WorldWideScience

Sample records for green abalone haliotis

  1. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  2. [Chile's experience with developing abalone (Haliotis spp.) farming: opportunities and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, R; Villagrán, R

    2008-04-01

    Intensive abalone farming--specifically of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and the green (or Japanese) abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--has expanded rapidly in Chile since the late 1990s, and this article presents an overview of the challenges facing the industry and the factors which favour its development. At present, 100% of Chile's abalone enterprises farm the H. rufescens species, owing to its suitability for full-cycle culture. In the analysis of factors that facilitate the development of abalone farming in Chile, those that stand out include the characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem, existing entrepreneurial and professional skills, decisive government support in co-financing scientific and technological projects, infrastructure and associated services to support these development initiatives and a market where prices have remained stable and demand for abalone products has been steady. The greatest challenges facing intensive abalone farming in Chile are providing a constant supply of macroalgae for abalone feed and developing complementary feed, as well as updating current legislation on intensive abalone farming, strengthening producer associations and establishing health certification. The article discusses examples of the impact that native organisms can have on animals introduced into an aquatic ecosystem and the international transmission of agents such as withering syndrome and sabellid polychaete infestation disease, associated with the movement of abalone seeds and broodstock. The article also emphasises the importance of implementing the recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

  3. Evidence of green fluorescent protein and growth hormone expression in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancilla-Sánchez Edgar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is a highly appreciated mollusk in the national and international markets. Due to its natural over-exploitation and low growth rate, several genetic improvements were made, however special efforts are needed to increase its production. This study presents transgenic abalone’s larvae expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP fused to Cobia (Rachycentron canadum Growth Hormone (GH using sperm media transgenesis technique (SMT, pAcGFP1-N vector under the control of cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. Sperms were exposed to three voltages (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 Kv using a micropulser electroporator (Bio-Rad®. The highest GFP-GH expression average (40% was obtained in abalone larvae at 0.75 v. GFP and GH transgenes were positively detected by PCR, western blot and confocal microscope, respectively.

  4. Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata, H. rubra and H. conicopora) are susceptible to infection by multiple abalone herpesvirus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J

    2016-05-03

    From 2006 to 2012, acute mortalities occurred in farmed and wild abalone (Haliotis spp.) along the coast of Victoria, Australia. The disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) is associated with infection by an abalone herpesvirus (AbHV). The relative pathogenicity of 5 known variants of AbHV was evaluated on abalone stocks from different states in Australia. Results indicated that all virus variants (Vic1, Tas1, Tas2, Tas3 and Tas4) cause disease and mortality in all abalone stocks tested (greenlip, blacklip and brownlip). In order to avoid further AVG outbreaks in Australian wild abalone, strict regulations on the transfer of abalone stocks must be implemented.

  5. Hyperparasitism by the bacteriophage (Caudovirales) infecting Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (Rickettsiales-like prokaryote) parasite of wild abalone Haliotis fulgens and Haliotis corrugata from the Peninsula of Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Flores, Roberto; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Muñoz-Flores, Monserrat; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca; Hernández Rodriguez, Mónica; Ángel Del Río-Portilla, Miguel; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl; Castro-Longoria, Ernestina

    2016-10-01

    Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc) is a Rickettsiales-like prokaryote that is considered the causal agent of Withering Syndrome (WS), a chronic disease of abalone, from the west coast of North America and it is listed by the International Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as a reportable agent due to its pathogenicity. This bacterium in red abalone Haliotis rufescens, black abalone Haliotis cracherodii, and yellow abalone Haliotis corrugata from California, US and Baja California, Mexico has been found to be infected by a bacteriophage. To date, there is no information on the epizootiology of CXc and its bacteriophage in natural populations of abalone; furthermore, it is unknown if the bacteriophage was also present in CXc infecting blue abalone Haliotis fulgens. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution, prevalence and intensity of CXc, as well as to determine the distribution and prevalence of the bacteriophage and to study interactions between host sex and hyperparasitism in blue abalone and yellow abalone. Tissue samples were obtained from seven localities where the commercial capture of wild abalone is carried out. Samplings were conducted throughout the 2012-2013 capture seasons and a total of 182 blue abalone and 170 yellow abalone were obtained. The prevalence and intensity of CXc and the prevalence of the bacteriophage were determined by histology. The identity of CXc was confirmed by PCR, product sequence analysis and in situ hybridization while the identity of the bacteriophage was corroborated by TEM. The prevalence of CXc infected and uninfected by the bacteriophage was 80% in blue abalone and 62% in yellow abalone. Low infection intensities were found in 86% of blue abalone and 82% of yellow abalone. Infection intensity was significantly higher in undifferentiated yellow abalone. The bacteriophage in CXc showed a prevalence of 22% and 31% in blue abalone and yellow abalone respectively. These results show that CXc and

  6. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lim, Han Kyu

    2015-11-18

    The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%-3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females) encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3), vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones.

  7. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Jin Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%–3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3, vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones.

  8. Assessing the ecosystem effects of the abalone Haliotis midae from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the ecosystem effects of the abalone Haliotis midae from its diet and foraging ... midae is commercially exploited and seriously threatened by overfishing. ... of the ecosystem because of associated changes in community structure. ... of this previously abundant herbivore on the south-west coast of South Africa, we ...

  9. The hydrogen peroxide impact on larval settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangjing; Yang, Zhihui; Cai, Zhonghua

    2008-08-01

    Abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is an important economic mollusk. The settlement and metamorphosis are two critical stages during its development period, which has direct influence on abalone survival and production. The influence of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) on abalone embryo and juvenile development were examined in this study. Larvae of Haliotis diversicolor supertexta were induced to settlement and metamorphose by exposure to seawater supplemented with hydrogen peroxide. They had the best performance at 800 μmol/L. The concentration of 1 000 μmol/L or higher was toxic to the larvae, as the larvae could settle down only at benthic diatom plates without complete metamorphosis. In addition, H2O2 adding time was critical to the larval performance. 24h after two-day post-fertilization was proved to be the optimal adding time. In this paper, two action mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide are discussed: (1) hydrogen peroxide has direct toxicity to ciliated cells, thus cause apoptosis; (2) hydrogen peroxide, as a product from catecholamines’ autoxidation process in vivo, can reverse this process to produce neuro-transmitters to induce abalone metamorphosis.

  10. pemeliharaan yuwana abalon (Haliotis squamata TURUNAN F-1 SECARA TERKONTROL DENGAN JENIS pakan BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Susanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abalon (Haliotis squamata merupakan jenis kekerangan yang mulai dikembangkan untuk dapat memenuhi permintaan pasar. Tingkat pertumbuhan abalon sangat lambat sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk memacu pertumbuhan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jenis pakan yang cocok dan dapat memacu pertumbuhan yuwana abalon. Biota uji yang digunakan adalah yuwana abalon dengan ukuran panjang cangkang awal 12,51 ± 1,27 mm, yang ditempatkan dalam wadah plastik berukuran 35 cm x 25 cm x13 cm, diisi dengan kepadatan 25 ekor/wadah. Perlakuan jenis pakan berbeda adalah (A pelet, (B pakan rumput laut (Gracilaria spp., dan (C kombinasi rumput laut dan pelet. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian jenis pakan berbeda memberikan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05 terhadap tingkat pertumbuhan panjang, lebar cangkang, dan bobot badan yuwana abalon turunan F-1. Abalone (Haliotis squamata is one of shellfish to develop for market demand. The growth of abalone is slow and this experiment was purposed to increase to find out the suitable kinds of feed to promote the growth of abalone juvenile in hatchery. The rearing of abalone juvenile was conducted in plastic boxes size of 35 cm x 25 cm x 13 cm, filled with density of 25 ind./box with initial shell length of 12.51 ± 1.27 mm. The experiment applied different kinds of feed, (A pellet, (B seaweed/Gracilaria spp., and (C combination of seaweed and pellet with three replicates in each treatment. The result of the experiment indicated that different feeding resulted in significant difference (P<0.05 on growth of width and length of shell and body weight abalone juvenile F-1 generation.

  11. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J. (Oregon State Univ., Newport (USA). Marine Science Center)

    1982-10-01

    The biokinetic behavior of sup(95m)Tc in the red abalone, haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of sup(95m)Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, approximately equal to 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater.

  12. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1982-10-01

    The biokinetic behavior of /sup 95m/Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labelled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of /sup 95m/Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, is approximately 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater.

  13. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of sup(95m)Tc in the red abalone, haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of sup(95m)Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, approximately equal to 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater. (author)

  14. PEMATANGAN GONAD INDUK ABALON Haliotis squamata MELALUI PENGELOLAAN PAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Rusdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan hewan yang bersifat herbivora di alam memakan berbagai jenis makroalga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai makroalga sebagai pakan terhadap perkembangan gonad abalon Haliotis squamata. Dalam penelitian ini diterapkan 4 perlakuan pemberian pakan yaitu: (A Gracilaria sp., (B Ulva sp., (C Sargassum sp., (D Kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (rasio 1:1:1. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap masing-masing dengan 3 ulangan. Induk-induk abalon dipelihara dalam 12 buah kontainer plastik berlubang ukuran 0,58 m x 0,39 m x 0,31 m dan ditempatkan dalam sebuah bak semen ukuran 3 m x 2 m x 1 m. Setiap kontainer berisi abalon sebanyak 10 ekor dengan ukuran awal rata-rata panjang cangkang dan bobot masing-masing 58,9±1,37 mm dan 36,1±4,06 g. Pakan diberikan dengan dosis 15%-20% dari bobot biomassa setiap 2 hari sekali. Pergantian air menggunakan sistem sirkulasi dengan debit 5-6 L/menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata pertumbuhan bobot mutlak dan laju pertumbuhan bobot harian berbeda nyata (P<0,05 antar perlakuan. Tingkat kematangan gonad (TKG induk abalon pada hari ke-70 diperoleh TKG-III tertinggi dihasilkan pada perlakuan kombinasi Gracilaria + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (P<0,05. Perlakuan pakan kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. dan Sargassum sp. terlihat lebih sesuai dalam memacu pematangan gonad induk abalon H. squamata.  Abalone is a herbivorous animal which consumes various kinds of macroalgae in the wild. The aim of the study was to study the effects of various kinds of macroalgae on gonadal maturation of abalone, Haliotis squamata. The experiment applied four kinds of macroalgae i.e.: (A Gracilaria sp.; (B Ulva sp.; (C Sargassum sp.; and (D Combination of Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (ratio 1:1:1 as food for abalone broodstock. The experiment was arranged in complete random design with three replications. One cemented tank of 3 m x 2 m x 1 m in

  15. Biokinetic behavior of Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of /sup 95m/Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments on other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalone exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of /sup 95m/Tc by the abalone following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis pyrifera, is high (approx. 45%) and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater

  16. KERAGAAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN REPRODUKSI ABALON Haliotis squamata Reeve (1846 TURUNAN KETIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pengamatan pertumbuhan dan reproduksi abalon Haliotis squamata dilakukan di hatcheri Balai Besar Riset Budidaya Laut dan Penyuluhan Perikanan (BBRBLPP Gondol, Bali. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk memperoleh informasi tentang keragaan pertumbuhan dan performansi reproduksi abalon turunan ketiga. Induk H. squamata turunan kedua hasil seleksi yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan benih turunan ketiga mempunyai ukuran panjang cangkang 6,5-7,0 cm. Benih dipelihara dalam bak beton berukuran 2,5 m x 1,2 m x 1,0 m yang diberikan feeding plate sebagai substrat penempelan dan dilengkapi dengan sistem aerasi dan sistem air mengalir. Pakan yang diberikan pada awal pemeliharaan adalah diatom jenis Nitzschia sp. dan Melosira sp. yang telah ditumbuhkan terlebih dahulu pada feeding plate sebelum penebaran benih. Benih F-3 dipelihara sampai menjadi calon induk untuk diamati perkembangan reproduksinya. Pengambilan sampel pertumbuhan dilakukan setiap 10 hari. Pengamatan reproduksi dilakukan pada saat abalon mulai tumbuh gonad sampai matang gonad stadia-III. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan abalon sangat dipengaruhi ketersediaan pakan pada plate terutama pada hari ke-50. Proporsi jantan-betina abalon F-3 (3,3:1 meningkat dibandingkan dengan F-0 dari alam (2,5:1 menunjukkan ketidakseimbangan jumlah individu yang dapat disebabkan oleh tekanan seleksi. Abalon turunan ketiga pada umur 16 bulan mulai matang gonad dan dapat digunakan sebagai induk untuk pemijahan. Observation on the growth and reproduction development of Haliotis squamata had been undertaken in the hatchery of the Institute for Mariculture Research and Development (IMRAD Gondol, Bali. The research was aimed to study of the growth and reproduction performance of filial-3 abalone in supporting seed production in hatchery. Larvae were obtained from natural spawning of filial-2 abalone broodstock with the length shell of 6.5-7.0 cm in the hatchery. Larvae were reared in 2.5 m x 1.2 m x 1.0 m

  17. Abalone, Haliotis mariae (Wood, 1828, Hatchery and Seed Production Trials in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalfan M. Al-Rashdi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hatchery and seed production trials for the Omani endemic abalone Haliotis mariae were carried out at the land-based Mirbat Abalone Seed Production Station in Oman between 1999 and 2000. The methods developed for broodstock conditioning, induction of spawning and fertilization, larval settlement, and the handling of small juveniles are shown. Abalone collected in the post-monsoon period and held for 2 months matured faster than those collected before the monsoon and held for 6 months. Spawning induction of males and females had 63% and 11% success rates respectively, and the morphology of early larval stages is shown. Survival rates of veliger larvae introduced to settlement plates ranged from 35.9% to 73.7%, but the survival of post-larvae was low at 0.1% to 3.6%. The high mortality rate was attributed to invasions of filamentous green- and coralline algae on settlement plates and occurrence of low quantity of diatoms as food. Juveniles reacted best to 2% ethanol as anaesthetic, dropping off culture plates within 4 min and recovering within 17 min. Cultured abalone reached an average shell length of 52.9 mm over 13 months, which translates to an increment of 4.1 mm.mon-1. The overall conclusion of these preliminary research trials confirms  that H. mariae can be cultured successfully in Oman. Further studies on the standardization of the techniques would help in stock enhancement programmes and commercial farming.

  18. Laju Pertumbuhan Kerang Abalon Haliotis squamata Melalui Budidaya IMTA (Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture di Pantai Geger, Nusa Dua, Kabupaten Badung, Provinsi Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Hayati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is an important non fishery commodity that has high potential value to be developed. Abalone culture still faces some problems, such as, relatively slow growth rate, low survival rate and causing environmental pollution. One of the efforts to tackle the problems, is applying the culture system that is environmental friendly, such as IMTA (Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture. This research aims to identify the growth rate and survival rate of the abalone (Haliotis squamata and the suitability of chemical and physical environment parameter supporting the integration culture of abalone and seaweed (Gracilaria sp on different stocking density at Geger beach, Nusa Dua, Bali. This research was performed in 45 days using a complete randomized design method that consist of three treatments and three repetition. The result showed that the highet growth rate was on treat ment T3 which consisted of abalone (Haliotis squamata 40 individu and 10 bunches of seaweed (Gracilaria sp 100 grams weight/each individu (0.76%/day, then It followed by T2 treatment that was integrated with 10 bunches of seaweed 50 grams (0.71%/day. The lowest growth rate observed on treatment T1 (control/monoculture which consisted of 40 individu abalone (Haliotis squamata (0.59%/day. The highest survival rate found on treatment T2 (97.5% and followed by treatment T1 as control (94.5%, while the lowest number was found on treatment T3 (83.3%. Physical chemical water quality parameters showed that It supported the growth of both, abalone (Haliotis squamata and seaweed (Gracilaria sp. at Geger Beach, Nusa Dua, Badung Regency, Bali Province.

  19. SNP discovery and High Resolution Melting Analysis from massive transcriptome sequencing in the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Araya-Garay, José Miguel; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2013-06-01

    The California red abalone, Haliotis rufescens that belongs to the Haliotidae family, is the largest species of abalone in the world that has sustained the major fishery and aquaculture production in the USA and Mexico. This native mollusk has not been evaluated or assigned a conservation category even though in the last few decades it was heavily exploited until it disappeared in some areas along the California coast. In Chile, the red abalone was introduced in the 1970s from California wild abalone stocks for the purposes of aquaculture. Considering the number of years that the red abalone has been cultivated in Chile crucial genetic information is scarce and critical issues remain unresolved. This study reports and validates novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers for the red abalone H. rufescens using cDNA pyrosequencing. A total of 622 high quality SNPs were identified in 146 sequences with an estimated frequency of 1 SNP each 1000bp. Forty-five SNPs markers with functional information for gene ontology were selected. Of these, 8 were polymorphic among the individuals screened: Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), vitellogenin (VTG), lysin, alginate lyase enzyme (AL), Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), sulfatase 1A precursor (S1AP) and ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (ODC). Two additional sequences were also identified with polymorphisms but no similarities with known proteins were achieved. To validate the putative SNP markers, High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) was conducted in a wild and hatchery-bred population. Additionally, SNP cross-amplifications were tested in two further native abalone species, Haliotis fulgens and Haliotis corrugata. This study provides novel candidate genes that could be used to evaluate loss of genetic diversity due to hatchery selection or inbreeding effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Uptake of technetium from seawater by red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Technetium accumulation from seawater by the abalone Haliotis rufescens was studied with 95 Tc. Concentration factors, uptake rates, steady state concentrations, and biological half-lives were determined experimentally for whole-body uptake. Whole-body concentration factors ranged from 135 to 205; biological half-life was 60 days. Changes in concentration factors were determined for six tissues during the uptake period. The highest activities were in the order of: digestive gland>gill>kidneys>heart>gonad>columnar muscle. Dead shells accumulated little activity compared to shells of living abalone. Gills and digestive system appear to be the routes of entry. Autoradiography shows that of the muscular tissues the outer edge of the foot and epipodium are the most active and the edible columnar muscle the least active. (author)

  1. The distribution of heavy metals in the red abalone, haliotis rufescens, on the california coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderlini, V.

    1974-01-01

    The gills, mantle, digestive gland, and foot muscle of 74 specimens of the red abalone, haliotis rufescens, from five localities on the california coast are analyzed for eight heavy metals. The distribution of these elements in the abalones appears to be non-normal. High lead concentrations in the la jolla-long beach area seem to reflect pollutant inputs; elsewhere lead levels appear to derive from natural sources. (1 graph, 1 map, 31 references, 1 table)

  2. STIMULASI PERTUMBUHAN JUVENIL ABALON, Haliotis squamata DENGAN PEMBERIAN HORMON REKOMBINAN IKAN rElGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriyah Husnul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Masalah yang paling utama dalam budidaya abalon tropis adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Penggunaan rElGH (recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone untuk menstimulasi pertumbuhan beberapa spesies ikan sudah dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji akselerasi pertumbuhan juvenil abalon tropis, Haliotis squamata setelah diberi perlakuan perendaman hormon rekombinan ikan kerapu kertang, Epinephelus lanceolatus pada frekuensi yang berbeda. Ada empat perlakuan frekuensi perendaman rElGH yaitu 4, 9, 16 kali, dan tanpa perendaman (kontrol. Masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Perendaman dilakukan selama tiga jam, dengan interval waktu empat hari. Kepadatan abalon tropis 100 ekor/L air laut yang mengandung 30 mg rElGH. Wadah untuk perendaman berupa beaker glass yang dilengkapi dengan aerasi. Penelitian dilakukan selama tujuh bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa abalon tropis yang direndam rElGH dengan frekuensi empat kali menghasilkan pertumbuhan bobot tubuh dan panjang cangkang tertinggi dan berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan lainnya (P<0,05. Sintasan abalon tropis yang diberi perlakuan perendaman hormon rElGH lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan kontrol. The most crucial problem in tropical abalone aquaculture is the slow growth of the species. Studies investigating the use of rElGH (recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone for promoting growth have been performed in various species. This research aimed to examine the growth acceleration of tropical abalone, Haliotis squamata juvenile after being treated in different immersion frequencies of recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone (rElGH. There were four treatments of rElGH immersion frequency: 4, 9, 16 times and without rElGH immersion (control. Each treatment was performed in triplicates. Immersion was performed for 3 hours, at 4-day intervals and a density of 100 tropical abalones in 1 L seawater containing 30

  3. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Dong; Huang, Min; Lü, Wen-Gang; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Ming-Hui; Li, Xiang-Min; Wang, Rong-Xia; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2015-01-01

    The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and antizyme (AZ) are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ) consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone.

  4. Vibrio harveyi Adheres to and Penetrates Tissues of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata within the First Hours of Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinaud, Marion; Barbou, Annaïck; Capitaine, Carole; Bidault, Adeline; Dujon, Antoine Marie; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic epidemics generally associated with massive mortalities in many marine organisms, including the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The aim of this study was to identify the portal of entry and the dynamics of infection of V. harveyi in the European abalone. The results indicate that the duration of contact be-tween V. harveyi and the European abalone influences the mortality rate and precocity. ...

  5. Characterization of defensin gene from abalone Haliotis discus hannai and its deduced protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xuguang; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Minggang; Qu, Lingyun; Zan, Jindong; Zhang, Jinxing

    2008-11-01

    Defensin is one of preserved ancient host defensive materials formed in biological evolution. As a regulator and effector molecule, it is very important in animals’ acquired immune system. This paper reports the defensin gene from the mixed liver and kidney cDNA library of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Sequence analysis shows that the gene sequence of full-length cDNA encodes 42 mature peptides (including six Cys), molecular weight of 4 323 Da, and pI of 8.02. Amino acid sequence homology analysis shows that the peptides are highly similar (70% in common) to other insects defensin. Because of a typical insect-defensin structural character of mature peptide in the secondary structure, the polypeptide named Haliotis discus defensin (hd-def), a novel of antimicrobial peptides, belongs to insects defensin subfamily. The RT-PCR result of Haliotis discus defensin shows that the gene can be expressed only in the hepatopancreas by Gram-negative and positive bacteria stimulation, which is ascribed to inducible expression. Therefore, it is revealed that the Haliotis discus defensin gene expression was related to the antibacterial infection of Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

  6. Genetic diversity and stock identification of small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) in Taiwan and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan

    2017-01-01

    Small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is a commercially valuable species for both fisheries and aquaculture. The production of annual farmed small abalone in Taiwan, once the highest in the world, has dramatically decreased in the past 15 years, and currently, the industry is close to collapse. Understanding the genetic diversity of small abalone and developing stock identification methods will be useful for genetic breeding, restoring collapsed stocks, managing stocks, and preventing illegal trade. We investigated 307 cultured and wild individuals from Taiwan, Japan, and Bali Island (Indonesia) by using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Network analysis of mtDNA COI gene sequences revealed that the individuals collected from Taiwan, Japan, and Indonesia could be identified, and showed significant genetic divergence. In addition, the Indonesian population (Haliotis diversicolor squamata) was significantly different from the other populations and might need to be considered a separate species. We discovered a single nucleotide polymorphism marker in the mtDNA COI gene that can be used to distinguish the Taiwan population from the Japan population. We also developed a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection. Furthermore, we could identify the cultured stocks, wild population, and hybrid stocks by using 6 microsatellites and amplified fragment length polymorphism. This study contributes useful tools for stock identification and the production of high-disease resistant small abalone strains (Japan × Taiwan or Taiwan × Japan). Efforts should be made to avoid unintentional random genetic mixing of the Taiwan population with the Japan population and subsequent breakdown of population differentiation, which impair local adaptation of the Taiwan wild population. Molecular markers revealed a split between the Taiwan and Japan populations, and the existence of a possible barrier to the free

  7. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Li

    Full Text Available The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC and antizyme (AZ are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone.

  8. KERAGAAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN VARIASI GENETIK ABALON Haliotis squamata Reeve (1846 HASIL SELEKSI F-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Produksi benih abalon Haliotis squamata skala massal di hatcheri telah berhasil dilakukan di Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali. Permasalahan utama dalam budidaya abalon adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Keadaan tersebut diduga karena pengaruh faktor genetik dan lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keragaan pertumbuhan dan variasi genetik abalon tumbuh cepat hasil seleksi individu. Hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwa pembentukan populasi F-1 mempunyai pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dengan F-1 kontrol. Peningkatan bobot yang dicapai 22,15 g atau 17,93% lebih baik dibandingkan F-1 kontrol. Keragaman genetik F-1 terseleksi yang ditunjukkan dari nilai heterozigositas adalah (Ho. 0,023 terjadi penurunan 21,7% jika dibandingkan F-0. Hal ini dapat terjadi karena hilangnya beberapa allele dalam proses seleksi. Terdapat hubungan antara jumlah heterozigot pada lokus tertentu dengan pertumbuhan abalon. Hasil ini diharapkan dapat mendukung upaya meningkatkan produksi benih yang mempunyai performa fenotipe dan genotipe unggul sehingga dapat mendukung kegiatan budidaya abalon yang berkelanjutan.

  9. Vibrio harveyi adheres to and penetrates tissues of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata within the first hours of contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinaud, Marion; Barbou, Annaïck; Capitaine, Carole; Bidault, Adeline; Dujon, Antoine Marie; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic epidemics generally associated with massive mortalities in many marine organisms, including the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The aim of this study was to identify the portal of entry and the dynamics of infection of V. harveyi in the European abalone. The results indicate that the duration of contact between V. harveyi and the European abalone influences the mortality rate and precocity. Immediately after contact, the epithelial and mucosal area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland was colonized by V. harveyi. Real-time PCR analyses and culture quantification of a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain of V. harveyi in abalone tissues revealed a high density of bacteria adhering to and then penetrating the whole gill-hypobranchial gland tissue after 1 h of contact. V. harveyi was also detected in the hemolymph of a significant number of European abalones after 3 h of contact. In conclusion, this article shows that a TaqMan real-time PCR assay is a powerful and useful technique for the detection of a marine pathogen such as V. harveyi in mollusk tissue and for the study of its infection dynamics. Thus, we have revealed that the adhesion and then the penetration of V. harveyi in European abalone organs begin in the first hours of contact. We also hypothesize that the portal of entry of V. harveyi in the European abalone is the area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Transcriptome characterization of the South African abalone Haliotis midae using sequencing-by-synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodt-Wilding Rouvay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, the genus Haliotis is represented by 56 extant species and several of these are commercially cultured. Among the six abalone species found in South Africa, Haliotis midae is the only aquacultured species. Despite its economic importance, genomic sequence resources for H. midae, and for abalone in general, are still scarce. Next generation sequencing technologies provide a fast and efficient tool to generate large sequence collections that can be used to characterize the transcriptome and identify expressed genes associated with economically important traits like growth and disease resistance. Results More than 25 million short reads generated by the Illumina Genome Analyzer were de novo assembled in 22,761 contigs with an average size of 260 bp. With a stringent E-value threshold of 10-10, 3,841 contigs (16.8% had a BLAST homologous match against the Genbank non-redundant (NR protein database. Most of these sequences were annotated using the gene ontology (GO and eukaryotic orthologous groups of proteins (KOG databases and assigned to various functional categories. According to annotation results, many gene families involved in immune response were identified. Thousands of simple sequence repeats (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were detected. Setting stringent parameters to ensure a high probability of amplification, 420 primer pairs in 181 contigs containing SSR loci were designed. Conclusion This data represents the most comprehensive genomic resource for the South African abalone H. midae to date. The amount of assembled sequences demonstrated the utility of the Illumina sequencing technology in the transcriptome characterization of a non-model species. It allowed the development of several markers and the identification of promising candidate genes for future studies on population and functional genomics in H. midae and in other abalone species.

  11. The cross-tissue metabolic response of abalone (Haliotis midae) to functional hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Leonie; Loots, Du Toit; Mienie, Lodewyk J; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet J; Mason, Shayne; Vosloo, Andre; Lindeque, Jeremie Z

    2018-03-23

    Functional hypoxia is a stress condition caused by the abalone itself as a result of increased muscle activity, which generally necessitates the employment of anaerobic metabolism if the activity is sustained for prolonged periods. With that being said, abalone are highly reliant on anaerobic metabolism to provide partial compensation for energy production during oxygen-deprived episodes. However, current knowledge on the holistic metabolic response for energy metabolism during functional hypoxia, and the contribution of different metabolic pathways and various abalone tissues towards the overall accumulation of anaerobic end-products in abalone are scarce. Metabolomics analysis of adductor muscle, foot muscle, left gill, right gill, haemolymph and epipodial tissue samples indicated that South African abalone ( Haliotis midae) subjected to functional hypoxia utilises predominantly anaerobic metabolism, and depends on all of the main metabolite classes (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) for energy supply. Functional hypoxia caused increased levels of anaerobic end-products: lactate, alanopine, tauropine, succinate and alanine. Also, elevation in arginine levels was detected, confirming that abalone use phosphoarginine to generate energy during functional hypoxia. Different tissues showed varied metabolic responses to hypoxia, with functional hypoxia showing excessive changes in the adductor muscle and gills. From this metabolomics investigation, it becomes evident that abalone are metabolically able to produce sufficient amounts of energy when functional hypoxia is experienced. Also, tissue interplay enables the adjustment of H. midae energy requirements as their metabolism shifts from aerobic to anaerobic respiration during functional hypoxia.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. The cross-tissue metabolic response of abalone (Haliotis midae to functional hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Venter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional hypoxia is a stress condition caused by the abalone itself as a result of increased muscle activity, which generally necessitates the employment of anaerobic metabolism if the activity is sustained for prolonged periods. With that being said, abalone are highly reliant on anaerobic metabolism to provide partial compensation for energy production during oxygen-deprived episodes. However, current knowledge on the holistic metabolic response for energy metabolism during functional hypoxia, and the contribution of different metabolic pathways and various abalone tissues towards the overall accumulation of anaerobic end-products in abalone are scarce. Metabolomics analysis of adductor muscle, foot muscle, left gill, right gill, haemolymph and epipodial tissue samples indicated that South African abalone (Haliotis midae subjected to functional hypoxia utilises predominantly anaerobic metabolism, and depends on all of the main metabolite classes (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids for energy supply. Functional hypoxia caused increased levels of anaerobic end-products: lactate, alanopine, tauropine, succinate and alanine. Also, elevation in arginine levels was detected, confirming that abalone use phosphoarginine to generate energy during functional hypoxia. Different tissues showed varied metabolic responses to hypoxia, with functional hypoxia showing excessive changes in the adductor muscle and gills. From this metabolomics investigation, it becomes evident that abalone are metabolically able to produce sufficient amounts of energy when functional hypoxia is experienced. Also, tissue interplay enables the adjustment of H. midae energy requirements as their metabolism shifts from aerobic to anaerobic respiration during functional hypoxia. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

  13. Genetic differentiation between fake abalone and genuine Haliotis species using the forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Wai Y; Reid, David G; Kam, Wan L; Lau, Yuk Y; Sham, Wing C; Tam, Silvia Y K; Sin, Della W M; Mok, Chuen S

    2011-05-25

    Abalones ( Haliotis species) are a popular delicacy and commonly preserved in dried form either whole or in slices or small pieces for consumption in Asian countries. Driven by the huge profit from trading abalones, dishonest traders may substitute other molluscan species for processed abalone, of which the morphological characteristics are frequently lost in the processed form. For protection of consumer rights and law enforcement against fraud, there is a need for an effective methodology to differentiate between fake and genuine abalone. This paper describes a method (validated according to the international forensic guidelines provided by SWGDAM) for the identification of fake abalone species using forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) analysis. A study of the local market revealed that many claimed "abalone slice" samples on sale are not genuine. The fake abalone samples were found to be either volutids of the genus Cymbium (93%) or the muricid Concholepas concholepas (7%). This is the first report of Cymbium species being used for the preparation and sale as "abalone" in dried sliced form in Hong Kong.

  14. Identification and characterization of miRNAs transcriptome in the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Barbara; Rhode, Clint; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2017-02-01

    Aquatic animal diseases are one of the most important limitations to the growth of aquaculture. miRNAs represent an important class of small ncRNAs able to modulate host immune and stress responses. In Mollusca, a large phylum of invertebrates, miRNAs have been identified in several species. The current preliminary study identified known miRNAs from the South African abalone, Haliotis midae. The economic and ecological importance of abalone makes this species a suitable model for studying and understanding stress response in marine gastropods. Furthermore, the identification of miRNA, represents an alternative and powerful tool to combat infectious disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome sequence of pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai): the first draft genome in family Haliotidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Kwak, Woori; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kang, Jeong-Ha; Park, Jung Youn; An, Cheul Min; Moon, Ji-Young; Park, Choul Ji; Yu, Jae Woong; Yoon, Joon; Seo, Minseok; Kim, Kwondo; Kim, Duk Kyung; Lee, SaetByeol; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Chul; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Myunghee; Kang, Byeong-Chul; Shin, Ga-Hee; Ka, Sojeong; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2017-05-01

    Abalones are large marine snails in the family Haliotidae and the genus Haliotis belonging to the class Gastropoda of the phylum Mollusca. The family Haliotidae contains only one genus, Haliotis, and this single genus is known to contain several species of abalone. With 18 additional subspecies, the most comprehensive treatment of Haliotidae considers 56 species valid [ 1 ]. Abalone is an economically important fishery and aquaculture animal that is considered a highly prized seafood delicacy. The total global supply of abalone has increased 5-fold since the 1970s and farm production increased explosively from 50 mt to 103 464 mt in the past 40 years. Additionally, researchers have recently focused on abalone given their reported tumor suppression effect. However, despite the valuable features of this marine animal, no genomic information is available for the Haliotidae family and related research is still limited. To construct the H . discus hannai genome, a total of 580-G base pairs using Illumina and Pacbio platforms were generated with 322-fold coverage based on the 1.8-Gb estimated genome size of H . discus hannai using flow cytometry. The final genome assembly consisted of 1.86 Gb with 35 450 scaffolds (>2 kb). GC content level was 40.51%, and the N50 length of assembled scaffolds was 211 kb. We identified 29 449 genes using Evidence Modeler based on the gene information from ab initio prediction, protein homology with known genes, and transcriptome evidence of RNA-seq. Here we present the first Haliotidae genome, H . discus hannai , with sequencing data, assembly, and gene annotation information. This will be helpful for resolving the lack of genomic information in the Haliotidae family as well as providing more opportunities for understanding gastropod evolution. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Effects of dietary carbohydrates sources on lipids compositions in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Yao, Chunfeng; Li, Huitao

    2009-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm ± 0.09 mm; initial weight: 3.42 g ± 0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly ( P abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly ( P abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P abalone fed with dextrin than those fed with wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly ( P abalone fed with heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P abalone fed with dextrin and heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  17. Identification and characterization of Vibrio harveyi associated with diseased abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingru; Shi, Liuyang; Ke, Caihuan; You, Weiwei; Zhao, Jing

    2013-03-26

    Mass mortality of farmed small abalone Haliotis diversicolor occurred in Fujian, China, from 2009 to 2011. Among isolates obtained from moribund abalones, the dominant species AP37 exhibited the strongest virulence. After immersion challenge with 106 CFU ml-1 of AP37, abalone mortalities of 0, 53 and 67% were induced at water temperatures of 20°C, 24°C, and 28°C, respectively. Following intramuscular injection, AP37 showed a low LD50 (median lethal concentration) value of 2.9 × 102 CFU g-1 (colony forming units per gram abalone wet body weight). The LT50 (median lethal time) values were 5.2 h for 1 × 106 CFU abalone-1, 8.4 h for 1 × 105 CFU abalone-1, and 21.5 h for 1 × 104 CFU abalone-1. For further analysis of virulence, AP37 was screened for the production of extracellular factors. The results showed that various factors including presence of flagella and production of extracellular enzymes, such as lipase, phospholipase and haemolysin, could be responsible for pathogenesis. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain AP37 showed >98.8% similarity to Vibrio harveyi, V. campbellii, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. natriegens and V. rotiferianus, so it could not be identified by this method. However, multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of concatenated sequences, including the rpoD, rctB, gyrB, toxR and pyrH genes, identified strain AP37 as V. harveyi. Phenotypic characters of AP37 were identified by API 20E. In antibiotic susceptibility tests, strain AP37 exhibited susceptibility to 7 antibiotics and resistance to 13. This is the first report of a V. harveyi-related species being linked with the mass mortality of adult abalone H. diversicolor in southern China.

  18. Identification of a female spawn-associated Kazal-type inhibitor from the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianfang; Nuurai, Parinyaporn; McDougall, Carmel; York, Patrick S; Bose, Utpal; Degnan, Bernard M; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-07-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) undergoes a period of reproductive maturation, followed by the synchronous release of gametes, called broadcast spawning. Field and laboratory studies have shown that the tropical species Haliotis asinina undergoes a two-week spawning cycle, thus providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of endogenous spawning-associated peptides. In female H. asinina, we have isolated a peptide (5145 Da) whose relative abundance in hemolymph increases substantially just prior to spawning and is still detected using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms up to 1-day post-spawn. We have isolated this peptide from female hemolymph as well as samples prepared from the gravid female gonad, and demonstrated through comparative sequence analysis that it contains features characteristic of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). Has-KPI is expressed specifically within the gonad of adult females. A recombinant Has-KPI was generated using a yeast expression system. The recombinant Has-KPI does not induce premature spawning of female H. asinina when administered intramuscularly. However it displays homomeric aggregations and interaction with at least one mollusc-type neuropeptide (LRDFVamide), suggesting a role for it in regulating neuropeptide endocrine communication. This research provides new understanding of a peptide that can regulate reproductive processes in female abalone, which has the potential to lead to the development of greater control over abalone spawning. The findings also highlight the need to further explore abalone reproduction to clearly define a role for novel spawning-associated peptide in sexual maturation and spawning. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. PI3K-AKT signaling pathway is involved in hypoxia/thermal-induced immunosuppression of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yulong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Guodong; Lin, Shi; Zeng, Xinyang; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping

    2016-12-01

    The PI3K-AKT signal pathway has been found to be involved in many important physiological and pathological processes of the innate immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, the AKT (HdAKT) and PI3K (HdPI3K) gene of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor were cloned and characterized for the important status of PI3K and AKT protein in PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. The full length cDNAs of HdAKT and HdPI3K are 2126 bp and 6052 bp respectively, encoding proteins of 479 amino acids and 1097 amino acids, respectively. The mRNA expression level of fourteen genes in the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that all these fourteen genes were ubiquitously expressed in seven selected tissues. Meanwhile, HdAKT was expressed in haemocytes with the highest expression level (p abalone. The mRNA expression of these genes in gills, haemocytes and hepatopancreas was significantly down-regulated after the Vibrio parahaemolyticus stimulation with environment stimulation (thermal, hypoxia and thermal & hypoxia). These results indicate that the dual/multiple stresses defeat the immune system and lead to immunosuppression in abalone. PI3K-AKT signaling pathway may be involved in hypoxia/thermal-induced immunosuppression of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. KARAKTERISASI DAN EVALUASI POPULASI ABALON Haliotis squamata SECARA MOLEKULER, MORFOMETRIK, DAN BIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan salah satu komoditas penting gastropoda laut. Tingginya permintaan abalon ini mengakibatkan menipisnya stok di alam. Oleh karena itu, upaya keberhasilan budidaya abalon perlu didukung oleh jenis unggul. Indikasi awal suatu jenis unggul dapat dilakukan dengan menganalisis potensi genetik yang dimiliki. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan analisis gen 16S rRNA, karakter morfolologi, dan biologi dianalisis secara deskriptif dengan metode kajian pustaka. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan keragaman inter populasi Haliotis squamata mendeteksi adanya tujuh haplotipe yang terbagi dalam dua kelompok. Penyertaan H. diversicolor sebagai outgroup dalam pengujian memperlihatkan bahwa populasi H. squamata dari Pulau Bali dan beberapa lokasi di Pulau Jawa berada dalam satu kelompok yang terpisah dengan outgroup. Hasil ini kongruen dengan analisis morfometrik terdapat perkembangan pertumbuhan cangkang yang asimetri pada populasi Banten. Pertumbuhan asimetri merupakan indikasi spesifik untuk populasi Banten atau merupakan gejala abnormalitas yang dapat diakibatkan oleh faktor penurunan kualitas genetik atau lingkungan. Karakter biologi terlihat proporsi daging dan gonad berbeda pada populasi Banten dengan indikasi adanya pertumbuhan asimetri. Rasio gonad dan daging populasi Banyuwangi berbeda nyata (P<0,05 dengan populasi lainnya. Abalone is arguably one of the highly valued and sought-after marine gastropods. However, the over-exploitation of this species has exhausted its wild stock. To overcome this challenge, the culture technique and management of this species must be established and continually improved. One of the ways is through producing superior broodstocks. An initial assessment of a genetically superior broodstock can be done using the potential genetic analysis. This recent research employed the analysis to study the species’ 16S rRNA gene. To complement the study, the morphometric and biological characteristics of the species were

  1. Probabilistic risk assessment of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta exposed to waterborne zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Chungmin; Ling Minpei

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment approach that integrates predicted tissue concentrations of zinc (Zn) with a concentration-response relationship and leads to predictions of survival risk for pond abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta as well as to the uncertainties associated with these predictions. The models implemented include a probabilistic bioaccumulation model, which linking biokinetic and consumer-resource models, accounts for Zn exposure profile and a modified Hill model for reconstructing a dose-response profile for abalone exposed to waterborne Zn. The growth risk is assessed by hazard quotients characterized by measured water level and chronic no-observed effect concentration. Our risk analyses for H. diversicolor supertexta reared near Toucheng, Kouhu, and Anping, respectively, in north, central, and south Taiwan region indicate a relatively low likelihood that survival is being affected by waterborne Zn. Expected risks of mortality for abalone were estimated as 0.46 (Toucheng), 0.36 (Kouhu), and 0.29 (Anping). The predicted 90th-percentiles of hazard quotient for potential growth risk were estimated as 1.94 (Toucheng), 0.47 (Kouhu), and 0.51 (Anping). These findings indicate that waterborne Zn exposure poses no significant risk to pond abalone in Kouhu and Anping, yet a relative high growth risk in Toucheng is alarming. Because of a scarcity of toxicity and exposure data, the probabilistic risk assessment was based on very conservative assumptions. - A novel risk assessment method was developed for abalone

  2. Probabilistic risk assessment of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta exposed to waterborne zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Chungmin; Ling Minpei

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment approach that integrates predicted tissue concentrations of zinc (Zn) with a concentration-response relationship and leads to predictions of survival risk for pond abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta as well as to the uncertainties associated with these predictions. The models implemented include a probabilistic bioaccumulation model, which linking biokinetic and consumer-resource models, accounts for Zn exposure profile and a modified Hill model for reconstructing a dose-response profile for abalone exposed to waterborne Zn. The growth risk is assessed by hazard quotients characterized by measured water level and chronic no-observed effect concentration. Our risk analyses for H. diversicolor supertexta reared near Toucheng, Kouhu, and Anping, respectively, in north, central, and south Taiwan region indicate a relatively low likelihood that survival is being affected by waterborne Zn. Expected risks of mortality for abalone were estimated as 0.46 (Toucheng), 0.36 (Kouhu), and 0.29 (Anping). The predicted 90th-percentiles of hazard quotient for potential growth risk were estimated as 1.94 (Toucheng), 0.47 (Kouhu), and 0.51 (Anping). These findings indicate that waterborne Zn exposure poses no significant risk to pond abalone in Kouhu and Anping, yet a relative high growth risk in Toucheng is alarming. Because of a scarcity of toxicity and exposure data, the probabilistic risk assessment was based on very conservative assumptions. - A novel risk assessment method was developed for abalone.

  3. Characterization of genic microsatellite markers derived from expressed sequence tags in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Shu, Jing; Zhao, Cui; Liu, Shikai; Kong, Lingfeng; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai). Repeat motifs were found in 4.95% of the ESTs at a frequency of one repeat every 10.04 kb of EST sequences, after redundancy elimination. Seventeen polymorphic EST-SSRs were developed. The number of alleles per locus varied from 2-17, with an average of 6.8 alleles per locus. The expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.159 to 0.928 and from 0.132 to 0.922, respectively. Twelve of the 17 loci (70.6%) were successfully amplified in H. diversicolor. Seventeen loci segregated in three families, with three showing the presence of null alleles (17.6%). The adequate level of variability and low frequency of null alleles observed in H. discus hannai, together with the high rate of transportability across Haliotis species, make this set of EST-SSR markers an important tool for comparative mapping, marker-assisted selection, and evolutionary studies, not only in the Pacific abalone, but also in related species.

  4. In vitro anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant properties of blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) viscera hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Masci, Paul P; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Gobe, Glenda C; Osborne, Simone A

    2017-07-01

    Abalone viscera contain sulphated polysaccharides with anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities. In this study, a hydrolysate was prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) viscera using papain and bromelain and fractionated using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Hydrolysates and fractions were investigated for in vitro thrombin inhibition mediated through heparin cofactor II (HCII) as well as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and whole blood. On the basis of sulphated polysaccharide concentration, the hydrolysate inhibited thrombin through HCII with an inhibitor concentration at 50% (IC50) of 16.5 μg/mL compared with 2.1 μg/mL for standard heparin. Fractionation concentrated HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition down to an IC50 of 1.8 μg/mL and improved anti-coagulant activities by significantly delaying clotting time. This study confirmed the presence of anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant molecules in blacklip abalone viscera and demonstrated that these activities can be enriched with a simple chromatography regime. Blacklip abalone viscera warrant further investigation as a source of nutraceutical or functional food ingredients. Graphical abstract Schematic showing preparation of bioactive extracts and fractions from blacklip abalone.

  5. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  6. De novo characterisation of the greenlip abalone transcriptome (Haliotis laevigata) with a focus on the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, Brett P; Hall, Nathan E; Cooke, Ira R; Robinson, Nicholas A; Strugnell, Jan M

    2015-02-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) are economically important molluscs for fisheries and aquaculture industries worldwide. Despite this, genomic resources for abalone and molluscs are still limited. Here we present a description and functional annotation of the greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) transcriptome. We present a focused analysis on the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family of genes with putative functions affecting temperature stress and immunity. A total of ~38 million paired end Illumina reads were obtained, resulting in a Trinity assembly of 222,172 contigs with minimum length of 200 base pairs and maximum length of 33 kilobases. The 20,702 contigs were annotated with gene descriptions by BLAST. We created a program to maximise the number of functionally annotated genes, and over 10,000 contigs were assigned Gene ontologies (GO terms). By using CateGOrizer, immunity related GO terms for stressors such as heat, hypoxia, oxidative stress and wounding received the highest counts. Twenty-six contigs with homology to the HSP70 family of genes were identified. Ninety-one putative single-nucleotide polymorphisms were observed in the abalone HSP70 contigs. Eleven of these were considered non-synonymous. The annotated transcriptome described in this study will be a useful basis for future work investigating the genetic response of abalone to stress.

  7. Diatom diet selectivity by early post-larval abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta under hatchery conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyu; Gao, Yahui; Liang, Junrong; Chen, Changping; Zhao, Donghai; Li, Xuesong; Li, Yang; Wu, Wenzhong

    2010-11-01

    Benthic diatoms constitute the primary diet of abalone during their early stages of development. To evaluate the dietary preferences of early post-larval abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, we analyzed the gut contents of post-larvae that settled on diatom films. We compared the abundance and species diversity of diatom assemblages in the gut to those of the epiphytic diatom assemblages on the attachment films, and identified 40 benthic diatom species in the gut contents of post-larvae 12 to 24 d after settlement. The most abundant taxa in the gut contents were Navicula spp., Amphora copulate, and Amphora coffeaeformis. Navicula spp. accounted for 64.0% of the cell density. In the attachment films, we identified 110 diatom species belonging to 38 genera. Pennate diatoms were the dominant members including the species Amphiprora alata, Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, Cylindrotheca closterium, Navicula sp. 2, and A. coffeaeformis. Nano-diatoms (abalone seed. The difference of the composition and abundance of diatoms between in the guts and on the biofilms suggests that early post-larval grazing was selective. An early post-larval abalone preferred nano-diatoms and the genera Navicula and Amphora during the month after settlement.

