with the psyllid. The aphid R. padi obtained a good acceptability and could be used for rearing O. conglobata in the laboratory.

  7. Effect of Processing on Magnesium Content of Green Leafy Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, D.; Agrawal, R.; Kumar, R.; Rai, A. Kumar; Rai, G. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we have studied the effect of different food processing techniques like blanching, microwave processing, boiling, frying, and different drying methods on depletion of minerals especially magnesium in green leafy vegetables (leaves of Trigonella foenum, common name methi, and Spinacia oleracea, common name spinach) using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). These processing techniques are frequently used at home as well as in food processing industries. The LIBS spectra of the fresh leaves of methi and spinach and their pellets (made by drying, grinding, and pressing the leaf) were recorded in a spectral range from 200 to 500 nm. After applying the above processing techniques, different pellets of these leaves were made in the same way. The LIBS spectra of these processed leaf samples were also recorded using the same experimental parameters as used for the fresh samples. Our results show that among the above processing techniques, frying most significantly reduces the content of magnesium, whereas the least loss of Mg is observed in the case of boiling. We have verified this result by recording the LIBS spectra of the intact fresh leaves and of those processed with different techniques. The same results were also obtained from the LIBS spectra of the intact leaves and their pellets. The LIBS spectra of methi and spinach leaves were also recorded after drying them using two different techniques — drying in vacuum and in a hot air oven; the results show that vacuum drying is more suitable in terms of minimizing loss of Mg content in leaves.

  8. Effects of Green Innovation on Environmental and Corporate Performance: A Stakeholder Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Hung (Robin Weng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “Going green” has become an important environmental issue in contemporary business practice worldwide. This study examined the influence of a number of factors on green innovation and the consequences in terms of performance. The stakeholder theory was adopted to observe the effects of each stakeholder on the green innovation practices of companies and to determine how green innovation practices influence environmental and business performance. A research model with eight hypotheses was proposed to determine the associations between the variables of interest. An empirical survey was conducted of 202 Taiwanese service and manufacturing companies. The survey found that pressure from competitors and the government, along with employee conduct, all had significant and positive effects on green innovation practices. Additionally, a moderating effect of innovation orientation existed only in the relationship between green product innovation practices and employee conduct. This study not only provides a systematic way to analyze the effects of green innovation practices but also suggests the best means for companies to adopt green innovation practices.

  9. Effects of green tea and physical exercise on memory impairments associated with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Maíra F; Martins, Alexandre; Schimidt, Helen L; Santos, Francielli W; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of physical exercise and green tea supplementation (associated or not) on biochemical and behavioral parameters in the time course of normal aging. Male Wistar rats aged 9 months were divided into groups: control, physical exercise (treadmill running), and supplemented with green tea while either performing physical exercise or not. A young control group was also studied. Physical exercise and green tea supplementation lasted 3 months. Afterwards, behavioral and biochemical tests were performed. Biochemical measurements revealed differences in antioxidant and oxidant responses in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum. Behavioral testing showed age-related memory impairments reversed by physical exercise. The association of green tea supplementation and physical exercise did not provide aged rats with additional improvements in memory or brain oxidative markers. Green tea per se significantly decreased reactive oxygen species levels and improved antioxidant defenses although it did not reverse memory deficits associated with normal aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of extraction methods on the chemical components and taste quality of green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Ji, Wei-Bin; Yu, Peigen; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2018-05-15

    The physicochemical properties of tea extracts are significantly affected by the extraction method. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic extractions on the concentrations of chemical components and taste quality of green tea extracts. Our results show that extraction of chemical components using static extraction follows a pseudo-second-order reaction, while that of dynamic extraction follows a first-order reaction. The concentrations of the solids, polyphenols, and free amino acids in green tea extract prepared by dynamic extraction were much higher, although the overall yields were not significantly different between the two extraction methods. Green tea extracts obtained via dynamic extraction were of lower bitterness and astringency, as well and higher intensities of umami and overall acceptability. These results suggest that dynamic extraction is more suitable for the processing of green tea concentrate because of the higher concentration of green tea extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Agricultural and green infrastructures: the role of non-urbanised areas for eco-sustainable planning in a metropolitan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Paolo; La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco; Privitera, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are part of agricultural and green infrastructures that provide ecosystem services. Their role is fundamental for the minimization of urban pollution and adaptation to climate change. Like all natural ecosystems, NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl. The regulation of sprawl is a key issue for land-use planning. We propose a land use suitability strategy model to orient Land Uses of NUAs, based on integration of Land Cover Analysis (LCA) and Fragmentation Analysis (FA). With LCA the percentage of evapotranspiring surface is defined for each land use. Dimensions and densities of NUAs patches are assessed in FA. The model has been developed with Geographical Information Systems, using an extensive set of geodatabases, including orthophotos, vectorial cartographies and field surveys. The case of the municipality of Mascalucia in Catania metropolitan area (Italy), characterized by a considerable urban sprawl, is presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ameliorative effect of green tea against contrast-induced renal tubular cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Hamid; Hajian, Shabnam; Ahmadi, Ali; Baradaran, Azar; Kohi, Golnoosh; Nasri, Parto; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species are a mediator of kidney damage by contrast media, and green tea is a potent-free radical scavenger. This study was designed to examine whether green tea could protect against the nephrotoxicity induced by contrast media. Forty rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1 was control; group 2 received contrast medium (intravenous iodixanol, 10 mL/kg, as a single dose); group 3 received contrast medium and then green tea extract for 3 days (10 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal); and group 4 first received green tea and then contrast medium. Histological changes (degeneration, vacuolization of tubular renal cells, dilatation of tubular lumen, and presence of debris in the lumens) were assessed and recorded as scores from zero to 4. The sum of scores were used as the overal renal injury level. Groups 3 and 4 with green tea treatment had significantly higher overall scores than the control group, but significantly lower scores than group 2 with contrast medium only. A similar trend was seen for dilatation and degeneration levels. Vacuolization level was not significantly lower in the green tea groups as compared to the contrast medium group. Debris level was not significantly lower in group 3 than group 2. The differences were not significant between groups 3 and 4.   Conclusions. We observed beneficial effect of green tea against nephrotoxicity of contrast media. Green tea extract may offer an inexpensive and nontoxic intervention strategy in patients with a risk for nephrotoxicity with contrast media.

  13. Green-Roof Effects on Neighborhood Microclimate and Human Thermal Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Jim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have been recognized as an effective sustainable design tool to mitigate urban heat island (UHI effects. Previous studies have identified green-roof benefits in cooling and energy-conservation at the building scale, with limited exploration of the wider influence on neighborhood microclimate and human thermal comfort (HTC. This paper investigated the impacts of community-scale green-roof installation on air temperature and HTC in five typical residential neighborhoods of subtropical Hong Kong. The microclimate models ENVI-met and RayMan permitted studies of two main green-roof scenarios, namely extensive (EGR and intensive (IGR. Microclimatic monitoring data from a local experimental green-roof site validated the modeling methods. The results verified that green-roof cooling effects were not restricted to rooftops, but extended to the ground to improve neighborhood microclimate. EGR reduced pedestrian-level air temperature by 0.4–0.7 °C, and IGR by 0.5–1.7 °C, with maximum effect in open-set low rise sites. Coverage by building footprints and building height dampened lateral and vertical advection of cool air generated by green roofs. Roof greening also improved notably the rooftop-podium level HTC. Diurnal duration of high heat stress was reduced by 6–9 h for EGR scenarios, and 9–11 h for IGR. The findings indicated that large-scale green-roof installation could bring neighborhood-wide cooling, mitigate urban heat island effect, and furnish more comfortable thermal environment for urban residents.

  14. A COST-EFFECTIVE AND GREEN AQUEOUS SYNTHESIS OF 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    Green aqueous synthesis of 3-substituted coumarins catalyzed by potassium phthalimide. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2015, 29(3). 451 product was lower. Also, it was observed that a higher reaction temperature (50, 75 °C and reflux) leads to a lower yield. It should be mentioned when the reaction was implemented in the.

  15. Effect of Trimeresurus albolabris (green pit viper) venom on mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in vitro study was conducted by mixing small amounts of green pit viper venom with blood and observing changes. At a concentration of 10 mg crude venom, red blood cells (RBC) osmotic fragility slightly increased. RBC morphology changed to spherical shape which was compatible with what was observed in scanning ...

  16. Development of the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and evaluation of urban greening effects on energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, H.; Nakayama, T.; Fujita, T.; Hori, H.; Tagami, H.

    2009-12-01

    It is necessary to reduce Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions drastically to stabilize climate change, and Japan is also required to assess its long-term global warming policy. In achieving the low carbon society and sustainable cities, the numerical evaluation of environmental impacts of the application of different technologies and policies was preliminarily examined by utilizing integrative urban environmental model. This research aims to develop the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and to evaluate the urban greening effects on energy consumption from household and business sectors. It developed the multi-scale model combined the process-based NIES integrated catchment-based eco-hydrology (NICE) model with the meso-scale meteorological model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System : RAMS) and urban canopy model to estimate the urban climate mitigation effects by introduction of urban heat environmental mitigation technology and scenario. The numerical simulation conducted with the multi-scale level horizontally consisting regional scale (260×260km with 2km grid) and urban area scale (36×26km with 0.2km grid) against the objective area, Kawasaki city of Japan. The urban canopy model predicts the three dimensional atmospheric conditions including anthropogenic heat effect from household, business and factory sectors. Furthermore the tile method applied into the urban canopy model for the improvement of numerical accuracy and detailed land use information in each grid. The validation of this model was conducted by comparison with the observed air temperature of 29 points in entire Kawasaki area from 1st to 31th of August, 2006. From the quantitative validation of model performance, the coefficient of correlation was 0.72 and the root mean square error was 2.99C. The introduction of patch method into urban canopy model made it possible to calculate the each land use effect, and the accuracy of predicted results was improved against the land use area

  17. Quantitative analysis on the urban flood mitigation effect by the extensive green roof system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Moon, H J; Kim, T I; Kim, H W; Han, M Y

    2013-10-01

    Extensive green-roof systems are expected to have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff, decreasing temperature and supplying water to a building. Mitigation of runoff through rainwater retention requires the effective design of a green-roof catchment. This study identified how to improve building runoff mitigation through quantitative analysis of an extensive green-roof system. Quantitative analysis of green-roof runoff characteristics indicated that the extensive green roof has a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. As the rainfall intensity increased, the water-retaining capacity decreased. The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52, indicating reduced runoff comparing with efficiency of 0.9 for a concrete roof. Therefore, extensive green roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to an algorithm for rainwater-harvesting tank design. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomimetic approaches for green tribology: from the lotus effect to blood flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maani, Nazanin; Rayz, Vitaliy S.; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The research in Green tribology combines several areas including biomimetic tribomaterials and surfaces for controlled adhesion. Biomimetic surfaces mimic living nature and thus they are eco-friendly. The most famous biomimetic surface effect is the Lotus effect (reduction of water adhesion to a solid surface due to micro/nanostructuring of the solid surface). Several extensions of the Lotus effect have been discussed in the literature including the oleophobicity (repelling organic liquids such as oils), underwater oleophobicity to reduce fouling, and the shark skin effect (flow drag reduction due to specially oriented micro-riblets). Here we suggest a potentially important application of micro/nanostructured surfaces in the biomedical area: the micro/nanostructure controlled adhesion in blood flow. Blood is a suspension, and its adhesion properties are different from those of water and oil. For many cardiovascular applications, it is desirable to reduce stagnation and clotting of blood. Therefore, both the underwater oleophobicuity and shark-skin effect can be used. We discuss how computational fluid dynamics models can be used to investigate the structure-property relationships of surface pattern-controlled blood flow adhesion.

  19. Biomimetic approaches for green tribology: from the lotus effect to blood flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maani, Nazanin; Rayz, Vitaliy S; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The research in Green tribology combines several areas including biomimetic tribomaterials and surfaces for controlled adhesion. Biomimetic surfaces mimic living nature and thus they are eco-friendly. The most famous biomimetic surface effect is the Lotus effect (reduction of water adhesion to a solid surface due to micro/nanostructuring of the solid surface). Several extensions of the Lotus effect have been discussed in the literature including the oleophobicity (repelling organic liquids such as oils), underwater oleophobicity to reduce fouling, and the shark skin effect (flow drag reduction due to specially oriented micro-riblets). Here we suggest a potentially important application of micro/nanostructured surfaces in the biomedical area: the micro/nanostructure controlled adhesion in blood flow. Blood is a suspension, and its adhesion properties are different from those of water and oil. For many cardiovascular applications, it is desirable to reduce stagnation and clotting of blood. Therefore, both the underwater oleophobicuity and shark-skin effect can be used. We discuss how computational fluid dynamics models can be used to investigate the structure–property relationships of surface pattern-controlled blood flow adhesion. (paper)

  20. Agricultural and green infrastructures: The role of non-urbanised areas for eco-sustainable planning in a metropolitan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Greca, Paolo; La Rosa, Daniele [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Martinico, Francesco, E-mail: fmartinico@dau.unict.it [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Privitera, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are part of agricultural and green infrastructures that provide ecosystem services. Their role is fundamental for the minimization of urban pollution and adaptation to climate change. Like all natural ecosystems, NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl. The regulation of sprawl is a key issue for land-use planning. We propose a land use suitability strategy model to orient Land Uses of NUAs, based on integration of Land Cover Analysis (LCA) and Fragmentation Analysis (FA). With LCA the percentage of evapotranspiring surface is defined for each land use. Dimensions and densities of NUAs patches are assessed in FA. The model has been developed with Geographical Information Systems, using an extensive set of geodatabases, including orthophotos, vectorial cartographies and field surveys. The case of the municipality of Mascalucia in Catania metropolitan area (Italy), characterized by a considerable urban sprawl, is presented. - Highlights: > Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are crucial for land planning and pollution minimization. > NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl in Catania metropolitan areas (Italy). > NUAs can be characterized by Land Cover and Fragmentation analysis. > Results from analysis are used in a Land Use Suitability Strategy Model (LUSSM). > By LUSSM application seven new prospective land uses for NUAs are proposed. - Characterization of non-urbanised areas in metropolitan regions is crucial for land-use planning aimed at environmental pollution minimization.

  1. Agricultural and green infrastructures: The role of non-urbanised areas for eco-sustainable planning in a metropolitan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Greca, Paolo; La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco; Privitera, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are part of agricultural and green infrastructures that provide ecosystem services. Their role is fundamental for the minimization of urban pollution and adaptation to climate change. Like all natural ecosystems, NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl. The regulation of sprawl is a key issue for land-use planning. We propose a land use suitability strategy model to orient Land Uses of NUAs, based on integration of Land Cover Analysis (LCA) and Fragmentation Analysis (FA). With LCA the percentage of evapotranspiring surface is defined for each land use. Dimensions and densities of NUAs patches are assessed in FA. The model has been developed with Geographical Information Systems, using an extensive set of geodatabases, including orthophotos, vectorial cartographies and field surveys. The case of the municipality of Mascalucia in Catania metropolitan area (Italy), characterized by a considerable urban sprawl, is presented. - Highlights: → Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are crucial for land planning and pollution minimization. → NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl in Catania metropolitan areas (Italy). → NUAs can be characterized by Land Cover and Fragmentation analysis. → Results from analysis are used in a Land Use Suitability Strategy Model (LUSSM). → By LUSSM application seven new prospective land uses for NUAs are proposed. - Characterization of non-urbanised areas in metropolitan regions is crucial for land-use planning aimed at environmental pollution minimization.

  2. Utility-Marketer Partnerships. An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, E. S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility’s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  3. Utility-Marketing Partnerships: An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Brown, E. S.

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility?s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  4. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  5. Camera derived vegetation greenness index as proxy for gross primary production in a low Arctic wetland area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Hansen, Birger Ulf

    2013-01-01

    of these changes. This study investigates the ability to use automatic digital camera images (DCIs) as proxy data for gross primary production (GPP) in a complex low Arctic wetland site. Vegetation greenness computed from DCIs was found to correlate significantly (R-2 = 0.62, p ... and GPP (R-2 = 0.85, p digital cameras may be used as a cost-effective proxy for potential GPP in remote Arctic regions....... (C) 2013 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS) Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Effectiveness of Green Tea in a Randomized Human Cohort: Relevance to Diabetes and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naushad Ali Toolsee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have argued that green tea could mitigate diabetes and its complications. This study investigated the phytophenolic profile of Mauritian green tea and its antioxidant propensity. The effect of green tea on the risk factors: waist-hip ratio, glucose level, arterial pressure, antioxidant status, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in prediabetics was assessed. The experimental group consumed 3 cups of green tea daily for 14 weeks followed by a 2-week washout period. The control group followed a water regimen. Green tea contained high level of phenolics related to its antioxidant power. Green tea suppressed waist-hip ratio of women from a significant increase and suppressed mean arterial pressure of men and women from a significant decrease after week 14. It reduced ALT level in women by 13.0% (P<0.1 while increasing the antioxidant potential of men and women sera by 2.7% (P<0.1 and 5.1% (P<0.1. The study timescale may have been too short to enable demonstration of effects on fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c outcomes. Green tea regimen could form part of a healthy lifestyle that might ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome and subsequent risks for diabetes and its complications. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01248143.

  7. Urban green areas as the starting point for planning hydroelectric and urban developments: The case of the Sava River in the City of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mlakar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the landscape and urbanistic layout of the Sava River space and North part of the Bežigrad stretch of Ljubljana. Focus is on methodological and content starting points for the layout preparation and development of urban green areas of the wider Sava River space, which as a connecting link and simultaneously independent spatial and functional entity represents the starting point for planning hydro-energetic and urban arrangements. The necessity of recognising and resolving real spatial planning issues, formulation of clear goals and concepts, confrontation of different spatial systems and interests, as well as the sensibility of devising alternative development scenarios are emphasised. One of the most important starting points of the proposed layout is comprehensive design of public open spaces and green areas. The urbanistic solution relies on a programmatically strong, distinct and structured Dunajska Street, which should transform into the public space of a modern urban artery, with a clear ending that simultaneously gradually adapts to the morphology akin to the surroundings and Sava River space. Because of its natural characteristics, preserved cultural landscape and good accessibility, this area has great potential for development of leisure activities. The proposed solution stems from the fact that the chain of hydro-electric plants shouldn't be seen as buildings with negative environmental effects, but also as development opportunities – the actual execution of a recreation area along the Sava River and a method for rehabilitating the degraded spaces. Comprehensive solutions along the river have been proposed as parts of the hydro-electric developments, with special attention focusing on active design of various riverbank types.

  8. Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, M.; Theuws, P.; Duchhart, I.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation

  9. The Effect of Green Tea Consumption on Prostate Cancer Risk and Progression: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-04-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the clinical benefits of green tea consumption on the progression and prevention of prostate cancer (PCa). A systematic search was performed across the following databases: PubMed, Excerpta Medica dataBASE, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Current Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included studies from database inception to September 2015. Studies must report on the effect of green tea consumption on PCa. The quality of observational studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), while randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were assessed for quality using the Jadad scale. A total of 15 articles were included, with 11 reporting on the effect of green tea consumption on PCa prevention, and four reporting on the effect of green tea on treatment. Mean NOS for observational studies was 7.4 (SD±1.3), with a range from 6 to 9, while all three RCTs scored 5 on the Jadad scale. Findings demonstrate that green tea appears to be an effective chemopreventive agent, particularly in those with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. However, evidence of efficacy in the treatment of PCa is currently lacking. Given the limitations in current studies, more well-designed RCTs should be undertaken to determine if green tea indeed has a role in the prevention and treatment of PCa.

  10. Time-dependent effect in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zamiri, Reza; Zak, A K; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2011-01-01

    The application of "green" chemistry rules to nanoscience and nanotechnology is very important in the preparation of various nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully developed an eco-friendly chemistry method for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in natural polymeric media. The colloidal Ag-NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, gelatin, and glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag-NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their size distributions. The prepared samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The use of eco-friendly reagents, such as gelatin and glucose, provides green and economic attributes to this work.

  11. The Effect of Isomaltulose Together with Green Tea on Glycemic Response and Antioxidant Capacity: A Single-Blind, Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraphad, Passakorn; Suklaew, Phim On; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Mäkynen, Kittana

    2017-05-06

    Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 15 healthy subjects (eight women and seven men; ages 23.5 ± 0.7 years; with body mass index of 22.6 ± 0.4 kg/m²) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of water; (3) 400 mL of green tea; (4) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL of green tea; and (5) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of green tea. Incremental area under postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were determined during 120 min of administration. Following the consumption of isomaltulose, the incremental 2-h area under the curve (AUC 0-2 h ) indicated a higher reduction of postprandial glucose (43.4%) and insulin concentration (42.0%) than the consumption of sucrose. The addition of green tea to isomaltulose produced a greater suppression of postprandial plasma glucose (20.9%) and insulin concentration (37.7%). In accordance with antioxidant capacity, consumption of sucrose (40.0%) and isomaltulose (28.7%) caused the reduction of green tea-induced postprandial increases in FRAP. A reduction in postprandial MDA after drinking green tea was attenuated when consumed with sucrose (34.7%) and isomaltulose (17.2%). In conclusion, green tea could enhance the reduction of postprandial glucose and insulin concentration when consumed with isomaltulose. In comparison with sucrose, isomaltulose demonstrated less alteration of plasma antioxidant capacity after being consumed with green tea.

  12. Air quality and health effects of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from urban green spaces and the mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Qu, Zelong; Du, Yuanyuan; Xu, Ronghua; Ma, Danping; Yang, Guofu; Shi, Yan; Fan, Xing; Tani, Akira; Guo, Peipei; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions lead to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground-level ozone pollution, and are harmful to human health, especially in urban areas. However, most BVOCs estimations ignored the emissions from urban green spaces, causing inaccuracies in the understanding of regional BVOCs emissions and their environmental and health effects. In this study, we used the latest local vegetation datasets from our field survey and applied an estimation model to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns, air quality impacts, health damage and mitigating strategies of BVOCs emissions in the Greater Beijing Area. Results showed that: (1) the urban core was the hotspot of regional BVOCs emissions for the highest region-based emission intensity (3.0 g C m -2 yr -1 ) among the 11 sub-regions; (2) urban green spaces played much more important roles (account for 62% of total health damage) than rural forests in threating human health; (3) BVOCs emissions from green spaces will more than triple by 2050 due to urban area expansion, tree growth and environmental changes; and (4) adopting proactive management (e.g. adjusting tree species composition) can reduce 61% of the BVOCs emissions and 50% of the health damage related to BVOCs emissions by 2050. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards Providing Solutions to the Air Quality Crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: Carbon Sequestration by Succulent Species in Green Roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo-Ortega, Margarita; Rosas, Ulises; Reyes-Santiago, Jerónimo

    2017-03-31

    In the first months of 2016, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area experienced the worst air pollution crisis in the last decade, prompting drastic short-term solutions by the Mexico City Government and neighboring States. In order to help further the search for long-term sustainable solutions, we felt obliged to immediately release the results of our research regarding the monitoring of carbon sequestration by green roofs. Large-scale naturation, such as the implementation of green roofs, provides a way to partially mitigate the increased carbon dioxide output in urban areas. Here, we quantified the carbon sequestration capabilities of two ornamental succulent plant species, Sedum dendroideum and Sedum rubrotinctum, which require low maintenance, and little or no irrigation. To obtain a detailed picture of these plants' carbon sequestration capabilities, we measured carbon uptake on the Sedum plants by quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and fixation as organic acids, during the day and across the year, on a green roof located in Southern Mexico City. The species displayed their typical CAM photosynthetic metabolism. Moreover, our quantification allowed us to conservatively estimate that a newly planted green roof of Sedum sequesters approximately 180,000,000 ppm of carbon dioxide per year in a green roof of 100 square meters in the short term. The patterns of CAM and carbon dioxide sequestration were highly robust to the fluctuations of temperature and precipitation between seasons, and therefore we speculate that carbon sequestration would be comparable in any given year of a newly planted green roof. Older green roof would require regular trimming to mantain their carbon sink properties, but their carbon sequestration capabilities remain to be quantified. Nevertheless, we propose that Sedum green roofs can be part of the long-term solutions to mitigate the air pollution crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan area, and other "megacities" with marked seasonal drought.

  14. From multifunctionality to multiple ecosystem services? A conceptual framework for multifunctionality in green infrastructure planning for urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rieke; Pauleit, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) and ecosystem services (ES) are promoted as concepts that have potential to improve environmental planning in urban areas based on a more holistic understanding of the complex interrelations and dynamics of social-ecological systems. However, the scientific discourses around both concepts still lack application-oriented frameworks that consider such a holistic perspective and are suitable to mainstream GI and ES in planning practice. This literature review explores how multifunctionality as one important principle of GI planning can be operationalized by approaches developed and tested in ES research. Specifically, approaches developed in ES research can help to assess the integrity of GI networks, balance ES supply and demand, and consider trade-offs. A conceptual framework for the assessment of multifunctionality from a social-ecological perspective is proposed that can inform the design of planning processes and support stronger exchange between GI and ES research.

  15. Aphids (Homoptera, Aphidodea inhabiting the trees Crataegus x media Bechst. in the urban green area. Part I. The population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Jaśkiwicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in the years 1999-2001 in the green areas of Lublin, on the trees of Crataegus x media Bechst. The purpose of the studies was to establish the species composition and the population dynamics of aphids inhabiting hawthorn in the street and park sites. The studies found out the presence of four aphid species on the examined trees, namely Aphis pomi De Geer, aphids from the genus Dysaphis Börn., Ovatus crataegarius (Walk. and Rhopalosiphum insertum (Walk.. More aphid species and bigger populations were found in the street site (A as compa red with the park site (B.The weather conditions (air temperatures of over 30°C and stormy rainfalls limited the population of all aphid species. On the other hand, a mild winter and a warm spring with the rainfalls within the norm caused that the number of aphids decreased considerably.

  16. Phytoremediative urban design: transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

    2013-12-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality components and antidepressant-like effects of GABA green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jie; Zhou, Wen; Zeng, Zhen; Zhao, Wenfang; Huang, Yahui; Zhang, Xu

    2017-09-20

    Gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) green tea, with high GABA content, is a kind of special green tea. The goals of this study are to analyze the changes in quality components of green tea during anaerobic treatment, and to investigate whether or not the extract of GABA present in green tea can prevent depression or improve the depressive state of animals. Results showed that GABA content in green tea had increased significantly after anaerobic treatment. The contents of tea polysaccharides, total free amino acids, and water extracts were also increased whereas tea polyphenols were reduced. More importantly, the extract of GABA green tea could alleviate mouse depression and stress from desperate environments through the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), mRNA and protein expression levels of GABA A receptors. Therefore, these results indicate that GABA green tea may have a health effect on prevention and alleviation of depression, and it works on the GABAergic neurotransmission of mouse cerebral cortex via up-regulating expression of the GABA A receptor α1 subunit, thus ameliorating depression.

  18. EFFECTS OF GREEN COFFEE BEAN EXTRACT IN SOME BIOMARKERS OF ADULT BRAZILIAN SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Adriana de Assis JÁCOME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the acute effects of the green coffee extracts consumption in some biomarkers of adult Brazilian subjects. Twenty healthy adult subjects between 18 and 35 years old of different sex and ethnic groups took part in the present study. All participants were submitted a 12 hours overnight fast before experiments. Plasma and serum biochemical parameters were measured in distinct intervals after a breakfast standard ingestion and 0.6 L of green coffee been extract consumption. No statistically differences (Wilcoxon test on serum lipid profi le and plasmatic homocysteine concentration were noted after green coffee beverage intake. Caffeine has been associated with increase of the glycaemia in roasted coffee consumers. In the present study, a signifi cant increase (p= 0.03 in glycaemia was observed thirty minutes after the green coffee beverage ingestion and, then, there was a tendency of glycaemia maintenance. The low amount of free caffeine found in green coffee matrix could explain the quick stabilization of the glycaemia. The ingestion of green coffee beverage also signifi cantly reduced uricaemia (p= 0.03 (Wilcoxon test. It is possible that the polyphenols, present in high amounts in this beverage, could act inhibiting the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Therefore, the consumption of green coffee has to stabilize blood glucose 30 minutes after ingestion of test meal, and reduction of uricaemia.

  19. Effect of Low Gamma Irradiation Doses on Growth and Productivity of Green Bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.M.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The field experiment was conducted within the two successive growing seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 to study the effect of low gamma irradiation doses (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 Gy) on growth and productivity of green bean cv. Bronco with 3 sowing dates 8, 18 and 28th of October in the first season and 30th of September, 10 and 20th of October in the second season. The results of laboratory determinations showed that gamma irradiation doses did not affect the germination percent but slightly affected germination rate and electrical conductivity. Concerning field experiment, data revealed that green bean plant vegetative growth, i.e., plant height, fresh and dry weight, leaf number and leaf area, at 45 days after planting (DAP) and shoot number at 30, 45 DAP recorded significantly the highest values at the first sowing date in both seasons. With respect of gamma irradiation doses, all the previously mentioned parameters of plant vegetative growth recorded the highest values with 40 Gy at 15, 30, and 45 DAP except number of leaves which recorded the highest value with 30 Gy at 15, 30 and 45 DAP. Concerning shoot number there was no significant difference among several doses at 30 DAP in the first season but in the second season it was 20 Gy and at 45 DAP compared with the control. Also the first sowing date in both seasons gave the highest pod length, fresh and dry weight, plant yield, number of pods per plant, marketable yield per plot and total yield per feddan. Whereas ,the second sowing date led to the lowest pod thickness. In addition, 20 Gy of gamma irradiation doses recorded the highest value of pod length .The 30 Gy dose showed the highest value of pod fresh and dry weight, plant yield and total yield per feddan. In addition ,the 20 and 30 Gy doses led to the highest pod number per plant and marketable yield, concerning pod thickness there was slight difference only in the second season between several doses. The second sowing date in the first season

  20. Typhoon effect on Kuroshio and Green Island wake: a modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    T.-W. Hsu; M.-H. Chou; T.-H. Hou; S.-J. Liang

    2015-01-01

    Green Island located in the typhoon active eastern Taiwan coastal water is the potential Kuroshio power plant site. In this study, a high resolution (250–2250 m) shallow-water equations (SWEs) model is used to investigate the effect of typhoon on the hydrodynamics of Kuroshio and Green Island wake. Two wind induced flows, typhoon Soulik and Holland's wind field model, are studied. Simulation results of the typhoon Soulik indicate that salient characteristics of Kuroshio and ...

  1. Green tea effects on cognition, mood and human brain function: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Edele; Beglinger, Christoph; Drewe, Jürgen; Zanchi, Davide; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2017-10-15

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a beverage consumed for thousands of years. Numerous claims about the benefits of its consumption were stated and investigated. As green tea is experiencing a surge in popularity in Western culture and as millions of people all over the world drink it every day, it is relevant to understand its effects on the human brain. To assess the current state of knowledge in the literature regarding the effects of green tea or green tea extracts, l-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate both components of green tea-on general neuropsychology, on the sub-category cognition and on brain functions in humans. We systematically searched on PubMed database and selected studies by predefined eligibility criteria. We then assessed their quality and extracted data. We structured our effort according to the PRISMA statement. We reviewed and assessed 21 studies, 4 of which were randomised controlled trials, 12 cross-over studies (both assessed with an adapted version of the DELPHI-list), 4 were cross-sectional studies and one was a cohort study (both assessed with an adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa assessment scale). The average study quality as appraised by means of the DELPHI-list was good (8.06/9); the studies evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa-scale were also good (6.7/9). The reviewed studies presented evidence that green tea influences psychopathological symptoms (e.g. reduction of anxiety), cognition (e.g. benefits in memory and attention) and brain function (e.g. activation of working memory seen in functional MRI). The effects of green tea cannot be attributed to a single constituent of the beverage. This is exemplified in the finding that beneficial green tea effects on cognition are observed under the combined influence of both caffeine and l-theanine, whereas separate administration of either substance was found to have a lesser impact. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. Effectiveness of Postharvest Treatment with Chitosan to Control Citrus Green Mold

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed El Guilli; Abdelkhalek Hamza; Christophe Clément; Mohamed Ibriz; Essaid Ait Barka

    2016-01-01

    Control of green mold, caused by Penicillium digitatum, by fungicides raises several problems, such as emergence of resistant pathogens, as well as concerns about the environment and consumers’ health. As potential alternatives, the effects of chitosan on green mold disease and the quality attributes of citrus fruits were investigated. Fruits were wounded then treated with different concentrations of chitosan 24 h before their inoculation with P. digitatum. The results of in vitro experiment ...