  8. Preparation, characterisation and use for antioxidant oligosaccharides of a cellulase from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) viscera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Le-Chang; Qiu, Xu-Jian; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2016-07-01

    In China, abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) production is growing annually. During industrial processing, the viscera, which are abundant of cellulase, are usually discarded or processed into low-value feedstuff. Thus, it is of interest to obtain cellulase from abalone viscera and investigate its application for preparation of functional oligosaccharides. A cellulase was purified from the hepatopancreas of abalone by ammonium sulfate precipitation and two-steps column chromatography. The molecular weight of the cellulase was 45 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis yielded 103 amino acid residues, which were identical to cellulases from other species of abalone. Substrate specificity analysis indicated that the cellulase is an endo-1,4-β-glucanase. Hydrolysis of seaweed Porphyra haitanensis polysaccharides by the enzyme produced oligosaccharides with degree of polymerisation of two to four, whose monosaccharide composition was 58% galactose, 4% glucose and 38% xylose. The oligosaccharides revealed 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical as well as hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. It is feasible and meaningful to utilise cellulase from the viscera of abalone for preparation of functional oligosaccharides. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. INDUCTION SPAWNING FOR THE TROPICAL ABALONE (Haliotis asinina IN THE LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Djoko Setyono

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to test and understand the effectivity of previous successful treatment to induce spawning in temperate abalone, including the use of hydrogen peroxide, vigorous aeration, desiccation, thermal shock, and UV-irradiated seawater, to induce spawning in the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina from southern Lombok waters, NTB. Approximately 90% of mature animals conditioned in the laboratory could be spawned successfully. Wild freshly mature broodstock collected in the morning during spring low tide failed to spawn under any treatment tried, while in wild freshly mature broodstock collected in the afternoon during spring low tide, approximately 45% of the males and 37% of the females, spawned successfully under all treatments. Mature animals ready to spawn were usually found creeping up the tanks close to the water surface, and were very active but relaxed, and the foot was soft and flabby. In the laboratory, H. asinina from southern Lombok waters released gametes at night between 11:00 pm and 01:00 am. The conditioned broodstock had average batch fecundity ranged from 50,000 to 435,000 eggs and the freshly caught wild broodstock ranged from 50,000 to 105,000 eggs. Approximately 75% of spawned eggs were found to be ripe and the remaining 25% were unripe. In general, no artificial spawning induction is required to spawn tropical abalone (H. asinina in laboratory (hatchery.

  10. Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 μmol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gene expression profiling in respond to TBT exposure in small abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiwei; Zou, Zhihua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Shuhong; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiling of small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor by tributyltin (TBT) exposure using a cDNA microarray containing 2473 unique transcripts. Totally, 107 up-regulated genes and 41 down-regulated genes were found. For further investigation of candidate genes from microarray data and EST analysis, quantitative real-time PCR was performed at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 96 h and 192 h TBT exposure. 26 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in different time course, 3 of them were unknown. Some gene homologues like cellulose, endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, ferritin subunit 1 and thiolester containing protein II CG7052-PB might be the good biomarker candidate for TBT monitor. The identification of stress response genes and their expression profiles will permit detailed investigation of the defense responses of small abalone genes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Growth rates of Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai in tank culture systems in southern Chile (41.5°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mardones

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increased activity of aquaculture in Chile involves cultivation of salmonids, oysters mussels and other species such, and to a lesser extent species such as red abalone (Haliotis rufescens and Japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth rate of Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai fed with different pellet based diets with Macrocystis sp. and Ulva sp., grown in ponds for 13 months. The results for both species denoted that there was an increase in length and biomass during experimental period, existing low growth rates during the austral winter (July-September and increase during the austral summer (December-January. Results are consistent with descriptions of literature that there is high rate of growth during the summer and using diet of brown algae. From the economic standpoint abalone farming would be an economically viable activity for local aquaculture, considering the water quality and food requirements.

  13. Feeding preferences and the nutritional value of tropical algae for the abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex R Angell

    Full Text Available Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g(-1 and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g(-1 of dry weight was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties.

  14. Feeding Preferences and the Nutritional Value of Tropical Algae for the Abalone Haliotis asinina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Alex R.; Pirozzi, Igor; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores) is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae – or any feedstock – which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids) and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g−1) and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g−1 of dry weight) was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties. PMID:22719967

  15. Effects of rigor status during high-pressure processing on the physical qualities of farm-raised abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brianna H; Greenberg, Neil J; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) is used to increase meat safety and shelf-life, with conflicting quality effects depending on rigor status during HPP. In the seafood industry, HPP is used to shuck and pasteurize oysters, but its use on abalones has only been minimally evaluated and the effect of rigor status during HPP on abalone quality has not been reported. Farm-raised abalones (Haliotis rufescens) were divided into 12 HPP treatments and 1 unprocessed control treatment. Treatments were processed pre-rigor or post-rigor at 2 pressures (100 and 300 MPa) and 3 processing times (1, 3, and 5 min). The control was analyzed post-rigor. Uniform plugs were cut from adductor and foot meat for texture profile analysis, shear force, and color analysis. Subsamples were used for scanning electron microscopy of muscle ultrastructure. Texture profile analysis revealed that post-rigor processed abalone was significantly (P abalone meat was more tender than pre-rigor processed meat, and post-rigor processed foot meat was lighter in color than pre-rigor processed foot meat, suggesting that waiting for rigor to resolve prior to processing abalones may improve consumer perceptions of quality and market value. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Biomineral repair of abalone shell apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Maggie; Guo, Dujiao; Chung, Peter; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2013-08-01

    The shell of the gastropod mollusc, abalone, is comprised of nacre with an outer prismatic layer that is composed of either calcite or aragonite or both, depending on the species. A striking characteristic of the abalone shell is the row of apertures along the dorsal margin. As the organism and shell grow, new apertures are formed and the preceding ones are filled in. Detailed investigations, using electron backscatter diffraction, of the infill in three species of abalone: Haliotis asinina, Haliotis gigantea and Haliotis rufescens reveals that, like the shell, the infill is composed mainly of nacre with an outer prismatic layer. The infill prismatic layer has identical mineralogy as the original shell prismatic layer. In H. asinina and H. gigantea, the prismatic layer of the shell and infill are made of aragonite while in H. rufescens both are composed of calcite. Abalone builds the infill material with the same high level of biological control, replicating the structure, mineralogy and crystallographic orientation as for the shell. The infill of abalone apertures presents us with insight into what is, effectively, shell repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of prohormone convertase 1 gene in abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Cai, Zhong-hua

    2010-03-01

    Prohormone convertases (PCs) are calcium-dependent serine endoproteases of the subtilisin family that play a key role in the posttranslational processing of precursors for bioactive peptides. In this study, the cDNA of PC1 from abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) was cloned and sequenced. The PC1 cDNA consisted of 2216 bp with an open reading frame of 2010 bp encoding a 670 amino acid peptide. Comparative structural analysis revealed that abalone PC1 shared high similarity and identity with most PC counterparts. The profile of deduced peptide of PC1 was composed of an N-terminal signal peptide, a prosegment domain, a catalytic domain and a P domain, which were common in many species. Sequence analysis indicated that the abalone PC1 was highly conserved in catalytic domain, including three conserved serine catalytic signatures that comprised a catalytic triad active center. Also conserved were the potential cleavage site for release of the mature peptide, a cognate integrin binding site RGD in P domain, and four cysteine residues involved in forming an intrachain disulfide bridge. To further investigate the functions of PC1 in abalone, real-time quantitative PCR was performed to determine the expression level of this gene at three different reproduction stages (i.e. pre-, during- and post-breeding). Results indicated that PC1 was expressed throughout the three stages but the expression levels varied with the timepoints and different tissues in abalone. The expression levels of PC1 in digestive gland were much higher than those of the gonad. In female abalone, the expression of PC1 was higher at pre-breeding and during-breeding stages (Pabalone reproduction process (e.g. spawning or sperming). PC1 is a potential prohormone processing enzyme and it may play a critical role in abalone physiological processes related to reproduction. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Abalone R&D at AQD

    OpenAIRE

    Castanos, Milagros T.

    1997-01-01

    Details are given of the results of research conducted at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department on abalone (Haliotis asinina). The following areas are covered: reproductive biology; induced spawning; raising abalone in the hatchery; and, cage culture trials.

  19. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of p-nitrophenol in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TenBrook, Patti L.; Kendall, Shellie M.; Viant, Mark R.; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2003-02-26

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) were exposed to 3.6 {mu}M (0.5 ppm) {sup 14}C-labelled p-nitrophenol (PNP) for 24 h, then were allowed to depurate in clean seawater for another 24 h. Absorption, conditional uptake clearance and elimination rate constants were 0.12{+-}0.04 h{sup -1}, 3.2{+-}1.1 ml g{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 0.05{+-}0.02 h{sup -1}, respectively. The sigmoidal shape of the PNP uptake curve suggests a biphasic process. A whole-organism total concentration factor (TCF) of 2.37{+-}0.07 was determined from equilibrium tissue and water concentrations, with the highest concentration of PNP plus metabolites found in gill tissue (11.8{+-}0.2 nmol g{sup -1}, wet weight). Digestive gland, foot muscle and remaining body tissues accumulated 8.8{+-}0.9, 7.7{+-}0.6 and 7.5{+-}0.6 nmol g{sup -1} radiolabelled residues, respectively. Abalone depurated 91.6% of absorbed PNP within 24 h, of which 87.5{+-}3.1% was unmetabolized parent compound, 13.1{+-}3.1% was p-nitrophenylsulfate, 0.32{+-}0.09% was p-nitroanisole, and 0.14{+-}0.07% was p-acetamidophenol.

  20. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a heat shock protein 90 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee

    2011-06-01

    Heat shock protein 90s (hsp90s) are chaperones that contribute to the proper folding of cellular proteins and help animals cope with the cellular protein damages in stress conditions. In this study, an hsp90 gene was isolated from disc abalone (Haliotis discus). The complete nucleotide sequence of the hsp90 gene contains an open reading frame of 2,184 base pairs, encoding an 84 kDa protein. Disk abalone hsp90 shares high sequence similarity with other hsp90 family proteins. Although the phylogenetic analysis did not classify it into the hsp90α group, the inductivity of this gene was confirmed by heat shock and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge test. Disk abalone hsp90 gene displayed a rapid and reversible induction response to both an exposure of typical heat shock and the LPS challenge. Once given the sublethal heat shock treatment, the transcription of disk abalone hsp90 gene was significantly up-regulated. With a recovery of 12 h, the transcription of disk abalone hsp90 gene gradually attenuated to the control level. These observations reflected the feedback regulation of abalone heat shock responses faithfully. In response to LPS challenge, the transcription of disk abalone hsp90 gene was significantly increased within 2 h and it approached maximum induction at 4 h later and recovered finally the reference level in 24 h. Take all together, the cloning and expression analysis of disk abalone hsp90 gene provided useful molecular information of abalone responses in stress conditions and potential ways to monitor the chronic stressors in abalone culture environments and diagnose the animal health status.

  1. Effects of Multiple Stressors on Red Abalone (Haliotis rufescens) Fertilization Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boch, C. A.; Aalto, E.; De Leo, G.; Litvin, S.; Lovera, C.; Micheli, F.; Woodson, C. B.; Monismith, S. G.; Barry, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Acidification, hypoxia, and ocean warming are escalating threats in the world's coastal waters, with potentially severe consequences for marine life and ocean-based economies. In particular, eastern boundary current ecosystems, including the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), are experiencing large-scale declines in pH and dissolved oxygen (DO)—with the latter linked to changes in thermal stratification and shoaling of the oxygen minimum zone. To examine the consequences of ocean acidification and other climate-related changes in oceanographic conditions on nearshore marine populations within the CCLME, we are assessing the potential effects of current and future upwelling-type conditions on the population dynamics of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), with a focus on sensitive early life history phases (e.g., fertilization, larval development, and juvenile growth and survival) expected to be important determinants of population dynamics. Here, we present the first experimental results on the impacts of combined exposures of low pH and low DO on abalone fertilization success. Our results show that abalone fertilization success is significantly reduced when the gametes are exposed to a decrease in seawater pH from 8.0 to 7.2. Furthermore, low pH in combination with hypoxic exposure—e.g., a decrease in dissolved oxygen from 6 mg/L DO to 1 mg/L DO—does not further decrease fertilization rates, suggesting a lack of synergistic or additive effects of these multiple stressors on the reduction of fertilization success. Although the focus of this study is to characterize the effects of multiple stressors on the early life history of abalone, the implications of these results are expected to be relevant for a variety of marine taxa with similar reproductive modes.

  2. Construction of the BAC Library of Small Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) for Gene Screening and Genome Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Likun; You, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Zixia; Chen, Baohua; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Ke, Caihuan; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is one of the most important aquaculture species in East Asia. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization, genome analysis, and genetic breeding of it, we constructed a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, which is an important genetic tool for advanced genetics and genomics research. The small abalone BAC library includes 92,610 clones with an average insert size of 120 Kb, equivalent to approximately 7.6× of the small abalone genome. We set up three-dimensional pools and super pools of 18,432 BAC clones for target gene screening using PCR method. To assess the approach, we screened 12 target genes in these 18,432 BAC clones and identified 16 positive BAC clones. Eight positive BAC clones were then sequenced and assembled with the next generation sequencing platform. The assembled contigs representing these 8 BAC clones spanned 928 Kb of the small abalone genome, providing the first batch of genome sequences for genome evaluation and characterization. The average GC content of small abalone genome was estimated as 40.33%. A total of 21 protein-coding genes, including 7 target genes, were annotated into the 8 BACs, which proved the feasibility of PCR screening approach with three-dimensional pools in small abalone BAC library. One hundred fifty microsatellite loci were also identified from the sequences for marker development in the future. The BAC library and clone pools provided valuable resources and tools for genetic breeding and conservation of H. diversicolor.

  3. BRICHOS domain-containing leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 1-like cDNA from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yucheol; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2010-11-01

    A BRICHOS domain-containing leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 1-like cDNA was cloned from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and designated as AbLECT-1. A full-length (705 bp) of AbLECT-1 cDNA was composed of a 576 bp open reading frame that translates into a putative peptide of 192 amino acids. Deduced amino acid sequence of AbLECT-1 had 15.5- and 27.8% identity and similarity to human LECT-1, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis results showed that the mRNA of AbLECT-1 was constitutively expressed in abalone hemocytes, gills, mantle, muscle, digestive tract and hepatopancreas in a tissue-specific manner. Moreover, the AbLECT-1 transcription level was induced in hemocytes after challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes suggesting that it may be involved in immune response reactions in abalone. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of chemical cues on larval survival, settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis asinina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Bai, Yang; Huang, Bo

    2010-11-01

    Low larval survival, poor settlement, and abnormal metamorphosis are major problems in seed production of donkey-ear abalone Haliotis asinina. We examined the effects of chemical cues including epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, and serotonin on larval survival, settlement, and metamorphosis in order to determine the possibility of using these chemicals to induce the problems. The results show that epinephrine could enhance metamorphosis rate at 10-6 mol/L only but higher concentrations (10-3-10-4 mol/L); and nor-epinephrine could inhibit the performance significantly, and serotonin could increase significantly the performance at a wide-range concentration (10-3-10-6 mol/L). Treatment with serotonin at 10-5 mol/L for 72 hours resulted in the highest settlement rate (42.2%) and survival rate (49.3%), while at 10-4 mol/L for 72 hours resulted in the highest metamorphosis rate (38.8%). Therefore, serotonin may be used as a fast metamorphosis inducer in abalone culture.

  5. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of p-nitrophenol in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TenBrook, Patti L.; Kendall, Shellie M.; Viant, Mark R.; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.

    2003-01-01

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) were exposed to 3.6 μM (0.5 ppm) 14 C-labelled p-nitrophenol (PNP) for 24 h, then were allowed to depurate in clean seawater for another 24 h. Absorption, conditional uptake clearance and elimination rate constants were 0.12±0.04 h -1 , 3.2±1.1 ml g -1 h -1 and 0.05±0.02 h -1 , respectively. The sigmoidal shape of the PNP uptake curve suggests a biphasic process. A whole-organism total concentration factor (TCF) of 2.37±0.07 was determined from equilibrium tissue and water concentrations, with the highest concentration of PNP plus metabolites found in gill tissue (11.8±0.2 nmol g -1 , wet weight). Digestive gland, foot muscle and remaining body tissues accumulated 8.8±0.9, 7.7±0.6 and 7.5±0.6 nmol g -1 radiolabelled residues, respectively. Abalone depurated 91.6% of absorbed PNP within 24 h, of which 87.5±3.1% was unmetabolized parent compound, 13.1±3.1% was p-nitrophenylsulfate, 0.32±0.09% was p-nitroanisole, and 0.14±0.07% was p-acetamidophenol

  6. Epipodial Tentacle Gene Expression and Predetermined Resilience to Summer Mortality in the Commercially Important Greenlip Abalone, Haliotis laevigata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, Brett P; Hall, Nathan E; Cooke, Ira R; Robinson, Nicholas A; Strugnell, Jan M

    2017-04-01

    "Summer mortality" is a phenomenon that occurs during warm water temperature spikes that results in the mass mortality of many ecologically and economically important mollusks such as abalone. This study aimed to determine whether the baseline gene expression of abalone before a laboratory-induced summer mortality event was associated with resilience to summer mortality. Tentacle transcriptomes of 35 greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) were sequenced prior to the animals being exposed to an increase in water temperature-simulating conditions which have previously resulted in summer mortality. Abalone derived from three source locations with different environmental conditions were categorized as susceptible or resistant to summer mortality depending on whether they died or survived after the water temperature was increased. We detected two genes showing significantly higher expression in resilient abalone relative to susceptible abalone prior to the laboratory-induced summer mortality event. One of these genes was annotated through the NCBI non-redundant protein database using BLASTX to an anemone (Exaiptasia pallida) Transposon Ty3-G Gag Pol polyprotein. Distinct gene expression signatures were also found between resilient and susceptible abalone depending on the population origin, which may suggest divergence in local adaptation mechanisms for resilience. Many of these genes have been suggested to be involved in antioxidant and immune-related functions. The identification of these genes and their functional roles have enhanced our understanding of processes that may contribute to summer mortality in abalone. Our study supports the hypothesis that prestress gene expression signatures are indicative of the likelihood of summer mortality.

  7. Construction of a stable GFP-tagged Vibrio harveyi strain for bacterial dynamics analysis of abalone infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Marie-Agnès; Barbou, Annaïck; Le Goïc, Nelly; Huchette, Sylvain; Paillard, Christine; Koken, Marcel

    2008-12-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a bacterial marine pathogen that can cause fatal disease in a large range of vertebrates and invertebrates, including the commercially important marine gastropod, Haliotis tuberculata. Since 1997, strains of this bacterium have regularly been causing high mortalities in farmed and wild abalone populations. The way in which the pathogen enters into abalone and the disease transmission mechanisms are thus far unknown. Therefore, a pathogenic strain, ORM4, was green fluorescent protein-tagged and validated both for its growth characteristics and for its virulence as a genuine model for abalone disease. The strain allows V. harveyi quantification by flow cytometry in seawater and in abalone haemolymph as well as the in situ detection of the parasite inside abalone tissues.

  8. The immune response of Taiwan abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta and its susceptibility to Vibrio parahaemolyticus at different salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winton; Juang, Feng-Ming; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2004-03-01

    Addition of NaCl at 2.5% to 3.5% to tryptic soy broth (TSB) significantly increased the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Taiwan abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta held in 30 per thousand seawater were injected with V. parahaemolyticus grown in TSB containing NaCl at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5% at a dose of 1.6 x 10(5)colony-forming units (cfu) abalone(-1). After 48 h, the cumulative mortality was significantly higher for the abalone challenged with V. parahaemolyticus grown in 2.5% than those grown in 0.5 and 1.5% NaCl. In other experiments, abalones held in 30 per thousand seawater were injected with TSB-grown V. parahaemolyticus (1.6 x 10(5)cfu abalone(-1)), and then transferred to 20, 25, 30 and 35 per thousand seawater. All abalones held in 20 per thousand were killed in 48 h. The mortality of V. parahaemolyticus-injected abalone held in 30 per thousand was significantly lower over 24-120 h. Abalone held in 30 per thousand seawater and then transferred to 20, 25, 30 and 35 per thousand were examined for THC (total haemocyte count), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahemolyticus after 24 and 72 h. The THC increased directly related with salinity levels. Phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus decreased significantly for the abalone in 20, 25 and 35 per thousand. It is concluded that the abalone transferred from 30 per thousand to 20, 25 and 35 per thousand had reduced immune ability and decreased resistance against V. parahaemolyticus infection.

  9. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina as a potential candidate of probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAYAN SOFYAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarkono, Faturrahman, Sofyan Y. 2010. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina as a potential candidate of probiotic. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 38-42. The purpose of this study was to isolate, select and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB from abalone as a potential candidate probiotic in abalone cultivation system. Selective isolation of LAB performed using de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium. LAB isolate that potential as probiotics was screened. Selection was based on its ability to suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria, bacterial resistance to acidic conditions and bacterial resistance to bile salts (bile. Further characterization and identification conducted to determine the species. The results showed that two of the ten isolates potential to be developed as probiotic bacteria that have the ability to inhibit several pathogenic bacteria such as Eschericia coli, Bacillus cereus dan Staphylococus aureus, able to grow at acidic condition and bile tolerance during the incubation for 24 hour. Based on the API test kit, the both of isolate identified as members of the species Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei.

  10. Proteomic profiling of eggs from a hybrid abalone and its parental lines: Haliotis discus hannai Ino and Haliotis gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guilan; Luo, Xuan; Huang, Miaoqin; Chen, Jun; Kong, Xianghui; Miao, Xiulian; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-12-01

    Proteomic analysis was performed on the eggs of hybrid abalone and their corresponding parental lines. A total of 915 ± 19 stained protein spots were detected from Haliotis discus hannai♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (DD), 935 ± 16 from H. gigantea♀ × H. gigantea♂ (GG) and 923 ± 13 from H. gigantea♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (GD). The spots from DD and GD were clustered together. The distance between DD and GG was maximal by hierarchical cluster analysis. A total of 112 protein gel spots were identified; of these, 59 were abalone proteins. The proteins were involved in major biological processes including energy metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction, immunity, lipid metabolism, electron carrier proteins, protein biosynthesis and decomposition, and cytoskeletal structure. Three of 20 differential expression protein spots involved in energy metabolism exhibited as upregulated in GD, 13 spots exhibited additivity, and four spots exhibited as downregulated in the offspring. Eleven protein spots were expressed at the highest level in DD. The proteins involved in stress responses included superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, thioredoxin peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Two of seven differential expression protein spots involved in response to stress exhibited as upregulated in GD, three exhibited additivity, and two exhibited as downregulated. These results might suggest that proteomic approaches are suitable for the analysis of hybrids and the functional prediction of abalone hybridization. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  11. Uptake, distribution and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in Australian greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Natalie; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; van Ruth, Paul; van Ginkel, Roel; McNabb, Paul; Hay, Brenda; O'Connor, Wayne; Kiermeier, Andreas; Deveney, Marty; McLeod, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Farmed greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata were fed commercial seaweed-based food pellets or feed pellets supplemented with 8 × 10⁵ Alexandrium minutum dinoflagellate cells g⁻¹ (containing 12 ± 3.0 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹, which was mainly GTX-1,4) every second day for 50 days. Exposure of abalone to PST supplemented feed for 50 days did not affect behaviour or survival but saw accumulation of up to 1.6 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹ in the abalone foot tissue (muscle, mouth without oesophagus and epipodial fringe), which is ∼50 times lower than the maximum permissible limit (80 μg 100 g⁻¹ tissue) for PSTs in molluscan shellfish. The PST levels in the foot were reduced to 0.48 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹ after scrubbing and removal of the pigment surrounding the epithelium of the epipodial fringe (confirmed by both HPLC and LC-MS/MS). Thus, scrubbing the epipodial fringe, a common procedure during commercial abalone canning, reduced PST levels by ∼70%. Only trace levels of PSTs were detected in the viscera (stomach, gut, heart, gonad, gills and mantle) of the abalone. A toxin reduction of approximately 73% was observed in STX-contaminated abalone held in clean water and fed uncontaminated food over 50 days. The low level of PST uptake when abalone were exposed to high numbers of A. minutum cells over a prolonged period may indicate a low risk of PSP poisoning to humans from the consumption of H. laevigata that has been exposed to a bloom of potentially toxic A. minutum in Australia. Further research is required to establish if non-dietary accumulation can result in significant levels of PSTs in abalone. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genomic Characterization of a Novel Phage Found in Black Abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) Infected with Withering Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closek, C. J.; Langevin, S.; Burge, C. A.; Crosson, L.; White, S.; Friedman, C. S.

    2016-02-01

    Withering syndrome (WS), caused by the bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, a Rickettsia-like organism (RLO), infects many species of abalone. Black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), one of two endangered species of abalone, has experienced high population losses along the California coast due to WS. Recently, we observed reduced pathogenicity and mortality events in RLO-infected abalone when a novel bacteriophage (phage) was also present. To better understand phage-bacterium dynamics and develop more informative diagnostic tools, we sequenced the genome of the novel phage associated with the RLO responsible for WS. Metagenomic sequencing libraries were prepared with extracted genomic DNA from two experimentally infected H. cracherodii and phage sequences were enriched using hydroxyapatite chromatography normalization. Normalized libraries were individually barcoded and sequenced with Illumina MiSeq. Raw sequence reads were processed using VIrominer and de novo assembly produced one single phage-like contig (35.7Kb) from the experimentally infected abalone. This highly divergent genome had closest homology with a virus associated with abalone shriveling syndrome (SS). Of the 34 predicted ORFs, overlapping homology with the SS virus ranged from 20-72%, demonstrating the phage sequenced is genetically distinct from any known phage. The phage-like sequences represented a significant portion of the total reads sequenced ( 2 million of the 12 million paired-end reads; 17%) and we obtained 94,000X coverage across the novel phage genome. Beyond characterization of this novel phage, which appears to reduce pathogenicity of the RLO, the genome enabled us to develop quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization assays as diagnostic tools. These tools allow us to detect and quantify this phage in the endangered H. cracherodii.

  13. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ae; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Tae Ha; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Ah-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Choi, Ik-Young; Sohn, Young Chang

    2017-03-09

    In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone.

  14. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Ae Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone.

  15. Effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 Fads expression of abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; He, Gen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase genes ( Fads) expression of juvenile abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas. Six purified diets were formulated to contain tripalmitin (TP), olive oil (OO, 72.87% 18:1n-9), grape seed oil (GO, 68.67% 18:2n-6), linseed oil (LO, 70.48% 18:3n-3), ARA oil (AO, 41.81% ARA) or EPA oil (EO, 44.09% EPA and 23.67% DAH). No significant difference in survival rate was observed among abalone fed with different diets. Weight gain rate ( WGR) and daily growth rate of shell length ( DGR SL) were significantly increased in abalone fed with diets containing OO, AO and EO, but decreased in abalone fed with LO diet ( P abalone fed with GO than those fed with TP, OO, LO and EO ( P abalone fed with LO was significantly higher than those in abalone fed with TP, OO, GO and AO ( P abalone fed with OO. The expression of Δ5 Fads in hepatopancreas of abalone was enhanced by high concentration of 18:3n-3 and suppressed by dietary LC-PUFAs; however it was not affected by dietary high concentration of 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6. These results provided valuable information for understanding the synthesis of LC-PUFAs and nutritional regulation of Δ5 Fads expression in abalone.

  16. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to assess crossover interference and homozygosity in gynogenetic diploid Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, H-T; Li, Q; Kong, L-F

    2014-06-01

    Recombination analysis in gynogenetic diploids is a powerful tool for assessing the degree of inbreeding, investigating crossover events and understanding chiasma interference during meiosis. To estimate the marker-centromere recombination rate, the inheritance pattern of 654 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers was examined in the 72-h veliger larvae of two meiogynogenetic diploid families in the Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The second-division segregation frequency (y) of the AFLP loci ranged from 0.00 to 0.96, with 23.9% of loci showing y-values higher than 0.67, evidencing the existence of interference. The average recombination frequency across the 654 AFLP loci was 0.45, allowing estimation of the fixation index of 0.55, indicating that meiotic gynogenesis could provide an effective means of rapid inbreeding in the Pacific abalone. The AFLP loci have a small proportion (4.4%) of y-values greater than 0.90, suggesting that a relatively low or intermediate degree of chiasma interference occurred in the abalone chromosomes. The information obtained in this study will enhance our understanding of the abalone genome and will be useful for genetic studies in the species. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  17. Identification of differentially expressed reproductive and metabolic proteins in the female abalone (Haliotis laevigata) gonad following artificial induction of spawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Porras, Omar; Botwright, Natasha A; Reverter, Antonio; Cook, Mathew T; Harris, James O; Wijffels, Gene; Colgrave, Michelle L

    2017-12-01

    Inefficient control of temperate abalone spawning prevents pair-wise breeding and production of abalone with highly marketable traits. Traditionally, abalone farmers have used a combination of UV irradiation and application of temperature gradients to the tank water to artificially induce spawning. Proteins are known to regulate crucial processes such as respiration, muscle contraction, feeding, growth and reproduction. Spawning as a pre-requisite of abalone reproduction is likely to be regulated, in part, by endogenous proteins. A first step in elucidating the mechanisms that regulate spawning is to identify which proteins are directly involved during spawning. The present study examined protein expression following traditional spawning induction in the Haliotis laevigata female. Gonads were collected from abalone in the following physiological states: (1) spawning; (2) post-spawning; and (3) failed-to-spawn. Differential protein abundance was initially assessed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry for protein identification. A number of reproductive proteins such as vitellogenin, vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 29 and prohibitin, and metabolic proteins such as thioredoxin peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and heat shock proteins were identified. Differences in protein abundance levels between physiological states were further assessed using scheduled multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Positive associations were observed between the abundance of specific proteins, such as heat shock cognate 70 and peroxiredoxin 6, and the propensity or failure to spawn in abalone. These findings have contributed to better understand both the effects of oxidative and heat stress over abalone physiology and their influence on abalone spawning. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enzymatic properties and primary structures of two α-amylase isozymes from the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    OpenAIRE

    Kumagai, Yuya; Satoh, Takuya; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Two α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) isozymes, HdAmy58 and HdAmy82, with approximate molecular masses of 58 kDa and 82 kDa, respectively, were isolated from the digestive fluid of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Optimal temperatures and pHs for HdAmy58 and HdAmy82 were at 30℃ and 6.7, and 30℃ and 6.1, respectively. Both enzymes similarly degraded starch, glycogen, and maltooligosaccharides larger than maltotriose producing maltose and maltotriose as the major degradation products. However, ...

  19. Proteomic analysis of muscle between hybrid abalone and parental lines Haliotis gigantea Reeve and Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, G; Luo, X; You, W; Zhao, J; Kong, X; Ke, C

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential molecular mechanism of heterosis, protein expression patterns were compared from hybrids of Haliotis gigantea (G) and Haliotis discus hannai (D) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight analyses. Expression differences were observed in muscle samples from the four groups with 673±21.0 stained spots for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (DD), 692±25.6 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (GG), 679±16.2 for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (DG) (F1 hybrid) and 700±19 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (GD) (F1 hybrid). Different 2-DE image muscle protein spots had a mirrored relationship between purebreds and the F1 hybrid, suggesting that all stained spots in F1 hybrid muscle were on 2-DEs from parents. DD and DG clustered together first, and then clustered with GD, whereas the distance of DD and GG was maximal according to hierarchical cluster analysis. We identified 136 differentially expressed protein spots involved in major biological processes, including energy metabolism and stress response. Most energy metabolism proteins were additive, and stress-induced proteins displayed additivity or over-dominance. In these 136 identified protein spots, hybrid offspring with additivity or over-dominance accounted for 68.38%. Data show that a proteomic approach can provide functional prediction of abalone interspecific hybridization. PMID:25669609

  20. Proteomic analysis of the organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis asinina calcified shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degnan Bernard M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of the molluscan shell is regulated to a large extent by a matrix of extracellular macromolecules that are secreted by the shell forming tissue, the mantle. This so called "calcifying matrix" is a complex mixture of proteins and glycoproteins that is assembled and occluded within the mineral phase during the calcification process. While the importance of the calcifying matrix to shell formation has long been appreciated, most of its protein components remain uncharacterised. Results Recent expressed sequence tag (EST investigations of the mantle tissue from the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina provide an opportunity to further characterise the proteins in the shell by a proteomic approach. In this study, we have identified a total of 14 proteins from distinct calcified layers of the shell. Only two of these proteins have been previously characterised from abalone shells. Among the novel proteins are several glutamine- and methionine-rich motifs and hydrophobic glycine-, alanine- and acidic aspartate-rich domains. In addition, two of the new proteins contained Kunitz-like and WAP (whey acidic protein protease inhibitor domains. Conclusion This is one of the first comprehensive proteomic study of a molluscan shell, and should provide a platform for further characterization of matrix protein functions and interactions.

  1. Effect of drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation on protein quality and digestibility in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepero-Betancourt, Yamira; Oliva-Moresco, Patricio; Pasten-Contreras, Alexis; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario; Moreno-Osorio, Luis; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    Abalone (Haliotis spp.) is an exotic seafood product recognized as a protein source of high biological value. Traditional methods used to preserve foods such as drying technology can affect their nutritional quality (protein quality and digestibility). A 28-day rat feeding study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation (HPI) (350, 450, and 500 MPa × 5 min) on chemical proximate and amino acid compositions and nutritional parameters, such as protein efficiency ratio (PER), true digestibility (TD), net protein ratio, and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of dried abalone. The HPI-assisted drying process ensured excellent protein quality based on PER values, regardless of the pressure level. At 350 and 500 MPa, the HPI-assisted drying process had no negative effect on TD and PDCAAS then, based on nutritional parameters analysed, we recommend HPI-assisted drying process at 350 MPa × 5 min as the best process condition to dry abalone. Variations in nutritional parameters compared to casein protein were observed; nevertheless, the high protein quality and digestibility of HPI-assisted dried abalones were maintained to satisfy the metabolic demands of human beings.

  2. Growth of the European abalone ( Haliotis tuberculata L.) in situ: Seasonality and ageing using stable oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Sabine; Huchette, Sylvain; Clavier, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    The ormer, Haliotis tuberculata is the only European abalone species commercially exploited. The determination of growth and age in the wild is an important tool for fisheries and aquaculture management. However, the ageing technique used in the past in the field is unreliable. The stable oxygen isotope composition ( 18O/ 16O) of the shell depends on the temperature and oxygen isotope composition of the ambient sea water. The stable oxygen isotope technique, developed to study paleoclimatological changes in shellfish, was applied to three H. tuberculata specimens collected in north-west Brittany. For the specimens collected, the oxygen isotope ratios of the shell reflected the seasonal cycle in the temperature. From winter-to-winter cycles, estimates of the age and the annual growth increment, ranging from 13 to 55 mm per year were obtained. This study shows that stable oxygen isotopes can be a reliable tool for ageing and growth studies of this abalone species in the wild, and for validating other estimates.

  3. Immunological changes in response to herpesvirus infection in abalone Haliotis laevigata and Haliotis rubra hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Vinh T; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; Hoad, John; Crane, Mark St J; Speck, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Australian abalone production has been affected by outbreaks of abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) caused by a herpesvirus (AbHV). In this study, we undertook experimental transmission trials by immersion to study the abalone immune response to infection with AbHV. Representative cellular and humoural immune parameters of abalone, including total haemocyte count (THC), superoxide anion (SO) and antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), were examined in apparently healthy (sub-clinical) and moribund abalone after challenge. In the early infection, sub-clinical stage (days 1-3), THC was found to increase significantly in infected abalone. TaqMan qPCR confirmed 20.5% higher viral load in moribund abalone compared to apparently healthy abalone, indicating that the abundance of AbHV within abalone is linked to their clinical signs. At the clinical stage of infection, THC was significantly lower in moribund abalone, but increased in AbHV-exposed but apparently healthy abalone, in comparison to non-infected controls. SO was reduced in all abalone that were PCR-positive for AbHV. THC and SO level were found to be negatively correlated with the presence of AbHV in abalone, but no effect of AbVH exposure was observed on the haemolymph antiviral activity. These results suggest that abalone mount an initial cellular immune response to AbHV infection, but this response cannot be sustained under high viral loads, leading to mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2009-01-07

    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone sample series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.

  5. Detection and localisation of the abalone probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and its extracellular protease, VmproA, within the digestive tract of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Huddy

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone.

  6. Detection and localisation of the abalone probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and its extracellular protease, VmproA, within the digestive tract of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Robert J; Coyne, Vernon E

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone.

  7. In vitro growth of flat aragonite crystals between the layers of the insoluble organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis laevigata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Katharina I.; Heinemann, Fabian; Rosenauer, Andreas; Fritz, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Nacre of abalone shells consists of aragonite platelets and organic material, the so-called organic matrix. During the growth process of the shell the aragonite platelets grow into a scaffold formed by the organic matrix. In this work we tried to mimic this growth process by placing a piece of the insoluble organic matrix (which is a part of the organic matrix) of the abalone Haliotis laevigata in a crystallization device which was flowed through by CaCl2 and NaHCO3 solutions. Using this setup amongst others flat aragonite crystals grow on the insoluble organic matrix. When investigating these crystals in a transmission electron microscope it is possible to recognize similarities to the structure of nacre, like the formation of mineral bridges and growth between layers of the insoluble organic matrix. These similarities are presented in this paper.

  8. Effects of the dietary administration of sodium alginate on the immune responses and disease resistance of Taiwan abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winton; Yu, Jyun-Sian

    2013-03-01

    Sodium alginate extracted from brown algae was reported to enhance the immune response and resistance of fish and shrimp. In this study, survival rates of the abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and its non-specific immune parameters such as the total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency to V. parahaemolyticus by H. diversicolor supertexta were determined when abalone (4.5 ± 0.4 g) were fed diets containing sodium alginate at 0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹. Abalone fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ for 14 days and at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ for 21 days had significantly higher survival rates than those fed the control diet after challenge with V. parahaemolyticus. The relative survival percentages of abalone fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ sodium alginate-containing diets for 14 and 21 days were 16.1%, 40.0%, and 48.0%, and 63.6%, 27.3% and 22.6%, respectively. The PO activity, respiratory bursts, SOD activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus of abalone fed the sodium alginate-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly higher than those of abalone fed the control diet for 14 days. After 21 days, the PO activity, respiratory bursts, SOD activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus by abalone fed the sodium alginate-containing diet at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly higher than those of abalone fed the other diets. It was concluded that sodium alginate can be used as an immunostimulant for abalone through dietary administration to enhance immune responses of abalone and resistance against V. parahaemolyticus, which were related to the dose and timing of administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term lead accumulation in abalone (Haliotis spp. ) fed on lead-treated brown algae (Egregia laevigata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J; Schulz-Baldes, M

    1976-01-01

    In this study we assessed the amount of lead accumulated in the body of a grazing mollusc by transfer from its algal food in laboratory experiments, and compared these results with the amounts found in naturally occurring molluscs and seaweed. Near La Jolla, California (USA), where the concentration of lead in seawater is probably less than 0.08 ..mu..g 1/sup -1/, most of the naturally occurring Egregia laevigata contains less than 0.4 ..mu..g Pb g/sup -1/ wet weight. The total body masses, without shells, of juvenile Haliotis rufescens fed on this seaweed for 3 to 6 months showed similar concentrations. When, however, E. laevigata is placed for 1 to 6 days in seawater to which lead has been added (0.1 or 1.0 mg 1/sup -1/) both the seaweed and the abalone subsequently fed with it accumulate proportionally larger amounts of lead. After 6 months, young abalone fed on E. laevigata pretreated with 1.0 mg Pb 1/sup -1/ accumulated up to 21 ..mu..g Pb g/sup -1/ wet weight. This amount of lead had no apparent consequences on the growth or activity of the molluscs. Analyses of 6 different organs from adult abalone showed that the lead was selectively concentrated in the digestive gland. In the foot (muscle tissue), which is the part normally consumed by humans, only negligible amounts were found.

  10. ABALONE (HALIOTIS SQUAMATA ANESTHESIA WITH ETHANOL ON GRADING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanni N.A.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An abalone is a group of marine molluscs that have high economic value. To increase abalone production, such cultivation needs to be done considering that abalone production still dominating. However, there are still obstacles in the cultivation which is the high mortality rates on the grading process of juvenile abalone. The fatality occurs due to the traditional grading process by gouging abalone to separate abalone that is attached to the substrate. The use of ethanol as an anesthetic material is expected to minimize the mortality and increase the survival rate of abalone. In this study, the use of ethanol by 30 ml/L as an anesthetic material can separate the abalone from its substrate 447.67 seconds faster than the dose of 10 ml/L. However, the 30 ml/L dose also showed the lowest survival rate of 86.67%. The best recovery test is at 10 ml/L with the fastest recovery time of 143.33 seconds which has a high survival rate of 98.33%. The success of anesthesia by using ethanol in this study can also be done in the grading process of abalone seed and can minimize death due to the traditional grading process.

  11. Effects of temperature and salinity on survival, growth and DNA methylation of juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ning; Liu, Xiao; Li, Junyuan; Mu, Wendan; Lian, Jianwu; Xue, Yanjie; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Temperature and salinity are two of the most potent abiotic factors influencing marine mollusks. In this study, we investigated the individual and combined effects of temperature and salinity on the survival and growth of juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino, and also examined the DNA methylation alteration that may underpin the phenotypic variation of abalone exposed to different rearing conditions. The single-factor data showed that the suitable ranges of temperature and salinity were 16-28°C at a constant salinity of 32, and 24-40 at a constant temperature of 20°C, respectively. The two-factor data indicated that both survival and growth were significantly affected by temperature, salinity and their interaction. The optimal temperature-salinity combination for juveniles was 23-25°C and 30-36. To explore environment-induced DNA methylation alteration, the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique was used to analyze the genomic methylation profiles of abalone reared in optimal and adverse conditions. Neither temperature nor salinity induced evident changes in the global methylation level, but 67 and 63 differentially methylated loci were identified in temperature and salinity treatments, respectively. The between-group eigen analysis also showed that both temperature and salinity could induce epigenetic differentiation in H. discus hannai Ino. The results of our study provide optimal rearing conditions for juvenile H. discus hannai Ino, and represent the first step toward revealing the epigenetic regulatory mechanism of abalone in response to thermal and salt stresses.

  12. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra Processing Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, and thromboelastography (TEG. All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  13. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) Processing Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Hines, Barney M; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone A

    2016-12-31

    Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone ( Haliotis rubra ) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII)-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG). All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  14. Antibacterial activity and immune responses of a molluscan macrophage expressed gene-1 from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lim, Bong-Soo; Won, Seung Hwan; Lee, Jehee

    2014-08-01

    The membrane-attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain-containing proteins play an important role in the innate immune response against invading microbial pathogens. In the current study, a member of the MACPF domain-containing proteins, macrophage expressed gene-1 (MPEG1) encoding 730 amino acids with the theoretical molecular mass of 79.6 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.49 was characterized from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus (AbMPEG1). We found that the characteristic MACPF domain (Val(131)-Tyr(348)) and transmembrane segment (Ala(669)-Ile(691)) of AbMPEG1 are located in the N- and C-terminal ends of the protein, respectively. Ortholog comparison revealed that AbMPEG1 has the highest sequence identity with its pink abalone counterpart, while sequences identities of greater than 90% were observed with MPEG1 members from other abalone species. Likewise, the furin cleavage site KRRRK was highly conserved in all abalone species, but not in other species investigated. We identified an intron-less genomic sequence within disk abalone AbMPEG1, which was similar to other mammalian, avian, and reptilian counterparts. Transcription factor binding sites, which are important for immune responses, were identified in the 5'-flanking region of AbMPEG1. qPCR revealed AbMPEG1 transcripts are present in every tissues examined, with the highest expression level occurring in mantle tissue. Significant up-regulation of AbMPEG1 transcript levels was observed in hemocytes and gill tissues following challenges with pathogens (Vibrio parahemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs: lipopolysaccharides and poly I:C immunostimulant). Finally, the antibacterial activity of the MACPF domain was characterized against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria using a recombinant peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the biological significance of the AbMPEG1 gene includes a role in

  15. Feeding, growth, and survival of post-larval abalone Haliotis asinina on different benthic diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding behavior, digestive efficiency, growth, and survival of post-larval abalone Haliotis asininafed with 5 species of locally isolated benthic diatom strains (Navicula mollis, N. ramosissima, Stauroneissp., Pleurosigma sp., and Cocconeis sp. were examined in the laboratory. Two 15-day feeding trialsusing 1 mm post-larvae were conducted. No significant differences were observed in sizes of post-larvalabalone after 15 days in all diatom treatments (P>0.05. However, in both trials, Cocconeis sp. resulted inhigh survival rates (88.9±5.6% and 80.0±20.0% for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. Cocconeis sp. wasefficiently digested by post-larval abalone, with most of the cells being ruptured during ingestion and/orpassage through the gut. One diatom strain, Pleurosigma sp., resulted to a high survival but producedthe slowest growth rate (<10 ìm.d-1 SL. It was probably not ingested easily during the experiment due toits large size or mobility. For the other diatom strains, N. mollis and N. ramosissima, most cells passedthrough the gut with the cells left intact. Stauroneis sp. is highly digestible, but did not result to highsurvival, although the remaining live post-larval abalone fed on this diatom as well as on N. mollis grewfaster during the second week of both feeding trials. N. ramosissima resulted to poorest survival rate(<10% due to its poor digestibility. Only Cocconeis sp. showed a fairly high growth rate, digestionefficiency, and survival rate. N. mollis which gave a fairly high survival rate and Stauroneis may be addedtowards the later stages of post-larval rearing as well as other large diatoms. The digestion efficiency ofdiatom strains is considered an important factor determining its dietary value, but other factors may alsobe important such as volume contents, biochemical composition, and other physical characteristics.

  16. Involvement of clip-domain serine protease in the anti-Vibrio immune response of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)-Molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-Jian; Chen, Yu-Lei; Duan, Xue-Kun; Jin, Teng-Chuan; Li, Yue; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Liu, Guang-Ming; Cao, Min-Jie

    2018-01-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus) is a major pathogen for abalone, an important economical shellfish in coastal area of China. There is little known about the abalone innate immune system against pathogen infection. Clip-domain serine proteases (cSPs) are increasingly recognized to play important roles in host immune defense in invertebrates. In this study, we cloned a cSP (Hdh-cSP) from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). We found out that Hdh-cSP was widely expressed in multiple tissues of abalone, with highest level in the immune-like organ, hepatopancreas. V. parahemolyticus infection induced significantly elevated expression of Hdh-cSP in addition to better-characterized innate immune component genes including Rel/NF-κB, allograft inflammatory factor (ALInFa), macrophage expressed protein (MEP) and caspase-8. Importantly, the silencing of Hdh-cSP reduced the expression of these genes, suggesting that Hdh-cSP was an upstream regulatory factor in V. parahemolyticus infection. Further analysis showed that apoptosis of hemocytes was inhibited when the transcription of Hdh-cSP was knocked down, suggesting that Hdh-cSP participated in cell apoptosis by regulation of caspase 8 expression in V. parahemolyticus infection. Therefore, our study established an important role of cSP in the innate immunity against V. parahemolyticus infection in abalone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. First attempts to cryopreserve red abalone (Haliotis rufescens oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Torrez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall, few advances in the cryopreservation of complex cells such as oocytes, embryo or tissue have been registered and in less quantity have been reported for aquatic species. Abalone has high economic interest worldwide and the conservation of abalone germplasm may help to enhance its culture and develop repopulation programs. In this work, we reported the cytotoxic effect of two concentration of trehalose (0.2 and 0.4 M on red abalone oocytes incubated for 10, 15 and 20 min. Also, we reported the cryopreservation of red abalone oocytes using a 3-steps cryopreservation protocol and 5 thawing protocols. Significant differences on cytotoxic effect were found (p<0.01. However, none of the cryoprotectant was optimum to cryopreserve red abalone oocyte. In conclusion, it is necessary to find an appropriate method to dehydrate or make the cryoprotectant penetrate on the abalone oocyte before proceeding to cryopreservation.

  18. Identification of normalization factors for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Reng; Sun, Boguang; Fang, Shasha; Sun, Li; Liu, Xiao

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used in studies of gene expression. In most of these studies, housekeeping genes are used as internal references without validation. To identify appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai, we examined the transcription stability of six housekeeping genes in abalone tissues in the presence and absence of bacterial infection. For this purpose, abalone were infected with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum for 12 h and 48 h. The mRNA levels of the housekeeping genes in five tissues (digestive glands, foot muscle, gill, hemocyte, and mantle) were determined by qRT-PCR. The PCR data was subsequently analyzed with the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results show that in the absence of bacterial infection, elongation factor-1-alpha and beta-actin were the most stably expressed genes in all tissues, and thus are suitable as cross-tissue type normalization factors. However, we did not identify any universal reference genes post infection because the most stable genes varied between tissue types. Furthermore, for most tissues, the optimal reference genes identified by both algorithms at 12 h and 48 h post-infection differed. These results indicate that bacterial infection induced significant changes in the expression of abalone housekeeping genes in a manner that is dependent on tissue type and duration of infection. As a result, different normalization factors must be used for different tissues at different infection points.

  19. Manipulations of adult density and juvenile habitat quality in Northern Abalone stock restoration

    OpenAIRE

    DeFreitas, Bart Andre

    2005-01-01

    Wild abalone populations throughout the world have declined dramatically over the past 40 years due primarily to market demands for the mollusc's edible foot. Northern abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana), the only abalone species occurring in British Columbia (B.C.), is widely thought to be threatened by potential population collapse as a result of low adult densities that impair reproductive potential. This study examined the hypothesis that the abundance of wild northern abalone populations ar...

  20. Tributyltin toxicity in abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) assessed by antioxidant enzyme activity, metabolic response, and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Zhu, Xiao-shan; Cai, Zhong-hua

    2010-11-15

    A toxicity test was performed to investigate the possible harmful effects of tributyltin (TBT) on abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta). Animals were exposed to TBT in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations (2, 10 and 50 ng/L) for 30 days under laboratory conditions. TBT-free conditions were used as control treatments. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), along with levels of haemolymph metabolites, and hepatopancreas histopathology were analyzed. The results showed that TBT decreased SOD activity, and increased POD level and MDA production in a dose-dependent way, indicating that oxidative injury was induced by TBT. Haemolymph metabolite measurements showed that TBT increased alanine and glutamate levels, and decreased glucose content, which suggested perturbation of energy metabolism. Elevated levels of acetate and pyruvate in the haemolymph indicated partial alteration of lipid metabolism. A decrease in lactate and an increase in succinate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, indicated disturbance of amino acid metabolism. Hepatopancreas tissues also exhibited inflammatory responses characterized by histopathological changes such as cell swelling, granular degeneration, and inflammation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TBT was a potential toxin with a variety of deleterious effects on abalone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eLafferty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO, is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii. Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm in Santa Barbara, California, discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based abalone farms discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture.

  2. Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Abalone (Haliotis mariae Wood, 1828 Along the Dhofar Coast of Oman and Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk Willem Petrus de Waal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys were conducted along the eastern Dhofar coast of Oman to investigate densities and habitat preferences of juvenile Haliotis mariae ( 50 cm Ø, respectively. B values were highest for urchins (6 times that for small boulders, and for boulders <50 cm Ø. B values for boulder habitats decreased as boulder size increased. Urchin utilisation by juvenile abalone as shelter ranged between geographic areas from a minimum of 15.5% to a maximum of 47.6%. The proportion of total habitat that is preferred by more than 97% of juvenile abalone found, including urchins and boulders < 50 cm Ø, comprises 29% of surveyed substratum. While the role urchins play on wild juvenile H. mariae has not proved vital, it is definitely significant. Although juvenile densities are low and are not currently limited by the availability of suitable habitat, it is crucial to identify and conserve those microhabitats that support recruitment of H. mariae. The abundance of these areas should be among the criteria used in selecting protected conservation areas.

  3. Cathepsin L is an immune-related protein in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--Purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Dong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Yan, Long-Jie; Du, Cui-Hong; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Ke, Caihuan; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Cathepsin L, an immune-related protein, was purified from the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatographies of SP-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 HR. Purified cathepsin L appeared as two bands with molecular masses of 28.0 and 28.5 kDa (namely cathepsin La and Lb) on SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, suggesting that it is a glycoprotein. Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis revealed that peptide fragments of 95 amino acid residues was high similarity to cathepsin L of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata). The optimal temperature and pH of cathepsin L were 35 °C and pH 5.5. Cathepsin L was particularly inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors of E-64 and leupeptin, while it was activated by metalloproteinase inhibitors EDTA and EGTA. The full-length cathepsin L cDNA was further cloned from the hepatopancreas by rapid PCR amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The open reading frame of the enzyme was 981 bp, encoding 327 amino acid residues, with a conserved catalytic triad (Cys134, His273 and Asn293), a potential N-glycosylation site and conserved ERFNIN, GNYD, and GCGG motifs, which are characteristics of cathepsin L. Western blot and proteinase activity analysis revealed that the expression and enzyme activity of cathepsin L were significantly up-regulated in hepatopancreas at 8 h following Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection, demonstrating that cathepsin L is involved in the innate immune system of abalone. Our present study for the first time reported the purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and tissue expression of cathepsin L in abalone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Ben-Horin, Tal

    2013-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO), is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm (AF) in Santa Barbara, CA, USA discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based AFs discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture.

  5. Transcriptome-Wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs for Abalone (Haliotis midae: Validation and Application Using GoldenGate Medium-Throughput Genotyping Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouvay Roodt-Wilding

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Haliotis midae is one of the most valuable commercial abalone species in the world, but is highly vulnerable, due to exploitation, habitat destruction and predation. In order to preserve wild and cultured stocks, genetic management and improvement of the species has become crucial. Fundamental to this is the availability and employment of molecular markers, such as microsatellites and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs . Transcriptome sequences generated through sequencing-by-synthesis technology were utilized for the in vitro and in silico identification of 505 putative SNPs from a total of 316 selected contigs. A subset of 234 SNPs were further validated and characterized in wild and cultured abalone using two Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assays. Combined with VeraCode technology, this genotyping platform yielded a 65%−69% conversion rate (percentage polymorphic markers with a global genotyping success rate of 76%−85% and provided a viable means for validating SNP markers in a non-model species. The utility of 31 of the validated SNPs in population structure analysis was confirmed, while a large number of SNPs (174 were shown to be informative and are, thus, good candidates for linkage map construction. The non-synonymous SNPs (50 located in coding regions of genes that showed similarities with known proteins will also be useful for genetic applications, such as the marker-assisted selection of genes of relevance to abalone aquaculture.

  6. Transcriptome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for abalone (Haliotis midae): validation and application using GoldenGate medium-throughput genotyping assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester-Van Der Merwe, Aletta; Blaauw, Sonja; Du Plessis, Jana; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2013-09-23

    Haliotis midae is one of the most valuable commercial abalone species in the world, but is highly vulnerable, due to exploitation, habitat destruction and predation. In order to preserve wild and cultured stocks, genetic management and improvement of the species has become crucial. Fundamental to this is the availability and employment of molecular markers, such as microsatellites and single nucleotide (SNPs). Transcriptome sequences generated through sequencing-by-synthesis technology were utilized for the in vitro and in silico identification of 505 putative SNPs from a total of 316 selected contigs. A subset of 234 SNPs were further validated and characterized in wild and cultured abalone using two Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assays. Combined with VeraCode technology, this genotyping platform yielded a 65%-69% conversion rate (percentage polymorphic markers) with a global genotyping success rate of 76%-85% and provided a viable means for validating SNP markers in a non-model species. The utility of 31 of the validated SNPs in population structure analysis was confirmed, while a large number of SNPs (174) were shown to be informative and are, thus, good candidates for linkage map construction. The non-synonymous SNPs (50) located in coding regions of genes that showed similarities with known proteins will also be useful for genetic applications, such as the marker-assisted selection of genes of relevance to abalone aquaculture.

  7. Acclimation-dependent expression of heat shock protein 70 in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) and its acute response to thermal exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqi; He, Qingguo; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is one important member of heat shock protein (Hsp) family that is responsible for various stresses, especially thermal stress. Here we examined the response of Hsp70 gene to both chronic and acute thermal exposure in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino). For the chronic exposure, abalones were maintained at 8, 12, 20, and 30°C for four months and their mRNA levels were measured. The highest mRNA level of Hsp70 gene relative to actin gene was detected in the 30°C-acclimated group, followed by the 8°C-acclimated group and then the 12°C- and 20°C-acclimated groups. After the long-term acclimation, gills from each of the above acclimation groups were dissected and exposed to different temperatures between 8°C and 38°C for 30 min. Hsp70 expression in gills acclimated to different temperatures responded differentially to the same temperature exposure. The incubation temperature that induced maximum Hsp70 mRNA expression was higher in the higher temperature acclimation groups than lower temperature groups. Pacific abalones could alter the expression pattern of Hsp70 gene according to environmental thermal conditions, through which they deal with the stress of thermal variations.

  8. Innate resistance of New Zealand paua to abalone viral ganglioneuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Serge; McColl, Kenneth A; Williams, Lynette M; Slater, Joanne; Crane, Mark St J

    2017-06-01

    The susceptibility of New Zealand paua (Haliotis iris) to infection by abalone herpesvirus (Haliotid herpesvirus 1; HaHV) and to the disease abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) was determined. Infection challenges performed by intra-muscular injection and by immersion in infectious water containing HaHV demonstrated that New Zealand paua were highly resistant to infection by Haliotid herpesvirus 1 and were fully resistant to the disease AVG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  10. Genetic Characterization of Five Hatchery Populations of the Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Using Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-In Myeong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, is a popular food in Eastern Asia. Aquacultural production of this species has increased because of recent resource declines, the growing consumption, and ongoing government-operated stock release programs. Therefore, the genetic characterization of hatchery populations is necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this species and to develop more effective aquaculture practices. We analyzed the genetic structures of five cultured populations in Korea using six microsatellite markers. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 15 to 64, with an average of 23.5. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.797 and 0.904, respectively. The inbreeding coefficient FIS ranged from 0.054 to 0.184 (mean FIS = 0.121 ± 0.056. The genetic differentiation across all populations was low but significant (overall FST = 0.009, P < 0.01. Pairwise multilocus FST tests, estimates of genetic distance, and phylogenetic and principal component analyses did not show a consistent relationship between geographic and genetic distances. These results could reflect extensive aquaculture, the exchange of breeds and eggs between hatcheries and/or genetic drift due to intensive breeding practices. Thus, for optimal resource management, the genetic variation of hatchery stocks should be monitored and inbreeding controlled within the abalone stocks that are being released every year. This genetic information will be useful for the management of both H. discus hannai fisheries and the aquaculture industry.

  11. Influences of DMP on the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta by gametes exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Di-methyl phthalate (DMP, a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC, is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, a representative marine benthic gastropod were assessed. Newborn abalone eggs and sperm were exposed separately to different DMP concentrations (1, 10 or 100 ppb for 60 min. At the end-point of exposure, the DMP-treated eggs and sperm were collected for analysis of their ultra-structures, ATPase activities and total lipid levels, and the fertilized gametes (embryos were collected to monitor related reproductive parameters (fertilization rate, abnormal development rate and hatching success rate. Treatment with DMP did not significantly alter the structure or total lipid content of eggs at any of the doses tested. Hatching failures and morphological abnormalities were only observed with the highest dose of DMP (100 ppb. However, DMP exposure did suppress sperm ATPase activities and affect the morphological character of their mitochondria. DMP-treated sperm exhibited dose-dependent decreases in fertilization efficiency, morphogenesis and hatchability. Relatively obvious toxicological effects were observed when both sperm and eggs were exposed to DMP. Furthermore, RT-PCR results indicate that treatment of gametes with DMP changed the expression patterns of physiologically-regulated genes (cyp3a, 17β-HSD-11 and 17β-HSD-12 in subsequent embryogenesis. Taken together, this study proofed that pre-fertilization exposure of abalone eggs, sperm or both to DMP adversely affects the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis.

  12. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokordt, Katherina B.; González, Roxana C.; Farías, William J.; Winkler, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h 2) and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CV A) of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes) and extracellular (serum) protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R), the h 2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h 2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CV A of 13.3–16.2% in young adults and of 2.7–8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h 2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals. PMID

  13. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherina B Brokordt

    Full Text Available Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h2 and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes and extracellular (serum protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R, the h2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CVA of 13.3-16.2% in young adults and of 2.7-8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals.

  14. Effects of ocean acidification with pCO2 diurnal fluctuations on survival and larval shell formation of Ezo abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitsuka, Toshihiro; Takami, Hideki; Muraoka, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Yukio; Nakatsubo, Ayumi; Kimura, Ryo; Ono, Tsuneo; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the effects of constant and diurnally fluctuating pCO 2 on development and shell formation of larval abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The larvae was exposed to different pCO 2 conditions; constant [450, 800, or 1200 μatm in the first experiment (Exp. I), 450 or 780 μatm in the second experiment (Exp. II)] or diurnally fluctuating pCO 2 (800 ± 400 or 1200 ± 400 μatm in Exp. I, 450 ± 80, 780 ± 200 or 780 ± 400 μatm in Exp. II). Mortality, malformation rates or shell length of larval abalone were not significantly different among the 450, 800, and 800 ± 400 μatm pCO 2 treatments. Meanwhile, significantly higher malformation rates and smaller shells were detected in the 1200 and 1200 ± 400 μatm pCO 2 treatments than in the 450 μatm pCO 2 treatment. The negative impacts were greater in the 1200 ± 400 μatm than in the 1200 μatm. Shell length and malformation rate of larval abalone were related with aragonite saturation state (Ω-aragonite) in experimental seawater, and greatly changed around 1.1 of Ω-aragonite which corresponded to 1000-1300 μatm pCO 2 . These results indicate that there is a pCO 2 threshold associated with Ω-aragonite in the seawater, and that pCO 2 fluctuations produce additional negative impacts on abalone when above the threshold. Clear relationships were detected between abalone fitness and the integrated pCO 2 value over the threshold, indicating that the effects of OA on development and shell formation of larval abalone can be determined by intensity and time of exposure to pCO 2 over the threshold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-allergic effects of a nonameric peptide isolated from the intestine gastrointestinal digests of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in activated HMC-1 human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seok-Chun; Lee, Dae-Sung; Park, Won Sun; Yoo, Jong Su; Yim, Mi-Jin; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Chang-Min; Oh, Junghwan; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the intestine gastrointestinal (GI) digests of abalone [Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai)] modulate inflammatory responses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The GI digests of the abalone intestines were fractionated into fractions I (>10 kDa), II (5-10 kDa) and Ⅲ (abalone intestine GI digests (AIGIDs), fraction Ⅲ inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice. Subsequently, a bioactive peptide [abalone intestine GI digest peptide (AIGIDP)] isolated from fraction Ⅲ was determined to be 1175.2 Da, and the amino acid sequence was found to be PFNQGTFAS. We noted that the purified nonameric peptide (AIGIDP) attenuated the phorbol‑12‑myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-induced histamine release and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in human mast cells (HMC-1 cells). In addition, we also noted that AIGIDP inhibited the PMACI‑induced activation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB) by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and that it suppressed the production of cytokines by decreasing the phosphorylation of JNK. The findings of our study indicate that AIGIDP exerts a modulatory, anti-allergic effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  16. Effects of tributyltin and benzo[a]pyrene on the immune-associated activities of hemocytes and recovery responses in the gastropod abalone, Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Singaram; Huang, Wei-Bin; Wang, Qiang-Wei; Wu, Man-Li; Liu, Jie; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2011-08-01

    Our previous study reports that short-term exposure to sublethal concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induces immunomodulation in the gastropod abalone, Haliotis diversicolor. In the present study, it was further observed that long-term chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of BaP modulated the immunocompetence of abalones in terms of the change in activity of the antioxidant and immune associated parameters tested. In addition, the effect of tributyltin (TBT), another important genotoxicant in the aquatic environment, was investigated. Exposure of abalones to sublethal concentrations of TBT and BaP for 21 days resulted in significant decrease of total hemocyte count, phagocytosis, membrane stability and lysozyme activity. Conversely induction of extra and intra cellular superoxide generation, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and myeloperoxidase activity was present when the abalones were exposed to TBT and BaP. Most of the immune associated parameters tested showed clear time dependent response to both toxicants. Within 14 days after the 21 day exposure to BaP, recovery was observed as evidenced by most of the parameters returning to their normal level. However, no recovery was observed within 14 days after the 21 day exposure to TBT as evidenced by continued elevation of intra cellular superoxide and nitrite production and decrease in THC, membrane stability and lysozyme activity. This suggested a prolonged TBT-induced impact on the immune reaction and possibly more damage than that caused by BaP. Overall the results suggest that chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of TBT or BaP causes modulations in the immunocompetence of abalones with most of the immune associated parameters tested being stimulated, and this might be harmful to the host. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of novel polymorphic microsatellite loci identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae)) in the genetic characterization of wild and released populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hye Suck; Lee, Jang Wook; Hong, Seong Wan

    2012-01-01

    The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp) reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5) was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (F(ST)) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (F(ST) = 0.002, p > 0.05). Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05), the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future aquaculture and population genetic studies aimed at

  18. Structural and functional characterization of a novel molluskan ortholog of TRAF and TNF receptor-associated protein from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngdeuk; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Hyowon; Zoysa, Mahanama De; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Jehee

    2014-09-01

    Immune signaling cascades have an indispensable role in the host defense of almost all the organisms. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling is considered as a prominent signaling pathway in vertebrate as well as invertebrate species. Within the signaling cascade, TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) and TNF receptor-associated protein (TTRAP) has been shown to have a crucial role in the modulation of immune signaling in animals. Here, we attempted to characterize a novel molluskan ortholog of TTRAP (AbTTRAP) from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and analyzed its expression levels under pathogenic stress. The complete coding sequence of AbTTRAP consisted of 1071 nucleotides, coding for a 357 amino acid peptide, with a predicted molecular mass of 40 kDa. According to our in-silico analysis, AbTTRAP resembled the typical TTRAP domain architecture, including a 5'-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase domain. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed its common ancestral invertebrate origin, where AbTTRAP was clustered with molluskan counterparts. Quantitative real time PCR showed universally distributed expression of AbTTRAP in selected tissues of abalone, from which more prominent expression was detected in hemocytes. Upon stimulation with two pathogen-derived mitogens, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), transcript levels of AbTTRAP in hemocytes and gill tissues were differentially modulated with time. In addition, the recombinant protein of AbTTRAP exhibited prominent endonuclease activity against abalone genomic DNA, which was enhanced by the presence of Mg(2+) in the medium. Collectively, these results reinforce the existence of the TNF signaling cascade in mollusks like disk abalone, further implicating the putative regulatory behavior of TTRAP in invertebrate host pathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ferritin from the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai: Analysis of cDNA sequence, expression, and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Reng; Kan, Yunchao; Li, Dandan

    2016-02-01

    Ferritin plays an important role in iron homeostasis due to its ability to bind and sequester large amounts of iron. In this study, the gene encoding a ferritin (HdhFer2) was cloned from Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The full-length cDNA of HdhFer2 contains a 5'-UTR of 121 bp, an ORF of 516 bp, and a 3'-UTR of 252 bp with a polyadenylation signal sequence of AATAAA and a poly(A) tail. It also contains a 31 bp iron-responsive element (IRE) in the 5'-UTR position, which is conserved in many ferritins. HdhFer2 consists of 171 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight (MW) ∼19.8 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (PI) of 4.84. The deduced amino acid sequence of HdhFer2 contains two ferritin iron-binding region signatures (IBRSs). HdhFer2 mRNA was detected in a wide range of tissues and was dominantly expressed in the gill. Infection with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum significantly upregulated HdhFer2 expression in a time-dependent manner. Recombinant HdhFer2 (rHdhFer2) purified from Escherichia coli was able to bind ferrous iron in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, these results suggest that HdhFer2 is a crucial protein in the iron-withholding defense system, and plays an important role in the innate immune response of abalone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Design of an optimum computer vision-based automatic abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) grading algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donggil; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kim, Seonghun; Yang, Yongsu

    2015-04-01

    An automatic abalone grading algorithm that estimates abalone weights on the basis of computer vision using 2D images is developed and tested. The algorithm overcomes the problems experienced by conventional abalone grading methods that utilize manual sorting and mechanical automatic grading. To design an optimal algorithm, a regression formula and R(2) value were investigated by performing a regression analysis for each of total length, body width, thickness, view area, and actual volume against abalone weights. The R(2) value between the actual volume and abalone weight was 0.999, showing a relatively high correlation. As a result, to easily estimate the actual volumes of abalones based on computer vision, the volumes were calculated under the assumption that abalone shapes are half-oblate ellipsoids, and a regression formula was derived to estimate the volumes of abalones through linear regression analysis between the calculated and actual volumes. The final automatic abalone grading algorithm is designed using the abalone volume estimation regression formula derived from test results, and the actual volumes and abalone weights regression formula. In the range of abalones weighting from 16.51 to 128.01 g, the results of evaluation of the performance of algorithm via cross-validation indicate root mean square and worst-case prediction errors of are 2.8 and ±8 g, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. First insight into the heritable variation of the resistance to infection with the bacteria causing the withering syndrome disease in Haliotis rufescens abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokordt, Katherina; González, Roxana; Farías, William; Winkler, Federico E; Lohrmann, Karin B

    2017-11-01

    Withering syndrome disease has experienced worldwide spread in the last decade. This fatal disease for abalone is produced by a rickettsia-like organism (WS-RLO), the bacterium "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis". To evaluate the potential of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) to improve its resistance to infection by WS-RLO, the additive genetic component in the variation of this trait was estimated. For this, the variation in infection intensity with WS-RLOs and WS-RLOv (phage-infected RLOs) was analyzed in 56 families of full-sibs maintained for three years in a host-parasite cohabitation aquaculture system. A WS-RLO prevalence of 65% was observed in the analysed population; and from the total WS-RLO inclusions 60% were hyperparasited with the phage (WS-RLOv). The decrease in the food ingestion rate was the sole negative effect associated with increasing WS-RLO intensity of infection, suggesting that the high level of WS-RLOv load may have diminished the symptoms of WS disease in the analyzed abalones. The estimated heritabilities were moderate to mid, but significant, varying from 0.21 to 0.23 and 0.36 for WS-RLO and WS-RLOv infections, respectively. This suggests that variation in resistance to infection with WS-RLO may respond to selection in the evaluated red abalone population. Estimated response to selection (G) for the level of infection by WS-RLO indicated that if the 10% of red abalone with the lowest infection level is selected as broodstock, a 90% reduction in the intensity of infection in the progeny can be expected, even with the lowest estimation of heritability (h 2 =0.21). This strong response would be also due to the large phenotypic variance of this trait. Strong positive correlations, both phenotypic and genotypic, were observed between infection intensities with WS-RLO and WS-RLOv, indicating that selection to increase resistance to one of the types of RLOs will affect resistance in the other in the same direction. This is the first

  2. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M. Tim; Moore, James G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2–3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  3. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M Tim; Moore, James; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2-3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  4. Potential mechanisms of phthalate ester embryotoxicity in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jin [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Cai Zhonghua, E-mail: caizh@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xing Kezhi [Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The effects and associated toxicological mechanisms of five phthalate esters (PAEs) on abalone embryonic development were investigated by exposing the embryos to a range of PAEs concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 2 and 10 {mu}g/mL). The results showed that PAEs could significantly reduce embryo hatchability, increase developmental malformations, and suppress the metamorphosis of abalone larvae. The possible toxicological mechanisms of PAEs to abalone embryos included, affecting the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-pump and Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+}-pump activities, altering the peroxidase (POD) level and the malondialdehyde (MDA) production, damaging the extraembryonic membranes structure, as well as disrupting endocrine-related genes (gpx, cyp3a, and 17{beta}-hsd 12) expression properties. Taken together, this work showed that PAEs adversely affected the embryonic ontogeny of abalone. The abilities of PAEs affecting the osmoregulation, inducing oxidative stress, damaging embryo envelope structure, and causing physiological homeostasis disorder, are likely to be a part of the common mechanisms responsible for their embryonic toxicity. - Highlights: > PAEs affected abalone hatchability, morphogenesis and metamorphosis behavior. > The toxicity of the five PAEs to embryogenesis was ranked as DBP > DEP > DMP > DOP > DEHP. > The osmoregulation disorder and oxidative damage are the potential mechanisms. - Potential mechanisms of PAEs on abalone embryogenesis are osmoregulation disorder, oxidative damage and physiological dysfunction.

  5. Potential mechanisms of phthalate ester embryotoxicity in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jin; Cai Zhonghua; Xing Kezhi

    2011-01-01

    The effects and associated toxicological mechanisms of five phthalate esters (PAEs) on abalone embryonic development were investigated by exposing the embryos to a range of PAEs concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 2 and 10 μg/mL). The results showed that PAEs could significantly reduce embryo hatchability, increase developmental malformations, and suppress the metamorphosis of abalone larvae. The possible toxicological mechanisms of PAEs to abalone embryos included, affecting the Na + -K + -pump and Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -pump activities, altering the peroxidase (POD) level and the malondialdehyde (MDA) production, damaging the extraembryonic membranes structure, as well as disrupting endocrine-related genes (gpx, cyp3a, and 17β-hsd 12) expression properties. Taken together, this work showed that PAEs adversely affected the embryonic ontogeny of abalone. The abilities of PAEs affecting the osmoregulation, inducing oxidative stress, damaging embryo envelope structure, and causing physiological homeostasis disorder, are likely to be a part of the common mechanisms responsible for their embryonic toxicity. - Highlights: → PAEs affected abalone hatchability, morphogenesis and metamorphosis behavior. → The toxicity of the five PAEs to embryogenesis was ranked as DBP > DEP > DMP > DOP > DEHP. → The osmoregulation disorder and oxidative damage are the potential mechanisms. - Potential mechanisms of PAEs on abalone embryogenesis are osmoregulation disorder, oxidative damage and physiological dysfunction.

  6. Two duplicated chicken-type lysozyme genes in disc abalone Haliotis discus discus: molecular aspects in relevance to structure, genomic organization, mRNA expression and bacteriolytic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Bathige, S D N K; Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Wan, Qiang; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-08-01

    Lysozymes are crucial antibacterial proteins that are associated with catalytic cleavage of peptidoglycan and subsequent bacteriolysis. The present study describes the identification of two lysozyme genes from disc abalone Haliotis discus discus and their characterization at sequence-, genomic-, transcriptional- and functional-levels. Two cDNAs and BAC clones bearing lysozyme genes were isolated from abalone transcriptome and BAC genomic libraries, respectively and sequences were determined. Corresponding deduced amino acid sequences harbored a chicken-type lysozyme (LysC) family profile and exhibited conserved characteristics of LysC family members including active residues (Glu and Asp) and GS(S/T)DYGIFQINS motif suggested that they are LysC counterparts in disc abalone and designated as abLysC1 and abLysC2. While abLysC1 represented the homolog recently reported in Ezo abalone [1], abLysC2 shared significant identity with LysC homologs. Unlike other vertebrate LysCs, coding sequence of abLysCs were distributed within five exons interrupted by four introns. Both abLysCs revealed a broader mRNA distribution with highest levels in mantle (abLysC1) and hepatopancreas (abLysC2) suggesting their likely main role in defense and digestion, respectively. Investigation of temporal transcriptional profiles post-LPS and -pathogen challenges revealed induced-responses of abLysCs in gills and hemocytes. The in vitro muramidase activity of purified recombinant (r) abLysCs proteins was evaluated, and findings indicated that they are active in acidic pH range (3.5-6.5) and over a broad temperature range (20-60 °C) and influenced by ionic strength. When the antibacterial spectra of (r)abLysCs were examined, they displayed differential activities against both Gram positive and Gram negative strains providing evidence for their involvement in bacteriolytic function in abalone physiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  8. Analysis of microbiota on abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in South Korea for improved product management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Jin-Jae; Chung, Han Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-10-03

    Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR. Over 2700 species were detected in the samples, and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant classes. The differences in microbiota among regions and at each sampling time were also investigated. Although Psychrobacter was the dominant genus detected on abalone in both March and July, the species compositions were different between the two sampling times. Five potential pathogens (Lactococcus garvieae, Yersinia kristensenii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were detected among the abalone microbiota. In addition, we analyzed the influence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on shifts in abalone microbiota during storage at different temperatures. Although the proportion of Vibrio increased over time in infected and non-infected abalone, the shifts of microbiota were more dynamic in infected abalone. These results can be used to better understand the potential of food poisoning caused by abalone consumption and manage abalone products according to the microbiota composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci Identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae in the Genetic Characterization of Wild and Released Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Wan Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5 was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (FST and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (FST = 0.002, p > 0.05. Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05, the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci

  10. The Effect of Pleistocene Climate Fluctuations on Distribution of European Abalone (Haliotis tuberculata), Revealed by Combined Mitochondrial and Nuclear Marker Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Valérie; Van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2017-04-01

    The genetic differentiation among the populations of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata was investigated using different markers to better understand the evolutionary history and exchanges between populations. Three markers were used: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the sperm lysin nuclear gene, and eight nuclear microsatellites. These markers present different characteristics concerning mutation rate and inheritance, which provided complementary information about abalone history and gene diversity. Genetic diversity and relationships among subspecies were calculated from a sample of approximately 500 individuals, collected from 17 different locations in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, Macaronesia, and Mediterranean Sea. COI marker was used to explore the phylogeny of the species with a network analysis and two phylogenetic methods. The analysis revealed 18 major haplotypes grouped into two distinct clades with a pairwise sequence divergence up to 3.5 %. These clades do not correspond to subspecies but revealed many contacts along Atlantic coast during the Pleistocene interglaciations. The sperm lysin gene analysis separated two different subtaxa: one associated to Macaronesian islands, and the other to all other populations. Moreover, a small population of the northern subtaxon was isolated in the Adriatic Sea-probably before the separation of the two lineages-and evolved independently. Microsatellites were analyzed by different genetics methods, including the Bayesian clustering method and migration patterns analysis. It revealed genetically distinct microsatellite patterns among populations from Mediterranean Sea, Brittany and Normandy, Morocco, and Canary and Balearic islands. Gene flow is asymmetric among the regions; the Azores and the Canary Islands are particularly isolated and have low effective population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that climate changes since the Pleistocene glaciations have played a major role in the

  11. Nacre in Abalone Shell: Organic and Inorganic Components and their effects to the Formation and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Maria Isabel

    Abalone nacre is a natural composite that exhibits exceptional mechanical properties due to its organization that extends to various levels of hierarchy. Most of the toughness has been attributed by nacre's third level of hierarchy which entitles a brick and mortar structure consisting of the CaCO3 tiles and organic interlayers. However, there are other important components that are vital to the structure and strength of red abalone nacre. The process of formation of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre following periods of growth interruption, taking into consideration important environmental factors (access to food and temperature) and to employ high-magnification characterization techniques (scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) to better understand how the soft tissue (e.g. epithelium and organic membrane) influences the mechanism of growth. The structure-property relationship of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre, focusing in the individual constituents (isolated mineral and isolated organic component) and comparing that to the integrated structure. Mechanical tests such as, tensile tests, microscratch, and nanoindentation is performed on the isolated organic constituent and the isolated mineral of red abalone shell. Specimens are characterized by SEM to verify the toughening and deformation mechanisms. Results obtained from the isolated mineral validate the importance of the organic constituent as the mechanical properties decline greatly as the organic component is removed. This approach forms a general picture of the mechanical response of the organic interlayers and growth bands and their effect on the toughness of the abalone nacre. These results are significant to understand the important characteristics of abalone nacre, such as the structure and mechanical properties, and an attempt to aid in improving the latest attempts to produce novel nacre-inspired materials.

  12. Effect of antiaggregants on the in vitro viability, cell count and stability of abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Bouwman, Mai-Louise; Young, Tim; Mérien, Fabrice; Alfaro, Andrea C

    2018-07-01

    The ability to successfully prepare and preserve haemocyte cells for microscopy and flow cytometry is critical for the investigation of animal immune systems. In this study, we observed the total cell count, in vitro viability and stability of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocytes with different antiaggregants and handling protocols. Haemocyte stability was evaluated by direct observation of haemocytes under the microscope and calculating the aggregation index. Haemocyte counts and viability were measured via flow cytometry and tested for the effect of different antiaggregants (Alsever's solution at three concentrations, and specialised blood collection tubes containing lithium heparin and K 2 EDTA) at different temperatures and storage times. Results showed that Alsever's solution is an effective antiaggregant at haemolymph:antiaggregant dilution ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. Lithium heparin was ineffective as an antiaggregant, whereas K 2 EDTA was similarly as effective as Alsever's solution. The influence of different mixing techniques (vortex, pipetting and flipping) were subsequently tested using the K 2 EDTA Microtainer ® tubes, revealing that proper mixing should be performed immediately. High cell viability can be achieved by mixing samples by either 10 s of vortexing (1000 rpm), 10 times pipetting or 20 times flipping. The in vitro storage of abalone haemocytes in AS and K 2 EDTA as antiaggregants at ambient room temperature was highly effective for up to 24 h (75-85% viability; 0.05-0.15 aggregation index) and is recommended for haemocyte studies in H. iris. Utilization of K 2 EDTA Microtainer ® tubes were advantageous since they are more cost effective compared to Alsever's solution, and samples can be prepared more efficiently. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Molecular identification and functional analysis of two variants of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Bathige, S D N K; Lee, Seongdo; Lee, Jehee

    2018-02-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a crucial adaptor protein of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)- and interleukin 1 receptor-mediated signaling pathways and is involved in a diverse array of inflammatory responses via NF-κB activation. In the present study, two MyD88 variants were identified from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and designated AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X. The deduced AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X comprised 433 and 354 amino acids with predicted molecular masses of 48.85 kDa and 40.17 kDa, respectively. AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X possessed typical MyD88 domain structural features including an N-terminal death domain (DD) and C-terminal toll interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain similar to those in mammals. Expression analysis of AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X mRNA at different early embryonic developmental stages of abalone by qPCR revealed that their constitutive expression at all developmental stages analyzed with the considerably higher values at the 16-cell (AbMyD88-2) and morula stages (AbMyD88-X). In unchallenged disk abalones, AbMyD88-2 was highly expressed in muscles, while AbMyD88-X mRNA was predominantly transcribed in hemocytes. Moreover, AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X mRNA were differentially modulated in abalone hemocytes after a challenge with live bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes), virus (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (lipopolysaccharides and Poly I:C). Overexpression of AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X in HEK293T cells induced the activation of the NF-κB promoter. AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X involvement in inflammatory responses was characterized by their overexpression in RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. These results revealed comparatively higher NO (Nitric oxide) production, induction of inflammatory mediator genes (iNOS and COX2), and proinflammatory genes (IL1β, IL6 and TNFα) expression in abalone MyD88s-overexpressing cells than in mock control in the presence or absence of LPS

  14. Effects of a range-expanding sea urchin on behaviour of commercially fished abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Elisabeth M A; Johnson, Craig R; Thomson, Russell J

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change has resulted in a southerly range expansion of the habitat modifying sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. Various studies have suggested that this urchin outcompetes black-lipped abalone (Haliotis rubra) for resources, but experiments elucidating the mechanisms are lacking. We outline a new framework involving experimental manipulations and Markov chain and Pareto modelling to examine the effects of interspecific competition between urchins and abalone and the effect of intraspecific competition in abalone, assessed as effects on behaviour. Manipulations of abalone densities had no detectable effect on urchin behavioural transitions, movement patterns or resightability through time. In contrast, additions of urchins resulted in abalone shifting microhabitats from exposed to sheltered positions, an increase in the proportion of mobile abalone, and declines in abalone resightability through time relative to controls without the urchins. Our results support the hypothesis of asymmetrical competitive interactions between urchins and abalone. The introduction of urchins to intact algal beds causes abalone to flee and seek shelter in cryptic microhabitat which will negatively impact both their accessibility to such microhabitats, and productivity of the abalone fishery, and will potentially affect their growth and survival, while the presence of the abalone has no detectable effect on the urchin. Our approach involving field-based experiments and modelling could be used to test the effects of other invasive species on native species behaviour.

  15. The South African commercial abalone Haliotis midae fishery began ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    and 20 m deep, and virtually no abalone occur at ... factories were granted processing rights to a fixed percentage of an overall .... behaviour and temporal change in individual and aggre- ... series, is to gain further information through carefully.

  16. Metabolic responses of Haliotis diversicolor to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Shi, Yanyan; Cai, Shuhui; Feng, Jianghua

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus is a devastating bacterial pathogen that often causes outbreak of vibriosis in abalone Haliotis diversicolor. Elucidation of metabolic mechanisms of abalones in responding to V. parahemolyticus infection is essential for controlling the epidemic. In this work, 1 H NMR-based metabolomic techniques along with correlation and network analyses are used to investigate characteristic metabolites, as well as corresponding disturbed pathways in hepatopancreas and gill of H. diversicolor after V. parahemolyticus infection for 48 h. Results indicate that obvious gender- and tissue-specific metabolic responses are induced. Metabolic responses in female abalones are more clearly observed than those in males, which are primarily manifested in the accumulation of branched-chain amino acids and the depletion of organic osmolytes (homarine, betaine and taurine) in the infected gills of female abalones, as well as in the depletion of glutamate, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids in the infected hepatopancreases of female abalones. Moreover, based on major metabolic functions of the characteristic metabolites, we have found that V. parahemolyticus infection not only cause the disturbance in energy metabolism, nucleotide metabolism and osmotic balance, but also induce oxidative stress, immune stress and neurotoxic effect in different tissues with various mechanisms. Our study provides details of metabolic responses of abalones to V. parahemolyticus infection and will shed light on biochemical defence mechanisms of male and female hosts against pathogen infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Variable intertidal temperature explains why disease endangers black abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological theory suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because agents of disease should fade out when the host population is driven below a threshold density. Nevertheless, infectious diseases have threatened species with extinction on local scales by maintaining high incidence and the ability to spread efficiently even as host populations decline. Intertidal black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), but not other abalone species, went extinct locally throughout much of southern California following the emergence of a Rickettsiales-like pathogen in the mid-1980s. The rickettsial disease, a condition known as withering syndrome (WS), and associated mortality occur at elevated water temperatures. We measured abalone body temperatures in the field and experimentally manipulated intertidal environmental conditions in the laboratory, testing the influence of mean temperature and daily temperature variability on key epizootiological processes of WS. Daily temperature variability increased the susceptibility of black abalone to infection, but disease expression occurred only at warm water temperatures and was independent of temperature variability. These results imply that high thermal variation of the marine intertidal zone allows the pathogen to readily infect black abalone, but infected individuals remain asymptomatic until water temperatures periodically exceed thresholds modulating WS. Mass mortalities can therefore occur before pathogen transmission is limited by density-dependent factors.

  18. Heterosis and combining ability: a diallel cross of three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuewen; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Guofan; Wu, Fucun

    2010-11-01

    We conducted a complete diallel cross among three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino to determine the heterosis and the combining ability of growth traits at the spat stage. The three populations were collected from Qingdao (Q) and Dalian (D) in China, and Miyagi (M) in Japan. We measured the shell length, shell width, and total weight. The magnitude of the general combining ability (GCA) variance was more pronounced than the specific combining ability (SCA) variance, which is evidenced by both the ratio of the genetic component in total variation and the GCA/SCA values. The component variances of GCA and SCA were significant for all three traits ( P<0.05), indicating the importance of additive and non-additive genetic effects in determining the expression of these traits. The reciprocal maternal effects (RE) were also significant for these traits ( P<0.05). Our results suggest that population D was the best general combiner in breeding programs to improve growth traits. The DM cross had the highest heterosis values for all three traits.

  19. Effects of a range-expanding sea urchin on behaviour of commercially fished abalone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M A Strain

    Full Text Available Global climate change has resulted in a southerly range expansion of the habitat modifying sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. Various studies have suggested that this urchin outcompetes black-lipped abalone (Haliotis rubra for resources, but experiments elucidating the mechanisms are lacking.We outline a new framework involving experimental manipulations and Markov chain and Pareto modelling to examine the effects of interspecific competition between urchins and abalone and the effect of intraspecific competition in abalone, assessed as effects on behaviour. Manipulations of abalone densities had no detectable effect on urchin behavioural transitions, movement patterns or resightability through time. In contrast, additions of urchins resulted in abalone shifting microhabitats from exposed to sheltered positions, an increase in the proportion of mobile abalone, and declines in abalone resightability through time relative to controls without the urchins. Our results support the hypothesis of asymmetrical competitive interactions between urchins and abalone.The introduction of urchins to intact algal beds causes abalone to flee and seek shelter in cryptic microhabitat which will negatively impact both their accessibility to such microhabitats, and productivity of the abalone fishery, and will potentially affect their growth and survival, while the presence of the abalone has no detectable effect on the urchin. Our approach involving field-based experiments and modelling could be used to test the effects of other invasive species on native species behaviour.

  20. Exploiting genomic data to identify proteins involved in abalone reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Porras, Omar; Botwright, Natasha A; McWilliam, Sean M; Cook, Mathew T; Harris, James O; Wijffels, Gene; Colgrave, Michelle L

    2014-08-28

    Aside from their critical role in reproduction, abalone gonads serve as an indicator of sexual maturity and energy balance, two key considerations for effective abalone culture. Temperate abalone farmers face issues with tank restocking with highly marketable abalone owing to inefficient spawning induction methods. The identification of key proteins in sexually mature abalone will serve as the foundation for a greater understanding of reproductive biology. Addressing this knowledge gap is the first step towards improving abalone aquaculture methods. Proteomic profiling of female and male gonads of greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, was undertaken using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Owing to the incomplete nature of abalone protein databases, in addition to searching against two publicly available databases, a custom database comprising genomic data was used. Overall, 162 and 110 proteins were identified in females and males respectively with 40 proteins common to both sexes. For proteins involved in sexual maturation, sperm and egg structure, motility, acrosomal reaction and fertilization, 23 were identified only in females, 18 only in males and 6 were common. Gene ontology analysis revealed clear differences between the female and male protein profiles reflecting a higher rate of protein synthesis in the ovary and higher metabolic activity in the testis. A comprehensive mass spectrometry-based analysis was performed to profile the abalone gonad proteome providing the foundation for future studies of reproduction in abalone. Key proteins involved in both reproduction and energy balance were identified. Genomic resources were utilised to build a database of molluscan proteins yielding >60% more protein identifications than in a standard workflow employing public protein databases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Beta-1,3-1,6-glucan modulate the non-specific immune response to enhance the survival in the Vibrio alginolyticus infection of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Tseng, Tzu-Yu; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-07-01

    This research aims to investigate the non-specific immune response of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) which was treated with the beta-1,3-1,6-glucan to be observed in the survival impact after the Vibrio alginolyticus infection. The non-specific immune and physiological response of superoxide anion radical (O2(-)), phenoloxidase (PO), phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic rate (PR) and lucigenin-chemiluminescence for reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) were enhanced via in-vitro experiment. In the in-vivo experiment, the observed data presented that the haemolymph lysate supernatant (HLS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were not significant enhanced, but the total haemocyte count (THC), O2(-), PO, phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic ratio (PR) and other parameters of immune were significantly promoted after treated with beta-1,3-1,6-glucan. In the challenge experiment, the survival rates of abalone in the 40 and 80 μl/ml groups of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan were observed from 6.67% up to 33.33% and 36.67% after injection with Vibrio alginolyticus, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Types and distribution of mucous cells of the abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... Key words: Haliotis diversicolor; mucous cells, types, distribution. .... Figure 2. The shape of the mucous cells. O (oval or circle-like); c (cup- like); s ... (J) mucous cells at base of gill filaments, small cells, type II and type III; (K) a ...

  4. iTRAQ-Based Identification of Proteins Related to Muscle Growth in the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The abalone Haliotis discus hannai is an important aquaculture species that is grown for human consumption. However, little is known of the genetic mechanisms governing muscle growth in this species, particularly with respect to proteomics. The isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ method allows for sensitive and accurate protein quantification. Our study was the first to use iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to investigate muscle growth regulation in H. discus hannai. Among the 1904 proteins identified from six samples, 125 proteins were differentially expressed in large specimens of H. discus hannai as compared to small specimens. In the large specimens, 47 proteins were upregulated and 78 were downregulated. Many of the significant Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, including these differentially expressed proteins, were closely related to muscle growth, including apoptosis, thyroid hormone signaling, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and viral myocarditis (p < 0.05. Our quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analyses suggested that the alterations in expression levels observed in the differentially expressed proteins were consistent with the alterations observed in the encoding mRNAs, indicating the repeatability of our proteomic approach. Our findings contribute to the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of muscle growth in H. discus hannai.

  5. Protective Efficacy of a Pseudoalteromonas Strain in European Abalone, Haliotis tuberculata, Infected with Vibrio harveyi ORM4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offret, Clément; Rochard, Vincent; Laguerre, Hélène; Mounier, Jérôme; Huchette, Sylvain; Brillet, Benjamin; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Fleury, Yannick

    2018-02-06

    The hemolymph of healthy marine invertebrates is known to harbor antibiotic-producing bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. Such strains are potential probiotics to control infectious diseases in aquaculture. In the present study, we screened a collection of Pseudoalteromonas strains isolated from the hemolymph of oyster and mussel for antimicrobial activity against Vibrio harveyi, a pathogenic species responsible for high mortality in abalone. Subsequently, the protective efficacy of the most active strain named hCg-6 was investigated in abalone culture faced with a Vibrio harveyi ORM4 infection. First, we have controlled the Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 safety for abalone health. To that end, animals were immersed for 4 h in Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 suspensions in seawater. The abalone viability was monitored and Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 was tracked by quantitative-PCR in abalone hemolymph. After immersion, no abalone death occurred while the strain hCg-6 was significantly detected in hemolymph. Therefore, the strain hCg-6 was considered safe for abalone and evaluated for its ability to protect abalone against V. harveyi (injection of 1 × 10 3 Vibrio per animal). A 4-h long immersion of abalone in a seawater suspension of Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 (1 × 10 6  CFU mL -1 ) prior to infection with Vibrio harveyi significantly improved the abalone viability. Indeed, 15 days post infection, the hCg-6 treatment used increased the abalone survival rate from 16% in untreated animals to 40% in treated abalone. We hypothesized that Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 antibacterial activity increased the hemomicrobiota shielding effect. In conclusion, Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 is a promising anti-Vibrio strain for abalone culture.