  3. Changes in Landscape Greenness: Anthropogenic or Natural: Proof of Concept, Selected Study Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    We selected four National Forest areas that span east to west of USA to conduct the study over the 25-year period from 1989 through 2013: GWJ (Virginia), Chatt-O (Georgia), Kisatchie (Louisiana), Hemlock Restoration (California). The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDV...

  4. Greening China Naturally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shixiong Cao; Ge Sun; Zhiqiang Zhang; Liding Che; Qi Feng; et. al.

    2011-01-01

    China leads the world in afforestation, and is one of the few countries whose forested area is increasing. However, this massive “greening” effort has been less effective than expected; afforestation has sometimes produced unintended environmental, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences, and has failed to achieve the desired ecological benefits. Where afforestation...

  5. The Effectiveness of Building Permit Regulation for Green Open Space at Housing Estates: Case Study of Kendal Regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Wiwik; Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2018-02-01

    Increasing demand for settlements steamed by population growth declines the quality of the environment specifically at urban area. The existing spatial planning could not able to prevent the change of land use for settlement and other infrastructures. The Act no. 26 of 2007 on spatial planning stipulates that green open space must reach 30% of the total area, consisting of 20% public open space and 10% private open space. The existing condition of urban area at Kendal Regency reach 245,6 million m2 with 88.145,5 m2 green open space or 0,036% out of total area. An effort to increase green open space in urban areas taken by the Government of Kendal Regency is by promulgating a local regulation stipulating that each housing developer request a building permit is obliged to provide a green open space at least 10 percent of the total housing area. This paper reviews the effectiveness of building permit regulation, the problems encountered and the concept proposed to make the local regulation work. The area of sample taken is three urban districts out of five urban districts, the resource persons chosen are those from relevant offices (Dinas) involved at the implementation of the local regulation. The data collection techniques employed are the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, social observation and informal interview. The data gathered will be analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively.

  6. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Vanessa B.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. Del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: vanessa.uehara@usp.br, e-mail: patyoko@yahoo.com, e-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  7. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Vanessa B.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. Del

    2009-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  8. Optimization of Measurement Points Choice in Preparation of Green Areas Acoustic Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztubecka Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the selection of measuring points of sustainable sound level in the spa park. A set of points should allow to make on their basis an acoustic climate map for the park at certain times of day by usage available tools. Practical part contains a comparative analysis of developed noise maps, taking into account different variants of the distribution and number of measuring points on the selected area of the park.

  9. Optimization of Measurement Points Choice in Preparation of Green Areas Acoustic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztubecka, Małgorzata; Bujarkiewicz, Adam; Sztubecki, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the article is to analyze the selection of measuring points of sustainable sound level in the spa park. A set of points should allow to make on their basis an acoustic climate map for the park at certain times of day by usage available tools. Practical part contains a comparative analysis of developed noise maps, taking into account different variants of the distribution and number of measuring points on the selected area of the park.

  10. Mosquito species occurrence in association with landscape composition in green urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. G. Montagner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aedes aegypti prefers densely populated habitats, but has been shown to explore less anthropogenic environments. We investigated composition of the abundance of mosquitoes in forested areas and assessed relationships between species occurrences and different types of land use and land cover at three spatial scales (100m, 500m and 1000m. Mosquitoes were collected from October 2012 to March 2013 using oviposition traps. We collected 4,179 mosquitoes in total including at least 10 species. Aedes albopictus and Limatus durhami were eudominant species, representing 90% of all collected individuals. We found intraspecific differences in response to land use and land cover, and species response patterns were similar at all spatial scales. Ae. albopictus relative abundance was associated with urbanized areas, while Li. durhami, Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Toxorhynchites sp., abundances were associated with native forest. Aedes aegypti were found in five of the eight areas studied, including in an Atlantic forest fragment at a considerable distance from the forest edge (370 m. Aedes aegypti occurrence was not influenced by type of land use or land cover.

  11. Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilschut, M.; Theuws, P.A.W.; Duchhart, I.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. -- Highlights: ► Design can provide a link between the field of science and the field of practice. ► Design translates scientific knowledge into a specific aesthetic spatial composition. ► A landscape framework makes phytoremediation feasible in an urban context. ► Estimated time for phytoremediation conflicts with urban developments. ► Phytoremediation combined with biomass production is a feasible temporal land-use. -- A research by design method can translate scientific knowledge on phytoremediation into an aesthetic spatial composition for a specific site, thereby linking science and practice

  12. Nonequilibrium Green's function theory for nonadiabatic effects in quantum electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Vincent F.; Kosov, Daniel S.

    2017-12-01

    We develop nonequilibrium Green's function-based transport theory, which includes effects of nonadiabatic nuclear motion in the calculation of the electric current in molecular junctions. Our approach is based on the separation of slow and fast time scales in the equations of motion for Green's functions by means of the Wigner representation. Time derivatives with respect to central time serve as a small parameter in the perturbative expansion enabling the computation of nonadiabatic corrections to molecular Green's functions. Consequently, we produce a series of analytic expressions for non-adiabatic electronic Green's functions (up to the second order in the central time derivatives), which depend not solely on the instantaneous molecular geometry but likewise on nuclear velocities and accelerations. An extended formula for electric current is derived which accounts for the non-adiabatic corrections. This theory is concisely illustrated by the calculations on a model molecular junction.

  13. Effects of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on local outdoor microclimate during the growing season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yafei; Bakker, Frank; Groot, de Rudolf; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed how the variations of plant area index (PAI) and weather conditions alter the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on microclimate. To observe how diverse UGIs affect the ambient microclimate through the seasons, microclimatic data were measured during the growing

  14. Relations between nature-based solutions of green-blue area accessibility and socio-economic-ethnic patterns in the urban Stockholm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Romain; Kalantari, Zahra; Destouni, Georgia

    2017-04-01

    More than half of the world's population lives in cities, a proportion expected to increase to two thirds by 2050 (United Nations (UN), 2015). In this study, we investigate the spatial relationships that may exist between income and/or nationality homogeneity/heterogeneity levels of urban populations and their accessibility to local green-blue areas as possible nature-based solutions for sustainable urban design. For this investigation, we consider as a concrete case study the urban region of Stockholm, Sweden, for which we compile and use available land-cover and vegetation density data (the latter in terms of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) in order to identify and assess the spatial distributions of various green-blue area types and aspects. We further combine this data with spatial distribution data for population density, income and nationality, as well as with road-network data for assessing population travel times to nearby green-blue areas within the region. The present study results converge with those of other recent studies in showing large socio-economic-ethnic segregation in the Stockholm region. Moreover, the present data combination and analysis also show large spatial differences in and important socio-economic-ethnic correlations with accessibility to local green areas and nearby water bodies. Specifically, population income and share of Swedish nationals are well correlated in this region, with increases in both of these variables implying greater possibility to choose where to live within the region. The living choices of richer and more homogeneous (primarily Swedish) population parts are then found to be areas with greater local vegetation density (local green areas as identified by high-resolution NDVI data) and greater area extent of nearby water bodies (blue areas). For comparison, no such correlation is found between increased income or Swedish nationality homogeneity and accessibility to nearby forest areas (overall green

  15. The Effectiveness of Urban Green Spaces and Socio-Cultural Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Faruk Altunkasa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a theoretical approach for mapping and determining the effectiveness of green spaces and socio-cultural facilities as providers of urban ecosystem services and urban services in the case of Adana, Turkey. Firstly, green spaces and socio-cultural facilities per capita have been determined and indexed for the neighbourhoods in the city. Then, a distance-based method for estimating the effectiveness of these facilities was used. The distances between the various neighbourhoods and between a given facility and the farthest threshold have been measured and these values have been used to determine the facility effectiveness change value for each neighbourhood. Then, effective values have been calculated and indexed by incorporating the green space and socio-cultural facility values and the effectiveness change values for the neighbourhoods. Finally, point-based effective green spaces and socio-cultural facilities index values have been converted to continuous surface values in a GIS (geographic information system environment in order to utilize as a base map for urban physical planning purposes. According to the outcomes of this study, the distribution of green spaces and socio-cultural facilities of the neighbourhoods are imbalanced and index values of these facilities range in between 45 and 84 out of 100.

  16. Effects of Green Space and Land Use/Land Cover on Urban Heat Island in a Subtropical Mega-city in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, G. Y.; Li, X.; Li, H.; Guo, Q.

    2014-12-01

    With the quick expansion of urban in size and population, its urban heat island intensity (UHII, expressed as the temperature difference between urban and rural areas) increased rapidly. However, very few studies could quantitatively reveal the effects of green space and land use/land cover (LULC) on urban thermal environment because of lacking of the detailed measurement. This study focuses on quantifying the effects of green space and LULC on urban Heat Island (UHI) in Shenzhen, a mega subtropical city in China. Extensive measurements (air temperature and humidity) were made by mobile traverse method in a transect of 8 km in length, where a variety of LULC types were included. Measurements were carried out at 2 hours interval for 2 years (totally repeated for 7011 times). According to LULC types, we selected 5 different LULC types for studying, including water body, village in the city, shopping center (commercial area), urban green space (well-vegetated area) and suburb (forest). The main conclusions are obtained as follows: (1) The temperature difference between the 5 different urban landscapes is obvious, i.e. shopping center > village in the city > urban water body > urban green space > suburb; (2) Air temperature and UHII decreases linearly with the increase of green space in urban; (3) Green space and water body in urban have obvious effects to reduce the air temperature by evapotranspiration. Compared to the commercial areas, urban water body can relieve the IUHI by 0.9℃, while the urban green space can relieve the IUHI by 1.57℃. The cooling effect of the urban green space is better than that of the urban water body; (4) Periodic activity of human being has obvious effects on urban air temperature. The UHII on Saturday and Sunday are higher than that from Monday to Friday, respectively higher for 0.65, 0.57, 0.26 and 0.21℃. Thursday and Friday have the minimum air temperature and UHII. These results indicate that increase in urban evapotranspiration

  17. Mineralogy, geochemistry and low grade metamorphism of green tuffs of Karaj formation in Hesarbon area (south west Firoozkooh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Bahrami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tuffs of middle Eocene age in Hesarbon area, south west of Firoozkuh (East of Central Alborz consist of a thick sequence of lithic-, crystal-,vitric-and calcareous-tuffs. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction studies show plagioclase (albite and oligoclase, alkali feldspar (sanidine, quartz, cristobalite, biotite and hornblende are the major minerals in the rocks studied. Secondary minerals such as analcime, chlorite, prehnite and clay minerals are mainly present in the groundmass of the rocks. Extensive tectonic activities have created a variety of structural features including numerous folds and faults and therefore, have caused the green tuffs to be crushed and converted to breccia tuffs in many parts. Veins and cavities are filled by considerable amounts of zeolitic minerals including heulandite group, clinoptilolite and natrolite along with calcite and secondary quartz. Based on geochemical data, they lie on the dacite and rhyodacite field showing a calc-alkaline nature in the corresponding diagrams. According to the chondrite and primitive mantle normalized diagrams of trace elements, negative anomalies of Eu, Nb, Ti, P and depletion of HFSE together with their position in the petrogenesis discrimination diagrams, it is most likely that these rocks are formed in the active continental margin of a subduction zone. The existence of analcime and prehnite in the groundmass demonstrate that these rocks have undergone some degrees of low-grade metamorphism due to the overburden of the layers in the temperature range 200-300 °C. The present study shows that zeolite minerals filling the fractures and cavities of tuffs are precipitated by hydrothermal fluids with a neutral pH to acidic

  18. Ecological Footprint of Biological Resource Consumption in a Typical Area of the Green for Grain Project in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the implementation of the Green for Grain Project in 2000 in Guyuan, China, the decrease in cultivated land and subsequent increase in forest and grassland pose substantial challenges for the supply of biological products. Whether the current biologically productive land-use patterns in Guyuan satisfy the biological product requirements for local people is an urgent problem. In this study, the ecological footprints of biological resource consumption in Guyuan were calculated and analyzed based on the ‘City Hectare’ Ecological Footprint (EF Method. The EFs of different types of biological resource products consumed from different types of biologically productive land were then analyzed. In addition, the EFs of various biological resource products before and after the implementation of the Green for Grain Project (1998 and 2012 were assessed. The actual EF and bio-capacity (BC were compared, and differences in the EF and BC for different types of biologically productive lands before and after the project were analyzed. The results showed that the EF of Guyuan’s biological resource products was 0.65866 ha/cap, with an EF outflow and EF inflow of 0.2280 ha/cap and 0.0951 ha/cap, respectively. The per capita EF of Guyuan significantly decreased after the project, as did the ecological deficit. Whereas the cultivated land showed a deficit, grasslands were characterized by ecological surplus. The total EF of living resource consumption in Guyuan was 810,941 ha, and the total BC was 768,065 ha. In additional to current biological production areas, approximately 42,876 ha will be needed to satisfy the demands of Guyuan’s people. Cultivated land is the main type of biologically productive land that is needed.

  19. Estimation of leaf area index in cereal crops using red–green images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Kirk; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Thomsen, Anton

    2009-01-01

    ,L)-space 2.1.2. Projection of (g,L) and probabilistic labelling 2.1.3. Automatic thresholding procedure 2.2. Gap fraction estimation and inversion 2.3. Experiments 2.3.1. Experiment A 2.3.2. Experiment B 2.3.3. Experiment C 3. Results 3.1. Experiment A 3.2. Experiment B 3.3. Experiment C 4. Discussion 5...... fraction model and an ellipsoidal leaf angle distribution. The LAI estimates were compared with measurements taken using a LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer in terms of their correlation with results from harvested samples scanned with the LI-3100 Area Meter. The results showed that the method was capable...

  20. Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario; Dimitrova, Donka Dimitrova

    2014-01-01

    Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect). This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.

  1. Static allometry of unicellular green algae: scaling of cellular surface area and volume in the genus Micrasterias (Desmidiales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustupa, J

    2016-02-01

    The surface area-to-volume ratio of cells is one of the key factors affecting fundamental biological processes and, thus, fitness of unicellular organisms. One of the general models for allometric increase in surface-to-volume scaling involves fractal-like elaboration of cellular surfaces. However, specific data illustrating this pattern in natural populations of the unicellular organisms have not previously been available. This study shows that unicellular green algae of the genus Micrasterias (Desmidiales) have positive allometric surface-to-volume scaling caused by changes in morphology of individual species, especially in the degree of cell lobulation. This allometric pattern was also detected within most of the cultured and natural populations analysed. Values of the allometric S:V scaling within individual populations were closely correlated to the phylogenetic structure of the clade. In addition, they were related to species-specific cellular morphology. Individual populations differed in their allometric patterns, and their position in the allometric space was strongly correlated with the degree of allometric S:V scaling. This result illustrates that allometric shape patterns are an important correlate of the capacity of individual populations to compensate for increases in their cell volumes by increasing the surface area. However, variation in allometric patterns was not associated with phylogenetic structure. This indicates that the position of the populations in the allometric space was not evolutionarily conserved and might be influenced by environmental factors. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Effect of a combination of green and blue monochromatic light on broiler immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziqiang; Cao, Jing; Wang, Zixu; Dong, Yulan; Chen, Yaoxing

    2014-09-05

    Our previous study suggested that green light or blue light would enhance the broiler immune response; this study was conducted to evaluate whether a combination of green and blue monochromatic light would result in improved immune response. A total of 192 Arbor Acre male broilers were exposed to white light, red light, green light, and blue light from 0 to 26 days. From 27 to 49 days, half of the broilers in green light and blue light were switched to blue light (G-B) and green light (B-G), respectively. The levels of anti-Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) IgG in G-B group were elevated by 11.9-40.3% and 17.4-48.7%, respectively, compared to single monochromatic lights (Plight groups. However, the serum TNF-α concentration in the G-B group was reduced by 3.64-40.5% compared to other groups, and no significant difference was found between the G-B and B-G groups in any type of detection index at the end of the experiment. These results suggested that the combination of G-B and B-G monochromatic light could effectively enhance the antibody titer, the proliferation index of lymphocytes and alleviate the stress response in broilers. Therefore, the combination of green and blue monochromatic light can improve the immune function of broilers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gases emissions of Green house Effect in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez B, Fabio

    1999-01-01

    Colombia when signing the agreement mark of the united nations for the global change in 1992 and to ratify it in 1996 committed, together with the other signatory countries, to elaborate and to publish national inventories of anthropogenic emissions of green house gases and plans for its reduction and control. In this reference mark a group of professionals inside the Colombian academy of exact, physical and natural sciences, began in July of 1995, the national inventory of greenhouse gases for Colombia, having the approval of the ministry of the environment, the financial support of the organization of German technical cooperation GTZ and the technical consultantship of the work group that it is carrying out the study in the case of Venezuela. This article presents a summary of the results of the project, making emphasis in the main anthropogenic activities responsible for these emissions, especially those related with the energetic sector

  4. Effect of Accelerator in Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Shameli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized in the natural polymeric matrix. Silver nitrate, gelatin, glucose, and sodium hydroxide have been used as silver precursor, stabilizer, reducing agent, and accelerator reagent, respectively. This study investigated the role of NaOH as the accelerator. The resultant products have been confirmed to be Ag-NPs using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The colloidal sols of Ag-NPs obtained at different volumes of NaOH show strong and different surface plasmon resonance (SPR peaks, which can be explained from the TEM images of Ag-NPs and their particle size distribution. Compared with other synthetic methods, this work is green, rapid, and simple to use. The newly prepared Ag-NPs may have many potential applications in chemical and biological industries.

  5. Time-dependent effect in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zamiri, Reza; Zak, AK; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2011-01-01

    The application of “green” chemistry rules to nanoscience and nanotechnology is very important in the preparation of various nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully developed an eco-friendly chemistry method for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in natural polymeric media. The colloidal Ag-NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, gelatin, and glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag-NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their size distributions. The prepared samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The use of eco-friendly reagents, such as gelatin and glucose, provides green and economic attributes to this work. PMID:21556342

  6. Effect of selection on green pea hybrid population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Стригун

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article features the results of variability study for one of the productivity characteristics in green pea, namely «number of seeds in the seedpod» for hybrid  populations and for the selections made thereof. Statistical methods of analysis have established the levels of variability for the characteristics in F2 original population , the impact of the selection completed within F2 onto the variability of F3 hybrid population. This shows the efficiency of repeated selection from F3 population and its impact onto the level of expersiioon of the characteristic being studied in the resulting F6 population. As a conclusion, a good time is set for practical breeding with the characteristic of «number of seeds in a seedpod» for  the selection, as well as for the methods for achieving its stable expression, that is to facilitate the decrease of durations and means for the tests conduct.

  7. The Effect of Medium Cultures on Water Use and Charactristic of Gazania Flowers (Gazania hybrida in Green Roof.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Bahrami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green roof is one of the newest phenomenons in architecture and urbanism that refers to the sustainable development concepts and it will be usable for increasing landscape design, improving quality of the environment and reduction in energy consumption. Ensure of existing adequate green landscape in urban areas and improving access to natural areas surrounding the cities can help to offset negative effects of urban life. The use of green roof technology in cities is one of advanced techniques of green landscape. A green or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium on top view of buildings. Green roof layers that considered for roof side consist of protection layer, drainage layer, growing medium and plant layer. Medium layer is the medium culture of green roof that plants are begins to grow in it. This space should enable to save enough minerals and water for conserve of green-roof plants. All kinds of plants can growth on the green roof, but there are some constraints in creative of design because of roots dimension, plant canopy, necessary volume of soil, suitable direction to light, good weather, weight of designed structures, budget of repairing and keeping. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of some culture medium on water consumption, vegetative and reproductive traits of Gazania (Gazania hybrida in condition of green roof a factorial experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design with nine treatments and three replications in 2014. Treatments were three levels of vermicompost (zero, 5%, and 10% and rice hull (zero, 7, and 14%. Seedlings of plants cultivated in the media mixture of coco peat 15%, perlite 15%, leaf 10%, manure 10%, and filed soil 50%. The container had 60 × 60 ×25 cm dimensions that placed on the roof of greenhouse building with four meters height. The measured traits was number, average, and diameter of

  8. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols with protective effects against skin photoaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Eunmiri; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Park, Jun Seong; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-05-24

    Whereas green tea has historically been consumed in high quantities in Northeast Asia, its popularity is also increasing in many Western countries. Green tea is an abundant source of plant polyphenols exhibiting numerous effects that are potentially beneficial for human health. Accumulating evidence suggests that green tea polyphenols confer protective effects on the skin against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging, involving antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects as well as prevention of immunosuppression. Melanin pigmentation in the skin is a major defense mechanism against UV irradiation, but pigmentation abnormalities such as melasma, freckles, senile lentigines, and other forms of melanin hyperpigmentation can also cause serious health and aesthetic issues. Furthermore, UV irradiation initiates the degradation of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, promoting the process of skin aging through deep wrinkle formation and loss of tissue elasticity. UV irradiation-induced formation of free radicals also contributes to accelerated photoaging. Additionally, immunosuppression caused by UV irradiation plays an important role in photoaging and skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and immunosuppression preventive mechanisms of green tea polyphenols that have been demonstrated to protect against UV irradiation-stimulated skin photoaging, and gauge the quality of evidence supporting the need for clinical studies using green tea polyphenols as anti-photoaging agents in novel cosmeceuticals.

  10. The dual effect of vegetation green-up date and strong wind on the return period of spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jieling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zhengtao; Chen, Xi

    2017-08-15

    Vegetation phenology changes have been widely applied in the disaster risk assessments of the spring dust storms, and vegetation green-up date shifts have a strong influence on dust storms. However, the effect of earlier vegetation green-up dates due to climate warming on the evaluation of dust storms return periods remains an important, but poorly understood issue. In this study, we evaluate the spring dust storm return period (February to June) in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, using 165 observations of severe spring dust storm events from 16 weather stations, and regional vegetation green-up dates as an integrated factor from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), covering a period from 1982 to 2007, by building the bivariate Copula model. We found that the joint return period showed better fitting results than without considering the integrated factor when the actual dust storm return period is longer than 2years. Also, for extremely severe dust storm events, the gap between simulation result and actual return period can be narrowed up to 0.4888years by using integrated factor. Furthermore, the risk map based on the return period results shows that the Mandula, Zhurihe, Sunitezuoqi, Narenbaolige stations are identified as high risk areas. In this study area, land surface is extensively covered by grasses and shrubs, vegetation green-up date can play a significant role in restraining spring dust storm outbreaks. Therefore, we suggest that Copula method can become a useful tool for joint return period evaluation and risk analysis of severe dust storms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. comparative study of the effects of blue and green filters on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    state it is highly unstable and so it will change to a new form. The effects of this change will be to ... All colours seen by the visual system are a combination of relative intensities of the ... difference between the comparative effect of blue and green filters on binocular amplitude of accommodation. The importance of filters in ...

  12. Effect of marinating chicken meat with lemon, green tea, and turmeric against foodborne bacterial pathogenss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne diseases affect millions of people each year. To reduce the incidence of bacterial foodborne pathogens more effective treatment methods are needed. In this study we evaluated the effect of marinating chicken breast fillets with extracts of lemon, green tea, and turmeric against Campylob...

  13. Effect of blue-green algae on soil nitrogen | Paudel | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of blue-green algae on soil nitrogen. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... In paddy fields, the death of algal biomass is most frequently associated with soil dessication at the end of the cultivation cycle and algal growth has frequently resulted in a gradual build up of soil fertility with a residual effect on succeeding crop ...

  14. Acute effects of visits to urban green environments on cardiovascular physiology in women: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanki, Timo; Siponen, Taina; Ojala, Ann; Korpela, Kalevi; Pennanen, Arto; Tiittanen, Pekka; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Kagawa, Takahide; Tyrväinen, Liisa

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between the amount of green space in the living environment and mental and cardiovascular human health. In a search for effect mechanisms, field studies have found short-term visits to green environments to be associated with psychological stress relief. Less evidence is available on the effect of visits on cardiovascular physiology. To evaluate whether visits to urban green environments, in comparison to visits to a built-up environment, lead to beneficial short-term changes in indicators of cardiovascular health. Thirty-six adult female volunteers visited three different types of urban environments: an urban forest, an urban park, and a built-up city centre, in Helsinki, Finland. The visits consisted of 15min of sedentary viewing, and 30min of walking. During the visits, blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and electrocardiogram recorded for the determination of indicators of heart rate variability. In addition, levels of respirable ambient particles and environmental noise were monitored. Visits to the green environments were associated with lower blood pressure (viewing period only), lower heart rate, and higher indices of heart rate variability [standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), high frequency power] than visits to the city centre. In the green environments, heart rate decreased and SDNN increased during the visit. Associations between environment and indicators of cardiovascular health weakened slightly after inclusion of particulate air pollution and noise in the models. Visits to urban green environments are associated with beneficial short-term changes in cardiovascular risk factors. This can be explained by psychological stress relief with contribution from reduced air pollution and noise exposure during the visits. Future research should evaluate the amount of exposure to green environments needed for longer-term benefits for cardiovascular health. Copyright

  15. A study on the effect of green marketing on consumers’ purchasing intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdy Fallah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there have been significant damages on environment such as ozone layer depletion, global warming effects, etc. and people are getting more concerned about taking necessary actions to help environment. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of green marketing on consumers’ purchasing intention in dairy industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 154 randomly selected people who purchase dairy products in four different regions of city of Babol, located in north region of Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has detected that green marketing influences on consumers’ purchasing intention, positively.

  16. Identification of Skills Needed for Central Areas of Green and Low-Carbon Economy, for the Needs of Labor Market, in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Holm

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EU has set sustainable growth as a goal for 2020, by which a transition to a more resource efficient greener and competitive economy should be achieved. This requires new skills in business life. We have studied how vocational education and training and higher education may serve as a promoter of a green and low-carbon economy in Finland. Based on results from interviews of companies three main areas were chosen. These areas were decentralized renewable energy production, use of organic by-products and promotion of energy efficiency in properties. Education in vocational education and training and universities of applied sciences, for the selected areas, was mapped in 2014-15. The results were presented on workshops, where knowledge supply chains for a green economy on the selected areas were developed. If was found that cooperation between different fields and levels of education is important, as the new skills often emerge at the interfaces.

  17. Effect of P-Reactive Drainage Aggregates on Green Roof Runoff Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Karczmarczyk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main hypothesis of the presented study is that the negative effect of phosphorus leaching from a green roof substrate can be reduced by including P-reactive material in a drainage layer. In this work, different aggregates (Pollytag®, lightweight expanded clay aggregates, chalcedony, serpentynite and crushed autoclaved aerated concrete to be used as the green roof drainage layer are described. Physical parameters, e.g., granulometric composition, water absorption, bulk density and porosity are assessed. A phosphorus sorption isotherm and a kinetic test were performed. Physical and chemical characteristics of the materials were used as a base for choosing the best media for the drainage layer. The P-removal efficiency of crushed autoclaved aerated concrete was confirmed in a column experiment. Adding the implementation of the P-reactive material in a drainage layer during construction can reduce the negative effect of substrate on green roof runoff quality.

  18. Green Gram Rotation Effects on Maize Growth Parameters and Soil Quality in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myo Kywe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At present maize–green gram crop rotations are not widely practiced among farmers in Myanmar. However, this cropping system might become more popular in the future given raising prices for green gram and maize grain and scarcity of mineral nitrogen (N fertilizers in this Asian country. The results of a cropping systems experiment with continuous maize versus a green gram-maize rotation, manure application (0 and 2 t ha−1 and phosphorus (P fertilization (0 and 15 kg P ha−1 in each of five consecutive seasons revealed a strong decline in total dry matter and grains yields for both crops irrespective of the treatment. Treatment effects on yield components, nutrient concentrations, mycorrhizal infection and nematode infestation were small or negligible. The data show that in addition to manure used at 2 t ha−1, application of mineral N fertilizers is essential to maintain particularly maize yields. A comparison of different green gram cultivars did not indicate genotype specific effects on maize growth. The incorporation of legume residues, unless they are used as animal feed, is recommended to increase the recycling of N and to balance N fluxes when green gram is cultivated for seed.

  19. Effect of green tea on the second degree burn wounds in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Fatemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various studies indicate that the green tea has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Moreover, a few studies have been carried out that demonstrate beneficial effects of green tea on burned patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, green tea, Vaseline, and silver sulfadiazine dressings were used as first-aid treatment to deep dermal contact burns in rats, compared with a control of nothing. After creating second-degree burn on the dorsum of rats, the treatments were applied for 15 min in four groups. Wound dressing changes were daily. Macroscopic study was performed on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 by using a digital camera and software processing of photos. Microscopic examination was done by pathologic evaluation of skin specimens on day 14. Results: We observed that green tea usage significantly decreased burn size in comparison to the control group (P = 0.004. Conclusion: Green tea is effective on healing process of second degree burn wounds.

  20. The Effect of Absorptive Capacity on Green Customer Capital under an Organizational Unlearning Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martelo-Landroguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management is becoming increasingly important within organizations and forms an essential part of their strategies. As customers are more concerned with the care of the environment, companies are required to be more aware of their actions. Consequently, companies must ignore their historical mindsets and assumptions to be able to adopt green-oriented practices and processes. Our specific research questions are: (i How can firms become (more green-oriented? and (ii how can knowledge-based organizational capabilities drive this shift into greener companies, which may enhance green customer capital? The research model describes how the complementary roles of absorptive capacity (direct effect and the fostering of an organizational unlearning context (moderating effect affects green customer capital within the Spanish automotive component manufacturing sector. Empirical results reveal that to create green customer capital, companies should absorb new knowledge and build a context of organizational unlearning. In today’s competitive environment, knowledge rapidly becomes obsolete, so companies need to encourage unlearning to make space for new knowledge that meets environmental needs and keeps pace with changing customer preferences. The research hypotheses were tested using partial least squares (PLS path-modeling.