  6. Types and distribution of mucous cells of the abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types and distribution of mucous cells of Haliotis diversicolorwere observed and analyzed using the alcian blue and periodic acid schiffs (AB-PAS) reaction and histological procedures. According to the color of the mucous cells, they were divided into four types: Type I, pure red; type II, pure blue; type III, purple reddish; ...

  7. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  8. The role of organic intertile layer in abalone nacre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, M.A.; Lim, C.T.; Li, A.; Hairul Nizam, B.R.; Tan, E.P.S.; Seki, Y.; McKittrick, J.

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of the growth surfaces removed from red and green abalone (Haliotis) shells shows a terraced cone mode of mineralization in which the organic layer is deposited periodically and regulates the formation of tiles with ∼ 500 nm thickness. The details of the mineral and organic layer surface are revealed by atomic force microscopy; the surface roughness and the thickness of the tiles in the terraces and organic intertile layer were measurement. Nanoindentation experiments at the top of the terraced cones confirm a hardness of the same order as that of completely mineralized surfaces. Indentation of the organic layer provides a force-deflection curve that can be expressed as tension on a centrally-loaded membrane. The results show that the dry organic layer is very stiff and deforms inelastically or cracks under the indenter, whereas in the fully hydrated state it shows a low modulus and strength and great extensibility. This strongly suggests that this organic interlayer acquires considerable strength and stiffness as a result of the drying process, which is consistent with a T g of approximately 200 deg. C for chitin. The chitin network that forms the structural component of the intertile layer is revealed and the orientation and spacing are measured. Terraced cones broken under the force of a flexing and shrinking organic layer enable the estimation of the tensile strength of the abalone when loaded through the fracture of the mineral bridges. Calculations show consistency with earlier tensile strength measurements of < 10 MPa.

  9. Seasonal and algal diet-driven patterns of the digestive microbiota of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a generalist marine herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, Angélique; Mest, Laëtitia; Perennou, Morgan; Dittami, Simon M; Caralp, Claire; Coulombet, Céline; Huchette, Sylvain; Roussel, Sabine; Michel, Gurvan; Leblanc, Catherine

    2018-03-27

    Holobionts have a digestive microbiota with catabolic abilities allowing the degradation of complex dietary compounds for the host. In terrestrial herbivores, the digestive microbiota is known to degrade complex polysaccharides from land plants while in marine herbivores, the digestive microbiota is poorly characterized. Most of the latter are generalists and consume red, green, and brown macroalgae, three distinct lineages characterized by a specific composition in complex polysaccharides, which represent half of their biomass. Subsequently, each macroalga features a specific epiphytic microbiota, and the digestive microbiota of marine herbivores is expected to vary with a monospecific algal diet. We investigated the effect of four monospecific diets (Palmaria palmata, Ulva lactuca, Saccharina latissima, Laminaria digitata) on the composition and specificity of the digestive microbiota of a generalist marine herbivore, the abalone, farmed in a temperate coastal area over a year. The microbiota from the abalone digestive gland was sampled every 2 months and explored using metabarcoding. Diversity and multivariate analyses showed that patterns of the microbiota were significantly linked to seasonal variations of contextual parameters but not directly to a specific algal diet. Three core genera: Psychrilyobacter, Mycoplasma, and Vibrio constantly dominated the microbiota in the abalone digestive gland. Additionally, a less abundant and diet-specific core microbiota featured genera representing aerobic primary degraders of algal polysaccharides. This study highlights the establishment of a persistent core microbiota in the digestive gland of the abalone since its juvenile state and the presence of a less abundant and diet-specific core community. While composed of different microbial taxa compared to terrestrial herbivores, the digestive gland constitutes a particular niche in the abalone holobiont, where bacteria (i) may cooperate to degrade algal polysaccharides to

  10. Contributions to the knowledge of the Biology of the Arabian Abalone Haliotis mariae Wood, 1828

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stirn

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian abalone occur in the Arabian Sea’s rocky coastal zone in association with conspicuous macrolgal communities in which it represents the dominant herbivorous component. Despite such ecological importance and although the commercial exploitation of abalone presents a considerable contribution to Omani fisheries, almost nothing is known about the biology of this species. This report presents results of research carried out in the field and with laboratory cultures, and draws general conclusions related also to the fisheries management of these possibly overexploited abalone populations, Cobort observations in the field and measured increments of cultured specimens showed a growth rate significantly higher than in other abalone species, i.e. greater than 3 mm shell-increment per month. The very early sexual maturity demonstrated by captivity spawnings of approximately one year old animals is also quite unusual. The ejected eggs formed mucous mono layers attached to the substratum whereas other abalone species produce pelagic eggs. Jvenile coborts in nature and the periodic spawning of cultured animals indicate the major spawning in spring and postmonsoon one in autumn. The models previously applied in fisheries management of abalone in Oman assumed only one spawning per year, the first being at age 2+, and a slower growth-rate. These models should be reconsidered using the new data, which may partially explain why abalone are less overexploited than one would expect looking at heavy harvesting. In view of a projected commercial abalone cultivation our laboratory rearing experiments showed that both natural and/or artificial food may be used, provided this contains-apart from standard ingredients, the seaweed-borne components (probably phycobillins required for a normal parasite , resistant shell formation. With regard to artificial reproduction,  our preliminary trials showed that spawning , fertilization ,and initial larval rearing

  11. Marine environmental impact assessment of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farm in Wan-do, Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Taik; Jung, Rae-Hong; Cho, Yoon-Sik; Hwang, Dong-Woon; Yi, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    To assess the marine environmental impacts of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farms in Wan-do, we monitored the benthic environment on top of the sediment underneath cage farm stations and reference stations. We applied two methods for this assessment. One was the A- and B-investigation of the MOM system (Modeling-On fish farm-Monitoring) developed in Norway. The other was a general environmental monitoring method which is widely used. In this study, we found benthic animals in all samples that belonged to condition 1 which were based on group 1(presence of macrofauna) of the B-investigation method. The values of redox potential (group 2-pH, redox potential) in all samples were above +65 mV belonging to condition 1. Based on sensory results (group 3-gas, color, odor, thickness of deposits), five out of seven experiment samples showed condition 1 while stations 2 and 7 showed condition 2, which have been cultured for 10 years in semi-closed waters. As group 2 takes precedence over group 3, the level of the conditions for B-investigation results consequently showed condition 1 in all stations. We found that pollutants and trace metals in the sediment underneath cage farms were lower than the pollution standard. This led us to conclude that the environmental impacts of the cage farms in this study were not significant.

  12. Nitric oxide is not a negative regulator of metamorphic induction in the abalone Haliotis asinina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo eUeda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a second messenger molecule synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS that requires the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 for normal enzymatic activity. Past studies have revealed that both NO and HSP90 act as negative regulators (repressors of metamorphosis in a diverse range of marine invertebrates, including several molluscan species. Here, we test the role of NO in the metamorphic induction of a vetigastropod mollusc, the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. Specifically, we 1 test the effects of NO-manipulating pharmacological agents, 2 measure the temporal expression of NOS and HSP90 genes through metamorphosis, and 3 assess the spatial expression of NOS and HSP90 in larvae. We find that inhibition of NOS reduces rates of metamorphosis, indicating that NO facilitates, rather than represses, induction of metamorphosis in H. asinina. The marked increase in NOS expression in putative sensory cells localized to the anterior foot of competent larvae is consistent with NO as an inductive molecule for metamorphosis. In contrast to NOS, HSP90 transcript abundance decreases at competence and there is no evidence of NOS and HSP90 transcript co-localization. This study provides the first evidence of NO as an inductive facilitator of molluscan metamorphosis. Our experimental data suggest that NO modulates signals derived from live inductive substrates via the larval foot to regulate metamorphosis. Inter-specific comparisons of spatial NOS expression in molluscs suggest that the localized pattern of NOS or its protein product is related to the regulatory action of NO in metamorphosis.

  13. Trading on extinction: An open-access deterrence model for the South African abalone fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. Crookes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available South African rhinoceros (e.g.Diceros bicornis and abalone (Haliotis midae have in common that they both are harvested under open-access conditions, are high-value commodities and are traded illegally. The difference is that a legal market for abalone already exists. An open-access deterrence model was developed for South African abalone, using Table Mountain National Park as a case study. It was found that illegal poaching spiked following the closure of the recreational fishery. The resource custodian's objective is to maximise returns from confiscations. This study showed that a legal trade results in a trading on extinction resource trap, with a race for profits, an increase in the probability of detection after a poaching event and the depletion of populations. In contrast with HS Gordon's seminal article (J Polit Econ 1954;62:124-142, profit maximisation does not automatically improve the sustainability of the resource. Under certain conditions (e.g. a legal trade with costly enforcement, profit maximisation may actually deplete abalone populations. The article also has implications for rhino populations, as a legal trade is currently proposed.

  14. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  15. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn S Friedman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS. Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI off Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point (CP in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host-parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  16. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: phage therapy and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carolyn S; Wight, Nathan; Crosson, Lisa M; Vanblaricom, Glenn R; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host-parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  17. Evaluation of reference genes for RT-qPCR study in abalone Haliotis discus hannai during heavy metal overload stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of suitable reference genes as normalization controls is a prerequisite requirement for launching quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR-based expression study. In order to select the stable reference genes in abalone Haliotis discus hannai tissues (gill and hepatopancreas under heavy metal exposure conditions (Cu, Zn, and Cd, 12 potential candidate housekeeping genes were subjected to expression stability based on the comprehensive ranking while integrating four different statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCT method. Results Expression stability in the gill subset was determined as RPL7 > RPL8 > ACTB > RPL3 > PPIB > RPL7A > EF1A > RPL4 > GAPDH > RPL5 > UBE2 > B-TU. On the other hand, the ranking in the subset for hepatopancreas was RPL7 > RPL3 > RPL8 > ACTB > RPL4 > EF1A > RPL5 > RPL7A > B-TU > UBE2 > PPIB > GAPDH. The pairwise variation assessed by the geNorm program indicates that two reference genes could be sufficient for accurate normalization in both gill and hepatopancreas subsets. Overall, both gill and hepatopancreas subsets recommended ribosomal protein genes (particularly RPL7 as stable references, whereas traditional housekeepers such as β-tubulin (B-TU and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH genes were ranked as unstable genes. The validation of reference gene selection was confirmed with the quantitative assay of MT transcripts. Conclusions The present analysis showed the importance of validating reference genes with multiple algorithmic approaches to select genes that are truly stable. Our results indicate that expression stability of a given reference gene could not always have consensus across tissue types. The data from this study could be a good guide for the future design of RT-qPCR studies with respect to metal regulation/detoxification and other related

  18. Molecular characterization of kappa class glutathione S-transferase from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and changes in expression following immune and stress challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandamalika, W M Gayashani; Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Liyanage, D S; Lee, Sukkyoung; Lim, Han-Kyu; Lee, Jehee

    2018-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) isoenzymes represent a complex group of proteins that are involved in phase II detoxification in several organisms. In this study, GST kappa (GSTκ) from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus; AbGSTκ) was characterized at both the transcriptional and functional levels to determine its potential capacity to perform as a detoxification agent under conditions of different stress. The predicted AbGSTκ protein consists of 227 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 25.6 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 7.78. In silico analysis reveals that AbGSTκ is a disulfide bond formation protein A (DsbA), consisting of a thioredoxin domain, GSH binding sites (G-sites), and a catalytic residue. In contrast, no hydrophobic ligand binding site (H-site), or signal peptides, were detected. AbGSTκ showed the highest sequence identity with the orthologue from pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) (60.0%). In a phylogenetic tree, AbGSTκ clustered closely together with other fish GSTκs, and was evolutionarily distanced from other cytosolic GSTs. The predicted three-dimensional structure clearly demonstrates that the dimer adopts a butterfly-like shape. A tissue distribution analysis revealed that GSTκ was highly expressed in the digestive tract, suggesting it has detoxification ability. Depending on the tissue and time, AbGSTκ showed different expression patterns, and levels of expression, following challenge of the abalone with immune stimulants. Enzyme kinetics of the purified recombinant proteins demonstrated its conjugating ability using 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH) as substrates, and suggested it has a low affinity for both substrates. The optimum temperature and pH for the rAbGSTκ GSH: CDNB conjugating activity were found to be 35 °C and pH 8, respectively indicating that the abalone is well adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Cibacron blue (100 μM) was

  19. The role of organic intertile layer in abalone nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, M.A., E-mail: mameyers@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Lim, C.T.; Li, A.; Hairul Nizam, B.R.; Tan, E.P.S. [National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Seki, Y.; McKittrick, J. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Characterization of the growth surfaces removed from red and green abalone (Haliotis) shells shows a terraced cone mode of mineralization in which the organic layer is deposited periodically and regulates the formation of tiles with {approx} 500 nm thickness. The details of the mineral and organic layer surface are revealed by atomic force microscopy; the surface roughness and the thickness of the tiles in the terraces and organic intertile layer were measurement. Nanoindentation experiments at the top of the terraced cones confirm a hardness of the same order as that of completely mineralized surfaces. Indentation of the organic layer provides a force-deflection curve that can be expressed as tension on a centrally-loaded membrane. The results show that the dry organic layer is very stiff and deforms inelastically or cracks under the indenter, whereas in the fully hydrated state it shows a low modulus and strength and great extensibility. This strongly suggests that this organic interlayer acquires considerable strength and stiffness as a result of the drying process, which is consistent with a T{sub g} of approximately 200 deg. C for chitin. The chitin network that forms the structural component of the intertile layer is revealed and the orientation and spacing are measured. Terraced cones broken under the force of a flexing and shrinking organic layer enable the estimation of the tensile strength of the abalone when loaded through the fracture of the mineral bridges. Calculations show consistency with earlier tensile strength measurements of < 10 MPa.

  20. Attenuation of UV-B exposure-induced inflammation by abalone hypobranchial gland and gill extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuanpradit, Chitraporn; Jaisin, Yamaratee; Jungudomjaroen, Sumon; Akter Mitu, Shahida; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat; Sobhon, Prasert; Cummins, Scott F

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UV-B) is a known causative factor for many skin complications such as wrinkles, black spots, shedding and inflammation. Within the wavelengths 280‑320 nm, UV-B can penetrate to the epidermal level. This investigation aimed to test whether extracts from the tropical abalone [Haliotis asinina (H. asinina)] mucus-secreting tissues, the hypobranchial gland (HBG) and gills, were able to attenuate the inflammatory process, using the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Cytotoxicity of abalone tissue extracts was determined using an AlamarBlue viability assay. Results showed that HaCaT cells could survive when incubated in crude HBG and gill extracts at concentrations between abalone extract from both the HBG and gill (0, 0.1, 2.5, 5 µg/ml). A significant increase in cell viability was observed (P2.5 µg/ml extract showed a significant decrease in intensity for COX‑2, phospho‑p38 and phospho‑SPK/JNK. The present study demonstrated that abalone extracts from the HGB and gill can attenuate inflammatory proteins triggered by UV-B. Hence, the contents of abalone extract, including cellmetabolites and peptides, may provide new agents for skin anti‑inflammation, preventing damage due to UV-B.

  1. Transcriptional responses of metallothionein gene to different stress factors in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Nam, Yoon Kwon

    2016-11-01

    A novel metallothionein (MT) gene from the Pacific abalone H. discus hannai was characterized and its mRNA expression patterns (tissue distribution, developmental expression and differential expression in responsive to various in vivo stimulatory treatments) were examined. Abalone MT shares conserved structural features with previously known gastropod orthologs at both genomic (i.e., tripartite organization) and amino acid (conserved Cys motifs) levels. The 5'-flanking regulatory region of abalone MT gene displayed various transcription factor binding motifs particularly including ones related with metal regulation and stress/immune responses. Tissue distribution and basal expression patterns of MT mRNAs indicated a potential association between ovarian MT expression and sexual maturation. Developmental expression pattern suggested the maternal contribution of MT mRNAs to embryonic and early larval developments. Abalone MT mRNAs could be significantly induced by various heavy metals in different tissues (gill, hepatopancreas, muscle and hemocyte) in a tissue- and/or metal-dependent fashion. In addition, the abalone MT gene was highly modulated in responsive to other non-metal, stimulatory treatments such as immune challenge (LPS, polyI:C and bacterial injections), hypoxia (decrease from normoxia 8 ppm-2 ppm), thermal elevation (increase from 20 °C to 30 °C), and xenobiotic exposure (250 ppb of 17α-ethynylestradiol and 0.25 ppb of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin) where differential expression patterns were toward either up- or down-regulation depending on types of stimulations and tissues examined. Taken together, our results highlight that MT is a multifunctional effector playing in wide criteria of cellular pathways especially associated with development and stress responses in this abalone species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibiotic resistance monitoring in Vibrio spp. isolated from rearing environment and intestines of abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R X; Wang, J Y; Sun, Y C; B L Yang; A L Wang

    2015-12-30

    546 Vibrio isolates from rearing seawater (292 strains) and intestines of abalone (254 strains) were tested to ten antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to chloramphenicol (C), enrofloxacin (ENX) and norfloxacin (NOR) were 40%) to kanamycin (KNA), furazolidone (F), tetracycline (TE), gentamicin (GM) and rifampin (RA). 332 isolates from seawater (n=258) and abalone (n=74) were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Peaked resistant rates of seawater-derived isolates to multiple antibiotics were overlapped in May and August. Statistical analysis showed that pH had an important effect on resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to RA, NOR, and ENX. Salinity and dissolved oxygen were negatively correlated with resistant rates of seawater-derived Vibrio isolates to KNA, RA, and PG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of three inert markers in measuring apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile abalone under different culture condition and temperature regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, K. U.; Adams, L.; Stone, D.; Savva, N.; Adams, M.

    2018-03-01

    A comparative research using three inert markers, chromic oxide, yttrium and ytterbium to measure the apparent nutrient digestibility of experimental feed in juvenile Hybrid abalone (Haliotis rubra X H. laevigata) and Greenlip abalone (H.laevigata) revealed that apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP) measured using yttrium and ytterbium in hybrid abalone were significantly different across the treatments. Protein digestibility measured in experimental tanks was higher than those measured in indoor and outdoor commercial tanks, regardless of inert marker used. Chromic oxide led to overestimated ADCP compared to when measured using yttrium and ytterbium. There were no significant interactions between temperature and inert markers when measuring ADCP and apparent digestibility of gross energy (ADGE). However, there was a significant difference of ADCP amongst inert markers when measured in greenlip abalone cultured at two temperatures. While measurements of ADge calculated using three inert markers shared the same value.

  4. An efficient water conditioning system for land-based abalone aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.P. [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of GeoSciences; Carrington, C.G. [University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Physics

    2005-07-01

    Data collected from a single grow-out tank in an abalone farm in southern New Zealand has highlighted hygiene maintenance problems in the use of semi-closed water conditioning systems for the aquaculture of New Zealand black foot abalone Haliotis iris. The data shows that semi-closed systems can have high concentrations of un-ionized ammonia, which is harmful to the animals. In this paper an alternative open flow-through system is suggested where energy demand is limited by heat recovery at the grow-out tank outlet. Using temperature data collected over 1 year, and a previously obtained expression for standing losses, a simple energy model is presented for an open system with heat recovery. To compliment the energy model, a function has been established for abalone production with respect to the concentration of un-ionized ammonia and water temperature. The energy model and production function are combined to determine the impact of plant design and tank conditions on the economics of the operation for the southern New Zealand climate. It is demonstrated that temperature control is financially preferable to an open system with no temperature control, and estimates of optimum operating conditions are given. (author)

  5. Effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the drying process of pellets for japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the mass transfer kinetics during the drying process of pellets used for Japanese Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai feeding. In the experimental design, three temperatures were used for convective drying, as well as three different diet compositions (Diets A, B and C, in which the amount of fishmeal, spirulin, algae, fish oil and cornstarch varied. The water diffusion coefficient of the pellets was determined using the equation of Fick's second law, which resulted in values between 0.84-1.94×10-10 m²/s. The drying kinetics was modeled using Page, Modified Page, Root of time, Exponential, Logarithmic, Two-Terms, Modified Henderson-Pabis and Weibull models. In addition, two new models, referred to as 'Proposed' models 1 and 2, were used to simulate this process. According to the statistical tests applied, the models that best fitted the experimental data were Modified Henderson-Pabis, Weibull and Proposed model 2, respectively. Bifactorial analysis of variance ANOVA showed that Diet A (fishmeal 44%, spirulin 9%, fish oil 1% and cornstarch 36% presented the highest diffusion coefficient values, which were favored by the temperature increase in the drying process.

  6. Molecular identification and functional delineation of a glutathione reductase homolog from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): Insights as a potent player in host antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H M L P B; Wickramasinghe, P D S U; Bathige, S D N K; Jayasooriya, R G P T; Kim, Gi-Young; Park, Myoung Ae; Kim, Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2017-01-01

    Glutathione reductase (GSR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biochemical conversion of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) into the reduced form (GSH). Since the ratio between the two forms of glutathione (GSH/GSSG) is important for the optimal function of GSH to act as an antioxidant against H 2 O 2 , the contribution of GSR as an enzymatic regulatory agent to maintain the proper ratio is essential. Abalones are marine mollusks that frequently encounter environmental factors that can trigger the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H 2 O 2 . Therefore, we conducted the current study to reveal the molecular and functional properties of a GSR homolog in the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus. The identified cDNA sequence (2325 bp) has a 1356 bp long open reading frame (ORF), coding for a 909 bp long amino acid sequence, which harbors a pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase domain (171-246 aa), a pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase dimerization domain, and a NAD(P)(+)-binding Rossmann fold superfamily signature domain. Four functional residues: the FAD binding site, glutathione binding site, NADPH binding motif, and assembly domain were identified to be conserved among the other species. The recombinant abalone GSR (rAbGSR) exhibited detectable activity in a standard glutathione reductase activity assay. The optimum pH and optimal temperature for the reaction were found to be 7.0 and 50 °C, respectively, while the ionic strength of the medium had no effect. The enzymatic reaction was vastly inhibited by Cu +2 and Cd +2 ions. A considerable effect of cellular protection was detected with a disk diffusion assay conducted with rAbGSR. Moreover, an MTT assay and flow cytometry confirmed the significance of the protective role of rAbGSR in cell function. Furthermore, AbGSR was found to be ubiquitously distributed in different types of abalone tissues. AbGSR mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in response to three immune challenges

  7. Calcifying algae maintain settlement cues to larval abalone following algal exposure to extreme ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Jennifer K; Barry, James P; Gabrielson, Paul W; Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Potts, Donald C; Palumbi, Stephen R; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2017-07-18

    Ocean acidification (OA) increasingly threatens marine systems, and is especially harmful to calcifying organisms. One important question is whether OA will alter species interactions. Crustose coralline algae (CCA) provide space and chemical cues for larval settlement. CCA have shown strongly negative responses to OA in previous studies, including disruption of settlement cues to corals. In California, CCA provide cues for seven species of harvested, threatened, and endangered abalone. We exposed four common CCA genera and a crustose calcifying red algae, Peyssonnelia (collectively CCRA) from California to three pCO 2 levels ranging from 419-2,013 µatm for four months. We then evaluated abalone (Haliotis rufescens) settlement under ambient conditions among the CCRA and non-algal controls that had been previously exposed to the pCO 2 treatments. Abalone settlement and metamorphosis increased from 11% in the absence of CCRA to 45-69% when CCRA were present, with minor variation among CCRA genera. Though all CCRA genera reduced growth during exposure to increased pCO 2 , abalone settlement was unaffected by prior CCRA exposure to increased pCO 2 . Thus, we find no impacts of OA exposure history on CCRA provision of settlement cues. Additionally, there appears to be functional redundancy in genera of CCRA providing cues to abalone, which may further buffer OA effects.

  8. Genomic characterization and expression profiles upon bacterial infection of a novel cystatin B homologue from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premachandra, H K A; Wan, Qiang; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Choi, Cheol Young; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2012-12-01

    Cystatins are a large family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors which are involved in diverse biological and pathological processes. In the present study, we identified a gene related to cystatin superfamily, AbCyt B, from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and BAC library screening. The complete cDNA sequence of AbCyt B is comprised of 1967 nucleotides with a 306 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for 101 amino acids. The amino acid sequence consists of a single cystatin-like domain, which has a cysteine proteinase inhibitor signature, a conserved Gly in N-terminal region, QVVAG motif and a variant of PW motif. No signal peptide, disulfide bonds or carbohydrate side chains were identified. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence revealed that AbCyt B shares up to 44.7% identity and 65.7% similarity with the cystatin B genes from other organisms. The genomic sequence of AbCyt B is approximately 8.4 Kb, consisting of three exons and two introns. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that AbCyt B was closely related to the cystatin B from pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under the family 1.Functional analysis of recombinant AbCyt B protein exhibited inhibitory activity against the papain, with almost 84% inhibition at a concentration of 3.5 μmol/L. In tissue expression analysis, AbCyt B transcripts were expressed abundantly in the hemocyte, gill, mantle, and digestive tract, while weakly in muscle, testis, and hepatopancreas. After the immune challenge with Vibrio parahemolyticus, the AbCyt B showed significant (P<0.05) up-regulation of relative mRNA expression in gill and hemocytes at 24 and 6 h of post infection, respectively. These results collectively suggest that AbCyst B is a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteinases and is also potentially involved in immune responses against invading bacterial pathogens in abalone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pyrosequencing of Haliotis diversicolor transcriptomes: insights into early developmental molluscan gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Xia Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The abalone Haliotis diversicolor is a good model for study of the settlement and metamorphosis, which are widespread marine ecological phenomena. However, information on the global gene backgrounds and gene expression profiles for the early development of abalones is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, eight non-normalized and multiplex barcode-labeled transcriptomes were sequenced using a 454 GS system to cover the early developmental stages of the abalone H. diversicolor. The assembly generated 35,415 unigenes, of which 7,566 were assigned GO terms. A global gene expression profile containing 636 scaffolds/contigs was constructed and was proven reliable using qPCR evaluation. It indicated that there may be existing dramatic phase transitions. Bioprocesses were proposed, including the 'lock system' in mature eggs, the collagen shells of the trochophore larvae and the development of chambered extracellular matrix (ECM structures within the earliest postlarvae. CONCLUSION: This study globally details the first 454 sequencing data for larval stages of H. diversicolor. A basic analysis of the larval transcriptomes and cluster of the gene expression profile indicates that each stage possesses a batch of specific genes that are indispensable during embryonic development, especially during the two-cell, trochophore and early postlarval stages. These data will provide a fundamental resource for future physiological works on abalones, revealing the mechanisms of settlement and metamorphosis at the molecular level.

  10. The early stages of the immune response of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata to a Vibrio harveyi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinaud, Marion; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Huchette, Sylvain; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone mortalities in France, Japan and Australia. In the European abalone, V. harveyi invades the circulatory system in a few hours after exposure and is lethal after 2 days of infection. In this study, we investigated the responses of European abalone immune cells over the first 24 h of infection. Results revealed an initial induction of immune gene expression including Rel/NF-kB, Mpeg and Clathrin. It is rapidly followed by a significant immuno-suppression characterized by reduced cellular hemocyte parameters, immune response gene expressions and enzymatic activities. Interestingly, Ferritin was overexpressed after 24 h of infection suggesting that abalone attempt to counter V. harveyi infection using soluble effectors. Immune function alteration was positively correlated with V. harveyi concentration. This study provides the evidence that V. harveyi has a hemolytic activity and an immuno-suppressive effect in the European abalone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. GROW-OUT OF ABALONE Haliotis squamata IN FLOATING CAGES FED DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS OF SEAWEED AND WITH REDUCTION OF STOCKING DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is a herbivore marine animal which feeds on seaweed. Abalone culture has a good prospect in terms of price, market share and simple culture technique. Thus, a study was conducted with the aim of finding out an effective and efficient abalone culture technique in terms of feed use and density. In this study, a 42 cm diameter plastic container with a 22 cm height was used. Three vertically arranged containers were used as the experimental group which were put into a net box and hung onto a raft so that the containers were placed in a 4 m depth below the sea surface. The juvenile of abalones being used came from a hatchery production that has been adapted to cages environment with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. feed. The initial density of abalones was 450 for each container, with the initial weight of 2.6-3.2 g and the 2.5-2.7 cm shell lengths. The abalones were fed with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. seaweeds with different Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportions, i.e. 100/0% (A; 80/20% (B; and 60/40% (C as the treatments. Each treatment consisted of two replications. After three months of rearing period, densities of abalones were reduced to be 190 for each experimental unit. Weight and shell length of abalones were measured every month by measuring 25 abalone samples from each experimental unit. The result of the experiment showed that the increase in the Ulva sp. proportion in the feed increased the growth of abalones and decreased the feed conversion. Feeding with Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportion of 60%/40% allowed the best growth of abalones. The decrease of abalone density in the experimental unit after three months of rearing also produced an increase in their growth.

  12. Structural and functional biological materials: Abalone nacre, sharp materials, and abalone foot adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Albert Yu-Min

    A three-part study of lessons from nature is presented through the examination of various biological materials, with an emphasis on materials from the mollusk Haliotis rufescens, commonly referred to as the red abalone. The three categories presented are: structural hierarchy, self-assembly, and functionality. Ocean mollusk shells are composed of aragonite/calcite crystals interleaved with layers of a visco-elastic protein, having dense, tailored structures with excellent mechanical properties. The complex nano-laminate structure of this bio-composite material is characterized and related to its mechanical properties. Three levels of structural hierarchy are identified: macroscale mesolayers separating larger regions of tiled aragonite, microscale organization of 0.5 mum by 10 mum aragonite bricks; nanoscale mineral bridges passing through 30 nm layers of organic matrix separating individual aragonite tiles. Composition and growth mechanisms of this nanostructure were observed through close examination of laboratory-grown samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Glass slides and nacre pucks were implanted onto the growth surface of living abalone and removed periodically to observe trends in nacre deposition. Various deproteinization and demineralization experiments are used to explore the inorganic and organic components of the nacre's structure. The organic component of the shell is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The functionality of various biological materials is described and investigated. Two specific types of functionality are characterized, the ability of some materials to cut and puncture through sharp designs, and the ability for some materials to be used as attachment devices. Aspects of cutting materials employed by a broad range of animals were characterized and compared. In respect to the attachment mechanisms the foot of the abalone and the tree frog were

  13. Setting realistic recovery targets for two interacting endangered species, sea otter and northern abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadès, Iadine; Curtis, Janelle M R; Martin, Tara G

    2012-12-01

    Failure to account for interactions between endangered species may lead to unexpected population dynamics, inefficient management strategies, waste of scarce resources, and, at worst, increased extinction risk. The importance of species interactions is undisputed, yet recovery targets generally do not account for such interactions. This shortcoming is a consequence of species-centered legislation, but also of uncertainty surrounding the dynamics of species interactions and the complexity of modeling such interactions. The northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) and one of its preferred prey, northern abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana), are endangered species for which recovery strategies have been developed without consideration of their strong predator-prey interactions. Using simulation-based optimization procedures from artificial intelligence, namely reinforcement learning and stochastic dynamic programming, we combined sea otter and northern abalone population models with functional-response models and examined how different management actions affect population dynamics and the likelihood of achieving recovery targets for each species through time. Recovery targets for these interacting species were difficult to achieve simultaneously in the absence of management. Although sea otters were predicted to recover, achieving abalone recovery targets failed even when threats to abalone such as predation and poaching were reduced. A management strategy entailing a 50% reduction in the poaching of northern abalone was a minimum requirement to reach short-term recovery goals for northern abalone when sea otters were present. Removing sea otters had a marginally positive effect on the abalone population but only when we assumed a functional response with strong predation pressure. Our optimization method could be applied more generally to any interacting threatened or invasive species for which there are multiple conservation objectives. © 2012 Society for

  14. Polarization-dependent imaging contrast in abalone shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Abrecht, Mike; Chiou, Jau-Wern; Guo, Jinghua; Ariosa, Daniel; Coppersmith, Susan N.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2008-02-01

    Many biominerals contain micro- or nanocrystalline mineral components, organized accurately into architectures that confer the material with improved mechanical performance at the macroscopic scale. We present here an effect which enables us to observe the relative orientation of individual crystals at the submicron scale. We call it polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC), as it is an imaging development of the well-known x-ray linear dichroism. Most importantly, PIC is obtained in situ, in biominerals. We present here PIC in the prismatic and nacreous layers of Haliotis rufescens (red abalone), confirm it in geologic calcite and aragonite, and corroborate the experimental data with theoretical simulated spectra. PIC reveals different and unexpected aspects of nacre architecture that have inspired theoretical models for nacre formation.

  15. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). BLACK, GREEN, and RED ABALONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Pterygophora cal i fornica Division Rhodophyta Division Rhodophyta (Red algae) (Red algae) Gelidium sp. Botryoglossum farlowianum Gigartina sp. Gigartina sp...example, the more green abalone strongly prefers the red resilient, denser algae are eaten at a algae Gelidium , Pterocladia, Ploca- slower rate than

  16. Anti-Coagulant and Anti-Thrombotic Properties of Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra): In Vitro and Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Masci, Paul P; Zhao, Kong-Nan; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Osborne, Simone A; Gobe, Glenda C

    2017-08-04

    Sulphated polysaccharides with anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities have been found in various marine biota. In this study, a previously characterised anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant extract from blacklip abalone was fractionated by anion exchange chromatography (AEC), pooled (on a sulphated polysaccharide basis) and administered to Wistar rats via oral gavage (N = 8) for assessment as an oral therapeutic. To ensure that the preparation had anti-coagulant activity prior to oral administration, it was assessed in rat blood by thromboelastography (TEG) significantly increasing reaction (R) time (or time until clot formation). Following in vitro confirmation of anti-coagulant activity, 40 mg of the preparation was orally administered to rats with blood samples collected at 2, 4, and 6 h post-gavage. Assessment of all blood samples by TEG showed some prolongation of R time from 355 to 380 s after 4 h. Dosing of the post-gavage blood samples with the abalone preparation to confirm anti-thrombotic activity in vitro revealed residual anti-coagulant activity, further suggesting that oral administration did increase anti-coagulant potential in the collected blood but that bioavailability was low. Assessment of tissues and haematological parameters showed no obvious harmful effects of the abalone preparation in animals. In summary, even though oral administration of fractionated and pooled blacklip abalone extract to rats delayed clotting after 4 h, bioavailability of the preparation appeared to be low and may be more appropriate for intravenous administration as an anti-thrombotic or anti-coagulant therapeutic.

  17. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-12-25

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼ 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18-60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18–60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. PMID:26555267

  19. Monomorphic pathogens: The case of Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis from abalone in California, USA and Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicala, Francesco; Moore, James D; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A; Hernández-Rodríguez, Mónica; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl

    2018-05-01

    Withering syndrome (WS) is a chronic wasting disease affecting abalone species attributed to the pathogen Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc). Wild populations of blue (Haliotis fulgens) and yellow (H. corrugata) abalone have experienced unusual mortality rates since 2009 off the peninsula of Baja California and WS has been hypothesized as a possible cause. Currently, little information is available about the genetic diversity of CXc and particularly the possible existence of strains differing in pathogenicity. In a recent phylogenetic analysis, we characterized five coding genes from this rickettsial pathogen. Here, we analyze those genes and two additional intergenic non-coding regions following multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and multi-spacer typing (MST) approaches to assess the genetic variability of CXc and its relationship with blue, yellow and red (H. rufescens) abalone. Moreover, we used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing reads from gut microbiomes of blue and yellow abalone to complete the genetic characterization of this prokaryote. The presence of CXc was investigated in more than 150 abalone of the three species; furthermore, a total of 385 DNA sequences and 7117 16S rRNA reads from Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis were used to evaluate its population genetic structure. Our findings suggest the absence of polymorphism in the DNA sequences of analyzed loci and the presence of a single lineage of CXc infecting abalone from California (USA) and Baja California (Mexico). We posit that the absence of genetic variably in this marine rickettsia may be the result of evolutionary and ecological processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular identification of disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) tetraspanin 33 and CD63: Insights into potent players in the disk abalone host defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Bathige, S D N K; Herath, H M L P B; Lee, Sukkyoung; Lee, Jehee

    2017-10-01

    Tetraspanins are a superfamily of transmembrane proteins involved in a diverse range of physiological processes including differentiation, adhesion, signal transduction, cell motility, and immune responses. In the present study, two tetraspanins, CD63 and tetraspanin 33 (TSPAN33) from disk abalone (AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33), were identified and characterized at the molecular level. The coding sequences for AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 encoded polypeptides of 234 and 290 amino acids (aa) with predicted molecular mass of 25.3 and 32.5 kDa, respectively. The deduced AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 protein sequences were also predicted to have a typical tetraspanin domain architecture, including four transmembrane domains (TM), short N- and C- terminal regions, a short intracellular loop, as well as a large and small extracellular loop. A characteristic CCG motif and cysteine residues, which are highly conserved across CD63 and TSPAN33 proteins of different species, were present in the large extracellular loop of both abalone tetraspanins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 clustered in the invertebrate subclade of tetraspanins, thus exhibiting a close relationship with tetraspanins of other mollusks. The AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 mRNA transcripts were detected at early embryonic development stages of disk abalone with significantly higher amounts at the trochophore stage, suggesting the involvement of these proteins in embryonic development. Both AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 were ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues of unchallenged abalones analyzed, with the highest expression levels found in hemocytes. Moreover, significant induction of AbCD63 and AbTSPAN33 mRNA expression was observed in immunologically important tissues, such as hemocytes and gills, upon stimulation with live bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes), virus (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and two potent immune stimulators [polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and

  1. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins. PMID:17085584

  2. The role of hybridization in improving the immune response and thermal tolerance of abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Luo, Xuan; You, Weiwei; Luo, Lianzhong; Ke, Caihuan

    2014-07-01

    Recently, frequent death of cultured abalone drew our attention to the stress tolerance of abalone. Hybridization is an effective way of genetic improvement in aquaculture, which can introduce improved traits to the hybrids. In this study, we challenged the hybrids between Haliotis discus hannai and Haliotis gigantea, and their parents with bacteria (vibrio harveyi, vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio parahemolyticus), then held them at 20 °C and 28 °C, survival rates of the parental populations and hybrid populations were recorded. Then we tested the immune responses and thermal-induced responses of the four populations at different temperatures. Total hemocyte count (THC), respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), acid phosphatase activity (ACP), alkaline phosphatase activity (AKP), myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), and HSP70 expression were determined on day 1 and day 7 of the temperature exposure. Results showed higher survival rates of the hybrids than their parents against bacteria challenge. For immune parameters, THCs were evaluated at 28 °C, while increased THC was also observed in H. discus hannai ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (DG) and H. discus hannai ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (DD) at 12 °C (day 7); at 28 °C, respiratory burst was activated (day 1 and 7), while SOD activity first rose then fell over 7-days exposure; AKP activity was elevated at 12 °C and 28 °C (day 1), most notably in DG, and an increased level of ACP was observed in DG at 28 °C (day 7); MPO activity was suppressed at 12 °C and 28 °C on day 1, but recovered on day 7. For HSP70, increased HSP70 levels were observed in all populations at 28 °C (day 1), and DD got the lowest HSP70 level after 7-days exposure at 28 °C. Overall, the results suggest that temperature changes could significantly affect the physiological status of abalone, and hybrids may be more resistant to disease and thermal stresses than their parents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of waterborne nickel on the physiological and immunological parameters of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Eun Young; Cha, Yong-Joo; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the 96-h LC50 at 22 and 26 °C values was 28.591 and 11.761 mg/L, respectively, for NiCl2 exposure in the abalone. The alteration of physiological and immune-toxicological parameters such as the total hemocyte count (THC), lysozyme, phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytosis activity was measured in the abalone exposed to nickel (200 and 400 μg/L) under thermal stress for 96 h. In this study, Mg and THC decreased, while Ca, lysozyme, PO, and phagocytosis activity increased in the hemolymph of Pacific abalone exposed to NiCl2 when compared to a control at both 22 and 26 °C. However, these parameters were not affected by a rise in temperature from 22 to 26 °C in non-exposed groups. Our results showed that NiCl2 below 400 μg/L was able to stimulate immune responses in abalone. However, complex stressors, thermal changes, or NiCl2 can modify the immunological response and lead to changes in the physiology of host-pollutant interactions in the abalone.

  4. Comparison of polysaccharides of Haliotis discus hannai and Volutharpa ampullacea perryi by PMP-HPLC-MS(n) analysis upon acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dongmei; Wen, Chengrong; Liu, Haiman; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2015-10-13

    Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Haliotis) is a highly valued marine shellfish, and it is sometimes replaced by another cheaper Gastropoda mollusk, Volutharpa ampullacea perryi (Volutharpa). Polysaccharides from pleopods, viscera and gonads of these two gastropods were compared by analyzing the mono- and di-saccharides in their acid hydrolysates using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Disaccharide analysis revealed the distribution of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) in the biological samples. GlcA-(1 → 2)-Man, GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalN, and another disaccharide consisting of a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose were found in the hydrolysates, which indicated the existence of AGSP (abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide) with the backbone composed of → 2)-α-Man(1 → 4)-β-GlcA(1 → repeating unit, AAP (abalone glycosaminoglycan-like polysaccharide) with the backbone of → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 2)-GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 4)-GlcA-(1 → repeating unit, and unidentified DS1P containing a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose unit, respectively. As shown by extracted ion chromatograms (XICs), AAP was the only UACP found in pleopods of the two gastropods; gonads and viscera of Haliotis contained DS1P and AGSP, while those of Volutharpa contained DS1P, AGSP as well as AAP. Monosaccharides in the acid hydrolysates were demonstrated in XICs by extracting their corresponding PMP derivative quasi-molecular ions one by one, and the results indicated the similar conclusion to the disaccharide analysis. Therefore, it could be concluded that polysaccharides from pleopods of the two gastropods are very similar, while those from their viscera and gonads differ greatly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. AKTIVITAS ENZIM KOMERSIAL, EKSTRAK KASAR ENZIM DARI VISCERA KEONG MAS (Pila polita, ABALON (Haliotis asinina, DAN BEKICOT (Achatina fulica UNTUK LISIS JARINGAN RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii PADA KULTUR PROTOPLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Redjeki Hesti Mulyaningrum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalam usaha perbaikan kualitas bibit rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dilakukan kultur protoplas dengan isolasi protoplas menggunakan enzim. Untuk mendapatkan sumber enzim yang ekonomis sebagai alternatif pengganti enzim komersial dan untuk mengetahui perbandingan konsentrasi enzim komersial yang optimum agar menghasilkan jumlah protoplas yang maksimum, dilakukan karakterisasi terhadap enzim dari berbagai sumber. Aktivitas ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera bekicot (Achatina fulica tidak berbeda nyata dengan enzim komersial (P>0,05 dengan aktivitas sebesar 0,729 unit/mL; enzim komersial 0,354 unit/mL; ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera keong mas (Pila polita 0,048 unit/mL; dan ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera abalon (Haliotis asinina 0,014 unit/mL. Perbandingan enzim komersial yang optimum adalah 2:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 1,26 x 108 sel/mL; kemudian 1:2 dengan jumlah protoplas 1,22 x 108 sel/mL; perbandingan 1:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 8,36 x 107 sel/mL; perbandingan 0:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 6,33 x 107 sel/mL; dan perbandingan 1:0 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 9,55 x 106 sel/mL. Rumput laut asal Takalar memiliki protoplas dengan kepadatan tertinggi sebesar 3,7 x 108 sel/mL. Effort to improve the quality of seaweed seed Kappaphycus alvarezii has been done by protoplast culture with protoplast isolation using enzyme. To find out economical enzyme sources as alternatives to substitute the expensive commercial enzyme and to determine the optimum concentration ratio of commercial enzyme to produce maximum amount of protoplast, characterization was executed to several potential sources. Activity of crude extract enzyme from viscera of garden snail (Achatina fulica was not significantly different with commercial enzyme (P>0.05 it was 0.729 unit/mL, commercial enzyme 0.354 unit/mL activity; crude extract enzyme from viscera of golden snail (Pila polita 0.048 unit/mL activity and crude extract enzyme from viscera of abalone

  6. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  7. 皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai)肠道潜在益生菌的筛选及对幼鲍生长的影响*%SELECTION OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTICS FROM ABALONE INTESTIONAL AND THEIR EFFECTS ON GROWTH OF JUVENILE SMALL ABALONE HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海峰; 刘小林; 常亚青; 冷晓飞; 李丹; 王高学

    2013-01-01

      采用体外实验筛选益生菌结合16S rDNA序列分析法,从124株不具有溶血作用的皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai)肠道细菌中筛选得到5株潜在益生菌并进行了分子鉴定,进一步对5株潜在益生菌进行了安全性实验及体内饲喂实验。结果表明,2株具有拮抗哈维弧菌和灿烂弧菌能力的潜在益生菌分别被鉴定为Shewanella sp.(WA64)和Shewanella sp.(WA65),一株产海藻酸酶和淀粉酶的潜在益生菌被鉴定为Vibrio sp.(WA51),产蛋白酶潜在益生菌被鉴定为 Bacillus sp.(FA12),产琼脂酶潜在益生菌被鉴定为Tamlana sp.(FA86);安全性实验表明5株潜在益生菌在107cfu/ml下对皱纹盘鲍没有明显的毒害作用;通过体内饲喂实验发现,潜在益生菌 WA64、WA65的复合作用能够显著提高幼鲍增重率和存活率(P<0.05),并在生产条件下能够明显降低幼鲍的死亡量。经抗生素敏感性实验, WA64菌株对15种抗生素均敏感或中度敏感, WA65菌株仅对庆大霉素和链霉素2种抗生素产生耐药。%Five strains of potential probiotics isolated from 124 non-hemolysis strains of the GI of abalone in vitro were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. In addition, pathogenicity and feeding experiment were conducted. Results show that Strain WA64 and WA65 which exhibit inhibitory effects against Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio splendidus are identified as Shewanella;WA51 produced amylase and alginase is identified as Vibrio;FA123 produced protease is identified as Ba-cillus; FA86 produced agarase is identified as Tamlana. Potential probiotics are safe to abalone under 107cfu/ml. Feeding experiment showed the weight gain ratio and survival rate were significantly increased in treatment supplemented with WA64 and WA65 (P<0.05). Furthermore, the effects of WA64 and WA65 in pilot scale trials show the mortality of juvenile small abalone decreases obviously. Antibiotic sensitivity assays revealed that strain WA64 was sensitive or

  8. Speciation of Bio-Available Iodine in Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Hyphenated with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Using an In Vitro Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doh, Han Sol; Park, Hyun Jin

    2018-06-01

    Abalone is one of the most valuable marine products found in East Asia because it is rich in nutritious substances including iodine. In this study, the in vitro dialyzability approach was used to assess the bio-available iodine species in abalone. Iodide, iodate, 3-iodo-L-tyrosine (MIT), and 3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine (DIT) were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). To assure the consistency, reliability, and accuracy of the data, the method was validated. Comparison of the total iodine in abalone muscle and viscera indicated that abalone muscle showed greater digestion/absorption efficiency than abalone viscera (digestion efficiency: 68.13 ± 2.59% and 47.88 ± 5.76% and absorption efficiency: 59.78 ± 2.93% and 35.12 ± 1.43% for abalone viscera and muscle, respectively). However, evaluation of the sum of the analyzed iodine species targeted in this study by HPLC-ICP-MS indicated that abalone muscle showed lower digestion efficiency and similar absorption efficiency compared to that of abalone viscera (digestion efficiency: 35.52 ± 5.41% and 28.84 ± 1.83%; absorption efficiency: 23.56 ± 4.38% and 27.56 ± 1.51% for abalone viscera and muscle, respectively). The main forms of iodine detected in abalone muscle were iodide and MIT, whereas iodide was the major form in abalone viscera. The bio-available iodine in abalone was quantified via an in vitro method employing HPLC-ICP-MS. The results of this study indicated that abalone is feasible as a new iodine source and may prospectively find application in iodine-fortified foods. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Experimental evidence for the effects of polyphenolic compounds from Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) on feeding rate and growth in the red abalone Haliotus rufescens Swainson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Frank C.; Estes, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of polyphenolic compounds from brown algae on grazing and growth rate of the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens Swainson were examined. Abalone consumed three phenolic-poor algal species, Laminaria sinclarii (Harvey) Farlow, Macrocystis pyrifera Agardh, and Nereocystis luetkeana Postels et Ruprecht (mean phenolic content = 0.52% dry mass), at a greater rate than two phenolic-rich species, Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht and Cystoseira osmundacea Agardh (mean phenolic content = 4.60% dry mass). This inverse relationship between phenolic content and consumption rate also existed after the algae were macerated and the liquid portion of the blended slurry incorporated in agar discs. However, the correlation between grazing rate and phenolic content imprpve d in this latter experiment, thus suggesting that abalone grazing was deterred significantly by the morphology of L. sinclarii and, to a lesser extent, of M. pyrifera. Polyphenolics extracted from D. californicum reduced abalone grazing rates by 90% when incorporated into agar discs at a concentration of 6 mg·ml−1. Although abalone were unable to maintain body mass when fed ad libitum on macerated M. pyrifera incorporated into agar discs, polyphenolics from D. californicum further inhibited shell growth when added to the discs at 5 mg·ml−1. The abalone ate less of the phenol-containing discs than of the discs lacking phenolics. Our results support findings of several prior studies that polyphenolic compounds from brown algae deter grazing by coastal zone herbivores in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

  10. Relationships between and formation dynamics of the microbiota of consumers, producers, and the environment in an abalone aquatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing-Zhe; Zhao, Wang; Liu, Guang-Feng; Wang, Jiang-Yong

    2017-01-01

    An ecosystem is a community comprising living and nonliving components of the environment. Microbes are ubiquitous elements in each of these components. The dynamics of microbiota formation in an ecosystem is important to elucidate, because how the different components of a system exchange microbes, and how the microbes control ecological processes remain unresolved. In this study, an abalone, Haliotis diversicolor, seed-nursing pond was used as a model system. We first examined changes in bacterial communities during the seedling cultivation of this herbivorous juvenile aquatic invertebrate animal. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing were used to analyze bacterial community dynamics and spatio-temporal interactions of different system components: consumers (abalone), producers (algae or a substrate), and the environment (water). DGGE fingerprints revealed that the developmental stages of abalone influences bacterial communities of both the abalone and substrate. Although the communities in water fluctuated daily, they could be divided into two clusters that coincided with abalone stages, reflecting the transition from larva to juvenile at around day 21. Pyrosequencing showed that the microbiota in the abalone and substrate had more operational taxonomic units in common than that of either with water. The Bray-Curtis similarity index was used to quantify the formation dynamics of microbiota among the various components of the system. The bacterial communities in producers and consumers showed similar changes. These communities were unstable at the beginning and then slowly stabilized over time. The environmental bacterial community was more stable than the bacterial communities in consumers and producers, and may have been the basis for stability in the system. Our research provides insights into the dynamics of microbiota formation in various biotic elements of a system that will contribute to predictive systems modeling.

  11. Relationships between and formation dynamics of the microbiota of consumers, producers, and the environment in an abalone aquatic system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Zhe Jiang

    Full Text Available An ecosystem is a community comprising living and nonliving components of the environment. Microbes are ubiquitous elements in each of these components. The dynamics of microbiota formation in an ecosystem is important to elucidate, because how the different components of a system exchange microbes, and how the microbes control ecological processes remain unresolved. In this study, an abalone, Haliotis diversicolor, seed-nursing pond was used as a model system. We first examined changes in bacterial communities during the seedling cultivation of this herbivorous juvenile aquatic invertebrate animal. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and pyrosequencing were used to analyze bacterial community dynamics and spatio-temporal interactions of different system components: consumers (abalone, producers (algae or a substrate, and the environment (water. DGGE fingerprints revealed that the developmental stages of abalone influences bacterial communities of both the abalone and substrate. Although the communities in water fluctuated daily, they could be divided into two clusters that coincided with abalone stages, reflecting the transition from larva to juvenile at around day 21. Pyrosequencing showed that the microbiota in the abalone and substrate had more operational taxonomic units in common than that of either with water. The Bray-Curtis similarity index was used to quantify the formation dynamics of microbiota among the various components of the system. The bacterial communities in producers and consumers showed similar changes. These communities were unstable at the beginning and then slowly stabilized over time. The environmental bacterial community was more stable than the bacterial communities in consumers and producers, and may have been the basis for stability in the system. Our research provides insights into the dynamics of microbiota formation in various biotic elements of a system that will contribute to predictive systems

  12. Transcriptional analysis of disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) antioxidant enzymes against marine bacteria and virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2011-07-01

    Diverse antioxidant enzymes are essential for marine organisms to overcome oxidative stress as well as for the fine-tuning of immune reactions through activating different signal transduction pathways. This study describes the transcriptional analysis of antioxidant enzymes of disk abalone by challenging with bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Upon bacteria and VHSV challenge, Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Copper, Zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx), and thioredoxin-2 (TRx-2) expression levels were altered in gills, and hemocytes at different magnitudes. In gills, only MnSOD, catalase, and SeGPx genes were completely upregulated by post-challenge of bacterial and VHSV. Among them, SeGPx demonstrated strong upregulation by 16-fold (bacteria) and 2-fold (VHSV) in gills, and 5-fold (bacteria) and 3.0-fold (VHSV) in hemocytes. None of the genes examined were downregulated (in gills and hemocytes) by bacteria challenge even though CuZnSOD and TPx showed downregulation (completely) in hemocytes by VHSV. In general, abalone hemocytes had lower potential to induce antioxidant enzyme transcripts upon bacteria and VHSV challenge than gills. Based upon these results, we suggest that abalones induce oxidative stress in tissues during the bacteria and VHSV challenge, and the identified response of antioxidant enzymes could be supported for maintaining a low-level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may serve as a signal for activating immune reactions against pathogenic conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ZP Domain Proteins in the Abalone Egg Coat Include a Paralog of VERL under Positive Selection That Binds Lysin and 18-kDa Sperm Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Vacquier, Victor D.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying fertilization molecules is key to our understanding of reproductive biology, yet only a few examples of interacting sperm and egg proteins are known. One of the best characterized comes from the invertebrate archeogastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.), where sperm lysin mediates passage through the protective egg vitelline envelope (VE) by binding to the VE protein vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL). Rapid adaptive divergence of abalone lysin and VERL are an example of positive selection on interacting fertilization proteins contributing to reproductive isolation. Previously, we characterized a subset of the abalone VE proteins that share a structural feature, the zona pellucida (ZP) domain, which is common to VERL and the egg envelopes of vertebrates. Here, we use additional expressed sequence tag sequencing and shotgun proteomics to characterize this family of proteins in the abalone egg VE. We expand 3-fold the number of known ZP domain proteins present within the VE (now 30 in total) and identify a paralog of VERL (vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain protein [VEZP] 14) that contains a putative lysin-binding motif. We find that, like VERL, the divergence of VEZP14 among abalone species is driven by positive selection on the lysin-binding motif alone and that these paralogous egg VE proteins bind a similar set of sperm proteins including a rapidly evolving 18-kDa paralog of lysin, which may mediate sperm–egg fusion. This work identifies an egg coat paralog of VERL under positive selection and the candidate sperm proteins with which it may interact during abalone fertilization. PMID:19767347

  14. Impact of post-rigor high pressure processing on the physicochemical and microbial shelf-life of cultured red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brianna H; Perkins, L Brian; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2016-03-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) of post-rigor abalone at 300MPa for 10min extended the refrigerated shelf-life to four times that of unprocessed controls. Shucked abalone meats were processed at 100 or 300MPa for 5 or 10min, and stored at 2°C for 35days. Treatments were analyzed for aerobic plate count (APC), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), K-value, biogenic amines, color, and texture. APC did not exceed 10(6) and TVBN levels remained below 35mg/100g for 35days for the 300MPa treatments. No biogenic amines were detected in the 300MPa treatments, but putrescine and cadaverine were detected in the control and 100MPa treatments. Color and texture were not affected by HPP or storage time. These results indicate that post-rigor processing at 300MPa for 10min can significantly increase refrigerated shelf-life of abalone without affecting chemical or physical quality characteristics important to consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Immune priming and portal of entry effectors improve response to vibrio infection in a resistant population of the European abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubief, Bruno; Nunes, Flavia L D; Basuyaux, Olivier; Paillard, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Since 1997, populations of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata suffer mass mortalities attributed to the bacterium Vibrio harveyi. These mortalities occur at the spawning season, when the abalone immune system is depressed, and when temperatures exceed 17 °C, leading to favorable conditions for V. harveyi proliferation. In order to identify mechanisms of disease resistance, experimental successive infections were carried out on two geographically distinct Brittany populations: one that has suffered recurrent mortalities (Saint-Malo) and one that has not been impacted by the disease (Molène). Furthermore, abalone surviving these two successive bacterial challenges and uninfected abalone were used for several post-infection analyses. The Saint-Malo population was found to be resistant to V. harveyi infection, with a survival rate of 95% compared to 51% for Molène. While in vitro quantification of phagocytosis by flow cytometry showed strong inhibition following the first infection, no inhibition of phagocytosis was observed following the second infection for Saint-Malo, suggesting an immune priming effect. Moreover, assays of phagocytosis of GFP-labelled V. harveyi performed two months post-infection show an inhibition of phagocytosis by extracellular products of V. harveyi for uninfected abalone, while no effect was observed for previously infected abalone from Saint-Malo, suggesting that the effects of immune priming may last upwards of two months. Detection of V. harveyi by qPCR showed that a significantly greater number of abalone from the susceptible population were positive for V. harveyi in the gills, indicating that portal of entry effectors may play a role in resistance to the disease. Collectively, these results suggest a potential synergistic effect of gills and hemolymph in the resistance of H. tuberculata against V. harveyi with an important involvement of the gills, the portal of entry of the bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  16. Desarrollo del ensilado del alga Gracilaria chilensis para la alimentación del abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mardones

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el principal insumo usado como alimento para abalones son las algas Gracilaria chilensis y Macrocystis pyrifera. Estas algas experimentan una notable baja de disponibilidad en otoño e invierno, lo cual trae consigo un aumento considerable de los precios, al tener que depender del abastecimiento desde áreas cada vez más alejadas de los centros de cultivo de abalones y, eventualmente, generando impactos ecológicos indirectos en sus poblaciones. El objetivo fue elaborar y evaluar un ensilado del alga G. chilensis para la alimentación de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens, determinando la cantidad de lixiviados generados durante el proceso, el cambio en la composición proximal del alga, la preferencia y consumo del abalón rojo de ensilado de G. chilensis. Se logró un producto ensilado de buenas características físicas, químicas y de conservación, así como una buena aceptación por parte del abalón.

  17. Nonsynonymous substitution in abalone sperm fertilization genes exceeds substitution in introns and mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Edward C.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Vacquier, Victor D.

    1998-01-01

    Strong positive Darwinian selection acts on two sperm fertilization proteins, lysin and 18-kDa protein, from abalone (Haliotis). To understand the phylogenetic context for this dramatic molecular evolution, we obtained sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI), and genomic sequences of lysin, 18-kDa, and a G protein subunit. Based on mtDNA differentiation, four north Pacific abalone species diverged within the past 2 million years (Myr), and remaining north Pacific species diverged over a period of 4–20 Myr. Between-species nonsynonymous differences in lysin and 18-kDa exons exceed nucleotide differences in introns by 3.5- to 24-fold. Remarkably, in some comparisons nonsynonymous substitutions in lysin and 18-kDa genes exceed synonymous substitutions in mtCOI. Lysin and 18-kDa intron/exon segments were sequenced from multiple red abalone individuals collected over a 1,200-km range. Only two nucleotide changes and two sites of slippage variation were detected in a total of >29,000 nucleotides surveyed. However, polymorphism in mtCOI and a G protein intron was found in this species. This finding suggests that positive selection swept one lysin allele and one 18-kDa allele to fixation. Similarities between mtCOI and lysin gene trees indicate that rapid adaptive evolution of lysin has occurred consistently through the history of the group. Comparisons with mtCOI molecular clock calibrations suggest that nonsynonymous substitutions accumulate 2–50 times faster in lysin and 18-kDa genes than in rapidly evolving mammalian genes. PMID:9724763

  18. Preliminary genetic linkage map of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor Reeve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaohua; Guo, Ximing; Gu, Zhifeng; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yan

    2010-05-01

    Haliotis diversicolor Reeve is one of the most important mollusks cultured in South China. Preliminary genetic linkage maps were constructed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 2 596 AFLP markers were obtained from 28 primer combinations in two parents and 78 offsprings. Among them, 412 markers (15.9%) were polymorphic and segregated in the mapping family. Chi-square tests showed that 151 (84.4%) markers segregated according to the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio ( P<0.05) in the female parent, and 200 (85.8%) in the male parent. For the female map, 179 markers were used for linkage analysis and 90 markers were assigned to 17 linkage groups with an average interval length of 25.7 cm. For the male map, 233 markers were used and 94 were mapped into 18 linkage groups, with an average interval of 25.0 cm. The estimated genome length was 2 773.0 cm for the female and 2 817.1 cm for the male map. The observed length of the linkage map was 1 875.2 cm and 1 896.5 cm for the female and male maps, respectively. When doublets were considered, the map length increased to 2 152.8 cm for the female and 2 032.7 cm for the male map, corresponding to genome coverage of 77.6% and 72.2%, respectively.

  19. Comparison of the digestibility of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) produced by four different processing treatments%四种加工方式对皱纹盘鲍制品消化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万楚君; 游银川; 翁凌; 张凌晶; 刘光明; 曹敏杰

    2017-01-01

    为了探讨不同加工方式对皱纹盘鲍制品消化特性的影响,分析了生鲜、煮制、罐制和干制4种方式对鲍鱼肌肉蛋白在消化酶作用下的分解情况.利用模拟胃肠液消化及SDS-PAGE比较分析不同加工方式对鲍鱼肌肉消化特性的影响,并通过扫描电镜观察4种加工方式下鲍鱼肌肉组织微观结构的差异.结果显示,与生鲜鲍鱼相比,经煮制的鲍鱼较易被消化,罐制加工产品最易被消化,而干制鲍鱼最难被消化.不同加工方式对鲍鱼肌肉的组织结构有较大影响.进一步对不同皱纹盘鲍制品模拟胃肠液消化终产物的生物活性进行研究,发现它们对血管紧张素转换酶(ACE)的抑制活性(IC50)依次为罐制(464.2μg/mL)<干制(665.4μg/mL)<煮制(775.7μg/mL)<生鲜(803.9μg/mL).研究表明,不同加工方式对鲍鱼制品在机体内的消化特性及产物对ACE抑制活性存在差异,为优化鲍鱼制品生产加工提供了一定的参考.%In order to know the effect of different processing methods on protein digestion of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai), the effects of four processing methods including raw, boiling, canning, and drying on the digestibility of abalone muscular proteins were investigated. Simulated gastric fluid (SGF) as well as simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was used to study the effects ofin vitro digestion. The products were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the differences in the fiber of the four products. The results showed that the digestibility of proteins in canned abalone was the highest among the four processing methods. Proteins from dried abalone were most resistant to digestion both in SGF and SIF. The four processing methods revealed different fiber structures under SEM. Furthermore, the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the digested products exhibited the

  20. Hybridization improved bacteria resistance in abalone: Evidence from physiological and molecular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Luo, Xuan; You, Weiwei; Ke, Caihuan

    2018-01-01

    Hybridization is an effective way of improving germplasm in abalone, as it often generates benign traits in the hybrids. The hybrids of Haliotis discus hannai and H. gigantea have shown heterosis in terms of disease resistance than one or both parental species. In the present study, to elucidate the physiological and molecular mechanism of this heterosis, we analyzed the dynamic changes of several immune indexes including survival rate, total circulating haemocyte count (THC), phagocytic activity, reactive oxygen species level (ROS) and phenoloxidase activity (PO) in two parental species, H. discus hannai (DD) and H. gigantea (GG), and their reciprocal hybrids H. discus hannai ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (DG), H. gigantea ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (GD) challenged with a mixture of Vibrio harveyi, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus (which have been demonstrated to be pathogenic to abalone). Besides, we cloned and analyzed three important immune genes: heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), ferritin and cold shock domain protein (csdp) in H. discus hannai and H. gigantea, then further investigated their mRNA level changes in the four abalone genotypes after bacterial challenge. Results showed that these physiological and molecular parameters were significantly induced by bacterial exposure, and their changing patterns were obviously different between the four genotypes: (1) Survival rates of the two hybrids were higher than both parental species after bacterial exposure; (2) DG had higher THC than the other three genotypes; (3) Phagocytosis responded slower in the hybrids than in the parental species; (4) DD's ROS level was lower than the other three genotypes at 48 h post infection; (5) Phenoloxidase activity was lower in DD during the infection compared to the other genotypes; (6) mRNA levels of hsp70 and csdp, were always lower in at least one parental species (DD) than in the hybrids after the bacterial exposure. Results from this study indicate that the hybrids

  1. Splice variants of perlucin from Haliotis laevigata modulate the crystallisation of CaCO3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Dodenhof

    Full Text Available Perlucin is one of the proteins of the organic matrix of nacre (mother of pearl playing an important role in biomineralisation. This nacreous layer can be predominately found in the mollusc lineages and is most intensively studied as a compound of the shell of the marine Australian abalone Haliotis laevigata. A more detailed analysis of Perlucin will elucidate some of the still unknown processes in the complex interplay of the organic/inorganic compounds involved in the formation of nacre as a very interesting composite material not only from a life science-based point of view. Within this study we discovered three unknown Perlucin splice variants of the Australian abalone H. laevigata. The amplified cDNAs vary from 562 to 815 base pairs and the resulting translation products differ predominantly in the absence or presence of a varying number of a 10 mer peptide C-terminal repeat. The splice variants could further be confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS analysis as endogenous Perlucin, purified from decalcified abalone shell. Interestingly, we observed that the different variants expressed as maltose-binding protein (MBP fusion proteins in E. coli showed strong differences in their influence on precipitating CaCO3 and that these differences might be due to a splice variant-specific formation of large protein aggregates influenced by the number of the 10 mer peptide repeats. Our results are evidence for a more complex situation with respect to Perlucin functional regulation by demonstrating that Perlucin splice variants modulate the crystallisation of calcium carbonate. The identification of differentially behaving Perlucin variants may open a completely new perspective for the field of nacre biomineralisation.

  2. Abalone viral ganglioneuritis: establishment and use of an experimental immersion challenge system for the study of abalone herpes virus infections in Australian abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Serge; McColl, Kenneth A; Williams, Lynette M; Mohammad, Ilhan; Hyatt, Alexander D; Crameri, Sandra G; Fegan, Mark; Crane, Mark St J

    2012-05-01

    In late 2005, acute mortalities occurred in abalone on farms located in Victoria, Australia. Disease was associated with infection by an abalone herpes virus (AbHV). Subsequently, starting in 2006, the disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) was discovered in wild abalone in Victorian open waters. Currently, it continues to spread, albeit at a slow rate, along the Victorian coast-line. Here, we report on experimental transmission trials that were carried out by immersion using water into which diseased abalone had shed infectious viral particles. At various time points following exposure, naïve abalone were assessed by an AbHV-specific real-time PCR and histological analyses including in situ hybridization (ISH). Results demonstrated that while exposed abalone began displaying clinical signs of the disease from 60 hours post exposure (hpe), they tested positive for the presence of viral DNA at 36 hpe. Of further interest, the AbHV DNA probe used in the ISH assay detected the virus as early as 48 hpe. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activities of Novel Peptides Derived from the Lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-Glucan Binding Protein of the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Hye Nam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are a pivotal component of the invertebrate innate immune system. In this study, we identified a lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP gene from the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (HDH, which is involved in the pattern recognition mechanism and plays avital role in the defense mechanism of invertebrates immune system. The HDH-LGBP cDNA consisted of a 1263-bp open reading frame (ORF encoding a polypeptide of 420 amino acids, with a 20-amino-acid signal sequence. The molecular mass of the protein portion was 45.5 kDa, and the predicted isoelectric point of the mature protein was 4.93. Characteristic potential polysaccharide binding motif, glucanase motif, and β-glucan recognition motif were identified in the LGBP of HDH. We used its polysaccharide-binding motif sequence to design two novel antimicrobial peptide analogs (HDH-LGBP-A1 and HDH-LGBP-A2. By substituting a positively charged amino acid and amidation at the C-terminus, the pI and net charge of the HDH-LGBP increased, and the proteins formed an α-helical structure. The HDH-LGBP analogs exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity, with minimal effective concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 2.2 μg/mL. Additionally, both were toxic against human cervix (HeLa, lung (A549, and colon (HCT 116 carcinoma cell lines but not much on human umbilical vein cell (HUVEC. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS analysis showed that HDH-LGBP analogs disturb the cancer cell membrane and cause apoptotic cell death. These results suggest the use of HDH-LGBP analogs as multifunctional drugs.

  4. The identification of growth lines in abalone shell using a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Yang, C.; Hawkes, G.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Malmqvist, K.G.; Day, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    Ionoluminescence (IL) combined with particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) imaging has been employed to identify intrinsic growth bands in the spire region, and extrinsic bands at the growth edge of Australian Black-lip abalone shell (Haliotis rubra). Previous studies using optical flood cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) and Raman spectroscopy on samples from the same population suggest that the visible luminescence is due to Mn 2+ activated calcium carbonate. In this study we confirm Mn 2+ as the activator in both the spire and growth edge regions of the shell. The sensitivity of ionoluminescence to the co-ordination environment of the Mn 2+ activators in the shell allows for the spatial identification of the calcium carbonate polymorph responsible for the growth lines observed optically. Furthermore the detection and mapping of trace elements such as Mn and Sr with the PIXE technique enables comparisons to be made between calcite and aragonite biomineralized in the wild and under laboratory conditions

  5. The identification of growth lines in abalone shell using a nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Yang, C.; Hawkes, G.P.; Jamieson, D.N. E-mail: dnj@physics.unimelb.edu.au; Malmqvist, K.G.; Day, R.W

    1999-09-02

    Ionoluminescence (IL) combined with particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) imaging has been employed to identify intrinsic growth bands in the spire region, and extrinsic bands at the growth edge of Australian Black-lip abalone shell (Haliotis rubra). Previous studies using optical flood cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) and Raman spectroscopy on samples from the same population suggest that the visible luminescence is due to Mn{sup 2+} activated calcium carbonate. In this study we confirm Mn{sup 2+} as the activator in both the spire and growth edge regions of the shell. The sensitivity of ionoluminescence to the co-ordination environment of the Mn{sup 2+} activators in the shell allows for the spatial identification of the calcium carbonate polymorph responsible for the growth lines observed optically. Furthermore the detection and mapping of trace elements such as Mn and Sr with the PIXE technique enables comparisons to be made between calcite and aragonite biomineralized in the wild and under laboratory conditions.

  6. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.serpentini@unicaen.fr [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  7. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithé; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Serpentini, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 μg L −1 of CdCl 2 for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 μg L −1 as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 μg L −1 , which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  8. A cysteine protease (cathepsin Z) from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic characterization and transcriptional profiling during bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godahewa, G I; Perera, N C N; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Jehee

    2017-09-05

    Cathepsin Z (CTSZ) is lysosomal cysteine protease of the papain superfamily. It participates in the host immune defense via phagocytosis, signal transduction, cell-cell communication, proliferation, and migration of immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Hence, CTSZ is also acknowledged as an acute-phase protein in host immunity. In this study, we sought to identify the CTSZ homolog from disk abalone (AbCTSZ) and characterize it at the molecular, genomic, and transcriptional levels. AbCTSZ encodes a protein with 318 amino acids and a molecular mass of 36kDa. The structure of AbCTSZ reveals amino acid sequences that are characteristic of the signal sequence, pro-peptide, peptidase-C1 papain family cysteine protease domain, mini-loop, HIP motif, N-linked glycosylation sites, active sites, and conserved Cys residues. A pairwise comparison revealed that AbCTSZ shared the highest amino acid homology with its molluscan counterpart from Crassostrea gigas. A multiple alignment analysis revealed the conservation of functionally crucial elements of AbCTSZ, and a phylogenetic study further confirmed a proximal evolutionary relationship with its invertebrate counterparts. Further, an analysis of AbCTSZ genomic structure revealed seven exons separated by six introns, which differs from that of its vertebrate counterparts. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) detected the transcripts of AbCTSZ in early developmental stages and in eight different tissues. Higher levels of AbCTSZ transcripts were found in trochophore, gill, and hemocytes, highlighting its importance in the early development and immunity of disk abalone. In addition, we found that viable bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and bacterial lipopolysaccharides significantly modulated AbCTSZ transcription. Collectively, these lines of evidences suggest that AbCTSZ plays an indispensable role in the innate immunity of disk abalone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  9. Heat inactivation of a norovirus surrogate in cell culture lysate, abalone meat, and abalone viscera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin Young; Bae, San-Cheong; Ha, Sang-Do

    2015-03-01

    The current study examined the effects of temperature and heat treatment duration on murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) from both viral cell culture lysate (7-8 log10 PFU) and experimentally contaminated abalone meat and viscera (5-6 log10 PFU) as a model of human norovirus (NoV). MNV-1 titers in cell culture lysate, abalone meat, and abalone viscera were gradually reduced to 1.93-4.55, 1.79-3.00, and 2.26-3.26 log10 PFU/ml, respectively, after treatment at 70 °C for 1-10 min. Treatment at 85 °C for 1-5 min gradually reduced MNV-1 titers in abalone meat to 2.71-4.15 log10 PFU/ml. MNV-1 titers in abalone viscera were gradually reduced to 2.91-3.46 log10 PFU/ml after treatment at 85 °C for 1-3 min. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in MNV-1 titers in the abalone meat and viscera among treatment groups (70 °C for 5 min, 70 °C for 3 min, and 85 °C for 1 min). Complete inactivation of MNV-1 in cell culture lysate was determined at 85 °C for ≥1 min and 100 °C for ≥0.5 min. Complete inactivation of MNV-1 in abalone was determined at 100 °C for ≥0.5 min for meat, and 85 °C for 5 min and 100 °C for ≥0.5 min for viscera. At treatments at 70 °C, the Td-values (3 log reduction time) were significantly lower (P abalone meat (6.07) and viscera (10.73). Td = 3 values were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between abalone meat (1.78) and abalone viscera (1.33) at treatments at 85 °C. This study suggests that 100 °C for ≥0.5 min could potentially be used to inactivate NoV in molluscan shellfishes, including viscera.

  10. Population structure and growth of polydorid polychaetes that infest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polydorid polychaetes can infest cultured abalone thereby reducing productivity. In order to effectively control these pests, their reproductive biology must be understood. The population dynamics and reproduction of polydorids infesting abalone Haliotis midae from two farms in South Africa is described using a ...

  11. Exploring basic biochemical constituents in the body tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding regime did not influence susceptibility to mass loss during export. Animal age influenced the biochemical composition and export performance of abalone. Keywords: abalone; aquaculture; feeds; Haliotis midae; live export; mass loss; tissue biochemical constituents. African Journal of Marine Science 2010, 32(1): ...

  12. Leucopenia associated with abalone viral ganglioneuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, C; Slocombe, R; Day, R; Crawford, S

    2012-01-01

    To compare microscopic lesion severity with circulating total haemocyte counts (THC) in abalone affected by abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG). A herpes-like virus led to severe mortality in a number of Australian abalone farms in 2006. The infection was associated with severe necrotising ganglioneuritis. The microscopic lesions were well demarcated, affecting the neural tissue almost exclusively and were characterised by necrosis and increased cellularity in affected ganglia and nerves. On two farms, the presence or absence of typical AVG pathology was compared with THC. Those abalone with microscopic lesions of AVG had significantly lower haemocyte counts. The mean THC in abalone with no evidence of AVG from both farms was 4.6 × 10(6)/mL (±0.3 SE). The THC in AVG-affected abalone in farm 1 was 2.8 × 10(6)/mL (±0.5 SE) and farm 2 was 0.98 × 10(6)/mL (±0.4 SE). Severe AVG is associated with leucopenia in affected abalone. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. [Identification of irradiated abalone by ESR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeping; Wang, Chuanxian; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhong, Weike; Geng, Jinpei; Lu, Di; Ding, Zhuoping

    2012-05-01

    To establish an analytical method for the detection and identification of irradiated abalone by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Electron spin resonance (ESR) was used to study the spectral characteristics of abalone and the characteristic peak for quantitation. There were obvious different ESR spectra between unirradiated and irradiated abalone. The g factor for unirradiated abalone was 2.0055-2.0060, the g1 and g2 factor for irradiated abalone were (2.0027 +/- 0.0001) and (1.9994 +/- 0.0001), respectively. The ESR signal intensity of characteristic peak was positively correlated with absorbed dose in the range of 0.5 - 10 kGy, left peak was the characteristic peak for quantitation and the detection limit was abalone. ESR spectroscopy is an effective method to determine whether the abalone being irradiated or not.

  14. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

  15. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-01-01

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 (micro)m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation

  16. Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.I.; Chen, P.Y.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T ∼ 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.I., E-mail: mil032@ucsd.edu; Chen, P.Y.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M.A.

    2011-03-12

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T {approx} 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of By-Products from Haliotis discus hannai in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Seok Rho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several reports promoted the potential of shellfish due to their ability to act as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai viscera is, reported to possess bioactivities such as antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of mucus-secreting glands from shell-shucking waste of H. discus hannai was evaluated using RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell model. Results indicated that presence of H. discus hannai mucosubstance by-products (AM significantly lowered the nitric oxide (NO production along the expressional suppression of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and enzymes iNOS and COX-2. Also, AM was shown to increase expression of anti-inflammatory response mediator HO-1. Presence of AM also scavenged the free radicals in vitro. In conclusion, by-products of H. discus hannai are suggested to possess notable anti-inflammatory potential which promotes the possibility of utilization as functional food ingredient.

  19. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, M. Ali; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Gorfine, Harry; Monk, Jacquomo; Rattray, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE) was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100’s of meters) among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR) derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics. PMID:25992800

  20. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ali Jalali

    Full Text Available Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100's of meters among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics.

  1. The effects of intermittent exposure to low-pH and low-oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-11-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low-pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low-pH and/or low-oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low-pH (7.5, total scale) and low-O2 (40% saturation, mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h, twice over a 15-day period, juveniles experienced 5-20% higher mortality in the low-oxygen treatments compared to control conditions. Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low-oxygen and low-pH treatments. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when juveniles were exposed simultaneously to low-pH and low-O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low-oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas pH is a crucial factor for their growth. However, the high individual variation in growth rate under low levels of both pH and oxygen suggests that cryptic phenotypic plasticity may promote resistance to prolonged upwelling conditions by a portion of the population.

  2. The development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of abalone herpesvirus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M H; Kuo, S T; Renault, T; Chang, P H

    2014-02-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of abalone herpesvirus DNA. Two pairs of primers were designed, based on the sequence of the DNA polymerase gene of abalone herpesvirus. The reaction temperature and time were optimized to 63°C and 60min, respectively. LAMP amplicons were analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis or by visual inspection of a colour change emitted by fluorescent dye. The method developed was specific for the detection of abalone herpesvirus, without cross-reactions with other tested herpesviruses including ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), European eel herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus (KHV) and an avian herpesvirus. The LAMP assay was 100 folds more sensitive than a conventional PCR and 10 folds less sensitive than a SYBR Green PCR. These results indicate that the developed LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable technique for the detection of abalone herpesvirus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino Gonad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33 isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33, which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT, thrombin time (TT and prothrombin time (PT compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01 of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity.

  4. Reprint of: Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.I., E-mail: mil032@ucsd.edu; Chen, P.Y.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M.A.

    2011-05-10

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T {approx} 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Reprint of: Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.I.; Chen, P.Y.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T ∼ 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  6. The effects of intermittent exposure to low pH and oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-02-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low pH and/or low oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low pH (7.5, total scale) and low O2 (40% saturation, 5 mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h repeated twice over a 15 day period, juveniles experienced higher mortality in the low oxygen treatments compared to control conditions, regardless of pH levels (pH 7.5 vs. 8.0). Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low pH or low oxygen treatments and the growth was lowest when low pH exposure was combined with low O2. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when they were exposed to low pH and low O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas both pH and oxygen is a crucial factor for their growth. However, given the higher individual variation in growth rate, they may have an ability to adapt to extended exposure to upwelling conditions.

  7. Fishing diseased abalone to promote yield and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Bidegain, Gorka; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2016-01-01

    Past theoretical models suggest fishing disease-impacted stocks can reduce parasite transmission, but this is a good management strategy only when the exploitation required to reduce transmission does not overfish the stock. We applied this concept to a red abalone fishery so impacted by an infectious disease (withering syndrome) that stock densities plummeted and managers closed the fishery. In addition to the non-selective fishing strategy considered by past disease-fishing models, we modelled targeting (culling) infected individuals, which is plausible in red abalone because modern diagnostic tools can determine infection without harming landed abalone and the diagnostic cost is minor relative to the catch value. The non-selective abalone fishing required to eradicate parasites exceeded thresholds for abalone sustainability, but targeting infected abalone allowed the fishery to generate yield and reduce parasite prevalence while maintaining stock densities at or above the densities attainable if the population was closed to fishing. The effect was strong enough that stock and yield increased even when the catch was one-third uninfected abalone. These results could apply to other fisheries as the diagnostic costs decline relative to catch value.

  8. Fishing diseased abalone to promote yield and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D; Bidegain, Gorka; Lenihan, Hunter S

    2016-03-05

    Past theoretical models suggest fishing disease-impacted stocks can reduce parasite transmission, but this is a good management strategy only when the exploitation required to reduce transmission does not overfish the stock. We applied this concept to a red abalone fishery so impacted by an infectious disease (withering syndrome) that stock densities plummeted and managers closed the fishery. In addition to the non-selective fishing strategy considered by past disease-fishing models, we modelled targeting (culling) infected individuals, which is plausible in red abalone because modern diagnostic tools can determine infection without harming landed abalone and the diagnostic cost is minor relative to the catch value. The non-selective abalone fishing required to eradicate parasites exceeded thresholds for abalone sustainability, but targeting infected abalone allowed the fishery to generate yield and reduce parasite prevalence while maintaining stock densities at or above the densities attainable if the population was closed to fishing. The effect was strong enough that stock and yield increased even when the catch was one-third uninfected abalone. These results could apply to other fisheries as the diagnostic costs decline relative to catch value. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): Roles in early development and immunity-related transcriptional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Jehee

    2016-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in the regulation of cellular events by mediating signal transduction pathways. MAPK1 is a member of the extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs), playing roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. This is mainly in response to growth factors, mitogens, and many environmental stresses. In the current study, we have characterized the structural features of a homolog of MAPK1 from disk abalone (AbMAPK1). Further, we have unraveled its expressional kinetics against different experimental pathogenic infections or related chemical stimulants. AbMAPK1 harbors a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 23 bps, a coding sequence of 1104 bps, and a 3' UTR of 448 bp. The putative peptide comprises a predicted molecular mass of 42.2 kDa, with a theoretical pI of 6.28. Based on the in silico analysis, AbMAPK1 possesses two N-glycosylation sites, one S_TK catalytic domain, and a conserved His-Arg-Asp domain (HRD). In addition, a conservative glycine rich ATP-phosphate-binding loop and a threonine-x-tyrosine motif (TEY) important for the autophosphorylation were also identified in the protein. Homology assessment of AbMAPK1 showed several conserved regions, and ark clam (Aplysia californica) showed the highest sequence identity (87.9%). The phylogenetic analysis supported close evolutionary kinship with molluscan orthologs. Constitutive expression of AbMAPK1 was observed in six different tissues of disk abalone, with the highest expression in the digestive tract, followed by the gills and hemocytes. Highest AbMAPK1 mRNA expression level was detected at the trochophore developmental stage, suggesting its role in abalone cell differentiation and proliferation. Significant modulation of AbMAPK1 expression under pathogenic stress suggested its putative involvement in the immune defense mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Overexploitation of Abalone at Libong Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyut Sudtongkong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.

  11. Convective Drying of Osmo-Treated Abalone (Haliotis rufescens Slices: Diffusion, Modeling, and Quality Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lemus-Mondaca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was based on the application of an osmotic pretreatment (15% NaCl for drying abalone slices, and it evaluates the influence of hot-air drying temperature (40–80°C on the product quality. In addition, the mass transfer kinetics of salt and water was also studied. The optimal time of the osmotic treatment was established until reaching a pseudo equilibrium state of the water and salt content (290 min. The water effective diffusivity values during drying ranged from 3.76 to 4.75 × 10−9 m2/s for three selected temperatures (40, 60, and 80°C. In addition, experimental data were fitted by Weibull distribution model. The modified Weibull model provided good fitting of experimental data according to applied statistical tests. Regarding the evaluated quality parameters, the color of the surface showed a change more significant at high temperature (80°C, whereas the nonenzymatic browning and texture showed a decrease during drying process mainly due to changes in protein matrix and rehydration rates, respectively. In particular, working at 60°C resulted in dried samples with the highest quality parameters.

  12. 40 CFR 408.330 - Applicability; description of the abalone processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... abalone processing subcategory. 408.330 Section 408.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Abalone Processing Subcategory § 408.330 Applicability; description of the abalone processing... abalone in the contiguous states. ...

  13. Assessment of oxytetracycline baths as therapeutic treatment for the control of the agent of withering syndrome (WS) in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Federico M; García, Ricardo; Valdivia, María Vicenta; Lohrmann, Karin B

    2018-03-01

    Withering Syndrome (WS) is a lethal disease that affects abalone species in both wild and farmed populations. This infection, caused by the rickettsial-like intracellular organism (RLO) Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, can severely impair the normal development of affected animals, and ultimately, their survival. The most common line of action against the WS has been the use of antibiotics, specifically oxytetracycline (OTC), administered via intramuscular injection and per os via medicated feed. In the present study, we have assessed the effectiveness of OTC baths as therapeutic treatment for the control of the WS agent in H. rufescens. Clinical signs of infection were monitored for 11 months in treated juveniles, in addition to feed consumption rate, growth patterns and gonad development. Abalones were asymptomatic until the end of the experiment, when a small number of non-treated animals exhibited clinical signs of infection. Gonad maturity was not observed. OTC treated animals grew significantly less than their non-treated counterparts, being 4.3% shorter and 13.6% lighter at the end of the experiment. They also displayed negative allometry, i.e. for the same shell length, they were lighter than non-treated groups. Furthermore, the weight of muscle and soft tissues in OTC treated animals was lighter than in the other groups, while no differences were found in shell weight. The feed consumption rate was the same for all groups, thus the observed growth patterns cannot be attributed to a decreased feed intake. One possible explanation is that antibiotic treatment may have impacted gut microflora, thus preventing efficient nutrient digestion and absorption and, indirectly, reducing growth. Prevalence of RLOs causing WS (WS-RLO) and the variant form (RLOv), infected with a bacteriophague and non virulent, were significantly lower in the OTC-treated group than in the other groups. Similar results were observed for the mean intensity of RLOv, while for WS

  14. Duplicate Abalone Egg Coat Proteins Bind Sperm Lysin Similarly, but Evolve Oppositely, Consistent with Molecular Mimicry at Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Springer, Stevan A.; Soelberg, Scott D.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2013-01-01

    Sperm and egg proteins constitute a remarkable paradigm in evolutionary biology: despite their fundamental role in mediating fertilization (suggesting stasis), some of these molecules are among the most rapidly evolving ones known, and their divergence can lead to reproductive isolation. Because of strong selection to maintain function among interbreeding individuals, interacting fertilization proteins should also exhibit a strong signal of correlated divergence among closely related species. We use evidence of such molecular co-evolution to target biochemical studies of fertilization in North Pacific abalone (Haliotis spp.), a model system of reproductive protein evolution. We test the evolutionary rates (d N/d S) of abalone sperm lysin and two duplicated egg coat proteins (VERL and VEZP14), and find a signal of co-evolution specific to ZP-N, a putative sperm binding motif previously identified by homology modeling. Positively selected residues in VERL and VEZP14 occur on the same face of the structural model, suggesting a common mode of interaction with sperm lysin. We test this computational prediction biochemically, confirming that the ZP-N motif is sufficient to bind lysin and that the affinities of VERL and VEZP14 are comparable. However, we also find that on phylogenetic lineages where lysin and VERL evolve rapidly, VEZP14 evolves slowly, and vice versa. We describe a model of sexual conflict that can recreate this pattern of anti-correlated evolution by assuming that VEZP14 acts as a VERL mimic, reducing the intensity of sexual conflict and slowing the co-evolution of lysin and VERL. PMID:23408913

  15. Duplicate abalone egg coat proteins bind sperm lysin similarly, but evolve oppositely, consistent with molecular mimicry at fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E Aagaard

    Full Text Available Sperm and egg proteins constitute a remarkable paradigm in evolutionary biology: despite their fundamental role in mediating fertilization (suggesting stasis, some of these molecules are among the most rapidly evolving ones known, and their divergence can lead to reproductive isolation. Because of strong selection to maintain function among interbreeding individuals, interacting fertilization proteins should also exhibit a strong signal of correlated divergence among closely related species. We use evidence of such molecular co-evolution to target biochemical studies of fertilization in North Pacific abalone (Haliotis spp., a model system of reproductive protein evolution. We test the evolutionary rates (d(N/d(S of abalone sperm lysin and two duplicated egg coat proteins (VERL and VEZP14, and find a signal of co-evolution specific to ZP-N, a putative sperm binding motif previously identified by homology modeling. Positively selected residues in VERL and VEZP14 occur on the same face of the structural model, suggesting a common mode of interaction with sperm lysin. We test this computational prediction biochemically, confirming that the ZP-N motif is sufficient to bind lysin and that the affinities of VERL and VEZP14 are comparable. However, we also find that on phylogenetic lineages where lysin and VERL evolve rapidly, VEZP14 evolves slowly, and vice versa. We describe a model of sexual conflict that can recreate this pattern of anti-correlated evolution by assuming that VEZP14 acts as a VERL mimic, reducing the intensity of sexual conflict and slowing the co-evolution of lysin and VERL.

  16. Cytogenetic analysis and chromosomal characteristics of the polymorphic 18S rDNA of Haliotis discus hannai from Fujian, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishan Wang

    Full Text Available We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82% and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14% and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%. The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located terminally on the short arms of other chromosomes, either metacentric or submetacentric pairs. The number of Ag-nucleoli ranged from 2 to 8, and the mean number was 3.61 ± 0.93. Among the scored interphase cells, 41% had 3 detectable nucleoli and 37% had 4 nucleoli. The 18S rDNA FISH result is the first report of the location of 18S rDNA genes in H. discus hannai. The 18S rDNA locations were highly polymorphic in this species. Copies of the gene were observed in the terminal of long or/and short arms of submetacentric or/and metacentric chromosomes. Using FISH with probe for vertebrate-like telomeric sequences (CCCTAA3 displayed positive green FITC signals at telomere regions of all analyzed chromosome types. We found about 7% of chromosomes had breaks in prophase. A special form of nucleolus not previously described from H. discus hannai was observed in some interphase cells. It consists of many small silver-stained nucleoli gathered together to form a larger nucleolus and may correspond to prenucleolar bodies.

  17. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhenliang [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Chen, Jingdi, E-mail: ibptcjd@fzu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Wang, Hailiang [The Affiliated Stomatological Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang, Qiqing, E-mail: zhangqiq@126.com [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. - Graphical abstract: In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro by self-organized. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell. • The abalone shell water-soluble matrix contains protein and polysaccharide. • The abalone water-soluble matrix can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP by self-organized. • Achieved self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects in

  18. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-01-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. - Graphical abstract: In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro by self-organized. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell. • The abalone shell water-soluble matrix contains protein and polysaccharide. • The abalone water-soluble matrix can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP by self-organized. • Achieved self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects in vitro.

  19. A national survey of marine biotoxins in wild-caught abalone in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Navreet; Turnbull, Alison; Tan, Jessica; Kiermeier, Andreas; Nimmagadda, Rama; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    The first national survey of Australian wild-caught abalone was conducted between September 2012 and December 2013. The aim of the survey was to determine the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), amnesic shellfish toxins (ASTs), and diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in wild-caught abalone at levels above the current Codex marine biotoxin limits during the 2013 fishing season. Abalone (n = 190) were collected from 68 abalone-fishing blocks for which the combined annual harvest accounts for 80 % of Australian production. Concurrent seawater samples were collected and enumerated for potentially toxic phytoplankton. The foot and viscera tissues of each abalone sample were analyzed separately for PSTs, ASTs, and DSTs. No samples (abalone foot or viscera) contained toxins at levels exceeding the marine biotoxin limits stipulated by Codex. The resulting prevalence estimate suggests that less than 1.6 % of the commercially caught wild abalone population in Australia were contaminated with marine biotoxins at levels above the regulatory limit during the survey period. ASTs were detected at very low (trace) levels in the foot and viscera tissue of four and three abalone samples, respectively. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported detection of domoic acid in Australian abalone. PSTs also were detected at very low levels in 17 samples of abalone foot tissue and 6 samples of abalone viscera. The association between the low levels of ASTs and PSTs detected in abalone and the presence of potential toxin-producing phytoplankton in seawater samples was weak. DSTs were not detected in any abalone despite the detection of very low levels of DST-producing phytoplankton in a small number (9 of 77) of seawater samples. The results of this survey should be useful for public health risk assessments and provide additional evidence that the prevalence of marine biotoxins in Australian wild-caught abalone is very low.

  20. NUTRITION REQUIREMENT OF CULTURED ABALONE POST LARVAE AND JUVENILES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wa Iba

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abalone aquaculture attracts wide attention nowadays because of its high market value and depleted of wild stocks. China and Japan are the main producer of abalone from aquaculture followed by other countries such as New Zealand, Australia and US. Most of cultured abalone are temperate species but considerable research efforts have been made to culture tropical abalone in the Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia. Most of abalone culture still depends on natural food but recent studies have been conducted to develop artificial diet for abalone. This will not only reduce wild harvest of macrolagae but also develop high nutrition diet at low cost. Successful abalone aquaculture is determined by correct nutrition supplement in the diet. As other cultured animal, abalone requires balanced nutrition of carbohydrate, protein, lipid, vitamins, and minerals. As herbivores, abalone can utilize carbohydrate efficiently as energy source and thus only requires low level of protein (range from 27%—40%. Lipid requirements range from 3%—5% while some minerals such as calcium and phosphorus in artificial feed are only needed in small amount, 0.5% of calcium in diets and 0.7% of phosphorus in the diet can improve the growth rate of abalone. There is not available information of vitamin upplementation in the diet but it is suggested that natural food meets the requirement.