  1. The Effect of Mercury Vapor and the Role of Green Tea Extract on Brain Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhona Afriza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a wellknown toxic metal that is capable to induce free radical-induced oxidative stress. It can cause human disease including brain disorders. Objective: To identify the effect of mercury vapor inhalation on brain cells and the role of green tea extract (Camellia sinensis as antioxidant on the brain cells exposed to mercury. Methods: Fourty-eight male Mus musculus were divided into 8 groups, which were given treatment for 3 and 6 weeks. Group A did not receive any treatment and served as a negative control. Group B was a positive control exposed to Mercury. Group C was exposed to Mercury and treated with 26μg/g green tea extract. Group D was exposed to mercury and treated with 52μg/g green tea extract. All animals in the Group B, C, D were exposed to mercury through inhalation for 4 hours daily. The effect of mercury on the brain cells were examined histopathologically. Results: The numbers of necrotic cells counted in the green tea-treated mice group were significantly lower than those untreated group (p<0,05. Conclusion: Mercury vapor inhalation may cause necrosis on brain cells. Administration of green tea extract as an antioxidant reduced the amount of mercury-induced necrotic brain cells in mice.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.151

  2. Area-aggregated assessments of perceived environmental attributes may overcome single-source bias in studies of green environments and health: results from a cross-sectional survey in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadbro John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies assessing health effects of neighborhood characteristics either use self-reports or objective assessments of the environment, the latter often based on Geographical Information Systems (GIS. While objective measures require detailed landscape data, self-assessments may yield confounded results. In this study we demonstrate how self-assessments of green neighborhood environments aggregated to narrow area units may serve as an appealing compromise between objective measures and individual self-assessments. Methods The study uses cross-sectional data (N = 24,847 from a public health survey conducted in the county of Scania, southern Sweden, in 2008 and validates the Scania Green Score (SGS, a new index comprising five self-reported green neighborhood qualities (Culture, Lush, Serene, Spacious and Wild. The same qualities were also assessed objectively using landscape data and GIS. A multilevel (ecometric model was used to aggregate individual self-reports to assessments of perceived green environmental attributes for areas of 1,000 square meters. We assessed convergent and concurrent validity for self-assessments of the five items separately and for the sum score, individually and area-aggregated. Results Correlations between the index scores based on self-assessments and the corresponding objective assessments were clearly present, indicating convergent validity, but the agreement was low. The correlation was even more evident for the area-aggregated SGS. All three scores (individual SGS, area-aggregated SGS and GIS index score were associated with neighborhood satisfaction, indicating concurrent validity. However, while individual SGS was associated with vitality, this association was not present for aggregated SGS and the GIS-index score, suggesting confounding (single-source bias when individual SGS was used. Conclusions Perceived and objectively assessed qualities of the green neighborhood environment correlate

  3. Intraspecific variation of the Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas (Cheloniidae), in the foraging area of Gorgona Natural National Park (Colombian Pacific)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, Laura; Payan, Luis Fernando; Amorocho, Diego Fernando; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Giraldo, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The size distribution and body condition of the two morphotypes of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) foraging in Gorgona Natural National Park (GNNP) in the Colombian Pacific was assessed from 2003 to 2012. Measurements of straight carapace length (SCL), curved carapace length (CCL), weight, and body condition of 1,023 turtles captured on the GNNP reefs were recorded. More black turtles (n = 747) than yellow turtles (n = 276) were captured, all of them juveniles. Black turtles were significantly larger and heavier than yellow turtles. The size of recruitment to the neritic zone was 40.0-49.9 cm SCL for both morphotypes, but there were more yellow than black turtles in this size class, indicating a difference in the recruitment pattern. The body condition index of yellow turtles was significantly higher than that of black turtles, which could indicate differences in resource use. Based on our results, we suggest that GNNP might function as a recruitment area for yellow turtles, which arrive at smaller sizes and as part of a coastal migratory route for black turtles, which arrive at larger sizes and maintain residence at this location for an unknown period of time.

  4. Effect of post-exercise caffeine and green coffee bean extract consumption on blood glucose and insulin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Jason R; Gibson, Ann L; Kerksick, Chad M; Conn, Carole A; White, Ailish C; Mermier, Christine M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine and green coffee bean extract on blood glucose and insulin concentrations during a post-exercise oral glucose tolerance test. Ten male cyclists (age: 26 ± 5 y; height: 179.9 ± 5.4 cm; weight: 77.6 ± 13.3 kg; body mass index: 24 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); VO2 peak: 55.9 ± 8.4 mL·kg·min(-1)) participated in this study. In a randomized order, each participant completed three 30-min bouts of cycling at 60% of peak power output. Immediately after exercise, each participant consumed 75 g of dextrose with either 5 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, 10 mg/kg of green coffee bean extract (5 mg/kg chlorogenic acid), or placebo. Venous blood samples were collected immediately before and after exercise during completion of the oral glucose tolerance test. No significant time × treatment effects for blood glucose and insulin were found. Two-h glucose and insulin area under the curve values, respectively, for the caffeine (658 ± 74 mmol/L and 30,005 ± 13,304 pmol/L), green coffee bean extract (637 ± 100 mmol/L and 31,965 ± 23,586 pmol/L), and placebo (661 ± 77 mmol/L and 27,020 ± 12,339 pmol/L) trials were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Caffeine and green coffee bean extract did not significantly alter postexercise blood glucose and insulin concentrations when compared with a placebo. More human research is needed to determine the impact of these combined nutritional treatments and exercise on changes in blood glucose and insulin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Going beyond the green: senesced vegetation material predicts basal area and biomass in remote sensing of tree cover conditions in an African tropical dry forest (miombo woodland) landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Marc; Mustard, John; Melillo, Jerry; Neill, Christopher; Nyadzi, Gerson

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), tropical dry forests and savannas cover over 2.5 million km2 and support livelihoods for millions in fast-growing nations. Intensifying land use pressures have driven rapid changes in tree cover structure (basal area, biomass) that remain poorly characterized at regional scales. Here, we posed the hypothesis that tree cover structure related strongly to senesced and non-photosynthetic (NPV) vegetation features in a SSA tropical dry forest landscape, offering improved means for satellite remote sensing of tree cover structure compared to vegetation greenness-based methods. Across regrowth miombo woodland sites in Tanzania, we analyzed relationships among field data on tree structure, land cover, and satellite indices of green and NPV features based on spectral mixture analyses and normalized difference vegetation index calculated from Landsat 8 data. From satellite-field data relationships, we mapped regional basal area and biomass using NPV and greenness-based metrics, and compared map performances at landscape scales. Total canopy cover related significantly to stem basal area (r 2 = 0.815, p  60%) at all sites. From these two conditions emerged a key inverse relationship: skyward exposure of NPV ground cover was high at sites with low tree basal area and biomass, and decreased with increasing stem basal area and biomass. This pattern scaled to Landsat NPV metrics, which showed strong inverse correlations to basal area (Pearson r = -0.85, p forests.

  6. Typhoon Effect on Kuroshio and Green Island Wakes: A Modelling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Wen Hsu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Green Island, located in the typhoon-active eastern Taiwan coastal water, is the potential Kuroshio power plant site. In this study, a high resolution (250–2250 m shallow-water equations model is used to investigate the effect of typhoon on the hydro-dynamics of Kuroshio and Green Island wakes. Two typhoon–Kuroshio interactions—typhoon Soulik and Holland’s typhoon model—are studied. Simulation results of typhoon Soulik indicate salient characteristics of Kuroshio, and downstream island wakes seems less affected by the typhoon Soulik, because the shortest distance of typhoon Soulik is 250 km away from Green Island and wind speed near Green Island is small. Moreover, Kuroshio currents increase when flow is in the same direction as the counterclockwise rotation of typhoon, and vice versa. This finding is in favorable agreement with the TOROS (Taiwan Ocean Radar Observing System observed data. Simulations of Kuroshio and Holland’s typhoon model successfully reproduces the downstream recirculation and vortex street. Numerical results reveal that the slow moving typhoon has a more significant impact on the Kuroshio and downstream Green Island wakes than the fast moving typhoon does. The rightward bias phenomenon is evident—Kuroshio currents increase (decrease in the right (left of the moving typhoon’s track, due to the counterclockwise rotation of typhoon.

  7. Effect of applying cinnamaldehyde incorporated in wax on green mould decay in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaofang; OuYang, Qiuli; Tao, Nengguo

    2018-01-01

    Green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum is the most damaging postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. Cinnamaldehyde (CA) is a food additive that has potential use in controlling postharvest disease of fruits and vegetables. In this study, the effectiveness of wax with CA (WCA) in controlling Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco) green mould was investigated. The mycelial growth of P. digitatum was inhibited by CA in a dose-dependent manner. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were both 0.50 mL L -1 . In vivo tests demonstrated that WCA (1 × and 10 × MFC) applied to Ponkan fruits inoculated with P. digitatum could significantly decrease the incidence of green mould for up to 5 days. The WCA treatment increased the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, polyphenol oxidase, as well as the total phenols and flavonoids contents. Meanwhile, the treatment remarkably decreased the weight loss rate of fruits and maintained fruit quality. These results indicated that WCA treatment might induce defence responses against green mould in citrus fruit. Our findings suggest that WCA might be a promising approach in controlling green mould of citrus fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Is Green Regulation Effective or a Failure: Comparative Analysis between Bangladesh Bank (BB Green Guidelines and Global Reporting Initiative Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Kaium Masud

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Green reporting and green regulation have been commonly used in the sustainability movement. This study evaluates Bangladesh Bank’s (BB’s green regulation by considering the global reporting initiative (GRI of environmental regulation along with self-determined content to justify BB’s institutional effort in the banking sector. The analytical study has considered secondary data of all listed banks on the Dhaka Stock Exchange between 2013 to 2016. A multi-theoretical framework has been adopted in which the research is comprised of institutional, stakeholder, and legitimacy theories. Considering the analytical research, we have drawn-up a green reporting score and undertaken SWOT analysis. The results of the study have identified the narrow coverage of BB’s regulation and strategic limitations. Moreover, the findings of the study show that banking companies disclosed more green information in line with BB’s regulation. Furthermore, our analysis has found the lack of transparency of green reporting in terms of absent global reporting as well as external verification. Additionally, we have documented that BB’s regulation falls into a legitimacy threat owing to political, corporate, and social responsibility. Therefore, we concluded that for BB to overcome all possible weaknesses and threats, it should consider all possible opportunities for a holistic international reporting framework while taking into account a transparent financial sector.

  9. Typhoon Effect on Kuroshio and Green Island Wakes: A Modelling Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tai-Wen Hsu; Meng-Hsien Chou; Wei-Ting Chao; Shin-Jye Liang

    2018-01-01

    Green Island, located in the typhoon-active eastern Taiwan coastal water, is the potential Kuroshio power plant site. In this study, a high resolution (250–2250 m) shallow-water equations model is used to investigate the effect of typhoon on the hydro-dynamics of Kuroshio and Green Island wakes. Two typhoon–Kuroshio interactions—typhoon Soulik and Holland’s typhoon model—are studied. Simulation results of typhoon Soulik indicate salient characteristics of Kuroshio, and downstream island wakes...

  10. Study on the Thermal Effects and Air Quality Improvement of Green Roof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Luo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat island phenomenon and air quality deterioration issues are two major problems that have occurred during the process of urbanization, especially in developing countries. A number of measures have been proposed, among which roof greening is considered as a promising one due to its outstanding performance in thermal effects as well as air quality improvement. A self-maintenance system, termed the Green Roof Manager (GRM, which comprises the irrigation and shadowing subsystems, is proposed in this paper, focusing on the automatic and reliable operation of the roof greening system rather than exploiting new plant species. A three month long experiment was set up, resulting in the observation that a 14.7% of, on average, temperature reduction can be achieved in summer after deploying the GRM system. During a 24-hour monitoring experiment the PM2.5 concentrations above the GRM was reduced by up to 14.1% over the bare roof.

  11. Effect of substrate depth and rain-event history on the pollutant abatement of green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Martin; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Saad, Mohamed; De Gouvello, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of two different thickness of green roof substrate with respect to nutrient and heavy metal retention and release. To understand and evaluate the long term behaviour of green roofs, substrate columns with the same structure and composition as the green roofs, were exposed in laboratory to artificial rain. The roofs act as a sink for C, N, P, zinc and copper for small rain events if the previous period was principally dry. Otherwise the roofs may behave as a source of pollutants, principally for carbon and phosphorus. Both field and column studies showed an important retention for Zn and Cu. The column showed, however, lower SS, DOC and metal concentrations in the percolate than could be observed in the field even if corrected for run-off. This is most probably due to the difference in exposition history and weathering processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating the Effect of Green Infrastructure Stormwater Best Management Practices on New England Stream Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA is evaluating the effectiveness of green infrastructure (GI) stormwater best management practices (BMPs) on stream habitat at the small watershed (< HUC12) scale in New England. Predictive models for thermal regime and substrate characteristics (substrate size, % em...

  13. Geno protective and anti-apoptotic effect of green tea against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geno protective and anti-apoptotic effect of green tea against perinatal lipopolysaccharide-exposure induced liver toxicity in rat newborns. Ahmed A. Allam, Sami A. Gabr, Jamaan Ajarem, Ahmad H. Alghadir, Revathi Sekar, Billy K.C. Chow ...

  14. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of rice bran and green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of an enzyme bath of Oryza sativa (rice bran) and Camellia sinensis O. Kuntz (green tea) fermented with Bacillus subtilis (OCB). Methods: The anti-oxidant effects of OCB were assessed by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and flow ...

  15. Effect of silage maize hybrid (dry down vs. stay green) on dairy cow performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Schooten, van H.A.; Laar, van H.

    2008-01-01

    A randomized block design experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two contrasting silage maize hybrids (DD: dry down vs. SG: stay green) harvested at 33% dry matter (DM) on in situ degradation and dairy cow performance. Thirty-eight Red-HF cows were assigned to two silage treatments and

  16. Order- N Green's Function Technique for Local Environment Effects in Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrikosov, I. A.; Niklasson, A. M. N.; Simak, S. I.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a new approach to the calculations of ground state properties of large crystalline systems with arbitrary atomic configurations based on a Green's function technique in conjunction with a self-consistent effective medium for the underlying randomly occupied lattice. The locally...

  17. Effects of green-tree retention on abundance and guild composition of corticolous arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraj Halaj; Charles B. Halpern; Hoonbok Yi

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effects of varying levels and patterns of green-tree retention on the community composition of bark-dwelling arthropods. Arthropods were sampled with crawl traps installed on 280 live trees and 260 snags (all Douglas-fir) at three locations (experimental blocks) in the western Cascade Range of Oregon and Washington. Sampling coincided with the breeding...

  18. Comparison of Protective Effect of Green Tea and Vitamin C Against Cypermethrin Induce Nephrotoxicity in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, S.; Mehboob, K.; Naveed, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insecticide toxicity is the problem of every person in under developed countries. It is necessary to counteract its effect by natural and cheap remedies like green tea and vitamin C. In this manner common man can also enjoy blessings of life. The current research was performed to compare the protective function of green tea and vitamin C on experimental cypermethrin provoked nephrotoxicity Method: Forty healthy Balb/C mice purchased from National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan and divided in to four groups (10 each). Group a was control which received only normal diet. Group B, group C and group D were experimental groups which were given Cypermethrin, Cypermethrin with green tea and Cypermethrin with vitamin C respectively. These groups were also given normal diet. After 1 month blood was drawn by intra-cardiac method to assess renal parameters. Results: One month research showed increase in serum urea to 6.8±.48 m.mol/l (n=3.9±.44) while green tea and vitamin C normalize them to 4.0±.83 m.mol/l and 3.4±.33 m.mol/l respectively. Serum creatinine increased to 42.90±3.28 m.mol/l (n=29.50±3.95) while green tea and vitamin C normalize them to 28.80±4.58 m.mol/l and 22.60±2.06 m.mol/l correspondingly. Conclusion The results showed that green tea and vitamin C neutralized toxicity induced by Cypermethrin in mice and their effect is comparable. (author)

  19. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zahedifar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, control animals were located under natural condition, sham -exposed animals were prepared by experimental condition without cell phone waves radiation. Experimental 1 group that irradiated at cell phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and experimental 2 groups were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days and experimental 3 group that irradiated at active mobile phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days. After treatment period micronucleus test was evaluated in polychromatic erythrocytes on bone marrow. The quantitative data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test with using of SPSS-13 software at the level of p<0.05.Results: Based on this study, treatment with extracts of green tea decreased micronucleus frequency in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of Balb/C mouse that irradiated at cell phone microwave (0.92±0.129, (p<0.001.Conclusion: Cell phone microwaves (940 MHz increased micronucleus on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of male Balb/C mouse, but green tea had inhibitory effect and it decreased the average number of micronucleus.

  20. Comparison Of Protective Effect Of Green Tea And Vitamin C Against Cypermethrin Induce Nephrotoxicity In Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Saima; Mehboob, Khadija; Naveed, Abdul Khaliq

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide toxicity is the problem of every person in under developed countries. It is necessary to counteract its effect by natural and cheap remedies like green tea and vitamin C. In this manner common man can also enjoy blessings of life. The current research was performed to compare the protective function of green tea and vitamin C on experimental cypermethrin provoked nephrotoxicity. Forty healthy Balb/C mice purchased from National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan and divided in to four groups (10 each). Group a was control which received only normal diet. Group B, group C and group D were experimental groups which were given Cypermethrin, Cypermethrin with green tea and Cypermethrin with vitamin C respectively. These groups were also given normal diet. After 1 month blood was drawn by intra-cardiac method to assess renal parameters. One month research showed increase in serum urea to 6.8±.48 m.mol/l (n=3.9±.44) while green tea and vitamin C normalize them to 4.0±.83m.mol/l and 3.4±.33m.mol/l respectively. Serum creatinine increased to 42.90±3.28m.mol/l (n=29.50±3.95) while green tea and vitamin C normalize them to 28.80±4.58m.mol/l and 22.60±2.06m.mol/l correspondingly. The results showed that green tea and vitamin C neutralized toxicity induced by Cypermethrin in mice and their effect is comparable.

  1. Antiangiogenic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Green Algae (Spirogyra SP.) Against Expression Cox-2 in T47d Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Widyaningsih, Wahyu; Salamah, Nina; Susanti, Hari; Fitriani, Dwi

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases that arise when a cell or group of cells that regulate out of control growth. Green algae (Spirogyra sp.) is one of the medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer. Green algae (Spirogyra sp.) has active substances such as melatonin. Melatonin which is a compound that has been examined by researchers world as anticancer drugs and antioxidants. This study aims to determine the effect of ethanol extract of green algae (Spirogyra sp.) o...

  2. ANTIANGIOGENIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF GREEN ALGAE (Spirogyra sp.) AGAINST EXPRESSION COX-2 IN T47D CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Widyaningsih, Wahyu; Salamah, Nina; Susanti, Hari; Fitriani, Dwi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases that arise when a cell or group of cells that regulate out of control growth. Green algae (Spirogyra sp.) is one of the medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer. Green algae (Spirogyra sp.) has active substances such as melatonin. Melatonin which is a compound that has been examined by researchers world as anticancer drugs and antioxidants. This study aims to determine the effect of ethanol extract of green algae (Spirogyra sp.) o...

  3. Effects of Green Tea Extracts on the Pharmacokinetics of Quetiapine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Ezzeldin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic, used clinically in the treatment of schizophrenia, acute mania in bipolar disorders, and bipolar depression in adults. In this study, the effect of green tea extracts (GTE on the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine (substrate of CYP3A4 was investigated in rats. Male Wistar albino rats received GTE (175 mg/kg or saline (control by oral gavage for 7 days before a single intragastric administration of 25 mg/kg quetiapine. Plasma concentrations of quetiapine were measured up to 12 h after its administration by a validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Pretreatment with GTE produced significant reductions in the maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve of quetiapine by 45% and 35%, respectively, compared to quetiapine alone. However, GTE did not produce significant change in elimination half-life and oral clearance of quetiapine. This study concluded that GTE may decrease the bioavailability of quetiapine when coadministered.

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N Jayachandra; Nagoor Vali, D; Rani, M; Rani, S Sudha

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized through bio-green method has been reported to have biomedical applications to control pathogenic microbes as it is cost effective compared to commonly used physical and chemical methods. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous Piper longum fruit extract (PLFE) and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 46nm as determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size analyzer respectively. FT-IR spectrum revealed the capping of the phytoconstituents, probably polyphenols from P. longum fruit extract and stabilizing the nanoparticles. Further the ferric ion reducing test, confirmed that the capping agents were condensed tannins. The aqueous P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) and the green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro antioxidant assays. The results from the antimicrobial assays suggested that green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) were more potent against pathogenic bacteria than the P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) alone. The nanoparticles also showed potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an IC 50 value of 67μg/ml/24h by the MTT assay. These results support the advantages of using bio-green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities those are simple and cost effective as well. © 2013.

  5. Antioxidative and Antimelanoma Effects of Various Tea Extracts via a Green Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis contains high level of antioxidant elements and is a well-known beverage consumed worldwide. The purpose of this study is to compare different concentrations of green tea, black tea, oolong tea 861, oolong tea 732, and jasmine green tea. These five types of tea extracts were known to have antioxidative properties, reducing power, and metal ion chelating activity. The current study compared these five extracts in terms of their inhibiting effects on human malignant melanoma: A2058 and A375. To determine the cell viability between normal cell and malignant melanoma cells, an MTT assay was applied to evaluate the cytotoxic potential on human melanoma cells, with all tea extracts showing decreased cell viability with increasing tea extract concentrations. Cytotoxicity on HaCat (normal skin cells showed no effect on the cell viabilities at lower concentrations of the tea extracts. These results suggest the antioxidative effect of five tea extracts that protect against oxidation and melanoma production, with green tea and jasmine green tea showing the lowest cell viability when tested against malignant melanoma cells.

  6. Anti-stress Effect of Green Tea with Lowered Caffeine on Humans: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Ishida, Hitoshi; Iwao, Yasunori; Morita, Akio; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2017-01-01

    Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effects on animals and humans. However, the effect of theanine was blocked by caffeine and gallate-type catechins, which are the main components in tea. We examined the anti-stress effect of green tea with lowered caffeine, low-caffeine green tea, on humans. The study design was a single-blind group comparison and participants (n=20) were randomly assigned to low-caffeine or placebo tea groups. These teas (≥500 mL/d), which were eluted with room temperature water, were taken from 1 week prior to pharmacy practice and continued for 10 d in the practice period. The participants ingested theanine (ca. 15 mg/d) in low-caffeine green tea. To assess the anxiety of participants, the state-trait anxiety inventory test was used before pharmacy practice. The subjective stress of students was significantly lower in the low-caffeine-group than in the placebo-group during pharmacy practice. The level of salivary α-amylase activity, a stress marker, increased significantly after daily pharmacy practice in the placebo-group but not in the low-caffeine-group. These results suggested that the ingestion of low-caffeine green tea suppressed the excessive stress response of students. This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (ID No. UMIN14942).

  7. Detection of Ni, Cd, and Cu in green leafy vegetables collected from different cultivation areas in and around Colombo District, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananke, Thilini; Wansapala, Jagath; Gunaratne, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Five types of green leafy vegetables ["Kankun" (Ipomoea aquatica), "Mukunuwenna" (Alternanthera sessilis), "Thampala" (Amaranthus viridis), "Nivithi" (Basella alba), and "Kohila leaves" (Lasia spinosa)] were randomly collected from six different locations (Wellampitiya, Kolonnawa, Kottawa, Piliyandala, Bandaragama, and Kahathuduwa) in and around Colombo District, Sri Lanka, and subjected to analysis of three heavy metals [nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu)] by atomic absorption spectrometry. Soils from green leafy vegetable cultivation lands and irrigated water were also tested. The average concentrations of heavy metals Ni, Cd, and Cu in soils were 51.5 ± 45.5, 1.4 ± 1.1, and 66.5 ± 59.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. The highest Ni contamination was detected in the irrigated water samples from Wellampitiya (2.02 mg L(-1)) followed by Kolonnawa (1.02 mg L(-1)) and Kahathuduwa (0.25 mg L(-1)) areas. This has exceeded the WHO/FAO guideline (0.2 mg L(-1)). However, Cd and Cu contents in all tested irrigated water samples were well below the detection limits. Significant differences were observed in Ni, Cd, and Cu levels, between both production sites and green leafy vegetables analyzed (P leafy vegetable samples collected from six areas varied as 0.23 ± 0.15 for Cd, 12.60 ± 9.01 for Cu, and 7.62 ± 8.41 for Ni. Maximum Ni, Cd, and Cu contaminations were found in the green leafy vegetables collected from Kolonnawa area. Among the green leafy vegetables analyzed, "Kohila leaves" have the highest tendency to accumulate Ni, Cd, and Cu from the environment.

  8. Greenness and Carbon Stocks of Mangroves: A climate-driven Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lule, A. V.; Colditz, R. R.; Herrera-Silveira, J.; Guevara, M.; Rodriguez-Zuniga, M. T.; Cruz, I.; Ressl, R.; Vargas, R.

    2017-12-01

    Mangroves cover less than 1% of the earth's surface and are one o­­­f the most productive ecosystems of the world. They are highly vulnerable to climate variability due to their sensitivity to environmental changes; therefore, there are scientific and societal needs to designed frameworks to assess mangrove's vulnerability. We study the relationship between climate drivers, canopy greenness and carbon stocks to quantify a potential climate-driven effect on mangrove carbon dynamics. We identify greenness trends and their relationships with climate drivers and carbon stocks throughout 15 years (2001-2015) across mangrove forests of Mexico. We defined several categories for mangroves: a) Arid mangroves with superficial water input (ARsw); b) Humid mangroves with interior or underground water input (HUiw); and c) Humid mangroves with superficial water input (HUsw). We found a positive significant trend of greenness for ARsw and HUsw categories (p 0.69). Precipitation and temperature drive canopy greenness only across HUsw. Regarding carbon stocks, the HUiw shows the lower amount of aboveground carbon (AGC; 12.7 Mg C ha-1) and the higher belowground carbon (BGC; 219 Mg C ha-1). The HUsw shows the higher amount of AGC (169.5 Mg C ha-1) and the ARsw the lower of BGC (92.4 Mg C ha-1). Climate drivers are better related with canopy greenness and AGC for both humid mangrove categories (r2 > 0.48), while the relationship of BGC and canopy greenness is lower for all categories (r2 < 0.21). Our results have implications for better understanding mangrove's ecosystem function and environmental services, as well as their potential vulnerability to climate variability.

  9. Vitamin G: effects of green space on health, well-being, and social safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg Agnes E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Looking out on and being in the green elements of the landscape around us seem to affect health, well-being and feelings of social safety. This article discusses the design of a research program on the effects of green space in the living environment on health, well-being and social safety. Methods/design The program consists of three projects at three different scales: at a macro scale using data on the Netherlands as a whole, at an intermediate scale looking into the specific effect of green space in the urban environment, and at micro scale investigating the effects of allotment gardens. The projects are observational studies, combining existing data on land use and health interview survey data, and collecting new data through questionnaires and interviews. Multilevel analysis and GIS techniques will be used to analyze the data. Discussion Previous (experimental research in environmental psychology has shown that a natural environment has a positive effect on well-being through restoration of stress and attentional fatigue. Descriptive epidemiological research has shown a positive relationship between the amount of green space in the living environment and physical and mental health and longevity. The program has three aims. First, to document the relationship between the amount and type of green space in people's living environment and their health, well-being, and feelings of safety. Second, to investigate the mechanisms behind this relationship. Mechanisms relate to exposure (leading to stress reduction and attention restoration, healthy behavior and social integration, and selection. Third, to translate the results into policy on the crossroads of spatial planning, public health, and safety. Strong points of our program are: we study several interrelated dependent variables, in different ordinary settings (as opposed to experimental or extreme settings, focusing on different target groups, using appropriate multilevel

  10. Effectiveness of Postharvest Treatment with Chitosan to Control Citrus Green Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Guilli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Control of green mold, caused by Penicillium digitatum, by fungicides raises several problems, such as emergence of resistant pathogens, as well as concerns about the environment and consumers’ health. As potential alternatives, the effects of chitosan on green mold disease and the quality attributes of citrus fruits were investigated. Fruits were wounded then treated with different concentrations of chitosan 24 h before their inoculation with P. digitatum. The results of in vitro experiment demonstrated that the antifungal activity against P. digitatum was improved in concert to the increase of chitosan concentration. In an in vivo study, green mold was significantly reduced by chitosan treatments. In parallel, chitinase and glucanase activities were enhanced in coated fruits. Evidence suggested that effects of chitosan coating on green mold of mandarin fruits might be related to its fungitoxic properties against the pathogen and/or the elicitation of biochemical defense responses in coated fruits. Further, quality attributes including fruit firmness, surface color, juice content, and total soluble solids, were not affected by chitosan during storage. Moreover, the loss of weight was even less pronounced in chitosan-coated fruit.

  11. The Prediction of Jet Noise Ground Effects Using an Acoustic Analogy and a Tailored Green's Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of an acoustic analogy for the mixing noise component of jet noise in the presence of an infinite surface is presented. The reflection of jet noise by the ground changes the distribution of acoustic energy and is characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns. The equivalent sources are modeled based on the two-point cross- correlation of the turbulent velocity fluctuations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution. Propagation effects, due to reflection by the surface and refaction by the jet shear layer, are taken into account by calculating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations (LEE). The vector Green's function of the LEE is written in relation to Lilley's equation; that is, approximated with matched asymptotic solutions and the Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation. The Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation for an infinite flat plane with impedance is the Weyl-van der Pol equation. Predictions are compared with an unheated Mach 0.95 jet produced by a nozzle with an exit diameter of 0.3302 meters. Microphones are placed at various heights and distances from the nozzle exit in the peak jet noise direction above an acoustically hard and an asphalt surface. The predictions are shown to accurately capture jet noise ground effects that are characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns in the mid- and far-field and capture overall trends in the near-field.

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Green Tea on Dental Caries and Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ibrahim Awadalla

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background :An increasing number of people all around the world are turning to the nature by using the natural herbal products in both prophylaxis and treatment of different diseases. Green tea with active chemical ingredients posses diverse pharmacological properties that include anti-inflammatory, anticariogenic, antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Subjects & Methods: The researchers used the following measurments: Streptococcus Mutans count in saliva, Streptococcus Mutans count in plaque samples from margins of composite restorations and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI. The above mentioned measurements were applied to a sample consists of 60 subjects divided equally into control and study groups where in control group they use the regular oral hygiene measurements only while in study group they applicate 2% green tea 3 times daily for 7 days (long term study. This experimental intervention study was carried in Azhar university clinic. Objective: to assess the possible protective properties of green tea on oral health. Results: The results of present study showed that there was a statistically significant difference among cases and controls concerning streptococcus mutans count in saliva, streptococcus mutans count in plaque samples from composite restoration margins and GBI. Conclusion : This study supports the effectiveness of local application of green tea as antibacterial and anticariogenic material. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 269-274

  13. Green LED light has anti-inflammatory effects on burns in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catão, Maria H C V; Costa, Roniery O; Nonaka, Cassiano F W; Junior, Ricardo L C Albuquerque; Costa, Ivna R R S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green LED light on inflammatory cells in skin burns: a histological study in rats. In this study, 40 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: G1 - Control (CTR) and G2 - Green Led (LED). Immediately after injury, green light (60J/cm(2), 10s, λ520 at 550nm) was applied in a timely manner in the four coinciding points of the wound angles and at each point, the amount of 60J/cm (2) with a time of 10s was delivered, totaling 240J/cm(2) per session with 24h intervals until the day before animal sacrifice at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days with a lethal dose of intraperitoneal anesthetic. In the histological analysis, animals treated with green LED, from 7 days, showed a significant decrease (pLED light provides an anti-inflammatory effect on skin burns of rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  15. Green Space and Deaths Attributable to the Urban Heat Island Effect in Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tran Ngoc; Van, Doan Quang; Kusaka, Hiroyuki; Seposo, Xerxes T; Honda, Yasushi

    2018-04-01

    To quantify heat-related deaths in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, caused by the urban heat island (UHI) and explore factors that may alleviate the impact of UHIs. We estimated district-specific meteorological conditions from 2010 to 2013 using the dynamic downscaling model and calculated the attributable fraction and number of mortalities resulting from the total, extreme, and mild heat in each district. The difference in attributable fraction of total heat between the central and outer districts was classified as the attributable fraction resulting from the UHI. The association among attributable fraction, attributable number with a green space, population density, and budget revenue of each district was then explored. The temperature-mortality relationship between the central and outer areas was almost identical. The attributable fraction resulting from the UHI was 0.42%, which was contributed by the difference in temperature distribution between the 2 areas. Every 1-square-kilometer increase in green space per 1000 people can prevent 7.4 deaths caused by heat. Green space can alleviate the impacts of UHIs, although future studies conducting a heath economic evaluation of tree planting are warranted.