  1. Underwater adhesion of abalone: The role of van der Waals and capillary forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, A.Y.M., E-mail: albertlin22@yahoo.com [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Brunner, R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Chen, P.Y. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Talke, F.E. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Meyers, M.A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The observation of the pedal foot of the red abalone Haliotis rufescens reveals the presence of micrometer-scaled setae terminating in nanometer-sized cylindrical fibrils, with some resemblance to those found on the gecko foot. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) pull-off force measurements on a single seta are compared with theoretical estimates for van der Waals attraction obtained through the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) equation, approximately 600 nN, and show agreement. The use of the JKR equation is justified through an analysis of the shape of the fibril extremities (parabolic) as well as their diameter ({approx}200 nm). Measurements under varying humidity conditions indicate that additional capillary interactions play a role, since the pull-off force increases with humidity. It is proposed that both van der Waals and capillary forces play a role in the attachment mechanism of H. rufescens, effectively enabling suction to reach its theoretical limit. Bulk pull-off force measurements on entire live animals yield an average detachment stress of 115 kPa, consistent with theoretical estimates. The setae and nanoscale fibril terminations enable compliance to surfaces with a variety of roughnesses, effectively sealing the interface, in addition to providing capillary and van der Waals forces.

  2. Underwater adhesion of abalone: The role of van der Waals and capillary forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.Y.M.; Brunner, R.; Chen, P.Y.; Talke, F.E.; Meyers, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The observation of the pedal foot of the red abalone Haliotis rufescens reveals the presence of micrometer-scaled setae terminating in nanometer-sized cylindrical fibrils, with some resemblance to those found on the gecko foot. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) pull-off force measurements on a single seta are compared with theoretical estimates for van der Waals attraction obtained through the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) equation, approximately 600 nN, and show agreement. The use of the JKR equation is justified through an analysis of the shape of the fibril extremities (parabolic) as well as their diameter (∼200 nm). Measurements under varying humidity conditions indicate that additional capillary interactions play a role, since the pull-off force increases with humidity. It is proposed that both van der Waals and capillary forces play a role in the attachment mechanism of H. rufescens, effectively enabling suction to reach its theoretical limit. Bulk pull-off force measurements on entire live animals yield an average detachment stress of 115 kPa, consistent with theoretical estimates. The setae and nanoscale fibril terminations enable compliance to surfaces with a variety of roughnesses, effectively sealing the interface, in addition to providing capillary and van der Waals forces.

  3. Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiangjing; Cai, Zhonghua

    2009-05-01

    As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of H. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

  4. Molecular evidence for the existence of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel/NF-kB pathways in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jung, Sung-Ju; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2010-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel family nuclear factor kappaB (Rel/NF-kB) are two important transcription factors which play major roles in the regulating inflammatory cytokine, apoptosis and immune related genes. Here, we report the discovery of disk abalone LITAF (AbLITAF) and Rel/NF-kB (AbRel/NF-kB) homologues and their immune responses. Full-length cDNA of AbLITAF consists of 441 bp open reading frame (ORF) that translates into putative peptide of 147 aa. Analysis of AbLITAF sequence showed it has characteristic LITAF (Zn(+2)) binding domain with two CXXC motifs. Phylogenetic analysis results further revealed that AbLITAF is a member of LITAF family. AbRel/NF-kB is 584 aa protein that contains several characteristic motifs including Rel homology domain (RHD), Rel protein signature, DNA binding motif, nuclear localization signal (NLS) and transcription factor immunoglobulin - like fold (TIG) similar to their invertebrate and vertebrate counterparts. Tissue specific analysis results showed that both AbLITAF and AbRel/NF-kB mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in all selected tissues in constitutive manner. However, constitutive expression of AbLITAF was higher than AbRel/NF-kB in all tissues except mantle. Upon immune challenge by bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes) and viral hemoragic septicemia virus (VHSV), AbLITAF showed the significant up-regulation in gills while AbRel/NF-kB transcription was not change significantly. Based on transcriptional response against immune challenge, we could suggest that regulation of TNF-alpha expression may have occurred mainly by LITAF activation rather than NF-kB in disk abalone. The cumulative data from other molluscs and our data with reference to TNF-alpha, LITAF and Rel/NF-kB from disk abalone provide strong evidence that LITAF and NF-kB are independent pathways likely to occur throughout the Phylum mollusca. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Haliotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bravo Portela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Jung, Myunghee; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seung-il; Markkandan, Kesavan; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Ho-jin; Park, Jun-hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It's therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG). A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Jung, Myunghee; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seung-il; Markkandan, Kesavan; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Ho-jin; Park, Jun-hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It’s therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG). A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection. PMID:27088873

  8. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Hye Nam

    Full Text Available Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It's therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG. A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection.

  9. Short Communication Towards an abalone weaning diet: evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival of post-settlement abalone when 'weaning' them from diatoms onto macroalgae/artificial feed remains unpredictable for farmers. It is hypothesised that spirulina algae, which are high in protein, may be a suitable feed ingredient for weaning abalone. Over a period of 27 days, the growth and survival of juvenile (4–6 ...

  10. Marked changes in neuropeptide expression accompany broadcast spawnings in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York Patrick S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A huge diversity of marine species reproduce by synchronously spawning their gametes into the water column. Although this species-specific event typically occurs in a particular season, the precise time and day of spawning often can not be predicted. There is little understanding of how the environment (e.g. water temperature, day length, tidal and lunar cycle regulates a population’s reproductive physiology to synchronise a spawning event. The Indo-Pacific tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, has a highly predictable spawning cycle, where individuals release gametes on the evenings of spring high tides on new and full moons during the warmer half of the year. These calculable spawning events uniquely allow for the analysis of the molecular and cellular processes underlying reproduction. Here we characterise neuropeptides produced in H. asinina ganglia that are known in egg-laying molluscs to control vital aspects of reproduction. Results We demonstrate that genes encoding APGWamide, myomodulin, the putative proctolin homologue whitnin, FMRFamide, a schistosomin-like peptide (SLP, a molluscan insulin-related peptide (MIP and a haliotid growth-associated peptide (HGAP all are differentially expressed in the anterior ganglia during the two week spawning cycle in both male and female abalone. Each gene has a unique and sex-specific expression profile. Despite these differences, expression levels in most of the genes peak at or within 12 h of the spawning event. In contrast, lowest levels of transcript abundance typically occurs 36 h before and 24 h after spawning, with differences in peak and low expression levels being most pronounced in genes orthologous to known molluscan reproduction neuromodulators. Conclusions Exploiting the predictable semi-lunar spawning cycle of the gastropod H. asinina, we have identified a suite of evolutionarily-conserved, mollusc-specific and rapidly-evolving neuropeptides that appear to

  11. The distribution of the West Coast rock lobster Jasus lalandii ranges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Key words: abalone Haliotis midae, Jasus lalandii, predation, sea urchins. * Formerly Marine Biology Research Institute, Zoology Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; now. 1/19 Alpha Road, Prospect 5082, South Australia. † Formerly Marine Biology Research Institute; now SARDI Aquatic ...

  12. 75 FR 29316 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13599

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ...; fax (301) 713-0376; and Southeast Region, NMFS, 263 13th Avenue South, Saint Petersburg, Florida 33701... the Chief, Permits, Conservation and Education Division, at the address listed above. Comments may... black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969...

  13. Generation and analysis of cDNA library from lipopolysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These immune-related genes include cytidine deaminase, ferritin, nonmuscle myosin essential light chain, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, CD63 antigen-like protein and lysosomal-associated transmembrane protein. This study may contribute to the understanding of the immune mechanism of gastropod abalone Haliotis ...

  14. Evaluation of abalone β-glucuronidase substitution in current urine hydrolysis procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik-Wolf, Brittany; Vorce, Shawn; Holler, Justin; Bosy, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the potential of abalone β-glucuronidase as a viable and cost effective alternative to current hydrolysis procedures using acid, Helix pomatia β-glucuronidase and Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase. Abalone β-glucuronidase successfully hydrolyzed oxazepam-glucuronide and lorazepam-glucuronide within 5% of the spiked control concentration. Benzodiazepines present in authentic urine specimens were within 20% of the concentrations obtained with the current hydrolysis procedure using H. pomatia β-glucuronidase. JWH 018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) β-d-glucuronide was hydrolyzed within 10% of the control concentration. Authentic urine specimens showed improved glucuronide cleavage using abalone β-glucuronidase with up to an 85% increase of drug concentration, compared with the results obtained using E. coli β-glucuronidase. The JWH 018 and JWH 073 carboxylic acid metabolites also showed increased drug concentrations of up to 24%. Abalone β-glucuronidase was able to completely hydrolyze a morphine-3-glucuronide control, but only 82% of total morphine was hydrolyzed in authentic urine specimens compared with acid hydrolysis results. Hydrolysis of codeine and hydromorphone varied between specimens, suggesting that abalone β-glucuronidase may not be as efficient in hydrolyzing the glucuronide linkages in opioid compounds compared with acid hydrolysis. Abalone β-glucuronidase demonstrates effectiveness as a low cost option for enzyme hydrolysis of benzodiazepines and synthetic cannabinoids.

  15. Therapeutic potential of abalone and status of bioactive molecules: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, H A R; Masci, P P; Gobe, G C; Osborne, S A

    2017-05-24

    Marine organisms are increasingly being investigated as sources of bioactive molecules with therapeutic applications as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In particular, nutraceuticals are gaining popularity worldwide owing to their therapeutic potential and incorporation in functional foods and dietary supplements. Abalone, a marine gastropod, contains a variety of bioactive compounds with anti-oxidant, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer activities. For thousands of years different cultures have used abalone as a traditional functional food believing consumption provides health benefits. Abalone meat is one of the most precious commodities in Asian markets where it is considered a culinary delicacy. Recent research has revealed that abalone is composed of many vital moieties like polysaccharides, proteins, and fatty acids that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. A review of past and present research is presented with relevance to the therapeutic potential of bioactive molecules from abalone.

  16. Marine reserves help preserve genetic diversity after impacts derived from climate variability: Lessons from the pink abalone in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Munguía-Vega

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is crucial for the adaptation of exploited species like the pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata, faced with threats from climate change, overfishing and impacts associated with aquaculture production. While marine reserves are commonly used to mitigate risks to marine populations, the duration, size, location and larval connectivity needed for a reserve to help conserve genetic resources is still poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of fishing, reserves, and restocking on the genetic diversity of 10 populations from central Baja California, Mexico, and Southern California, USA. We demonstrate that each population shows characteristic genetic signatures according to recent management decisions. We found high allelic diversity, particularly rare alleles, a larger effective population size and a lack of a recent genetic bottleneck in pink abalones within a small (0.8 km2, recently established (5 years reserve in Baja California, compared to other fished sites after a climatic bottleneck. Higher diversity may result from the presence of older animals in the reserve. Due to its location, the reserve may also act as an important hub connecting distant populations via larval dispersal. In contrast, a population from California showed genetic isolation, loss of allelic diversity and high relatedness, consistent with the collapse of fisheries in the 1990s and their lack of recovery thereafter. In addition, a fished area in Baja California with a history of restocking for over a decade showed an increase in frequency of related individuals and high genetic differentiation from nearby sites that were consistent with the production of larvae from a few adults in the laboratory. A network of strategically placed small marine reserves that considers ocean circulation patterns could help to maintain genetic diversity and connectivity of exploited populations.

  17. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting glycogen concentration in the foot muscle of abalone using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluckiger, Miriam; Brown, Malcolm R; Ward, Louise R; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A

    2011-06-15

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict glycogen concentrations in the foot muscle of cultured abalone. NIR spectra of live, shucked and freeze-dried abalones were modelled against chemically measured glycogen data (range: 0.77-40.9% of dry weight (DW)) using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The calibration models were then used to predict glycogen concentrations of test abalone samples and model robustness was assessed from coefficient of determination of the validation (R2(val)) and standard error of prediction (SEP) values. The model for freeze-dried abalone gave the best prediction (R2(val) 0.97, SEP=1.71), making it suitable for quantifying glycogen. Models for live and shucked abalones had R2(val) of 0.86 and 0.90, and SEP of 3.46 and 3.07 respectively, making them suitable for producing estimations of glycogen concentration. As glycogen is a taste-active component associated with palatability in abalone, this study demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a rapid method to monitor the factors associated with abalone quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards adaptive approaches to management of the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African abalone Haliotis midae resource is widely perceived as being under threat of overexploitation as a result of increased poaching. In this paper, reservations are expressed about using catch per unit effort as the sole index of abundance when assessing this fishery, particularly because of the highly ...

  20. Structural characterization and expression analysis of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) in disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Premachandra, H K A; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-15

    Repertoires of proteins and small peptides play numerous physiological roles as hormones, antimicrobial peptides, and cellular signaling factors. The beta-thymosins are a group of small acidic peptides involved in processes such as actin sequestration, neuronal development, wound healing, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Recent characterization of the beta thymosins as immunological regulators in invertebrates led to our identification and characterization of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) from Haliotis discus discus. The cDNA possessed an ORF of 132 bp encoding a protein of 44 amino acids with a molecular mass of 4977 Da. The amino acid sequence shows high identity with another molluskan beta-thymosin and has a characteristic actin binding motif (LKKTET) and glutamyl donors. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship with molluskan homologues, as well as its distinct identity and common ancestral origin. Genomic analysis revealed a 3 exon-2 intron structure similar to the other homologues. In silico promoter analysis also revealed significant transcription factor binding sites, providing evidence for the expression of this gene under different cellular conditions, including stress or pathogenic attack. Tissue distribution profiling revealed a ubiquitous presence in all the examined tissues, but with the highest expression in mantle and hemocyte. Immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C and Vibrio parahemolyticus induced beta-thymosin expression in gill and hemocytes, affirming an immune-related role in invertebrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A decade of illegal fishing in Table Mountain National Park (2000 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illegal fishing activities are reported to be on the increase in South Africa, including in its marine protected areas (MPAs). Research is presented on the nature and the scale of illegal fishing in Table Mountain National Park (TMNP) by analysing the numbers of abalone Haliotis midae and West Coast rock lobster Jasus ...

  2. Integrated culture of silver kob Argyrosomus inodorus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African abalone Haliotis midae farms utilise large volumes of seawater (c. 500–1 500 l s–1) and produce relatively dilute effluents that are potentially suitable for the integrated culture of other species. To test this hypothesis, a marine finfish, silver kob Argyrosomus inodorus, and a detritivorous polychaete, bloodworm ...

  3. Evaluation of de novo assembly technique in the South African abalone Haliotis midae transcriptome: A comparison from Illumina and 454 systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Picone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing platforms have recently been used to rapidly characterize transcriptome sequences from a number of non-model organisms. The present study compares two of the most frequently used platforms, the Roche 454-pyrosequencing and the Illumina sequencing-by-synthesis (SBS, on the same RNA sample obtained from an intertidal gastropod mollusc species, Haliotis midae. All the sequencing reads were deposited in the Short Read Archive (SRA database are retrievable under the accession number [SRR071314 (Illumina Genome Analyzer II] and [SRR1737738, SRR1737737, SRR1737735, SRR1737734 (454 GS FLX] in the SRA database of NCBI. Three transcriptomes, composed of either pure 454 or Illumina reads or a mixture of read types (Hybrid, were assembled using CLC Genomics Workbench software. Illumina assemblies performed the best de novo transcriptome characterization in terms of contig length, whereas the 454 assemblies tended to improve the complete assembly of gene transcripts. Both the Hybrid and Illumina assemblies produced longer contigs covering more of the transcriptome than 454 assemblies. However, the addition of 454 significantly increased the number of genes annotated.

  4. The effects of drilling muds on marine invertebrate larvae and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondi, P.T.; Barnett, A.M.; Krause, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments tested the effects of drilling muds from an active platform off southern California on larvae and adults of marine invertebrates. Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) were used to determine effects of drilling muds on fertilization, early development, survivorship, and settlement, and experiments on adult brown cup corals (Paracyathus stearnsii) tested effects on adult survivorship, viability, and tissue loss. Exposures to drilling muds did not have an effect on abalone fertilization or early development. However, several exposures to drilling muds resulted in weak, but significant, positive effects of drilling muds on settlement of competent larvae. In contrast, settlement of red abalone larvae on natural coralline algal crusts decreased with increasing concentrations of drilling muds. This suggests that drilling muds affect either the abalone's ability to detect natural settlement inducers, or they affect the inducer itself. Exposure of brown cup corals to concentrations of drilling muds adversely impacted their survivorship and viability. These effects were likely caused by increased tissue mortality of the coral polyps

  5. Abalone Hemocyanin Blocks the Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Cells: a Potential New Antiviral Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei Zanjani, Negar; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Valtchev, Peter; Hueston, Linda; Diefenbach, Eve; Sairi, Fareed; Gomes, Vincent G.

    2015-01-01

    A marine-derived compound, abalone hemocyanin, from Haliotis rubra was shown to have a unique mechanism of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections. In vitro assays demonstrated the dose-dependent and inhibitory effect of purified hemocyanin against HSV-1 infection in Vero cells with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 40 to 50 nM and no significant toxicity. In addition, hemocyanin specifically inhibited viral attachment and entry by binding selectively to the viral surface glycoproteins gD, gB, and gC, probably by mimicking their receptors. However, hemocyanin had no effect on postentry events and did not block infection by binding to cellular receptors for HSV. By the use of different mutants of gD and gB and a competitive heparin binding assay, both protein charge and conformation were shown to be the driving forces of the interaction between hemocyanin and viral glycoproteins. These findings also suggested that hemocyanin may have different motifs for binding to each of the viral glycoproteins B and D. The dimer subunit of hemocyanin with a 10-fold-smaller molecular mass exhibited similar binding to viral surface glycoproteins, showing that the observed inhibition did not require the entire multimer. Therefore, a small hemocyanin analogue could serve as a new antiviral candidate for HSV infections. PMID:26643336

  6. Short Communication Effects of heavy metals on the development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite a growing abalone Haliotis midae industry in South Africa, few studies have measured the effects of heavy metals on larval survival and growth in the face of recent increases in marine pollution. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of copper on survival and zinc on development of H. midae larvae. Larvae ...

  7. Variation in rates of early development in Haliotis asinina generate competent larvae of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Daniel J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Inter-specific comparisons of metazoan developmental mechanisms have provided a wealth of data concerning the evolution of body form and the generation of morphological novelty. Conversely, studies of intra-specific variation in developmental programs are far fewer. Variation in the rate of development may be an advantage to the many marine invertebrates that posses a biphasic life cycle, where fitness commonly requires the recruitment of planktonically dispersing larvae to patchily distributed benthic environments. Results We have characterised differences in the rate of development between individuals originating from a synchronised fertilisation event in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina, a broadcast spawning lecithotrophic vetigastropod. We observed significant differences in the time taken to complete early developmental events (time taken to complete third cleavage and to hatch from the vitelline envelope, mid-larval events (variation in larval shell development and late larval events (the acquisition of competence to respond to a metamorphosis inducing cue. We also provide estimates of the variation in maternally provided energy reserves that suggest maternal provisioning is unlikely to explain the majority of the variation in developmental rate we report here. Conclusions Significant differences in the rates of development exist both within and between cohorts of synchronously fertilised H. asinina gametes. These differences can be detected shortly after fertilisation and generate larvae of increasingly divergent development states. We discuss the significance of our results within an ecological context, the adaptive significance of mechanisms that might maintain this variation, and potential sources of this variation.

  8. Accumulation of Co by abalone, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taiji; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Nakahara, Motokazu; Shimizu, Chiaki.

    1982-01-01

    The appearance of radioactive Co in the liver of abalone from sea water was examined to consider the effect of chemical forms of Co(CoCl 2 and cyanocobalamin; vitamin B 12 ) in sea water upon the metabolisms in marine organisms. Organic 57 Co(cyanocobalamin) from sea water appeared in the liver of abalone combining with a constituent with a molecular weight of 4 x 10 4 . The constituent had the activity of vitamin B 12 , while inorganic 60 Co(CoCl 2 ) appeared combining with three constituents with molecular weights more than or equal to 1.5 x 10 6 , 7 x 10 3 and less than or equal to 1.5 x 10 3 which did not show the activities of vitamin B 12 . The effect of chemical forms of Co in sea water is significant in its accumulation by some species of marine organisms. (author)

  9. Status of abalone fishery and experiential mariculture as a resource conservation strategy in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study described the abalone f ishery in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan to develop mariculture and to reseed a part of the harvest as a resource conservation strategy. The abalone fishery of Anda is artisanal or smallscale, typif ied by f ishers gleaning or free-diving on shallow rocky areas which are the typical habitat of abalone. Low densities of 1.67 to 8 individuals per 250 m2 were observed. Local f ishers have knowledge of productive f ishing areas. Hence, cage culture of abalone in these areas could be a viable resource conservation strategy as they serve as reproductive reserves to supply larvae for continued productivity of the f ishing grounds. Abalone mariculture following the Farmer Field School (FFS concept was explored to address both resource management and economic needs. As a resource enhancement activity, mariculture guarantees that cultured abalone are allowed to grow to maturity before harvested, while some are retained to restock a marine sanctuary. Sincemariculture makes possible the aggregation of individuals, the probability that fertilization would take place is increased. As supplemental source of livelihood, abalone is a high value commodity and its culture can help augment the income of f ishers. Small abalone (3-4 cm can be cultured further for 3-4 months to increase their size and weight. Mariculture should be done from November to May to avoid the rainy season and improve survivorship. The experiential activity was successful because it became a means for the f ishers to experienceresource management. Under the FFS, the researcher became a facilitator and mentored the cooperators in learning from their experience. The lessons sharpened the f ishers’ skills in observation, problem-solving, decision-making, and critical thinking. This enabled them to gain an appreciation of their resource.

  10. Effect of abalone farming on sediment geochemistry in the Shallow Sea near Wando, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Lee, Yeon Gyu; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Yang Ho; Shin, Yun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Wando County has grown up to 93% of the total abalone produced in South Korea since the late 1990s; however, this production has been decreasing in recent years. The objectives of this study were to understand the potential contamination risks of abalone farming and to examine the influence of intensive abalone farming on sediment quality by analyzing grain-size composition, organic matter (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulfur (TS)) and heavy metal content, pH, and 210Pb geochronology. The results of organic matter analysis from surface and core sediment (length: 64 cm) showed that the area around the abalone farm had oxic marine-to-brackish conditions, but that the area directly below an abalone cage (location 7) had reductive conditions, with a C/S ratio of ~2. The average TN levels in the surface and core sediments were 0.25% and 0.29%, respectively, and this was predominantly due to the use of seaweed for feed. The low sediment pH (surface, 7.23; core, 7.04), indicates that acidification of the bottom sediment has gradually increased since the initiation of abalone farming and is likely due to the continuous accumulation of uneaten feed and feces. Heavy metal pollution was not apparent based on the examination of EF and Igeo, although the excess metal flux of Ni, Pb, Cu, Co, As, and Cd increased toward surface of the sediment core. These sediment changes may be caused by the rapid accumulation (sedimentation rate: 1.45 cm/year) of sludge discharged from the abalone farm and may be controlled by tidal currents, physiography, water depth, and tidal ranges.

  11. Abalone visceral extract inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by modulating Cox-2 levels and CD8+ T cell activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    II Kim Jae

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abalone has long been used as a valuable food source in East Asian countries. Although the nutritional importance of abalone has been reported through in vitro and in vivo studies, there is little evidence about the potential anti-tumor effects of abalone visceral extract. The aim of the present study is to examine anti-tumor efficacy of abalone visceral extract and to elucidate its working mechanism. Methods In the present study, we used breast cancer model using BALB/c mouse-derived 4T1 mammary carcinoma and investigated the effect of abalone visceral extract on tumor development. Inhibitory effect against tumor metastasis was assessed by histopathology of lungs. Cox-2 productions by primary and secondary tumor were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting (IB. Proliferation assay based on [3H]-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cytokines and effector molecules by RT-PCR were used to confirm tumor suppression efficacy of abalone visceral extract by modulating cytolytic CD8+ T cells. The cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cell was compared by JAM test. Results Oral administration of abalone visceral extract reduced tumor growth (tumor volume and weight and showed reduced metastasis as confirmed by decreased level of splenomegaly (spleen size and weight and histological analysis of the lung metastasis (gross analysis and histological staining. Reduced expression of Cox-2 (mRNA and protein from primary tumor and metastasized lung was also detected. In addition, treatment of abalone visceral extract increased anti-tumor activities of CD8+ T cells by increasing the proliferation capacity and their cytolytic activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that abalone visceral extract has anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor growth and lung metastasis through decreasing Cox-2 expression level as well as promoting proliferation and cytolytic function of CD8+ T cells.

  12. Abalone visceral extract inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by modulating Cox-2 levels and CD8+ T cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong-Gu; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Ryu, Jae Ha; Kang, Sung Jin; Im, Chang-Rok; Ii Kim, Jae; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2010-10-20

    Abalone has long been used as a valuable food source in East Asian countries. Although the nutritional importance of abalone has been reported through in vitro and in vivo studies, there is little evidence about the potential anti-tumor effects of abalone visceral extract. The aim of the present study is to examine anti-tumor efficacy of abalone visceral extract and to elucidate its working mechanism. In the present study, we used breast cancer model using BALB/c mouse-derived 4T1 mammary carcinoma and investigated the effect of abalone visceral extract on tumor development. Inhibitory effect against tumor metastasis was assessed by histopathology of lungs. Cox-2 productions by primary and secondary tumor were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting (IB). Proliferation assay based on [3H]-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cytokines and effector molecules by RT-PCR were used to confirm tumor suppression efficacy of abalone visceral extract by modulating cytolytic CD8+ T cells. The cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cell was compared by JAM test. Oral administration of abalone visceral extract reduced tumor growth (tumor volume and weight) and showed reduced metastasis as confirmed by decreased level of splenomegaly (spleen size and weight) and histological analysis of the lung metastasis (gross analysis and histological staining). Reduced expression of Cox-2 (mRNA and protein) from primary tumor and metastasized lung was also detected. In addition, treatment of abalone visceral extract increased anti-tumor activities of CD8+ T cells by increasing the proliferation capacity and their cytolytic activity. Our results suggest that abalone visceral extract has anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor growth and lung metastasis through decreasing Cox-2 expression level as well as promoting proliferation and cytolytic function of CD8+ T cells.

  13. Insights into adhesion of abalone: A mechanical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Sai; Liu, Jianlin

    2018-01-01

    Many living creatures possess extremely strong capability of adhesion, which has aroused great attention of many scientists and engineers. Based on the self-developed equipment, we measured the normal and shear adhesion strength of the abalone underwater and out of water on different contact surfaces. It is found that the adhesion force of the abalone can amount to 200 or 300 times its body weight. The effects of wettability and roughness of the surface, and the frictional coefficient of mucus on the adhesion strength have been discussed. The theoretical calculation manifests that the normal adhesion force mainly stems from the suction pressure, van der Waals force and capillary force of the pedal, and their limit values are given. These findings may provide some inspirations to engineer new-typed materials, micro-devices, adhesives and medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using Local Ecological Knowledge and Environmental Education in Resource Management of Abalone in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to (1 determine the local ecological knowledge (LEK of abalone gatherers through interviews and mentoring, and assess the correspondence between scientific information and LEK, so that areas where local knowledge may be most useful in resource management could be identified, and (2 to empower selected gatherers/farmers with knowledge and technical skills through environmental education to help develop or build their capacity to become sustainable resource managers. The LEK of abalone fishers was determined using three complementary approaches – group interview, individual interview, and mentoring sessions. Local fishers possess a wealth of knowledge about the interactions of species gained through many years of observations, and this knowledge may be useful in guiding biologists in ecological restoration or management regimes. Additionally, the fishers’ LEK, validated by modern scientific ecological findings, could be a source of important and effective ideas in resource management. The knowledge of the abalone gatherers about important abalone fishing grounds should help in pinpointing critical areas that need to be managed. Abalone mariculture in cages should be set up in these areas to routinely create dense breeding populations which can help in enhancing recovery and in providing fishers with a source of additional income. The continued enforcement of marine protected areas and the periodic release or reseeding of abalone in sanctuaries could also be considered viable resource management options. Other recommendations for resource management based on gathered local knowledge and lessons learned from the environmental education (EE seminars are also presented.

  15. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  16. From untargeted LC-QTOF analysis to characterisation of opines in abalone adductor muscle: Theory meets practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Leonie; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet J; Loots, Du Toit; Vosloo, Andre; Lindeque, Jeremie Zander

    2017-12-15

    Abalone have a unique ability to use pyruvate, various amino acids and dehydrogenases, to produce opines as means to prevent the accumulation of NADH during anaerobic conditions. In this study, the theoretical masses, formulae and fragment patterns of butylated opines were used to predict which of these compounds could be found in the abalone adductor muscle using untargeted liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of flight-mass spectrometry. These findings were validated using synthesised opine standards. In essence alanopine, lysopine, strombine and tauropine produced in abalone adductor muscle could be characterised using the highest identification confidence levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Abalone Hydrolysates Encapsulated by Double Emulsion on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Fresh Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, HeeJeong; Kim, Soo-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The intake of dietary salt through food now exceeds current nutritional recommendations and is thought to have negative effects on human health, such as the increasing prevalence of hypertension. This study was performed to investigate whether W 1 /O/W 2 double emulsions can be used to enhance the saltiness of cheese without increasing the salt content (W 1 is distilled water or 1% abalone hydrolysate, and W 2 is 1% NaCl or 1% abalone hydrolysate + 1% NaCl solution). We also investigated the effect of adding abalone hydrolysate to the double emulsion as a saltiness enhancer. The cheeses were physico-chemically evaluated to determine curd yield, pH value, moisture content, color, texture, salt release rate, and sensory properties. No significant differences were observed in curd yield, pH value, moisture content, lightness, or redness between the cheeses made with and without the double emulsion. However, in the evaluation of salt release rate, fresh cheese made with double emulsion (W 1 = distilled water, W 2 = 1% NaCl + 1% abalone hydrolysate) was detected earlier than the control or the other treatments. In the sensory evaluation, fresh cheese made with the double emulsion showed higher scores for saltiness and overall preference than the control or the other treatments. We concluded that abalone hydrolysate encapsulated in a double emulsion (W 1 is water and W 2 is abalone hydrolysate and NaCl solution) could enhance the saltiness of fresh cheese while maintaining the same salt concentration, without altering its physical properties.

  18. Abalone Muscle Texture Evaluation and Prediction Based on TPA Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxu Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different heat treatments on abalones’ texture properties and sensory characteristics were studied. Thermal processing of abalone muscle was analyzed to determine the optimal heat treatment condition based on fuzzy evaluation. The results showed that heat treatment at 85°C for 1 hour had certain desirable effects on the properties of the abalone meat. Specifically, a back propagation (BP neural network was introduced to predict the equations of statistically significant sensory hardness, springiness, and smell using the texture data gained through TPA (texture profile analysis experiments as input and sensory evaluation data as the desired output. The final outcome was that the predictability was proved to be satisfactory, with an average error of 6.93%.

  19. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-09-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe(2+) chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods.

  20. As abalone grow, they change their habitat and be- haviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    rock lobster Jasus lalandii, which eat sea urchins, have been ... change with abalone size (McCormick et al. 1994), .... rock faces. Any boulder too large to roll was classified as a ..... Social behaviour of juvenile red sea urchins, Strongylo-.

  1. The growth performance of Jade Tiger cultured abalone fed diets supplemented with fish oil and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation and the dietary replacement of FO with flaxseed oil (FlaxO) and canola oil (CO) on the growth of cultured abalone was investigated. The study involved three growth experiments: (E1) diets containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO, respectively; (E2) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% FlaxO, respectively; and (E3) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% CO, respectively. In Experiment 1, abalone fed a diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed a significantly higher (121.2 ± 1.1 mg day(-1)) daily growth rate of weight (DGRw ) compared to control (70.1 ± 1.71 mg day(-1)). In Experiment 2, abalone fed 1.5% FO diet and diets containing 25-75% FlaxO showed no significant differences in DGRw. The diet containing 100% FlaxO showed significantly lower (63.3 ± 6.7 mg day(-1)) DGRw. In Experiment 3, abalone fed diets containing 25% and 50% CO showed similar DGRw as those fed a 1.5% FO diet. The diet containing 75% and 100% CO showed significantly lower (63.7 ± 5.0 to 95.4 ± 5.1 mg day(-1)) DGRw. Supplementation with 1.5% of dietary FO can improve growth performance in cultured abalone. It is feasible to replace 75% of dietary FO with FlaxO and 50% of dietary FO with CO, without negative effect on growth performance. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Nanoscale elasticity mappings of micro-constituents of abalone shell by band excitation-contact resonance force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Kaiyang

    2014-01-01

    The macroscopic mechanical properties of the abalone shell have been studied extensively in the literature, but the in situ nanoscale elasticity of various micro-constituents in the shell have not been characterized and reported yet. In this study, the nanoscale elasticity mappings including different micro-constituents in abalone shell were observed by using the Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) technique. CR-FM is one of the advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques that is able to quantify the local elastic moduli of various materials in a non-destructive manner. Instead of an average value, an elasticity mapping that reveals the nanoscale variations of elastic moduli with location can be extracted and correlated with the topography of the structure. Therefore in this study, by adopting the CR-FM technique that is incorporated with the band excitation technique, the elasticity variations of the abalone shell caused by different micro-constituents and crystal orientations are reported, and the elasticity values of the aragonite and calcite nanograins are quantified.The macroscopic mechanical properties of the abalone shell have been studied extensively in the literature, but the in situ nanoscale elasticity of various micro-constituents in the shell have not been characterized and reported yet. In this study, the nanoscale elasticity mappings including different micro-constituents in abalone shell were observed by using the Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) technique. CR-FM is one of the advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques that is able to quantify the local elastic moduli of various materials in a non-destructive manner. Instead of an average value, an elasticity mapping that reveals the nanoscale variations of elastic moduli with location can be extracted and correlated with the topography of the structure. Therefore in this study, by adopting the CR-FM technique that is incorporated with the band excitation technique, the

  3. Accumulation of Co by abalone, 1. Effect of chemical form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Nakahara, M. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Nakaminato, Ibaraki (Japan). Nakaminato Lab. Brance Office); Shimizu, C.

    1982-03-01

    The appearance of radioactive Co in the liver of abalone from sea water was examined to consider the effect of chemical forms of Co(CoCl/sub 2/ and cyanocobalamin; vitamin B/sub 12/) in sea water upon the metabolisms in marine organisms. Organic /sup 57/Co(cyanocobalamin) from sea water appeared in the liver of abalone combining with a constituent with a molecular weight of 4 x 10/sup 4/. The constituent had the activity of vitamin B/sub 12/, while inorganic /sup 60/Co(CoCl/sub 2/) appeared combining with three constituents with molecular weights more than or equal to 1.5 x 10/sup 6/, 7 x 10/sup 3/ and less than or equal to 1.5 x 10/sup 3/ which did not show the activities of vitamin B/sub 12/. The effect of chemical forms of Co in sea water is significant in its accumulation by some species of marine organisms.

  4. Whole-genome sequencing reveals that Shewanella haliotis Kim et al. 2007 can be considered a later heterotypic synonym of Shewanella algae Simidu et al. 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeinbaum, Nadia; Kellum, Cailin E; Glass, Jennifer B; Janda, J Michael; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2018-04-01

    Previously, experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) between Shewanellahaliotis JCM 14758 T and Shewanellaalgae JCM 21037 T had suggested that the two strains could be considered different species, despite minimal phenotypic differences. The recent isolation of Shewanella sp. MN-01, with 99 % 16S rRNA gene identity to S. algae and S. haliotis, revealed a potential taxonomic problem between these two species. In this study, we reassessed the nomenclature of S. haliotis and S. algae using available whole-genome sequences. The whole-genome sequence of S. haliotis JCM 14758 T and ten S. algae strains showed ≥97.7 % average nucleotide identity and >78.9 % digital DDH, clearly above the recommended species thresholds. According to the rules of priority and in view of the results obtained, S. haliotis is to be considered a later heterotypic synonym of S. algae. Because the whole-genome sequence of Shewanella sp. strain MN-01 shares >99 % ANI with S. algae JCM 14758 T , it can be confidently identified as S. algae.

  5. Effects for rapid conversion from abalone shell to hydroxyapaptite nanosheets by ionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shengnan; Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Li, Qian; Shi, Xuetao; Ding, Shinnjyh; Zhang, Qiqing

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) has been widely used for repairing or substituting human hard tissues. In this paper, two typical ionic surfactants, cation hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and anion sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), were used for rapid conversion of HAP from abalone shell. From field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), the prepared HAP is flake-like structure. From X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analysis, these samples contain a small amount of calcium carbonate whose content gradually increases by increasing the surfactants. The results showed that the HAP formed fast on the layer of abalone shell powder with the assistance of CTAB and SDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Bacteriophage-Related Chimeric Marine Virus Infecting Abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun; Cai, Guiqin; Lin, Qiying; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

    2010-01-01

    Marine viruses shape microbial communities with the most genetic diversity in the sea by multiple genetic exchanges and infect multiple marine organisms. Here we provide proof from experimental infection that abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus (AbSV) can cause abalone shriveling syndrome. This malady produces histological necrosis and abnormally modified macromolecules (hemocyanin and ferritin). The AbSV genome is a 34.952-kilobase circular double-stranded DNA, containing putative genes with similarity to bacteriophages, eukaryotic viruses, bacteria and endosymbionts. Of the 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), eight ORF-encoded proteins have identifiable functional homologues. The 4 ORF products correspond to a predicted terminase large subunit and an endonuclease in bacteriophage, and both an integrase and an exonuclease from bacteria. The other four proteins are homologous to an endosymbiont-derived helicase, primase, single-stranded binding (SSB) protein, and thymidylate kinase, individually. Additionally, AbSV exhibits a common gene arrangement similar to the majority of bacteriophages. Unique to AbSV, the viral genome also contains genes associated with bacterial outer membrane proteins and may lack the structural protein-encoding ORFs. Genomic characterization of AbSV indicates that it may represent a transitional form of microbial evolution from viruses to bacteria. PMID:21079776

  7. A bacteriophage-related chimeric marine virus infecting abalone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhuang

    Full Text Available Marine viruses shape microbial communities with the most genetic diversity in the sea by multiple genetic exchanges and infect multiple marine organisms. Here we provide proof from experimental infection that abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus (AbSV can cause abalone shriveling syndrome. This malady produces histological necrosis and abnormally modified macromolecules (hemocyanin and ferritin. The AbSV genome is a 34.952-kilobase circular double-stranded DNA, containing putative genes with similarity to bacteriophages, eukaryotic viruses, bacteria and endosymbionts. Of the 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs, eight ORF-encoded proteins have identifiable functional homologues. The 4 ORF products correspond to a predicted terminase large subunit and an endonuclease in bacteriophage, and both an integrase and an exonuclease from bacteria. The other four proteins are homologous to an endosymbiont-derived helicase, primase, single-stranded binding (SSB protein, and thymidylate kinase, individually. Additionally, AbSV exhibits a common gene arrangement similar to the majority of bacteriophages. Unique to AbSV, the viral genome also contains genes associated with bacterial outer membrane proteins and may lack the structural protein-encoding ORFs. Genomic characterization of AbSV indicates that it may represent a transitional form of microbial evolution from viruses to bacteria.

  8. Predicting the distribution of commercially important invertebrate stocks under future climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayden D Russell

    Full Text Available The future management of commercially exploited species is challenging because techniques used to predict the future distribution of stocks under climate change are currently inadequate. We projected the future distribution and abundance of two commercially harvested abalone species (blacklip abalone, Haliotis rubra and greenlip abalone, H. laevigata inhabiting coastal South Australia, using multiple species distribution models (SDM and for decadal time slices through to 2100. Projections are based on two contrasting global greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The SDMs identified August (winter Sea Surface Temperature (SST as the best descriptor of abundance and forecast that warming of winter temperatures under both scenarios may be beneficial to both species by allowing increased abundance and expansion into previously uninhabited coasts. This range expansion is unlikely to be realised, however, as projected warming of March SST is projected to exceed temperatures which cause up to 10-fold increases in juvenile mortality. By linking fine-resolution forecasts of sea surface temperature under different climate change scenarios to SDMs and physiological experiments, we provide a practical first approximation of the potential impact of climate-induced change on two species of marine invertebrates in the same fishery.

  9. Abalone Haliotis spp. are in considerable demand worldwide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    AND D-LACTATE, BE USED AS METABOLIC STRESS INDICATORS DURING ... tauropine, is present in high activities (54 U g wet weight-1) in the shell adductor muscle, but ..... BRITZ, P. J. 1996 — Effect of the dietary protein level on growth.

  10. Effect of abalone farming on seawater movement and benthic foraminiferal assemblage of Zostera marina in the inner bay of Wando, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon Gyu; Choi, Yang Ho; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Kim, Yong Wan; Park, Jung Jun; Choi, Jae Ung

    2016-08-15

    Tidal current survey as well as geochemical and benthic foraminiferal analyses of sediment cores were conducted in an abalone farm and a Zostera bed to understand the degree to which the abalone farm facilities installed along a channel in a shallow sea affect the benthic environment and ecology. In the abalone farm, Ammonia beccarii-Pseudoparrella naraensis-Elphidium somaense-Rosalina globularis-Trochammina hadai and P. naraensis-E. somaense-A. beccarii-T. hadai assemblages appeared owing to an increase in the total nitrogen content from the biodeposits. The Zostera bed consisted of A. beccarii-P. naraensis-Buccella frigida-T. hadai assemblage owing to the gradual expansion of a brackish shallow-water environment by the rapidly decreasing current speed, and it may have flourished. Moreover, the total sulfur, Zn, Cr, and Cu contents in the sediments decreased remarkably more than those of the pre-abalone farming did, caused by the vigorous activity of Zostera marina physiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Book Review Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries and Culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    several of the more important aspects of abalone biology. One of the most attractive features of the book is the skilful way in which the editors have managed to cover a very broad range of subject material whilst at the same time treating individual topics in sufficient depth to satisfy specialists. The book is divided into nine ...

  12. Use of oil palm kernel meal as a supplement material for abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K. Miller cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcharat, V. and

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum rate of oil palm kernel meal, for an abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus cultivation. Different concentrations of oil palm kernel meal (5- 20% were added to pararubber sawdust and used to grow the abalone mushroom in plastic bags. Growth rate of the mycelia, number of days from watering to harvesting and yield were compared to those on 94% sawdust + 5% rice bran + 1% Ca(OH2. The results showed that 10% oil palm kernel meal was the optimum concentration for abalone mushroom cultivation. Yield on 950 g/bag of 89% sawdust + 10% oil palm kernel meal + 1% Ca(OH2 was 202.12 g/bag (B.E. = 60.79% during 120 days of havesting time. Addition of higher concentration of oil palm kernel meal (15-20% did not increase yield of the basidiocarps.

  13. Effects of offshore oil and gas development activities in southern California on larval settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondi, P.T.; Barnett, A.; Krause, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    A series of in situ field experiments were conducted to determine effects of oil and gas drilling activities on the settlement of marine larvae in the deep ocean (180 m). The study sites were a series of three drilling rigs and three reference sites between Pt. Arguello and Pt. Conception in California. Experiments were carried out in both pre-drilling and drilling phases to test the effects of drilling activities (e.g. drilling, drilling mud release, and produced water discharges) on the ability of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) larvae to settle using an in situ experiment. Their in situ experiment involved reciprocal transplants of settling plates that were ''filmed'' with bacteria from each site. After filming in the field at each of two heights, plates were mounted into chambers, covered with mesh and placed onto recoverable larval arrays for deployment in the field. Before deployment the authors injected approximately 300 competent red abalone larvae into each chamber. One larval array was deployed at each site for three days and each array contained plates filmed at all sites. In addition sterile plates (no surface filming) were included at each site. Upon recovery the number of settled abalone larvae were counted. Therefore, the experiment tested location-related (drilling sites versus reference), waterborne, and height effects on settlement in both the pre-drilling and drilling phases. Their results show that red abalone served as a sensitive indicator for in situ studies of larval settlement. The authors found significantly higher numbers of abalone settling onto plates that were filmed versus those that were not. The authors also found significantly lower settlement rates between the pre-drilling and drilling periods

  14. The steadily increasing demand for South African abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    The usual harvesting method is for a diver to cut all. Ecklonia plants ... This study estimates the biomass of E. maxima available for harvesting, investi- gates the effects of ..... The processes that shape kelp bed structure and dynamics are of ...

  15. A neurotropic herpesvirus infecting the gastropod, abalone, shares ancestry with oyster herpesvirus and a herpesvirus associated with the amphioxus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawbridge Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exception of the oyster herpesvirus OsHV-1, all herpesviruses characterized thus far infect only vertebrates. Some cause neurological disease in their hosts, while others replicate or become latent in neurological tissues. Recently a new herpesvirus causing ganglioneuritis in abalone, a gastropod, was discovered. Molecular analysis of new herpesviruses, such as this one and others, still to be discovered in invertebrates, will provide insight into the evolution of herpesviruses. Results We sequenced the genome of a neurotropic virus linked to a fatal ganglioneuritis devastating parts of a valuable wild abalone fishery in Australia. We show that the newly identified virus forms part of an ancient clade with its nearest relatives being a herpesvirus infecting bivalves (oyster and, unexpectedly, one we identified, from published data, apparently integrated within the genome of amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate. Predicted protein sequences from the abalone virus genome have significant similarity to several herpesvirus proteins including the DNA packaging ATPase subunit of (putative terminase and DNA polymerase. Conservation of amino acid sequences in the terminase across all herpesviruses and phylogenetic analysis using the DNA polymerase and terminase proteins demonstrate that the herpesviruses infecting the molluscs, oyster and abalone, are distantly related. The terminase and polymerase protein sequences from the putative amphioxus herpesvirus share more sequence similarity with those of the mollusc viruses than with sequences from any of the vertebrate herpesviruses analysed. Conclusions A family of mollusc herpesviruses, Malacoherpesviridae, that was based on a single virus infecting oyster can now be further established by including a distantly related herpesvirus infecting abalone, which, like many vertebrate viruses is neurotropic. The genome of Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus provides evidence for the

  16. Development of an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA system for tropical marine species in southern cebu, Central Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo B. Largo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the establishment of an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA system in the tropical open waters of southern Cebu, Philippines using a combination of locally available species, namely donkey’s ear abalone (Haliotis asinina as fed species and seaweeds (Gracilaria heteroclada and Eucheuma denticulatum as inorganic extractive species. The culture of Caulerpa lentillifera as a biofilter did not work in the open sea cultivation system using baskets. Monthly measurements of shell length, width and body weight of the cultured abalones, together with in situ measurements of physicochemical parameters to assess any changes in water quality, mainly nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and phosphate, were conducted over a year period from February 2013 to January 2014 in three designated stations (Abalone, Seaweed and Control Stations at three different depths (surface, middle and bottom.Cage culture of abalone side by side with seaweeds in the open sea did not result in any significant water quality disturbance in the area—at least not in the current volume of caged abalones being used. Of the four inorganic compounds monitored in the field, nitrate and ammonia in the Seaweed Station were shown to have relatively lower year-round average values when compared with the Abalone Station, although in the case of nitrate, it was higher in the Control Station compared with the abalone and Seaweed Stations. Although this difference was not significant, it shows the red seaweeds, G. heteroclada and E. denticulatum, to be functioning as a natural filter for these two nutrients. In contrast, nitrite, and phosphate concentrations were not reduced indicating that the seaweeds were not effective biofilter for these two nutrients.The two-month old hatchery-bred donkey’s ear abalones can grow to a size of 53.8 × 28.2 mm (L × W and body weight of 37.8 g after a period of 12 months. Any expansion of the farm into a much larger commercial

  17. Bio-inspired passive actuator simulating an abalone shell mechanism for structural control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Henry T Y; Lin, Chun-Hung; Bridges, Daniel; Randall, Connor J; Hansma, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    An energy dispersion mechanism called 'sacrificial bonds and hidden length', which is found in some biological systems, such as abalone shells and bones, is the inspiration for new strategies for structural control. Sacrificial bonds and hidden length can substantially increase the stiffness and enhance energy dissipation in the constituent molecules of abalone shells and bone. Having been inspired by the usefulness and effectiveness of such a mechanism, which has evolved over millions of years and countless cycles of evolutions, the authors employ the conceptual underpinnings of this mechanism to develop a bio-inspired passive actuator. This paper presents a fundamental method for optimally designing such bio-inspired passive actuators for structural control. To optimize the bio-inspired passive actuator, a simple method utilizing the force–displacement–velocity (FDV) plots based on LQR control is proposed. A linear regression approach is adopted in this research to find the initial values of the desired parameters for the bio-inspired passive actuator. The illustrative examples, conducted by numerical simulation with experimental validation, suggest that the bio-inspired passive actuator based on sacrificial bonds and hidden length may be comparable in performance to state-of-the-art semi-active actuators

  18. Bio-inspired passive actuator simulating an abalone shell mechanism for structural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Henry T. Y.; Lin, Chun-Hung; Bridges, Daniel; Randall, Connor J.; Hansma, Paul K.