  16. Effect of Green Coffee Bean Extract on Streptococcus mutans Count: A Randomised Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Mona; Kaushik, Mamta; Roshni, Roshni; Reddy, Pallavi; Mehra, Neha; Jain, Vallari; Rana, Ritu

    2017-05-01

    Mouth rinses have been popularly used as a supplementary oral hygiene aid. A lot of commercially available mouth rinses possess few adverse effects, which has necessitated the search for alternative and herbal mouth rinses. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of rinsing with green coffee bean extract in comparison with chlorhexidine mouthwash and sterile water on salivary Streptococcus mutans count. A randomized parallel controlled clinical trial was planned and 45 subjects aged between 18-22 years were selected. The subjects were divided into three groups (n=15 in each group): Group A: Study group: 2% Green coffee bean extract, Group B: Positive control: 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX), Group C: Negative control: Sterile water. Group A subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml of 2% Green coffee bean extract for one minute. Group B subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml 0.2% CHX mouthwash for one minute. Group C subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml of Sterile water for one minute twice daily for two weeks. Baseline samples (Pre rinse) were collected on day 1 and post rinsing saliva samples were collected after 14 days. The samples were cultured using Mitis Salivarius Agar enriched with Bacitracin and colonies were counted using a hand held digital colony counter. The statistical analysis was done using paired t-test, One-way variance ANOVA and Post-Hoc tests. The Green coffee bean extract group showed a statistical significant reduction in Streptococcus mutans colony count before and after intervention which was comparable with CHX group. Green coffee bean extract as a mouthwash can be explored as a safe and effective alternative to CHX mouthwash.

  17. Effects of greening and community reuse of vacant lots on crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Kondo; B. Hohl; S. Han; C. Branas

    2016-01-01

    The Youngstown Neighborhood Development Corporation initiated a ‘Lots of Green’ programme to reuse vacant land in 2010. We performed a difference-in-differences analysis of the effects of this programme on crime in and around newly treated lots, in comparison to crimes in and around randomly selected and matched, untreated vacant lot controls. The effects of two types...

  18. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positively affects green product development performance. In addition, our findings also indicate that the relationship between proactive green innovation and green product development performance is partially mediated by green creativity. Accordingly, green creativity plays a critical role for companies to achieve a great green product development performance. However, reactive green innovation does not significantly influence green creativity and green product development performance. Companies should develop proactive green innovation rather than reactive green innovation in order to enhance their green creativity and increase their product development performance.

  19. [Effects of green space vegetation canopy pattern on the microclimate in residential quarters of Shenzhen City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Han; Wang, Jun-Jian; Chen, Xue; Sun, Jian-Lin; Zeng, Hui

    2011-02-01

    Based on field survey and landscape pattern analysis, this paper studied the effects of green space vegetation canopy on the microclimate in three typical residential quarters in Shenzhen City. In each of the residential quarters, 22-26 points were chosen for meteorological observation; and around each of the observation points, a 20 m x 20 m quadrat was installed, with each quadrat divided into two different patches, one covered by vegetation canopy and the another no-covered. The patch density index (D(p)) and contagion index (CONTAG) in each quadrat were calculated to analyze the relationships between vegetation canopy pattern index and microclimate in each point. The results showed that the green space vegetation canopy pattern in Shenzhen had significant regulation effect on temperature and humidity. The cooling effect was mainly from the shading effect of vegetation, and also, correlated with vegetation quantity. The increase in the CONTAG of bare surface had obvious negative effects on the regulation effect of vegetation on microclimate. The regulation capability of green space vegetation on the temperature and humidity in residential quarters mainly came from tall arbor species.

  20. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  1. Effect of countermeasures on radionuclide uptake by green plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper results will be discussed in the field of countermeasures effectiveness on the radiocaesium and radiostrontium transfer to plants in relation to soil characteristics at the different sites investigated, as well as their influence on the crop yield. Refs. 4 (author)

  2. [EFFECTS OF GREEN TEA ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF THE EXERCISE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert Pérez, Enrique José; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    assessing the magnitude of the effects of green tea in subjects that do exercise. a search was been carried out with key words "green tea" AND "exercise" in four documentary databases: Pubmed, EBSCOHOST, OvidSP and Proquest. adult age of the sample (18-65 years, based on WHO), and the consumption of a quantified amount of green tea or substitutes, along with doing physical exercise measurable in intensity, in clinical tests published between January 2010 and December 2014, whose source were indexed scientific journals. 260 articles were analyzed, of which 13 items were selected. 69% are studies with a designed workout, and 92% have included an exercise test to assess parameters. 77% fluctuate between 20-40 years and sample size between 9 and 36 subjects. 69% are long length. GTE has been the most used substitute (38%). 92% of studies have obtained some improvement and 92% of them, were significantly statistic. Interpretation of results: little homogeneity has been found in results in the analysis of results expression. Sample size is limited. There is a wide range of GTE substitutes and diversity of doses and exercise done. It cannot be possible to establish a dose, dosage and physical activity recommended. green tea gives us a wide variety of benefits in combination with physical exercise. There is a little evidence about quality. It cannot be possible to establish specific recommendations for obtaining benefits. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Butorphanol on Anaesthesia Induction by Isoflurane in the Green Iguana (Iguana iguana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Trnková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 10 clinically healthy green iguanas (5 males and 5 females, body weight ranging from 1 350 to 2 770 g were given butorphanol by intramuscular injection following 24 h fasting. Inhalation anaesthesia was administered by mask (5% isoflurane with oxygen, 1.0 l/min, once reactions to external stimuli had decreased (15.45 ± 1.54 min later. Tracheal intubation was performed as soon as the iguanas exhibited complete tolerance to mechanical stimuli. A second study was performed 4 weeks later using the same green iguanas with no pre-medication. Marked individual reactions to masking were observed during both experiments. Some iguanas exhibited breath holding which prolonged anaesthetic induction. Physical stimulation was used in these cases in order to stimulate spontaneous breathing. The mean anaesthetic induction time was similar in both groups of green iguanas (4.34 ± 0.47 and 4.93 ± 0.88 min. There was also a comparable interval from masking to safe tracheal intubation in both experimental groups (15.21 ± 4.26 and 14.31 ± 1.39 min. In view of the results, pre-medication with butorphanol cannot be considered an effective method of anaesthetic induction in green iguanas.

  4. The effect of growth conditions on flavonols and anthocyanins accumulation in green and red lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia BRÜCKOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different growth conditions on anthocyanins and flavonols accumulation in leaves of green and red loose leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa. Lettuce plants were grown in three types of conditions, in greenhouse (I. variant, behind clear glass in field (II. variant and in open field conditions (III. variant. Estimation of anthocyanins and flavonols content was done by non-destructive measurements with optical fluorescence sensor Multiplex® 3 (Force-A, France. It was estimated that green lettuce varieties had a greater flavonols content compared to red lettuce varieties in all experimental variants. The highest level of flavonols was detected in leaves of green variety Zoltán (1.218 RU and in red lettuce had the highest amount of flavonols in variety Carmesi (1.095 RU. At the same time red lettuce varieties were characterized by higher anthocyanins content. Parameter anthocyanin index is correlated with visible red coloration of leaves. The highest content of anthocyanins was detected in variety Oakly (0.867 RU. Under the open field conditions was found statistically significant higher (P < 0.05 flavonols and anthocyanins level in both green and red lettuce leaves compared to greenhouse conditions. It may be connected with intensification of flavonoids biosynthesis and accumulation which normally stimulated by sun irradiation, especially UV-B radiation.

  5. Oxidative stress reduced by a green tea concentrate and Capsicum combination: synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, Greg B; Morré, D James; Morré, Dorothy M

    2013-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species that are produced by aerobic metabolism and signaling cascades have the potential to play important roles in maintaining homeostatic redox and cell proliferation. When the balance between the production and elimination of reactive oxygen species is perturbed toward production, the result is oxidative stress. High levels of oxidative stress are a general characteristic of cancer. The altered redox state within a tumor microenvironment confers a growth advantage through increased proliferation rates, evasion of apoptosis, and increased resistance to therapeutic compounds. We have tested a synergistic combination of green tea-Camellia sinensis-concentrate and powdered Capsicum powder (TeaFense™/Capsol-T™) as a dietary supplement to reduce oxidative stress as an approach to elimination of malignant cells. Here, we demonstrate that the green tea-powdered Capsicum mixture effectively reduces levels of oxidative stress in both cancer (HeLa) and noncancer (MCF-10A) cells as determined from measurements of levels of the oxidative stress indicator Nrf-2 by western blot analysis. Nrf-2 is a transcription factor that controls an antioxidant response element. Increased expression of Nrf-2 is linked to high levels of oxidative stress and vice versa. Based on levels of Nrf-2, the mixture of green tea concentrate plus powdered Capsicum reduced oxidative stress by more than 50% compared with 15% by the green tea concentrate alone.

  6. Protective effects of Mengshan green tea and hawk tea against UV-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Ren Zhenglong; Zhang Huaiyu; Tang Zongxiang; Luo Peigao

    2005-01-01

    A group of cultured normal human skin-derived fibroblasts was used as the cell model to investigate protective and repair effects of aqueous extracts of Mengshan green tea and Hawk tea against 320-400 nm UV-ray irradiation, with the methods of MTT colorimetry and LDH release. It was found that the aqueous extracts had strong protective effect on fibroblasts against the UV-rays with dose dependence. There were no significant differences between the two kinds of tea aqueous extracts in a higher concentration of 5 mg/mL, whereas at lower concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 mg/mL the, green tea aqueous extract was less effective than the hawk-tea aqueous extract in protecting fibroblasts from the UV-ray damage. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the green tea and hawk-tea aqueous extract could repair damages induced by the UV irradiation with dose dependence. But there were no statistically significant differences between the two kinds of aqueous extract. The effects may be related to antioxidant effect of tea polyphenol. (authors)

  7. Identifying effective factors on consumers' choice behavior toward green products: the case of Tehran, the capital of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan; Rajabpour, Shayan

    2017-01-01

    The environment is increasingly turning to a vital and very important issue for all people. By increasing environmental concerns as well as legislating and regulating rules on the protection of the environment and the emergence of green consumers, implementing green marketing approach for organizations seems to be more crucial and essential. As a result, the need for ecological products and green business activities compels companies to combine environmental issues with marketing strategies. The first step in the success of companies and organizations is to identify consumers and their consumption behaviors correctly and accurately. So, the purpose of this study is to identify effective factors for the choice of consumers of green products. We used consumption values (functional value, social value, emotional value, conditional value, epistemic value, and environmental value) as the effective factor for choosing green products. The original place of this research was in Tehran, capital city of Iran, which is one of the most polluted cities in the world due to environmental issues. The results from the survey questionnaires are analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results indicated that functional value-price, functional value-quality, social value, epistemic value, and environmental value had significantly positive effects on the choice of green products; also, conditional value and emotional value had no influence on it. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior regarding green products included environmental value and epistemic value. This study emphasized the proper pricing of green products by producers and sellers.

  8. Bases of the scientific conception of the “green frame” designing in urban areas for providing ecological safety of the urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, V.; Kotlyarova, E.

    2017-10-01

    In modern conditions of a stable urban areas development special place is occupied by the problem of ecological security of built-up areas, including residential, recreational, industrial areas and objects of transport and engineering infrastructure. The main results of the study are to establish the basis of formation of the concept of choice of energy-efficient technologies and tools of forming an ecologically efficient “green frame” of urban areas on the basis of a single integrated scientific concept. Analysis allowed us to divide the measures for improvement into the following main groups: organizational and planning, engineering and technical and special engineering and environmental. The significance of these results for the construction industry, including transport infrastructure, is to increase the level of environmental safety in the construction and reconstruction of urban areas due to the organization of their improvement on the basis suggested by the authors scientific approach. Its basis is integrated accounting of the natural and climatic features of the landscaping territory, the types and level of environmental impact of negative anthropogenic factors, the features of architectural and planning solutions of the existing or projected on the studied area, the structure and types of green spaces and their functional ecological properties.

  9. Green tea as an effective antimicrobial for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda eReygaert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a very most common type of infection worldwide, and result in billions of dollars in medical care costs. Escherichia coli is the infective agent for 80%-90% of all UTIs. Green tea, derived from leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant has been shown to have various potential health benefits (e.g. cardiovascular disease and cancer. The major beneficial components of green tea have been characterized, and are now known to be polyphenolic catechins. The main catechins in green tea are (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, (--epicatechin (EC, and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. EGCG and EGC have been shown to have antimicrobial effects, but only EGC has been shown to be excreted in urine. Isolates of E. coli from urinary tract infections collected between 2007-2008 were characterized for antimicrobial resistance to standard drugs. Then 80 of these isolates, representing a wide spectrum of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, were selected for testing using an extract of green tea.Results: The concentrations of green tea extract tested were 0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 mg/ml. All of the strains tested, except one, had MICs of ≤4.0 mg/ml, with 40% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤2.5 mg/ml, 36% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤3.0 mg/ml, 18% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤3.5 mg/ml, and 5% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤4.0 mg/ml. Two control strains varied in susceptibility, one having an MIC of ≤2.5 mg/ml, another having an MIC of ≤3.5 mg/ml, and the third having an MIC of ≤4.0 mg/ml.Conclusion: Since EGC has been shown to have antimicrobial effects on E. coli, and EGC has been shown to be excreted in the urine in a high enough concentration to potentially be effective as an antimicrobial; these MIC results suggest that ingesting green tea could have potential antimicrobial effects on urinary tract infections caused by E. coli.

  10. Green infrastructure development at European Union's eastern border: Effects of road infrastructure and forest habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Khaulyak, Olha; Yamelynets, Taras; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Naumov, Vladimir; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J; Elbakidze, Marine; Manton, Michael; Prots, Bohdan; Valasiuk, Sviataslau

    2017-05-15

    The functionality of forest patches and networks as green infrastructure may be affected negatively both by expanding road networks and forestry intensification. We assessed the effects of (1) the current and planned road infrastructure, and (2) forest loss and gain, on the remaining large forest landscape massifs as green infrastructure at the EU's eastern border region in post-socialistic transition. First, habitat patch and network functionality in 1996-98 was assessed using habitat suitability index modelling. Second, we made expert interviews about road development with planners in 10 administrative regions in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. Third, forest loss and gain inside the forest massifs, and gain outside them during the period 2001-14 were measured. This EU cross-border region hosts four remaining forest massifs as regional green infrastructure hotspots. While Poland's road network is developing fast in terms of new freeways, city bypasses and upgrades of road quality, in Belarus and Ukraine the focus is on maintenance of existing roads, and no new corridors. We conclude that economic support from the EU, and thus rapid development of roads in Poland, is likely to reduce the permeability for wildlife of the urban and agricultural matrix around existing forest massifs. However, the four identified forest massifs themselves, forming the forest landscape green infrastructure at the EU's east border, were little affected by road development plans. In contrast, forest loss inside massifs was high, especially in Ukraine. Only in Poland forest loss was balanced by gain. Forest gain outside forest massifs was low. To conclude, pro-active and collaborative spatial planning across different sectors and countries is needed to secure functional forest green infrastructure as base for biodiversity conservation and human well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effect of plant nutrition on aphid size, prey consumption, and life history characteristics of green lacewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueel, Muhammad A; Collins, Catherine M; Raza, Abu-bakar M; Ahmad, Shahbaz; Tariq, Muhammad; Leather, Simon R

    2014-02-01

    Plant quality can directly and indirectly affect the third trophic level. The predation by all the instars of green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (S.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on the cereal aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), and Sitobion avenae (F.) at varying nitrogen fertilizer levels was calculated under laboratory conditions. Wheat plants were grown on four nitrogen fertilizer levels and aphids were fed on these plants and subsequently offered as food to the C. carnea. Aphid densities of 10, 30, and 90 were offered to first, second, and third instar larvae of green lacewing. Increased nitrogen application improved nitrogen contents of the plants and also the body weight of cereal aphids feeding on them. Aphid consumption by green lacewings was reduced with the increase in nitrogen content in the host plants of aphids. Predation of both aphid species by first, second, and third instars larvae of C. carnea was highest on aphids reared on plants with the lowest rate of fertilization, suggesting a compensatory consumption to overcome reduced biomass (lower aphid size). Total biomass devoured by C. carnea on all nitrogen fertilizer treatments was not statistically different. Additionally, the heavier host prey influenced by the plant nutrition had an effect on the life history characteristics of green lacewings. The larval duration, pupal weight, pupal duration, fecundity, and male and female longevity were significantly affected by the level of nitrogen fertilization to the aphid's host plants, except for pupal duration when fed on S. avenae. This study showed that quantity of prey supplied to the larvae affects the prey consumption and thereafter the life history characteristics of green lacewings. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Multiscale assessment of green leaf area in a semi-arid rangeland with a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial variability in green leaf cover of a western rangeland was studied by comparing field measurements on 50 m crossed transects to aerial and satellite imagery. The normalized difference vegetation index was calculated for multiple 2 cm resolution images collected over the field transects with ...

  13. Green's functions of one-dimensional quasicrystal bi-material with piezoelectric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liangliang [College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Sinomatech Wind Power Blade Co., Ltd, Beijing 100092 (China); Wu, Di [College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Wenshuai [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Lianzhi [Civil and Environmental Engineering School, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ricoeur, Andreas; Wang, Zhibin [Institute of Mechanics, University of Kassel, 34125 Kassel (Germany); Gao, Yang, E-mail: gaoyangg@gmail.com [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-09-16

    Based on the Stroh formalism of one-dimensional quasicrystals with piezoelectric effect, the problems of an infinite plane composed of two different quasicrystal half-planes are taken into account. The solutions of the internal and interfacial Green's functions of quasicrystal bi-material are obtained. Moreover, numerical examples are analyzed for a quasicrystal bi-material subjected to line forces or line dislocations, showing the contour maps of the coupled fields. The impacts of changing material constants on the coupled field components are investigated. - Highlights: • Green's functions of 1D piezoelectric quasicrystal bi-material are studied. • The coupled fields subjected to line forces or line dislocations are obtained. • Mechanical behavior under the effect of different material constants is researched.

  14. Effect of an industrial chemical waste on the uptake of cations by green oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORTENSIA RADULESCU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate, obtained as a waste in the industrial manufacture of magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide from dolomites, can be applied in agriculture. The appreciable amounts of calcium and magnesium in this waste, together with impurities such as iron, zinc, manganese, chromium and copper compounds can be useful in soil amendment and plant nutrition. This paper presents preliminary results of the testing of several waste doses on soil, pursuing their effect on the uptake of cations by green oat (Avena sativa L.. The obtained results show an increase in the amount of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper found in green oat plants, as well as a decrease of the content of iron and manganese with increasing waste dose. These results may be explained by lower absorptions of iron andmanganese because of the antagonistic effect created by high amounts of calcium and magnesium, as well as by the presence of copper and zinc.

  15. Green Eco-Driving Effects in Non-Congested Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Coloma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite technological advances in engines and fuels, the transportation sector is still one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gas (GHG. Driving patterns, including eco-driving techniques, are a complementary measure for saving GHG emissions. Most eco-driving studies so far have been conducted in large cities suffering chronic congestion problems. The aim of this research is therefore to analyse the potential of driver behaviour for reducing emissions in a small non-congested city. Driver performance parameters such as travel speeds, number of stops, revolutions per minute, and maximum acceleration-deceleration are also studied. The methodology is designed to measure the effect of both eco-driving and eco-routing under real traffic conditions. A campaign was carried out in the city of Caceres (Spain to collect data on various types of roads under different traffic conditions. This research concludes that eco-driving leads to CO2 savings on all routes and road types of 17% in gasoline engines and 21% in diesel, although travel times are increased by 7.5% on average. The shortest route is also the most ecological, regardless of the traffic volume and characteristics, implying that consumption in non-congested cities depends mainly on distance travelled rather than driving patterns in terms of number of stops, speed and acceleration.

  16. The Influence of Hydrologic Parameters on the Hydraulic Efficiency of an Extensive Green Roof in Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Garofalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an urban environment, green roofs represent a sustainable solution for mitigating stormwater volumes and hydrograph peaks. So far, many literature studies have investigated the hydraulic efficiency and the subsurface runoff coefficient of green roofs, showing their strong variability according to several factors, including the characteristics of storm events. Furthermore, only few studies have focused on the hydraulic efficiency of green roofs under Mediterranean climate conditions and defined the influencing hydrological parameters on the subsurface runoff coefficient. Nevertheless, for designing purposes, it is crucial to properly assess the subsurface runoff coefficient of a given green roof under specific climate conditions and its influencing factors. This study intends to, firstly, evaluate the subsurface runoff coefficient at daily and event-time scales for a given green roof, through a conceptual model implemented in SWMM. The model was loaded with both daily and 1-min rainfall data from two Mediterranean climate sites, one in Thessaloniki, Greece and one in Cosenza, Italy, respectively. Then, the most influencing hydrological parameters were examined through a statistical regression analysis. The findings show that the daily subsurface runoff coefficient is 0.70 for both sites, while the event-based one is 0.79 with a standard deviation of 0.23 for the site in Cosenza, Italy. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the influencing parameters are the rainfall intensity and antecedent dry weather period with a confidence level of 95%. This study demonstrated that, due to the high variability of the subsurface runoff coefficient, the use of a unique value for design purposes is inappropriate and that a preliminary estimation could be obtained as a function of the total rainfall depth and the antecedent dry weather period by using the validated multi-regression relationship which is site specific.

  17. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with hepatitis C or hepatitis B. HIV/AIDS. Research on the effects of blue-green algae in people with HIV/AIDS has been inconsistent. Some early research shows that taking 5 grams of blue-green ...

  18. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on laboratory cultures of green algae and cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palffy, K.; Ordog, V.; Voros, L.

    2004-01-01

    Since the discovery of the ozone hole, an increasing amount of work has been devoted to measuring the impact of the UV-radiation on living organisms. In this point of view, algae as the primer producers of aquatic ecosystems, get to the central part of the interest. The aim of the study was to study the effect of ultraviolet radiation on laboratory cultures of green algae and cyanobacteria

  19. Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis L. Effects on Uric Acid Levels on Hyperuricemia Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putranty Widha Nugraheni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid is the end product of purine degradation. When uric acid levels exceed normal limits, it will build up and cause hyperuricemia. Allopurinol is one of the most effective and common medicine for hyperuricemia, but it brings serious side effects, therefore it is needed alternative therapy for hyperuricemia. One plant that may be expected to low uric acid levels is green tea (Camellia sinensis L., that contains many antioxidants polyphenols, especially flavonoids. Flavonoid has strong antioxidant properties, act as free radical and metal scavengers, and also xanthine oxidase (XOD inhibitors. This study investigates the potential of green tea using various doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of body weight in 24 white male rats (Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain that has been received high purine diet in 60 consecutive days. This study used DHBSA methods to measure uric acid levels in blood serum and urine that excreted 8 hours before surgery. Green tea extract that contains polyphenol can inhibit XOD activities, therefore, it leads to decrease uric acid level in blood and increase the excretion through urine by modulating urate gene transporter. A therapy with 600 mg/kg body weight of GTE is the most effective dose to decrease uric acid levels in serum and to increase excretion of exceeding uric acid significantly (p < 0.01, from One Way ANOVA and Tukey analysis.

  20. The Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effect of Grape Seed and Green Tea Extracts on Durability of Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Golvardzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study tried to investigate the antioxidant and anti-bacterial effects of green tea and grape seed extract (with a volume of 2% on durability of Tilapia packed inpolyethylene bags, which were kept in cool temperature of 4 ± 1 °C. Methods: Prepared fish were divided into 3 batches: 2 batches were treated by dipping for 30 min in ethanolic of green tea extract (2% v/v and grape seed (2% v/v, respectively, while the third batch was dipped in distilled water as a control sample. The control and treated fish samples were analyzed for microbiological such as total volatile count and psychrotrophic count, and chemical such as thiobarbituric acid (TBA, and free fatty acid (FFA values. The sensory characteristic was over a period of 20 days. Results: The results indicated that the two extracts' treatments delayed significantly (P < 0.05. Lipid oxidation and process of spoilage in comparison with the psychrotrophic bacteria and total viable count control also remained lower than the proposed acceptable limit (7 log CFU/g. According to sensory, chemical, and microbiological analyses results, the treatment of grape seed extract had high quality and enhanced the beneficial effects on sensory characteristics in comparison with other treatments. Conclusions: the present study showed that the grape seed extract and green tea were very effective in extending the shelf life of Tilapia during refrigerated storage.

  1. Irrigation drainwater effects on the endangered larval razorback sucker and bonytail in the middle Green River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Buhl, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) irrigation drainwater investigation of the middle Green River of Utah reported that concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissues were sufficiently elevated to be potentially harmful to fish and wildlife. The major focus of the DOI study was in the Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake area near Jensen, utah. The middle Green River provides sensitive habitat for the endangered Colorado squawfish, razorback sucker, and bonytail. The authors conducted two 90-day chronic toxicity studies, one with razorback sucker, and the other with bonytail. Swimup larvae were exposed in a reconstituted water simulating the middle Green River. The toxicant mixture simulated the environmental ratio and concentrations of inorganics reported in the DOI study for the mouth of Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake outflow on the Green River, and was composed of arsenic, boron, copper, molybdenum, uranium, vanadium, selenate, selenite, and zinc. The mixture was tested at 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X where X was the average expected environmental concentration. Razorback suckers had reduced survival after 40 days exposure to the inorganic mixture at 16X and after 60 days at 8X; whereas growth was reduced after 30 days at 8X and after 60 days at 4X. Bonytail had reduced survival after 20 days exposure at 16X, whereas growth was reduced after 60 days at 8X. These studies show that at environmentally realistic concentrations, the inorganic mixture simulating Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake outfall adversely affects larval endangered fish

  2. Tool to address green roof widespread implementation effect in flood characteristics for water management planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, new approaches were adopted to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible through technologies and devices that preserve and recreate natural landscape features. Green Roofs (GR are examples of these devices that are also incentivized by city's stormwater management plans. Several studies show that GR decreases on-site runoff from impervious surfaces, however, the analysis of the effect of widespread implementation of GR in the flood characteristics at the urban basin scale in subtropical areas are little discussed, mainly because of the absence of data. Thereby, this paper shows results related to the monitoring of an extensive modular GR under subtropical weather conditions, the development of a rainfall–runoff model based on the modified Curve Number (CN and SCS Triangular Unit Hydrograph (TUH methods and the analysis of large-scale impact of GR by modelling different basins. The model was calibrated against observed data and showed that GR absorbed almost all the smaller storms and reduced runoff even during the most intense rainfall. The overall CN was estimated in 83 (consistent with available literature with the shape of hydrographs well reproduced. Large-scale modelling (in basins ranging from 0.03 ha to several square kilometers showed that the widespread use of GRs reduced peak flows (volumes around 57% (48% at source and 38% (32% at the basin scale. Thus, this research validated a tool for the assessment of structural management measures (specifically GR to address changes in flood characteristics in the city's water management planning. From the application of this model it was concluded that even if the efficiency of GR decreases as the basin scale increase they still provide a good option to cope with urbanization impact.

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, N. Jayachandra; Nagoor Vali, D.; Rani, M.; Rani, S. Sudha, E-mail: sadrassudha@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized through bio-green method has been reported to have biomedical applications to control pathogenic microbes as it is cost effective compared to commonly used physical and chemical methods. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous Piper longum fruit extract (PLFE) and confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 46 nm as determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size analyzer respectively. FT-IR spectrum revealed the capping of the phytoconstituents, probably polyphenols from P. longum fruit extract and stabilizing the nanoparticles. Further the ferric ion reducing test, confirmed that the capping agents were condensed tannins. The aqueous P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) and the green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro antioxidant assays. The results from the antimicrobial assays suggested that green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) were more potent against pathogenic bacteria than the P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) alone. The nanoparticles also showed potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an IC 50 value of 67 μg/ml/24 h by the MTT assay. These results support the advantages of using bio-green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities those are simple and cost effective as well. - Highlights: • 46 nm spherical shaped P. longum fruit silver nanoparticles was prepared. • Capping and reducing bioactive plant compounds with in nanoparticles were condensed tannins. • Particles are potent antioxidant and anti microbial in biological systems. • They are cytotoxic against MCF-7 cell lines.

  4. Planning and Execution of a Marine Methane Hydrate Pressure Coring Program for the Walker Ridge and Green Canyon Areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Gary [Fugro Geoconsulting Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this project (and report) is to produce a guide to developing scientific, operational, and logistical plans for a future methane hydrate-focused offshore pressure coring program. This report focuses primarily on a potential coring program in the Walker Ridge 313 and Green Canyon 955 blocks where previous investigations were undertaken as part of the 2009 Department of Energy JIP Leg II expedition, however, the approach to designing a pressure coring program that was utilized for this project may also serve as a useful model for planning pressure coring programs for hydrates in other areas. The initial portion of the report provides a brief overview of prior investigations related to gas hydrates in general and at the Walker Ridge 313 and Green Canyon 955 blocks in particular. The main content of the report provides guidance for various criteria that will come into play when designing a pressure coring program.

  5. Preliminary study of the oil shales of the Green River formation in the tri-state area of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming to investigate their utility for disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    Results are presented of a preliminary study of the oil shales of the Green River formation in the tri-state area of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming to investigate their utility for possible disposal of radioactive waste material. The objective of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and to obtain a broad overview of the physical and economic factors which would have an effect on the suitability of the oil shale formations for possible disposal of radioactive waste material. These physical and economic factors are discussed in sections on magnitude of the oil shales, waste disposal relations with oil mining, cavities requirements, hydrological aspects, and study requirements

  6. Green zoning regulation under price discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hamoudi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine urban zoning within a linear city in a Bertrand duopolistic competition framework with price discrimination and linear transportation costs. It analyses the effects of introducing an environmental area where economic and residential activity are not allowed. The welfare function used to determine the optimal size of the green area allows for a possible regulator’s bias in favour of firms/consumers. It is shown that location-price competition can be either reduced or increased depending on the size of the green area. The results indicate when a regulator implements green zoning, under linear transportation costs, influences the optimal location of firms (because these locations depend on the size of the green zone. In consequence, zoning may be used as an effective industrial or urban policy tool.

  7. Effect of processing on the in vitro and in vivo protein quality of red and green lentils (Lens culinaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Matthew G; Medina, Gerardo; Franczyk, Adam J; Neufeld, Jason; Appah, Paulyn; Utioh, Alphonsus; Frohlich, Peter; House, James D

    2018-02-01

    In order to determine the effect of extrusion, baking and cooking on the protein quality of red and green lentils, a rodent bioassay was conducted and compared to an in vitro method of protein quality determination. On average, the Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score of red lentils (55.0) was higher than that of green lentils (50.8). Extruded lentil flour had higher scores (63.01 red, 57.09 green) than either cooked (57.40 red, 52.92 green) or baked (53.84 red, 47.14 green) flours. The average Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score of red lentils (0.54) was higher than green lentils (0.49). The Protein Efficiency Ratio of the extruded lentil flours (1.30 red, 1.34 green) was higher than that of the baked flour (0.98 red, 1.09 green). A correlation was found between in vivo and in vitro methods of determining protein digestibility (R 2 =0.8934). This work could influence selection of processing method during product development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of land cover and green space on land surface temperature of a fast growing economic region in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, A.; Kanniah, K. D.; Ho, C. H.

    2015-10-01

    Green space must be increased in the development of new cities as green space can moderate temperature in the cities. In this study we estimated the land surface temperature (LST) and established relationships between LST and land cover and various vegetation and urban surface indices in the Iskandar Malaysia (IM) region. IM is one of the emerging economic gateways of Malaysia, and is envisaged to transform into a metropolis by 2025. This change may cause increased temperature in IM and therefore we conducted a study by using Landsat 5 image covering the study region (2,217 km2) to estimate LST, classify different land covers and calculate spectral indices. Results show that urban surface had highest LST (24.49 °C) and the lowest temperature was recorded in, forest, rubber and water bodies ( 20.69 to 21.02°C). Oil palm plantations showed intermediate mean LST values with 21.65 °C. We further investigated the relationship between vegetation and build up densities with temperature. We extracted 1000 collocated pure pixels of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Urban Index (UI) and LST in the study area. Results show a strong and significant negative correlation with (R2= -0.74 and -0.79) respectively between NDVI, NDWI and LST . Meanwhile a strong positive correlation (R2=0.8 and 0.86) exists between NDBI, UI and LST. These results show the importance of increasing green cover in urban environment to combat any adverse effects of climate change.

  9. Strategically placing green infrastructure: cost-effective land conservation in the floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousky, Carolyn; Olmstead, Sheila M; Walls, Margaret A; Macauley, Molly

    2013-04-16

    Green infrastructure approaches have attracted increased attention from local governments as a way to lower flood risk and provide an array of other environmental services. The peer-reviewed literature, however, offers few estimates of the economic impacts of such approaches at the watershed scale. We estimate the avoided flood damages and the costs of preventing development of floodplain parcels in the East River Watershed of Wisconsin's Lower Fox River Basin. Results suggest that the costs of preventing conversion of all projected floodplain development would exceed the flood damage mitigation benefits by a substantial margin. However, targeting of investments to high-benefit, low-cost parcels can reverse this equation, generating net benefits. The analysis demonstrates how any flood-prone community can use a geographic-information-based model to estimate the flood damage reduction benefits of green infrastructure, compare them to the costs, and target investments to design cost-effective nonstructural flood damage mitigation policies.

  10. A Study of the Effect of Recycled Mix Glass on the Mechanical Properties of Green Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseel B. Al-Zubaidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we utilized mixing of different types of recycled glass such as (neon glass, brown glass, and green glass that has high percentage of silicon dioxide (SiO2 with different concentrations. Utilization these landfall materials can be considered as keeping on resources. Different waste glasses used as a partial replacement of cement with different concentrations 11%, 13%, and 15% of cement weight for each type, and study the effect of it on the mechanical properties of concrete. After mixing, casting, and curing in water at (20±2°C for (7, 14, and 28 days, the mechanical properties showed that the compressive strength and flexural showed highest results at 13% from cement weight of neon glass, whereas splitting tensile strength showed the highest value at the same percentage, but from green glass.

  11. Ameliorated Effects of Green Tea Extract on Lead Induced Kidney Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ait Hamadouche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the protective effect of an aqueous extract of green tea (GTE against renal oxidative damage induced by lead was undertaken. Adult males rats were divided into 4 groups: Control group receives distilled water as sole drinking source. GTE group received green tea extract (6.6% w/v.Pb group received Pb at dose of 0.4 % w/v in distilled water. Pb + GTE group received mixture of Pb and GTE as sole drinking source. Renal oxidative damage was observed in Pb-treated rats as evidenced via augmentation in kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO as well as depletion in kidney antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Histopathological analysis revealed degeneration in the endothelium of glomerular tuft and the epithelium of lining tubules. In conclusion, GTE appeared to be beneficial to rats, to a great extent by attenuating and restoring the damage sustained by lead exposure.

  12. Effect of chitosan and its derivatives as antifungal and preservative agents on postharvest green asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Miao; Wu, Chu; Ren, Gerui; Liang, Xinle; Wang, Xiangyang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-07-15

    The antifungal activity and effect of high-molecular weight chitosan (H-chitosan), low-molecular weight chitosan (L-chitosan) and carboxymethyl chitosan (C-chitosan) coatings on postharvest green asparagus were evaluated. L-chitosan and H-chitosan efficiently inhibited the radial growth of Fusarium concentricum separated from postharvest green asparagus at 4 mg/ml, which appeared to be more effective in inhibiting spore germination and germ tube elongation than that of C-chitosan. Notably, spore germination was totally inhibited by L-chitosan and H-chitosan at 0.05 mg/ml. Coated asparagus did not show any apparent sign of phytotoxicity and maintained good quality over 28 days of cold storage, according to the weight loss and general quality aspects. Present results inferred that chitosan could act as an attractive preservative agent for postharvest green asparagus owing to its antifungal activity and its ability to stimulate some defense responses during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effects of nitrogen application and winter green manure on soil active organic carbon and the soil carbon pool management index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin-Juan; Huang, Guo-Qin; Lan, Yan; Chen, Hong-Jun; Wang, Shu-Bin

    2014-10-01

    Based on a cropping system of "winter green manure-double rice", the 4 x 4 two-factor test was used to study the effects of different nitrogen (N) application levels and winter green manure application on soil active organic carbon (AOC) and the C pool management index. The aim was to explore the ecological effects of winter green manure on soil improvement and determine the appropriate application levels of N fertilizer and winter green manure for improved rice yield. Results were as follows: 1) Compared with the control, the SOC and AOC contents increased by 22.2% and 26.7%, respectively, under the green manure only treatment, but the SOC contents decreased by 0.6%-3.4% under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with the control, the soil C pool management index increased by 24.55 and 15.17 under the green manure only and green manure plus N fertilizer treatments, respectively, and reduced by 2.59 under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with no fertilization, the average microbial biomass carbon (MBC) increased by 54.0%, 95.2% and 14.3% under the green manure, green manure plus N fertilizer and single N fertilizer treatments, respectively. 2) The soil AOC content was significantly positively correlated with the C pool management index (P management index, and the correlation coefficient was significantly greater than that with the total organic C. These results suggested that application of winter green manure at proper rates with inorganic fertilizer could increase SOC contents and the soil C pool management index, improve soil quality and fertility.

  14. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  15. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  16. Wash-off effects in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.; Steger, F.

    1991-01-01

    The reduction of the activity distributed in urban areas in three Austrian cities after a radioactive fall-out, by run-off and wash-off effects from stabilised surfaces and the resulting dose reduction to the population were investigated four years after the Chernobyl fall-out to predict the long term external exposure of the population. The measurements were performed in cities with different fractions of dry and wet deposition after the Chernobyl accident in order to determine whether any differences in radionuclide removal with regard to wet and dry fall-out was observable. High resolution in situ gamma spectroscopy was employed to measure the gamma flux from 137 Cs and 134 Cs at points over stabilised surfaces, which was then compared with undisturbed grass surfaces. The average reduction of the place activity on stabilised surfaces amounted to a factor of 10±5 compared to the original deposition after the fall-out. Asphalt showed the highest reduction factor (11.4), concrete less (8.1), stone slabs and cobblestone only about 4.5 and gravel virtually no reduction (1.1). Only very little variation of this reduction with dry or wet deposition was observed. (author)

  17. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation

  18. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Ecological Sciences Section

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation.

  19. Green ergonomics: definition and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the goals of ergonomics (i.e. effectiveness, efficiency, health, safety and usability) are closely aligned with the goals of design for environmental sustainability. In this paper, the term 'green ergonomics' is conceptualised to specifically describe ergonomics interventions with a pro-nature emphasis. Green ergonomics is focused on the bi-directional connections between human systems and nature. This involves looking at (1) how ergonomics design and evaluation might be used to conserve, preserve, and restore nature and (2) how ecosystem services might be harnessed to facilitate the improved wellbeing and effectiveness of human systems. The paper proposes the scope of green ergonomics based on these bi-directional relationships in the areas of the design of low resource systems and products, the design of green jobs, and the design for behaviour change. Suggestions for further work in the green ergonomics domain are also made. Given the enormous environmental challenges facing modern industrial society, this paper encourages ergonomics science to embrace a pro-nature understanding of work design and research. This paper sets out the role for green ergonomics based on an appreciation of the human-nature connections that have been integrated with our understanding of ergonomics science and practice.

  20. 10 Paths to Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  1. Spectral effects of light-emitting diodes on plant growth and development: The importance of green and blue light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, K. R.; Bugbee, B.

    2011-12-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are an emerging technology for plant growth lighting. Due to their narrow spectral output, colored LEDs provide many options for studying the spectral effects of light on plants. Early on, efficient red LEDs were the primary focus of photobiological research; however, subsequent studies have shown that normal plant growth and development cannot be achieved under red light without blue light supplementation. More recent studies have shown that red and blue (RB) LEDs supplemented with green light increase plant dry mass. This is because green light transmits more effectively through the leaf canopy than red and blue light, thus illuminating lower plant leaves and increasing whole-plant photosynthesis. Red, green and blue (RGB) light can be provided by either a conventional white light source (such as fluorescent lights), a combination of RGB LEDs, or from recently developed white LEDs. White LEDs exceed the efficiency of fluorescent lights and have a comparable broad spectrum. As such, they have the potential to replace fluorescent lighting for growth-chamber-based crop production both on Earth and in space. Here we report the results of studies on the effects of three white LED types (warm, neutral and cool) on plant growth and development compared to combinations of RB and RGB LEDs. Plants were grown under two constant light intensities (200 and 500 μmol m-2 s-1). Temperature, environmental conditions and root-zone environment were uniformly maintained across treatments. Phytochrome photoequilbria and red/far-red ratios were similar among treatments and were comparable to conventional fluorescent lights. Blue light had a significant effect on both plant growth (dry mass gain) and development (dry mass partitioning). An increase in the absolute amount (μmol m-2 s-1) of blue light from 0-80 μmol m-2 s-1 resulted in a decrease in stem elongation, independent of the light intensity. However, an increase in the relative amount (%) of blue

  2. Phototherapy with blue and green mixed-light is as effective against unconjugated jaundice as blue light and reduces oxidative stress in the Gunn rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yumiko; Morimoto, Yukihiro; Uchiike, Takao; Kamamoto, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Tamaki; Arai, Ikuyo; Nishikubo, Toshiya; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2015-07-01

    Phototherapy using blue light-emitting diodes (LED) is effective against neonatal jaundice. However, green light phototherapy also reduces unconjugated jaundice. We aimed to determine whether mixed blue and green light can relieve jaundice with minimal oxidative stress as effectively as either blue or green light alone in a rat model. Gunn rats were exposed to phototherapy with blue (420-520 nm), filtered blue (FB; 440-520 nm without 1.00), respectively. Blue plus green phototherapy is as effective as blue phototherapy and it attenuates irradiation-induced oxidative stress. Combined blue and green spectra might be effective against neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effect and Mechanism of the Green Fruit Extract of Solanum integrifolium Poir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The green fruit of Solanum integrifolium Poir. has been used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic remedy in Taiwanese aboriginal medicine. The goal of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of the green fruit extract of S. integrifolium. A bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure was developed to identify the active partition fraction. The methanol fraction (ME, with the highest phenolic content, exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect against LPS-mediated nitric oxide (NO release and cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 macrophages. ME also significantly downregulated the expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory genes, such as iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2/MCP-1, and CCL3/MIP1α. Moreover, ME significantly upregulated HO-1 expression and stimulated the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. Pretreatment of cells with the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin and MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated ME’s inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production. Taken together, this is the first study to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of green fruit extract of S. integrifolium and its activity may be mediated by the upregulation of HO-1 expression and activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  4. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da; Balian, Simone C.

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  5. Effect of green tea extract and mouthwash without alcohol on Candida albicans biofilm on acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Débora P; Salvia, Ana Carolina R D; de Araújo, Rodrigo M; Di Nicoló, Rebeca; Koga Ito, Cristiane Y; de Araujo, Maria A M

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of green tea and the oral antiseptic without alcohol, on Candida albicans biofilm formation to heat-curing acrylic resin plates. Candida is associated with oral candidiasis in poorly cleaned dentures. Standardised specimens of heat-cured (Conv; n = 30) or microwave-cured acrylic resin (Mw; n = 30) were obtained and divided into six groups (n = 10): G1 = Conv resin and green tea aqueous extract, G2 = Conv resin and mouthwash, G3 = control of Conv resin, G4 = Mw resin and green tea aqueous extract, G5 = Mw resin and mouthwash and G6 = control of Mw-cured resin. The specimens were contaminated with 10 ml of Sabouraud dextrose broth inoculated with 0.1 ml of standard suspension containing 1 × 10(6) cells/ml of C. albicans and incubated for 24 h at 37°C. After this period, they were immersed in the aqueous extract or in mouthwash for 15 min. The control groups were treated with sterile distilled water. Aliquots of 0.1 ml were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The numbers of colony-forming units per test specimen (CFU/TS) were calculated, and the results statistically analysed by two-way anova and Tukey's tests (5%). Statistically significant difference was observed for the aqueous extract groups (G1; 33.65%) and mouthwash (G2; 17.06%), when compared to control (G3; 100%), for Conv resin. For the Mw resin, there was significant difference between mouthwash (G5; 43.16%) and control (G6; 100%). The aqueous extract of green tea and mouthwash led to a reduction in the number of viable fungal cells in biofilm formed on acrylic resin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of pre-emergence herbicides on growth parameters of green pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wágner, G; Nádasy, E

    2006-01-01

    Green pea (Pisum sativum L.), is one of the important vegetable crop in Hungary. Chemical weed control has an important role in pea growing. Pre-emergence herbicides are used most frequently in a green pea culture because they eliminate competition between crop plant and weeds even at the critical early growth stage. Preemergence treatment combined with mechanical methods makes unnecessary the post-emergence protection. Herbicides with different mode of action can influence the growth of pea and cause phytotoxic symptoms. Sensitivity of plant varieties against herbicides is different in the first place due to the thickness ofleave's wax layer. The aim of our experience was to study the effect of five pre-emergence herbicides with different mode of action on the fresh and dry matter production and growing of a green pea variety (Pisum sativum cv. Petit Provencal). The examined herbicides were Pivot (imazethapyr), Proponit 840 EC (propisochlor), Sencor 70 WG (metribuzin), Stomp 330 (pendimethalin), and Afalon Dispersion (linuron). Pot experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions in four replications. Herbicides were applied in the suggested and double doses. Four weeks after sowing the length, fresh- and dry weight of the shoots and the roots of pea were determined. It was an interesting observation that Pivot raised fresh weight significantly. Sencor 70 WG caused the most dramatic fresh mass reduction. We have got similar tendencies in dry matter production of green pea samples. Double rate of Stomp 330 and Sencor 70 WG decreased length of shoots and roots significantly. We established that examined pre-emergence herbicides could influence growth parameters to a different extent. Sencor 70 WG strongly inhibited growth of pea and caused severe phytotoxic symptoms. Double dose of Proponit 840 EC and Stomp 330 also damaged the pea but to a lesser extent. Afalon Dispersion and Pivot proved to be the most suitable herbicides; pea wasn't sensitive to these

  7. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Balian, Simone C., E-mail: balian@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2011-07-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  8. Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG Is the Most Effective Cancer Chemopreventive Polyphenol in Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a popular drink consumed daily by millions of people around the world. Previous studies have shown that some polyphenol compounds from green tea possess anticancer activities. However, systemic evaluation was limited. In this study, we determined the cancer chemopreventive potentials of 10 representative polyphenols (caffeic acid, CA; gallic acid, GA; catechin, C; epicatechin, EC; gallocatechin, GC; catechin gallate, CG; gallocatechin gallate, GCG; epicatechin gallate, ECG; epigallocatechin, EGC; and epigallocatechin gallate, EGCG, and explored their structure-activity relationship. The effect of the 10 polyphenol compounds on the proliferation of HCT-116 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells was evaluated using an MTS assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptotic effects were analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with propidium iodide (PI/RNase or annexin V/PI. Among the 10 polyphenols, EGCG showed the most potent antiproliferative effects, and significantly induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and cell apoptosis. When the relationship between chemical structure and anticancer activity was examined, C and EC did not show antiproliferative effects, and GA showed some antiproliferative effects. When C and EC esterified with GA to produce CG and ECG, the antiproliferative effects were increased significantly. A similar relationship was found between EGC and EGCG. The gallic acid group significantly enhanced catechin’s anticancer potential. This property could be utilized in future semi-synthesis of flavonoid derivatives to develop novel anticancer agents.

  9. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and Plasma Cellular Antioxidative Effects of Flavanols After Oral Intake of Green Tea Formulated with Vitamin C and Xylitol in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yu-Ra; Park, Tae-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to test whether green tea formulated with vitamin C and xylitol (GTVX) could improve absorption of flavanols and total antioxidant activity (TAC) of plasma compared with green tea only (GT) in healthy subjects. The total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter method was used to measure the TAC of plasma. Cmax, Tmax, and area under the curve (AUC) of flavanols in plasma after consumption of GTVX were 5980.58 μg/mL, 2.14 h, and 18,915.56 h·μg/mL, respectively, indicating that GTVX showed significantly higher AUC than GT (13,855.43 μg/mL). The peak TACs occurred at 3 and 0.5 h after intake of GT and GTVX, respectively. The TAC of plasma was found to be significantly higher in GTVX than in GT at each time point. This study suggests that formulating green tea with vitamin C and xylitol could increase the absorption of flavanols in green tea, enhancing cellular antioxidative effects.

  11. Stimulation effects of γ-irradiation combined with colchicine on callus formation and green plant regeneration in rice anther culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wei; Chen Qiufang; Wang Cailian; Lu Yimei

    1999-09-01

    The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for various rice types and varieties in rice anther culture. It was quite effective that rice anthers were irradiated with 10-40 Gy of γ-rays after 30 d incubation on induction medium and calli were treated on differentiation medium contained 10-75 mg/L of colchicine for increase of callus formation and green plant regeneration. Among these treatments, 10 Gy of γ-rats was the best for callus formation, and 20 Gy of γ-rays or 30 mg/L of colchicine was the most favourable for green plant regeneration. The simulation effect of 20 Gy of γ-irradiation combined with 30 mg/L of colchicine on green plant regeneration was much better than that of their separate use in rice anther culture

  12. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m 2 ). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H 2 O 2 and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H 2 O 2 ) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  13. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young, E-mail: choic@kmou.ac.kr

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m{sup 2}). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  14. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some selected green seaweed extracts from Muttam coastal areas, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushparaj Arunachalam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the selected marine green algae Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca, Cheatomorpha linoides and Helimeda macroloba against six strains of Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus] and Gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis]. Methods: The selected green seaweed extracts were experimented with four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and chloroform against the selected pathogens by using agar disc diffusion method. Results: The maximum activity (7 mm was observed by the extract of U. lactuca against Proteus mirabilis by using methanol as a solvent and the lowest activity (2 mm was recorded by the extract of U. lactuca against L. acidophilus by using chloroform as a solvent and ethanol extract against P. aeruginosa. The lowest activity (2 mm was seen in the extract of Cheatomorpha linoides by using ethanol and methanol as a solvent against S. aureus. In Helimeda macroloba extract, the lowest activity was recorded against Escherichia coli by using chloroform as a solvent. The microbial strains S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and L. acidophilus were resistant to the chloroform and methanol of all selected seaweeds. Conclusions: Further study should be needed to identify the prime compound which is responsible for the activity against the selected pathogens especially those causing the human diseases.

  15. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  16. Determining the effects of green chemistry synthesized Ag-nisin nanoparticle on macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Masood; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh

    2018-01-01

    Bacteriocins are low molecular weight substances produced through post transcriptional changes. These molecules are easily degraded in mammalian gut by proteolytic enzymes especially protease. Nisin is a peptide with 34 aa and its structure contains a pentacyclic lanthionine and 4 beta metyllanthionine residues. Different formulations have been designed for nisin. Since "green synthesis" is a progressive method to prepare anti-microbial and anti-cancer compounds, this study aimed at green synthesis of nisin metal compounds to be used lower concentration still exerting nisin effects. For this purpose, a 1 mg/ml nisin solution was added to a 1 mM silver nitrate solution and incubated to synthesis nano Ag-nisin, then the optical density of new solution was detected using UV spectroscopy. To determine biomolecules in the Ag-nisin solution, the FTIR method was employed. The size and morphology of Ag-nisin was measured by TEM. The toxicity, inflammatory cytokines production, and intracellular ROS quantity was evaluated using MTT, ELISA and flow-cytometry. XRD pattern indicated the silver crystals in Ag-nisin solution. In addition, FTRI findings showed that the carbonyl groups of amino acid are potently able to bind to metal nanoparticles, cover, and prevent them from particle agglomeration. Treating macrophage cells with 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml of Ag-nisin had no significant effect on the cell viability and intracellular ROS quantity compared to the control group. In addition, different concentrations of Ag-nisin had no effect on the IL-10 and TNF-α levels but caused an increased level of IL-12 in comparison with the control group. In the current study, for the first time, green synthesize was used to prepare Ag-nisin particles. The synthesized nanoparticle is able to induce inflammatory activity via increasing IL-12 without any change in the TNF-α level in macrophage cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. New Approaches for Effective Microwave Assisted Extraction of Caffeine and Catechins from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül SERDAR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop an effective microwave assisted extraction (MAE method for extraction of caffeine and catechins from green tea samples. A series of solvents (water, ethanol:water mixture or citric acid:water mixture were used for extraction of green tea samples (fresh, frozen or dried collected in three collection periods (first, second and third collection periods. Tea samples were extracted using water in a close microwave system under the certain extraction conditions. Extraction was carried out under a controlled 600 W microwave power at 80 oC temperature for 4 min irradiation time. Alternative to water, an ethanol-water mixture (1:1 or a citric acid-water (1:1 mixture was used as extracting solvent under the same conditions. After MAE crude aqueous extract was partitioned first with chloroform to separate caffeine then ethyl acetate for catechins.  Both caffeine and catechin extraction was quite successful with microwave assisted system employing only 4 minutes treatment. The highest caffeine yield was obtained in the second collection period using frozen green tea samples and ethanol-water as extracting solvent. The yield of catechin extracts was between 0.84-3.96% depending on the solvent system used for extraction. Ethanol-water mixture seems to be appropriate for effective extraction in the basis of extract yields. However, HPLC results showed that individual catechin content of each extraction is more important criteria for the evaluation of most effective extraction medium rather than the mass of the extract.  Using citric acid as extracting solvent in MAE seem to be more fruitful providing 100% catechin mixture with the highest EGCG content. 

  18. Green Branding and its Effects on Consumer Attitudes An Empirical Study using the Example of Sustainable Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Haefke, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The objective of this study was to review existing research on environmentally friendly marketing and to gain a more profound understanding of green branding as one possible marketing tool to positively influence consumers’ attitudes. In this respect, different types of green brand messages were assessed against each other and their effects on consumers’ attitudes and purchase intentions were tested. Design and Methodology – A conceptual framework was developed based...

  19. The effect of financial constraints, technological progress and long-term contracts on tradable green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnolucci, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Tradable green certificates (TGCs) have recently become a diffuse instrument to support renewable electricity in OECD countries. Although it is perhaps too early to draw a conclusive judgement on the effectiveness of this instrument in increasing renewable capacity and decreasing the price of certificates, one view in the literature maintains that long-term contracts are of particular importance for TGCs to be effective. This paper contributes to this debate by analysing how financial constraints and technological progress can induce investors to hold pessimistic expectations of their ability to sell green certificates and still make a profit. Clearly, these expectations will prevent investors from building new capacity to fulfil the quota comprised in TGCs and will keep the price of certificates traded in the market high. As this kind of expectation is not influenced by most design features of TGCs, one can conclude that long-term contracts are particularly important in determining the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these instruments. Some attention should therefore be paid to the features of the TGCs, which induce obliged parties to offer long-term contracts to renewable generators. (author)

  20. Effects of Fermentation and Its Control on the Sensory Characteristics of Conservolea Variety Green Olives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balatsouras, G.; Tsibri, A.; Dalles, T.; Doutsias, G.

    1983-01-01

    The various factors assumed to retard or even prevent the lactic acid fermentation of Conservolea variety green olives have been investigated. Of these, the sugar supplement along with the appropriate lactic starter culture supported a complete lactic acid fermentation. Acidification, particularly of starting brine, was shown to have little or no effect, whereas heat shock treatment improved the olive fermentability slightly without modifying the course of fermentation. These findings indicate that Conservolea olives do not contain phenolic compounds in concentrations inhibitory to lactic acid bacteria. PMID:16346354

  1. Effects of Wastes from the Brewing Industry in Lightweight Aggregates Manufactured with Clay for Green Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina D. Farías

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of sieved wastes generated from the brewing industry on lightweight aggregates manufactured with clay. Sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, bagasse and diatomaceous earth were used to obtain the samples. These wastes are usually dumped in landfills, but the current increase in restrictions on dumping and interest in improving the environment make our proposal for gaining value from these wastes a significant contribution. Laboratory tests show that the new aggregate has low bulk density and increased water absorption and porosity. The thermographic camera results provide evidence that new aggregates have significant insulating properties and are suitable for use on green roofs.

  2. Effect of indocyanine green angiography using infrared fundus camera on subsequent dark adaptation and electroretinogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Yu, Minzhong; Wu, Dezheng; Ma, Juanmei; Wu, Lezheng

    2002-07-01

    To observe the effect of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) with infrared fundus camera on subsequent dark adaptation and the Ganzfeld electroretinogram (ERG), the ERGs of 38 eyes with different retinal diseases were recorded before and after ICGA during a 40-min dark adaptation period. ICGA was performed with Topcon 50IA retina camera. Ganzfeld ERG was recorded with Neuropack II evoked response recorder. The results showed that ICGA did not affect the latencies and the amplitudes in ERG of rod response, cone response and mixed maximum response (p>0.05). It suggests that ICGA using infrared fundus camera could be performed prior to the recording of the Ganzfeld ERG.

  3. Effects of Wastes from the Brewing Industry in Lightweight Aggregates Manufactured with Clay for Green Roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías, Romina D; Martínez García, Carmen; Cotes Palomino, Teresa; Martínez Arellano, Myriam

    2017-05-15

    This study investigates the effects of sieved wastes generated from the brewing industry on lightweight aggregates manufactured with clay. Sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, bagasse and diatomaceous earth were used to obtain the samples. These wastes are usually dumped in landfills, but the current increase in restrictions on dumping and interest in improving the environment make our proposal for gaining value from these wastes a significant contribution. Laboratory tests show that the new aggregate has low bulk density and increased water absorption and porosity. The thermographic camera results provide evidence that new aggregates have significant insulating properties and are suitable for use on green roofs.

  4. Effects of antibiotics and ultraviolet radiation on the halophilic blue-green alga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yopp, J.H.; Albright, G.; Miller, D.M.; Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale

    1979-01-01

    The effects of a variety of antibiotics, ultraviolet radiation and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) on the survival and mutability of the halophilic blue-green alga, Aphanothece halophytica, were determined. The halophile was found extremely sensitive to penicillin G and bacitracin; moderately sensitive to novobiocin, amino acid analogs, chloramphenicol and streptomycin; and tolerant to actidione and hydroxyurea. Ultraviolet and NTG killing curves and photoreactivation capabilities were seimilar to those reported for other members of the Chroococcales. Three stable morphological mutants were obtained by ultraviolet and NTG treatment, the latter being much more efficient in the production of mutants. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of Under Graduated Students' Perceptions Concerning Green House Effect, Global Warming and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Oluk, Esin Akçam; Oluk, Sami

    2007-01-01

    History education coııtributes sigııifıcantly to the individuals to provide themselves a plural This study was done at the Celal Bayar Universiry, Education Faculty (Demirci-Manisa). The sample of the study included 24 students, trainning at the 7th semestry. The aim of the study was to determine the higher students perception of green house effect, global warming and climate change. Data was gathered by semi structured interview and analyzed by content analysis. Although all students said th...

  6. Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training and Green Tea Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Inactive Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fathei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Physical activities, as well as diet, are known as the truest scientific methods to reduce the signs of the cardio-vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8–week aerobic trainings and green tea supplementation on some of the cardio-vascular risk factors in the obese inactive women. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 40 obese inactive women, who were residents of Mashhad Township, were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected via purposeful available sampling method, were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 per group. The groups were green tea, aerobic training, aerobic training and green tea supplementation, and control groups. 8-week training program consisted of three 45- to 60-minute sessions per week. Green tea was consumed by green tea group three times a day after each meal. The composed group underwent both interventions, while control group underwent no intervention. Data was analyzed by SPSS 15 software using correlated T test and one-way ANOVA. Findings: Mean total cholesterol level was significantly changed in green tea, aerobic training, and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean triglyceride level was significantly changed in green tea and aerobic training groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean low density lipoprotein was significantly changed in green tea and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean high-density lipoprotein was significantly changed only in aerobic group in posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. In addition, mean concentration of C-reactive protein was significantly reduced in aerobic training (p=0.01 and composed (p=0.04 groups. Conclusion: 8 weeks aerobic training, green tea consumption, and their composition reduce the cardiovascular risk factors in inactive obese women in a relatively similar manner.

  7. Green tea supplementation produces better neuroprotective effects than red and black tea in Alzheimer-like rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimidt, Helen L; Garcia, Alexandre; Martins, Alexandre; Mello-Carpes, Pamela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-10-01

    Green tea from Camellia sinensis plays a neuroprotective role in different neurodegenerative conditions, such as memory deficits in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, whether other teas from Camellia sinensis present similar neuroprotective effect still is not clear. Here we investigate effects of green, red and black tea supplementation on memory and hippocampus oxidative status in a rat model of Alzheimer-like disease (AD-like). Wistar male rats were supplemented with green, red or black tea during 8weeks before Aβ intra-hippocampal injection (2μL of Aβ-25-35, CA1 region). AD and sham rats were submitted to memory tests. After euthanasia, oxidative status in the bilateral hippocampus was quantified. Green and red teas avoid memory deficits in AD rats, but only green tea also avoids oxidative stress and damage in the hippocampus. Green tea was more effective for neuroprotection than red and black teas from the Camellia sinensis in the AD rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Green Tea Extract on Reproductive Improvement in Estradiol Valerate-Induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafurniyan, Habibeh; Azarnia, Mahnaz; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Karimzadeh, Latifeh

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive and metabolic disorder in which the level of oxidative elements in blood rises. Green tea is a potent antioxidant since it contains catechins. In this study, the effect of hydro-alcoholic green tea extract on PCOS rats was examined. For PCOS induction, 96 mature Wistar rats were given estradiol valerate. After 60 days, the rats were divided into four groups including PCOS group and three experimental groups, which were given 50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg BW green tea extract 10 days, intraperitoneally. The serum concentration level of FSH, LH, testosterone and insulin were measured using ELISA method, while the serum concentration level of glucose was measured using glucose oxidase methods. Insulin resistance was calculated using HOMA-IR formulation. The data were analyzed using the one-Way ANOVA method considering P<0/05 level of significance. There were a significant reduction in LH serum level, body and ovarian weight between the green tea extract treated-groups compare to PCOS. Moreover, a significant reduction in insulin resistance index was seen in the treatment groups related to PCOS. Histomorphometric studies also showed the significant changes in the number of follicles and theca layer thickness. These changes demonstrated a marked improvement in the symptoms of PCOS which may be due to green tea effects on oxidative stress pathways. Green tea can be considered as a potentially effective drug for treatment of PCOS, Insulin resistance and Type II diabetes.

  9. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) as observed in animals exposed to restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Huma; Mirza, Beenish; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2017-03-01

    Clinical studies on psychiatric patients suggest that life events stress precipitates depression. The possible involvement of 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT; Serotonin) in depression and other behavioral deficits is also suggested by clinical studies. As a natural stimulant, green tea (Camellia Sinensis) diminishes stress, worry and anxiety, allowing the brain to focus and concentrate better. Previously we have reported that beneficial effects of green tea might be associated with altered levels of 5-HT, which in turn may help in coping with stress. Present study therefore deals with monitoring the behavior and neurochemical profile of single restrained stress in animals previously administered (for 5 weeks) with green tea. Activities in light dark activity box were monitored 1hr post restraint stress. Cumulative food intake values were monitored 24hr post restraint stress. 24hr after restrained stress, rats were decapitated to collect plasma and brain samples. Brain samples were kept stored at -70οC until neurochemical analysis by HPLC-EC. Findings illustrate that although food intake was decreased in both green tea- as well as water treated rats, stress-induced anxiogenic effects were attenuated in green tea treated rats. Tone of 5-HT was also normalized in restrained animals. Results suggest beneficial effects of green tea in coping the stressful conditions/stimuli are related to altered 5-HT metabolism.