    2010-10-01

    An energy dispersion mechanism called 'sacrificial bonds and hidden length', which is found in some biological systems, such as abalone shells and bones, is the inspiration for new strategies for structural control. Sacrificial bonds and hidden length can substantially increase the stiffness and enhance energy dissipation in the constituent molecules of abalone shells and bone. Having been inspired by the usefulness and effectiveness of such a mechanism, which has evolved over millions of years and countless cycles of evolutions, the authors employ the conceptual underpinnings of this mechanism to develop a bio-inspired passive actuator. This paper presents a fundamental method for optimally designing such bio-inspired passive actuators for structural control. To optimize the bio-inspired passive actuator, a simple method utilizing the force-displacement-velocity (FDV) plots based on LQR control is proposed. A linear regression approach is adopted in this research to find the initial values of the desired parameters for the bio-inspired passive actuator. The illustrative examples, conducted by numerical simulation with experimental validation, suggest that the bio-inspired passive actuator based on sacrificial bonds and hidden length may be comparable in performance to state-of-the-art semi-active actuators.

  19. Modification of calcite crystal growth by abalone shell proteins: an atomic force microscope study.

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, D A; Smith, B L; Belcher, A M; Paloczi, G T; Stucky, G D; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    1997-01-01

    A family of soluble proteins from the shell of Haliotis rufescens was introduced over a growing calcite crystal being scanned in situ by an atomic force microscope (AFM). Atomic step edges on the crystal surface were altered in shape and speed of growth by the proteins. Proteins attached nonuniformly to the surface, indicating different interactions with crystallographically different step edges. The observed changes were consistent with the habit modification induced by this family of protei...

  20. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Koyanagi, Taku; Saiki, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link of food chain in the sea. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer expts. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60 Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26 through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (auth.)

  1. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, M.; Koyanagi, T.; Saiki, M.

    1975-01-01

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link in the food chain. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer experiments. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60 Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26% through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (author)

  2. 78 FR 69033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To List the Pinto Abalone as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Petitions To List the Pinto Abalone as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act AGENCY... kamtschatkana) as a threatened or endangered species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to designate... recommendation by NatureServe for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act'' because NatureServe assessments...

  3. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapido-Rosenthal, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-β-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC 50 ) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 days before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds

  4. Variations of 210Po and 210Pb in various marine organisms from Western English Channel: contribution of 210Po to the radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connan, O.; Germain, P.; Solier, L.; Gouret, G.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of 210 Po were carried out in various marine matrices (mussels, oysters, seaweed, fish, and abalones) and in seawater at several points along the French coast, over a period of 2 years (2003-2005). These measurements contribute to a better knowledge of this element, since few recent data exist for the French coast. Marked seasonal variations have been revealed in some species and there are differences according to the way of life of these species. Activities in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) are similar and varying between 90 and 600 Bq kg -1 (d.w.). Activities in macroalgae (Fucus serratus) are lowest, between 4 and 16 Bq kg -1 (d.w.). In oyster, abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) and fish (Solea solea, Sparus sp.), the strongest activities are measured in the digestive glands, the gills and the gonads. 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios in all cases have values of more than one for all species. From a significant number of measurements, CFs were calculated for seaweed (between 4.6 x 10 3 and 5.0 x 10 3 ) and for molluscs, with highest CFs (>10 5 ) found for the digestive gland and gills of the oysters, the digestive gland of the abalones and the liver of fish. Finally, the activities measured have made it possible to estimate the internal dose from chronic exposure due to 210 Po received by the marine organisms (0.05 μG h -1 for macroalgae, between 0.70 and 1.5 μG h -1 for mussels and oyster), and the contribution of seafood to the dose received by humans (46-129 μSv y -1 )

  5. Catalytically important amino-acid residues of abalone alginate lyase HdAly assessed by site-directed mutagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Sayo; Sahara, Takehiko; Sato, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Kosei; Ohgiya, Satoru; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Alginate lyase is an enzyme that degrades alginate chains via β-elimination and has been used for the production of alginate oligosaccharides and protoplasts from brown algae. Previously, we deduced the amino-acid sequence of an abalone alginate lyase, HdAly, from its cDNA sequence and, through multiple amino-acid sequence alignment, found that several basic amino-acid residues were highly conserved among the polysaccharide-lyase family 14 (PL-14) enzymes including HdAly. In the present study...

  6. The inventory of mollusc species and its potent on seagrass bed in Kei Kecil Islands, Southeast Moluccas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUS KUSNADI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Inventory of mollusk species and its potential on sea grass bed in Kei Kecil islands, Southeast Moluccas have been conducted by using quadrate-transect line method. The study was carried out in February-August 2007. There were 103 species of mollusk observed, 80 species belong to gastropods and 23 belong to bivalves. From the total species, 72 of them were reported as the potential species and the others still unknown. Most of potential group was used as food resources (55 species and other species were potential as decoration, souvenir, ornament, and accessories (31 species. Some species were potential for building material, knife tool, barter tool and bioactive compounds. The top shells (Trochus niloticus, the giant clams (Tridacna spp. and Hippopus hippopus and the abalone (Haliotis spp. were the major trading commodities for shellfish fisheries.

  7. Variations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in various marine organisms from Western English Channel: contribution of {sup 210}Po to the radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connan, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire de Radioecologie de Cherbourg-Octeville, IRSN/DEI/SECRE/LRC, Rue Max Pol Fouchet, 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France)], E-mail: olivier.connan@irsn.fr; Germain, P.; Solier, L.; Gouret, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire de Radioecologie de Cherbourg-Octeville, IRSN/DEI/SECRE/LRC, Rue Max Pol Fouchet, 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France)

    2007-10-15

    Measurements of {sup 210}Po were carried out in various marine matrices (mussels, oysters, seaweed, fish, and abalones) and in seawater at several points along the French coast, over a period of 2 years (2003-2005). These measurements contribute to a better knowledge of this element, since few recent data exist for the French coast. Marked seasonal variations have been revealed in some species and there are differences according to the way of life of these species. Activities in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) are similar and varying between 90 and 600 Bq kg{sup -1} (d.w.). Activities in macroalgae (Fucus serratus) are lowest, between 4 and 16 Bq kg{sup -1} (d.w.). In oyster, abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) and fish (Solea solea, Sparus sp.), the strongest activities are measured in the digestive glands, the gills and the gonads. {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb ratios in all cases have values of more than one for all species. From a significant number of measurements, CFs were calculated for seaweed (between 4.6 x 10{sup 3} and 5.0 x 10{sup 3}) and for molluscs, with highest CFs (>10{sup 5}) found for the digestive gland and gills of the oysters, the digestive gland of the abalones and the liver of fish. Finally, the activities measured have made it possible to estimate the internal dose from chronic exposure due to {sup 210}Po received by the marine organisms (0.05 {mu}G h{sup -1} for macroalgae, between 0.70 and 1.5 {mu}G h{sup -1} for mussels and oyster), and the contribution of seafood to the dose received by humans (46-129 {mu}Sv y{sup -1})

  8. Crystal orientations in nacreous layers of organic-inorganic biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo, E-mail: jacklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Abalone shell comprises a bio-composite material, combining the properties of inorganic calcite intergrown with organic nacre. This paper reports about the microstructure of this composite. By examining the Kikuchi patterns obtained for nacre (Haliotis discus hannai) using transmission electron microscopy, we have shown that the tiles within nacre have specific orientations. The stereographic projection spheres for the tiles of nacre can be divided into two main types, namely a right oriented region and a left oriented region with respect to the c axis as a reference plane (001). The cluster character of nacre can be explained in terms of the growth mechanism of the 'Christmas tree' pattern. The orientation of the c-axis in the nacreous layer is elucidated for the first time. We demonstrate the use of the soluble protein obtained from the tiles of nacre in in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization.

  9. Crystal orientations in nacreous layers of organic-inorganic biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo

    2009-01-01

    Abalone shell comprises a bio-composite material, combining the properties of inorganic calcite intergrown with organic nacre. This paper reports about the microstructure of this composite. By examining the Kikuchi patterns obtained for nacre (Haliotis discus hannai) using transmission electron microscopy, we have shown that the tiles within nacre have specific orientations. The stereographic projection spheres for the tiles of nacre can be divided into two main types, namely a right oriented region and a left oriented region with respect to the c axis as a reference plane (001). The cluster character of nacre can be explained in terms of the growth mechanism of the 'Christmas tree' pattern. The orientation of the c-axis in the nacreous layer is elucidated for the first time. We demonstrate the use of the soluble protein obtained from the tiles of nacre in in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization.

  10. New classes of tough composite materials-Lessons from natural rigid biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Box 352120, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2120 (United States)]. E-mail: gmayer@u.washington.edu

    2006-09-15

    The structures and properties of a new class of composite materials, containing a predominantly high volume fraction ceramic or glass phase, combined with minor organic (adhesive) phases, have been studied. These composites have unusual combinations of mechanical properties, such as stiffness, strength, and toughness. They are based on the architecture of a rigid natural material, the nacre structure, such as those found in the shells of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, and those of other mollusk shells. The mechanisms underlying these properties have also been studied. Analogs (utilizing high-performance engineering materials), that mimic many of the mechanisms underlying those superior combinations of properties, have been built. The results of the foregoing investigations are discussed. It was found that the toughness of segmented composite beams which have high volume fractions of ceramic (89 v / o) exceeded those of continuous layered beams, as well as the monolithic ceramic (alumina) on which they are based.

  11. New classes of tough composite materials-Lessons from natural rigid biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, G.

    2006-01-01

    The structures and properties of a new class of composite materials, containing a predominantly high volume fraction ceramic or glass phase, combined with minor organic (adhesive) phases, have been studied. These composites have unusual combinations of mechanical properties, such as stiffness, strength, and toughness. They are based on the architecture of a rigid natural material, the nacre structure, such as those found in the shells of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, and those of other mollusk shells. The mechanisms underlying these properties have also been studied. Analogs (utilizing high-performance engineering materials), that mimic many of the mechanisms underlying those superior combinations of properties, have been built. The results of the foregoing investigations are discussed. It was found that the toughness of segmented composite beams which have high volume fractions of ceramic (89 v / o) exceeded those of continuous layered beams, as well as the monolithic ceramic (alumina) on which they are based

  12. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  13. MAD Phasing with Krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Phasing of two proteins, the 17 kDa Fe protein myoglobin from sperm whale (P. catodon) and an 18 kDa protein (SP18) from green abalone (H. fulgens), using Kr-edge MAD with frozen crystals demonstrates the feasibility of this technique as a routine method for structure determination

  14. Photoacoustic FTIR spectroscopic study of undisturbed nacre from red abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Devendra; Katti, Kalpana; Katti, Dinesh

    2006-07-01

    In this work, photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared (PA-FTIR) spectroscopy has been utilized to study interfacial interactions of undisturbed nacre and nacre powder from red abalone shell. The spectra of both undisturbed nacre and nacre powder showed characteristic bands of aragonite and proteins. Although nacre powder and undisturbed nacre are chemically identical, PA-FTIR spectrum of undisturbed nacre is found to be significantly different from that of nacre powder. A broad and strong band is observed at around 1485 cm -1 in nacre powder. The intensity of this band is notably reduced in undisturbed nacre. This result is explained on the basis of interfacial interactions between aragonite platelets and acidic proteins. It is also observed that band at around 1788 cm -1 originates from three overlapping bands 1797, 1787 and 1778 cm -1. The band at around 1787 cm -1 is assigned to C dbnd O stretching of carboxylate groups of acidic proteins. The other two bands at 1797 and 1778 cm -1, originate from aragonite and have been assigned to combination bands, ν 3 + ν 4a and ν 3 + ν 4b, respectively. For the study of stratification in undisturbed nacre, PA-FTIR spectra have been collected in step scan mode. The variation in spectra with depth can be attributed to changes in conformation of proteins as well as interfacial interactions.

  15. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  16. Using Private Rights to Manage Natural Resources: Is Stewardship Linked to Ownership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Gilmour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in privatizing natural resource systems to promote sustainability and conservation goals. Though economic theory suggests owners of private property rights have an incentive to act as resource stewards, few studies have tested this empirically. This paper asks whether private rights-owners were more conservative with respect to their management opinions than nonrights-owners in five Australian abalone (Haliotis spp. fisheries. Multiple regression analyses were used to link opinions to demographic, economic, and attitudinal variables. In contrast to standard economic assumptions, nonrights-owners suggested more conservative catch limits than did rights-owners, confirming qualitative observations of behavior in management workshops. Differing views about the condition of the resource and differing levels of experience contributed to these results. The first of its kind, this study directly demonstrates that private rights do not necessarily promote the greatest level of stewardship. This has substantial implications for how natural resources are governed globally, but also warns against applying simplistic behavioral assumptions to complex social-ecological systems.

  17. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Ching-Hsun Chang; Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green min...

  18. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Santoso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawanggede Village, Lowokwaru Sub-district, Malang City. The sampling method used nonprobability accidential sampling techniques. The numbers of respondents were 113 consumers in study site. Data were collected by interview using questionnaires. The method of analysis used Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA. The analysis showed that the green packaging, green products, and green advertising had positive significant influence on consumer perceptions. Meanwhile, green product and consumer perception had positive significant influence on purchasing interest, but the green packaging and green advertising has not found sufficient evidence in influencing purchasing intention.

  19. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Santoso; Rengganis Fitriani

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawangg...

  20. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  1. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  2. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positively affects green product development performance. In addition, our findings also indicate that the relationship between proactive green innovation and green product development performance is partially mediated by green creativity. Accordingly, green creativity plays a critical role for companies to achieve a great green product development performance. However, reactive green innovation does not significantly influence green creativity and green product development performance. Companies should develop proactive green innovation rather than reactive green innovation in order to enhance their green creativity and increase their product development performance.

  3. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  4. Theoretical characterization of a model of aragonite crystal orientation in red abalone nacre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppersmith, S N; Gilbert, P U P A; Metzler, R A

    2009-01-01

    Nacre, commonly known as mother-of-pearl, is a remarkable biomineral that in red abalone consists of layers of 400 nm thick aragonite crystalline tablets confined by organic matrix sheets, with the [0 0 1] crystal axes of the aragonite tablets oriented to within ±12 deg. from the normal to the layer planes. Recent experiments demonstrate that greater orientational order develops over a distance of tens of layers from the prismatic boundary at which nacre formation begins. Our previous simulations of a model in which the order develops because of differential tablet growth rates (oriented tablets growing faster than misoriented ones) yield patterns of tablets that agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental measurements. This paper presents an analytical treatment of this model, focusing on how the dynamical development and eventual degree of order depend on model parameters. Dynamical equations for the probability distributions governing tablet orientations are introduced whose form can be determined from symmetry considerations and for which substantial analytic progress can be made. Numerical simulations are performed to relate the parameters used in the analytic theory to those in the microscopic growth model. The analytic theory demonstrates that the dynamical mechanism is able to achieve a much higher degree of order than naive estimates would indicate

  5. Theoretical characterization of a model of aragonite crystal orientation in red abalone nacre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppersmith, S N; Gilbert, P U P A; Metzler, R A

    2009-03-01

    Nacre, commonly known as mother-of-pearl, is a remarkable biomineral that in red abalone consists of layers of 400 nm thick aragonite crystalline tablets confined by organic matrix sheets, with the [0 0 1] crystal axes of the aragonite tablets oriented to within ±12° from the normal to the layer planes. Recent experiments demonstrate that greater orientational order develops over a distance of tens of layers from the prismatic boundary at which nacre formation begins. Our previous simulations of a model in which the order develops because of differential tablet growth rates (oriented tablets growing faster than misoriented ones) yield patterns of tablets that agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental measurements. This paper presents an analytical treatment of this model, focusing on how the dynamical development and eventual degree of order depend on model parameters. Dynamical equations for the probability distributions governing tablet orientations are introduced whose form can be determined from symmetry considerations and for which substantial analytic progress can be made. Numerical simulations are performed to relate the parameters used in the analytic theory to those in the microscopic growth model. The analytic theory demonstrates that the dynamical mechanism is able to achieve a much higher degree of order than naive estimates would indicate.

  6. Theoretical characterization of a model of aragonite crystal orientation in red abalone nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, S N; Gilbert, P U P A; Metzler, R A [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2009-03-27

    Nacre, commonly known as mother-of-pearl, is a remarkable biomineral that in red abalone consists of layers of 400 nm thick aragonite crystalline tablets confined by organic matrix sheets, with the [0 0 1] crystal axes of the aragonite tablets oriented to within {+-}12 deg. from the normal to the layer planes. Recent experiments demonstrate that greater orientational order develops over a distance of tens of layers from the prismatic boundary at which nacre formation begins. Our previous simulations of a model in which the order develops because of differential tablet growth rates (oriented tablets growing faster than misoriented ones) yield patterns of tablets that agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental measurements. This paper presents an analytical treatment of this model, focusing on how the dynamical development and eventual degree of order depend on model parameters. Dynamical equations for the probability distributions governing tablet orientations are introduced whose form can be determined from symmetry considerations and for which substantial analytic progress can be made. Numerical simulations are performed to relate the parameters used in the analytic theory to those in the microscopic growth model. The analytic theory demonstrates that the dynamical mechanism is able to achieve a much higher degree of order than naive estimates would indicate.

  7. Radio- and stable-manganese distributions in female and male of Haliotis discus at the pre-spawning stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kunio; Nakahara, Motokazu.

    1986-01-01

    Distribution of 54 Mn in female and male tissues of black abalones was examined at the prespawning stage, and compared with that of stable-Mn. The ripeness of gonads was somewhat lower than fully developed condition, but a number of matured ovum and spermatozoon existed in the gonads. Distribution rates of 54 Mn to conch were much less than those of stable-Mn and equal to both sexes; whereas in stable-Mn, the rate of the male is significantly higher than that of the female. It is inferred that two or more inner layer with organic matrices of conch were inactive to receive 54 Mn, and that the radioactivity of conch resulted from the adsorption of 54 Mn on its outermost rough surface mainly composed of conchiolin. The difference of the absolute amount percents for conchs between 54 Mn and stable-Mn could be reasonably explained as the difference between exposure durations to the nuclides. When exposed to 54 Mn, only in gonad, the intersexual difference was recognized with higher level in the ovary than in the spermary. (author)

  8. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  9. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  10. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Tai-Wei Chang; Chun-Yu Lin; Pi-Yu Lai; Kuan-Hung Wang

    2016-01-01

    This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positivel...

  11. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  12. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  13. Green power certification: environmental and consumer protection benefits of the Green-e programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J. [Center for Resource Solutions (United States); Rabago, K. [Rocky Mountain Inst. (United States); Wiser, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This article gives details of the Green-e environmental certification programme which certifies electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the US. This first non-profit certification programme originally was set up for California, and has now spread to other regions. The objectives of the Green-e programme, the need for the electricity product to meet minimum criteria to qualify, marketer requirements, verification of product claims, administration of the programme, and the second year programme results are discussed. The way in which the Green-e programme fits in with other programmes such as those set up by the state and federal customer protection agencies to help consumers select environmentally superior power is described.

  14. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  15. GREEN MANAGEMENT: THE REALITY OF BEING GREEN IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Green management and going green are not as clear cut and easy as hyped by the general media. While going ecologically green is indeed beneficial and appropriate, the process and procedure of becoming green is anything but easy. Firstly, turning green is largely not a legal requirement, but a voluntary process. Thus, even though LEED (which is by far the more publicly known green certification standard) governs the certification of the green management effort, it is not a compulsory condition...

  16. Sustainable green urban planning: the Green Credit Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The Green Credit Tool is evaluated as a method to quantify the value of green-spaces and to determine how these green-space-values can be replaced or compensated for within urban spatial planning projects. Design/methodology/approach – Amersfoort Local Municipality created the Green Credit

  17. Fungal Microbiomes Associated with Green and Non-Green Building Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Kanistha; Vesper, Stephen; Green, Brett J; Yermakov, Mikhail; Reponen, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Water-damaged buildings can lead to fungal growth and occupant health problems. Green building materials, derived from renewable sources, are increasingly utilized in construction and renovations. However, the question as to what fungi will grow on these green compared to non-green materials, after they get wet, has not been adequately studied. By determining what fungi grow on each type of material, the potential health risks can be more adequately assessed. In this study, we inoculated green and non-green pieces of ceiling tile, composite board, drywall, and flooring with indoor dust containing a complex mixture of naturally occurring fungi. The materials were saturated with water and incubated for two months in a controlled environment. The resulting fungal microbiomes were evaluated using ITS amplicon sequencing. Overall, the richness and diversity of the mycobiomes on each pair of green and non-green pieces were not significantly different. However, different genera dominated on each type of material. For example, Aspergillus spp. had the highest relative abundance on green and non-green ceiling tiles and green composite boards, but Peniophora spp. dominated the non-green composite board. In contrast, Penicillium spp. dominated green and non-green flooring samples. Green gypsum board was dominated by Phialophora spp. and Stachybotrys spp., but non-green gypsum board by Myrothecium spp. These data suggest that water-damaged green and non-green building materials can result in mycobiomes that are dominated by fungal genera whose member species pose different potentials for health risks.

  18. Green Building Pro-Environment Behaviors: Are Green Users Also Green Buyers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pro-environment behaviors play a key role in advancing the development of green buildings. This study investigated the link between two green building pro-environment behaviors that require dissimilar resources: energy savings that do not require money in order to be more environmentally friendly and willingness to pay that involves economic resources including spending money in order to be more environmentally friendly. This study points out that the two pro-environment behaviors can be positively linked to each other. People who behave in an environmentally friendly manner at work would also be likely to pay an extra cost for a green building when buying a new home. The consistency of the two pro-environment behaviors can be explained by their common environmental beliefs: limits to growth and eco-crisis. The green building movement should prioritize pro-environmental behaviors and associated environmental beliefs to support green building policies, guidelines, and tools.

  19. Evidence That Marine Reserves Enhance Resilience to Climatic Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Saenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Greenley, Ashley; Vazquez, Leonardo; Espinoza Montes, Jose Antonio; Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection. PMID:22855690

  20. Evidence that marine reserves enhance resilience to climatic impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    Full Text Available Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection.

  1. Green thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank Woolsey, III

    Many people around the world have observed green light apparently emanating from severe thunderstorms, but until recently there has been no scientific study of the phenomenon. Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm suggest that they are some kind of illusion. The existence of green thunderstorms has been objectively demonstrated by recording spectra of light from thunderstorms using a handheld spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 and the spring of 1996 numerous storms were observed and spectra of the light emanating from these storms were recorded. Observations were made both at the ground and aboard research aircraft. Furthermore, time series of spectra were recorded as the observed color of some storms changed from dark blue to a bluish-green. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the occurrence of green light in connection with severe storms. Fankhauser gave some observational support to the belief that green light from thunderstorms is possible and believed that the source of the light is from the blue sky penetrating thin regions in the clouds. Fraser believes that light from the setting sun, in combination with the process of scattering by atmospheric molecules, creates the green light associated with severe weather and the thunderstorm acts only as a black backdrop. Unfortunately, no cloud illuminated by the sun is black and the green airlight produced by the Fraser theory is in reality overwhelmed by light reflected by the cloud. Often the unusual coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflection of light from foliage on the ground. The quantitative measurements made during the observation period fail to support these assumptions. We have observed thunderstorms to be green over ground that was not green and we have observed blue thunderstorms over ground that was green

  2. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  3. Green Consumerism : an Eco-Friendly Behaviour Form Through The Green Product Consumption and Green Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Handayani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is referred to analyse the influence of consumer attitude of green product towards purchase intention. The consumer attitude of green product is a psychological tendencies that is expressed by evaluating a certain entity with some advantage or disadvantage considerations. The problem of this research is the low of cunsumer awareness to consume green product, because the lack to comprehend the importance of green product usage for health and eco-friendly. The purpose of this research is to test the influence of consumer attitude of green products towards purchase intention. Hypothesis testing using Partial Least Square (PLS. The result of analysis show that there is influence among consumer attitude of green product towards consumer purchase intention significantly.

  4. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  5. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  6. The Influence of Consumers Perception of Green Products on Green Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Kong; Amran Harun; Rini Suryati Sulong; Jaratin Lily

    2014-01-01

    Green consumerism has increasingly received attention since the increased level of consumer awareness towards green products. Therefore, the aim of this paper had been to examine the influence of consumer perception of green products on green purchase intention. In this study, perception of green products was conceptualized as a multidimensional variable comprised of green corporate perception, eco-label, green advertising, green packaging, and green product value. By using a survey, a total ...

  7. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  8. Green roofs and the LEED green building rating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, R. [Sustainable Solutions Inc., Wagoner, OK (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The sustainable building industry is becoming increasingly aware of the host of public and private benefits that green roofs can provide in built environments. In dense urban environments, green roofs function to reduce stormwater runoff, urban heat island effects, and particulate matter (PM) pollution. The emerging green roof industry is now poised to support the efforts of green building networks in North America. This paper discussed the general benefits of green roofs, and their recognition within the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System. A case study of Mountain Equipment Co-op's Winnipeg site was presented. The building's green roof was directly responsible for earning 5 credits and contributing to the achievement of an additional 2 credits under the LEEDS certification process. Credits were earned for reduced site disturbance; landscape design to reduce heat islands; and water efficiency. The green roof at the site provided the vast majority of the building's cooling needs through an evaporative cooling trough. A photovoltaic pump was used to feed the building's irrigation system, as well as to pump ground water through cooling valances. It was concluded that the rise of sustainable building practices and the LEED Green Building Rating System will revolutionize the way new buildings are constructed.

  9. Green Consumerism : an Eco-Friendly Behaviour Form Through The Green Product Consumption and Green Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Wiwik

    2017-01-01

    This research is referred to analyse the influence of consumer attitude of green product towards purchase intention. The consumer attitude of green product is a psychological tendencies that is expressed by evaluating a certain entity with some advantage or disadvantage considerations. The problem of this research is the low of cunsumer awareness to consume green product, because the lack to comprehend the importance of green product usage for health and eco-friendly. The purpose of this rese...

  10. Green power programs in Canada : 2003 : overview of Government green power policies, utility green power implementation initiatives, green power and certificate marketing programs, and their benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, J.; Bramley, M.; Holmes, R.

    2004-09-01

    Green power is defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. It offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities in Canada associated with these four categories in 2003 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Green power generation facilities in 2003 totaled 775 MW of capacity compared to 539 MW in 2002. Hydro capacity represented 41 per cent, followed by wind capacity at 40 per cent and wood waste at 17 per cent. Most of the green power generation facilities in 2003 were located in Alberta, followed by British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. 230 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Green power programs in Canada : 2002 : Overview of Government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power and certificate marketing initiatives, and their benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, M.; Boustie, S.; Vadgama, J.; Wieler, C.; Pape-Salmon, A.; Holmes, R.

    2003-11-01

    Green power is generally defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. Green power offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities associated with these four categories in 2002 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities in the report, such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Each category was presented in detail. The information included in the report was based on surveys sent to each program proponent. Follow-up communications and other publicly available information was also included. New programs operating in 2003 or currently under development were listed. refs., 8 tabs

  12. The Green Experiment: Cities, Green Stormwater Infrastructure, and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Chini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure is a unique combination of economic, social, and environmental goals and benefits that requires an adaptable framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating. In this study, we propose an experimental framework for policy, implementation, and subsequent evaluation of green stormwater infrastructure within the context of sociotechnical systems and urban experimentation. Sociotechnical systems describe the interaction of complex systems with quantitative and qualitative impacts. Urban experimentation—traditionally referencing climate change programs and their impacts—is a process of evaluating city programs as if in a laboratory setting with hypotheses and evaluated results. We combine these two concepts into a singular framework creating a policy feedback cycle (PFC for green infrastructure to evaluate municipal green infrastructure plans as an experimental process within the context of a sociotechnical system. After proposing and discussing the PFC, we utilize the tool to research and evaluate the green infrastructure programs of 27 municipalities across the United States. Results indicate that green infrastructure plans should incorporate community involvement and communication, evaluation based on project motivation, and an iterative process for knowledge production. We suggest knowledge brokers as a key resource in connecting the evaluation stage of the feedback cycle to the policy phase. We identify three important needs for green infrastructure experimentation: (i a fluid definition of green infrastructure in policy; (ii maintenance and evaluation components of a green infrastructure plan; and (iii communication of the plan to the community.

  13. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  14. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  15. Green Thunderstorms Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank W., III; Beasley, William H.; Bohren, Craig F.

    1996-12-01

    Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Often the green coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflections of light from green foliage on the ground. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm do not believe that green thunderstorms exist. They suggest that the green storms may be fabrications by excited observers. The authors have demonstrated the existence of green thunderstorms objectively using a spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 the authors observed numerous storms and recorded hundreds of spectra of the light emanating corn these storms. It was found that the subjective judgment of colors can vary somewhat between observers, but the variation is usually in the shade of green. The authors recorded spectra of green and nongreen thunderstorms and recorded spectral measurements as a storm changed its appearance from dark blue to a bluish green. The change in color is gradual when observed from a stationary position. Also, as the light from a storm becomes greener, the luminance decreases. The authors also observed and recorded the spectrum of a thunderstorm during a period of several hours as they flew in an aircraft close to a supercell that appeared somewhat green. The authors' observations refute the ground reflection hypothesis and raise questions about explanations that require the presence of hail.

  16. The Influence of Green Marketing on Green Satisfaction Mediated By Perceived Quality and Its Impact to Green Trust in Injection Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelvy Kurniawan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, motorcycle manufacturers are increasingly motivated to replace their motorcycle into fuel injection products. The growing concern from the consumers to the environment and the regulations of emission standards, that is Euro 3, for motorcycle industry is being finalized in the Ministry of Environment in order to be implemented in Indonesia. Through this research, the writer will examine the effect of green marketing on perceived quality, green satisfaction, and green trust, the effect of perceived quality on green satisfaction, and the effect of green satisfaction on green trust. Those effects needs to be investigated in order to know how far the effects of green marketing and to ensure whether green marketing is well accepted or not by the market in motorcycle industry. Scope of this research is also limited to the user of fuel injection motorcycle in Jakarta for Honda and Yamaha who involved as decision maker when the motorcycle is purchased. Sampling technique used in this research is quota sampling and the analysis method is structural equation modeling (SEM. The findings of this research are: green marketing has a significant direct effect on perceived quality, perceived quality has a significant direct effect on green satisfaction, green satisfaction has a significant direct effect on green trust, green marketing has a significant direct and indirect effect on green satisfaction, and green marketing has a significant direct and indirect effect on green trust. All of those effects are found to be positive effects.

  17. Purchasing green to become greener: Factors influence consumers’ green purchasing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Vazifehdoust

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an integrated model that combines the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA and two categories of variables, personal and marketing, to investigate the attitudinal and behavioral decision factors to purchase green products. The model derived and tested via structural equation modeling on a sample of 374 consumers from the Guilan province in Iran. The results show that attitude is explained by consumers’ environmental concern, quality of green products, green advertising and green labeling. The results of the structural equation analysis indicate that attitude positively influences intention to purchase green products. Green purchasing intention also influences on green purchasing behavior. This paper also discusses the implications of the results for marketers and researchers.

  18. Is 'green finance' actually green? 'Make The Planet Great Again' or 'Green-washing', we must choose. Report on green bonds and climate bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, Maxime; Plihon, Dominique; Zippert, Jean-Sebastien; Chaussalet, Alexis; Planche, Jeanne; Poulain, Melanie

    2017-12-01

    As Paris dreams of becoming the capital of green finance, the author proposes a discussion of the emerging market of green bonds, and formulates a set of recommendations for this new financial instrument not to be polluted by green-washing operations. He first describes what a green bond is, and then comments what the green bond market represents, discusses development perspectives for this market, comments the Paris dream of becoming the world capital of a green and sustainable finance. He explains why this green bond market appears to be so interesting, and what guarantees that a green bond will finance green projects. He discusses the role of rating agencies, whether the emitter of a green bond must be green, and the impact of green bonds on climate, on the environment and on populations. He discusses the possible evolution towards a constraining regulation, and examines whether this system can be an operational financing source for energy transition. Recommendations concern the market regulation by public authorities, the creation of a new rating agency for green finance, how to make the world bond market climate-compatible, and the creation of other financing channels for actors who have no access to the bond market

  19. Green industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2014-01-01

    Green growth requires green technologies: production techniques that economize on exhaustible resources and emit fewer greenhouse gases. The availability of green technologies both lowers social costs in the transition to a green growth path and helps achieve a satisfactory rate of material progress under that path. The theoretical case in favour of using industrial policy to facilitate green growth is quite strong. Economists’ traditional scepticism on industrial policy is grounded instead o...

  20. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...

  1. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  2. Green Roofs: Standardization and Quality Control of Processes in Green Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of standardization and quality control of processes in the construction, improvement of integrated safety of buildings and the implementation of innovative green building technologies, the use of national standards as well as international rating systems for green buildings evaluation. This is one of the priority directions in development of the modern construction. The aim of this study is the analysis of the green roof systems and international standards, which were carried out in the green building industry. The authors have studied traditional and innovative solutions of rational using natural resources and energy, the green roof system with integration of supported solar and wind energy collecting and converting devices and of irrigation system. Some studies provide evidence for the benefits of the modular green roof system in urban green space with microclimate differences. This article presents a new research which advances our knowledge of the economic and environmental services provided by the green roof system. Research reported here also considers the analysis of the Russian and international legislation of the quality control of processes in green construction.

  3. The synergy in green persuasion: Green celebrity endorsers in green advertising: A study of brand-endorser congruence effects in green advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Blasche, J.; Ketelaar, P.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines celebrity endorser-brand congruence effects in green advertising on the ads' effectiveness. In an experimental survey, Dutch participants (197) saw ads with a congruent or incongruent celebrity endorser. Extending the match-up hypothesis to a novel match-up factor, greenness, the results show that pro-environmental celebrity endorsers yield more favourable attitudes towards the ad, the brand, and purchase intentions compared to non-green celebrity endorsers. Practitioners ...

  4. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  5. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tobiszewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  6. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  7. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tobiszewski; Mariusz Marć; Agnieszka Gałuszka; Jacek Namieśnik

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-establis...

  8. Buying and selling green: deregulation and green power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the increasing trend towards deregulation of electricity markets, and the driving forces for liberalisation in the EU and North America. The use of green tariffs offered by utilities to differentiate themselves from competitors and to gain and keep customers is reported, and the situation with regard to green energy within the deregulated electricity markets in Australia, the EU, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, the UK, Canada and the USA is outlined. Customers switching as a result of green tariffs, the growing role of renewables, and opportunities for the promotion of green tariffs are discussed. (UK)

  9. Analytical Methods for Malachite Green : Completion Report : Malachite Green Analysis in Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, John L.; Gofus, Jane E.; Meinertz, Jeffery R.

    1991-06-01

    Malachite green is a known teratogen and therefore its use is limited to nonfood fish under an Investigational New Animal Drug permit (INAD), number 2573. Although a charcoal adsorption column was developed to remove malachite green from hatchery water, INAD compliance requires that the malachite green residue concentrations in any effluent from hatcheries using the chemical be quantified. Therefore, we developed a method for the analysis of malachite green residues in water. Enrichment of the residues of malachite green in water on a diol column followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis gives a minimum sensitivity of less than 10 ppb for the chemical. When combined with post-column oxidation using a lead oxide post-column reactor, the procedure can be used for the simultaneous analysis of malachite green in its leuco form, a decomposition product of the dye, as well as its chromatic form. Recovery of the leuco form is pH dependent and water samples should be adjusted to pH 6 to optimize recovery of this form. Water samples spiked with malachite green were concentrated on a diol column followed by elution with 0.05 M p-toluene sulfonic acid in methanol. The methanol elutes were analyzed by HPLC. Pond water samples spiked with malachite green and leuco malachite green yielded average recoveries of 95.4% for malachite green and 57.3% for leuco malachite green. Tap water samples spiked with the carbinol form of malachite green gave average recoveries of 98.6%. The method is very sensitive and is capable of detecting malachite green residues in water at less than 10 ppb. Fish culturists, who cannot find an effective replacement for malachite green, can utilize the method to ensure that their effluents comply with INAD regulations. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. THE MEDIATION EFFECTS OF GREEN PERCEIVED CONSUMER SKEPTICISM AND GREEN PERCEIVED RISK IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GREENWASHING AND GREEN TRUST

    OpenAIRE

    LEBLEBİCİ KOÇER, Leyla; DELİCE, Tuğba

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out on the consumers in Kayseri and explores the influenceof greenwashing on green trust and discusses the mediation roles of green perceivedskepticism and green perceived risk. 430 consumers were participate in the research.Structural equation modelling was applied to test the research hypothesis. Thisstudy found that greenwashing has a negative association with green trust. In addition,it found that greenwashing is positively associated with green perceived consumersk...

  11. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  12. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  13. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  15. Sustainable house construction and green financing. Explanation for 'green mortgages'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Dutch government finances the sustainable construction of new houses by means of so-called 'green loans'. Extra costs for the construction of a sustainable house are compensated by a lower interest rate for a green loan. In this brochure it is explained when green financing of house construction is possible and how to apply for such loans

  16. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available , beetles and spiders); and the number of birds that nest in vegetated roofs (including kestrels, swallows, and wagtails). Objective The primary objective of a green roof is to create a living habitat in an otherwise barren environment, hence the use... the negative environmental impacts including plant and insect specie loss. Thus at a philosophical level green roofs support the notion “replace what you displace”. Key ecological issues that can be addressed through green roofs include: Negative effects...

  17. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  18. Green Roofs: A Part of Green Infrastructure Strategy for Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provides insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA rep...

  19. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  20. The synergy in green persuasion: Green celebrity endorsers in green advertising: A study of brand-endorser congruence effects in green advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasche, J.; Ketelaar, P.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines celebrity endorser-brand congruence effects in green advertising on the ads' effectiveness. In an experimental survey, Dutch participants (197) saw ads with a congruent or incongruent celebrity endorser. Extending the match-up hypothesis to a novel match-up factor, greenness, the

  1. Reduction of malachite green to leucomalachite green by intestinal bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, A L; Schmitt, T C; Heinze, T M; Cerniglia, C E

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal microfloras from human, rat, mouse, and monkey fecal samples and 14 pure cultures of anaerobic bacteria representative of those found in the human gastrointestinal tract metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green to leucomalachite green. The reduction of malachite green to the leuco derivative suggests that intestinal microflora could play an important role in the metabolic activation of the triphenylmethane dye to a potential carcinogen.

  2. Greening Steel Work: Varieties of Capitalism and the "Greening" of Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Claire; Stroud, Dean

    2016-01-01

    An important driver of change in work, employment and skills is European Union policy aims of sustainable economic growth and the cultivation of a green economy. Part of the latter--which is supported by increasing environmental regulation--focuses on the development of a "green skills agenda," which involves the "greening" of…

  3. In the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  4. The green dilemma: Reflections of a Generation Y consumer cohort on green purchase behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muposhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Green consumerism has garnered much scholarly interest in recent years. However, research on the influence of the Social Dilemma Theory (SDT on green purchase behaviour has been scarce. Using data generated from sixteen in-depth-interviews, the present study identified perceived efficacy, perceived cost, in-group and self-identity, trust and peer influence as the main antecedents of SDT that influence green purchase behaviour. The findings of the study imply that to promote and institutionalise green purchase behaviour, marketers need to enhance perceived efficacy, trust in green products, reduce perceived cost, align green products with the consumers’ sought image and utilise peer networks when structuring green marketing messages.

  5. Is green economy achievable through championing green growth? A local government experience from Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiri Rodgers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The need to enhance environmental sustainability, sustainable development and growth that takes into account the well-being of the people and nature because of the increased production and consumption of goods and services is the major driver to the introduction of green economy in Zambia and countries in southern Africa. This article examines the extent to which local government in Zambia has embraced green growth and green economy and critically analyses the concept of green economy and green growth. This study is based on a review of planning and policy documents, a household questionnaire survey and interviews with various institutions, planners and rural development organisations. A number of policies implemented at the local government level were analysed and reflected upon irrespective of whether they contain the components of green growth and green economy and the extent to which they contribute to attaining green economy. The article argues that the need for economic diversification is important as far as green economy is concerned. The article recommends the need to invest in research and development in order to find more carbon-free economic activities. The conclusion is that local government is key to achieving green growth and green economy, because it is involved at all levels, from policy formulation to implementation.

  6. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  7. Relationship between green marketing strategies and green marketing credibility among Generation Y

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Sandoval, Michelle Haeberli; Manon Padilla, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Since terms like “sustainability” and “consumer consciousness” were introduced, green products began being integrated into consumers’ lifestyles. But due to the greenwashing practices that took place during the 90’s consumers refrain to buy green products because they do not trust the advertising released by marketers. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the relationship between green advertising credibility (dependent variable) and price sensitiveness, and the four proposed green market...

  8. Green Roofs and Green Walls for Biodiversity Conservation: A Contribution to Urban Connectivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavie Mayrand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs and walls have recently emerged as conservation tools, and they offer promising additional opportunities to enhance biodiversity in cities. However, their ecological conditions remain poorly considered when planning wildlife corridors. To discuss the role of vegetated buildings in landscape connectivity, we reviewed the ecological and technical specificities of green walls and green roofs in light of the key factors concerning urban wildlife (patch size, quality, abundance, and isolation. Green roofs and walls show limited patch sizes, distinct habitat quality at the building scale, and limited redundancy of patch quality within the landscape. We also highlight that the abundance of roof and wall patches is often low. Future research is needed to establish if walls can be vertical corridors for wildlife, thereby reducing the isolation of green roofs. We argue that creating 3D ecological connectivity within the city requires substantial modifications of the design and maintenance of existing green building systems. We suggest that research is needed to integrate the biotic and abiotic characteristics of green buildings to make them more closely resemble those of open green spaces.

  9. Modeling the NPE with finite sources and empirical Green`s functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Goldstein, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    In order to better understand the source characteristics of both nuclear and chemical explosions for purposes of discrimination, we have modeled the NPE chemical explosion as a finite source and with empirical Green`s functions. Seismograms are synthesized at four sties to test the validity of source models. We use a smaller chemical explosion detonated in the vicinity of the working point to obtain empirical Green`s functions. Empirical Green`s functions contain all the linear information of the geology along the propagation path and recording site, which are identical for chemical or nuclear explosions, and therefore reduce the variability in modeling the source of the larger event. We further constrain the solution to have the overall source duration obtained from point-source deconvolution results. In modeling the source, we consider both an elastic source on a spherical surface and an inelastic expanding spherical volume source. We found that the spherical volume solution provides better fits to observed seismograms. The potential to identify secondary sources was examined, but the resolution is too poor to be definitive.

  10. The skeptical green consumer revisited: testing the relationship between green consumerism and skepticism toward advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthes, J.; Wonneberger, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article revisits the widely believed notion of the skeptical green consumer, in other words, that green consumers tend to distrust green advertising. Study 1, a survey of U.S. consumers, found no positive relationship between green consumerism and general ad skepticism. However, green

  11. Green Campus initiative and its impacts on quality of life of stakeholders in Green and Non-Green Campus universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiyarattanachai, Ronnachai; Hollmann, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Universitas Indonesia (UI) developed the UI GreenMetric World University Ranking for universities to share information about their sustainability practices. This ranking system was well aligned with the basis of Sustainability for Higher Education. The scoring system can also be used as a guideline for universities to achieve sustainability in their campuses. Since its first launch, more universities around the world have increasingly participated in the ranking system including many universities in Thailand. This study compared perception of stakeholders in Green Campus and Non-Green Campus universities in Thailand regarding stakeholders' satisfaction on sustainability practices and perceived quality of life at their campuses. The results showed that stakeholders at the studied Green Campus University were more satisfied and had significantly better perceived quality of life compared to stakeholders from the studied Non-Green Campus university. The results suggested that universities should adopt the criteria set in the UI GreenMetric World University Ranking to achieve better sustainability in their campuses and improve quality of life of their stakeholders.

  12. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  13. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  14. 77 FR 24494 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee; Notification of Upcoming... agenda for the May 9, 2012, meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the Committee). The... Sandler, Designated Federal Officer, Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, Office of...

  15. 77 FR 66616 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee; Notification of Upcoming... and agenda for the November 27, 2012, meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the... Green Buildings, Office of Government-wide Policy, General Services Administration, 1275 First Street NE...

  16. 78 FR 21368 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee; Notification of Upcoming... and agenda for the May 1, 2013, meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the... Green Buildings, Office of Government-wide Policy, General Services Administration, 1275 First Street NE...

  17. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...

  18. GREEN MARKETING –GO GREEN FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kavitha

    2016-01-01

    Environment plays an important role in our lives. The Humans are only responsible for the environment. The initiatives should be taken from every individual then the day is not so far when global warming could be controlled. In the phrase “GREEN MARKETING” green signifies eco-friendly innovation. The objective of this study is to examine the growth of green marketing sector & its future. The concept of green marketing is originated primarily in the developed markets and rapidly gaining scope ...