  10. The Effect of Used Form and Level Green Cincau Leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers as Feed Additive on Broiler Performance Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Halim Natsir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aimed research was to examine the effect of used form and level green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers as feed additive on broiler performance (feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and income over feed cost. The materials used were 192 Day Old Chicks (DOC of Lohman MB Platinum with average initial body weight of 37.4±2.87 g, encapsulated or non encapsulated green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers and encapsulants. Encapsulants that used was the mixture of gum arab-whey (4:1 wich was added BHT 0.06%. Encapsulants that used was 25% of green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers. The method in this experiment was in vivo experiment with Nested Completely Randomized Design with 2 form of green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers (non encapsulated and encapsulated and 4 levels of inclusions 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%, if there were significant effect it would be future tested with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result showed that green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers in either encapsulated and non encapsulated form didn’t significantly effect (P>0.05 on consumption, feed conversion ratio and IOFC, but it significantly affected (P<0.05 body weight gain and they tended to increase (P<0.01 production index. Increasing levels of green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers form 0 to 1.5% in encapsulated and non encapsulated form didn’t significantly improve feed conversion ratio, IOFC and production index, thought they tended to increase (P<0.05 feed consumption and they tended to increase (P<0.01 body weight gain. The conclusion of this research was encapsulated better than non encapsulated green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers. The optimal level of feed additive in encapsulated green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers was 1.0%.

  11. Phototoxic effect of conjugates of plasmon-resonance nanoparticles with indocyanine green dye on Staphylococcus aureus induced by IR laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchina, E. S.; Tuchin, Valerii V.; Khlebtsov, B. N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2011-04-01

    The effect of IR laser radiation (λ = 805 — 808 nm) on the bacteria of the strain Staphylococcus aureus 209 P, incubated in indocyanine green solutions, is studied, as well as that of colloid gold nanoshells, nanocages and their conjugates with indocyanine green. It is found that the S. aureus 209 P cells are equally subjected to the IR laser radiation (λ = 805 nm) after preliminary sensitisation with indocyanine green and gold nanoparticles separately and with conjugates of nanoparticles and indocyanine green. The enhancement of photodynamic and photothermal effects by 5 % is observed after 30 min of laser illumination (λ = 808 nm) of bacteria, treated with conjugates of indocyanine green and nanocages.

  12. Cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of propofol administered intraosseously to green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R A; Schumacher, J; Hedjazi-Haring, K; Newell, S M

    1998-01-01

    To determine cardiopulmonary effects of intraosseous administration of propofol in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Prospective study. 14 green iguanas. Anesthesia was induced in 4 iguanas with propofol (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb] of body weight, intraosseously). Heart and respiratory rates, functional hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2), end-tidal CO2 concentration, and cloacal temperature were recorded. Ten additional iguanas were given propofol intraosseously for induction (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb] and maintenance (0.5 mg/kg/min [0.23 mg/lb/min], q 30 min) of anesthesia. Heart and respiratory rates, cloacal temperature, and SpO2 were recorded. Mean induction time for the first 4 iguanas was 1.2 minutes. A significant decrease in heart rate was seen 1 minute after induction of anesthesia. All iguanas were apneic, but spontaneous ventilation resumed within 5 minutes. End-tidal CO2 concentration decreased from 46 mm of Hg 4 minutes after induction of anesthesia to 32 mm of Hg 30 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Mean duration of anesthesia was 27 minutes. Mean induction time for the other 10 iguanas was 3 minutes. A significant decrease in heart rate was detected 35 minutes after induction of anesthesia and persisted until 120 minutes. Mean SpO2 value decreased from 79% 5 minutes after induction of anesthesia to 64% 30 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Mean recovery time was 57 minutes. Propofol is an effective anesthetic agent for use in green iguanas. It is recommended that iguanas be intubated, provided oxygen, and given assisted ventilation after administration of propofol to prevent hypoxemia and hypercapnia.

  13. [Effects of Green Manure Intercropping and Straw Mulching on Winter Rape Rhizosphere Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Respiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Wang, Long-chang; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Sai; Du, Juan; Zhao, Lin-lu

    2016-03-15

    Under the background of global warming, the farmland soil respiration has become the main way of agricultural carbon emissions. And green manure has great potential to curb greenhouse gas emissions and achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. However, in purple soil region of Southwest, China, soil respiration under green manure remains unclear, especially in the winter and intercropping. Through the green manure ( Chinese milk vetch) intercropping with rape, therefore, we compared the effects of rape rhizosphere under straw mulching. The soil organic carbon and soil respiration were examined. The results showed, compared with straw mulching, root separation was the major influencing factors of soil organic carbon on rape rhizosphere. Soil organic carbon was significantly decreased by root interaction. In addition, straw mulching promoted while green manure intercropping inhibited the soil respiration. Soil respiration presented the general characteristics of fall-rise-fall due to the strong influence of rape growth period. Therefore, it showed a cubic curve relationship with soil temperature.

  14. Effect of fresh green waste and green waste compost on mineral nitrogen, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from a Vertisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, Sarah M.; Dalal, Ram C.; Harper, Stephen M.; Menzies, Neal W.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of organic waste amendments to a horticultural soil, prior to expected risk periods, could immobilise mineral N, ultimately reducing nitrogen (N) losses as nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and leaching. Two organic waste amendments were selected, a fresh green waste (FGW) and green waste compost (GWC) as they had suitable biochemical attributes to initiate N immobilisation into the microbial biomass and organic N forms. These characteristics include a high C:N ratio (FGW 44:1, GWC 35:1), low total N ( 14%). Both products were applied at 3 t C/ha to a high N (plus N fertiliser) or low N (no fertiliser addition) Vertisol soil in PVC columns. Cumulative N 2 O production over the 28 day incubation from the control soil was 1.5 mg/N 2 O/m 2 , and 11 mg/N 2 O/m 2 from the control + N. The N 2 O emission decreased with GWC addition (P 2 O emissions by 38% by the conclusion of the incubation. Analysis of mineral N concentrations at 7, 14 and 28 days identified that both FGW and GWC induced microbial immobilisation of N in the first 7 days of incubation regardless of whether the soil environment was initially high or low in N; with the FGW immobilising up to 30% of available N. It is likely that the reduced mineral N due to N immobilisation led to a reduced substrate for N 2 O production during the first week of the trial, when soil N 2 O emissions peaked. An additional finding was that FGW + N did not decrease cumulative N 2 O emissions compared to the control + N, potentially due to the fact that it stimulated microbial respiration resulting in anaerobic micro sites in the soil and ultimately N 2 O production via denitrification. Therefore, both materials could be used as post harvest amendments in horticulture to minimise N loss through nitrate-N leaching in the risk periods between crop rotations. The mature GWC has potential to reduce N 2 O, an important greenhouse gas.

  15. The effect of dewaxing of green coffee on the coffee brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, G.H.D. van der

    1979-01-01

    The two commercially most important mild treatments for green coffee are the steam treatment and the dewaxing process. In the former treatment the green coffee is just steamed. In the dewaxing process the waxy layer is extracted from the green coffee with an organic solvent, after which this coffee

  16. Evaluating the Effects of Façade Greening on Human Bioclimate in a Complex Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Jänicke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the effectiveness of countermeasures for a reduction of urban heat stress, such as façade greening, is challenging due to lacking transferability of results from one location to another. Furthermore, complex variables such as the mean radiant temperature (Tmrt are necessary to assess outdoor human bioclimate. We observed Tmrt in front of a building façade in Berlin, Germany, which is half-greened while the other part is bare. Tmrt was reduced (mean 2 K in front of the greened compared to the bare façade. To overcome observational shortcomings, we applied the microscale models ENVI-met, RayMan, and SOLWEIG. We evaluated these models based on observations. Our results show that Tmrt (MD = −1.93 K and downward short-wave radiation (MD = 14.39 W/m2 were sufficiently simulated in contrast to upward short-wave and long-wave radiation. Finally, we compare the simulated reduction of Tmrt with the observed one in front of the façade greening, showing that the models were not able to simulate the effects of façade greening with the applied settings. Our results reveal that façade greening contributes only slightly to a reduction of heat stress in front of building façades.

  17. Effect of supplemental ultraviolet radiation on the concentration of phytonutrients in green and red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, Steven; Caldwell, Charles; Mirecki, Roman; Slusser, James; Gao, Wei

    2005-08-01

    Eight cultivars each of red and green leaf lettuce were raised in a greenhouse with supplemental UV radiation, either UV-A (wavelengths greater than ca. 315 nm) or UV-A+UV-B (wavelengths greater than ca. 290 nm; 6.4 kJ m-2 daily biologically effective UV-B), or no supplemental UV (controls). Several phytonutrients were analyzed in leaf flours to identify lines with large differences in composition and response to UV-B. Red leaf lettuce had higher levels of phenolic acid esters, flavonols and anthocyanins than green lines. Both green and red lines exposed to UV-B for 9 days showed 2-3-fold increases in flavonoids compared to controls, but only 45% increases in phenolic acid esters, suggesting these compounds may be regulated by different mechanisms. There were large differences between cultivars in levels of phenolic compounds under control conditions and also large differences in UV-B effects. Among red varieties, cv. Galactic was notable for high levels of phenolics and a large response to UV-B. Among green varieties, cvs. Black-Seeded Simpson and Simpson Elite had large increases in phenolics with UV-B exposure. Photosynthetic pigments were also analyzed. Green leaf lettuce had high levels of pheophytin, a chlorophyll degradation product. Total chlorophylls (including pheophytin) were much lower in green compared to red varieties. Lutein, a carotenoid, was similar for green and red lines. Total chlorophylls and lutein increased 2-fold under supplemental UV-B in green lines but decreased slightly under UV-B in red lines. Lettuce appears to be a valuable crop to use to study phytochemical-environment interactions.

  18. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Elena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat

  19. Antidepressive-like effects and antioxidant activity of green tea and GABA green tea in a mouse model of post-stroke depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni; Moghaddam, Akbar Hajizadeh; Khanjani, Sedigheh; Arcidiaco, Patrizia; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Daglia, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role in the development of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and some psychiatric disorders. Tea consumption exerts beneficial effects against damage induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in ischemic stroke and depressive symptoms in depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vivo, the protective activity of green tea (GT) and GABA green tea (GGT) against post-stroke depression (PSD), a common consequence of stroke. The antidepressive-like effects of GT and GGT were determined by behavioral tests in a mouse model of post-stroke depression. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by GSH, SOD, and TBARS measurements on mouse brain. The chemical composition of tea extracts was characterized through chromatographic methods. GGT and GT resulted active in the modulation of depressive symptoms and the reduction of oxidative stress, restoring normal behavior, and at least in part, antioxidant endogenous defenses. The higher polyphenol, theanine, glutamine, and caffeine content may justify the higher activity found in GGT. This work represents the first attempt to demonstrate the positive effect of tea, and especially GGT, on post-stroke depression and to correlate this effect with the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of tea. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Larvicidal activity and in vitro effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis L. water infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žabar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study green tea water infusion was tested on Drosophila melanogaster wild-type larvae in vivo, also an in vitro antihemolytic and hemolytic tests were performed. Three different concentrations were used 7.5 mg/ml, 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml, the lowest dose representing the recommended dose followed by five times and ten times higher doses. Effect of these three concentrations was monitored and tested in vivo on Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, 1830 wt (wild type larval development and surviving. All three concentrations showed toxic effect for larvae, with toxicity being increased in dose – depended manner. The time needed for larvae to fully develop was delayed. This decrease of developmental time was in dose – dependent manner, too. Amount of hemolysis caused by the lowest concentration was very small when compared with the percent of spontaneous hemolysis. Other two higher concentrations, 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml, showed higher hemolytic effect. During the four hour incubation period percent of hemolysis grew in time – dependent manner. The highest hemolytic effect was recorded for the concentration of 37.5 mg/ml. Antihemolytic test showed that the lowest concentration had the highest inhibitory effect to H2O2 induced hemolysis. The 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml concentrations had lower inhibitory effect when compared with the dose of 7.5 mg/ml. According to our study it can be concluded that the high concentrations of green tea water infusion exhibit larvicidal activity against D. melanogaster larvae, don't have protective effect to RBC membrane and cause greater hemolysis.

  1. The effect of perennials as green manure on cereal productivity and disease incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuodiene, R.; Nekrosiene, R.

    2012-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Vezaiciai Branch of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry during the period 2002-2007. They were designed to ascertain the effects of phytomass of different perennial pre-crops used for green manure on the productivity and on the occurrence of foliar fungal diseases of cereal agrocenoses. Plant residues and phytomass ploughed down as green manures positively affected cereal indices of crop productivity not only for the first but for the second year as well. It influenced the productivity of cereal segments. The largest amount of metabolizable energy was in the yield of cereal sequence under white clover (Trifolium repens L.) 83.23-84.76% GJ ha{sup 1}. The potential accumulated by perennials of the second year of development was more efficiently utilised by winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) cv. Tevo, and that of perennials of the third year of development was more efficiently utilised by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Ula. Perennials had a significant effect on the spread of foliar diseases in winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) agrocenoses. The severity of the disease was 1.1-1.3 times higher in the winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) treatments with white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pre-crops. Foliar disease incidence and severity was 1.1-1.2 times higher in the agrocenoses of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after legumes of the third year of development, especially after lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). (Author) 28 refs.

  2. Synergistic effect of green tea EGCG treatment with gamma radiation in leukemia cell necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hong Soo; Kim, Jae Man

    2006-01-01

    During cancer therapy, gamma-ray irradiation and treatment of anti-cancer chemicals destroy the normal cells as well as cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of epigallocathechin-gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea, which is known to have anti-cancer and anti-oxident activities, in order to find out the feasible method to protect the normal cells and to kill the cancer cells efficiently. We investigated the effect of EGCG on the leukemia cell growth and cell necrosis, especially when treated along with gamma radiation. The EGCG inhibited the leukemia cell, HL-60, growth at the appropriate concentration while it exhibited no influence on the normal cell growth. More significantly, it enhanced leukemia cell necrosis when its treatment was combined with gamma irradiation. Simultaneous treatment of EGCG and gamma radiation increased leukemia cell necrosis up to 35% compared with separate treatments. These results suggest that drinking of green tea or co-treatment of EGCG during gamma irradiation therapy may result in better prognosis through enhancement of the tumor cell necrosis and protection of the normal cells

  3. Effects of glyphosate herbicide on the gastrointestinal microflora of Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas) Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Ronald P; McDermid, Karla J; Muehlstein, Lisa; Balazs, George H

    2018-02-01

    In Hawaii, glyphosate-based herbicides frequently sprayed near shorelines may be affecting non-target marine species. Glyphosate inhibits aromatic amino acid biosynthesis (shikimate pathway), and is toxic to beneficial gut bacteria in cattle and chickens. Effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria in marine herbivorous turtles were assessed in vitro. When cultures of mixed bacterial communities from gastrointestinal tracts of freshly euthanized green turtles (Chelonia mydas), were exposed for 24h to six glyphosate concentrations (plus deionized water control), bacterial density was significantly lower at glyphosate concentrations≥2.2×10 -4 gL -1 (absorbance measured at 600nm wavelength). Using a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay, the growth of four bacterial isolates (Pantoea, Proteus, Shigella, and Staphylococcus) was significantly inhibited by glyphosate concentrations≥1.76×10 -3 gL -1 . Reduced growth or lower survival of gut bacteria in green turtles exposed to glyphosate could have adverse effects on turtle digestion and overall health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) on the Development of Canine Intergeneric Embryo= Pengaruh Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) Pada Perkembangan Anjing Dari Embryo Intergeneris.

    OpenAIRE

    Fibrianto, Yuda Heru

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of green fluorescent protein on the development of canine intergeneric clone embryo with bovine oocyte recipient. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from slaughterhouse and matured in TCM-199 supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS) (Life Technologies), 0.005 U/m1 bovine FSH (Antrin®, Denka Kanagawa, Japan) and 1 pg/m1 estradiol (Sigma-Aldrich) at 39 °C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air and donor cell tranfect...

  5. The effects of whole green tea infusion on mouse urinary bladder chemical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Andreia; Arantes-Rodrigues, Regina; I Faustino-Rocha, Ana; I Teixeira-Guedes, Catarina; Pinho-Oliveira, Jacinta; Talhada, Daniela; H Teixeira, José; Andrade, Andreia; Colaço, Bruno; N Paiva-Cardoso, Maria; J Pires, Maria; Mvd Ferreira, Ana; M Nunes, Fernando; A Oliveira, Paula

    2014-02-01

    Green tea (GT) is one of the most popular beverages worldwide whose beneficial effects on health have been demonstrated. Recent studies suggest that GT may contribute to reduction of cancer risk and progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole GT on urinary bladder chemical carcinogenesis in male and female ICR mice. The GT characterization was performed using spectrophotometric methods. Urinary bladder lesions were induced using N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) by gavage during 10 weeks and whole GT (0.5%) was provided ad libitum during 20 weeks. Animals from groups BBN+GT and BBN only developed preneoplastic lesions. We did not observe any effects by GT infusion administration on urinary bladder cancer development.

  6. The effects of feedstock pre-treatment and pyrolysis temperature on the production of biochar from the green seaweed Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; de Nys, Rocky

    2016-03-15

    Green seaweeds from the genus Ulva are a promising feedstock for the production of biochar for carbon (C) sequestration and soil amelioration. Ulva can be cultivated in waste water from land-based aquaculture and Ulva blooms ("green tides") strand millions of tons of biomass on coastal areas of Europe and China each year. The conversion of Ulva into biochar could recycle C and nutrients from eutrophic water into agricultural production. We produce biochar from Ulva ohnoi, cultivated in waste water from an aquaculture facility, and characterize its suitability for C sequestration and soil amelioration through bio-chemical analyses and plant growth experiments. Two biomass pre-treatments (fresh water rinsing to reduce salt, and pelletisation to increase density) were crossed with four pyrolysis temperatures (300-750 °C). Biomass rinsing decreased the ash and increased the C content of the resulting biochar. However, biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass had a higher proportion of fixed C and a higher yield. C sequestration decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures due to the combination of lower yield and lower total C content of biochar produced at high temperatures. Biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass at 300 °C had the greatest gravimetric C sequestration (110-120 g stable C kg(-1) seaweed). Biochar produced from un-pelletised Ulva enhanced plant growth three-fold in low fertility soils when the temperature of pyrolysis was less than 450 °C. The reduced effectiveness of the high-temperature biochars (>450 °C) was due to a lower N and higher salt content. Soil ameliorated with biochar produced from pelletised biomass had suppressed plant germination and growth. The most effective biochar for C sequestration and soil amelioration was produced from un-rinsed and un-pelletised Ulva at 300 °C. The green tide that occurs annually along the Shandong coastline in China generates sufficient biomass (200,000 tons dry weight) to ameliorate 12,500

  7. Land-Use Planning and Satellite Imagery Used for Green Areas Protection – Case Study of the City of Łódź, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feltynowski Marcin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues of spatial planning on the case study of Łódź. Of significance in Łódź are its outer peripheries, which due to their natural value have become areas that must be protected and monitored in order to limit the anthropogenic impact. Protection of these areas may be carried out through the usage of instruments such as local land-use plans which help to limit the green field development phenomenon and to look after the biologically active surfaces within the borders of the city. The second step which may concern the areas with local land-use plans, as well as those without current local land-use plans, is monitoring. Such monitoring may be carried out through the analyses of satellite imagery of the city area. Such activities are a kind of low-budget enterprises which bring many benefits at a very small cost resulting from the purchase of satellite imagery. From the perspective of the authorities, a crucial fact is that the material collected during the analyses of the satellite imagery may be used in the initial phase of the planning process as an element of the inventory of areas designated for the development of land-use plans.

  8. Resident areas and migrations of female green turtles nesting at Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Iverson, Autumn; Benscoter, Allison M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Pollock, Clayton; Lundgren, Ian; Hillis-Starr, Zandy

    2017-01-01

    Satellite tracking in marine turtle studies can reveal much about their spatial use of breeding areas, migration zones, and foraging sites. We assessed spatial habitat-use patterns of 10 adult female green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nesting at Buck Island Reef National Monument, U.S. Virgin Islands (BIRNM) from 2011 – 2014. Turtles ranged in size from 89.0 – 115.9 cm CCL (mean + SD = 106.8 + 7.7 cm). The inter-nesting period across all turtles ranged from 31 July to 4 November, and sizes of the 50% core-use areas during inter-nesting ranged from 4.2 – 19.0 km2. Inter-nesting core-use areas were located up to1.4 km from shore and had bathymetry values ranging from -17.0 to -13.0 m. Seven of the ten turtles remained locally resident after the nesting season. Five turtles (50%) foraged around Buck Island, two foraged around the island of St. Croix, and the other three (30%) made longer-distance migrations to Antigua, St. Kitts & Nevis, and Venezuela. Further, five turtles had foraging centroids within protected areas. Delineating spatial areas and identifying temporal periods of nearshore habitat-use can be useful for natural resource managers with responsibility for overseeing vulnerable habitats and protected marine turtle populations.

  9. Remedial activities effectiveness verification in tailing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluson, J; Thinova, L; Neznal, M; Svoboda, T

    2015-06-01

    The complex radiological study of the basin of sludge from the uranium ore mining and preprocessing was done. Air kerma rates (including its spectral analysis) at the reference height of 1 m above ground over the whole area were measured and radiation fields mapped during two measuring campaigns (years 2009 and 2014). K, U and Th concentrations in sludge and concentrations in depth profiles (including radon concentration and radon exhalation rates) in selected points were determined using gamma spectrometry for in situ as well as laboratory samples measurement. Results were used for the analysis, design evaluation and verification of the efficiency of the remediation measures. Efficiency of the sludge basin covering by the inert material was modelled using MicroShield code. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Remedial activities effectiveness verification in tailing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluson, J.; Thinova, L.; Svoboda, T.; Neznal, M.

    2015-01-01

    The complex radiological study of the basin of sludge from the uranium ore mining and preprocessing was done. Air kerma rates (including its spectral analysis) at the reference height of 1 m above ground over the whole area were measured and radiation fields mapped during two measuring campaigns (years 2009 and 2014). K, U and Th concentrations in sludge and concentrations in depth profiles (including radon concentration and radon exhalation rates) in selected points were determined using gamma spectrometry for in situ as well as laboratory samples measurement. Results were used for the analysis, design evaluation and verification of the efficiency of the remediation measures. Efficiency of the sludge basin covering by the inert material was modelled using MicroShield code. (authors)

  11. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  12. Protective effect of green tea against neuro-functional alterations in rats treated with MnO2nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárközi, Kitti; Papp, András; Horváth, Edina; Máté, Zsuzsanna; Hermesz, Edit; Kozma, Gábor; Zomborszki, Zoltán Péter; Kálomista, Ildikó; Galbács, Gábor; Szabó, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Inhalation of manganese-containing metal fumes at workplaces can cause central nervous damage including a Parkinson-like syndrome. Oxidative stress is likely to be involved in the pathomechanism, due to the presence of nano-sized metal oxide particles with high biological and chemical activity. Oxidative damage of the nervous system could be prevented or ameliorated by properly applied antioxidants, preferably natural ones such as green tea, a popular drink. The aim of this work was to see if orally applied green tea brew could diminish the functional neurotoxicity of manganese dioxide nanoparticles introduced into the airways of rats. Young adult male Wistar rats were treated intratracheally for 6 weeks with a suspension of synthetic MnO 2 nanoparticles (4 mg/kg body weight), and received green tea brew (1 g leaves 200 mL -1 water) as drinking fluid. Reduced body weight gain, indicating general toxicity of the nanoparticles, was not influenced by green tea. However, in rats receiving green tea the nervous system effects - changes in the spontaneous and evoked cortical activity and peripheral nerve action potential - were diminished. The use of green tea as a neuroprotective functional drink seems to be a viable approach. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  14. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  15. Contrasting effects of visiting urban green-space and the countryside on biodiversity knowledge and conservation support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Deborah F; Evans, Karl L

    2017-01-01

    Conservation policy frequently assumes that increasing people's exposure to green-space enhances their knowledge of the natural world and desire to protect it. Urban development is, however, considered to be driving declining connectedness to nature. Despite this the evidence base supporting the assumption that visiting green-spaces promotes biodiversity knowledge and conservation support, and the impacts of urbanization on these relationships, is surprisingly limited. Using data from door-to-door surveys of nearly 300 residents in three pairs of small and large urban areas in England we demonstrate that people who visit green-space more regularly have higher biodiversity knowledge and support for conservation (measured using scales of pro-environmental behavior). Crucially these relationships only arise when considering visits to the countryside and not the frequency of visits to urban green-space. These patterns are robust to a suite of confounding variables including nature orientated motivations for visiting green-space, socio-economic and demographic factors, garden-use and engagement with natural history programs. Despite this the correlations that we uncover cannot unambiguously demonstrate that visiting the countryside improves biodiversity knowledge and conservation support. We consider it likely, however, that two mechanisms operate through a positive feedback loop i.e. increased visits to green-space promote an interest in and knowledge of biodiversity and support for conservation, which in turn further increase the desire to visit green-space and experience nature. The intensity of urbanization around peoples' homes, but not city size, is negatively associated with their frequency of countryside visits and biodiversity knowledge. Designing less intensely urbanized cities with good access to the countryside, combined with conservation policies that promote access to the countryside thus seems likely to maximize urban residents' biodiversity knowledge and

  16. Green tea catechins potentiate the effect of antibiotics and modulate adherence and gene expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Larente, Jade; Morin, Marie-Pierre; Grenier, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    A number of studies have brought evidence that green tea catechins may contribute to periodontal health. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of a green tea extract and its principal constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to potentiate the antibacterial effects of antibiotics (metronidazole, tetracycline) against Porphyromonas gingivalis, and to modulate the adherence to oral epithelial cells and expression of genes coding for virulence factors and the high temperature requirement A (HtrA) stress protein in P. gingivalis. A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the green tea extract and EGCG. The synergistic effects of either compounds in association with metronidazole or tetracycline were evaluated using the checkerboard technique. A fluorescent assay was used to determine bacterial adherence to oral epithelial cells. The modulation of gene expression in P. gingivalis was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. The Vibrio harveyi bioassay was used for monitoring quorum sensing inhibitory activity. The MIC values of the green tea extract on P. gingivalis ranged from 250 to 1000 μg/ml, while those of EGCG ranged from 125 to 500 μg/ml. A marked synergistic effect on P. gingivalis growth was observed for the green tea extract or EGCG in combination with metronidazole. Both the green tea extract and EGCG caused a dose-dependent inhibition of P. gingivalis adherence to oral epithelial cells. On the one hand, green tea extract and EGCG dose-dependently inhibited the expression of several P. gingivalis genes involved in host colonization (fimA, hagA, hagB), tissue destruction (rgpA, kgp), and heme acquisition (hem). On the other hand, both compounds increased the expression of the stress protein htrA gene. The ability of the green tea extract and EGCG to inhibit quorum sensing may contribute to the modulation of gene expression. This study explored the preventive and therapeutic potential of green tea

  17. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  18. Can We Make Green Bonds An Effective Tool For Urban Carbon Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Y.; Murakami, D.

    2016-12-01

    The "Paris Agreement" requires major carbon emitting countries to conduct massive reduction efforts during the 21st century. At the same time, new carbon financing mechanisms are emerging. Among others, Green Bonds (GBs) is rapidly developing. In this paper, we discuss about the potential use of GBs for financing city level carbon management. In order to make the application effective, there are several issues to be studied with financial and environmental researchers together. Especially at city level, it is necessary to develop new GBs assessment methods to check the comprehensive environmental implications of the GBs projects. For this purpose, we discuss about the enhancement of currently developing district level Green Building standards and certification systems (LEED-ND). We also report about our new research results regarding city scale monitoring system (CO2, energy, transport, ecosystem etc.) for the reporting. *This paper is related to a Future Earth (Global Carbon Project) project proposal. It is also linked with development regarding the Knowledge Action Networks.

  19. Effect of processing conditions on quality of green beans subjected to reciprocating agitation thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anika; Singh, Anubhav Pratap; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2015-12-01

    The effect of reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) on quality of canned beans was evaluated in a lab-scale reciprocating retort. Green beans were selected due to their soft texture and sensitive color. Green beans (2.5cm length×0.8cm diameter) were filled into 307×409 cans with carboxylmethylcellulose (0-2%) solutions and processed at different temperatures (110-130°C) and reciprocation frequency (1-3Hz) for predetermined heating times to achieve a process lethality (F o ) of 10min. Products processed at higher temperatures and higher reciprocation frequencies resulted in better retention of chlorophyll and antioxidant activity. However, high reciprocation frequency also resulted in texture losses, with higher breakage of beans, increased turbidity and higher leaching. There was total loss of product quality at the highest agitation speed, especially with low viscosity covering solutions. Results suggest that reciprocating agitation frequency needs to be adequately moderated to get the best quality. For getting best quality, particularly for canned liquid particulate foods with soft particulates and those susceptible to high impact agitation, a gentle reciprocating motion (~1Hz) would be a good compromise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Biodiversity on Green Space Users’ Wellbeing—An Empirical Investigation Using Physiological Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaowen Grace Chang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Promoting ecological health and human wellbeing are two fundamental goals in landscape sustainability. Green spaces are thought to improve users’ psychological and physical wellbeing through the contact with nature. However, the results of some studies that rely on self-reports suggest that when the level of naturalness in a green space reaches a certain point, the beneficial effects diminish and in some cases can cause negative responses. We explored this possibility through an experimental study in which we use physiological measures rather than perceptions to assess people’s wellbeing. We investigate how people are affected by outdoor settings with varying degrees of biodiversity and whether the correlation between biodiversity and physiological wellbeing is negative or positive. We used multiple measures of insect diversity as an indicator for biodiversity, and biofeedback measures as indicators of wellbeing. Our findings suggest that people are equally affected by more biodiverse and less biodiverse settings. Physiological responses remain largely unchanged when biodiversity increases. This suggests that settings rich in biodiversity will not negatively influence people’s physiological wellbeing, and designers and city planners should not hesitate to use ecological best practices in their designs.

  1. Efficiency improvement in dye sensitized solar cells by the plasmonic effect of green synthesized silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been remarkably increased by incorporation of green synthesized silver nanoparticles into TiO2 photoanodes. Uniform silver nanoparticles were developed by treating silver ions with Peltophorum pterocarpum flower extract at room temperature. The obtained silver nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-vis. spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the obtained silver nanoparticles were polycrystalline in nature with face centered cubic lattice. Silver nanoparticles, with an approximate size in the range of 20–50 nm were examined by the TEM. The plasmonic nanocomposite material was prepared by mixing different green synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag content of 1, 2 and 3 wt% with P25TiO2 nanoparticles and used as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. Due to the plasmonic effect of the modified electrode, the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell was improved from 2.83% to 3.62% with increment around 28% after incorporation of the 2 wt% of the silver nanoparticles. Maximum increases in open-circuit voltage (up to 12.1% and in short-circuit current density (up to 10.7% were observed.

  2. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Yangılar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, possible eff ects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2 % are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity, chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour, mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre-rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fi bre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fi bre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fi bre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have signifi cant (p<0.05 effect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2 % of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  3. Effect of Additional Information on Consumer Acceptance: An Example with Pomegranate Juice and Green Tea Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Higa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate Juice (PJ and Green Tea (GT products have increased in popularity because of their beneficial health properties. Consumers look for healthier beverages, and rely on labels, claims, and product packaging when choosing a product. The objectives of this study were to determine (1 the sensory profiles and acceptance of PJ and GT blends; (2 whether additional information would have an effect on consumer acceptance; and (3 the total phenolic content (TPC of the samples. Six PJ and GT blends were evaluated by a descriptive panel in order to explore sensory differences in flavor characteristics. A consumer panel (n = 100 evaluated the samples before and after beneficial health information about the samples was provided to them. The blends that were higher in tea concentration were higher in Green and GT-like flavors, and lower in berry, beet, floral, sweetness, and cherry flavors. The overall liking scores of all of the samples increased after the information was provided to the consumers. The sample highest in PJ and lowest in GT blend was liked the most. In addition, as the samples increased in PJ, the TPC content increased. These results may be of interest to the beverage industry, providing information of consumer liking of beverage blends, and how information on health related claims affects consumer acceptance.

  4. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Earthworm casts (EWCs) and clinoptilolite (CL) were used in green waste composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL improved physico-chemical and microbiological properties. • Addition of EWCs + CL extended the duration of thermophilic periods during composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL enhanced humification, cellulose degradation, and nutrients. • Combined addition of 0.30% EWCs + 25% CL reduced composting time to 21 days. - Abstract: Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21 days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90–270 days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL

  5. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (pcreams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists. PMID:27904363

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and investigation of their colorimetric sensing and cytotoxicity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavan Noghabi, Mohammad; Parizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Taherzadeh, Danial; Hosseini, Hasan Ali; Darroudi, Majid

    2017-10-01

    The "Green" synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and investigation of their optical properties has become a useful application between nanoscience and medicine. In this work, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were successfully prepared through a facile and green method by treating silver ions with chitosan. Preparation of Ag-NPs in silver nitrate solution (0.01 M) resulted in small and spherical shapes of Ag-NPs with a mean diameter of 10.2 nm. The formation of Ag-NPs was approved by surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption peaks, using UV-vis spectrophotometer, while Ag-NPs were successfully employed in colorimetric sensing of H2O2 via an analytical procedure. Degradation process of Ag-NPs, encouraged by the catalytic decomposition of H2O2, causes a significant change in the absorbance intensity of SPR band depending on the H2O2 concentration. The cytotoxicity effect of synthesized Ag-NPs was examined on HEK293 cell line. The results illustrate a concentration-dependent toxicity for the tested cells, while15.07 μg/mL of IC50 was obtained.

  7. Role of dielectric effects in the red-green switching of porous silicon luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chazalviel, J.N. (Lab. de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91 Palaiseau (France)); Ozanam, F. (Lab. de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91 Palaiseau (France)); Dubin, V.M. (Lab. de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91 Palaiseau (France))

    1994-09-01

    Trapping of a carrier at an ionized impurity in porous silicon may be significantly hindered when the material is embedded in a high-dielectric-constant medium such as an aqueous electrolyte. This effect is estimated for a geometry of cylindrical silicon wires, and by modeling the two media with wavevector-independent dielectric constants. The self-image potential of the electron is taken into account, and the frequency dependence of the outer dielectric constant is treated in a simple manner. The results demonstrate that the impurity states are not accessible in the presence of the electrolyte, just due to the dielectric relaxation of the embedding medium. This result may apply to different kinds of localized electronic states, including those responsible for the red luminescence in dry porous silicon. This provides a plausible explanation for the red to green switching of the luminescence when the porous silicon is wet and suggests that using embedding media of intermediate dielectric constants should allow one to observe a progressive transition between red and green luminescence. Observation of porous silicon luminescence in solvents of various dielectric constants provides a preliminary test of this prediction. (orig.).

  8. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (pice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  9. Antioxidant Effects of Green-Tea on biochemical and Histopathological Changes of liver in Male Rats Poisoned by Malathion Insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Raoofi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphate pesticide which is widely used in agriculture, veterinary and industries. Oxidative stress has been identified as one of Malathion’s main molecular mechanisms of action in plasma, liver, pancreas, muscles and the brain. Green tea (Camellia sinensis, which is the most common drink across the world after water, has many antioxidant properties. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of Malathion on the liver and the preventive effects of green tea on Malathion-induced poisoning. Seventy-two Wistar male rats were randomly divided into the control, the sham, and the experimental groups (receiving respectively 40 mg/kg of Malathion; 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of green tea; and 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of Malathion and green tea respectively. All injections were performed intraperitoneally for 14 consecutive days. On the 15th day, blood samples were taken from the hearts of the rats to measure serum level of hepatic enzymes, and their liver tissues were removed to be studied. To do the statistical analysis One-way ANOVA test and Duncan’s test at the 5% significance level were used. aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Total Oxidation Capacity(TOC concentrations in the treatment groups with Malathion and green tea extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses showed a significant decline compared to the Malathion group(p<0.05, whileTotal Antioxidant Capacity (TAC level showed a significant increase with various doses of green tea and Malathion compared to the Malathion group (p<0.05. Green tea, probably due to its strong antioxidant properties, could improve the destructive effects of Malathion on the rat liver.

  10. Effects of green and red light in βL-crystallin and ovalbumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, J. Horacio; Reynaga-Hernández, Elizabeth; Ruiz-García, Jaime; Montero-Morán, Gabriela; Sanchez-Dominguez, Margarita; Mercado-Uribe, Hilda

    2015-12-01

    The effects of visible light on biological systems have been widely studied. In particular, the alterations of blue light on the ocular lens have recently attracted much attention. Here, we present a study about the effects produced by green and red light on two different proteins: βL-crystallin and ovalbumin. Based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and fluorescence emission measurements, we found that both wavelengths induce structural changes in these proteins. We also observed that βL-crystallin aggregates. Our work may advance our understanding about conformational and aggregation processes in proteins subjected to visible radiation and the possible relationship with cataracts. While blue light has been considered the only harmful component in the visible espectrum, our findings show the possibility that lower energy components may be also of some concern.

  11. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Krayenhoff and Bass, 2003; Foster, Lowe and Winkelman, 2012; Gill, 2007).spell out all authors first time referenced Biophilic urbanism and green infrastructure Harvard biologist E. O. Wilson popularised the concept of biophilia, describing it as “the...

  12. The effect of green leafy and cruciferous vegetable intake on the incidence of cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Richard Lee

    2016-01-01

    Does the consumption of green leafy vegetables including cruciferous vegetables significantly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease? This research question was answered via employing the statistical methods of meta-analysis by synthesizing relevant worldwide studies that address the association between the consumption of green leafy vegetables and risk of incidence of said diseases. All meta-analysis calculations included determination of effect sizes of relative risk, and their respective 95% confidence intervals, heterogeneity of the studies, relative weights for each study, and significance (p) for each study. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, which investigated the relationship between the incidences of total cardiovascular disease with the intake of green leafy vegetables. The overall effect size (random effect model) was: RR = 0.842 (95% CI = 0.753 to 0.941), p = 0.002, which indicates a significant 15.8% reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease.

  13. Effects of spatial configuration of imperviousness and green infrastructure networks on hydrologic response in a residential sewershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Theodore C.; Welty, Claire

    2017-09-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) is an approach to stormwater management that promotes natural processes of infiltration and evapotranspiration, reducing surface runoff to conventional stormwater drainage infrastructure. As more urban areas incorporate GI into their stormwater management plans, greater understanding is needed on the effects of spatial configuration of GI networks on hydrological performance, especially in the context of potential subsurface and lateral interactions between distributed facilities. In this research, we apply a three-dimensional, coupled surface-subsurface, land-atmosphere model, ParFlow.CLM, to a residential urban sewershed in Washington DC that was retrofitted with a network of GI installations between 2009 and 2015. The model was used to test nine additional GI and imperviousness spatial network configurations for the site and was compared with monitored pipe-flow data. Results from the simulations show that GI located in higher flow-accumulation areas of the site intercepted more surface runoff, even during wetter and multiday events. However, a comparison of the differences between scenarios and levels of variation and noise in monitored data suggests that the differences would only be detectable between the most and least optimal GI/imperviousness configurations.

  14. Effect of Green Tea Extract on T cell Mediated Hypersensitivity Reaction in BALB/c Mice Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A.M.; Ismail Al-kadey, M.M.I.; Shabon, M.H.; Hussien, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma radiation is widely used in the treatment of malignant neoplasms. However, it deprives the host immune function which may retard tumor rejection by the immune response. The main purpose of the present study is to test the ability of green tea dry extract to restore the T cell hypersensitivity reaction in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It aims also to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of ionizing radiation and green tea dry extract in the immune function. Four groups of BALB/c mice, each of ten, have been used in each experiment. The first group served as a control, the second group received green tea dry extract and the third group was exposed to 2 Gy gamma irradiation, while the fourth group received green tea dry extract before and after gamma irradiation. The following parameters were determined, the contact sensitivity reaction by the mouse ear swelling response, local dendritic cell migration, local lymph node weight, lymphocyte proliferation, spleen and thymus weight with their lymphocyte count. The effect of gamma irradiation and green tea dry extract on the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity was also determined. Data from the present study showed that gamma irradiation caused a significant decrease of the mouse ear swelling response and retarded dendritic cell migration. They also showed a significant decline in the lymphocytes proliferation in lymph node draining the contact sensitizer application. Total body exposure to 2 Gy gamma irradiation induced marked decline of thymus weight and thymocyte count, while it reduced spleen weight and spleenocyte count to a lesser extent. Exposure to gamma irradiation enhanced the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity. Administration of green tea dry extract partially preserved the contact sensitivity response to oxazolone in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It markedly minimized the enhancement of the elicitation phase of ear swelling. In conclusion, the present study heralds a beneficial role of

  15. Antioxidant and Hypolipidaemic Effect of Raw Green Snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) on Aged Male Rats Exposed to gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abed EI-Gawad, E.I.; Aiad, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    This Study was established to assess the effect of supplemental dietary raw green snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) for three months to overcome gamma-irradiation induced alterations on some oxidant/ antioxidant parameters (Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , total iron, ferritin, transferrin and ceruloplasmin) and the hyper lipidemic state (triglycerides, cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein (HDL-c and LDL-c) in aged male rats. Raw green snap is an indigenous plant used in Unani and Ayurvedic medicine in India. The study also aimed to estimate the effect of dietary raw green snap on general health through the follow up of body weight and mortality during the course of supplementation. Thirty-two aged male rats (24 months, 370-375 g) were divided equally into four groups. 1- Control group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months. 2- Supplemented group, the animals balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g / kg body wt/ day) for 3 months. 3- Irradiated group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months were then exposed to whole body y-radiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. 4-Supplemented-irradiated group, the animals' balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g/ kg/ day) for three months and then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. The blood samples were taken from orbital venous plexuses after 48 h of stopping green snap supplementation (supplemented group) or after irradiation (irradiated and supplemented gamma-irradiated groups). The results obtained showed reduction in the body wt in green snap supplemented group which increased gradually concomitant with occurrence of animal mortality on week 7 reaching II) maximal values (-32.79 and 33.33 %) respectively, on week 12 of supplementation. Also, the supplemented group showed non significant changes in tested parameters although the level of total iron and triglycerides recorded noticeable changes as compared with controls

  16. Enhancing Green Absorptive Capacity, Green Dynamic Capacities and Green Service Innovation to Improve Firm Performance: An Analysis of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the influences of green absorptive capacity, green dynamic capacities, and green service innovation on firm performance. In order to fill the research gap, this study proposes the concept of green service innovation. The results are as follows: First, this study finds that green absorptive capacity has positive effects on green dynamic capacities, green service innovation, and firm performance. Second, this study points out that green dynamic capacities have positive effects on green service innovation and firm performance. Third, this study observes that green dynamic capacities and green service innovation intercede the positive connection between green absorptive capacity and firm performance.

  17. [Hygienic effect of landscaping in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechkuev, R; Chuchkova, M; Kurchatova, G

    1979-01-01

    The atmospheric environment in two blocks of flats with different degree of gardens and parks lain out and in a town park in Sofia was studied by the basic physical, chemical and physiologic parameters. The results give grounds to admit that laying out gardens and parks in urban zones contributes to the creation of definite, qualitatively and quantitatively different housing environment: a more favourable temperature-and-moisture, radiation - thermal and biologicaly active regime. The physiologic state of residents, looking for recreation in these places, was better in an environment of ample verdure. Laying out gardens and parks should gain wider acceptance in the urbanization of bloks of flats, since it is an effective means of improving the hygienic merits of housing environment.

  18. The Effect of Tree Spacing and Size in Urban Areas: Strategies for Mitigating High Temperature in Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, R.; Shandas, V.; Makido, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Many cities are unintentionally designed to be heat sinks, which absorb the sun's short-wave radiation and reemit as long-wave radiation. Long time reorganization of this `urban heat island' (UHI) phenomena has led researchers and city planners into developing strategies for reducing ambient temperatures through urban design. Specifically, greening areas have proven to reduce the temperature in UHI's, including strategies such as green streets, green facades, and green roofs have been implemented. Among the scientific community there is promoted study of how myriad greening strategies can reduce temperature, relatively limited work has focused on the distribution, density, and quantity of tree campaigns. This paper examines how the spacing and size of trees reduce temperatures differently. A major focus of the paper is to understand how to lower the temperature through tree planting, and provide recommendations to cities that are attempting to solve their own urban heat island issues. Because different cities have different room for planting greenery, we examined which strategies are more efficient given an area constraint. Areas that have less available room might not be able to plant a high density of trees. We compared the different experimental groups varying in density and size of trees against the control to see the effect the trees had. Through calibration with local weather stations, we used a micrometeorology program (ENVI-Met) to model and simulate the different experimental models and how they affect the temperature. The results suggest that some urban designs can reduce ambient temperatures by over 7 0C, and the inclusion of large form trees have the greatest contribution, by reducing temperatures over 15 0C. The results suggest that using specific strategies that combine placement of specific tree configurations with alternative distribution of urban development patterns can help to solve the current challenges of UHI's, and thereby support management

  19. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Tai-Wei Chang; Chun-Yu Lin; Pi-Yu Lai; Kuan-Hung Wang

    2016-01-01

    This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positivel...

  20. Phototherapy with blue and green mixed-light is as effective against unconjugated jaundice as blue light and reduces oxidative stress in the Gunn rat model.

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Yumiko; Morimoto, Yukihiro; Uchiike, Takao; Kamamoto, Tomoyuki :4/0000339; Hayashi, Tamaki; Arai, Ikuyo; Nishikubo, Toshiya; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Phototherapy using blue light-emitting diodes (LED) is effective against neonatal jaundice. However, green light phototherapy also reduces unconjugated jaundice. We aimed to determine whether mixed blue and green light can relieve jaundice with minimal oxidative stress as effectively as either blue or green light alone in a rat model.METHODS:Gunn rats were exposed to phototherapy with blue (420-520 nm), filtered blue (FB; 440-520 nm without

  1. Nuclear power threats, public opposition and green electricity adoption: Effects of threat belief appraisal and fear arousal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Patrick; Apaolaza, Vanessa; D'Souza, Clare; Echebarria, Carmen; Barrutia, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the extent to which willingness to oppose nuclear power and intention to adopt green electricity are related to the cognitive and emotional appraisal of threats deriving from nuclear power. The analysis draws on a theoretical framework which introduces emotional fear arousal as a direct behavioural antecedent of coping behaviour into a model based on cognitive centred Protection Motivation Theory (PMT, Maddux and Rogers, 1983; Rogers, 1983) and the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM, Witte, 1992, 1998). Hypothesized relations are tested in a nationally representative online study conducted in April and May 2012, one year after the Fukushima accident. Results support the hypothesized influences of perceived threat, fear arousal and perceived coping efficacy. Support for the proposed effects of fear control is rather limited. Findings contribute to extending previous knowledge on the role of cognitive and emotional appraisal processes induced by awareness of threats from nuclear power as behavioural antecedents of both opposing nuclear power and adopting green electricity. Findings of the study have implications for nuclear power policy and activism, as well as for institutional and commercial promoters of voluntary residential green electricity adoption. - Highlights: • Nationally representative online survey on nuclear power conducted in Spain in April and May 2012. • Opposition to nuclear power and green electricity adoption are related to threat beliefs. • Emotional fear arousal motivates nuclear opposition and green electricity uptake. • Significant behavioural effects of coping efficacy are confirmed. • Influences of fear control on behaviour intentions are rather weak

  2. Floor area concession incentives as planning instruments to promote green building : A critical review of international practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, K.; Qian, Q.K.; Chan, E.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Gross Floor Area (GFA) concession scheme, as a planning incentive, is developed from the notion of “make developers pay” in UK in 1990. It rewards developers additional GFA in exchange for public amenities so that government could save that amount of money. This paper carries out a review of GFA

  3. Adspots and Green Eyes: 'National' Identity in Irish TV Commercials and Other 'Marginal' Areas of Irish Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Stephanie

    This paper discusses the relationship between national identity and the so-called "marginal" areas of Irish television, i.e., advertisements, continuity announcements, and promotional trailers. The following issues are considered: (1) how these "spaces" between television programs compare in terms of use and influence to…

  4. Green Chemistry: Effect of Microwave Irradiationon Synthesis of Chitosan for Biomedical Grade Applications of Biodegradable Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amri Setyawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave assisted chitosan synthesis as biodegradable material for biomedical application has been done. The purpose of this research is to synthesis of chitosan with high DD and low molecular weight using microwave energy, the study of reaction conditions include parameters of power and reaction time. Chitosan was prepared by deacetylation of chitin with 60% NaOH solution. Conventional method has been done by reflux for 90minutes, resulting chitosan with DD of 79.5%, 72.6% yields and molecular weight 6051 g/mol. Green chemistry method using microwave radiation at 800 Watts for 5 minutes has produced chitosan with highest DD, yield and molecular weight of 86%, 75% and 3797 g/mole respectively. Synthesis of Chitosan by microwave radiation method can save 10x electrical energy for the reaction, also rapidly and effectively to produce chitosan with low molecular weight compared to conventional methods

  5. Effects of removing symbiotic green algae on the response of Hydra viridissima (Pallas 1776) to metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karntanut, W; Pascoe, D

    2005-03-01

    Hydra viridissima is distinctively green due to symbiotic algae within the endodermal cells. The current investigation was designed to see if these algae influenced the response of Hydra to pollutants, by comparing the toxicity of copper, cadmium, and zinc to both symbiotic and aposymbiotic (free of their endosymbiotic algae) H. viridissima. The results demonstrated that the toxicity of the metals was generally similar for both groups of Hydra. However, at the lowest copper concentrations there was a difference between the two group of polyps, with aposymbiotic animals dying at concentrations where symbiotic Hydra survived. The lowest observed effect concentrations were 0.0068 and 0.016 mg/L for aposymbiotic and symbiotic Hydra, respectively. It is suggested that the symbiotic Hydra derive benefits from the association that enable them to better tolerate the toxicant. This work demonstrated that experimental manipulation of symbionts can help to explain their complex interactions and the ways in which they respond to pollutants.

  6. Analysis of the spatial-temporal change and impact factors of the vegetation index in Yulin of China: the effect of forest conservation and grain for green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Luan, J.; Lin, M.; Huang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1999, China began the Grain for Green program to conserve the forest in the north of China. After 17 years, the vegetation in the north has changed. Vegetation index is an important method to study the regional vegetation change. This study is based on MODIS/Terra NDVI remote sensing data, and analyzes the spatial-temporal changes and the impact factors of the NDVI in August from 2000 to 2016 at pixel scale in Yulin City of Shaanxi Province in China. The results showed that, on about 96.44% of the region in the Yulin city, vegetation index increased, and the area with increasing NDVI between 0-0.02/a accounts for 93.63% of Yulin city. The area with significant increasing trend accounts for 80.72%. The complex linear regression analysis showed that, the meteorological factors play a positive role in the growth and evolution of vegetation, and human activities also make the vegetation index become more uniform. The area, where the human activities restrain the growth and evolution of the vegetation, is 45.04% of the Yulin area. It is mainly distributed in Fugu County which located in the north of Yulin, and most areas of southern and western parts of Yulin. The area where human activities promote the increase of the vegetation index, accounted for 54.96% of the Yulin area, which indicated that on more than half of the region, human activities have played a positive role in the growth of vegetation. In these areas, the effect of forest conservation, and grain for green (i.e. returning farmland to forests, and returning pasturage to natural grassland) is better.

  7. The effect of saturation magnetization of nanocatalyst and oscillating magnetic field for green urea synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahya, Noorhana, E-mail: noorhana_yahya@petronas.com.my; Alqasem, Bilal, E-mail: bilalalqasem@yahoo.com; Irfan, Muhammad; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia Ur; Shafie, Afza; Soleimani, Hassan

    2017-02-15

    Hematite and cupric oxide nanowires have been synthesized using the oxidation method for green urea production. Hematite nanowires were obtained by the oxidation of an iron wire at a temperature of 650 °C and ambient pressure in the presence of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gases. Cupric oxide nanowires were obtained by the same method at 700 °C, using a copper wire. The X-ray diffraction results show the formation of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and monoclinic phase of CuO. FE-SEM results reveal the formation of nanowires with dimensions ranging between 5–15 µm and 4–12 µm in length and a diametere ranging between 50–150 nm and 50–250 nm for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CuO respectively. The VSM results show that the saturation magnetization values for hematite and cupric oxide were 132.8700 and 0.0124 emu/g, respectively. The nanowires were used as catalyst for green urea synthesis in the presence of an oscillating and a static magnetic fields. The use of nanocatalyst with high saturation magnetization gives a higher yield of urea due to the increase in the singlet to triplet conversion. The highest yield of urea 11243 ppm was achieved by applying an oscillating magnetic field of frequency 0.5 MHz and using α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires as nanocatalyst. - Highlights: • Effect of saturation magnetization of nanocatalyst on urea yield was investigated • Using nanocatalyst with high saturation magnetization value improved urea yield. • Effect of oscillating magnetic field frequency on the urea yield was investigated. • The highest urea yield was achieved by applying 0.5 MHz oscillating magnetic field.

  8. Effects of green tea gargling on the prevention of influenza infection in high school students: a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Ide

    Full Text Available The anti-influenza virus activity of green tea catechins has been demonstrated in experimental studies, but clinical evidence has been inconclusive. School-aged children play an important role in the infection and spread of influenza in the form of school-based outbreaks. Preventing influenza infection among students is essential for reducing the frequency of epidemics and pandemics. As a non-pharmaceutical intervention against infection, gargling is also commonly performed in Asian countries but has not yet been extensively studied.A randomized, open label, 2-group parallel study of 757 high school students (15 to 17 years of age was conducted for 90 days during the influenza epidemic season from December 1st, 2011 to February 28th, 2012, in 6 high schools in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. The green tea gargling group gargled 3 times a day with bottled green tea, and the water gargling group did the same with tap water. The water group was restricted from gargling with green tea. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza using immunochromatographic assay for antigen detection. 757 participants were enrolled and 747 participants completed the study (384 in the green tea group and 363 in the water group. Multivariate logistic regression indicated no significant difference in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza between the green tea group (19 participants; 4.9% and the water group (25 participants; 6.9% (adjusted OR, 0.69; 95%CI, 0.37 to 1.28; P = 0.24. The main limitation of the study is the adherence rate among high school students was lower than expected.Among high school students, gargling with green tea three times a day was not significantly more efficacious than gargling with water for the prevention of influenza infection. In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of such gargling, additional large-scale randomized studies are needed.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01225770.

  9. Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas of southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Fausto; Rosado, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Protected areas are home to biodiversity, habitats and ecosystem as well as a critical component of human well-being and a generator of leisure-related revenues. However, management is sometimes unsatisfactory and requires new ways of evaluation. Management effectiveness of 36 protected areas in southern Ecuador have been assessed. The protected areas belong to three categories: Heritage of Natural Areas of the Ecuadorian State (PANE), created and funded by the State, Areas of Forest and Protective Vegetation (ABVP), created but no funded by the State, and private reserves, declared and funded by private entities. Management effectiveness was evaluated by answers of managers of the protected areas to questionnaires adapted to the socio-economic and environmental characteristics of the region. Questions were classified into six elements of evaluation: context, planning, inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes as recommended by IUCN. Results were classified into four levels: unsatisfactory, slightly satisfactory, satisfactory and very satisfactory. The PANE areas and private reserves showed higher management effectiveness levels (satisfactory and very satisfactory) than ABVP areas, where slightly satisfactory and unsatisfactory levels prevailed. Resources availability was found as the main reason behind this difference. The extension, age and province of location were found irrelevant. Outputs, inputs and processes require main efforts to improve management effectiveness. Improving planning and input in the PANE areas and inputs and outcomes on ABVP areas is necessary to obtain a similar result in all areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Andam, Kwaw S.; Ferraro, Paul J.; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Robalino, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighbo...

  11. A Green's Function Approach to Simulate DNA Damage by the Indirect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cicinotta, Francis A.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage is of fundamental importance in the understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation. DNA is damaged by the direct effect of radiation (e.g. direct ionization) and by indirect effect (e.g. damage by.OH radicals created by the radiolysis of water). Despite years of research, many questions on the DNA damage by ionizing radiation remains. In the recent years, the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE) have been used extensively in biochemistry [1], notably to simulate biochemical networks in time and space [2]. In our future work on DNA damage, we wish to use an approach based on the GFDE to refine existing models on the indirect effect of ionizing radiation on DNA. To do so, we will use the code RITRACKS [3] developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center to simulate the radiation track structure and calculate the position of radiolytic species after irradiation. We have also recently developed an efficient Monte-Carlo sampling algorithm for the GFDE of reversible reactions with an intermediate state [4], which can be modified and adapted to simulate DNA damage by free radicals. To do so, we will use the known reaction rate constants between radicals (OH, eaq, H,...) and the DNA bases, sugars and phosphates and use the sampling algorithms to simulate the diffusion of free radicals and chemical reactions with DNA. These techniques should help the understanding of the contribution of the indirect effect in the formation of DNA damage and double-strand breaks.

  12. Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitani Michio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An epidemiological study conducted in Italy indicated that coffee has the greatest antioxidant capacity among the commonly consumed beverages. Green coffee bean is rich in chlorogenic acid and its related compounds. The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE on fat accumulation and body weight in mice was assessed with the objective of investigating the effect of GCBE on mild obesity. Methods Male ddy mice were fed a standard diet containing GCBE and its principal constituents, namely, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, for 14 days. Further, hepatic triglyceride (TG level was also investigated after consecutive administration (13 days of GCBE and its constituents. To examine the effect of GCBE and its constituents on fat absorption, serum TG changes were evaluated in olive oil-loaded mice. In addition, to investigate the effect on hepatic TG metabolism, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT activity in mice was evaluated after consecutive ingestion (6 days of GCBE and its constituents (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid mixture. Results It was found that 0.5% and 1% GCBE reduced visceral fat content and body weight. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid showed a tendency to reduce visceral fat and body weight. Oral administration of GCBE (100 and 200 mg/kg· day for 13 days showed a tendency to reduce hepatic TG in mice. In the same model, chlorogenic acid (60 mg/kg· day reduced hepatic TG level. In mice loaded with olive oil (5 mL/kg, GCBE (200 and 400 mg/kg and caffeine (20 and 40 mg/kg reduced serum TG level. GCBE (1%, neochlorogenic acid (0.028% and 0.055% and feruloylquinic acid mixture (0.081% significantly enhanced hepatic CPT activity in mice. However, neither caffeine nor chlorogenic acid alone was found to enhance CPT activity. Conclusion These results suggest that GCBE is possibly effective against weight gain and fat accumulation by inhibition of fat absorption and activation of fat

  13. Effect of coffee and green tea consumption on the risk of liver cancer: cohort analysis by hepatitis virus infection status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2009-06-01

    In spite of their anticarcinogenic potential, the effect of coffee and green tea consumption on the risk of liver cancer has not been clarified prospectively in consideration of hepatitis C (HCV) and B virus (HBV) infection. We examined whether coffee and green tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer by hepatitis virus infection status in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study Cohort II. A total of 18,815 subjects ages 40 to 69 years participating in a questionnaire and health checkup survey in 1993 to 1994 were followed for the incidence of liver cancer through 2006. A total of 110 cases of liver cancer were newly documented. Hazard ratios for coffee and green tea consumption categories were calculated with a Cox proportional hazards model. Compared with almost never drinkers, increased coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer in all subjects (hazard ratio for or=3 cups/d; P(trend) = 0.67, 0.49, 0.54, and 0.025). A similar risk tendency was observed in those with either or both HCV and HBV infection. In contrast, no association was observed between green tea consumption and the risk of liver cancer in all subjects. Our results suggest that coffee consumption may reduce the risk of liver cancer regardless of HCV and HBV infection status, whereas green tea may not reduce this risk

  14. The Powdering Process with a Set of Ceramic Mills for Green Tea Promoted Catechin Extraction and the ROS Inhibition Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For serving green tea, there are two prominent methods: steeping the leaf or the powdered leaf (matcha style in hot water. The purpose of the present study was to reveal chemical and functional differences before and after the powdering process of green tea leaf, since powdered green tea may contribute to expanding the functionality because of the different ingesting style. In this study, we revealed that the powdering process with a ceramic mill and stirring in hot water increased the average extracted concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG by more than three times compared with that in leaf tea using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography–tandem mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses. Moreover, powdered green tea has a higher inhibition effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS production in vitro compared with the same amount of leaf tea. Our data suggest that powdered green tea might have a different function from leaf tea due to the higher catechin contents and particles.

  15. The Effectiveness of Green Tea or Green Tea Extract on Insulin Resistance and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyue Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea or green tea extract (GT/GTE has been demonstrated to reduce insulin resistance and improve glycemic control. However, evidence for this health beneficial effect is inconsistent. This systematic review evaluated the effect of GT/GTE on insulin resistance and glycemic control in people with pre-diabetes/type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to April 2017 for randomised controlled trials of participants with pre-diabetes or T2DM, where the intervention was GT/GTE. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the standardised mean difference (SMD in biomarkers of insulin resistance and glycemic control between GT/GTE and placebo groups. Six studies (n=382 were pooled into random-effects meta-analysis. Overall, no differences were found between GT/GTE and the placebo for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c: SMD, −0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.86 to 0.23, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR: SMD, 0.10; 95% CI, −0.17 to 0.38, fasting insulin (SMD, −0.25; 95% CI, −0.64 to 0.15, and fasting glucose (SMD, −0.10; 95% CI, −0.50 to 0.30. No evidence support the consumption of GT/GTE could reduce the levels of HbA1c, HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, or fasting glucose in people with pre-diabetes/T2DM. However, the studies included were small and of varying quality.

  16. A Review of Applicability and Effectiveness of Low Impact Development/Green Infrastructure Practices in Arid/Semi-Arid United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwestern/Western United States is among the fastest growing urbanized area and faces multiple water resource challenges. Low Impact Development (LID) /Green Infrastructure (GI) practices are increasingly popular technologies for managing stormwater; however, LID is often not ...

  17. Effect of manures on biomass production and pharmacobiochemical properties of some greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, S Naseer; Sivakumar, A; Subramanian, M S

    2003-10-01

    The present paper deals with the study of biomass production of manures in the greens such as Amaranthus polygamus and Amaranthus viridis of the family Amaranthaceae and Spinacea oleracea of the family Chenopodiaceae. The medicinal uses and pharmaco - phytochemical analysis were also carried out for the plant species which are widely used as greens.

  18. EFFECT OF MANURES ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND PHARMACOBIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME GREENS

    OpenAIRE

    Banu, S. Naseer; Sivakumar, A.; Subramanian, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper deals with the study of biomass production of manures in the greens such as Amaranthus polygamus and Amaranthus viridis of the family Amaranthaceae and Spinacea oleracea of the family Chenopodiaceae. The medicinal uses and pharmaco – phytochemical analysis were also carried out for the plant species which are widely used as greens.

  19. Environmental Management Competitive Pressure Effect on SME Environmental Innovation Activities: A Green Supply Chain Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, A. A.; Sidek, A. A.; Suffian, S. A.; Daud, M. R. C.