  19. Green Mines green energy : establishing productive land on mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisch, B.; Zinck, J.; Vigneault, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-02-15

    The Green Mines green energy research project was initiated by the CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories of Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the initiative was to demonstrate that organic residuals could be used to remediate mine tailings and establish agriculturally productive land where energy crops such as corn, canola, soy, switchgrass and other species could be grown and harvested specifically as feedstock for the production of green fuels. This paper discussed the scope and progress to date of the Green Mines green energy project. This included discussion about a column leaching study and about effluent treatability and toxicity. Neutralization test results and the results of field trials were presented. The paper concluded with a discussion of next steps. An advisory committee has been established to review annual progress and establish research directions. Overall, preliminary results from the column study suggest that sulphate reduction at the tailings-biosolids interface is occurring, although steady state has not yet been reached after more than one year of testing. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  20. Green Mines green energy : establishing productive land on mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisch, B.; Zinck, J.; Vigneault, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Green Mines green energy research project was initiated by the CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories of Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the initiative was to demonstrate that organic residuals could be used to remediate mine tailings and establish agriculturally productive land where energy crops such as corn, canola, soy, switchgrass and other species could be grown and harvested specifically as feedstock for the production of green fuels. This paper discussed the scope and progress to date of the Green Mines green energy project. This included discussion about a column leaching study and about effluent treatability and toxicity. Neutralization test results and the results of field trials were presented. The paper concluded with a discussion of next steps. An advisory committee has been established to review annual progress and establish research directions. Overall, preliminary results from the column study suggest that sulphate reduction at the tailings-biosolids interface is occurring, although steady state has not yet been reached after more than one year of testing. 1 tab., 3 figs

  1. Progress report on Green Deals 2012; Voortgangsrapportage Green Deals 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    In the Dutch governmental coalition agreement the Green Deal approach was announced in the autumn of 2010. The focus of the Green Deals is for people and companies to develop sustainable initiatives that contribute to economic growth. This progress report provides an overview of the deals that this bottom-up approach has yielded. The report also provides information on the progress of the deals and the interim results of the approach and the individual deals. Also attention is paid to how the 131 Green Deals score on innovation and entrepreneurship [Dutch] In het regeerakkoord van het kabinet is in het najaar van 2010 de Green Deal-aanpak aangekondigd. Centraal in de aanpak staat dat mensen en bedrijven zoveel mogelijk ruimte krijgen voor eigen duurzame initiatieven die bijdragen aan economische groei. Deze voortgangsrapportage geeft een overzicht van de deals die deze bottom-up aanpak heeft opgeleverd. De rapportage informeert bovendien over de voortgang van de deals en over de tussentijdse resultaten van zowel de aanpak als de afzonderlijke deals. Ook wordt gekeken hoe de 131 Green Deals scoren op innovatief vermogen en ondernemerschap.

  2. Green space definition affects associations of green space with overweight and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Jochem O; Hoek, Gerard; Bloemsma, Lizan D; Gehring, Ulrike; Strak, Maciej; Wijga, Alet H; van den Brink, Carolien; Brunekreef, Bert; Lebret, Erik; Janssen, Nicole A H

    2018-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, exposure to green space is inconsistently associated with being overweight and physical activity, possibly because studies differ widely in their definition of green space exposure, inclusion of important confounders, study population and data analysis. We evaluated whether the association of green space with being overweight and physical activity depended upon definition of greenspace. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a Dutch national health survey of 387,195 adults. Distance to the nearest park entrance and surrounding green space, based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or a detailed Dutch land-use database (TOP10NL), was calculated for each residential address. We used logistic regression analyses to study the association of green space exposure with being overweight and being moderately or vigorously physically active outdoors at least 150min/week (self-reported). To study the shape of the association, we specified natural splines and quintiles. The distance to the nearest park entrance was not associated with being overweight or outdoor physical activity. Associations of surrounding green space with being overweight or outdoor physical activity were highly non-linear. For NDVI surrounding greenness, we observed significantly decreased odds of being overweight [300m buffer, odds ratio (OR) = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.91] and increased odds for outdoor physical activity [300m buffer, OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17] in the highest quintile compared to the lowest quintile. For TOP10NL surrounding green space, associations were mostly non-significant. Associations were generally stronger for subjects living in less urban areas and for the smaller buffers. Associations of green space with being overweight and outdoor physical activity differed considerably between different green space definitions. Associations were strongest for NDVI surrounding greenness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  3. City of Austin: Green habitat learning project. A green builder model home project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of the Year 14 UCETF project was to design and construct a residential structure that could serve as a demonstration facility, training site, and testing and monitoring laboratory for issues related to the implementation of sustainable building practices and materials. The Model Home Project builds on the previous and existing efforts, partially funded by the UCETF, of the City of Austin Green Builder Program to incorporate sustainable building practices into mainstream building activities. The Green Builder Program uses the term {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} as a synonym for sustainability. In the research and analysis that was completed for our earlier reports in Years 12 and 13, we characterized specific elements that we associate with sustainability and, thus, green building. In general, we refer to a modified life cycle assessment to ascertain if {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} building options reflect similar positive cyclical patterns found in nature (i.e. recyclability, recycled content, renewable resources, etc.). We additionally consider economic, human health and synergistic ecological impacts associated with our building choices and characterize the best choices as {open_quotes}green.{close_quotes} Our ultimate goal is to identify and use those {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} materials and processes that provide well for us now and do not compromise similar benefits for future generations. The original partnership developed for this project shifted during the year from a project stressing advanced (many prototypical) {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} building materials and techniques in a research and demonstration context, to off-the-shelf but underutilized {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} materials in the practical social context of using {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} technologies for low income housing. That project, discussed in this report, is called the Green Habitat Learning Project.

  4. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  5. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  6. A market for green certificates may cause less green electricity to be produced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugneland, Petter

    2004-01-01

    The Norwegian government wants to establish in 2006 a market for trading with green certificates which will be issued to producers of new renewable electricity. These certificates will be sold to the consumers, which will be instructed to by a certain amount of green electricity. In 2005 a market will be established for trading with emission quotas of greenhouse gases; in this market, power producers and other industry that emits greenhouse gases must buy emission permits. Some experts, however, say that a market for trading with green certificates may at worst give less production of green electricity, counter to the intention. But a quota system may indirectly increase the production of green electricity, and at the same time one avoids many of the inconveniences involved in a green certificate market

  7. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. External Audit Green Deal Approach. Final report; Externe Audit Green Deal Aanpak. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Mil, B.P.A.; Gooskens, B.J.F.; Van Schelven, R.M.; Stutje, A.

    2013-10-15

    External audit of the effectiveness of the Green Deals, based on the question how the Green Deal contributes to green growth. The central idea of this new tool is that the Dutch government facilitates initiatives of businesses, societal organisations, local governments and citizens by removing bottlenecks as much as possible [Dutch] Externe audit over (de effectiviteit van) de Green Deal aanpak, op basis van de volgende onderzoeksvraag: 'Hoe draagt de Green Deal aanpak bij aan het bevorderen van groene groei?' De centrale gedachte van dit nieuwe instrument is dat de overheid initiatieven van bedrijven, maatschappelijke organisaties, decentrale overheden en burgers faciliteert door het wegnemen van knelpunten.

  9. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop......Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  10. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  11. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  12. 77 FR 2296 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee; Notification of Upcoming... teleconference meetings of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the Committee). The teleconference meetings are... Federal High Performance Green Buildings, Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration...

  13. Progress report on Green Deals 2013; Voortgangsrapportage Green Deals 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    In the Dutch governmental coalition agreement the Green Deal approach was announced in the autumn of 2010. The focus of the Green Deals is for people and companies to develop sustainable initiatives that contribute to economic growth. The Green Deal approach started with the theme energy, but has been extended with the themes biobased economy, climate, resources, buildings, food, mobility, water and biological diversity. This progress report provides an overview of the deals that this bottom-up approach has yielded. The report also provides information on the progress of the deals and the interim results of the approach and the individual deals. Also attention is paid to how the 146 Green Deals score on innovation and entrepreneurship [Dutch] In het regeerakkoord van het kabinet is in het najaar van 2010 de Green Deal-aanpak aangekondigd. Centraal in de aanpak staat dat mensen en bedrijven zoveel mogelijk ruimte krijgen voor eigen duurzame initiatieven die bijdragen aan economische groei. De aanpak is gestart vanuit het thema energie, maar beslaat inmiddels ook de thema's biobased economy, klimaat, grondstoffen, bouw, voedsel, mobiliteit, water en biodiversiteit. Deze voortgangsrapportage geeft een overzicht van de deals die deze bottom-up aanpak heeft opgeleverd. De rapportage informeert bovendien over de voortgang van de deals en over de tussentijdse resultaten van zowel de aanpak als de afzonderlijke deals. Ook wordt gekeken hoe de 146 Green Deals scoren op innovatief vermogen en ondernemerschap.

  14. Going Green: The Business Case for Greening your Energy Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavery, Greg

    2007-07-01

    We are all familiar with the challenges facing the energy industry: supply security, climate change, emerging cleaner technologies, retail competition, staffing, and the quest for growth. This paper demonstrates how a proactive environmentally considered ('green') corporate approach addresses these issues and unlocks four tangible areas of value addition for energy companies. Based on over a decade of experience by the author in this emerging field, this paper provides some golden rules for companies considering the green approach and showcases an Australian market leading energy company who is unlocking green value. (auth)

  15. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong

    2017-03-01

    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial

  16. Green Campus Study by using 10 UNEP’s Green University Toolkit Criteria in IPB Dramaga Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisriany, Saraswati; Sitti Fatimah, Indung

    2017-10-01

    Campus landscape is an important part of campus life, because it is regarded as a physical manifestation of the value of a college. Green campus is a concept to build sustainable living practices that are environmentally friendly in educational institutions around the world, including in IPB Dramaga Campus. The main objective of this study is to identified and analyze IPB Dramaga Campus sustainability used green campus criteria from UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). The methods stages are data collection, analysis and assessment, and recommendation as the synthesis. All the data analyzed with gap analysis, then it assess with Likert Scale scoring. The results showed that green level of IPB Dramaga Campus is classified as Moderate, with total score 32. The result from each criterias are, Energy, Carbon and Climate Change is Moderate; Water is Not Good; Waste is Moderate; Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services is Very Good; Planning Design & Development is Good; Procurement is Moderate; Green Office is Very Not Good; Green Lab is Moderate; Green IT is Good; and Transport is Good. The Green Level of IPB Dramaga Campus will reach Very Good if these recommendation of strategies applied. The strategies are Green Office, Green Campus Audit, Green Champion, Green Financial Strategies, Water Treatment, Green Lab dan Off Campus Transportation.

  17. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  18. Green roofs; Les toitures vegetalisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seghier, C.

    2006-03-15

    Impervious surface coverage keeps spreading in cities. Streets, sidewalks, parking lots and roofs are waterproof, meaning greater amounts of water to channel and treat and higher flood risks during heavy rainfalls. Green roofing can play a key part in addressing this alarming issue. There are three types of green roofs: extensive, semi-intensive and intensive. The extensive green roof technique uses a thin soil covering with a variety of species providing year-round plant coverage. The plants are not necessarily horticultural in which case routine maintenance is minimal. No watering is needed. Usually extensive green roofs create an ecosystem. The semi-intensive green roof technique uses a soil covering of average thickness and serves to create decorative roofing. Although maintenance is moderate, watering is essential. The intensive green roof technique produces a terrace roof garden. Another advantage of green roofs is they increase the life cycle of the sealing. Roof sealing protection may see the span of its life cycle, now at about fifteen years, doubled if the building has a green roof. planning professionals still know very little about green roofing solutions. Yet, green roofing provides unquestionable ecological qualities and thermal and acoustic performance that have proven to be environmentally friendly. Yet France lags behind northern European countries in green roofing. The Germans, Swiss, Austrians, Scandinavians and Dutch have been using the technique for more than twenty years. (A.L.B.)

  19. What is a green building?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreenegoor, R.C.P.; Krikke, T.; Mierlo, van B.P.; Pluijm, van der W.M.P.; Poortvliet, R.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2009-01-01

    What is a green building? A large amount of definitions and green rating tools prove that an exact definition is still a point of discussion. To research the differences between green rating tools, four different buildings are assessed with: EPN, BREEAM, LEED, GreenCalc+ and EcoQuantum. These tools

  20. Are green cities healthy and equitable? Unpacking the relationship between health, green space and gentrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Helen V S; Garcia Lamarca, Melisa; Connolly, James J T; Anguelovski, Isabelle

    2017-11-01

    While access and exposure to green spaces has been shown to be beneficial for the health of urban residents, interventions focused on augmenting such access may also catalyse gentrification processes, also known as green gentrification. Drawing from the fields of public health, urban planning and environmental justice, we argue that public health and epidemiology researchers should rely on a more dynamic model of community that accounts for the potential unintended social consequences of upstream health interventions. In our example of green gentrification, the health benefits of greening can only be fully understood relative to the social and political environments in which inequities persist. We point to two key questions regarding the health benefits of newly added green space: Who benefits in the short and long term from greening interventions in lower income or minority neighbourhoods undergoing processes of revitalisation? And, can green cities be both healthy and just? We propose the Green Gentrification and Health Equity model which provides a framework for understanding and testing whether gentrification associated with green space may modify the effect of exposure to green space on health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Green Energy for Green Economy: The Case Study of Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sekreter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Green economy is an overarching purpose for sustainable growth and friendly environment. Renewable energy focuses on clean energy and sustainable development targets a continuous growth. Green economy includes both of them. Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI struggles serious problems in terms of economics after showing a remarkable economic growth until mid-2014. The increasing gap between demand and supply is seen another serious problem for KRI. Green energy is one of the essential stage towards to the green economy and it is one of the vital issue to succeed on the way of green economy. Solar energy is one of the fastest growing renewable energy source around the world and KRI has a great potential for solar energy. This study aims to stimulate KRI to invest green energy and encourage it to establish green economy to make its economy robust for the shocks and enable to show a sustainable development.

  2. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  3. 78 FR 56703 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee; Notification of Upcoming... Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the Committee) and the schedule for a series of conference..., Designated Federal Officer, [[Page 56704

  4. Dietary effects of marine food intake on intestinal and hepatic enzyme activities in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Caride, B; Lamas, A; Taboada, C

    2001-03-01

    Dietary effects of two diets high in protein from two marine species (Haliotis tuberculata and Anemonia viridis) as compared to a high-quality patron protein such as casein (or casein supplemented with olive oil) on intestinal and hepatic enzymes were studied. After 23 days, the two marine species as diet compared to casein increased the disaccharidase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Feeding Haliotis tuberculata meal produced a decrease on intestinal leucine aminopeptidase activity. The hepatic gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity decreased slightly in animals fed Haliotis tuberculata meal. Supplementation of casein with olive oil tended to decrease the intestinal and hepatic enzyme activity.

  5. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  6. Frugal Innovation and Green Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    2015-01-01

    The literature on ‘green business models’ is rapidly developing these years. This paper suggests that much existing work on green business models lacks a deeper theoretical understanding of eco-innovation and the green economy. The paper forwards an evolutionary economic perspective on green...... business models. This perspective departs in important ways from other approaches to green business models the implications of which are sought clarified and discussed in the paper. The paper argues for the need to link up green business model innovation to aggregate green economic change. The paper posits...... that the greening of the economy has reached such a stage of maturity where a generic ‘green business model’ is apparent. The paper points to eight characteristics of eco-innovation on the basis of which key changes to the business model are identified and schematised for the different stages of the green economic...

  7. Brief Discussion on Green Building Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jia-wei; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    With more and more emphasizes on the environment and resources, the concept of green buildings has been widely accepted. Building materials are vectors of architectures, only if green building materials and related technical means are used, can we construct green buildings to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper introduces the relationship between green building materials and green buildings, the current situation of green building materials in China, as well as the measures to accelerate the development of green building materials

  8. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  9. Green Economy Performance and Green Productivity Growth in China’s Cities: Measures and Policy Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglong Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource depletion and environmental degradation have become serious challenges for China’s sustainable development. This paper constructs indicators to assess China’s green economy performance and green productivity growth, in which economic expansion, resource conservation and environmental protection need to be incorporated simultaneously. For this purpose, we combine non-radial directional distance function and meta-frontier Malmquist productivity to develop the indicators. The methodology also allows for the decomposition of driving forces of China’s green economy. Moreover, the dataset employed in this paper allows for the evaluation of 275 cities in China during the period 2003–2012. The main findings are as follows. First, most of China’s cities did not perform efficiently in terms of the green economy, with an average score of only 0.233. Second, the growth rate of green productivity is slower than real GDP, and the green productivity growth in China is only moderate. Third, innovation is the main driving force of China’s green productivity growth, but the central region lags behind when it comes to green innovation. Fourth, artificial local protectionism and transport limitations impede the progress of cities that perform ineffectively in the green economy. Based on our empirical findings, we provide policy implications and suggestions for enhancing China’s green economy performance and productivity growth.

  10. Green-E general program and public information support program report, August 1, 1999 - September 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kirk

    2000-09-30

    Green-E Program support from the Dept. of Energy augmented the costs of implementing the objectives of the Green-E Renewable Electricity Project; general program implementation; regional adaptation; developing strategic partnerships; and public information/education/outreach.

  11. Toronto green roof construction standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aster, D.

    2007-01-01

    Toronto City Council adopted a green roof strategy in February 2006. This paper reviewed the by-law governing the strategy as well as the work in progress to develop minimum standards for the design and construction of green roofs in Toronto. The strategy included a series of recommendations regarding the installation of green roofs on city buildings; a pilot grant program; using the development process to encourage green roofs; and, public education and promotion. It was noted that compared to Europe, the development of standards for green roofs in North America is in its early stages. As an emerging sustainable technology, there currently are no standards incorporated into Ontario's Building Code against which Toronto can measure the design and construction of green roofs. Therefore this paper included an analysis detailing how the recommended design requirements were able to support the City's green roof policy objectives and integrate the performance criteria for green roofs previously established and supported by Toronto City Council. The key policy objectives of the City's green roof strategy were to reduce the urban heat island effect; to address stormwater management implications in terms of quality and quantity; to improve the energy budgets of individual buildings; and, to improve air quality

  12. The structure of mAG, a monomeric mutant of the green fluorescent protein Azami-Green, reveals the structural basis of its stable green emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Tatsuki; Yamamura, Akihiro; Kameda, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Kou; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of a monomeric mutant of Azami-Green (mAG) from G. fascicularis was determined at 2.2 Å resolution. Monomeric Azami-Green (mAG) from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis is the first known monomeric green-emitting fluorescent protein that is not a variant of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP). These two green fluorescent proteins are only 27% identical in their amino-acid sequences. mAG is more similar in its amino-acid sequence to four fluorescent proteins: Dendra2 (a green-to-red irreversibly photoconverting fluorescent protein), Dronpa (a bright-and-dark reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent protein), KikG (a tetrameric green-emitting fluorescent protein) and Kaede (another green-to-red irreversibly photoconverting fluorescent protein). To reveal the structural basis of stable green emission by mAG, the 2.2 Å crystal structure of mAG has been determined and compared with the crystal structures of avGFP, Dronpa, Dendra2, Kaede and KikG. The structural comparison revealed that the chromophore formed by Gln62-Tyr63-Gly64 (QYG) and the fixing of the conformation of the imidazole ring of His193 by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals contacts involving His193, Arg66 and Thr69 are likely to be required for the stable green emission of mAG. The crystal structure of mAG will contribute to the design and development of new monomeric fluorescent proteins with faster maturation, brighter fluorescence, improved photostability, new colours and other preferable properties as alternatives to avGFP and its variants

  13. To Green or Not to Green? Evaluation of Green Stormwater Infrastructure in Kansas City Middle Blue River Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The City of Kansas City, Mo., Water Services Department is implementing a pilot project to measure and evaluate the performance of green infrastructure. Information obtained through this pilot project will be used to guide the design of green solutions throughout Kansas City und...

  14. Concentration parameters for radionuclides by marine molluscs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Makamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Matsuba, Mitsue

    1994-01-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine molluscs was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were 57 Co, 95m Tc, 103 Ru, 137 Cs, 65 Zn and 54 Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into nonradioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus) were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except 137 Cs and 54 Mn. Retention of 137 Cs and 54 Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25% of the radioactivity dosed. (author)

  15. Show Me the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  16. The Green Experiment: Cities, Green Stormwater Infrastructure, and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher M. Chini; James F. Canning; Kelsey L. Schreiber; Joshua M. Peschel; Ashlynn S. Stillwell

    2017-01-01

    Green infrastructure is a unique combination of economic, social, and environmental goals and benefits that requires an adaptable framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating. In this study, we propose an experimental framework for policy, implementation, and subsequent evaluation of green stormwater infrastructure within the context of sociotechnical systems and urban experimentation. Sociotechnical systems describe the interaction of complex systems with quantitative and qualitative...

  17. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  18. Green Nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Nicholas; Eickers, Stephanie; Geene, Leonie; Todorovic, Marijana; Villmow, Annika; Forschungsstelle für Umweltpolitik (FFU), Freie Universität Berlin

    2018-01-01

    Traditional environmental policy instruments have not always proven successful in fostering environmentally friendly behaviour. The question remains: how can policymakers tackle the attitude-behaviour gap when it comes to pro-environmental choices and sustainable lifestyles? One solution that has emerged is green nudging, a new and potentially promising policy tool born of behavioural economics and experimental psychology. This paper contributes to the current discussion surrounding green nud...

  19. Green IT in Practice How One Company is Approaching the Greening of Its IT

    CERN Document Server

    Hird, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Green IT in Practice, Second edition provides guidance on how to implement a Green IT programme. It will help you to formulate a Green IT policy, curb demand for data storage capacity, and lower the electricity consumption of the datacentre.

  20. Green for rarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raal, F.A.; Robinson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Green diamonds once recovered from Witwatersrand gold/uranium deposits, are now a thing of the past with the modernisation of extraction metallurgy methods. The green colouration has been shown to be due to radiation from uranium present in the ore

  1. 76 FR 35894 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Establishment of the Green Building Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Establishment of the Green Building Advisory Committee AGENCY... announces the establishment of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the Committee), pursuant to Section... strategic plans, products and activities of the Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings and...

  2. 76 FR 65511 - Office of Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High- Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee... meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the Committee). The meeting is open to the..., Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services...

  3. Adult Learning Meets the Green Economy: Lessons from a Green Jobs Education Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cecelia

    2013-01-01

    The new "green economy" affects adult education and workforce development as adult workers seek skills and knowledge that will help them find success in work and life. Recent years have brought about increased interest in and discussion of training for green jobs. Since the introduction of the Green Jobs Act in 2007, questions about how exactly to…

  4. Planning the Green Walkable City: Conceptualizing Values and Conflicts for Urban Green Space Strategies in Stockholm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Littke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces are essential elements of cities, contributing to the quality of life in numerous ways. However, densification strategies create a complex relationship between urban development and the quality, as well as the quantity, of urban green space. This paper examines the Green Walkable City Programme in Stockholm, a document developed to supplement the comprehensive plan as a strategic backbone for green urban planning. Based on interviews and content analysis, this paper identifies and discusses concerns raised in the development of the planning programme, and addresses the importance of urban green space for citizens’ well-being. The new comprehensive plan has introduced a shift in the attitude towards the urban green space in Stockholm. The need for urban growth is used to justify development of green fields, and a focus on the quality, rather than the quantity, of urban green space is promoted. Despite this progress, the public requests definitions for this quality approach and fears that nature within the city will be “parkified”. Therefore, this paper offers a critical reflection on the role of the Green Walkable City Programme, its situation within the context of Swedish green urban planning, and various areas of concern that have been highlighted.

  5. Differential tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in ‘Green mice’

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, De-Fu; Tezuka, Hideo; Kondo, Tetsuo; Sudo, Katsuko; Niu, Dong-Feng; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Yamane, Tetsu; Nakamura, Nobuki; Katoh, Ryohei

    2010-01-01

    In order to clarify tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in ‘green mice’ from a transgenic line having an EGFP cDNA under the control of a chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer, we studied the expression of EGFP in various organs and tissues from these ‘green mice’ by immunohistochemistry with anti- EGFP antibody in conjunction with direct observation for EGFP fluorescence using confocal laser scanning microscopy. On i...

  6. Quick Green Scan: A Methodology for Improving Green Performance in Terms of Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Kluczek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The heating sector has begun implementing technologies and practices to tackle the environmental and social–economic problems caused by their production process. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology, “the Quick-Green-Scan”, that caters for the need of quick assessment decision-makers to improve green manufacturing performance in companies that produce heating devices. The study uses a structured approach that integrates Life Cycle Assessment-based indicators, framework and linguistic scales (fuzzy numbers to evaluate the extent of greening of the enterprise. The evaluation criteria and indicators are closely related to the current state of technology, which can be improved. The proposed methodology has been created to answer the question whether a company acts on the opportunity to be green and whether these actions are contributing towards greening, maintaining the status quo or moving away from a green outcome. Results show that applying the proposed improvements in processes helps move the facility towards being a green enterprise. Moreover, the methodology, being particularly quick and simple, is a practical tool for benchmarking, not only in the heating industry, but also proves useful in providing comparisons for facility performance in other manufacturing sectors.

  7. Growing a green economy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qingqing; Xu, He; Ji, Yijun

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of economy, resource depletion and environmental degradation have become serious challenges for Chinese sustainable development. Green development is a mode of well environmental and high-quality economic development. It is necessary for China to implement green development. In this review, it discusses the green development problems in China, the international experience and connotation of green development are summarized and identified further. Based on the connotation and experience of green economy development, it puts forward several countermeasures and suggestions for Chinese green development finally.

  8. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  9. Building green supply chains in eco-industrial parks towards a green economy: Barriers and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jacqueline; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Kim, Hyunook; Linn, Jean H; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-10-01

    As suggested by UNEP, the key to sustainable development is to create a "green economy" which should encapsulate all three sectors: the industry, the people, and the government. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop and implement the green technologies into the existing facilities, especially in the developing countries. In this study, the role of green supply chains in eco-industrial parks (EIPs) towards a green economy was investigated. The strategies and effective evaluation procedures of the green economy were proposed by assessing the barriers from the perspective of institution, regulation, technology, and finance. In addition, three case studies from iron and steel-making, paper mill and pulping, and petrochemical industries were presented and illustrated for building the green supply chains. For example, in the case of Lin-Hai Industrial Park, a total of 15 efficient green supply chains using waste-to-resources technologies were established by 2012, resulting in an economic benefit of USD 100 million per year. It suggests that the green supply chains should be established to achieve both economic growth and environmental protection. With these successful experiences, building a green supply chain within industrial park should be extensively promoted to make traditional industries around the world being environmentally bearable, economic viable, and social equitable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Green function on product networks

    OpenAIRE

    Arauz Lombardía, Cristina; Carmona Mejías, Ángeles; Encinas Bachiller, Andrés Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Our objective is to determine the Green function of product networks in terms of the Green function of one of the factor networks and the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Schr odinger operator of the other factor network, which we consider that are known. Moreover, we use these results to obtain the Green function of spider networks in terms of Green functions over cicles and paths. Peer Reviewed

  11. Effects of Technological Innovation in Relationship between Green Supply Chain Management Practices and Green Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Umar, Mohammed Sangiru; Danjuma, Ibrahim; Hammawa, Dahiru Dauda; Habibu, Sherif Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Although scholars have conceptualised on green supply chain management practices and green performance, evidence to validate the conceptualisation was lacking, albeit in the context of small and medium enterprises. In addition, effect of technological innovation on supply chain practices and green performance was largely unexplored by researchers. Therefore this study validates and provides empirical evidence on the relationship between green supply chain management practices, technological i...

  12. Multi-scale monitoring of a remarkable green roof: the Green Wave of Champs-sur-Marne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, Filip; Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Schertzer, Daniel; Delage, Pierre; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Cui, Yu-Jun; Baudoin, Genevieve

    2017-04-01

    The installation of green infrastructures on existing or new roofs has become very popular in recent years (more than 2 km2 of green roofs is implemented each year in France) for many reasons. Among all of the green roofs' advantages, those related to storm water management are often pushed forward, since it has been pointed out that urban runoff peak can be significantly reduced and delayed thanks to the green roofs' retention and detention capabilities. Microclimate can also be affected by decreasing the temperature in the surrounding green area. However, dynamic physical processes involved in green roofs are highly non linear and variable. In order to accurately assess their performances, detailed monitoring experiments are required, both in situ and in the lab, so as to better understand the thermo-hydric behaviour of green roofs and to capture the related spatio-temporal variability at different scales. Based on these considerations, the 1 ha area wavy-form green roof of a section of the Bienvenüe building, called the Green Wave, is currently being monitored in Champs-sur-Marne (France), in front of Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. Initiated in the "Blue Green Dream" European project, detailed measurements systems have been implemented for studying all components of the water balance. Among others, a wireless network of water content and temperature sensors has been especially installed for characterizing spatial and temporal variability of infiltration, retention and evapotranspiration processes. In parallel, some laboratory tests have been conducted to better characterize the hydro-mechanical properties of the substrate. Moreover, at the Green Wave scale, some discharge measurements are carried out in the storm-water pipes that are collecting drained water, to determine runoff flow. This talk will present the current monitoring campaigns and analyze the data collected in the Universal Multifractal framework. This work represents the initial stage for developing a

  13. Green energy strategies for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midilli, Adnan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Ay, Murat

    2006-01-01

    In this study we propose some green energy strategies for sustainable development. In this regard, seven green energy strategies are taken into consideration to determine the sectoral, technological, and application impact ratios. Based on these ratios, we derive a new parameter as the green energy impact ratio. In addition, the green energy-based sustainability ratio is obtained by depending upon the green energy impact ratio, and the green energy utilization ratio that is calculated using actual energy data taken from literature. In order to verify these parameters, three cases are considered. Consequently, it can be considered that the sectoral impact ratio is more important and should be kept constant as much as possible in a green energy policy implementation. Moreover, the green energy-based sustainability ratio increases with an increase of technological, sectoral, and application impact ratios. This means that all negative effects on the industrial, technological, sectoral and social developments partially and/or completely decrease throughout the transition and utilization to and of green energy and technologies when possible sustainable energy strategies are preferred and applied. Thus, the sustainable energy strategies can make an important contribution to the economies of the countries where green energy (e.g., wind, solar, tidal, biomass) is abundantly produced. Therefore, the investment in green energy supply and progress should be encouraged by governments and other authorities for a green energy replacement of fossil fuels for more environmentally benign and sustainable future

  14. Manufacturing Green Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Ooi, Can Seng

    2014-01-01

    In an increasingly global economy, being green, or having an environmentally sustainbale place brand, provides a competitive advantage. Singapore, long known as the ``garden city´´ has been a leader in green city imaging since the founding of the equatorial city-state, contributing, in large part...... to the city’s profile as the economic giant of Southeast Asia. Using a political ecology lens, the paper aims to uncover the contested socio-economic narratives of green city imaging by examining the evolution of the garden city branding scheme since Singapore’s independence in 1959. Results show...

  15. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.

  16. Green investment: Trends and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyraud, Luc; Clements, Benedict; Wane, Abdoul

    2013-01-01

    This paper fills a gap in the macroeconomic literature on renewable sources of energy. It offers a definition of green investment and analyzes the trends and determinants of this investment over the last decade for 35 advanced and emerging countries. We use a new multi-country historical dataset and find that green investment has become a key driver of the energy sector and that its rapid growth is now mostly driven by China. Our econometric results suggest that green investment is boosted by economic growth, a sound financial system conducive to low interest rates, and high fuel prices. We also find that some policy interventions, such as the introduction of carbon pricing schemes or “feed-in-tariffs,” which require use of “green” energy, have a positive and significant impact on green investment. Other interventions, such as biofuel support, do not appear to be associated with higher green investment. - Highlights: • We offer a definition of green investment and review its trend since 2000. • We analyze its determinants from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. • Green investment is boosted by economic growth, interest rates, and fuel prices. • Feed-in-tariffs and carbon pricing schemes impact positively green investment

  17. Commercial green energy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalweit, B.

    1998-11-01

    Firms offering a Green electricity product have discovered that residential customers are willing to pay extra for the assurance that their electricity is generated through the use of non-polluting or renewable resources. This research investigated the market potential for Green energy at the next level of the energy consuming chain, commercial establishments at which small and medium sized businesses interface with customers. Green energy is proving to be an attractive proposition to some consumers in the residential marketplace. Is there a possibility that Green energy can also be sold to commercial enterprises? This research project sought to answer this question and to investigate the factors that might lead small business people to opt for Green. Answers to these questions will help energy companies target the businesses most likely to accept Green power with the right product set and product features

  18. Green Skills for Green Economy: Case of the Environmental Education Role in Kazakhstan's Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlimbetova, Gaini; Zhylbaev, Zhanbol; Syrymbetova, Lyailya; ?liyeva, Aiman

    2016-01-01

    The research on situation with developing "green skills" in conditions of transition to "green economy" is analysed in this article. Kazakhstan like many other states has been going through transition to "green economy" since 2013. Economic reforms have made an impact on the system of environmental education. The…

  19. A review of drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology and green chemistry: green nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangirian, Hossein; Lemraski, Ensieh Ghasemian; Webster, Thomas J; Rafiee-Moghaddam, Roshanak; Abdollahi, Yadollah

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the impact of green and environmentally safe chemistry on the field of nanotechnology-driven drug delivery in a new field termed "green nanomedicine". Studies have shown that among many examples of green nanotechnology-driven drug delivery systems, those receiving the greatest amount of attention include nanometal particles, polymers, and biological materials. Furthermore, green nanodrug delivery systems based on environmentally safe chemical reactions or using natural biomaterials (such as plant extracts and microorganisms) are now producing innovative materials revolutionizing the field. In this review, the use of green chemistry design, synthesis, and application principles and eco-friendly synthesis techniques with low side effects are discussed. The review ends with a description of key future efforts that must ensue for this field to continue to grow.

  20. Green Jobs in Tennessee: Economic Impact of Green Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Arik

    2011-01-01

    The term green jobs has been widely used to describe jobs in businesses that are particularly related to renewable energy, energy efficiency, or environmental sustainability. The Business and Economic Research Center has partnered with the Tennessee Department of Labor and Workforce Development to estimate the economic impact of six ground-breaking green investments in Tennessee: Hemlock Semiconductor, Wacker Chemie AG, Volkswagen, Nissan Leaf and Storage Battery Manufacturing, Tennessee Sola...

  1. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  2. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Estimated Percent Green Space Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates green space along walkable roads. Green space within 25 meters of the road centerline is included and the percentage is based on...

  3. An Empirical Study on Green Innovation Efficiency in the Green Institutional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that reverse technology spillover effects can promote industrial technology modernization in developing countries. However, it is still unknown whether reverse technology spillover effects can improve green innovation efficiency in developing countries. In particular, institutional uncertainties characteristic of transition economies have a significant impact on industrial modernization. Therefore, researching the impact of the institutional environment on the relationship between reverse technology spillover effects and green innovation efficiency is of great significance. In this paper, we use data from G20 countries as well as China’s foreign direct investment (FDI data to measure the effects of reverse technology spillovers and adopt the threshold effect model to explore the relationship between reverse technology spillover effects and green innovation efficiency as well as the influence of the institutional environment on this relationship, based on China’s provincial panel data from 2003 to 2015. The empirical results show that the reverse technology spillover effects can effectively improve green innovation efficiency. There is a threshold for the influence of the institutional environment on the relationship between reverse technology spillover effects and green innovation efficiency. When the institutional development level surpasses the threshold value, an acceleration effect is generated. In addition, we find that the legal system is the key bottleneck in terms of improving green innovation efficiency. How to improve and perfect the path of institutional construction in China and how to enable institutions to gain threshold speed-up effects have become the major problems the Chinese government faces in institutional construction. The research results of this paper offer a reference to developing countries in regard to improving their institutions and enhancing their green innovation efficiency.

  4. ADSORPTION MALACHITE GREEN ON NATURAL ZEOLITE

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Ariyanto

    2012-01-01

    A natural zeolite was employed as adsorbent for reducing of malachite green from aqueous solution. A batch system was applied to study the adsorption of malachite green in single system on natural zeolite. The adsorption studies indicate that malachite green in single component system follows the second-order kinetics and the adsorption is diffusion process with two stages for malachite green. Malachite green adsorption isotherm follows the Langmuir model.

  5. Green gold. 15 tax proposals for a green and innovative economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Engelen, D.; Wit, R.; Blaauw, K.; Winckers, J.

    2010-06-01

    This publication contains 15 proposals for green taxes in the Dutch economy. The benefit of these 15 proposals is over 11 billion euros per year and leads to a reduction of CO2 emissions of at least 12.5 megatons per year. Greening taxes involves a budget neutral shift from taxing labor and profits to taxing environmental pollution and the depletion of natural resources. The proposals reward businesses and citizens which invest in the development and application of innovative green solutions. This leads to an improvement of climate, environment and nature as well as the competitiveness of the Dutch economy. [nl

  6. Green certificates causing inconvenience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    From early 2002, producers of green energy in selected countries have been able to benefit from generous financial support in the Netherlands. Thus, there has been increased sale of green certificates from Norway and Sweden. But the condition that physical energy delivery should accompany the certificates has caused a marked rise in the price of energy in transit through Germany to the Netherlands. This article discusses the green certificate concept and the experience gained from the Netherlands. One conclusion is that if large-scale trade with green certificates is introduced in Europe without the condition of accompanying energy delivery, then producers of hydro-electric power in Norway and Sweden may be the losers

  7. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  8. Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, K H; Sidek, L M; Basri, H; Muda, Z C; Beddu, S; Abidin, M R Z

    2013-01-01

    Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

  9. Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, K. H.; Sidek, L. M.; Abidin, M. R. Z.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Beddu, S.

    2013-06-01

    Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

  10. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  11. ADSORPTION MALACHITE GREEN ON NATURAL ZEOLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Ariyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A natural zeolite was employed as adsorbent for reducing of malachite green from aqueous solution. A batch system was applied to study the adsorption of malachite green in single system on natural zeolite. The adsorption studies indicate that malachite green in single component system follows the second-order kinetics and the adsorption is diffusion process with two stages for malachite green. Malachite green adsorption isotherm follows the Langmuir model.

  12. Discussion Tourism Industry on Energy of Green Tourism and Green Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zeyung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry is closely linked with the natural environment but with a highly indivisibility of symbiotic relationship. Green tourism and green tourism hotel are not only the spindle stage of development industry. The environmental protection is also an environmental conservation and sustainable development of substantive liability demonstration. The study is also belong to the substance RDF itself, so we can call “clean energy”. The raw materials came from agricultural waste through proper blending ratio and control technology, after PP14 adhesive extruded through the fluidized bed pyrolysis cracking process to burn stability. The recovery can also be used as fuel volatile process of drying and gasification. However, in the actual economic cost of the test running the hotel industry can reduce the cost per MJ USD $ 0.0082, more economical than coal expenses 23.17% of the fuel. Therefore, green hotel through biomass fuels RDF as clean fuels can further reduce carbon emissions to reach the green hotel of expectations.

  13. Modeling for Green Supply Chain Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Falatoonitoosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green supply chain management (GSCM has become a practical approach to develop environmental performance. Under strict regulations and stakeholder pressures, enterprises need to enhance and improve GSCM practices, which are influenced by both traditional and green factors. This study developed a causal evaluation model to guide selection of qualified suppliers by prioritizing various criteria and mapping causal relationships to find effective criteria to improve green supply chain. The aim of the case study was to model and examine the influential and important main GSCM practices, namely, green logistics, organizational performance, green organizational activities, environmental protection, and green supplier evaluation. In the case study, decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory technique is applied to test the developed model. The result of the case study shows only “green supplier evaluation” and “green organizational activities” criteria of the model are in the cause group and the other criteria are in the effect group.

  14. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  15. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Elena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat

  16. Game Analysis and Countermeasures Discussion on Green Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of making certain assumption on the game situation of carrying out green marketing, this paper conducts game analysis on the green marketing choice among enterprises, the green marketing choice between enterprises and consumers, and the green marketing choice of consumers. Then this paper expounds the necessity of implementing green marketing as follows: the green marketing is the inevitable requirements of sustainable development of economy; the green marketing is the inevitable choice of green consumption mode; the green marketing is the inevitable results of legalization of environmental problems. The problems faced by the implementation of green marketing are analyzed as follows: first, the concept of green marketing has not yet been established; second, the sociality of green demand has not yet taken shape; third, production characteristic of green products has not yet formed. The countermeasures of implementing green marketing as follows: pay attention to the propaganda and education of modern marketing concept; regulate the competition in the market of green products; strengthen transparency of green market information; reinforce the legislation work of food safety.

  17. Greening and “un”greening Adelaide, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M. Robinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The original design for Adelaide, the capital city of the state of South Australia, incorporated a green belt (known as the Park Lands around the city centre, itself laid out on a one square mile (2.59 km2 grid and including five large public squares. The Park Lands provided a barrier to urban sprawl and covered approximately 9.31 km2, of which 1.53 km2 has been used subsequently for cultural institutions, railways, cemeteries, sporting facilities and other constructions. In addressing issues of greening pertaining to Adelaide, the Park Lands and its management represents a core element in the evolving history of the city's growth. This paper will consider some of the contradictions within this growth, examining the changing attitudes of government and the populace to the Park Lands and also to the increasing sprawl of the city. It can be argued that this sprawl has been antithetical to maintenance of biodiversity and principles of “greening”, not only during the main phase of expansion in the 1960s and 1970s but also in recent years when planned development on prime farmland and other “green” areas is contributing to problems for provision of transport infrastructure and generally reducing capacity for sustainability. The potential for conflict between the desire to maintain biodiversity versus protection for the growing number of people moving into bushfire risk areas is just one of several examples of problems arising as a result of a relaxed attitude to low-density expansion. In examining these problems the paper will present maps of the changing footprint of Adelaide and will elaborate new “greening” initiatives that include green roofs, new systems of water harvesting, community-supported agriculture and schemes directly aimed at creating low-carbon living. A consistent theme will be the contradictions within plans for the city between greening and “un”greening.

  18. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  19. No greens in the forest? Note on the limited consumption of greens in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Katz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of greens is reported as being very minor among Amazonian Indians. The authors of this article present a new review of this subject, based on fieldwork with Amerindians and other populations in different parts of the Brazilian Amazon and French Guiana. Written sources on Brazilian, Peruvian, Columbian and Venezuelan Amazon were also reviewed. The consumption of cultivated, semi-cultivated and wild species of greens was taken into account here, as the data specific to wild greens is very scarce. It is confirmed that greens are not commonly eaten among native Amazonians and that some ethnic groups do not consume them at all. The consumed species are usually young shoots of weeds or cassava leaves. Common in the Belém region are some specific aromatic plants, which have been diffused to other parts of the Amazon, together with introduced plants such as kale and coriander. Migrants from Northeastern Brazil settled in the Amazon consume some cultivated greens, especially aromatic plants. Maroons are the ones who use more greens in their diet. Native Amazonian people, who supplement agriculture with game and fish, follow a hunter-gatherer pattern, preferring wild fruit and tubers to greens.

  20. Differential tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in 'green mice'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, De-Fu; Tezuka, Hideo; Kondo, Tetsuo; Sudo, Katsuko; Niu, Dong-Feng; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Yamane, Tetsu; Nakamura, Nobuki; Katoh, Ryohei

    2010-06-01

    In order to clarify tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in 'green mice' from a transgenic line having an EGFP cDNA under the control of a chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer, we studied the expression of EGFP in various organs and tissues from these 'green mice' by immunohistochemistry with anti- EGFP antibody in conjunction with direct observation for EGFP fluorescence using confocal laser scanning microscopy. On immunohistochemical examination and on direct observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy, the level of EGFP expression varied among organs and tissues. EGFP expression was diffusely and strongly observed in the skin, pituitary, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, heart, gall bladder, pancreas, adrenals and urinary bladder. There was only sporadic and weak expression of EGFP in the epithelium of the trachea, bronchus of the lung, stratified squamous epithelium and gastric glands of the stomach, hepatic bile ducts of the liver, glomeruli and renal tubules of the kidney and endo-metrial glands of the uterus. Furthermore, EGFP was only demonstrated within the goblet and paneth cells in the colon and small intestine, the tall columnar cells in the ductus epididymis, and the leydig cells in the testis. In conclusion, our results show that EGFP is differentially expressed in organs and tissues of 'green mice', which indicates that 'green mice' may prove useful for research involving transplantation and tissue clonality.

  1. Greening the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  2. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  3. Opportunities for green growth; Vihreaen kasvun mahdollisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antikainen, R.; Mickwitz, P.; Seppaelae, J. [and others

    2013-03-15

    The report seeks an answer to the question as to the kind of policy decisions (steps) by which preconditions for green growth may be created in Finland. The proposed steps are based on a review of earlier research and studies relating to Finland's key consumption and production systems (food, housing, transport and energy) and to certain path finding countries in terms of the green economy (the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Brazil). In addition, the report examines various models by which systemic change towards a green economy may be supported. The report also highlights successful examples of green business activity and measures to promote green growth. Green Growth is defined as low-carbon, resource-efficient economic growth based on safeguarding the functional capacity of ecosystems while promoting wellbeing and social justice. Green growth is considered to have significant worldwide potential, which is currently evident particularly in the rapid growth of cleantech demand. Successful future actors will be more material- and energy-efficient than their competitors, and they will be able to provide services and products flexibly for a low-carbon society. There are opportunities for green growth in all sectors of society. Green growth may consist of an entirely new kind of business activity and create new companies, but there are also opportunities in our traditional energy- and resource-intensive industries. Companies have a key role in growth, but realising green growth also requires changes in consumption. Central, regional and local government will act as facilitators in creating the preconditions for green growth. The report presents a number of policy measures and processes by which Finland can support green growth. Proposals for steps towards green growth include: (A.) Creating preconditions for green growth through a joint vision and political commitment. (B.) Stimulating companies' green growth potential and boosting green demand. (C

  4. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  5. Investing in a green future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Christa

    2018-01-01

    The growing green bond market reflects the financial sector's awakening to climate risk. New research examining the US municipal bond market suggests a positive green bond premium in recent years, driven by differences in credit quality. As climate-risk disclosure becomes more widespread, investors may show willingness to pay green premiums.

  6. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  7. The Geography of Green Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-25

    Green power refers to the voluntary purchase of renewable electricity by retail electricity customers. Green power is unlike compliance-based renewable energy procurement imposed by law or regulation. In 2016, over six million customers procured about 95 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of green power in the United States, which represents about 28% of all U.S. renewable energy sales, excluding large hydropower. In this fact sheet, we use available data to illustrate the geography of green power demand (in terms of number of customers) and supply (in terms of MWh of generation) by state.

  8. Ecological Transition and Green Investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    By introducing an exhaustible resource into an AK growth model, we can identify the determinants of the scale of green investment needs and its impact on capital accumulation dynamics. The role of green capital in the transition to a low-carbon economy depends, in particular, on the relative magnitudes of the elasticities of demand for polluting goods and of the substitutability between green capital and natural resources. The impact on the optimal savings rate also depends on the productivity of green capital and on the ability to adapt existing capital

  9. Two shades of Green? The electorates of GreenLeft and the Party for the Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon; Krouwel, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has two electorally significant parties that might be considered to be part of the Green' family: GreenLeft and the Party for the Animals. These two parties appeal to different niches of the Green electorate, identified on the basis of issue dimensions, demographics, and their trust

  10. An eye for the green top : an independent voice for green roofs in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frith, M.; Gedge, D. [Livingroofs.org, England (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Livingroofs.org is a non-profit organization that was established to provide a resource for promoting green roofs in the United Kingdom (UK). Current policies in the UK related to the planning and development of green roofs are a constraint to their uptake. The emerging emphasis on sustainable development is bringing about a revision of planning policies that may make green roofs more desirable. However, green roof design standards are still being developed by a largely unmonitored industry furthering a product with which most people are unfamiliar. This paper reviewed a number of issues that need to be addressed to assist in the wider adoption of green roofs, including increased awareness; an identification of the real benefits of green roofs; guidance and research; planning policies; fiscal incentives; industry standards and codes of practice. Details of the current policy frameworks for construction, urban design and climate change were also outlined. Two specific projects were reviewed to provide an insight into the way in which Livingroofs.org intends to promote green roof technology: a roof owned by the Birmingham city council and a collaboration with a Swiss partner to design a roof for the Komodo Dragon House at the London Zoo. It was concluded that there is now a real likelihood that the widespread adoption of green roofs will occur in the UK within the next 5 years, both in terms of new developments and the vast potential for retro-fitting on existing buildings. 47 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based bever