    2018-01-01

    The idea of assimilating green supply chain is to integrate and establish environmental management into the supply chain practices. The study aims to explore how environmental management competitive pressure influences a SME company in Malaysia to incorporate green supply chain integration, which is an efficient platform to develop environmental innovation. This study further advances green supply chain management research in Malaysia by using the method of quantitative analysis to analyze the model developed which data will be collected based on a sample of SMEs in Malaysia in manufacturing sector. The model developed in this study illustrates how environmental management competitive pressure from main competitors affects three fundamental dimensions of green supply chain integration. The research findings suggest that environmental management competitive pressure is a vital driving force for a SME company to incorporate internal and external collaboration in developing green product innovation. From the analysis conducted, the study strongly demonstrated that the best way for a company to counteract competitor’s environmental management success is to first implement strong internal green product development process then move to incorporate external environmental management innovation between their suppliers and customers. The findings also show that internal integration of green product innovation fully mediates the relationship of environmental management competitive pressure and the external integration of green product innovation.

  20. Modulatory effects of green tea on HEK-293 cell energy metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The energy metabolism of HEK-‐293 cell, pretreated with variable concentrations of green tea, was evaluated under different hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations using the MTT assay. Green tea modulated the energy metabolism in renal cell line under different hydrogen peroxide challenge. In the absence of ...

  1. Effects of allopurinol on plasma uric acid levels in normouricaemic and hyperuricaemic green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Divers, S J; Martinez-Jimenez, D; Bush, S; Latimer, K S; Zwart, P; Kroeze, E J B Veldhuis

    2008-01-26

    A two-phase cross-over therapeutic study was performed with 19 green iguanas (Iguana iguana) maintained within a preferred optimum temperature range of 26 to 37 degrees C. During phase 1, they were fed a normal vegetarian diet and medicated orally with either allopurinol or a placebo control once a day for seven days. Uric acid concentrations, total protein, packed-cell volumes (pcv) and bodyweights were recorded from each lizard before and after treatment to determine the effects of allopurinol. In phase 2, after a 10-day washout period, the iguanas were fed a high protein diet to induce hyperuricaemia. Normo- and hyperuricaemic iguanas that received 24.2 (3.2) mg/kg allopurinol had significantly lower mean (sd) uric acid concentrations (100.3 [53.1] micromol/l) than the controls (159.3 [100.3] micromol/l). There were no detectable interactions between the doses of allopurinol or placebo, and the iguanas' diet, weight, pcv or total protein. The allopurinol was well tolerated, and there was no significant clinical, gross or histological evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity in the iguanas that received the drug. However, in the kidneys of the hyperuricaemic iguanas that did not receive allopurinol there were proliferative changes in the glomeruli and degeneration of tubular epithelia. Allopurinol given orally at 25 mg/kg daily is able to reduce plasma uric acid levels by 41 to 45 per cent, and is therefore recommended for the treatment of hyperuricaemia in the green iguana.

  2. Life-cycle Economic and Environmental Effects of Green, Gray and Hybrid Stormwater Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes-Draut, J. R.; Taptich, M. N.; Horvath, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cities throughout the U.S. are seeking efficient ways to manage stormwater for many reasons, including flood control, pollution management, water supply augmentation and to prepare for a changing climate. Traditionally, cities have relied primarily on gray infrastructure, namely sewers, storage and treatment facilities. In these systems, urban runoff, its volume increasing as impervious surfaces expand, is channeled to a wastewater plant where it is mixed with raw sewage prior to treatment or it is discharged, generally untreated, to local water bodies. These facilities are inflexible and expensive to build and maintain. Many systems are deteriorating and/or approaching, if not exceeding, their design capacity. Increasingly, more innovative approaches that integrate stormwater management into the natural environment and that make sense at both local and regional scales are sought. Identifying the best stormwater solution will require evaluating the life-cycle economic costs associated with these alternatives, including costs associated with construction, operation, and maintenance including regulatory and permitting costs, financing, as well as other indirect costs (e.g., avoided wastewater processing or system capacity expansion, increased property value) and non-economic co-benefits (i.e, aesthetics, habitat provision). Beyond conventional life-cycle costing, applying life-cycle assessment (LCA) will contribute to more holistic and sustainable decision-making. LCA can be used to quantitatively track energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and other environmental effects associated with constructing, operating, and maintaining green and gray infrastructure, including supply chain contributions. We will present the current state of knowledge for implementing life-cycle costing and LCA into stormwater management decisions for green, gray and hybrid infrastructure.

  3. Differential effects of green tax reform over economies: A case of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Heon

    2011-12-01

    It is controversial whether or not green tax reform through a carbon tax has double dividend feature. The economic effects of green tax reform vary according to economies due to different preexisting conditions. Recent studies about the economic impacts of a carbon tax have noted the role of preexisting factor taxes in the second best world. The present study, however, explores the role of existing taxes on energy products in introducing a carbon tax, by employing a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Korea, a country that has high existing taxes on petroleum products. Above all, I find that a carbon tax is the most efficient policy instrument among three alternative taxes---an energy tax, a carbon tax and an ad valorem tax---to reduce carbon emissions in Korea under both lump-sum tax replacement and labor tax replacement. The carbon tax, however, brings about welfare and GDP loss. The economic costs can be reduced, but cannot be completely removed by revenue recycling. Second, this study explores how existing taxes on petroleum products affect the economic cost of introducing a carbon tax, by manipulating existing taxes on petroleum products. I find that the existing taxes raise the economic costs of introducing a carbon tax. Third, this study shows that the economic costs of a carbon tax can be reduced when its revenue is returned to cut preexisting taxes on petroleum products. Thus, restructuring existing taxes on energy products plays a crucial role in introducing a carbon tax. From the specific case of the Korean economy, the present study indicates that existing taxes on not only factors but also energy products are one of the main sources of economic costs in introducing a carbon tax.

  4. Investigation on the Fate of Some Pesticides and Their Effects on the Microbial Environment in Cultivation of Green gram (Vigna radiata), Mustard green (Brassica rapa) and Kale (Brassica oleracea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theingi Nwe; Khin Maung Saing

    2010-12-01

    The main aim of the present work was to find out the persistence of some pesticide residues in some vegetable crops and to investigate the effect of pesticide on soil count. Edible parts of green gram, Mustard green and Kale were extracted and analyzed for the presence and degradation of applied pesticide residuse in relation to time. The pesticide residue concentration in plant samples were analyzed by UV spectrometry. According to UV result data, Acephate pesticide in stored green gram seeds was rapidly declined from 2.91mg/kg (two weeks after application) to 0.96mg/kg (three weeks after application). But, four weeks after application, Acephate residues were not detected in the seeds of green gram. In the seeds of green gram, Dimethoate pesticide residues were detected from 1.26mg/kg (one week after application) to 0.89mg/kg (four weeks after treatment). In Mustard green and Kale, Malathion pesticide residues were detected at day seven after application. But Chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were detected in both mustard green and kale at day three after application. Beyond day three, chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were not detected. The respective chemical residues have been partially identified by IR Spectrometry. These can be confirmed with IR absorption peaks that the residues are the utilized chemicals. According to IR data, it can be predicted whether pesticide residues remained or not in the samples.

  5. Effect of surface geometry and insolation on temperature profile of green roof in Saint-Petersburg environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. А. Игнатьев

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses an issue of creating an environment favorable for the life in megacities by planting vegetation on the rooftops. It also provides information about rooftop greening practices adopted in other countries. The issues of ‘green roof’ building in climatic conditions of Saint Petersburg and roof vegetation impact on the urban ecosystem are examined. Vegetation composition quality- and quantity-wise has been proposed for the roof under research and a 3D model of this roof reflecting its geometric properties has been developed. A structure of roof covering and substrate qualitative composition is presented. An effect of rooftop geometry on the substrate temperature is explored. The annual substrate temperature and moisture content in different parts of the roof have been analyzed. Results of thermal imaging monitoring and insolation modelling for different parts of green roof surface are presented.

  6. Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinbach, Helene Christine; Smeets, A.; Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background & aims Bioactive ingredients have been shown to reduce appetite and energy intake. The magnitude of these effects might depend on energy balance why it was investigated how capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper as well as green tea and capsaicin affect appetite and energy...... intake during respectively negative and positive energy balance. Methods 27 subjects were randomized to three weeks of negative and three weeks of positive energy balance during which capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper, capsaicin + green tea or placebo was ingested on ten separate test days while...... the effects on appetite, energy intake, body weight and heart rate were assessed. Results CH-19 sweet pepper and a combination of capsaicin and green tea reduced energy intake during positive energy balance. Capsaicin and green tea suppressed hunger and increased satiety more during negative than during...

  7. Evaluation of antigenotoxic effects of carotenoids from green algae Chlorococcum humicola using human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavathy, S; Sumathi, P

    2012-02-01

    To identify the available phytochemicals and carotenoids in the selected green algae and evaluate the potential genotoxic/antigenotoxic effect using lymphocytes. Organic solvent extracts of Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) were used for the phytochemical analysis. The available carotenoids were assessed by HPLC, and LC-MS analysis. The genotoxicity was induced by the benzo(a)pyrene in the lymphocyte culture, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of algal carotenoids with and without genotoxic inducer were evaluated by chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus assay (MN). The results of the analysis showed that the algae were rich in carotenoids and fatty acids. In the total carotenoids lutein, β-carotene and α-carotene were found to be present in higher concentration. The frequency of CA and SCE increased by benzo(a)pyrene were significantly decreased by the carotenoids (Palgae C. humicola is a rich source of bioactive compounds especially carotenoids which effectively fight against environmental genotoxic agents, the carotenoids itself is not a genotoxic substance and should be further considered for its beneficial effects.

  8. Evaluation of antigenotoxic effects of carotenoids from green algae Chlorococcum humicola using human lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavathy, S; Sumathi, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the available phytochemicals and carotenoids in the selected green algae and evaluate the potential genotoxic/antigenotoxic effect using lymphocytes. Methods Organic solvent extracts of Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) were used for the phytochemical analysis. The available carotenoids were assessed by HPLC, and LC-MS analysis. The genotoxicity was induced by the benzo(a)pyrene in the lymphocyte culture, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of algal carotenoids with and without genotoxic inducer were evaluated by chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus assay (MN). Results The results of the analysis showed that the algae were rich in carotenoids and fatty acids. In the total carotenoids lutein, β-carotene and α-carotene were found to be present in higher concentration. The frequency of CA and SCE increased by benzo(a)pyrene were significantly decreased by the carotenoids (Pcarotenoids when compared with the positive controls (Pcarotenoids which effectively fight against environmental genotoxic agents, the carotenoids itself is not a genotoxic substance and should be further considered for its beneficial effects. PMID:23569879

  9. Green tea extract only affects markers of oxidative status postprandially: lasting antioxidant effect of flavonoid-free diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J.F.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Haraldsdottir, J.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) used as a food antioxidant on markers of oxidative status after dietary depletion...... in flavonoids. GTE intervention increased plasma antioxidant capacity from 1.35 to 1.56 (P...

  10. Effect of green tea and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on ethanol-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Il; Kim, Hyo Jung; Boo, Yong Chool

    2008-05-01

    Despite the continuing reports supporting the hepatoprotective effects of green tea against ethanol intoxication, there remain controversies regarding the active compound(s) and molecular mechanism. These issues were addressed in the present study using cultured HepG2 cells exposed to a lethal dose of ethanol. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was chosen as a marker of ethanol toxicity because it is widely used in clinics. When the cells were treated with ethanol at various concentrations, there was a dose-dependent increase of GGT activity in the culture media and loss of cell viability. Pretreatment of the cells with green tea extract attenuated the changes significantly. Among the green tea constituents, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) attenuated the ethanol cytotoxicity effectively, whereas L-theanine and caffeine had no effects. The ethanol cytotoxicity was also attenuated by alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methyl pyrazol and GGT inhibitor acivicin as well as by thiol modulators such as S-adenosyl-L-methionine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and glutathione. EGCG failed to prevent the intracellular glutathione loss caused by ethanol, but it appeared to be a strong GGT inhibitor. Therefore the cytoprotective effects of green tea could be attributed to the inhibition of GGT activity by EGCG. This study suggests that GGT inhibitors including EGCG may provide a novel strategy for attenuating ethanol-induced liver damage.

  11. Effect of pH on the Heat-Induced Denaturation and Renaturation of Green Fluorescent Protein: A Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rosa V.; Sola, Hilda M.; Torres, Juan C.; Torres, Rafael E.; Guzman, Ernick E.

    2013-01-01

    A fluorescence spectroscopy experiment is described where students integrated biochemistry and instrumental analysis, while characterizing the green fluorescent protein excitation and emission spectra in terms of its phenolic and phenolate chromophores. Students studied the combined effect of pH and temperature on the protein's fluorescence,…

  12. Effect of farmyard manure and green manure crops on populations of mycophagous soil fauna and Rhizoctonia stem canker of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lootsma, M.; Scholte, K.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of organic soil amendments on populations of mycophagous springtails and nematodes and on Rhizoctonia solani stem canker of potato were investigated in two field experiments each lasting two years. The organic amendments consisted of three green manure crops (white mustard, forage rape and

  13. Effect of Green Macroalgal Blooms on the Behavior, Growth, and Survival of Cockles (Clinocardium nuttallii) in Pacific NW Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient over-enrichment can produce adverse ecological effects within coastal ecosystems and negatively impact the production of ecosystem goods and services. In small estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, seasonal blooms of green macroalgae (GMA; Ulva spp.) are primarily ass...

  14. 75 FR 36380 - Green County Operating Services, LLC; El Cajon Energy, LLC; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green County Operating Services, LLC; El Cajon Energy, LLC; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status June 18, 2010. Take notice that during the month of April/May...

  15. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Warren R.; Siu, William H.L.; Jack, Ralph W.; Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Lam, Paul K.S.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2005-01-01

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel

  16. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Warren R. [Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)]. E-mail: warren.davies@rmit.edu.au; Siu, William H.L. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Jack, Ralph W. [Department of Microbiology, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Wu, Rudolf S.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel.

  17. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Warren R; Siu, William H L; Jack, Ralph W; Wu, Rudolf S S; Lam, Paul K S; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2005-01-01

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel.

  18. The effect of a six-week combined aerobic-resistance training program along with green coffee consumption on anxiety and depression in overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivar Hassani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorogenic acid, a major polyphenol in green coffee, and physical activity are considered as two possible effective factors on anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a six-week combined aerobic-resistance training along with green coffee consumption on anxiety and depression in overweight and obese women. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 30 volunteer overweight and obese women were randomly divided into three groups of combined aerobic-resistance training, green coffee and combined training with green coffee. Training was performed four sessions per week for six weeks. The amount of green coffee consumption was 250 mg per day for six weeks. The anxiety and depression levels of the participants were assessed using the Beck questionnaire. Results: Results showed a significant improvement in anxiety and depression levels in the three study groups (P<0.05. Also, the results showed that changes in anxiety and depression levels in the group of combined training with green coffee consumption was significantly higher than the green coffee group (P=0.03 and P=0.01, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, green coffee consumption and combined training could be effective in improving anxiety and depression. Also, combined aerobic-resistance training along with green coffee consumption is more effective on improving anxiety and depression.

  19. Sewage, green algal mats anchored by lugworms, and the effects on Turbellaria and small Polychaeta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reise, Karsten

    1983-06-01

    On sandy tidal flats at the Island of Sylt (North Sea) ephemeral mats of green algae covered wide areas in the vicinity of sewage outflows. Algae became anchored in the feeding funnels of lugworms ( Arenicola marina) and thus were able to resist displacement by tidal currents. Below the algal mats anoxic conditions extend to the sediment surface. After about one month a rough sea removed all algae. Polychaetes endured this short-term environmental deterioration, while the more sensitive Turbellaria decreased in abundance and species richness. Diatom-feeders were affected most, predators to a medium extent, and bacteria-feeders the least affected. Rare and very abundant species were more affected than moderately abundant ones. None of the turbellarian species increased in abundance and none colonized the algal mats above the sediment. In a semicontrolled experiment with daily hand-removal of drift algae from a 100-m2 plot within an extensive field of algal mats, this cleaned "island" served as a refuge to Turbellaria escaping from their algal covered habitat. Here abundance doubled relative to initial conditions and was 5-times higher than below algal mats.

  20. Indocyanine green as effective antibody conjugate for intracellular molecular targeted photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijia; Hüttmann, Gereon; Rudnitzki, Florian; Diddens-Tschoeke, Heyke; Zhang, Zhenxi; Rahmanzadeh, Ramtin

    2016-07-01

    The fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) is clinically approved and has been applied for ophthalmic and intraoperative angiography, measurement of cardiac output and liver function, or as contrast agent in cancer surgery. Though ICG is known for its photochemical effects, it has played a minor role so far in photodynamic therapy or techniques for targeted protein-inactivation. Here, we investigated ICG as an antibody-conjugate for the selective inactivation of the protein Ki-67 in the nucleus of cells. Conjugates of the Ki-67 antibody TuBB-9 with different amounts of ICG were synthesized and delivered into HeLa and OVCAR-5 cells through conjugation to the nuclear localization sequence. Endosomal escape of the macromolecular antibodies into the cytoplasm was optically triggered by photochemical internalization with the photosensitizer BPD. The second light irradiation at 690 nm inactivated Ki-67 and subsequently caused cell death. Here, we show that ICG as an antibody-conjugate can be an effective photosensitizing agent. Best effects were achieved with 1.8 ICG molecules per antibody. Conjugated to antibodies, the ICG absorption peaks vary proportionally with concentration. The absorption of ICG above 650 nm within the optical window of tissue opens the possibility of selective Ki-67 inactivation deep inside of tissues.

  1. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  2. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P; Calderon, Leonardo; Xiong, Youyou; Wang, Zuocheng; Senick, Jennifer; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Plotnik, Deborah; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-01-20

    There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM) in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1) measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E) and mechanical (Building L) ventilation; (2) compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O) in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3) evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m³) than in Building L (37 µg/m³); I/O was higher in Building E (1.3-2.0) than in Building L (0.5-0.8) for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation) are important factors affecting residents' exposure to PM in residential green buildings.

  3. The acute effects of green tea and carbohydrate coingestion on systemic inflammation and oxidative stress during sprint cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Masaki; Li, Chia-Yang; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Tomari, Miki; Shing, Cecilia M; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2015-10-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, which may be beneficial to athletes performing high-intensity exercise. This study investigated the effects of carbohydrate and green tea coingestion on sprint cycling performance and associated oxidative stress and immunoendocrine responses to exercise. In a crossover design, 9 well-trained male cyclists completed 3 sets of 8 repetitions of 100-m uphill sprint cycling while ingesting green tea and carbohydrate (TEA) (22 mg/kg body mass catechins, 6 mg/kg body mass caffeine, 230 mg/kg glucose, and 110 mg/kg fructose) or carbohydrate only (CHO) (230 mg/kg body mass glucose and 110 mg/kg body mass fructose) during each 10-min recovery period between sets. Blood samples were collected before exercise, 10 min after exercise, and 14 h after exercise. There was no effect of acute TEA ingestion on cycling sprint performance (p = 0.29), although TEA maintained postexercise testosterone and lymphocyte concentrations, which decreased significantly in the CHO group (p TEA (p = 0.05), there were no significant differences between TEA and CHO for circulating cytokines (p > 0.20), markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity (p > 0.17), adiponectin concentration (p = 0.60), or muscle damage markers (p > 0.64). While acute green tea ingestion prevents the postexercise decrease in testosterone and lymphocytes, it does not appear to benefit cycling sprint performance or reduce markers of oxidation and inflammation when compared with carbohydrate alone.

  4. Breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia Sinensis (green tea): an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Movahedi, Mino

    2017-02-01

    Camellia sinensis belongs to the plant family of Theaceae, native to East Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia, but naturalized in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to overview its anti-breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects. This review article is aimed to overview breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia sinensis (green tea). This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases. The initial search strategy identified around 108 references. In this study, 68 studies were accepted for further screening, and met all our inclusion criteria [in English, full text, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia sinensis and dated mainly from the year 1999 to 2016. The search terms were Camellia sinensis, chemopreventive, chemotherapeutic properties, pharmacological effects. The result of this study suggested that the catechin available in Camellia sinensis has properties which can prevent and treat breast cancer. It has also been shown to inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells and to block carcinogenesis. It was found that increased Camellia sinensis consumption may lower the risk of breast cancer. Camellia sinensis intake was shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer incidence. In addition, potential breast cancer chemopreventive effect of Camellia sinensis both in vivo and in vitro was highly confirmed. However, the evidence of low effect and no effect was observed. More clinical trial studies are needed to prove its anti-breast cancer activity decisively. Camellia sinensis is broadly utilized as a part of customary medication since antiquated time because of its cost adequacy, and fewer reaction properties. The studies demonstrated anti-breast cancer activity of Camellia sinensis and its component by adjusting cell signaling pathways such as angiogenesis, apoptosis, and transcription factor. Furthermore

  5. Spatial accessibility to amenities, natural areas and urban green spaces: using a multiscale, multifractal simulation model for managing urban sprawl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamu, Claudia; Frankhauser, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We are confronted with rising energy consumption inter alia due to increasing worldwide mobility contributing to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Thus, one of the challenges in planning is to manage urban sprawl by introducing an efficient distribution of agglomerations and an optimal urban

  6. Green Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Brianne; Inman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Green beans are thought to have originated in Peru and spread through South and Central America by Indian tribes. Spanish explorers introduced them into Europe in the 16th century. Surveys indicate that 60% of commercially grown green beans are produced in the United States. Particularly, Illinois, Michigan, New York, and Wisconsin produce the greatest amount of green beans in the United States.

  7. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy with indocyanine green lactosome has antineoplastic effects for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Tsuda

    Full Text Available Anticancer agents and operating procedures have been developed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients, but their prognosis remains poor. It is necessary to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for HCC to improve its prognosis. Lactosome is a core-shell-type polymeric micelle, and enclosing labeling or anticancer agents into this micelle enables drug delivery. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic and therapeutic efficacies of indocyanine green (ICG-loaded lactosome for near-infrared fluorescence (NIF imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT for HCC.The human HCC cell line HuH-7 was treated with ICG or ICG-lactosome, followed by PDT, and the cell viabilities were measured (in vitro PDT efficiency. For NIF imaging, HuH-7 cells were subcutaneously transplanted into BALB/c nude mice, followed by intravenous administration of ICG or ICG-lactosome. The transplanted animals were treated with PDT, and the antineoplastic effects were analyzed (in vivo PDT efficiency.PDT had toxic effects on HuH-7 cells treated with ICG-lactosome, but not ICG alone. NIF imaging revealed that the fluorescence of tumor areas in ICG-lactosome-treated animals was higher than that of contralateral regions at 24 h after injection and thereafter. PDT exerted immediate and continuous phototoxic effects in the transplanted mice treated with ICG-lactosome.Our results demonstrate that ICG-lactosome accumulated in xenograft tumors, and that PDT had antineoplastic effects on these malignant implants. NIF imaging and PDT with ICG-lactosome could be useful diagnostic and/or therapeutic strategies for HCC.

  8. Evaluation of the effects of vegetation and green walls on building thermal performance and energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susorova, Irina

    This research explored the use of vegetation in building facades as a potential solution to the problems of urban ecology and the excessive energy consumption in buildings. Vegetated facades substantially reduce building energy use, reduce the urban heat island effect, improve air quality, and increase the biodiversity of plants and animals in cities. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of plants on building thermal performance and energy consumption by developing a thermal model of a building facade covered with a layer of plants. The developed mathematical model accounts for thermal physical processes in a vegetated exterior wall including solar radiation, infrared radiative exchange between the facade and sky, the facade and ground, the facade and vegetation layer, convection to and from the facade, evapotranspiration from the plant layer, heat storage in the facade material, and heat conduction through the facade. The model calculates vegetated facade surface temperature and heat flux through the facade for multiple weather conditions, plant physiological characteristics, and facade parameters inputs. The model was validated with the results of a one-week long experiment measuring the thermal properties of bare and vegetated facades on the Illinois Institute of Technology campus. The experiment and subsequent sensitivity analysis demonstrated that a plant layer can effectively reduce the facade exterior surface temperature, daily temperature fluctuations, exterior wall temperature gradient, and, as a result, provide as much additional thermal insulation to the facade as a 2.5 cm layer of expanded polystyrene insulation. The vegetated facade model was also used to analyze the reduction in energy consumption in generic office and residential thermal zones for multiple parameters. The simulations showed that energy reduction could be as high as 6.2% of annual total energy use and 34.6% of cooling energy use in residential thermal zones. Overall

  9. Effect of area on color harmony in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Odabaşıoğlu, Seden

    2015-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (Ph.D.): Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2015. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 142-152). The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of area on color harmony in interior spaces. Area in color harmony is the relative amount of different color areas represented as a proportion on which color harmony depends. Colors in the color ...

  10. Management Effectiveness of Southeast Aru Islands Marine Conservation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dayandri Willem Dangeubun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Aru Islands Marine Conservation Area (SE Aru MCA has been existed for nearly 21 years, a period that long enough for a timely evaluation about how far improvement of management has been made in the area in question, i.e. whether management has improved situation of local communities and marine resources availability in the area. This study, therefore, aims at assessing management effectiveness and impacts of SE Aru MCA. Results suggest that the MCA, which was originally established as a marine nature reserve (Cagar Alam Laut, CAL in 1991 and changed status into marine sanctuary in 2009, has not yet produced the expected positive impacts. Assessment using available tools indicated that the management level of SE Aru MCA is at level 1, with percentage of 34.12%, meaning it is still at initiation stage and less effective in terms of management outcomes. Index of conservation area effectiveness with a value of 0.387 shows that the overall conservation area in the 3 categories mentioned above is less effective, therefore conservation effect has not been able to solve area problems. It is concluded that, after more than 20 years exists in the area, few benefits have been produced by SE Aru MCA for local people associated with it and biological resources in it.Keywords: marine sanctuary, conservation, effectiveness, impactDOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.119

  11. Vulnerability of marine habitats to the invasive green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea within a marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanevakis, Stelios; Issaris, Yiannis; Poursanidis, Dimitris; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2010-08-01

    The relative vulnerability of various habitat types to Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea invasion was investigated in the National Marine Park of Zakynthos (Ionian Sea, Greece). The density of C. racemosa fronds was modelled with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), based on an information theory approach. The species was present in as much as 33% of 748 randomly placed quadrats, which documents its aggressive establishment in the area. The probability of presence of the alga within randomly placed 20 x 20 cm quadrats was 83% on 'matte morte' (zones of fibrous remnants of a former Posidonia oceanica bed), 69% on rocky bottoms, 86% along the margins of P. oceanica meadows, 10% on sandy/muddy substrates, and 6% within P. oceanica meadows. The high frond density on 'matte morte' and rocky bottoms indicates their high vulnerability. The lowest frond density was observed within P. oceanica meadows. However, on the margins of P. oceanica meadows and within gaps in fragmented meadows relative high C. racemosa densities were observed. Such gaps within meadows represent spots of high vulnerability to C. racemosa invasion.

  12. Effect of Salt on the Stabilization of Chlorophyll in Green Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Shibukawa, Shoko; Okamoto, Naomi

    1985-01-01

    In order to confirm the fact that when heating green vegetables, addition of salt prevents the color fading and to find the reason for this, tests are performed using spinach. 1. It is confirmed that when green vegetables are boiled, the color is more greenish and brighter by adding 2% of NaCl. 2. It become clear that the change from chlorophyll a in leaves to pheophytin a is restrained by addition of NaCl. 3. The mechanism that addition of NaCl prevents the color fading of green vegetables i...

  13. Effects of data resolution and stream delineation threshold area on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results also indicate that peak flow and slope of the hydrograph rising limb obtained from the SRTM DEM at different threshold areas (ranging from 0.25% to 3%) are greater than that for the TOPO DEM. Investigating the effects of stream network delineation threshold area on the simulated peak flow shows that the ...

  14. Effective Data Backup System Using Storage Area Network Solution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... The researcher used adobe Dreamweaver (CSC3) embedded with PHP incorporated with MySQL database technology to develop the application. The objectives of the research were realized. Keywords: Backup, Storage area network, Data, Effective and Data loss. 1.0 Introduction. Storage Area Network ...

  15. Coordinate green growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Green economic growth needs a shared sense of direction if it is to lead to a more sustainable future under climate change. Studies on green innovation and societal transformation show that uncoordinated initiatives are unlikely to be an effective way “to get the ball rolling and to ‘learn

  16. Green by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on the two sources of energy including green energy and gray energy. It discusses several facts which includes lower levels of greenhouse gases and conventional pollutants, relationship between economic incentives and underlying preferences and potential effects of ...... of green default rules.....

  17. Green infrastructure and its catchment-scale effects: an emerging science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Heather E; Hoghooghi, Nahal

    2018-01-01

    Urbanizing environments alter the hydrological cycle by redirecting stream networks for stormwater and wastewater transmission and increasing impermeable surfaces. These changes thereby accelerate the runoff of water and its constituents following precipitation events, alter evapotranspiration processes, and indirectly modify surface precipitation patterns. Green infrastructure, or low-impact development (LID), can be used as a standalone practice or in concert with gray infrastructure (traditional stormwater management approaches) for cost-efficient, decentralized stormwater management. The growth in LID over the past several decades has resulted in a concomitant increase in research evaluating LID efficiency and effectiveness, but mostly at localized scales. There is a clear research need to quantify how LID practices affect water quantity (i.e., runoff and discharge) and quality at the scale of catchments. In this overview, we present the state of the science of LID research at the local scale, considerations for scaling this research to catchments, recent advances and findings in scaling the effects of LID practices on water quality and quantity at catchment scales, and the use of models as novel tools for these scaling efforts.

  18. Effect of green tea extract supplementation on glycogen replenishment in exercised human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsen-Wei; Chang, Chia-Chen; Liao, Su-Fen; Liao, Yi-Hung; Hou, Chien-Wen; Tsao, Jung-Piao; Cheng, I-Shiung

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on promoting postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis and systemic energy substrate utilisation in young college students. A total of eight healthy male participants (age: 22·0 (se 1·0) years, BMI: 24·2 (se 0·7) kg/m2, VO2max: 43·2 (se 2·4) ml/kg per min) participated in this study. GTE (500 mg/d for 8 weeks) was compared with placebo in participants in a double-blind/placebo-controlled and crossover study design with an 8-week washout period. Thereafter, all participants performed a 60-min cycling exercise (75 % VO2max) and consumed a carbohydrate-enriched meal immediately after exercise. Vastus lateralis muscle samples were collected immediately (0 h) and 3 h after exercise, and blood and gaseous samples were collected during the 3-h postexercise recovery period. An 8-week oral GTE supplementation had no effects on further promoting muscle glycogen resynthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle, but the exercise-induced muscle GLUT type 4 (GLUT4) protein content was greater in the GTE supplementation trial (Pglycogen resynthesis during the postexercise period.

  19. The Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio Reveals the Prooxidant Effect of Green Tea Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tea increased plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity, the European Food Safety Administration (EFSA denied claims related to tea and its protection from oxidative damage. Furthermore, the Supplement Information Expert Committee (DSI EC expressed some doubts on the safety of green tea extract (GTE. We performed a pilot study in order to evaluate the effect of a single dose of two capsules of a GTE supplement (200 mg × 2 on the peroxidation of leukocytes index ratio (PLIR in relation to uric acid (UA and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP, as well as the sample size to reach statistical significance. GTE induced a prooxidant effect on leukocytes, whereas FRAP did not change, in agreement with the EFSA and the DSI EC conclusions. Besides, our results confirm the primary role of UA in the antioxidant defences. The ratio based calculation of the PLIR reduced the sample size to reach statistical significance, compared to the resistance to an exogenous oxidative stress and to the functional capacity of oxidative burst. Therefore, PLIR could be a sensitive m